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1

Antioxidants in food and chronic degenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Both preventive and chain breaking antioxidants have a role in the limitation of free radical damage. Some of these may be regarded as "classical", like vitamins E and C but others are more recently discovered, such as the flavonoids, widespread in plant tissues, and the muscle constituents anserine and carnosine. The major conditions in which the role of antioxidants is under intense investigation include coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. There are theoretical underpinnings for the efficacy of antioxidants in each of these, with the protection of low density lipoprotein (in respect of the first) being exceptionally persuasive. Much attention is now being focussed on the flavonoids, which are surprisingly pleiotropic in their effects. For one of them, quercetin, over a dozen seemingly independent biological effects can be listed, including the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation. Flavonoids also inhibit peroxidation in foodstuffs, as opposed to tissues. There is much controversy over antioxidant supplementation policies, some authorities recommending a massive programme of supplementation for all ages and classes, others stressing the value of the traditional mixed diet. This matter is unlikely to be resolved soon, but in the meantime sensible supplementation policies should be continued for those most vulnerable, that is, babies and the aged. PMID:8886321

Candlish, J K; Das, N P

1996-09-01

2

DNA adducts and chronic degenerative diseases. Pathogenetic relevance and implications in preventive medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic degenerative diseases are the leading causes of death in developed countries. Their control is exceedingly difficult due to their multiplicity and diversity, the interconnection with a network of multiple risk factors and protective factors, the long latency and multistep pathogenesis, and the multifocal localization. Adducts to nuclear DNA are biomarkers evaluating the biologically effective dose, reflecting an enhanced risk

Silvio De Flora; Alberto Izzotti; Kurt Randerath; Erika Randerath; Helmut Bartsch; Jagadeesan Nair; Roumen Balansky; Frederikjan van Schooten; Paolo Degan; Gilberto Fronza; Debra Walsh; Joellen Lewtas

1996-01-01

3

Pathophysiology of Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

The intervertebral disc is characterized by a tension-resisting annulus fibrosus and a compression-resisting nucleus pulposus composed largely of proteoglycan. The most important function of the annulus and nucleus is to provide mechanical stability to the disc. Degenerative disc disease in the lumbar spine is a serious health problem. Although the three joint complex model of the degenerative process is widely accepted, the etiological basis of this degeneration is poorly understood. With the recent progress in molecular biology and modern biological techniques, there has been dramatic improvement in the understanding of aging and degenerative changes of the disc. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disc degeneration can help in the appropriate choice of treatment and to develop tissue engineering for biological restoration of degenerated discs.

2009-01-01

4

Degenerative spinal disease in large felids.  

PubMed

Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions. PMID:10884118

Kolmstetter, C; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C

2000-03-01

5

DEGENERATIVE SPINAL DISEASE IN LARGE FELIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions ( Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal

Christine Kolmstetter; Linda Munson; Edward C. Ramsay

6

Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

1986-03-07

7

Developing cellular therapies for retinal degenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Biomedical advances in vision research have been greatly facilitated by the clinical accessibility of the visual system, its ease of experimental manipulation, and its ability to be functionally monitored in real time with noninvasive imaging techniques at the level of single cells and with quantitative end-point measures. A recent example is the development of stem cell-based therapies for degenerative eye diseases including AMD. Two phase I clinical trials using embryonic stem cell-derived RPE are already underway and several others using both pluripotent and multipotent adult stem cells are in earlier stages of development. These clinical trials will use a variety of cell types, including embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE, bone marrow- or umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, fetal neural or retinal progenitor cells, and adult RPE stem cells-derived RPE. Although quite distinct, these approaches, share common principles, concerns and issues across the clinical development pipeline. These considerations were a central part of the discussions at a recent National Eye Institute meeting on the development of cellular therapies for retinal degenerative disease. At this meeting, emphasis was placed on the general value of identifying and sharing information in the so-called "precompetitive space." The utility of this behavior was described in terms of how it could allow us to remove road blocks in the clinical development pipeline, and more efficiently and economically move stem cell-based therapies for retinal degenerative diseases toward the clinic. Many of the ocular stem cell approaches we discuss are also being used more broadly, for nonocular conditions and therefore the model we develop here, using the precompetitive space, should benefit the entire scientific community. PMID:24573369

Bharti, Kapil; Rao, Mahendra; Hull, Sara Chandros; Stroncek, David; Brooks, Brian P; Feigal, Ellen; van Meurs, Jan C; Huang, Christene A; Miller, Sheldon S

2014-02-01

8

Surgery for asymptomatic degenerative aortic and mitral valve disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative valvular heart disease, the most common form of valve disease in the Western world, can lead to aortic stenosis (AS) or mitral regurgitation (MR). In current guidelines for the management of patients with degenerative valvular disease, surgical intervention is recommended at the onset of symptoms or in the presence of left ventricular systolic impairment. Whether surgery is appropriate for

Valentin Fuster; Martin Goldman; Robert O. Bonow; Prashant Vaishnava

2011-01-01

9

Imaging of lumbar degenerative disk disease: history and current state  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most common indications for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine is the symptom complex\\u000a thought to originate as a result of degenerative disk disease. MR imaging, which has emerged as perhaps the modality of choice\\u000a for imaging degenerative disk disease, can readily demonstrate disk pathology, degenerative endplate changes, facet and ligamentous\\u000a hypertrophic changes, and

Todd M. Emch; Michael T. Modic

2011-01-01

10

Stem cell-based therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual function in inherited retinal disease. However, this treatment was less effective with advanced disease. Stem cell-based therapy is being pursued as a potential alternative approach in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. In this review, we will focus on stem cell-based therapies in the pipeline and summarize progress in treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

Huang, Yiming; Enzmann, Volker; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

2012-01-01

11

Common mechanisms of amyloid oligomer pathogenesis in degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many age-related degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases and type II diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of amyloid fibrils. The protein components of these amyloids vary widely and the mechanisms of pathogenesis remain an important subject of competing hypotheses and debate. Many different mechanisms have been postulated as significant causal events in pathogenesis, so understanding which events are

Charles G. Glabe

2006-01-01

12

Durability of mitral valve repair for degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Degenerative mitral valve disease is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in the United States. Mitral valve repair is applicable in the majority of these patients and has become the procedure of choice. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify factors influencing the durability of mitral valve repair. Patients and methods: Between 1985 and 1997, 1072 patients underwent primary

A. Marc Gillinov; Delos M. Cosgrove; Eugene H. Blackstone; Ramon Diaz; John H. Arnold; Bruce W. Lytle; Nicholas G. Smedira; Joseph F. Sabik; Patrick M. McCarthy; Floyd D. Loop

1998-01-01

13

Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Applications in Retinal Degenerative Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions\\u000a of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa\\u000a (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal\\u000a degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual

Yiming Huang; Volker Enzmann; Suzanne T. Ildstad

2011-01-01

14

Spectrum of memory dysfunction in degenerative disease.  

PubMed

We have summarized relevant literature on the patterns of memory deficit found in Alzheimer's disease, the focal lobar atrophies (semantic dementia and dementia of frontal type) and three forms of subcortical dementia (progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease). We have stressed an approach based on the joint principals of cognitive neuropsychology and applied neuroanatomy. Alzheimer's disease results in a severe deficit in the establishment of new episodic memories which reflects the perihippocampal locus of the early pathology. In semantic dementia, there is profound progressive and relatively pure loss of semantic memory associated with focal left temporal neocortical atrophy. By contrast, in the subcortical dementias the major impairments are in working (immediate) memory and retrieval of information from longer term memory stores, deficits which reflect dysfunction of frontostriatal systems. PMID:8858186

Perry, R J; Hodges, J R

1996-08-01

15

Vitiligo: A Possible Model of Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Vitiligo is characterized by the progressive disappearance of pigment cells from skin and hair follicle. Several in vitro and in vivo studies show evidence of an altered redox status, suggesting that loss of cellular redox equilibrium might be the pathogenic mechanism in vitiligo. However, despite the numerous data supporting a pathogenic role of oxidative stress, there is still no consensus explanation underlying the oxidative stress-driven disappear of melanocytes from the epidermis. In this study, in vitro characterization of melanocytes cultures from non-lesional vitiligo skin revealed at the cellular level aberrant function of signal transduction pathways common with neurodegenerative diseases including modification of lipid metabolism, hyperactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), constitutive p53-dependent stress signal transduction cascades, and enhanced sensibility to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Notably, these long-term effects of subcytotoxic oxidative stress are also biomarkers of pre-senescent cellular phenotype. Consistent with this, vitiligo cells showed a significant increase in p16 that did not correlate with the chronological age of the donor. Moreover, vitiligo melanocytes produced many biologically active proteins among the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SAPS), such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metallo proteinase-3 (MMP3), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and 7 (IGFBP3, IGFBP7). Together, these data argue for a complicated pathophysiologic puzzle underlying melanocytes degeneration resembling, from the biological point of view, neurodegenerative diseases. Our results suggest new possible targets for intervention that in combination with current therapies could correct melanocytes intrinsic defects.

Bellei, Barbara; Pitisci, Angela; Ottaviani, Monica; Ludovici, Matteo; Cota, Carlo; Luzi, Fabiola; Dell'Anna, Maria Lucia; Picardo, Mauro

2013-01-01

16

Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore\\u000a the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy\\u000a in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and\\u000a ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are

Ian Yat-Hin Wong; Ming-Wai Poon; Rosita Tsz-Wai Pang; Qizhou Lian; David Wong

17

Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

Sharon R. Schatz

18

Basic Aspects in MR Imaging of Degenerative Lumbar Disk Disease.  

PubMed

Degenerative disease may lead to spinal canal stenosis and long-lasting pain. It is among the leading cause of disability that may affect the ability to work. It has become more common in an increasingly aging population. MRI is the most comprehensive imaging modality and provides detailed morphologic information. A standardized terminology facilitates communication with referring physicians. Yet imaging findings need careful interpretation in conjunction with the results of clinical tests and symptoms to truly help guide therapeutic decision making. This review summarizes aspects of normal anatomy of the intervertebral disk, pathologic mechanisms, terminology, and examples of the imaging spectrum of disk degeneration and herniation. PMID:24896740

Heuck, Andreas; Glaser, Christian

2014-07-01

19

Common mechanisms of amyloid oligomer pathogenesis in degenerative disease.  

PubMed

Many age-related degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases and type II diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of amyloid fibrils. The protein components of these amyloids vary widely and the mechanisms of pathogenesis remain an important subject of competing hypotheses and debate. Many different mechanisms have been postulated as significant causal events in pathogenesis, so understanding which events are primary and their causal relationships is critical for the development of more effective therapeutic agents that target the underlying disease mechanisms. Recent evidence indicates that amyloids share common structural properties that are largely determined by their generic polymer properties and that soluble amyloid oligomers may represent the primary pathogenic structure, rather than the mature amyloid fibrils. Since protein function is determined by the three-dimensional structure, the fact that amyloids share generic structures implies that they may also share a common pathological function. Amyloid oligomers from several different proteins share the ability to permeabilize cellular membranes and lipid bilayers, indicating that this may represent the primary toxic mechanism of amyloid pathogenesis. This suggests that membrane permeabilization may initiate a core sequence of common pathological events leading to cell dysfunction and death that is shared among degenerative diseases, whereas pathological events that are unique to one particular type of amyloid or disease may lie in up stream pathways leading to protein mis-folding. Although, these upstream events may be unique to a particular disease related protein, their effects can be rationalized as having a primary effect of increasing the amount of mis-folded, potentially amyloidogenic proteins. PMID:16481071

Glabe, Charles G

2006-04-01

20

Dynamic Stabilisation in the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease with Modic Changes  

PubMed Central

Objective. Posterior dynamic stabilization is an effective alternative to fusion in the treatment of chronic instability and degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2. Modic types 1 and 2 degeneration can be painful. Classic approach in such cases is spine fusion. We operated 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 via posterior dynamic stabilization. Good results were obtained after 2 years of followup. Methods. A total of 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 were selected for this study. The patients were included in the study between 2004 and 2010. All of them were examined with lumbar anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X-rays. Lordosis of the lumbar spine, segmental lordosis, and ratio of the height of the intervertebral disc spaces (IVSs) were measured preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was carried out, and according to the data obtained, the grade of disc degeneration was classified. The quality of life and pain scores were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Appropriate statistical method was chosen. Results. The mean 3- and 12-month postoperative IVS ratio was significantly greater than that of the preoperative group (P < 0.001). However, the mean 1 and 2 postoperative IVS ratio was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the mean preoperative and 1 and 2 postoperative angles of lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The mean VAS score and ODI, 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery, decreased significantly, when compared with the preoperative scores in the groups (P = 0.000). Conclusion. Dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2 was effective.

Eser, Olcay; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Ataker, Yaprak; Suzer, Tuncer; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2013-01-01

21

Regenerative nanomedicine and the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases.  

PubMed

Regenerative medicine deals with the repair or the replacement of tissues and organs using advanced materials and methodologies. Regenerative nanomedicine uses nanoparticles containing gene transcription factors and other modulating molecules that allow reprogramming of cells in vivo as well as nanomaterials to induce selective differentiation of neural progenitor cells and to create neural-mechanical interfaces. In this article, we consider some applications of nanotechnology that may be useful for the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases, for example, use of nanoparticles for drug and gene therapy, use of nanomaterials for neural interfaces and extracellular matrix construction for cell-based therapy and neural prosthetics, and the use of bionanotechnology to re-engineer proteins and cell behavior for regenerative medicine. PMID:22170869

Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert

2012-01-01

22

[Free radicals and degenerative diseases of the nervous system].  

PubMed

Degenerative diseases of the nervous system which are considered to be related to free radicals are Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD). Parkinson's disease is characterized by appearance of Leyw's body and degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. But the most fundamental cause of this disease remains still unknown. The fact that H2O2 is formed in the process of oxidative deamination of catecholamines and some substances which can cause Parkinsonism in animal experiments also produce active oxygen in the metabolic processes suggest the important role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. We recently observed that addition of DOPA and Fe3(+)-ADP complex to the microsomal phospholipid system produced lipid peroxides without participation of active oxygen. Neurons cultured in vitro also decreased significantly with addition of DOPA and Fe3(+)-ADP complex and this harmful effect was prevented by desferoxamine (potent Fe chelating agent) or alpha-tocopherol (antioxidant). These results may suggest that lipid peroxidation can occur by interaction of naturally existing substances in the dopaminergic system and induce cell damage. As regards ATD, there is still no definite evidence to support the implication of free radicals in its pathogenesis. However, there are reports that lipid peroxides increase significantly in the brains of patients with ATD. Moreover, recent advances in the study of amyloid in the senile plaque revealed close relationship of ATD to chromosome 21.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2200916

Hirai, S; Tanaka, M; Sotomatsu, A

1990-03-01

23

Illness experience in a chronic disease--ALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The representative case study method was used in a 1-year longitudinal study of two individuals with a chronic, degenerative, terminal neurological disease, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease). Participants were interviewed in their homes every 2 months to examine the effects of the illness on relationships with family, friends and the health care system. Changing ideas

Ann Kuckelman Cobb; Edna Hamera

1986-01-01

24

Vertebral degenerative disc disease severity evaluation using random forest classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) develops in the spine as vertebral discs degenerate and osseous excrescences or outgrowths naturally form to restabilize unstable segments of the spine. These osseous excrescences, or osteophytes, may progress or stabilize in size as the spine reaches a new equilibrium point. We have previously created a CAD system that detects DDD. This paper presents a new system to determine the severity of DDD of individual vertebral levels. This will be useful to monitor the progress of developing DDD, as rapid growth may indicate that there is a greater stabilization problem that should be addressed. The existing DDD CAD system extracts the spine from CT images and segments the cortical shell of individual levels with a dual-surface model. The cortical shell is unwrapped, and is analyzed to detect the hyperdense regions of DDD. Three radiologists scored the severity of DDD of each disc space of 46 CT scans. Radiologists' scores and features generated from CAD detections were used to train a random forest classifier. The classifier then assessed the severity of DDD at each vertebral disc level. The agreement between the computer severity score and the average radiologist's score had a quadratic weighted Cohen's kappa of 0.64.

Munoz, Hector E.; Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Pham, Yasuyuki; Stieger, James; Summers, Ronald M.

2014-03-01

25

Hereditary cerebellar degenerative disease (cerebellar cortical abiotrophy) in rabbits.  

PubMed

A pair of rabbits gave birth to a set of littermates (F1) with symptoms of early-onset ataxia. Microscopic examination revealed cerebellar degenerative disease in 5 of 6 littermates. Light microscopy was used to compare the thickness of each cerebellar layer in affected animals in contrast to a normal control. Affected animals showed narrowing of the molecular layer of the vermis, reduced density of Purkinje cell dendrites and irregular thickness in their branchlets, and reduced density of granular cells and scattered pyknotic cells in the granular layer. Pyknotic cells were apoptotic granular cells, confirmed by positive staining using the TUNEL method. Electron microscopy confirmed the thinning of the molecular layer seen by light microscopy and also showed a reduced number of parallel fibers, which indicate granular cells axons, and a reduced number of synaptic junctions between Purkinje and granular cells. Purkinje cells had electron-dense, irregularly shaped cytoplasm with irregularly shaped nuclei, and some of these cells had a central chromatolysis-like region. These findings support a diagnosis of cerebellar cortical abiotrophy, a hereditary condition that causes nerve function impairment leading to early-onset progressive degeneration of the cerebellar cortex. PMID:21646443

Sato, J; Sasaki, S; Yamada, N; Tsuchitani, M

2012-07-01

26

Cell-based therapies for retinal degenerative diseases: a thousand strategies.  

PubMed

Retinal neuronal death causes a severe and irreversible loss of visual function in the patients of retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, but these degenerative diseases currently still lack effective medical treatments. The restorative properties of stem cells hold the promise in the treatment of these retinal degenerative diseases. The exciting progress has been made on stem cell research in the last decade. Many different stem cell types have been explored for their potential in treating the retinal degenerative diseases, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and retinal stem cells. This review will summarize the recent progress in this exciting area. PMID:23733127

Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

2013-01-01

27

Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease -Update  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion? What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion? One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following: Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates; Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates); Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin. Summary of Findings The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review. Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials. Regard

2006-01-01

28

Detection of degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint by bone scintigraphy: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Nine patients with facial pain were evaluated with limited bone scans. The scintigrams correlated with microscopy in all patients, although radiographs correlated with microscopy in only five patients. The degenerative disease process in the temporomandibular joint was more extensive in the patients with radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities than in those with scintigraphic abnormalities alone. The limited bone scan appears useful in detecting early degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint.

Goldstein, H.A.; Bloom, C.Y.

1980-10-01

29

Artificial chordae for degenerative mitral valve disease: critical analysis of current techniques  

PubMed Central

The surgical repair of degenerative mitral valve disease involves a number of technical points of importance. The use of artificial chordae for the repair of degenerative disease has increased as a part of the move from mitral valve replacement to repair of the mitral valve. The use of artificial chordae provides an alternative to the techniques pioneered by Carpentier (including the quadrangular resection, transfer of native chordae and papillary muscle shortening/plasty), which can be more technically difficult. Despite a growth in their uptake and the indications for their use, a number of challenges remain for the use of artificial chordae in mitral valve repair, particularly in the determination of the correct length to ensure optimal leaflet coaptation. Here, we analyse over 40 techniques described for artificial chordae mitral valve repair in the setting of degenerative disease.

Ibrahim, Michael; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

2012-01-01

30

Nicotinic systems in central nervous systems disease: degenerative disorders and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and distribution of central nervous system (CNS) nicotinic receptors has provided the impetus for new studies examining the role(s) that these receptors and associated processes may play in CNS functions. Further motivation has come from the realization that such receptors are changed in degenerative neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and

Paul A. Newhouse; Megan Kelton

2000-01-01

31

Chronic Disease Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI) is a cross-cutting set of 97 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large metropolitan areas to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data that are important to public health practice and available for states, territories and large metropolitan areas. 

Control, Center F.

32

Motor training in degenerative spinocerebellar disease: ataxia-specific improvements by intensive physiotherapy and exergames.  

PubMed

The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames ("exergames"). The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability). Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease. PMID:24877117

Synofzik, Matthis; Ilg, Winfried

2014-01-01

33

Motor Training in Degenerative Spinocerebellar Disease: Ataxia-Specific Improvements by Intensive Physiotherapy and Exergames  

PubMed Central

The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames (“exergames”). The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability). Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease.

2014-01-01

34

Imaging and therapy of degenerative spine diseases—A neurosurgeon's view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic imaging and therapy of degenerative spine disease are presented from a neurosurgical standpoint. No single image modality is considered to be the solution to the wide variety of pathology. We caution against the overestimation of MRI. An individualised, patient- and problem-oriented, surgical approach is advocated.

Th Grumme; M Bittl

1998-01-01

35

Induced pluripotent stem cells for retinal degenerative diseases: a new perspective on the challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the prodominant causes\\u000a of human blindness in the world; however, these diseases are difficult to treat. Currently, knowledge on the mechanisms of\\u000a these diseases is still very limited and no radical drugs are available. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are an innovative\\u000a technology that turns somatic cells into embryonic

Zi-Bing Jin; Satoshi Okamoto; Michiko Mandai; Masayo Takahashi

2009-01-01

36

[Current studies on induced pluripotent stem cells in retinal degenerative diseases].  

PubMed

Retinal degeneration diseases are a group of severe eye diseases that can lead to blindness. They are characterized by degeneration and apoptosis of photoreceptor cells and still lacking effective therapeutic procedures. Pluripotent stem cells (induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells) obtained from somatic cell reprogramming are similar to the embryonic stem cells (embryonic stem cells, ES cells), which have unlimited proliferation, differentiation and memory characteristics. Retinal cells from iPS cells have been used in cell transplantation for the treatment of retinal diseases, for the study of pathogenesis and drug toxicity evaluation in retinal degenerative diseases. This may provide new ideas and novel procedures for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in the future. PMID:22800459

Zhu, Jia-li; Zheng, Qin-xiang; Li, Wen-sheng

2012-04-01

37

Efficacy of a Human Amniotic Tissue-derived Allograft, NuCel, in Patients Undergoing Posteriolateral Lumbar Fusions for Degenerative Disc Disease  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease; Spinal Stenosis; Spondylolisthesis; Spondylosis; Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Intervertebral Disk Degeneration; Spinal Diseases; Bone Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Spondylolysis

2014-04-15

38

Prevention of neurological injury during myocardial revascularization in patients with calcific degenerative aortic disease.  

PubMed

Neurological injury following myocardial revascularization may result from embolization of atheromatous debris from the diseased ascending thoracic aorta. Eight patients with calcified aortas who underwent elective myocardial revascularization suffered major strokes as a result of manipulation and clamping of the diseased ascending aorta during a 30-month period before July, 1981. computerized axial tomography scans demonstrated multiple cerebral infarctions in each patient. Six patients never regained consciousness and died as a result of neurological injury; 2 patients regained consciousness but were left with major neurological deficits. Later, 21 patients with calcific aortic degenerative disease underwent a specific operative protocol, designed to prevent neurological injury during elective myocardial revascularization. All 21 patients recovered without neurological complications. Specific attention to operative technique allowed this difficult group of patients with incapacitating angina and calcific degenerative aortic disease to have the benefit of coronary bypass. PMID:3954502

Landymore, R W; Kinley, C E; Murphy, D A; Sullivan, J A

1986-03-01

39

Degenerative Risks for Parkinson's Disease After Toxin Exposure and Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by deterioration of the dopamine (DA) nigrostriatal system. Loss of DA can be induced experimentally by neurotoxic lesion of DA neurotransmitter producing neurons in the substantia nigra, or through lesioning DA axon ter...

M. A. Ariano

2001-01-01

40

[Role of defective intracellular proteolysis in human degenerative diseases].  

PubMed

Although intracellular protein synthesis has been studied extensively, protein degradation and disposal, know as proteolysis, has been relatively neglected. Modern studies which led two Nobel prizes (de Duve in 1950 and Herschko, Rose and Ciechanover in 1980) established that proteolysis is ensured by two separate but complementary mechanisms: lysosomes responsible for auto and heterophagy and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). The UPS involves ubiquitin, a small molecule consisting of 76 amino acids found in all eukaryotic cells that ensures the identification of the protein to be degraded and its transport to the proteasome, an intracellular complex with enzymes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins. The proteasome, acting as a composting agent, ensures the enzymatic dissociation of the protein. In this degradation process, as infinite screw, ubiquitin, peptides and amino acids are released and made available for a new cycle. Knowledge of the UPS and its related disorders is continually expanding. Concurrent with lysosomes which work in acidic environment, it is currently known that the UPS provides 80% to 90% of the proteolysis of the short-life proteins and ensures, as chaperon-molecules, the right conformation and hence the correct function of the proteins. The proteolytic activity generates abnormal residues (tau protein, amyloid and related proteins) and various soluble and insoluble wastes. Some are precipitated as inclusion-bodies or aggregosomes, identified years ago by pathologists. These aggregosomes affect almost exclusively long-lived cells (nervous and muscular, macophages). Pigment deposits, such as lipofuscines made by the peroxydation of cell membranes, are the most abundant. Due to their diverse chemical composition, they cannot be empoyed for a scientific classification. Failures of these systems are numerous. They vary not according to the chemical nature of the abnormal protein and wastes but the life span of the targeted cells and the nature of proteolysis. In this article, therefore, the following distinction should be made:--Lysosomal failures. They represent hereditary metabolic disorders involving all categories of cells. They are characterized by the accumulation of homogeneous material related to the underlying disease. Young people are predominantly affected--UPS failures. They represent sporadic conditions principally involving long-lived cells. The accumulated material is heterogeneous, composed of abnormal proteins and various "garbage-like" waste, including pigments. The elderly are predominatly affected, suggesting an epigenetic wear and tear process. Hypothetically, most the sporadic neurodegenerative diseases, from retinal macular degeneration and its associated drüsen to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease may represent fairly good examples of the UPS deficit. PMID:24313014

Nezelof, Christian

2012-11-01

41

Vitamin A Derivatives as Treatment Options for Retinal Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of both retinol and pro-vitamin A carotenoids. A series of enzymatic reactions, located in both the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium, transform retinol into the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, regenerating visual pigments. Retina specific proteins carry out the majority of the visual cycle, and any significant interruption in this sequence of reactions is capable of causing varying degrees of blindness. Among these important proteins are Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein (RPE65) known to be responsible for esterification of retinol to all-trans-retinyl esters and isomerization of these esters to 11-cis-retinal, respectively. Deleterious mutations in these genes are identified in human retinal diseases that cause blindness, such as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Herein, we discuss the pathology of 11-cis-retinal deficiency caused by these mutations in both animal disease models and human patients. We also review novel therapeutic strategies employing artificial visual chromophore 9-cis-retinoids which have been employed in clinical trials involving LCA patients.

Perusek, Lindsay; Maeda, Tadao

2013-01-01

42

Illness experience in a chronic disease--ALS.  

PubMed

The representative case study method was used in a 1-year longitudinal study of two individuals with a chronic, degenerative, terminal neurological disease, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease). Participants were interviewed in their homes every 2 months to examine the effects of the illness on relationships with family, friends and the health care system. Changing ideas regarding causation, the use and evaluation of various therapies, use of illness role models, spiritual changes and symptom experience were also explored. Kleinman's concept of explanatory models guides the analysis of the data, although we argue for a greater emphasis on evaluation of therapies within this model. PMID:3775446

Cobb, A K; Hamera, E

1986-01-01

43

Neuroimaging and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and addiction-related degenerative brain disorders.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging offers a powerful means to assess the trajectory of brain degeneration in a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we describe how multi-modal imaging can be used to study the changing brain during the different stages of AD. We integrate findings from a range of studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Neuroimaging reveals how risk genes for degenerative disorders affect the brain, including several recently discovered genetic variants that may disrupt brain connectivity. We review some recent neuroimaging studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Some genetic variants that increase risk for drug addiction may overlap with those associated with degenerative brain disorders. These common associations offer new insight into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and addictive behaviors, and may offer new leads for treating them before severe and irreversible neurological symptoms appear. PMID:24142306

Roussotte, Florence F; Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Leonardo, Cassandra D; Thompson, Paul M

2014-06-01

44

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: Current and Future Concepts of Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Low back pain as a result of degenerative disc disease imparts a large socioeconomic impact on the health care system. Traditional concepts for treatment of lumbar disc degeneration have aimed at symptomatic relief by limiting motion in the lumbar spine, but novel treatment strategies involving stem cells, growth factors, and gene therapy have the theoretical potential to prevent, slow, or even reverse disc degeneration. Understanding the pathophysiological basis of disc degeneration is essential for the development of treatment strategies that target the underlying mechanisms of disc degeneration rather than the downstream symptom of pain. Such strategies ideally aim to induce disc regeneration or to replace the degenerated disc. However, at present, treatment options for degenerative disc disease remain suboptimal, and development and outcomes of novel treatment options currently have to be considered unpredictable.

Taher, Fadi; Essig, David; Lebl, Darren R.; Hughes, Alexander P.; Sama, Andrew A.; Cammisa, Frank P.; Girardi, Federico P.

2012-01-01

45

Influence of degenerative joint disease on spinal bone mineral measurements in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the impact of various forms of spinal degenerative joint disease (DJD) on bone mineral density (BMD) measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a group of postmenopausal women. Lateral (T4-L4) and AP (L1-L4) spinal radiographs were reviewed for fracture and DJD in 209 women (mean age 62.6±6.7). The severity of DJD findings was

W. Yu; C.-C. Glüer; T. Fuerst; S. Grampp; J. Li; Y. Lu; H. K. Genant

1995-01-01

46

Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal\\u000a fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries,\\u000a can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails,\\u000a surgery

Karin D. van den Eerenbeemt; Raymond W. Ostelo; Barend J. van Royen; Wilco C. Peul; Maurits W. van Tulder

2010-01-01

47

Types and Prevalence of Coexisting Spine Lesions on Whole Spine Sagittal MR Images in Surgical Degenerative Spinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated types and prevalence of coexisting lesions found on whole spine sagittal T2-weighted images (WSST2I) acquired from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their clinical significance in surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Materials and Methods Coexisting spinal lesions were investigated using WSST2I from 306 consecutive patients with surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Severity of coexisting lesions was classified into four grades (0-3). Lesions of grade 2 and 3 were defined as "meaningful coexisting spine lesions" (MCSL). Degenerative spinal diseases were classified into three pathologies: simple disc herniation, degenerative spinal stenosis, and ligament ossification disease. The relationships between MCSL, gender, age, and primary spine lesions were analyzed. Results MCSL were found in 95 patients: a prevalence of 31.1%. Five out of 95 MCSL were surgically managed. The most common types of MCSL were disc herniation with 13.1% prevalence, followed by degenerative stenosis (9.5%) and ligament ossification diseases (6.8%). Older patients (age ? 40) showed a significantly higher prevalence of MCSL than younger patients. There was no significant difference between male and female patients. The prevalence of MCSL was significantly higher (52.4%) in ligament ossification diseases than in disc herniation or spinal stenosis. Conclusion Degenerative spinal diseases showed a high prevalence of MCSL, especially in old ages and ligament ossification diseases. WSST2I is useful for diagnosing coexisting spinal diseases and to avoid missing a significant cord-compressing lesion.

Han, In-Ho; Suh, Sang-Hyun; Kuh, Sung-Uk; Chin, Dong-Kyu

2010-01-01

48

Triple pelvic osteotomy: effect on limb function and progression of degenerative joint disease.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the outcome of 21 clinical patients treated with triple pelvic osteotomies during the year following surgery. Specific aims included documenting the time of and extent of improved limb function as measured by force plate analysis, evaluating the progression of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the treated and untreated coxofemoral joints, and determining whether or not triple pelvic osteotomy resulted in degenerative joint changes in the ipsilateral stifle and hock. Twelve dogs were treated unilaterally and nine dogs were treated bilaterally with triple pelvic osteotomies. There were no differences in mean anteversion angles, angles of inclination, or preoperative DJD between treated hips and untreated hips. Degenerative joint disease progressed significantly in all hips regardless of treatment. Two cases developed hyperextension of their hocks after the triple pelvic osteotomies. However, no radiographic evidence of DJD was observed for any of the stifles or hocks at any observation time. A significant increase in vertical peak force (VPF) scores was noted for treated legs by two-to-three months after surgery, which continued over time. Untreated legs did not show a significant change in VPF scores over time. No differences were found in progression to higher scores when unilaterally treated legs, first-side treated legs, and second-side treated legs were compared. PMID:9590455

Johnson, A L; Smith, C W; Pijanowski, G J; Hungerford, L L

1998-01-01

49

Analysis of crucial molecules involved in herniated discs and degenerative disc disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Herniated discs and degenerative disc disease are major health problems worldwide. However, their pathogenesis remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of these ailments and to identify underlying therapeutic targets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the GSE23130 microarray datasets downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, differentially co-expressed genes and links were identified using the differentially co-expressed gene and link method with a false discovery rate <0.25 as a significant threshold. Subsequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the differential co-expression of these genes were investigated using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. In addition, the transcriptional regulatory relationship was also investigated. RESULTS: Through the analysis of the gene expression profiles of different specimens from patients with these diseases, 539 differentially co-expressed genes were identified for these ailments. The ten most significant signaling pathways involving the differentially co-expressed genes were identified by enrichment analysis. Among these pathways, apoptosis and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction pathways have been reported to be related to these diseases. A total of 62 pairs of regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes were identified as critical for the pathogenesis of these diseases. CONCLUSION: The results of our study will help to identify the mechanisms responsible for herniated discs and degenerative disc disease and provides a theoretical basis for further therapeutic study.

Qu, Zhigang; Miao, Weiwei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhenyu; Fu, Changfeng; Han, Jinhua; Liu, Yi

2013-01-01

50

Cantilever Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Upper Lumbar Degenerative Diseases (Minimum 2 Years Follow Up)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (c-TLIF) for upper lumbar diseases. Materials and Methods Seventeen patients (11 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age: 62 ± 14 years) who underwent c-TLIF using kidney type spacers between 2002 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated, at a mean follow-up of 44.1 ± 12.3 months (2 year minimum). The primary diseases studied were disc herniation, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), degenerative scoliosis, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degeneration of adjacent disc after operation. Fusion areas were L1-L2 (5 patients), L2-L3 (9 patients), L1-L3 (1 patient), and L2-L4 (2 patients). Operation time, blood loss, complications, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for back pain, bone union, sagittal alignment change of fusion level, and degeneration of adjacent disc were evaluated. Results JOA score improved significantly after surgery, from 12 ± 2 to 23 ± 3 points (p < 0.01). We also observed significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the fusion levels, from - 1.0 ± 7.4 to 5.2 ± 6.1 degrees (p < 0.01). Bony fusion was obtained in all cases. One patient experienced a subcutaneous infection, which was cured by irrigation. At the final follow-up, three patients showed degenerative changes in adjacent discs, and one showed corrective loss of fusion level. Conclusion c-TLIF is a safe procedure, providing satisfactory results for patients with upper lumbar degenerative diseases.

Hioki, Akira; Hosoe, Hideo; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Suzuki, Naoki; Shimizu, Katsuji

2011-01-01

51

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Chronic Systemic Inflammatory Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in both the airways causing airway obstruction and the lung tissues causing emphysema. The disease is induced by inhalation of noxious gasses and particulate matter resulting in a chronic persistent inflammatory response in the lung, and the extent of the inflammatory reaction correlates with the severity of the disease. This

Stephan F. van Eeden; Don D. Sin

2008-01-01

52

Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

Richards, Bryan

2007-01-01

53

[Locomotive syndrome and frailty. Locomotive syndrome due to the underlying disease of degenerative arthritis].  

PubMed

Japan became a superaging society. We have been putting a new focus on locomotive syndrome and frailty. The prevention and treatment of locomotive syndromes, such as osteoarthritis, degenerative spondylosis, lumbar canal stenosis, osteoporosis, upper extremity diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and many other disorders of the locomotive organs are important. Because, the locomotive syndrome results in deterioration of the exercise function and loss of mental and physical health. The aim of locomotive syndrome exercises are: to reduce pain, to restore and improve joint function. We need to take a comprehensive approach to locomotive syndrome, including lifestyle modification, muscle exercise, stretching and therapeutic exercise. PMID:22460511

Chosa, Etsuo

2012-04-01

54

Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion  

MedlinePLUS

... of blindness among adults. 6 Top of page Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases Health risk behaviors ... of page The Cost of Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Behaviors The majority of US health care and ...

55

Familial sinus node disease and degenerative myopia--a new hereditary syndrome?  

PubMed

A family is reported in which the father and both offspring suffered from sick sinus syndrome (SSS) accompanied by degenerative myopia in the two elder of the three family members. In all three individuals, the basic manifestations of the SSS were total sinus arrest with secondary AV junctional rhythm at a normal rate. Only the 7-year-old boy also exhibited paroxysmal atrial flutter and ventricular asystole lasting up to almost 7 s. Since he had, furthermore, recently sustained a left hemiparesis, a ventricular demand pacemaker was implanted. Chronic atrial fibrillation was eventually established in the father in whom observations were available for 16 years. Myopia of -11 D and -4.5 D, respectively, existed in the father and his 14-year-old daughter. The familial association of this defect with SSS suggests a hitherto undescribed genetic syndrome, presumably with underlying autosomal dominant transmission of the two traits. PMID:3943873

Onat, A

1986-02-01

56

Optimization of Protein Crosslinking Formulations for the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

Study Design Biochemical studies aimed at optimization of protein crosslinking formulations for the treatment of degenerative disc disease and subsequent biomechanical testing of tissues treated with these formulations. Objectives To optimize protein crosslinking formulations for treatment of degenerating spinal discs. Summary of Background Data Non-surgical exogenous crosslinking therapy is a potential new, non-invasive technology for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The technology is based upon the injection of protein crosslinking reagents into the pathological disc to restore its mechanical properties and also to potentially increase the permeability of the tissue and so facilitate the exchange of waste products and nutrients. Methods Diffusion of genipin was monitored following injection into spinal discs and the effects of surfactants on diffusion studied. Formulations for genipin and methylglyoxal were biochemically optimized and used to treat bovine spinal discs. Their effects on bovine annulus tissue were evaluated using a circumferential tensile test, while the genipin formulation was also tested with respect to its ability to reduce disc bulge under load. Results Genipin exhibited a distinct time-dependent diffusion and sodium-dodecyl-sulfate, but not Tween-20, enhanced diffusion by 30%. Two crosslinkers, genipin and methylglyoxal, were inhibited by amines but enhanced by phosphate ions. Both formulations could enhance a number of physical parameters of bovine annulus tissue, while the genipin formulation could reduce disc bulge following injections into spinal discs. Conclusions Formulations lacking amines and containing phosphate ions appear to be promising candidates for clinical use of the crosslinkers genipin and methylglyoxal.

Slusarewicz, Paul; Zhu, Keng; Kirking, Bryan; Toungate, Justin; Hedman, Tom

2010-01-01

57

Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

2013-03-01

58

Operative Outcomes for Cervical Degenerative Disease: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

To date, several studies were conducted to find which procedure is superior to the others for the treatment of cervical myelopathy. The goal of surgical treatment should be to decompress the nerves, restore the alignment of the vertebrae, and stabilize the spine. Consequently, the treatment of cervical degenerative disease can be divided into decompression of the nerves alone, fixation of the cervical spine alone, or a combination of both. Posterior approaches have historically been considered safe and direct methods for cervical multisegment stenosis and lordotic cervical alignment. On the other hand, anterior approaches are indicated to the patients with cervical compression with anterior factors, relatively short-segment stenosis, and kyphotic cervical alignment. Recently, posterior approach is widely applied to several cervical degenerative diseases due to the development of various instruments. Even if it were posterior approach or anterior approach, each would have its complication. There is no Class I or II evidence to suggest that laminoplasty is superior to other techniques for decompression. However, Class III evidence has shown equivalency in functional improvement between laminoplasty, anterior cervical fusion, and laminectomy with arthrodesis. Nowadays, each surgeon tends to choose each method by evaluating patients' clinical conditions.

Nishizawa, Kazuya; Mori, Kanji; Saruhashi, Yasuo; Matsusue, Yoshitaka

2012-01-01

59

Hyperphosphatemia of Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Observational studies have determined hyperphosphatemia to be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease. Mechanistic studies have elucidated that hyperphosphatemia is a direct stimulus to vascular calcification, which is one cause of morbid cardiovascular events contributing to the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease. This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that develops as a consequence of positive phosphate balance in chronic kidney disease and the mechanisms by which hyperphosphatemia acts on neointimal vascular cells that are stimulated to mineralize in chronic kidney disease. The characterization of hyperphosphatemia of chronic kidney disease as a distinct syndrome in clinical medicine with unique disordered skeletal remodeling, heterotopic mineralization and cardiovascular morbidity is presented.

Hruska, Keith A; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard; Qiu, Ping; Pratt, Raymond

2009-01-01

60

Chronic viral hepatitis and chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem worldwide over the past few decades because of the increasing prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and elderly individuals in most countries. Chronic viral hepatitis (due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)) also poses significant morbidity and mortality globally. Both these viruses can cause CKD and

Elias C Chacko; Soondal Koomar Surrun; T. P. Mubarack Sani; Joseph M Pappachan

2010-01-01

61

Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion lumber degenerative disc disease: meta-analysis randomized controlled trials Review published: 2014. Bibliographic details: Rayo MJ Cao SS  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion lumber degenerative disc disease: meta-analysis randomized controlled trials Review published: 2014. Bibliographic details: Rayo MJ Cao SS ?

62

Redox Signaling as a Therapeutic Target to Inhibit Myofibroblast Activation in Degenerative Fibrotic Disease  

PubMed Central

Degenerative fibrotic diseases encompass numerous systemic and organ-specific disorders. Despite their associated significant morbidity and mortality, there is currently no effective antifibrotic treatment. Fibrosis is characterized by the development and persistence of myofibroblasts, whose unregulated deposition of extracellular matrix components disrupts signaling cascades and normal tissue architecture leading to organ failure and death. The profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) is considered the foremost inducer of fibrosis, driving myofibroblast differentiation in diverse tissues. This review summarizes recent in vitro and in vivo data demonstrating that TGF?-induced myofibroblast differentiation is driven by a prooxidant shift in redox homeostasis. Elevated NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) supported by concomitant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) signaling and reactive oxygen species scavengers are central factors in the molecular pathogenesis of fibrosis in numerous tissues and organs. Moreover, complex interplay between NOX4-derived H2O2 and NO signaling regulates myofibroblast differentiation. Restoring redox homeostasis via antioxidants or NOX4 inactivation as well as by enhancing NO signaling via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclases or inhibition of phosphodiesterases can inhibit and reverse myofibroblast differentiation. Thus, dysregulated redox signaling represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of wide variety of different degenerative fibrotic disorders.

Berger, Peter; Zenzmaier, Christoph

2014-01-01

63

Chronic myeloproliferative diseases.  

PubMed

The chronic myeloproliferative disorders are a group of diseases in which there is an increased proliferation of one or more subtypes of myeloid cells; they include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In ET and PV the main neurologic manifestations are headaches, dizziness and macro- and microvascular, both venous and arterial, thrombosis and intracranial hemorrhages. Paresthesias and chorea also occur in PV. In PMF neurologic complications are very rare and consist predominantly of spinal cord compression by extramedullary hematopoiesis tissue. PMID:24365372

de Lacerda, João Forjaz; Oliveira, Sofia N; Ferro, José M

2014-01-01

64

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B: A Novel Molecular Target for Retinal Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is considered as a major negative regulator of insulin receptor (IR) signaling. IR signaling in retina has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. Photoreceptor specific deletion of PTP1B results in enhanced retinal IR-mediated neuroprotection indicating the importance of PTP1B as a negative regulator in the retina. Elevated levels of retinal PTP1B activity has been observed in mice lacking retinal pigment epithelium (Rpe65-/-), a mouse model of leber congenital amaurosis (LCA-type 2), retinitis pigmentosa and diabetic retinopathy animal models. This enhanced PTP1B activity could down regulate the IR signaling which may contribute to the death of photoreceptor neurons and ultimately lead to retinal degenerations. The potential therapeutic agents that specifically reduce or inhibit the PTP1B activity could be beneficial in protecting or delaying the photoreceptor cell death in the retinal degenerative diseases.

Basavarajappa, Devaraj K.; Gupta, Vivek K.; Rajala, Raju V.S.

2012-01-01

65

Dynamic Stabilization for Challenging Lumbar Degenerative Diseases of the Spine: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been currently the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine over the last 4 decades. In all over the world the common experience was formed about fusion surgery. Satisfactory results of lumbar spinal fusion appeared completely incompatible and unfavorable within years. Rigid spinal implants along with fusion cause increased stresses of the adjacent segments and have some important disadvantages such as donor site morbidity including pain, wound problems, infections because of longer operating time, pseudarthrosis, and fatigue failure of implants. Alternative spinal implants were developed with time on unsatisfactory outcomes of rigid internal fixation along with fusion. Motion preservation devices which include both anterior and posterior dynamic stabilization are designed and used especially in the last two decades. This paper evaluates the dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and talks about chronologically some novel dynamic stabilization devices and thier efficacies.

Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2013-01-01

66

[Algorithm of diagnostics and surgery of trauma and degenerative diseases of cervical spine].  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of diagnostics and surgery in 240 patients was made. The vertebral spinal trauma took place in 168 patients (average age 31 +/- 5 years), degenerative dystrophic diseases of spine were in 72 patients (average age 52 +/- 7 years). The clinicodiagnostic complex included survey and functional radiography of the spine, magnetic resonance image and helical computer tomography of the spine with spondylometric measurements and color duplex scanning of the vertebral artery. Stabilization of the spine was performed in 137 (57%) cases. The variants were determined on the basis of predominate injury of 1 out of 3 supporting complexes. The rigid and dynamic methods and their combination were used for fixation of the spine. More favorable results were registered using dynamic fixation and the arthroplasty of intervertebral disks with nitinol constructions. An algorithm of radiodiagnostics and surgery methods were proposed. PMID:23808231

Shchedrenok, V V; Zakhmatova, T V; Zuev, I V; Moguchaia, O V; Tiul'kin, O N; Topol'skova, N V; Sebelev, K I

2013-01-01

67

Spontaneous degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy in feeder pigs--a new motor neuron disease?  

PubMed

A central nervous disorder occurred spontaneously in a herd of feeder pigs characterized by muscle fasciculations, convulsions, squealing, and acute death in numerous animals. Histopathology revealed a degenerative poliomyeloencephalopathy of brain stem and spinal cord consisting of neuronal hypertrophy, chromatolysis, neuronophagia, and satellitosis associated with Wallerian degeneration of ventral rootlets and neurogenic muscle atrophy of limb musculature. The sudden onset of clinical signs and the pattern of morphological findings were suggestive of intoxication. Though parathion was found in two animals, serum acetylcholine esterase activity and morphological findings were not compatible with an organophosphate poisoning. A hereditary disorder was excluded by genetic analysis. Summarized findings in the present cases are reminiscent of changes observed in ruminants suffering from patulin poisoning, a neuromycotoxicosis caused by Aspergillus clavatus. However, toxicological and microbiological investigations failed to identify the cause of this unusual and so far not described disease in pigs. Morphologically, lesion distribution and alterations of motor neurons resemble changes observed in equine motor neuron disease, spinal muscular atrophy of certain canine breeds, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) in man. Therefore, the term spontaneous porcine motor neuron disease (SPMND) is proposed for this new and unique entitiy. PMID:23227771

Wohlsein, Peter; Brügmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ina; Ammer, Hermann; Wolf, Petra; Baumgartner, Wolfgang; Peters, Martin

2012-01-01

68

A Mitochondrial Paradigm of Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases, Aging, and Cancer: A Dawn for Evolutionary Medicine  

PubMed Central

Life is the interplay between structure and energy, yet the role of energy deficiency in human disease has been poorly explored by modern medicine. Since the mitochondria use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to convert dietary calories into usable energy, generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a toxic by-product, I hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in a wide range of age-related disorders and various forms of cancer. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present in thousands of copies per cell and encodes essential genes for energy production, I propose that the delayed-onset and progressive course of the age-related diseases results from the accumulation of somatic mutations in the mtDNAs of post-mitotic tissues. The tissue-specific manifestations of these diseases may result from the varying energetic roles and needs of the different tissues. The variation in the individual and regional predisposition to degenerative diseases and cancer may result from the interaction of modern dietary caloric intake and ancient mitochondrial genetic polymorphisms. Therefore the mitochondria provide a direct link between our environment and our genes and the mtDNA variants that permitted our forbears to energetically adapt to their ancestral homes are influencing our health today.

Wallace, Douglas C.

2005-01-01

69

The influence of serum, glucose and oxygen on intervertebral disc cell growth in vitro: implications for degenerative disc disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The avascular nature of the human intervertebral disc (IVD) is thought to play a major role in disc pathophysiology by limiting nutrient supply to resident IVD cells. In the human IVD, the central IVD cells at maturity are normally chondrocytic in phenotype. However, abnormal cell phenotypes have been associated with degenerative disc diseases, including cell proliferation and cluster formation,

William E. B. Johnson; Simon Stephan; Sally Roberts

2008-01-01

70

[Application of robotic assistance in surgical treatment of degenerative disease of lumbosacral spine].  

PubMed

Robotic assistance has gained increasing popularity in spinal surgery recently. Robotic assistance provides higher effectiveness and safety especially in conditions of complicated anatomy. It also enables the novel, previously unavailable surgical techniques, such as GO-Lif for lumbar spine fusion. The aim of the study is to assess the applicability and effectiveness of the robotic assistance in surgical treatment of degenerative lesion of lumbar spine. 16 patients were operated with robotic assistance device (SpineAssist; MAZOR Surgical Technologies, Caesarea, Israel) between August 2009 and February 2010 in Spinal Department of Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia) with degenerative disc disease. Preoperative assessment included MRI, X-rays and high-resolution CT (slice < 1 mm). The CT is essential for preoperative planning using computed work station SpineAssist. The robot was utilized for automated intraoperative positioning of the instruments according to preoperatively planned trajectories. Basic parameters of surgeries were thoroughly recorded: overall surgery time, radiation dose (all manipulations were performed under fluoroscopic control), accuracy of screw placement relative to preoperative planning, which was assessed using postoperative high-resolution CT with 3D reconstruction. Particular interest of the study was focused on the novel fusion technique for lumbar spine: Go-Lif (Guided Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion). This fusion modality enables segment fixation with two screws only, it is comparable with pedicular screws in terms of stability, being far less invasive. It may be used standalone or together with TLIF techniques. Robotic assistance enabled optimal screw placement even in complex anatomical cases (thin pedicles and rotational deformity). No implant-related complications were recorded. Surgery time was much longer in first 2 cases, though in further it decreased nearly to conventional (without robot) surgery time. For radiation dose same tendency was observed--in first 2 cases all surgical steps were fluoroscopically controlled, in further cases--only for primary anatomy registration. Based on control CT, accuracy of implant placement with robotic assistance is 1 mm. PMID:21260933

Konovalov, N A; Shevelev, I N; Kornienko, V N; Nazarenko, A G; Zelenkov, P V; Isaev, K A; Asiutin, D S

2010-01-01

71

Heparanase isoform expression and extracellular matrix remodeling in intervertebral disc degenerative disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecules involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to identify and quantify heparanase isoforms present in herniated and degenerative discs. INTRODUCTION: Heparanase is an endo-beta-glucuronidase that specifically acts upon the heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans. However, heparanase expression in degenerative intervertebral discs has not yet been evaluated. Notably, previous studies demonstrated a correlation between changes in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan pattern and the degenerative process associated with intervertebral discs. METHODS: Twenty-nine samples of intervertebral degenerative discs, 23 samples of herniated discs and 12 samples of non-degenerative discs were analyzed. The expression of both heparanase isoforms (heparanase-1 and heparanase-2) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression levels were significantly higher in the herniated and degenerative discs in comparison to the control tissues, suggesting a possible role of these proteins in the intervertebral degenerative process. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of heparanase isoforms in the degenerative intervertebral discs and the herniated discs suggests a potential role of both proteins in the mediation of inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix remodeling. The heparanase-2 isoform may be involved in normal metabolic processes, as evidenced by its higher expression in the control intervertebral discs relative to the expression of heparanase-1.

Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis; Theodoro, Therese Rachell; Matos, Leandro Luongo; Mader, Ana Maria; Milani, Carlo; da Silva Pinhal, Maria Aparecida

2011-01-01

72

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

MedlinePLUS

... and Health Education Division using SPSS and SUDAAN software. 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic ... and Health Education Division using SPSS and SUDAAN software. 5. Ibid. 6. Centers for Disease Control and ...

73

[Chronic liver diseases and diabetes].  

PubMed

The presence of chronic liver diseases may drastically limit the use of anti-diabetic drugs. Chronic liver diseases increase insulin resistance, and in some risk groups promote the development of diabetes. Therefore, antidiabetic treatment should be adapted to the severity of liver disease. However, diabetes, notably when associated with obesity and dyslipidemia, participates in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and to steato-hepatitis that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Other relations between diabetes and chronic liver disease will be discussed in this article. Finally, the indications and limits of each anti-diabetic therapy group will be discussed according to the degree of liver damage. PMID:25004772

Jaafar, Jaafar; de Kalbermatten, Bénédicte; Philippe, Jacques; Scheen, André; Jornayvaz, François R

2014-06-01

74

[Chronic inflammatory bowel disease].  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses the disease entities, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). An aetiologic agent has not yet been defined and the diagnosis is based, therefore, on the sum of clinical, paraclinical, radiologic, endoscopic and histopathologic features. In recent years pathogenetic studies have focused on immune mechanisms, transmissible infectious agents, the potential role of the normal intestinal flora, dietary factors, enzymatic alterations and genetic features, in addition to vascular, neuromotor, allergic and psychologic factors. The corner stones in medical therapy of IBD are still corticosteroids and sulphasalazine (SAZ). The new oral salicylates, which are analogues of SAZ or "slow release" preparations of 5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine), have provided a therapeutic progress, because they are tolerated better than SAZ. Immunosuppressive agents, such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, reduce the requirement for corticosteroids and are effective in refractory CD, but the effect is delayed up to several months. The therapeutic action of cyclosporine A is not sustained, but often associated with side effects. Metronidazole has a beneficial effect on perineal disease. The efficacy of antimycobacterial drugs, sodium-cromoglycate, lidocaine, clonidine and sucralfate has been reported only in optimistic case stories and small open trials. A diet, rich in omega-3-fatty acids, modifies leukotriene (LT) production, but its clinical efficacy is insufficient. The first anti-leukotriene-drug, zileuton, has recently been evaluated and a significant, although insufficient, clinical response was obtained by a 70 per cent inhibition of rectal LTB4 synthesis. Dietary therapy may be useful as an adjunct to treatment of local complications in CD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1408722

Madsen, J R; Laursen, L S; Lauritsen, K

1992-01-01

75

The value of fat saturation sequences and contrast medium administration in MRI of degenerative disease of the posterior\\/perispinal elements of the lumbosacral spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative-inflammatory lumbar spinal pathology is one of the most common reasons why individuals seek medical care, and\\u000a low back pain is the main symptom among those most commonly associated with this pathologic condition. Pain is commonly attributed\\u000a to degenerative disc disease, particularly herniated discs, but many different spinal and perispinal structures may undergo\\u000a degenerative-inflammatory phenomena and produce pain: discs, bone,

P. D’Aprile; A. Tarantino; J. R. Jinkins; D. Brindicci

2007-01-01

76

Cerebrospinal fluid nitric oxide metabolites are novel predictors of pain relief in degenerative lumbar diseases.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether or not nitric oxide metabolites (NO(2)(-) plus NO(3)(-): NOx levels) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would be predictors of treatment outcome in patients with degenerative lumbar diseases (DLD) including lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LCS). The NOx levels in CSF were measured using an NO analyzer based on the Griess method. Six healthy volunteers and 18 patients with painless diseases were included in the control group. The pre- and postoperative NOx levels in 25 DLD patients, who underwent herniotomy for LDH (17 patients) or selective decompression for LCS (eight patients), were analyzed. The postoperative follow-up periods were approximately 8 months. Nineteen of 25 DLD patients, whose preoperative NOx levels were two standard deviations higher than the mean NOx levels of an age-matched control group, were included in an NO elevated (NOE) group. Among the 25 DLD patients, the preoperative NOx levels in six patients (young LDH group) were within the normal range. The pain-related Japanese Orthopaedic Association score and the Hirabayashi recovery rate were respectively used to evaluate the pain severity and the degree of pain relief. The preoperative and changes of postoperative NOx levels in the NOE group were negatively correlated with the Hirabayashi recovery rate. Normal postoperative NOx levels and excellent pain relief were achieved in young DLD patients. In conclusion, the preoperative and changes in postoperative NOx levels are quantitative predictors of postoperative pain relief in DLD patients. PMID:11376909

Kimura, S; Watanabe, K; Yajiri, Y; Uchiyama, S; Hasegawa, K; Shibuki, K; Endo, N

2001-06-01

77

Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singapore's Ministry of Health. The NKF Singapore program incorporates primary, secondary and tertiary approaches to the prevention of chronic kidney disease. These include the population-based screening for early chronic kidney disease and chronic diseases that are associated with kidney disease and the implementation of disease management programs that aim to improve the multi-faceted care of patients with chronic diseases that

Sylvia P. B. Ramirez

78

A meta-analysis of artificial total disc replacement versus fusion for lumbar degenerative disc disease  

PubMed Central

Lumbar fusion has been developed for several decades and became the standard surgical treatment for symptomatic lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). Artificial total disc replacement (TDR), as an alternative for spinal arthrodesis, is becoming more commonly employed treating lumbar DDD. It is still uncertain whether TDR is more effective and safer than lumbar fusion. To systematically compare the effectiveness and safety of TDR to that of the fusion for the treatment of lumbar DDD, we performed a meta-analysis. Cochrane review methods were used to analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials published up to July 2009. Five relevant randomized controlled trials involving 837 patients were identified. Patients in TDR group have sightly better functioning and less back or leg pain without clinical significance, and significantly higher satisfaction status in TDR group compared with lumbar fusion group at the 2-year follow-up. But these outcomes are highly influenced by the study with BAK cage interbody fusion, the function/pain and patient satisfaction status are no longer significantly different between two groups after excluding this study. At 5 years, these outcomes are not significantly different between comparing groups. The complication and reoperation rate of two groups are similar both at 2 and at 5 years. In conclusion, TDR does not show significant superiority for the treatment of lumbar DDD compared with fusion. The benefits of motion preservation and the long-term complications are still unable to be concluded. More high-quality RCTs with long-term follow-up are needed.

Yajun, Wu; Xiuxin, Han; Cui, Cui

2010-01-01

79

Generating mouse models of degenerative diseases using Cre/lox-mediated in vivo mosaic cell ablation  

PubMed Central

Most degenerative diseases begin with a gradual loss of specific cell types before reaching a threshold for symptomatic onset. However, the endogenous regenerative capacities of different tissues are difficult to study, because of the limitations of models for early stages of cell loss. Therefore, we generated a transgenic mouse line (Mos-iCsp3) in which a lox-mismatched Cre/lox cassette can be activated to produce a drug-regulated dimerizable caspase-3. Tissue-restricted Cre expression yielded stochastic Casp3 expression, randomly ablating a subset of specific cell types in a defined domain. The limited and mosaic cell loss led to distinct responses in 3 different tissues targeted using respective Cre mice: reversible, impaired glucose tolerance with normoglycemia in pancreatic ? cells; wound healing and irreversible hair loss in the skin; and permanent moderate deafness due to the loss of auditory hair cells in the inner ear. These mice will be important for assessing the repair capacities of tissues and the potential effectiveness of new regenerative therapies.

Fujioka, Masato; Tokano, Hisashi; Fujioka, Keiko Shiina; Okano, Hideyuki; Edge, Albert S.B.

2011-01-01

80

Hybrid Surgery of Multilevel Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease : Review of Literature and Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Objective In the present study, we evaluated the effect, safety and radiological outcomes of cervical hybrid surgery (cervical disc prosthesis replacement at one level, and interbody fusion at the other level) on the multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD). Methods Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.7 years) with symptomatic multilevel cervical spondylosis were treated using hybrid surgery (HS). Clinical [neck disability index (NDI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score] and radiologic outcomes [range of motion (ROM) for cervical spine, adjacent segment and arthroplasty level] were evaluated at routine postoperative intervals of 1, 6, 12, 24 months. Review of other similar studies that examined the HS in multilevel cervical DDD was performed. Results Out of 51 patients, 41 patients received 2 level hybrid surgery and 10 patients received 3 level hybrid surgery. The NDI and VAS score were significantly decreased during the follow up periods (p<0.05). The cervical ROM was recovered at 6 and 12 month postoperatively and the mean ROM of inferior adjacent segment was significantly larger than that of superior adjacent segments after surgery. The ROM of the arthoplasty level was preserved well during the follow up periods. No surgical and device related complications were observed. Conclusion Hybrid surgery is a safe and effective alternative to fusion for the management of multilevel cervical spondylosis.

Lee, Sang-Bok; Kim, Jong-Youn; Yoo, Do-Sung; Lee, Tae-Gyu; Huh, Pil-Woo

2012-01-01

81

Analgesic effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B in a murine model of chronic degenerative knee arthritis pain  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type B (BoNT/B) in a murine model of chronic degenerative arthritis pain. Methods and materials: Chronic arthritis was produced in adult C57Bl6 mice by intra-articular injection of Type IV collagenase into the left knee. Following induction of arthritis, the treatment group received intra-articular BoNT/B. Arthritic control groups were treated with intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Pain behavior testing was performed prior to arthritis, after induction of arthritis, and following treatments. Pain behavior measures included analysis of gait impairment (spontaneous pain behavior) and joint tenderness evaluation (evoked pain response). Strength was measured as ability to grasp and cling. Results: Visual gait analysis showed significant impairment of gait in arthritic mice that improved 43% after intra-articular BoNT/B, demonstrating a substantial articular analgesic effect. Joint tenderness, measured with evoked pain response scores, increased with arthritis induction and decreased 49.5% after intra-articular BoNT/B treatment. No improvement in visual gait scores or decrease in evoked pain response scores were found in the control groups receiving intra-articular normal saline or sham injections. Intra-articular BoNT/B was safe, and no systemic effects or limb weakness was noted. Conclusions: This study is the first report of intra-articular BoNT/B for analgesia in a murine model of arthritis pain. The results of this study validate prior work using intra-articular neurotoxins in murine models. Our findings show chronic degenerative arthritis pain can be quantitated in a murine model by measuring gait impairment using visual gait analysis scores (spontaneous pain behavior) and joint tenderness scores (evoked pain responses). Reduction of joint pain seen in this study is consistent with our hypothesis of inhibition of release of pain mediators by intra-articular BoNT/B, supporting further investigation of this novel approach to treatment of arthritis pain with intra-articular neurotoxins.

Anderson, Stephanie; Krug, Hollis; Dorman, Christopher; McGarraugh, Pari; Frizelle, Sandra; Mahowald, Maren

2010-01-01

82

Controversies about Interspinous Process Devices in the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spine Diseases: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

A large number of interspinous process devices (IPD) have been recently introduced to the lumbar spine market as an alternative to conventional decompressive surgery in managing symptomatic lumbar spinal pathology, especially in the older population. Despite the fact that they are composed of a wide range of different materials including titanium, polyetheretherketone, and elastomeric compounds, the aim of these devices is to unload spine, restoring foraminal height, and stabilize the spine by distracting the spinous processes. Although the initial reports represented the IPD as a safe, effective, and minimally invasive surgical alternative for relief of neurological symptoms in patients with low back degenerative diseases, recent studies have demonstrated less impressive clinical results and higher rate of failure than initially reported. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on interspinous implants, their mechanisms of action, safety, cost, and effectiveness in the treatment of lumbar stenosis and degenerative disc diseases.

Galarza, Marcelo

2014-01-01

83

Autoantibodies in chronic liver diseases.  

PubMed

177 patients with chronic liver disease, among 115 with chronic hepatitis and 61 with liver cirrhosis were subjected to the autoantibodies examinations (ANA, AMA, ASMA, APCA, LKM, ATA) by means of immunofluorescent method (IFA). 25% of cases showed autoantibodies of autoimmunological disease index titre (1:80). Autoantibodies occurred more frequently in woman (75%), mainly in the age of 40-60. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis revealed autoantibodies as frequently as other patients. Among patients infected with hepatotropic viruses (HBV, HCV) with chronic liver diseases, autoantibodies were present in 23-28% of cases and in patients with chronic liver diseases of non-infectious etiology, autoantibodies were observed in 25% of cases. PMID:11780553

Panasiuk, A

2001-01-01

84

Segment-by-segment stabilization for degenerative disc disease: a hybrid technique  

PubMed Central

Patients with multisegmental degenerative disc disease (DDD) resistant to conservative therapy are typically treated with either fusion or non-fusion surgical techniques. The two techniques can be applied at adjacent levels using Dynesys® (Zimmer GmbH, Winterthur, Switzerland) implants in a segment-by-segment treatment of multiple level DDD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of patients treated using this segment-by-segment application of Dynesys in some levels as a non-fusion device and in other segments in combination with a PLIF as a fusion device. A consecutive case series is reported. The sample included 16 females and 15 males with a mean age of 53.6 years (range 26.3–76.4 years). Mean follow-up time was 39 months (range 24–90 months). Preoperative Oswestry disability index (ODI), back- and leg-pain scores (VAS) were compared to postoperative status. Fusion success and system failure were assessed by an independent reviewer who analyzed AP and lateral X-rays. Back pain improved from 7.3 ± 1.7 to 3.4 ± 2.7 (p < 0.000002), leg pain from 6.0 ± 2.9 to 2.3 ± 2.9 (p < 0.00006), and ODI from 51.6 ± 13.2% to 28.7 ± 18.0% (p < 0.00001). Screw loosening occurred in one of a total of 222 implanted screws (0.45%). The results indicate that segment-by-segment treatment with Dynesys® in combination with interbody fusion is technically feasible, safe, and effective for the surgical treatment of multilevel DDD.

Rohrbach, Nathalie; Berlemann, Ulrich

2010-01-01

85

Classifying degenerative joint disease by the RDC/TMD and by panoramic imaging: a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

The purposes of the study were to evaluate the utility of diagnosing degenerative joint disease (DJD) by the clinical finding of coarse crepitus alone, without supporting imaging studies, as defined by the RDC/TMD, and to evaluate the contribution of panoramic radiography as an aid in the diagnosis of DJD. A retrospective analysis of 372 consecutive patients with TMD was conducted. Their panoramic radiographs were evaluated for the extent of their contribution to the final diagnosis. Panoramic radiography was of no diagnostic value in 94.4% of the cases when the group was considered as a whole. When patients diagnosed with DJD were considered separately, panoramic radiography was completely sufficient for reaching the final diagnosis in 20.0% of the cases. In almost 90% of these patients, however, the clinical examination did not support the diagnosis of DJD (no coarse crepitus was found). This raises some doubts about the effectiveness of the clinical examination according to the RDC/TMD and about the utility of panoramic radiography in the definitive diagnosis of DJD, because both techniques have low accuracy (11.1% and 20%, respectively). The present study supports the current recommendations that panoramic radiography should not be ordered routinely to assess DJD, but still it is first choice when any dental problem is suspected. Further additional imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) should be considered only if there is reason to expect that the findings might affect diagnosis and management. This study adds to recent criticisms of the clinical validity of the RDC/TMD, with regard to DJD. PMID:20002532

Winocur, E; Reiter, S; Krichmer, M; Kaffe, I

2010-03-01

86

Foot drop resulting from degenerative lumbar spinal diseases: clinical characteristics and prognosis.  

PubMed

Foot drop is a condition that can substantially add to the disability of patients with degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The most common degenerative conditions associated with foot drop are lumbar disc herniation and lumbar spinal stenosis. The level most commonly affected is the L4/5 spinal level. Most patients are treated with surgery, although there is insufficient evidence to support that surgery is superior to conservative therapy. In most surgical patients, foot dorsiflexion will improve to some degree. The preoperative power of foot dorsiflexion is the key factor associated with prognosis. PMID:24438801

Wang, Yue; Nataraj, Andrew

2014-02-01

87

Chronic Beryllium Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease About Beryllium Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Work Environment Management FAQ Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... Beryllium Disease Information About Beryllium Causes Diagnosis Work Environment Management FAQ Symptoms Treatment Print Page Email Page Add ...

88

The Combined Use of a Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization System and a Prosthetic Disc Nucleus Device in Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease With Disc Herniations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProsthetic replacement of spinal discs is emerging as a treatment option for degenerative disc disease. Posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization (PDTS) and prosthetic disc nucleus (PDN) devices have been used sporadically in spinal surgery.

Mehdi Sasani; Ahmet Levent Aydin; Tunc Oktenoglu; Murat Cosar; Yaprak Ataker; Tuncay Kaner; Ali Fahir Ozer

2008-01-01

89

Treatment of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can slow its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the therapies remain limited. Blood pressure control using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has the greatest weight of evidence. Glycemic control in diabetes seems likely to retard progression. Several metabolic disturbances of CKD may prove to be useful therapeutic

Jeffrey M Turner; Carolyn Bauer; Matthew K Abramowitz; Michal L Melamed; Thomas H Hostetter

2012-01-01

90

Chronic Disease and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of chronic diseases such as asthma, cancer and birth defects (with respect to infant mortality) and their environmental causes. Special topics include disease tracking, biomonitoring, Hispanic Americans and environmental health, public health infrastructure, and bioterrorism. The site also features links to current news and related resources.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction

91

Genetics of Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current review collates what is already known of the genetics of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and focuses on new trends in genome-wide assessment of the inherited component of susceptibility to this condition. Early efforts to identify kidney disease susceptibility genetic loci using linkage and candidate gene strategies proved disappointing. More recently, genome-wide association studies have yielded highly promising results

Conall M. O’Seaghdha; Caroline S. Fox

2011-01-01

92

Chronic neuroinflammation in rats reproduces components of the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory processes may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the degenerative changes and cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria was used to produce chronic, global inflammation within the brain of young rats. Chronic infusion of LPS (0.25 ?g\\/h) into the 4th ventricle for four

Beatrice Hauss-Wegrzyniak; Pawel Dobrzanski; James D Stoehr; Gary L Wenk

1998-01-01

93

Familial sinus node disease and degenerative myopia—a new hereditary syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family is reported in which the father and both offspring suffered from sick sinus syndrome (SSS) accompanied by degenerative myopia in the two elder of the three family members. In all three individuals, the basic manifestations of the SSS were total sinus arrest with secondary AV junctional rhythm at a normal rate. Only the 7-year-old boy also exhibited paroxysmal

Altan Onat

1986-01-01

94

The role of the microcirculation in delayed cerebral ischemia and chronic degenerative changes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is 50%, and most survivors suffer severe functional and cognitive deficits. Half of SAH patients deteriorate 5 to 14 days after the initial bleeding, so-called delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Although often attributed to vasospasms, DCI may develop in the absence of angiographic vasospasms, and therapeutic reversal of angiographic vasospasms fails to improve patient outcome. The etiology of chronic neurodegenerative changes after SAH remains poorly understood. Brain oxygenation depends on both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its microscopic distribution, the so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH). In theory, increased CTH can therefore lead to tissue hypoxia in the absence of severe CBF reductions, whereas reductions in CBF, paradoxically, improve brain oxygenation if CTH is critically elevated. We review potential sources of elevated CTH after SAH. Pericyte constrictions in relation to the initial ischemic episode and subsequent oxidative stress, nitric oxide depletion during the pericapillary clearance of oxyhemoglobin, vasogenic edema, leukocytosis, and astrocytic endfeet swelling are identified as potential sources of elevated CTH, and hence of metabolic derangement, after SAH. Irreversible changes in capillary morphology and function are predicted to contribute to long-term relative tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. We discuss diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these predictions. PMID:24064495

Østergaard, Leif; Aamand, Rasmus; Karabegovic, Sanja; Tietze, Anna; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Iversen, Nina Kerting; Secher, Niels; Engedal, Thorbjørn Søndergaard; Anzabi, Mariam; Jimenez, Eugenio Gutierrez; Cai, Changsi; Koch, Klaus Ulrik; Naess-Schmidt, Erhard Trillingsgaard; Obel, Annette; Juul, Niels; Rasmussen, Mads; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

2013-12-01

95

[Chronic liver diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease].  

PubMed

The morphological and functional integrity of the liver is vital to human health in general as well as to patients with renal disease. Any chronic liver disease will eventually lead to liver insufficiency. Liver enzymes are routinely measured to assess liver function in patients with or without renal failure. The use of standard reference values of aminotransferases to help detect liver disease is less useful in patients on chronic dialysis therapy. Some investigators have suggested that, to increase the sensitivity of liver function tests among dialysis patients, lower "normal" values of aminotransferases should be adopted. Liver biopsy may be helpful for assessing the activity and severity of liver disease, especially in chronic viral liver diseases. The most widely used scores are Ishak (6-point scale) and METAVIR (4-point scale). The most important chronic liver diseases associated with chronic renal disease are hepatitis B and C. Several types of renal disease have been recognized: mixed cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, membranous nephropathy and polyarteritis nodosa. In any patient first ever diagnosed with any of the mentioned features, serologic and molecular tests for hepatitis B and/or C should be done. There is limited information on the treatment of HBV-associated renal diseases. Nonrandomized studies suggest that antiviral therapy may be beneficial in patients with glomerular disease or vasculitis due to HBV. According to Croatian National Guidelines for Hepatitis B and C, treatment with antiviral drug is recommended for patients with chronic renal disease, especially those on the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Decision on the type and duration of treatment is based on the level of viremia and biochemical and histological activity of liver disease. Several antiviral drugs are currently used for hepatitis B: pegylated interferon alpha-2a and nucleot(z)id analogues. The choice of analogues is based on their genetic barrier and resistance. The probability to develop resistance is much higher in prolonged treatment, more than 1 year. To avoid it, regular check-ups are mandatory. First check-up is recommended after 12 weeks of treatment to detect the possible primary resistance to treatment. Similar approach is used in patients with hepatitis C. Today's standard of care is treatment with a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Serum concentration of both drugs rises in patients with impaired renal function. The dosage should be corrected according to the glomerular filtration rate. Treatment with pegylated interferon alpha is not recommended in patients with glomerular filtration rate less than 15 mL/min and ribavirin less than 50 mL/min. Recent evidence suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of chronic renal disease. Current treatment recommendations for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are limited to weight reduction and treatment of any component of the metabolic syndrome. Liver cirrhosis is the terminal stage of any chronic liver disease. Mortality differs according to the stage of cirrhosis evaluated with Child-Turcotte-Pugh score. The worst prognosis have patients with grade C cirrhosis, which should be borne in mind when evaluating patients with terminal renal disease for treatment with kidney transplantation. PMID:22359907

Hrsti?, Irena; Ostoji?, Rajko

2011-01-01

96

Klotho and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Through alternative splicing, Klotho protein exists both as a secreted and a membrane form whose extracellular domain could be shed from the cell surface by secretases and released into the circulation to act as endocrine factor. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) to modulate FGF23 signal transduction, soluble Klotho is a multi-function protein present in the biological fluids including blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plays important roles in anti-aging, energy metabolism, inhibition of Wnt signaling, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, control of parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2VD3 production, and antagonism of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Emerging evidence from clinical and basic studies reveal that chronic kidney disease is a state of endocrine and renal Klotho deficiency, which may serve as an early biomarker and a pathogenic contributor to chronic progression and complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Supplementation of exogenous Klotho and/or up-regulation of endogenous Klotho production by using rennin angiotensin system inhibitors, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma agonists, or anti-oxidants may confer renoprotection from oxidation and suppression of renal fibrosis, and also on prevention or alleviation of complications in chronic kidney disease. Therefore, Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease.

Hu, Ming Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

2013-01-01

97

Is tennis a predisposing factor for degenerative shoulder disease? A controlled study in former elite players  

PubMed Central

Background High demands imposed to the shoulder during tennis activity can decrease the efficiency of static and dynamic constraints. Subtle or frank instability of the glenohumeral joint may occur, and long term degenerative changes may be expected. Objective To determine and compare the prevalence of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in senior tennis players and matched controls. Study design Cross sectional controlled study. Methods 18 asymptomatic senior tennis players were studied (17 male; mean (SD) age, 57.2 (8.8) years) with no history of shoulder surgery or major trauma. There were 18 matched controls. Radiographs were used to determine glenohumeral osteoarthritic changes: joint space narrowing, humeral and glenoid subchondral sclerosis, humeral and glenoid juxta?articular cysts, osteophytes, humeral and glenoid flattening, humeral posterior displacement and glenoid posterior erosion. Findings were classified as normal, minimal, moderate, or severe changes. Results 33% of the players (95% confidence interval (CI), 13% to 59%) had osteoarthritic changes in their dominant shoulder (n?=?6; five with minimal changes, one with moderate changes), and 11% of the controls (95% CI, 1% to 34%) had articular degeneration on their dominant side (n?=?2; both minimal changes) (p?=?0.04, Wilcoxon test). The osteoarthritic group was significantly older than the players without degenerative changes (p?=?0.008). Conclusions The prevalence of glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the dominant shoulder was greater in former elite tennis players than in sedentary controls. Prolonged intensive tennis practice may be a predisposing factor for the development of mild degenerative articular changes in the dominant shoulder.

Maquirriain, J; Ghisi, J P; Amato, S

2006-01-01

98

Foot Drop Caused by Lumbar Degenerative Disease: Clinical Features, Prognostic Factors of Surgical Outcome and Clinical Stage  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors of surgical outcome of foot drop caused by lumbar degenerative disease and put forward the clinical stage. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients with foot drop due to lumbar degenerative disease. The clinical features and mechanism were analyzed. Age, sex, duration of palsy, preoperative muscle strength of tibialis anterior (TA), sensation defect of affected lower limb, affected foot, diagnosis and compressed nerve roots were recorded and compared with surgical outcome. Results Foot drop was observed in 8.1% of all inpatients of lumbar degenerative disease. L5 nerve root compression was observed in 126 of all 135 patients (93.3%). Single, double and triple roots compression was observed respectively in 43, 83, and 9 patients (31.9%, 61.5%, and 6.6%). But there was no significant relationship between preoperative muscle strength of TA and the number of compressed roots. The muscle strength of TA was improved in 113 (83.7%) patients after surgery, but it reached to >=4 in only 21 (15.6%) patients. Improvement of the muscle strength of TA was almost stable at the 6-month follow-up. At the last follow-up, the muscle strength of TA was 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively in 28, 24, 62, 13, 8 patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed duration of palsy (p=0.0360, OR=2.543), preoperative muscle strength of TA (p=0.0064, OR=5.528) and age (p=0.0309, OR=3.208) were factors that influenced recovery following an operation. Conclusions L5 nerve root was most frequently affected. The muscle strength of TA improved in most patients after surgery, but few patients can get a good recovery from foot drop. Patients of shorter duration of palsy, better preoperative muscle strength of TA and younger age showed a better surgical outcome.

Shi, Jiangang; Jia, Lianshun; Shi, Guodong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Ning

2013-01-01

99

Puberty in Chronically Diseased Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed onset of puberty and a reduced pubertal growth spurt are often reported in patients suffering from chronic diseases. The basis of abnormal puberty in these patients is multifactorial. Nutritional deficiency may contribute to growth disorders and delayed puberty. Insufficient food supply and\\/or eating disorders and\\/or malabsorption of nutrients can be observed in these patients. Moreover, increased energy supplies are

Dominique Simon

2002-01-01

100

Nutrition and chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at

Denis Fouque; Solenne Pelletier; Denise Mafra; Philippe Chauveau

2011-01-01

101

Comorbidity of chronic diseases in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing number of elderly people in The Netherlands the prevalence of chronic diseases will rise in the next decades. It is recognized in general practice that many older patients suffer from more than one chronic disease (comorbidity). The aim of this study is to describe the extent of comorbidity for the following diseases: hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease,

F. G. Schellevis; J. van der Velden; E. van de Lisdonk; J. T. M. van Eijk; C. van Weel

1993-01-01

102

Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries, can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails, surgery might be considered. For a long time, lumbar fusion has been the “gold standard” of surgical treatment for DDD. Total disc replacement (TDR) has increased in popularity as an alternative for lumbar fusion. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed up to October 2008. Two reviewers independently checked all retrieved titles and abstracts, and relevant full text articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data and outcomes. Three randomized controlled trials and 16 prospective cohort studies were identified. In all three trials, the total disc replacement was compared with lumbar fusion techniques. The Charité trial (designed as a non-inferiority trail) was considered to have a low risk of bias for the 2-year follow up, but a high risk of bias for the 5-year follow up. The Charité artificial disc was non-inferior to the BAK® Interbody Fusion System on a composite outcome of “clinical success” (57.1 vs. 46.5%, for the 2-year follow up; 57.8 vs. 51.2% for the 5-year follow up). There were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Prodisc artificial disc (also designed as a non-inferiority trail) was found to be statistically significant more effective when compared with the lumbar circumferential fusion on the composite outcome of “clinical success” (53.4 vs. 40.8%), but the risk of bias of this study was high. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Flexicore trial, with a high risk of bias, found no clinical relevant differences on pain and physical function when compared with circumferential spinal fusion at 2-year follow up. Because these are preliminary results, in addition to the high risk of bias, no conclusions can be drawn based on this study. In general, these results suggest that no clinical relevant differences between the total disc replacement and fusion techniques. The overall success rates in both treatment groups were small. Complications related to the surgical approach ranged from 2.1 to 18.7%, prosthesis related complications from 2.0 to 39.3%, treatment related complications from 1.9 to 62.0% and general complications from 1.0 to 14.0%. Reoperation at the index level was reported in 1.0 to 28.6% of the patients. In the three trials published, overall complication rates ranged from 7.3 to 29.1% in the TDR group and from 6.3 to 50.2% in the fusion group. The overall reoperation rate at index-level ranged from 3.7 to 11.4% in the TDR group and from 5.4 to 26.1% in the fusion group. In conclusion, there is low quality evidence that the Charité is non-inferior to the BAK cage at the 2-year follow up on the primary outcome measures. For the 5-year follow up, the same conclusion is supported only by very low quality evidence. For the ProDisc, there is very low quality evidence for contradictory results on the primary outcome measures when compared with anterior lumbar circumferential fusion. High quality randomized controlled trials with relevant control group and long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TDR.

van den Eerenbeemt, Karin D.; van Royen, Barend J.; Peul, Wilco C.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

2010-01-01

103

CHRONIC ALLOGENEIC DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Glomerulonephritis, often accompanied by the nephrotic syndrome, developed in CAF1 mice following the administration of spleen cells from normal BALB/c mice. The renal lesion was membranous glomerulonephritis. When studied with fluorescein-conjugated antisera to either mouse gamma globulin or ?1C-globulin, the glomeruli contained beaded and irregular deposits of these immunoproteins. The ultrastructure of the lesion was characterized by thickening of the glomerular basement membranes and the presence of electron-dense subepithelial deposits. Acid eluates of the diseased kidneys contained gamma globulin that failed to bind to sections of normal kidneys. These findings conform to the type of nephritis provoked by immune complexes. They indicate that this type of immune injury can be based on the reaction of intolerant immunocytes to normal antigens.

Lewis, Robert M.; Armstrong, Martine Y. K.; Andre-Schwartz, Janine; Muftuoglu, Asuman; Beldotti, Lorraine; Schwartz, Robert S.

1968-01-01

104

Management of chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

Childhood liver disorders have, in general, mode of presentations which are distinct from that in adult population. It is due to varying etiology and natural history of the liver diseases in childhood. Chronic hepatitis B and C can be managed with alpha interferon. Remission rates in children have been reported to be between 20-58%. Recently available lamuvidine has also been used in combination with interferon therapy. Oral chelation therapy and liver transplantation have radically affected the outcome of patients with Wilson's disease. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy are effective in reducing both morbidity and mortality due to auto-immune hepatitis. Offending carbohydrates are eliminated from the diet of patients with galactosemia and hereditary fructose intolerance. The most important and often neglected component of management of chronic liver diseases in childhood are nutritional management and prompt interventions for ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy. With definitive etiological and histological assessment and institution of specific as well as supportive therapy, children with chronic liver disease can have a prolonged survival with improved quality of life. Several of them can potentially receive the liver transplant as and when it becomes available. PMID:11132457

Thapa, B R

1999-01-01

105

Osteodystrophy in chronic liver diseases.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis and osteomalacia are, to date, among the most common metabolic diseases in the world. Lately, an association between metabolic bone diseases and chronic liver disease has been increasingly reported, inducing many authors to create a new nosographic entity known as 'hepatic osteodystrophy.' The importance of such a condition is further increased by the morbidity of these two diseases, which greatly reduce the quality of life because of frequent fractures, especially vertebral and femoral neck ones. For this reason, early identification of high-risk patients should be routinely performed by measuring bone mass density. The explanation for the association between bone diseases and chronic liver disease is still uncertain, and involves many factors: from hypogonadism to use of corticosteroid drugs, from genetic factors to interferon therapy. To date, few studies have been conducted, and all with a small number of patients to establish definitive conclusions about the possible treatment, but some evidence is beginning to emerge about the safety and efficacy of bisphosphonates. PMID:22241574

Mansueto, Pasquale; Carroccio, Antonio; Seidita, Aurelio; Di Fede, Gaetana; Craxì, Antonio

2013-08-01

106

Ureaplasma urealyticum and chronic lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal lower respiratory tract colonisation with mycoplasma organisms was examined for an association with chronic lung disease.Ureaplasma urealyticum colonised 9\\/70 (13%) infants less than 1500 g. Seven (78%) colonised and 33 (54%) non-colonised infants developed chronic lung disease. Logistic regression analyses revealed early gestation, but not mycoplasma colonisation, was independently associated with chronic lung disease.

A. R. Smyth; N. J. Shaw; B. C. Pratt; A. M. Weindling

1993-01-01

107

Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL  

PubMed Central

Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale.

Barrey, Cedric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

2013-01-01

108

Role of the C-Terminus of the Photoreceptor ABCA4 Transporter in Protein Folding, Function and Retinal Degenerative Diseases*  

PubMed Central

ABCA4 is an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is expressed in rod and cone photoreceptor cells and implicated in the removal of retinal derivatives from outer segments following photoexcitation. Mutations in the ABCA4 gene are responsible for a number of related retinal degenerative diseases including Stargardt macular degeneration, cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration. In order to determine the role of the C-terminus of ABCA4 in protein structure and function and understand mechanisms by which C-terminal mutations cause retinal degenerative diseases, we have expressed and purified a series of deletion and substitution mutants of ABCA4 and ABCA1 in HEK 293T cells for analysis of their cellular localization and biochemical properties. Removal of the C-terminal 30 amino acids of ABCA4 including a conserved VFVNFA motif resulted in the loss in N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine substrate binding, ATP photoaffinity labeling, and retinal stimulated ATPase activity. This mutant was also retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells. Replacement of the VFVNFA motif with alanine residues also resulted in loss in function and cellular mislocalization. In contrast C-terminal deletion mutants that retain the VFVNFA motif were functionally active and localized to intracellular vesicles similar to wild-type ABCA4. Our studies indicated that the VFVNFA motif is required for the proper folding of ABCA4 into a functionally active protein. This motif also contributes to the efficient folding of ABCA1 into an active protein. Our results provide a molecular based rationale for the disease phenotype displayed by individuals with mutations in the C-terminus of ABCA4.

Zhong, Ming; Molday, Laurie L.; Molday, Robert S.

2014-01-01

109

Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases in black Zimbabweans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases seen in 52 black Zimbabweans was determined. These diseases constituted 2% of all treatable chronic endemic medical diseases registered around Gweru City. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gout were the commonest, 38.8% and 28.8% of the total respectively. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), polymyositis, progressive systemic sclerosis, mixed connective tissue disease, ankylosing spondylitis, and Reiter's

S K Lutalo

1985-01-01

110

Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis

Alberto Mariani; Pier Alberto Testoni

2008-01-01

111

Iron and anemia of chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and anemia of chronic disease. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is the most frequent anemia found in hospitalized patients, often occurring in subjects suffering from chronic inflammatory disorders. The underlying diversion of iron traffic leads to a withdrawal of the metal from the sites of erythropoiesis and the circulation to the storage compartment in the reticuloendothelial system, thus resulting,

GÜNTER WEISS

1999-01-01

112

Risk factors for the development of adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis for degenerative cervical disease: comparison between fusion methods.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the risk factors for developing adjacent segment disease (ASDz) after anterior cervical arthrodesis for the treatment of degenerative cervical disease by analyzing patients treated with various fusion methods. We enrolled 242 patients who had undergone anterior cervical fusion for degenerative cervical disease, and had at least 5years of follow-up. We evaluated the development of ASDz and the rate of revision surgery. To identify the risk factors for ASDz, the sagittal alignment, spinal canal diameter, range of motion of the cervical spine, number of fusion segments, and fusion methods were evaluated. The patients were divided into three groups according to the fusion method: Group A contained patients who had received autogenous bone graft only (53 patients), Group B contained patients who received autogenous bone graft and plate augmentation (62 patients), and Group C contained patients who underwent cage and plate augmentation (127 patients). ASDz occurred in 33 patients, of whom 19 required additional surgery. The risk of developing ASDz was significantly higher in male patients (p=0.043), patients whose range of motion of the cervical spine was >30° (p=0.027), and patients with spinal canal stenosis (p=0.010). The rate of development of ASDz was not different depending on the number of fusion segments. The rate of development of ASDz was 41.5% in Group A, 9.6% in Group B, and 5.51% in Group C (p=0.03). In patients who underwent anterior cervical arthrodesis for degenerative disease, the occurrence of ASDz was related to age, the cervical spine range of motion, and spinal canal stenosis. Additional plate augmentation for anterior cervical arthrodesis surgery can lower the rate of ASDz development. PMID:24331625

Song, Ji-Soo; Choi, Byung-Wan; Song, Kyung-Jin

2014-05-01

113

Kidneys in chronic liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL, occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state, reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones. The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis. Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development, natriuresis, urine osmolality, response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion, and rarely on renal biopsy. Chronic glomerulonephritis and obstructive uropathy are rare causes of azotemia in cirrhotic patients. AKI is one of the last events in the natural history of chronic liver disease, therefore, such patients should have an expedited referral for liver transplantation. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is initiated by progressive portal hypertension, and may be prematurely triggered by bacterial infections, nonbacterial systemic inflammatory reactions, excessive diuresis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea or nephrotoxic agents. Each type of renal disease has a specific treatment approach ranging from repletion of the vascular system to renal replacement therapy. The treatment of choice in type 1 hepatorenal syndrome is a combination of vasoconstrictor with albumin infusion, which is effective in about 50% of patients. The second-line treatment of HRS involves a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, renal vasoprotection or systems of artificial liver support.

Hartleb, Marek; Gutkowski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

114

Measurement of Intervertebral Motion Using Quantitative Fluoroscopy: Report of an International Forum and Proposal for Use in the Assessment of Degenerative Disc Disease in the Lumbar Spine  

PubMed Central

Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) is an emerging technology for measuring intervertebral motion patterns to investigate problem back pain and degenerative disc disease. This International Forum was a networking event of three research groups (UK, US, Hong Kong), over three days in San Francisco in August 2009. Its aim was to reach a consensus on how best to record, analyse, and communicate QF information for research and clinical purposes. The Forum recommended that images should be acquired during regular trunk motion that is controlled for velocity and range, in order to minimise externally imposed variability as well as to correlate intervertebral motion with trunk motion. This should be done in both the recumbent passive and weight bearing active patient configurations. The main recommended outputs from QF were the true ranges of intervertebral rotation and translation, neutral zone laxity and the consistency of shape of the motion patterns. The main clinical research priority should initially be to investigate the possibility of mechanical subgroups of patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain by comparing their intervertebral motion patterns with those of matched healthy controls.

Breen, Alan C.; Teyhen, Deydre S.; Mellor, Fiona E.; Breen, Alexander C.; Wong, Kris W. N.; Deitz, Adam

2012-01-01

115

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 6: Discography for patient selection.  

PubMed

Identifying the etiology of pain for patients suffering from chronic low-back pain remains problematic. Noninvasive imaging modalities, used in isolation, have not consistently provided sufficient evidence to support performance of a lumbar fusion. Provocative testing has been used as an adjunct in this assessment, either alone or in combination with other modalities, to enhance the diagnostic capabilities when evaluating patients with low-back pain. There have been a limited number of studies investigating this topic since the publication of the original guidelines. Based primarily on retrospective studies, discography, as a stand-alone test, is not recommended to formulate treatment strategies for patients with low-back pain. A single randomized cohort study demonstrated an improved potential of discoblock over discography as a predictor of success following lumbar fusion. It is therefore recommended that discoblock be considered as a diagnostic option. There is a possibility, based on a matched cohort study, that an association exists between progression of degenerative disc disease and the performance of a provocative discogram. It is therefore recommended that patients be counseled regarding this potential development prior to undergoing discography. PMID:24980583

Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Dailey, Andrew T; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

116

Health literacy and knowledge of chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to examine the relationship between health literacy and knowledge of disease among patients with a chronic disease. A total of 653 new Medicare enrollees aged 65 years or older who had at least one chronic disease (115 asthma, 266 diabetes, 166 congestive heart failure, 214 hypertension), completed both the in-person and telephone survey. Health literacy measured by the

Julie A Gazmararian; Mark V Williams; Jennifer Peel; David W Baker

2003-01-01

117

Retrospective case–control study of the effects of long-term dosing with meloxicam on renal function in aged cats with degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical records (2005–2009) of a feline-only practice were searched for cats with degenerative joint disease (DJD) treated using meloxicam. DJD was diagnosed by the presence of at least two of the following: (i) altered mobility (observed by the owner), (ii) abnormal physical findings, (iii) characteristic radiographic changes. The primary study cohort consisted of cats older than 7 years that had

Richard A. Gowan; Amy E. Lingard; Laura Johnston; Wibke Stansen; Scott A. Brown; Richard Malik

2011-01-01

118

A review of surgical outcomes of the Lapidus procedure for treatment of hallux abductovalgus and degenerative joint disease of the first MCJ  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe modified Lapidus procedure has been used to treat hallux abducto valgus and degenerative joint disease of the first metatarsocuneiform joint for many years. Historically, the Lapidus has been associated with poor satisfaction due to complications such as non-union. The aim of this study was to review the surgical outcomes of 18 patients using the validated Foot Health Status Questionnaire

Natalie G Taylor; Stuart A Metcalfe

2008-01-01

119

[Infection and chronic kidney disease].  

PubMed

Many pathogens are thought to be involved in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanism of kidney damage due to infection includes direct invasion of pathogens and deposition of antigen-antibody complex by immunological reaction. As to renal dysfunction induced by bacterial infection, some cases of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis present progressive decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-related glomerulonephritis and infectious endocarditis are known to cause acute renal failure, which clinicians often find difficulty in the treatment. Chronic pyelonephritis by repetitive vesicoureteral reflux or nephrolithiasis also cannot be disregarded. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the most recognized etiology of virus associated nephropathy, and the representative histological changes are membranous nephropathy and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, respectively. Furthermore, morbidity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated nephropathy is increasing, reflecting the prolonged survival of HIV-infected patients. Thorough preventive/therapeutic strategies should be taken against these infections for improving clinical outcome. PMID:18788411

Akagi, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Makino, Hirofumi

2008-09-01

120

Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... disease Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease Patient information: Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs) (The ... from the surface of the legs to the deep veins and back to the heart; the valves ...

121

Managing Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia begins early in the course of declining kidney function and is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease. Both anemia and chronic kidney disease are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Anemia is associated with significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality, including increased risks of left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Although the detrimental effects of anemia are more common in

Susan A. Krikorian

2009-01-01

122

The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

2009-01-01

123

Free and conjugated GABA in human cerebrospinal fluid: effect of degenerative neurologic diseases and isoniazid.  

PubMed

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) was measured in CSF as such and following acid hydrolysis by the ion-exchange/fluorometric method. The conjugated GABA level was obtained by subtracting the free GABA level from the total GABA level. Results showed that at room temperature, while the free GABA level increased, the level of conjugated GABA decreased in a linear fashion during the first 24 h (r = -0.974; P less than 0.001). Aging and CSF conjugated GABA levels were inversely correlated (r = -0.613; P less than 0.05). Unlike free GABA levels, the levels of conjugated GABA were not altered in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebellar ataxias, dementias, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis compared to controls. In patients with Huntington's disease, on administration of isoniazid at 900 mg/day, along with pyridoxine at 100 mg/day, a 4-fold increase of both free (P less than 0.005) and conjugated GABA (P less than 0.0025) was seen. The results indicate that while total GABAergic peptides are not altered in several of the neurologic diseases studied, drugs such as isoniazid and/or pyridoxine can significantly elevate both free and conjugated GABA levels in human CSF. PMID:6235893

Manyam, B V; Tremblay, R D

1984-07-30

124

Autoantibodies in chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

Some hepatotropic viruses (HBV and HCV) are capable of triggering autoimmune phenomena and manifest the features of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in the course of the disease. Careful attention is required to differentiate between AIH and chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) before the selection of treatment. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), anti-parietal cell antibodies (APCA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibodies type I (ALKMA1) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) among patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD), and to assess the diagnostic value of these autoantibodies and their relation to HCV viral load and genotype and treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Five groups of patients with CLD (HCV, HBV, HCC, AIH and schistosomal hepatic fibrosis {SHF}) as well as a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All the studied persons were subjected to full clinical assessment and laboratory investigations, including liver function tests, hepatitis markers, and HCV RNA by PCR. Detection of ANA, ASMA, APCA, AMA and ALKMA-1 was done by indirect immunofluorescence technique, while ANCA and RF were detected by EIA and latex agglutination test respectively. Results showed a significantly higher prevalence of RF, ASMA and ANCA among patients with CHC, RF and ASMA among HCC patients and ASMA and ALKMA1, among AIH patients as compared to the control group. Patients with HBV and those with SHF had a non-significantly higher prevalence of RF, ASMA and ANCA compared to controls. However, AMA was not detected in this study, and APCA showed no significant difference between the studied groups. The occurrence of these autoantibodies was not significantly related to HCV viral load, HCV genotype or treatment with IFN-alpha. There was a significant association between the occurrence of RF, ANA, ASMA, and ALKMA1 and high ALT levels, and between the occurrence of ANA, ASMA and ALKMA-1 and high AST and ALP levels. In conclusion, autoantibodies are commonly found among patients with HCV infection. The co-existence of HCV infection and autoimmune hepatitis should be considered in patients who are positive for both viral markers and autoantibodies and thorough evaluation of patients must be performed before selection of treatment. Testing for RF, ASMA and ANCA may have a good diagnostic value, however, AMA is the least useful in diagnosis. PMID:17977215

Ghonaim, Mabrouk; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah; El-Bana, Hassan; Bakr, Ahmed; Ghoneim, Enas; El-Edel, Rawhia; Hassona, Mona; Shoeib, Sabry; Allam, Heba

2005-01-01

125

Scaphocapitolunate Arthrodesis and Radial Styloidectomy: A Treatment Option for Posttraumatic Degenerative Wrist Disease  

PubMed Central

Longstanding scaphoid nonunion, scaphoid malunion, and chronic scapholunate dissociation result in malalignment of the carpal bones, progressive carpal collapse, instability, and osteoarthritis of the wrist. The most commonly used procedures to treat scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) wrists are the four-corner fusion (4CF) and the proximal row carpectomy (PRC). Here we describe a different treatment option: radial styloidectomy and scaphocapitolunate (SCL) arthrodesis. This treatment option is chosen in an effort to maintain the joint contact surface and load transmission across the radiocarpal joint. Twenty patients were treated by the senior author (DLF) with this method with a mean follow-up of 4.6 years. Pain decreased in all patients, and 13 patients were pain-free postoperatively. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores decreased from 44 preoperatively to 23 postoperatively. One patient's course was complicated by nonunion, which was successfully treated with revision of the SCL arthrodesis. On follow-up radiographs, no patient had progressive osteoarthritis. This method preserves the normal ulnar-sided joints of the carpus, which are sacrificed during 4CF, and maintains a more physiologic joint surface for radiocarpal load sharing.

Klausmeyer, Melissa; Fernandez, Diego

2012-01-01

126

Nutrition and chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at early stages of CKD. A recent protein-energy wasting nomenclature allows a simpler approach to the diagnosis and causes of malnutrition. During maintenance dialysis, optimal protein and energy intakes have been recently challenged, and there is no longer an indication to control hyperphosphatemia through diet restriction. Recent measurements of energy expenditure in dialysis patients confirm very low physical activity, which affects energy requirements. Finally, inflammation, a common state during CKD, acts on both nutrient intake and catabolism, but is not a contraindication to a nutritional intervention, as patients do respond and improve their survival as well as do noninflamed patients. PMID:21562470

Fouque, Denis; Pelletier, Solenne; Mafra, Denise; Chauveau, Philippe

2011-08-01

127

Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

ney disease is established (by the presence of persistent kidney damage or a GFR <60 mL\\/min\\/1.73m 2 for at least 3 months), the etiology of chronic kidney disease needs to be elucidated. Often the etiology can be determined by history alone; however, reversible causes of chronic kidney disease should be considered in all patients. Regardless of the underlying etiology of

Duaine D. Murphree; Sarah M. Thelen

2010-01-01

128

The yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] are molecular degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

The yeast prions [URE3] and [PSI] are not found in wild strains, suggesting they are not an advantage. Prion-forming ability is not conserved, even within Saccharomyces, suggesting it is a disease. Prion domains have non-prion functions, explaining some conservation of sequence. However, in spite of the sequence being constrained in evolution by these non-prion functions, the prion domains vary more rapidly than the remainder of the molecule, and these changes produce a transmission barrier, suggesting that these changes were selected to block prion infection. Yeast prions [PSI] and [URE3] induce a cellular stress response (Hsp104 and Hsp70 induction), suggesting the cells are not happy about being infected. Recently, we showed that the array of [PSI] and [URE3] prions includes a majority of lethal or very toxic variants, a result not expected if either prion were an adaptive cellular response to stress.

Edskes, Herman K; Bateman, David; Kelly, Amy C; Gorkovskiy, Anton

2011-01-01

129

Regenerative injection therapy with whole bone marrow aspirate for degenerative joint disease: a case series.  

PubMed

Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct injection of unfractionated whole bone marrow (WBM) into osteoarthritic joints in combination with hyperosmotic dextrose. Seven patients with hip, knee or ankle osteoarthritis (OA) received two to seven treatments over a period of two to twelve months. Patient-reported assessments were collected in interviews and by questionnaire. All patients reported improvements with respect to pain, as well as gains in functionality and quality of life. Three patients, including two whose progress under other therapy had plateaued or reversed, achieved complete or near-complete symptomatic relief, and two additional patients achieved resumption of vigorous exercise. These preliminary findings suggest that OA treatment with WBM injection merits further investigation. PMID:24046512

Hauser, Ross A; Orlofsky, Amos

2013-01-01

130

Effects of retinacular release and tibial tubercle elevation in patellofemoral degenerative joint disease.  

PubMed

Release of the patellar retinaculum and tibial tubercle elevation have both been advocated for the treatment of patellofemoral degeneration. Questions remain, however, regarding the magnitude and predictability of such effects in diseased joints. Using cadaver knee joints exhibiting a range of patellofemoral cartilage degeneration, we investigated the effects on joint contact pressures on release of the patellar retinaculum, followed by tibial tubercle elevations of 1.25 and 2.5 cm. Retinacular release failed to alter the joint-loading parameters significantly. Tibial tubercle elevation reduced the patello-femoral joint contact area and contact force, but failed to cause a consistent change in contact pressure. Tibial tubercle elevation also caused a migration of the joint contact area superolaterally on the retropatellar surface. This migration occurred in conjunction with ventral tilting of the inferior pole of the patella as the tubercle was elevated, suggesting that significant changes in joint kinematics may result from this procedure. PMID:2213343

Lewallen, D G; Riegger, C L; Myers, E R; Hayes, W C

1990-11-01

131

Regenerative Injection Therapy with Whole Bone Marrow Aspirate for Degenerative Joint Disease: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct injection of unfractionated whole bone marrow (WBM) into osteoarthritic joints in combination with hyperosmotic dextrose. Seven patients with hip, knee or ankle osteoarthritis (OA) received two to seven treatments over a period of two to twelve months. Patient-reported assessments were collected in interviews and by questionnaire. All patients reported improvements with respect to pain, as well as gains in functionality and quality of life. Three patients, including two whose progress under other therapy had plateaued or reversed, achieved complete or near-complete symptomatic relief, and two additional patients achieved resumption of vigorous exercise. These preliminary findings suggest that OA treatment with WBM injection merits further investigation.

Hauser, Ross A.; Orlofsky, Amos

2013-01-01

132

Additive scales in degenerative disease - calculation of effect sizes and clinical judgment  

PubMed Central

Background The therapeutic efficacy of an intervention is often assessed in clinical trials by scales measuring multiple diverse activities that are added to produce a cumulative global score. Medical communities and health care systems subsequently use these data to calculate pooled effect sizes to compare treatments. This is done because major doubt has been cast over the clinical relevance of statistically significant findings relying on p values with the potential to report chance findings. Hence in an aim to overcome this pooling the results of clinical studies into a meta-analyses with a statistical calculus has been assumed to be a more definitive way of deciding of efficacy. Methods We simulate the therapeutic effects as measured with additive scales in patient cohorts with different disease severity and assess the limitations of an effect size calculation of additive scales which are proven mathematically. Results We demonstrate that the major problem, which cannot be overcome by current numerical methods, is the complex nature and neurobiological foundation of clinical psychiatric endpoints in particular and additive scales in general. This is particularly relevant for endpoints used in dementia research. 'Cognition' is composed of functions such as memory, attention, orientation and many more. These individual functions decline in varied and non-linear ways. Here we demonstrate that with progressive diseases cumulative values from multidimensional scales are subject to distortion by the limitations of the additive scale. The non-linearity of the decline of function impedes the calculation of effect sizes based on cumulative values from these multidimensional scales. Conclusions Statistical analysis needs to be guided by boundaries of the biological condition. Alternatively, we suggest a different approach avoiding the error imposed by over-analysis of cumulative global scores from additive scales.

2011-01-01

133

Cone specific promoter for use in gene therapy of retinal degenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Achromatopsia (ACHM) is caused by a progressive loss of cone photoreceptors leading to color blindness and poor visual acuity. Animal studies and human clinical trials have shown that gene replacement therapy with adeno-associate virus (AAV) is a viable treatment option for this disease. Although there have been successful attempts to optimize capsid proteins for increased specificity, it is simpler to restrict expression via the use of cell type-specific promoters. To target cone photoreceptors, a chimeric promoter consisting of an enhancer element of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein promoter and a minimal sequence of the human transducin alpha-subunit promoter (IRBPe/GNAT2) was created. Additionally, a synthetic transducin alpha-subunit promoter (synGNAT2/GNAT2) containing conserved sequence blocks located downstream of the transcriptional start was created. The strength and specificity of these promoters were evaluated in murine retina by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the chimeric, (IRBPe/GNAT2) promoter is more efficient and specific than the synthetic, synGNAT2/GNAT2 promoter. Additionally, IRBPe/GNAT2-mediated expression was found in all cone subtypes and it was improved over existing promoters currently used for gene therapy of achromatopsia. PMID:24664760

Dyka, Frank M; Boye, Sanford L; Ryals, Renee C; Chiodo, Vince A; Boye, Shannon E; Hauswirth, William W

2014-01-01

134

Oral treatment options for degenerative joint disease--presence and future.  

PubMed

Alleviation of pain and inhibition of inflammation are the primary goals of pharmacotherapy of osteoarthritis (OA). These therapeutic goals can almost always be accomplished by the use of analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). One of the main problems of NSAIDs is their gastrointestinal toxicity, for which a prophylactic medication should be considered particularly amongst risk groups. Recent studies have shown that COX-2-selective and maybe also non-selective NSAIDs increase the cardiovascular risk so that their application is getting now drastically restricted. Pharmacological results published until now suggest that a clinically relevant minor analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory effect can be attained with the use of some of the SYmptomatic Slow Acting Drugs in OA (SYSADOAs). However, no clinical studies exist, which can positively confirm prevention, slowing down or reversal of any advanced joint cartilage destruction by any individual medication. Disease modifying therapy is still in its infancy; discovery and development of novel therapeutic targets and agents are an extremely difficult task, currently challenging many pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. PMID:16616797

Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Konttinen, Yrjö T

2006-05-20

135

Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation Associated With Degenerative Spine Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis.  

PubMed

Study Design. A case report by Kara Krajewski and Jan Regelsberger.Objective. To demonstrate a case of intradural lumbar disc herniation including imaging studies, intraoperative imaging and an intraoperative video.Summary of Background Data. The first case of lumbar intradural disc herniation was reported as early as 1942; since then over 150 cases have been reported, mostly in the lumbar spine. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is considered the gold standard for diagnosing this entity, though it is rarely peformed routinely in lumbar disc disease and diagnosis is often made intraoperatively.Methods. A 70-year-old man presented to the emergency department as a referral complaining of lower back pain, loss of sensation in the right thigh and difficulty walking. On examination, he showed uneven gait, right-sided foot drop (1/5), hypesthesias in the right inguinal area and ventral thigh and a positive straight leg raise test on the right. Anal sphincter tone was within normal limits. An MRI of the lumbar spine showed a large mediolateral herniated disc at L3/4, with caudal displacement and unclear signal changes intradurally.Results. Intraoperatively, the herniated disc was found upon opening the dural sac.Conclusion. Intradural disc herniations are a rare entity. The opening and inspection of the dural sack should be considered when the correct spinal level can be confirmed and insufficient herniated disc material can be visualized extradurally. PMID:23462573

Krajewski, K; Regelsberger, J

2013-03-01

136

Clinical efficacy and tolerance of an extract of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) in dogs presumptively diagnosed with degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of an extract of green-lipped mussel (GLME) in the management of mild-to-moderate degenerative joint disease (DJD) in dogs.METHODS: Eighty-one dogs presumptively diagnosed with DJD were treated orally daily with either GLME or a placebo for 56 days, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In an uncontrolled open-label extension to the study, all dogs were

B Pollard; WG Guilford; KL Ankenbauer-Perkins; D Hedderley

2006-01-01

137

HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.

2011-01-01

138

Early clinical effects of the Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated early clinical effects of Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach in treating lumbar degenerative diseases. Material/Methods 37 patients with lumbar degenerative disease were treated with the Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach. Results Results showed that all patients healed from surgery without severe complications. The average follow-up time was 20 months (9–36 months). Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores decreased significantly after surgery and at the final follow-up. There was a significant difference in the height of the intervertebral space and intervertebral range of motion (ROM) at the stabilized segment, but no significant changes were seen at the adjacent segments. X-ray scans showed no instability, internal fixation loosening, breakage, or distortion in the follow-up. Conclusions The Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach is a therapeutic option for mild lumbar degenerative disease. This method can retain the structure of the lumbar posterior complex and the motion of the fixed segment, reduce the incidence of low back pain, and decompress the nerve root.

Liu, Chao; Wang, Lei; Tian, Ji-wei

2014-01-01

139

Non-Hormonal Medications and Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter explores the relation between breast cancer risk and the use of non-hormonal medications and chronic diseases.\\u000a Many drugs and diseases have been linked with breast cancer in case reports and epidemiologic studies. This chapter covers\\u000a those major medications and diseases where there is adequate epidemiologic evidence for evaluation.

Patricia F. Coogan

140

Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paradigm for the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is that chronic airflow limitation results from an abnormal inflammatory response to inhaled particles and gases in the lung. Airspace inflammation appears to be different in suscepti- ble smokers and involves a predominance of CD8 T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. Studies have characterized inflam- mation in the peripheral airspaces

William MacNee

2005-01-01

141

Chronic vitamin E deficiency promotes vitamin C deficiency in zebrafish leading to degenerative myopathy and impaired swimming behavior  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that zebrafish (Danio rerio) undergoing long-term vitamin E deficiency with marginal vitamin C status would develop myopathy resulting in impaired swimming. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y a defined diet without (E?) and with (E+) vitamin E (500 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet). For the last 150 days, dietary ascorbic acid concentrations were decreased from 3500 to 50 mg/kg diet and the fish sampled periodically to assess ascorbic acid concentrations. The ascorbic acid depletion curves were faster in the E? compared with E+ fish (P<0.0001); the estimated half-life of depletion in the E? fish was 34 days, while in it was 55 days in the E+ fish. To assess swimming behavior, zebrafish were monitored individually following a “startle-response” stimulus, using computer and video technology. Muscle histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining on paramedian sections of fixed zebrafish. At study end, E? fish contained 300-fold less ?-tocopherol (p<0.0001), half the ascorbic acid (p=0.0001) and 3-fold more malondialdehyde (p=0.0005) than did E+ fish. During the first minute following a tap stimulus (p<0.05), E+ fish swam twice as far as did E? fish. In the E? fish, the sluggish behavior was associated with a multifocal, polyphasic, degenerative myopathy of the skeletal muscle. The myopathy severity ranged from scattered acute necrosis to widespread fibrosis and was accompanied by increased anti-hydroxynonenal staining. Thus, vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish causes increased oxidative stress and a secondary depletion of ascorbic acid, resulting in severe damage to muscle tissue and impaired muscle function.

Lebold, Katie M.; Lohr, Christiane V.; Barton, Carrie L.; Miller, Galen W.; Labut, Edwin M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

2013-01-01

142

Chronic vitamin E deficiency promotes vitamin C deficiency in zebrafish leading to degenerative myopathy and impaired swimming behavior.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that zebrafish (Danio rerio) undergoing long-term vitamin E deficiency with marginal vitamin C status would develop myopathy resulting in impaired swimming. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y a defined diet without (E-) and with (E+) vitamin E (500 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet). For the last 150 days, dietary ascorbic acid concentrations were decreased from 3500 to 50 mg/kg diet and the fish sampled periodically to assess ascorbic acid concentrations. The ascorbic acid depletion curves were faster in the E- compared with E+ fish (P < 0.0001); the estimated half-life of depletion in the E- fish was 34 days, while in it was 55 days in the E+ fish. To assess swimming behavior, zebrafish were monitored individually following a "startle-response" stimulus, using computer and video technology. Muscle histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining on paramedian sections of fixed zebrafish. At study end, E- fish contained 300-fold less ?-tocopherol (p < 0.0001), half the ascorbic acid (p = 0.0001) and 3-fold more malondialdehyde (p = 0.0005) than did E+ fish. During the first minute following a tap stimulus (p < 0.05), E+ fish swam twice as far as did E- fish. In the E- fish, the sluggish behavior was associated with a multifocal, polyphasic, degenerative myopathy of the skeletal muscle. The myopathy severity ranged from scattered acute necrosis to widespread fibrosis and was accompanied by increased anti-hydroxynonenal staining. Thus, vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish causes increased oxidative stress and a secondary depletion of ascorbic acid, resulting in severe damage to muscle tissue and impaired muscle function. PMID:23570751

Lebold, Katie M; Löhr, Christiane V; Barton, Carrie L; Miller, Galen W; Labut, Edwin M; Tanguay, Robert L; Traber, Maret G

2013-05-01

143

[Comorbidity of chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases most frequently coexist with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The studies report on over 10 million patients of population suffering both chronic heart failure (CHF) and COPD. Similarity of the clinical symptoms and risk factors found in the medical history of patients with chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often causes diagnostic mistakes. At present, medicine has the wide range of diagnostic methods. Among them: well taken medical history, chest radiogram, determination of the serum concentration of natriuretic peptides, spirometry with bronchial reversibility test and many others should be mentioned. The skillfull interpretation of their results guarantee the possibility of more effective treatment. Pulmonary hypertension constitutes the link between the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CHF. Although its clinical manifestations are not specific and can be partially masked by the symptoms of COPD, the possibility of its existance should be taken under consideration in every patient with worsening effort toleration or intensification of dysponoea and stable spirometric values with the lack of other causes. It should be emphasized that, apart from the diagnostic leading to diagnosis of those two conditions in one patient, there are also the possible interactions of their concurrent treatment. PMID:24575642

Grzywa-Celi?ska, Anna; Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Dyczko, Monika; Kwa?niewska, Katarzyna; Celi?ski, Rafa?; Mosiewicz, Jerzy

2013-11-01

144

Clinical and Radiological Comparison of Femur and Fibular Allografts for the Treatment of Cervical Degenerative Disc Diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective This consecutive retrospective study was designed to analyze and to compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using a fibular and femur allograft with anterior cervical plating. Methods A total of 88 consecutive patients suffering from cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) who were treated with ACDF from September 2007 to August 2010 were enrolled in this study. Thirty-seven patients (58 segments) underwent anterior interbody fusion with a femur allograft, and 51 patients (64 segments) were treated with a fibular allograft. The mean follow-up period was 16.0 (range, 12-25) months in the femur group and 19.5 (range, 14-39) months in the fibular group. Cage fracture and breakage, subsidence rate, fusion rate, segmental angle and height and disc height were assessed by using radiography. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale and neck disability index. Results At 12 months postoperatively, cage fracture and breakage had occurred in 3.4% (2/58) and 7.4% (4/58) of the patients in the femur group, respectively, and 21.9% (14/64) and 31.3% (20/64) of the patients in the fibular group, respectively (p<0.05). Subsidence was noted in 43.1% (25/58) of the femur group and in 50.5% (32/64) of the fibular group. No difference in improvements in the clinical outcome between the two groups was observed. Conclusion The femur allograft showed good results in subsidence and radiologic parameters, and sustained the original cage shape more effectively than the fibular allograft. The present study suggests that the femur allograft may be a good choice as a fusion substitute for the treatment of cervical DDD.

Oh, Hyeong-Seok; Shim, Chan Shik; Lee, Sang-Ho

2013-01-01

145

Financing of Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment Expense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study's primary conclusion are relevant to financing of all catastrophically expensive health care; the study also includes details specific to financing treatment of chronic kidney disease. The study is based on a survey of (1) direct sources of fund...

1969-01-01

146

Genetics Home Reference: Chronic granulomatous disease  

MedlinePLUS

... with this condition often have areas of inflammation (granulomas) in various tissues that can be damaging to ... in people with chronic granulomatous disease. Most commonly, granulomas occur in the gastrointestinal tract and the genitourinary ...

147

Population Studies on Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prevalence of chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD) and respiratory impairment according to electronic spirometry, single breath nitrogen test (SBNT), plethysmography and questionnaire was determined in three demographically similar communiti...

R. Detels A. Coulson D. Tashkin S. Rokaw F. Massey

1976-01-01

148

Dyslipidemia in children with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyslipidemia, a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, is frequent among both adults and children with chronic kidney disease. Here, we describe the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia from a cross-sectional analysis of 391 children aged 1–16 years, enrolled in the multicenter Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study, with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR), measured by the plasma disappearance

Jeffrey M Saland; Christopher B Pierce; Mark M Mitsnefes; Joseph T Flynn; Jens Goebel; Juan C Kupferman; Bradley A Warady; Susan L Furth

2010-01-01

149

Severe periodontitis associated with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

The data on Indian population with regard to severity/prevalence of chronic periodontitis in association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is scarce. We are describing an interesting case of severe periodontitis associated with CKD. The patient had unusual inflammatory gingival overgrowth which persisted even after treatment. By describing this case we want to highlight our current lack of understanding with regard to etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease in CKD patients and need for further research in this area.

Jain, Anurag; Kabi, Debipada

2013-01-01

150

Idiopathic Chronic Urticaria and Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic chronic urticaria (ICU) is a chronic relapsing cutaneous disease. Some case reports or studies on small series\\u000a of celiac disease (CD) patients have suggested a possible association between CD and ICU. The aim of this study was to assess\\u000a the prevalence of CD in a population of adults ICU patients with respect to healthy controls. We consecutively enrolled 80

Maurizio Gabrielli; Marcello Candelli; Filippo Cremonini; Veronica Ojetti; Luca Santarelli; Enrico C. Nista; Eleonora Nucera; Domenico Schiavino; Giampiero Patriarca; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Paolo Pola; Antonio Gasbarrini

2005-01-01

151

Lung Compliance and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a chronic inflammatory response of the airways to noxious particles or gases, with resulting pathological and pathophysiological changes in the lung. The main pathophysiological aspects of the disease are airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The mechanical properties of the respiratory system and its component parts are studied by determining the corresponding volume-pressure (P-V) relationships. The consequences of the inflammatory response on the lung structure and function are depicted on the volume-pressure relationships.

Papandrinopoulou, D.; Tzouda, V.; Tsoukalas, G.

2012-01-01

152

Adult Chronic Kidney Disease: Neurocognition in Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been a keen interest in the neurocognitive sequelae of renal failure and subsequent end-stage renal\\u000a disease given its increasing prevalence and incidence. This review article summarizes the relevant information on cognitive\\u000a functioning in chronic kidney disease in adults before the initiation of dialysis, after the initiation of dialysis, and after\\u000a renal transplantation. In general, compared

Nikhil S. Koushik; Steven F. McArthur; Anne D. Baird

2010-01-01

153

Canine degenerative myelopathy.  

PubMed

Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease that occurs in many breeds. The initial upper motor neuron spastic paraparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs progress to a flaccid lower motor neuron tetraparesis. Recently, a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene was found to be a risk factor for DM, suggesting that DM is similar to some forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This article reviews the current knowledge of canine DM with regard to its signalment, clinical spectrum, diagnostic approach, and treatment. The implications of the SOD1 mutation on both diseases are discussed, comparing pathogenic mechanisms while conveying perspectives to translational medicine. PMID:20732599

Coates, Joan R; Wininger, Fred A

2010-09-01

154

[Antioxidant therapy in chronic liver diseases].  

PubMed

In chronic liver diseases with inflammatory reactions (chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, chemicals and drug induced hepatitis, Wilson disease, haemochromatosis) the oxidative stress, the cell alteration induced by free radicals is an important part of the pathogeneis beside the aetiological factors. In this paper the development of free radicals and their physiological role are demonstrated. The factors, which are influenced by the free radicals and antioxidants, as well as the pathological effects caused by oxidative stress in biological systems are discussed in details. The authors demonstrate the free radical processes as key factors in alcoholic liver diseases and non-acoholic steatohepatitis, furthermore the possible treatment modalities in the inhibition of these alterations. Also the free radical processes in chronic viral hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis are discussed as well. The oxidative stress is able to enhance the progression of chronic inflammatory liver disease independently from the aetiological factor or with it together. That is why the antioxidant drugs could be applied also in the treatment of chronic liver diseases beside the therapy based on the aetiological factors. PMID:16865855

Lengyel, Gabriella; Tulassay, Zsolt

2006-06-18

155

Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The intent of this review is to critically analyze the scientific evidence on the role of the glycemic index in chronic Western disease and to discuss the utility of the glycemic index in the prevention and management of these disease states.Background: The glycemic index ranks foods based on their postprandial blood glucose response. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, as well

LS Augustin; S Franceschi; DJA Jenkins; CWC Kendall; C La Vecchia

2002-01-01

156

Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease is a prion disease of cervids. Assessment of its zoonotic potential is critical. To evaluate primate susceptibility, we tested monkeys from 2 genera. We found that 100% of intracerebrally inoculated and 92% of orally inoculated squirrel monkeys were susceptible, but cynomolgus macaques were not, suggesting possible low risk for humans.

Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

2014-01-01

157

Respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory failure is still an important complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hospitalisation with an acute episode being a poor prognostic marker. However, other comorbid conditions, especially cardiovascular disease, are equally powerful predictors of mortality. The physiological basis of acute respiratory failure in COPD is now clear. Significant ventilation\\/perfusion mismatching with a relative increase in the physiolo- gical

P. M. A. Calverley

2003-01-01

158

Multimorbidity and chronic disease: an emergent perspective.  

PubMed

The concept of emergence offers a new way of thinking about multimorbidity and chronic disease. Multimorbidity and chronic disease are the end result of ongoing perturbations and interconnected activities of simpler substructures that collectively constitute the complex adaptive superstructure known as us, the person or patient. Medical interventions cause perturbations of many different sub-systems within the patient, hence they are not limited to the person's bodily function, but also affect his general health perception and his interactions with his external environments. Changes in these domains inevitably have consequences on body function, and close the feedback loop of illness/disease, recovery and regained health. PMID:24702685

Sturmberg, Joachim P

2014-08-01

159

Genetic polymorphisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains unknown but, despite some inconsistencies in reports on inflammatory cells, mediators and proteases involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, genetic risk factors were proposed as a cause of susceptibility to the disease. Results of many studies suggested polygenic inheritance, with the genetic component consisting of several genes of a small effect each, rather than of single major gene. We are going to review the clinical importance of alpha-1 antitrypsin, glutathione S-transferase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, matrix metalloproteinase, tumor necrosis factor-a, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, cytochrome P4501A1, heme oxygenase-1 genes polymorphisms associated with susceptibility and progression of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:15687746

Ugenskiene, Rasa; Sanak, Marek; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Szczeklik, Andrew

2005-01-01

160

Imbalanced Protein Expression Patterns of Anabolic, Catabolic, Anti-Catabolic and Inflammatory Cytokines in Degenerative Cervical Disc Cells: New Indications for Gene Therapeutic Treatments of Cervical Disc Diseases  

PubMed Central

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the cervical spine is common after middle age and can cause loss of disc height with painful nerve impingement, bone and joint inflammation. Despite the clinical importance of these problems, in current publications the pathology of cervical disc degeneration has been studied merely from a morphologic view point using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), without addressing the issue of biological treatment approaches. So far a wide range of endogenously expressed bioactive factors in degenerative cervical disc cells has not yet been investigated, despite its importance for gene therapeutic approaches. Although degenerative lumbar disc cells have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches, the quantities of disc cells and the concentrations of gene therapeutic factors used in animal models differ extremely. These indicate lack of experimentally acquired data regarding disc cell proliferation and levels of target proteins. Therefore, we analysed proliferation and endogenous expression levels of anabolic, catabolic, ant-catabolic, inflammatory cytokines and matrix proteins of degenerative cervical disc cells in three-dimensional cultures. Preoperative MRI grading of cervical discs was used, then grade III and IV nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues were isolated from 15 patients, operated due to cervical disc herniation. NP cells were cultured for four weeks with low-glucose in collagen I scaffold. Their proliferation rates were analysed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Their protein expression levels of 28 therapeutic targets were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During progressive grades of degeneration NP cell proliferation rates were similar. Significantly decreased aggrecan and collagen II expressions (P<0.0001) were accompanied by accumulations of selective catabolic and inflammatory cytokines (disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5, matrix metalloproteinase 3, interleukin-1?, interleukin-1 receptor) combined with low expression of anti-catabolic factor (metalloproteinase inhibitor 3) (P<0.0001). This study might contribute to inhibit inflammatory catabolism of cervical discs.

Mern, Demissew S.; Beierfu?, Anja; Fontana, Johann; Thome, Claudius; Hegewald, Aldemar A.

2014-01-01

161

Chronic urticaria as a systemic disease.  

PubMed

Urticaria is one of the most common diseases seen in everyday dermatologic practice, characterized by the development of wheals, angioedema, or both. While acute urticaria is mostly related to allergic or pseudoallergic reaction to food, drugs, or infections, chronic urticaria is a more complex disease with different additional ethiopathologic mechanisms and evoking factors. While urticaria is an undisputed disease of the skin, growing evidence supports, like in other dermatologic diseases, the concept of urticaria as a systemic disease with clinical symptoms and signs predominantly presenting on the skin. In this review, we describe the evidence and association between chronic urticaria and a variety of disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, atopy, infections, metabolic conditions, and neoplastic disorders. Beyond the mechanistic association, the possible common underlying pathomechanisms, such as systemic immunologic processes, are discussed. PMID:24767190

Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Zuberbier, Torsten; Tsankov, Nikolai

2014-01-01

162

Disk degenerative disease in childhood: Scheuermann's disease, Schmorl's nodes, and the limbus vertebra: MRI findings in 12 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve pediatric patients were studied with MRI. All had various disk problems including Scheuermann's disease, Schmorl's\\u000a nodes and limbus vertebrae. All patients shared loss of disk height, altered disk hydration and variable herniation of nuclear\\u000a material.

Leonard E. Swischuk; Susan D. John; Sandra Allbery

1998-01-01

163

Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary,disease (COPD) is characterised by an inappropriate\\/excessive inflammatory response of the lungs to respiratory pollutants, mainly tobacco smoking. Recently, besides the typical pulmonary pathology of COPD (i.e. chronic bronchitis and emphysema), several effects occurring outside the lungs have been described, the so- called systemic effects of COPD. These effects are clinically relevant because they modify,and can help

A. G. N. Agusti; A. Noguera; J. Sauleda; E. Sala; J. Pons; X. Busquets

2003-01-01

164

Framing international trade and chronic disease  

PubMed Central

There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

2011-01-01

165

Experimental modelling of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

A method for experimental reproduction of stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease formation (from acute inflammation to bronchopulmonary tissue restructuring characteristic of this disease) is presented. Lung injury and inflammation were induced by nitrogen dioxide. Hyperplasia and hypersecretion of goblet cells, squamous cell metaplasia of the ciliary epithelium, emphysema, and focal fibrosis served as the morphological substrate for the formation of bronchial obstruction. The adequacy of the model is confirmed by signs characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hyperexpression of CD3 lymphocytes in the bronchial wall and parenchyma, manifold increased production of TNF? and TGF?, high concentrations of circulating pathogenic immune complexes. Persistence of the structural and functional shifts throughout 6 months after exposure to nitrogen dioxide indicated a chronic course of the resultant pathological process. PMID:22803159

Lebedeva, E S; Kuzubova, N A; Danilov, L N; Titova, O N; Dvorakovskaya, I V; Kozlova, M Ya; Preobrazhenskaya, T N; Platonova, I S

2012-03-01

166

Nationwide Framework for Surveillance of Cardiovascular and Chronic Lung Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronic diseases are common and costly, yet they are also among the most preventable health problems (CDC, 2008). Comprehensive and accurate disease surveillance systems are needed to implement successful efforts to reduce the burden of chronic diseases o...

2011-01-01

167

Clinical and radiologic comparison of dynamic cervical implant arthroplasty versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease.  

PubMed

This study compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of dynamic cervical implant (DCI; Scient'x, Villers-Bretonneux, France) arthroplasty versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with single-level cervical degenerative disc disease who underwent DCI arthroplasty or ACDF between September 2009 and June 2011. Patients were followed up for more than 2years. Clinical evaluation included the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Neck Disability Index (NDI), Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for neck and arm pain. Radiological assessments included segmental range of motion (ROM), overall ROM (C2-C7), disc height (DHI), and changes in adjacent disc spaces. The VAS, SF-36, JOA, and NDI scores improved significantly after surgery in both the DCI and ACDF groups. The VAS, JOA, and SF-36 scores were not significantly different between the DCI and ACDF groups at the final follow-up. The segmental ROM at the treated level and overall ROM increased significantly after surgery in the DCI group, but the ROM in the adjacent cephalad and caudal segments did not change significantly. The mean DHI at the treated level was significantly restored after surgery in both groups. Five patients (12.8%) in the DCI group showed new signs of adjacent segment degeneration. These results indicate that DCI is an effective, reliable, and safe procedure for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. However, there is no definitive evidence that DCI arthroplasty has better intermediate-term results than ACDF. PMID:24411326

Li, Zhonghai; Yu, Shunzhi; Zhao, Yantao; Hou, Shuxun; Fu, Qiang; Li, Fengning; Hou, Tiesheng; Zhong, Hongbin

2014-06-01

168

[Genetic features during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, which is caused by the interaction of genetic susceptibility with environmental factors (especially smoking); however, genetic features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease still remain unknown. The only proven genetic risk factor is severe deficiency of plasma protease inhibitor, alpha-1 antitrypsin. A large number of candidate genes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have already been identified in many experimental and clinical studies; however, polygenic etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the main reason for conflicting molecular and genetic findings. This review describes the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism of alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, microsomal epoxide hydrolase-1, matrix metalloproteinases-1,-9,-12, glutathione S-transferases, heme oxygenase-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, interleukins-1,-4,-13, beta2-adrenergic receptor, G-globulin genes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 12, and 17 are indicated as candidate chromosomal regions influencing the decrease in spirometric parameters. Genome-wide scan shows direct evidence for linkage of decreased FEV1/FVC ratio to one or more genes on chromosome 2q influencing the development of airflow obstruction. Genetic markers on chromosome 12p suggest evidence for linkage of FEV1 to this region, and observations on chromosome 1p show the relationship between FVC and genes of this region. All these findings also need to be proven, and linkage analysis among combinations of gene candidates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has to be done. PMID:16861834

Babusyte, Agne; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas

2006-01-01

169

Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... with kidney disease or kidney failure still enjoy sex? It's important to remember that people with kidney ... healthcare professional. What if I lose interest in sex? Your interest in sex may change when you ...

170

[Pain management in chronic pancreatitis and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

Apart from local inflammation and defects in secretion, central mechanisms are important for pain etiology in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, centrally acting co-analgetic agents can be used in addition to classical pain medications. Endoscopic interventions are preferred in patients with obvious dilation of the pancreatic duct. Surgical interventions are generally more effective although they are usually reserved for patients with prior failure of conservative treatment. Diverse surgical options with different efficacies and morbidities are used in individual patients.One of the main problems in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases is abdominal pain. Primarily the underlying disease needs to be adequately treated. Symptomatic pain management will most likely include treatment with acetaminophen and tramadol as well as occasionally principles of a multimodal pain regimen. For the treatment of arthralgia as well as enteropathy-associated arthritis the same treatment options are available as for other spondyloarthritic disorders. PMID:24903043

Preiß, J C; Hoffmann, J C

2014-06-01

171

Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage  

PubMed Central

Inadequate dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are widespread, most likely due to excessive consumption of energy-rich, micronutrient-poor, refined food. Inadequate intakes may result in chronic metabolic disruption, including mitochondrial decay. Deficiencies in many micronutrients cause DNA damage, such as chromosome breaks, in cultured human cells or in vivo. Some of these deficiencies also cause mitochondrial decay with oxidant leakage and cellular aging and are associated with late onset diseases such as cancer. I propose DNA damage and late onset disease are consequences of a triage allocation response to micronutrient scarcity. Episodic shortages of micronutrients were common during evolution. Natural selection favors short-term survival at the expense of long-term health. I hypothesize that short-term survival was achieved by allocating scarce micronutrients by triage, in part through an adjustment of the binding affinity of proteins for required micronutrients. If this hypothesis is correct, micronutrient deficiencies that trigger the triage response would accelerate cancer, aging, and neural decay but would leave critical metabolic functions, such as ATP production, intact. Evidence that micronutrient malnutrition increases late onset diseases, such as cancer, is discussed. A multivitamin-mineral supplement is one low-cost way to ensure intake of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients throughout life.

Ames, Bruce N.

2006-01-01

172

Cytoskeletal pathology in non-Alzheimer degenerative dementia: new lesions in diffuse Lewy body disease, Pick's disease, and corticobasal degeneration.  

PubMed

Increasing use of immunocytochemistry for evaluation of dementia disorders has revealed histopathological alterations that were previously unknown, even with sensitive silver techniques. Disorders [Pick's disease (PD), diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)] in which immunocytochemistry has revealed occult pathology are discussed. All three disorders have neurofilament (NF) immunoreactive neuronal alterations in the neocortex. In DLBD round, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions referred to as cortical Lewy bodies are neurofilament-positive, while in both PD and CBD neurofilament epitopes are expressed in irregularly swollen neurons and their proximal cell processes, which are referred to as ballooned neurons. Interestingly, the cortical neuronal population that is vulnerable to Lewy bodies is similar to that which is vulnerable to ballooned neurons. Furthermore, Lewy bodies can occasionally be detected within the cytoplasm of ballooned neurons. Besides neurofilament-immunoreactivity, Lewy bodies are immunoreactive for ubiquitin, while ballooned neurons are inconsistently stained with antibodies to ubiquitin. Both Lewy bodies and ballooned neurons can be appreciated with routine histology, but they are much easier to detect with immunocytochemistry. In contrast, a new type of neuritic alteration in the hippocampal CA2/3 region has been recognized in DLBD. These dystrophic neurites cannot be appreciated with routine histology and are only optimally seen with immunocytochemistry for ubiquitin. Their presence is a certain indication of the presence of cortical Lewy bodies. The microtuble associated protein tau is the major constituent of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Biochemical studies have shown that Pick bodies, argyrophilic neuronal inclusions that are highly characteristic of, if not pathognomonic for PD are also composed of abnormal tau protein. Along with Pick bodies, tau has recently been detected in glial cells in PD. Similar so-called "gliofibrillary tangles" are increasingly recognized in progressive supranuclear palsy. Previously, CBD was considered to be free of such lesions, but recent studies have revealed widespread tau-positive neuronal and glial cytoskeletal lesions in CBD. A distinctive type of tau-positive glial lesion in CBD is characterized by annular clusters of grain-like tau immunoreactivity reminiscent of a neuritic plaque in AD, except that the clusters are devoid of amyloid. The tau-positive profiles are consistently located around a central astrocyte cell body. Double labeling studies with glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and CD44, which are markers for reactive astrocytes, demonstrates tau immunoreactivity within astrocytic processes; these "astrocytic plaques" appear to be specific for CBD. Although NF, ubiquitin and tau proteins are present in diverse neuronal and glial inclusions in these disorders, the morphology and distribution of these lesions differentiate non-AD dementias. PMID:8841955

Dickson, D W; Feany, M B; Yen, S H; Mattiace, L A; Davies, P

1996-01-01

173

Animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading global cause of mortality and chronic morbidity. Inhalation of cigarette smoke is the principal risk factor for development of this disease. COPD is a progressive disease that is typically characterised by chronic pulmonary inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, airway remodelling and emphysema that collectively reduce lung function. There are currently no therapies that effectively halt or reverse disease progression. It is hoped that the development of animal models that develop the hallmark features of COPD, in a short time frame, will aid in the identifying and testing of new therapeutic approaches. Areas covered: The authors review the recent developments in mouse models of chronic cigarette smoke-induced COPD as well as the principal findings. Furthermore, the authors discuss the use of mouse models to understand the pathogenesis and the contribution of infectious exacerbations. They also discuss the investigations of the systemic co-morbidities of COPD (pulmonary hypertension, cachexia and osteoporosis). Expert opinion: Recent advances in the field mark a point where animal models recapitulate the pathologies of COPD patients in a short time frame. They also reveal novel insights into the pathogenesis and potential treatment of this debilitating disease. PMID:24754714

Fricker, Michael; Deane, Andrew; Hansbro, Philip M

2014-06-01

174

Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease  

SciTech Connect

Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

Gordon, Terry

2009-05-26

175

Chronic Kidney Disease Is Associated with Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a dramatically increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Few prior studies have examined the independent association of CKD with coronary anatomy. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between CKD and severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in 261 male veterans with nuclear perfusion imaging tests suggesting coronary ischemia. We used chart review and patient and

Michel Chonchol; Jeff Whittle; Angela Desbien; Michelle B. Orner; Laura A. Petersen; Nancy R. Kressin

2008-01-01

176

Cardiovascular disease and chronic renal disease: A new paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic renal disease (CRD). Despite improvement in treatment for CVD over the past 30 years, CVD mortality is approximately 15 times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population. The high prevalence of CVD among incident dialysis patients suggests that CVD begins in earlier stages

Mark J. Sarnak; Andrew S. Levey

2000-01-01

177

New Therapies for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem which is increasing throughout the world and a major cause of death. However, current therapies fail to prevent disease progression or mortality. The mainstay of current drug therapy are long-acting bronchodilators; several longer-acting inhaled ?2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists (and combinations) are now in development. No treatments have so far

Peter J. Barnes

2010-01-01

178

Framing international trade and chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income\\u000a countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging\\u000a products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic\\u000a framework which

Ronald Labonté; Katia S Mohindra; Raphael Lencucha

2011-01-01

179

Gene Therapy for Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of gene mutations responsible for leukocyte dysfunction along with the application of gene transfer technology has made genetic correction of such disorders possible. Much of the research into molecular therapy for inherited disorders of phagocytes has been focused on chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). CGD results from mutations in any one of the four genes encoding essential subunits of respiratory

W. Scott Goebel; Mary C. Dinauer

2003-01-01

180

Preventive Care in Chronic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To identify preventive care measures that are appropriate for and specific to patients with chronic liver disease and to provide recommendations and information that can be shared with patients. MEASUREMENTS A review of the literature was undertaken using medlinefrom 1970 to present. Priority was given to randomized controlled studies, but case reports, case-control studies, and reviews were included. MAIN RESULTS Evidence for the avoidance of alcohol and other toxic substances, immunizations, and dietary modifications for chronic liver disease is summarized. In addition, measures that are effective in the mitigation of the complications of cirrhosis are reviewed. CONCLUSIONS Preventive care can play an important role in patients with chronic liver diseases. Based on the existing data, the preventive strategies of alcohol avoidance, hepatitis vaccination, avoidance of NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, iron supplementation when appropriate, and a low-fat diet are prudent in patients with chronic liver disease. Once cirrhosis develops, screening for hepatocellular cancer with ?-fetoprotein testing and ultrasound, and screening for varices by endoscopy are justified.

Riley, Thomas R; Smith, Jill P

1999-01-01

181

Antioxidants and Prevention of Chronic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals (R•) during metabolism is a necessary and normal process that ideally is compensated for by an elaborate endogenous antioxidant system. However, due to many environmental, lifestyle, and pathological situations, excess radicals can accumulate, resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic

JOYE K. WILLCOX; SARAH L. ASH; GEORGE L. CATIGNANI

2004-01-01

182

Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a major health problem affecting approximately 13% of the US population (1). Numbers of preva- lent CKD patients will continue to rise, reflecting the growing elderly pop- ulation and increasing numbers of patients with diabetes and hypertension. As numbers of CKD patients increase, primary care practitioners will be confronted with management of the

Robert Thomas; Abbas Kanso; John R. Sedor

183

Factor VIII Activity in Chronic Renal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

F VIII coagulant, F VHI-related antigen and F VIII ristocetin cofactor activity were significantly increased in 68 patients with various chronic renal diseases. All three F VIII functions correlated generally well with each other. A striking relationship between some F VIII activities and serum creatinine was detectable in patients with glomerulonephritis and kidney transplants, with mild or moderate renal insufficiency.

E. Wegmüller; U. Grüninger; M. Furlan; E. A. Beck; J. Hodler; F. C. Reubi

1981-01-01

184

Fluid homeostasis in chronic obstructive lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to massive oedema and the development of what is usually called cor pulmonale. The mechanisms by which patients with COPD retain salt and water are not completely understood. Several abnormalities have been found including reduced renal blood flow with relatively preserved glomerular filtration rate and elevated levels of renin, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin and

P. W. de Leeuw; A. Dees

2003-01-01

185

Case Management of Adolescents with Chronic Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training guide presents a model for optimum delivery of the primary duties, tasks, and steps required in the comprehensive case management of adolescents with chronic disease. Using a team approach to coordinated health care, the guide involves the patient and family as key members of the care team along with the physician, nurse, dietitian,…

Lankard, Bettina A.

186

Chronic Kidney Disease Mystery in Central America  

MedlinePLUS

NLM Director’s Comments Transcript Chronic Kidney Disease Mystery in Central America: 06/02/2014 To use the sharing features on this ... information is available in 43 other languages. Your comments about this or any of our podcasts are ...

187

Chronic kidney disease in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause is derived from the Greek words men (month) and pauses (cessation) and means permanent cessation of menstruation after the loss of ovarian activity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has recently been associated with cardiovascular events in several studies. CKD patients have a heavy burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in addition to a range of nontraditional risk factors such as

Hiromichi Suzuki; Kazuoki Kondo

2012-01-01

188

Update on Pregnancy in Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been considered a dangerous event both for the mother and for the fetus. However, increasing evidence shows that the stage of CKD is the leading factor that can predict possible acceleration in the declining of renal function and complications of pregnancy. This review summarizes recent data on pregnancy

Giuseppe Castellano; Vincenzo Losappio; Loreto Gesualdo

2011-01-01

189

Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Unanswered Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Magnesium ion is critical for life and is integrally involved in cellular function and a key component of normal bone mineral. In health, the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and bone are responsible for maintaining serum magnesium concentrations in the normal range and magnesium balance. Most clinical disorders involving magnesium, other than chronic kidney disease (CKD), result in hypomagnesemia, either from

David M. Spiegel

2011-01-01

190

Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease: lessons from chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the latter is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Recent studies have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which CKD is a cardiovascular risk, and they relate to osteoporosis. Thus, the mechanisms of CKD induced cardiovascular risk provide valuable insight into the relationship between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, and they are reviewed here. Observational studies have determined hyperphosphatemia to be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease. Mechanistic studies have elucidated that hyperphosphatemia is a direct stimulus to vascular calcification, which is one cause of morbid cardiovascular events contributing to the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease. Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney is due to failure of excretion by the kidneys and excess bone resorption. It stimulates vascular cells to mineralize atherosclerotic plaques through osteoblastic processes. Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease is a distinct syndrome characterized by disordered skeletal remodeling, heterotopic mineralization and cardiovascular morbidity. The heterotopic mineralization stimulated by CKD is relevant to osteoporosis.

Hruska, Keith A; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard

2008-01-01

191

Endothelial dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-?), reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein), autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-?-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population. PMID:24968272

Steyers, Curtis M; Miller, Francis J

2014-01-01

192

A Prediction Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Includes Periodontal Disease  

PubMed Central

Background An estimated 75% of the seven million Americans with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease are undiagnosed. Improved prediction models to identify high-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease enhance the ability of health care providers to prevent or delay serious sequelae, including kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Methods We identified 11,955 adults ?18 years of age in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 ml/minute/1.73 m2. High-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease were identified by estimating the individual probability using ? coefficients from the model of traditional and non-traditional risk factors. To evaluate this model, we performed standard diagnostic analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% probability cutoff points. Results The estimated probability of chronic kidney disease ranged from virtually no probability (0%) for an individual with none of the 12 risk factors to very high probability (98%) for an older, non-Hispanic white edentulous former smoker, with diabetes ?10 years, hypertension, macroalbuminuria, high cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein, high C-reactive protein, lower income, and who was hospitalized in the past year. Evaluation of this model using an estimated 5% probability cutoff point resulted in 86% sensitivity, 85% specificity, 18% positive predictive value, and 99% negative predictive value. Conclusion This United States population–based study suggested the importance of considering multiple risk factors, including periodontal status, because this improves the identification of individuals at high risk for chronic kidney disease and may ultimately reduce its burden.

Fisher, Monica A.; Taylor, George W.

2009-01-01

193

Lysis of major histocompatibility complex class I-bearing cells in Borna disease virus-induced degenerative encephalopathy.  

PubMed

CD8+ as well as CD4+ T cells and macrophages are of crucial importance for the pathogenesis of Borna disease in rats. This virus-induced immunopathological disease of the brain is characterized by neurological symptoms in the acute phase and chronic debility associated with severe loss of brain tissue in the late stage. We demonstrate here the cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes in the brain of intracerebrally infected rats. T cells isolated from the brain of infected rats lyse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-bearing target cells in the absence of MHC class II. Borna disease virus (BDV)-infected syngeneic skin cells and astrocytes, the latter one of the relevant target cells in vivo, were significantly lysed whereas infected allogeneic target cells were not. Most relevant to the in vivo situation, primary brain cell cultures propagated from the hippocampus of BDV-infected rats containing considerable numbers of neurons were lysed in vitro. Blocking experiments using antibodies directed against MHC class I antigen provided further evidence for the presence and activity of classical cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Antibodies against MHC class II antigen did not influence lysis of skin target cells but had an effect on lysis of astrocytes at late time points. Lymphocytes isolated from spleen, peripheral blood, or lymph nodes did not show cytotoxic activity. These results verify, on the cellular level, earlier findings that strongly suggest the involvement of CD8+ T cells in brain cell lesions, resulting in brain atrophy long after infection of rats with BDV. This is further evidenced by the presence of CD8+ T cells in direct proximity to neuronal cell lesions. Interestingly, the cytolytic capacity, demonstrated in vitro and strongly correlated to organ destruction, does not result in elimination of the virus but the virus persists in the central nervous system. PMID:8315376

Planz, O; Bilzer, T; Sobbe, M; Stitz, L

1993-07-01

194

3D MRI of the cervical spine: low flip angle FISP vs. Gd-DTPA TurboFLASH in degenerative disk disease.  

PubMed

The authors undertook this study to compare bright and dark CSF three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GE) MR techniques to answer the following questions: Could a single Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted GE volume sequence (with multiplanar reformats) be diagnostically equivalent for degenerative cervical disk disease to a standard sequence consisting of sagittal T1-weighted spin echo and axial low flip angle volume GE images (with reformatted images)? Does performing oblique coronal reformats perpendicular to the course of exiting cervical nerve roots improve diagnostic confidence over axial images alone? Thirty-one consecutive patients received a "routine" MR examination consisting of a sagittal T1-weighted spin echo and axial low flip angle volume sequence (FISP) [(35/7/5), 64 slices, 2 mm slice thickness, 192 x 256 matrix, 7.2 min]. Each patient was then given 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA intravenously, and reimaged with a T1-weighted volume GE sequence [(13/6/12), acquired as 128-1.2 mm coronal partitions, 192 x 256 matrix, 5.5 min]. Sequences were reconstructed on the standard diagnostic console in 1 mm increments. Sets of examinations (routine vs T1-weighted volume) were independently interpreted by three neuroradiologists for location, type, and severity of extradural degenerative disease. There was no strong or consistent trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. For lateral disk disease, only 3% of the observations were in discordance. For disk disease, there was close agreement in the severity scores. All readers indicated that additional information was provided by the reformatted images more frequently with TurboFLASH (fast low angle shot) than with FISP. All readers indicated that increased confidence was provided by the reformatted images more frequently with TurboFLASH than with FISP. A single 3D contrast-enhanced TurboFLASH sequence is diagnostically equivalent to a set of two-dimensional T1-weighted sagittal spin echo and 3D axial low flip angle sequences for assessing the location and degree of cervical extradural degenerative disease. A screening examination of the cervical spine could be performed with a single contrast-enhanced 5.2 min study, and then relying on computer postprocessing to provide additional imaging planes. PMID:8419435

Ross, J S; Ruggieri, P M; Glicklich, M; Obuchowski, N; Dillinger, J; Masaryk, T J; Qu, Y; Modic, M T

1993-01-01

195

[The use of minimally invasive instrumental spinal surgical technique in lumbar diseases of degenerative or traumatic origin].  

PubMed

Paradigm change has recently taken place in spine surgery with the application of minimally invasive techniques. Minimally invasive techniques have several advantages over the open traditional techniques: less blood loss, preservation of spine muscle integrity, shorter hospitalization, early mobilization, reduced pain levels, lower risk of infection. The presented cases cover following lumbar pathologies: segmental spinal instability, LV-SI grade II. spondylolisthesis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, spine trauma. Unilateral or bilateral mini-open technique was employed in the degenerative cases, depending on symptoms and signes. If unilateral symptoms--pathology was identified, screws and rod were implanted percutaneously on the side contralateral to the pathology. The segmental fusion between vertebral bodies was always assured by a cage and autologous bone. The presented trauma case involved combined AO type A2 and B fractures. The anterior column was strengthened with vertebral body stents filled with bone cement, the posterior column was fixed with a percutaneously implanted screw rod system. Insertion of stents in the collapsed vertebra significantly increased the vertebral body height and also improved the stability of the spine. Minimally invasive spine surgery techniques appear more advantageous over the traditional open spine surgery that necessitates for large midline approaches. PMID:23750428

Schwarcz, Attila; Kasó, Gábor; Büki, András; Dóczi, Tamás

2013-03-30

196

Recognizing global burden of cardiovascular disease and related chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, affecting not only high-income but also low- and middle-income countries. Nearly 80 percent of all estimated cardiovascular disease-related deaths worldwide now occur in low- and middle-income countries, where nearly 30 percent of all deaths are attributable to cardiovascular disease. The health burden of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases is also accompanied by a significant deleterious economic impact at the level of both national economies and households. The global trends in the health and economic burden of cardiovascular disease provide a compelling argument in support of prioritizing urgent yet carefully planned efforts to prevent and control cardiovascular disease worldwide-and especially in low- and middle-income countries. After decades of escalating efforts to draw attention to the high burden of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases, this critically important issue is now emerging as a more central part of the global health and development agenda. The breadth of behavioral, biological, social, environmental, and systems-level factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease necessitates multisectoral approaches across the lifecourse that promote healthful lifestyles, reduce risk, and reduce cardiovascular-disease morbidity and mortality through the delivery of quality health care services. Given that the complex interactions among the determinants of cardiovascular disease vary in different contexts, real progress in control efforts will come through approaches that are driven by a country's disease burden and risk profile, capacities, resources, and priorities-approaches that are led by a country's key decision-makers and stakeholders, including governments, civil society, the private sector, and communities. Many countries are already establishing efforts to address chronic diseases. In addition to these locally driven efforts, success will require active engagement and sustained action from a wide array of stakeholders operating at global and regional levels. PMID:23239202

Kelly, Bridget B; Narula, Jagat; Fuster, Valentín

2012-01-01

197

Early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a significant challenge for adult physicians. However, there is a misconception that COPD is a disease of only adult smokers. There is a growing body of evidence to support the hypothesis that chronic respiratory diseases such as COPD have their origins in early life. In particular, adverse maternal factors will interact with the environment in a susceptible host promoting altered lung growth and development antenatally and in early childhood. Subsequent lung injury and further gene-environment interactions may result in permanent lung injury manifest by airway obstruction predisposing to COPD. This review will discuss the currently available data regarding risk factors in early life and their role in determining the COPD phenotype. PMID:22265926

Narang, Indra; Bush, Andrew

2012-04-01

198

The systemic nature of chronic lung disease.  

PubMed

The systemic effects and comorbidities of chronic respiratory disease such as COPD contribute substantially to its burden. Symptoms in COPD do not solely arise from the degree of airflow obstruction as exercise limitation is compounded by the specific secondary manifestations of the disease including skeletal muscle impairment, osteoporosis, mood disturbance, anemia, and hormonal imbalance. Pulmonary rehabilitation targets the systemic manifestations of COPD, the causes of which include inactivity, systemic inflammation, hypoxia and corticosteroid treatment. Comorbidities are common, including cardiac disease, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and should not preclude pulmonary rehabilitation as they may also benefit from similar approaches. PMID:24874124

Evans, Rachael A; Morgan, Michael D L

2014-06-01

199

Helping to Combat Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a disease of the nervous system that results in distinctive brain lesions. CWD affects elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer, but has not been documented in livestock or humans. The origins of the disease, as well as the modes of transmission, remain unknown. Infected deer and elk appear robust and healthy in the early stages of CWD; clinical signs might not show for years. Mortality typically occurs within months after the appearance of clinical signs. The route of transmission is unknown; likely routes include direct transmission between infected and noninfected animals and infected animals contaminating local environments.

Geological Survey (U.S)

2003-01-01

200

Chronic Disease Modeling and Simulation Software  

PubMed Central

Computers allow describing the progress of a disease using computerized models. These models allow aggregating expert and clinical information to allow researchers and decision makers to forecast disease progression. To make this forecast reliable, good models and therefore good modeling tools are required. This paper will describe a new computer tool designed for chronic disease modeling. The modeling capabilities of this tool were used to model the Michigan model for diabetes. The modeling approach and its advantages such as simplicity, availability, and transparency are discussed.

Barhak, Jacob; Isaman, Deanna JM; Ye, Wen; Lee, Donghee

2010-01-01

201

Pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

The current epidemic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has produced a worldwide health care burden, approaching that imposed by transmittable infectious diseases. COPD is a multidimensional disease, with varied intermediate and clinical phenotypes. This Review discusses the pathogenesis of COPD, with particular focus on emphysema, based on the concept that pulmonary injury involves stages of initiation (by exposure to cigarette smoke, pollutants, and infectious agents), progression, and consolidation. Tissue damage entails complex interactions among oxidative stress, inflammation, extracellular matrix proteolysis, and apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Lung damage by cigarette smoke ultimately leads to self-propagating processes, resulting in macromolecular and structural alterations — features similar to those seen in aging.

Tuder, Rubin M.; Petrache, Irina

2012-01-01

202

Pathophysiology of Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have a chronic inflammation of the entire tracheobronchial tree character- ized by an increased number of macrophages and CD8 T lympho- cytes in the airway wall and of neutrophils in the airway lumen. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are consid- ered to reflect worsening of the underlying chronic inflammation ofthe airways,causedmainlybyviralandbacterialinfections andair

Alberto Papi; Fabrizio Luppi; Francesca Franco; Leonardo M. Fabbri

2006-01-01

203

Physical Therapy for Children with Chronic Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lung disease is a major health problem among children. Estimates suggest that one child in six has a chronic respiratory condition. This article reviews three common chronic respiratory conditions occurring in childhood for which physical therapy is usually recommended. The cause, pathophysiology, and medical treatment are explained for asthma, respiratory complications of chronic neuromuscular disease, and cystic fibrosis. The

JAN STEPHEN TECKLIN

204

FastStats: Chronic Liver Disease/Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis (Data are for the U.S.) ... Hospital Inpatient Care Number of discharges with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis as the first-listed diagnosis: ...

205

Degenerative Pannus Mimicking Clival Chordoma Resected via an Endoscopic Transnasal Approach  

PubMed Central

Lesions of the lower clivus represent a technically challenging subset of skull base disease that requires careful treatment. A 75-year-old woman with tongue atrophy was referred for resection of a presumed clival chordoma. The lesion was resected via an endoscopic transnasal transclival approach with no complications. Pathology revealed only chronic inflammatory tissue consistent with a degenerative pannus. Degenerative pannus should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower clival extradural lesions. The endoscopic transnasal transclival corridor should be considered for resection of such lesions as an alternative to larger, more morbid, traditional skull base approaches.

Khaldi, Ahmad; Griauzde, Julius; Duckworth, Edward A.M.

2011-01-01

206

Caloric Restriction and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

A reduction in calorie intake (Caloric restriction), appears to consistently decrease the biological rate of aging in a variety of organisms as well as protect against age-associated diseases including chronic inflammatory disorders such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although the mechanisms behind this observation are not fully understood, identification of the main metabolic pathways affected by caloric restriction has generated interest in finding molecular targets that could be modulated by caloric restriction mimetics. This review describes the general concepts of caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetics as well as discusses evidence related to their effects on inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders. Additionally, emerging evidence related to the effects of caloric restriction on periodontal disease in non-human primates is presented. While the implementation of this type of dietary intervention appears to be challenging in our modern society where obesity is a major public health problem, caloric restriction mimetics could offer a promising alternative to control and perhaps prevent several chronic inflammatory disorders including periodontal disease.

Gonzalez, Octavio A.; Tobia, Christine; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Novak, M. John

2011-01-01

207

Age-associated chronic diseases require age-old medicine: role of chronic inflammation.  

PubMed

Most chronic diseases--such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity--are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease. PMID:22178471

Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2012-05-01

208

Age-Associated Chronic Diseases Require Age-Old Medicine: Role of Chronic Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Most chronic diseases - such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity - are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease.

Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2012-01-01

209

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 11: Interbody techniques for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Interbody fusion techniques have been promoted as an adjunct to lumbar fusion procedures in an effort to enhance fusion rates and potentially improve clinical outcome. The medical evidence continues to suggest that interbody techniques are associated with higher fusion rates compared with posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who demonstrate preoperative instability. There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating improved clinical or radiographic outcomes based on the different interbody fusion techniques. The addition of a PLF when posterior or anterior interbody lumbar fusion is performed remains an option, although due to increased cost and complications, it is not recommended. No substantial clinical benefit has been demonstrated when a PLF is included with an interbody fusion. For lumbar degenerative disc disease without instability, there is moderate evidence that the standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has better clinical outcomes than the ALIF plus instrumented, open PLF. With regard to type of interbody spacer used, frozen allograft is associated with lower pseudarthrosis rates compared with freeze-dried allograft; however, this was not associated with a difference in clinical outcome. PMID:24980588

Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

210

Nucleotide excision repair in chronic neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Impaired DNA repair involving the nucleotide excision repair (NER)/transcription-coupled repair (TCR) pathway cause human pathologies associated with severe neurological symptoms. These clinical observations suggest that defective NER/TCR might also play a critical role in chronic neurodegenerative disorders (ND), such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Involvement of NER/TCR in these disorders is also substantiated by the evidence that aging constitutes the principal risk factor for chronic ND and that this DNA repair mechanism is very relevant for the aging process itself. Our understanding of the exact role of NER/TCR in chronic ND, however, is extremely rudimentary; while there is no doubt that defective NER/TCR can lead to neuronal death, evidence for its participation in the etiopathogenesis of ND is inconclusive thus far. Here we summarize the experimental observations supporting a role for NER/TCR in chronic ND and suggest questions and lines of investigation that might help in addressing this important issue. We also present a preliminary yet unprecedented meta-analysis on human brain microarray data to understand the expression levels of the various NER factors in the anatomical areas relevant for chronic ND pathogenesis. In summary, this review intends to highlight elements supporting a role of NER/TCR in these devastating disorders and to propose potential strategies of investigation. PMID:23726220

Sepe, Sara; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; Milanese, Chiara; Hoeijmakers, Jan H; Mastroberardino, Pier G

2013-08-01

211

Optimizing Chronic Disease Management Mega-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background As Ontario’s population ages, chronic diseases are becoming increasingly common. There is growing interest in services and care models designed to optimize the management of chronic disease. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and expected budget impact of interventions in chronic disease cohorts evaluated as part of the Optimizing Chronic Disease Management mega-analysis. Data Sources Sector-specific costs, disease incidence, and mortality were calculated for each condition using administrative databases from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Intervention outcomes were based on literature identified in the evidence-based analyses. Quality-of-life and disease prevalence data were obtained from the literature. Methods Analyses were restricted to interventions that showed significant benefit for resource use or mortality from the evidence-based analyses. An Ontario cohort of patients with each chronic disease was constructed and followed over 5 years (2006–2011). A phase-based approach was used to estimate costs across all sectors of the health care system. Utility values identified in the literature and effect estimates for resource use and mortality obtained from the evidence-based analyses were applied to calculate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Given uncertainty about how many patients would benefit from each intervention, a system-wide budget impact was not determined. Instead, the difference in lifetime cost between an individual-administered intervention and no intervention was presented. Results Of 70 potential cost-effectiveness analyses, 8 met our inclusion criteria. All were found to result in QALY gains and cost savings compared with usual care. The models were robust to the majority of sensitivity analyses undertaken, but due to structural limitations and time constraints, few sensitivity analyses were conducted. Incremental cost savings per patient who received intervention ranged between $15 per diabetic patient with specialized nursing to $10,665 per patient wth congestive heart failure receiving in-home care. Limitations Evidence used to inform estimates of effect was often limited to a single trial with limited generalizability across populations, interventions, and health care systems. Because of the low clinical fidelity of health administrative data sets, intermediate clinical outcomes could not be included. Cohort costs included an average of all health care costs and were not restricted to costs associated with the disease. Intervention costs were based on resource use specified in clinical trials. Conclusions Applying estimates of effect from the evidence-based analyses to real-world resource use resulted in cost savings for all interventions. On the basis of quality-of-life data identified in the literature, all interventions were found to result in a greater QALY gain than usual care would. Implementation of all interventions could offer significant cost reductions. However, this analysis was subject to important limitations. Plain Language Summary Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in Ontario. They account for a third of direct health care costs across the province. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions that might improve the management of chronic diseases. The evaluated interventions led to lower costs and better quality of life than usual care. Offering these options could reduce costs per patient. However, the studies used in this analysis were of medium to very low quality, and the methods had many limitations.

PATH-THETA Collaboration

2013-01-01

212

Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is one of the systemic,effects associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary,disease (COPD). Potential risk factors of osteoporosis may,be due to the lifestyle, genetics, treatment with corticosteroids, endocrine abnormalities or the impairment,of the body composition,and peripheral skeletal muscles. Evidence for the possible contribution of such factors is reviewed. The occurrence of fractures, as a consequence of osteoporosis, can contribute to

A. A. Ionescu; E. Schoon

2003-01-01

213

[Emergency endoscopy in chronic liver diseases].  

PubMed

Emergency endoscopy has to be regarded as a method of high diagnostic value. Based on the resulting therapeutic consequences and with allowance for the prerequisites and contraindications, emergency endoscopy in chronic liver diseases is to be considered a purposeful method. If endoscopic treatment possibilities in bleedings of the gastrointestinal tract continue to improve, the demonstration of an improvement in prognosis by emergency endoscopy seems to be merely a question of time. PMID:3878773

Truckenbrodt, J; Bosseckert, H; Jorke, D; Eitner, K; Fritze, C; Koppe, P; Gross, V

1985-01-01

214

Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than in the controls (P < 0.001) and there were a hepatic net-uptake of lactate in both groups. Fasting lactate concentrations correlated directly with the portal pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and SaO2 and negatively with ICG clearance. Conclusions. Lactate levels are elevated in cirrhotic patients compared to controls relating to portal pressure and aspects of liver dysfunction and the lactate levels seem to increase with the severity of cirrhosis. This may not be caused by decreased gluconeogenesis but merely be due to accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region. Future studies should focus on the impact of chronic liver disease on lactate kinetics. PMID:23514017

Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

2013-03-20

215

Educational session: managing chronic myeloid leukemia as a chronic disease.  

PubMed

Elucidation of the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has transformed this disease from being invariably fatal to being the type of leukemia with the best prognosis. Median survival associated with CML is estimated at > 20 years. Nevertheless, blast crisis occurs at an incidence of 1%-2% per year, and once this has occurred, treatment options are limited and survival is short. Due to the overall therapeutic success, the prevalence of CML is gradually increasing. The optimal management of this disease includes access to modern therapies and standardized surveillance methods for all patients, which will certainly create challenges. Furthermore, all available TKIs show mild but frequent side effects that may require symptomatic therapy. Adherence to therapy is the key prerequisite for efficacy of the drugs and for long-term success. Comprehensive information on the nature of the disease and the need for the continuous treatment using the appropriate dosages and timely information on efficacy data are key factors for optimal compliance. Standardized laboratory methods are required to provide optimal surveillance according to current recommendations. CML occurs in all age groups. Despite a median age of 55-60 years, particular challenges are the management of the disease in children, young women with the wish to get pregnant, and older patients. The main challenges in the long-term management of CML patients are discussed in this review. PMID:22160024

Hochhaus, Andreas

2011-01-01

216

Development of degenerative muscle weakness by chronic administration of beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile in the drinking water to rats: a model for motorneuropathy.  

PubMed

Progressive muscle weakness accompanied by progressive muscle atrophy was investigated in rats administered beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) chronically in the drinking water. Spontaneous running wheel activity declined slowly and reached a constant low level before postural muscle weakness was apparent. The rats being offered IDPN in the drinking water showed definite postural muscle weakness about 25 weeks after first being given IDPN, and muscle strength declined gradually throughout the remainder of the experiment (to 66 weeks). Flaccid paralysis became apparent in the hind limbs in the later stages of the experiment. Neurogenic muscle atrophy, measured by group atrophy of the muscle fibers, also progressed slowly, almost in parallel with the loss of muscle strength. At the end of the experiment, muscle weight of the gastrocnemius had decreased to about 20% that of control [F(2, 12) = 40.4, p < 0.05]. Plasma creatinine in the rats given IDPN in the drinking water for 66 weeks was significantly elevated over that of controls [F(2, 12) = 20.1, p < 0.05]. On the other hand, in rats given IDPN intraperitoneally, postural muscle weakness and muscle atrophy were less apparent, and plasma creatinine was normal. However, in these animals, abnormal behaviors, such as hyperexcitement, circling, and choreic movement (ECC syndrome), were apparent. These results suggest that the present model, which administers IDPN chronically in the drinking water ad lib and does not show involuntary movements and ECC syndrome, is of potential importance for investigation of chronic diseases of progressive muscle weakness with progressive muscle atrophy, and for assessing the efficacy of drugs and therapies for treating chronic neuromuscular diseases. PMID:9272649

Kitahara, Y; Maki, T; Torii, K

1997-09-01

217

Chronic beryllium disease: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4+ T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease.

Rossman, M D

1996-01-01

218

Acne as a chronic systemic disease.  

PubMed

Acne is the most common skin disorder. In the majority of cases, acne is a disease that changes its skin distribution and severity over time; moreover, it can be a physically (scar development) and psychologically damaging condition that lasts for years. According to its clinical characteristics, it can be defined as a chronic disease according to the World Health Organization criteria. Acne is also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, seborrhea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome, Apert syndrome, synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis syndrome, and pyogenic arthritis-pyoderma gangrenosum-acne syndrome. Recent studies on the Ache hunter gatherers of Paraguay detected the lack of acne in association with markedly lower rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, a finding that indicates either a nutritional or a genetic background of this impressive concomitance. PMID:24767186

Zouboulis, Christos C

2014-01-01

219

Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans  

PubMed Central

A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death. Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD, but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD. Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive. In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

Scott, John D; Garland, Naomi

2008-01-01

220

Serum levels of BMP-2, 4, 7 and AHSG in patients with degenerative joint disease requiring total arthroplasty of the hip and temporomandibular joints.  

PubMed

To date, there is no objective or reliable means of assessing the severity of degenerative joint disease (DJD) and need for joint replacement surgery. Hence, it is difficult to know when an individual with DJD has reached a point where total arthroplasty is indicated. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether serum levels of Alpha-2 HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) as well as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, 4, 7) can be used to predict the presence of severe DJD of the hip and/or temporomandibular joint (TMJ) (specifically: joints that require replacement). A total of 30 patients scheduled for arthroplasty (diseased) (15 HIP, 15 TMJ) and 120 age-matched controls (healthy/non-diseased) were included. Blood samples were collected from all patients ?8 weeks after the last arthroplasty. Concentrations of serum analytes were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and these were compared between the Diseased and Healthy groups, utilizing the Mann-Whitney U-test. Patients with disease had significantly higher levels of BMP-2 and BMP-4 and lower levels of AHSG in serum compared to non-diseased humans (p?

Albilia, Jonathan B; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Clokie, Cameron M L; Walt, David R; Baker, Gerald I; Psutka, David J; Backstein, David; Peel, Sean A F

2013-01-01

221

Chronic Granulomatous Disease as a Risk Factor for Autoimmune Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent infections and granuloma formation. In addition, we have observed a number of diverse autoimmune conditions in our CGD population, suggesting that patients with CGD are at an elevated risk for development of autoimmune (AI) disorders. In this report, we describe antiphospholipid syndrome (aPL), recurrent pericardial effusion, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), IgA nephropathy, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune pulmonary disease in the setting of CGD. The presence and type of autoimmune disease has important treatment implications for patients with CGD.

De Ravin, Suk See; Naumann, Nora; Cowen, Edward W.; Friend, Julia; Hilligoss, Dianne; Marquesen, Martha; Balow, James E.; Barron, Karyl S.; Turner, Maria L.; Gallin, John I.; Malech, Harry L.

2009-01-01

222

[Expert assessment of noise-induced hearing loss with special reference to differentiation between noise-induced damage and other degenerative diseases of the ear].  

PubMed

In patients with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) who also suffer from other degenerative diseases of the ear, a medicolegal opinion must be based on detailed knowledge of the pathophysiology of Corti's organ and on audiometric findings. Only with this special knowledge is it possible to differentiate accurately between NIHL and other types of hearing loss. At the same time, interactions must be considered between endogenous dysfunctions of the hair cells and their sensitivity to overload by severe noise. On the other hand, the diagnosis of NIHL is not valid when there were uncertainties with respect to the type of hearing dysfunction or the risk of noise at the place of work. These difficulties also apply to the estimation of the individual disability from NIHL when associated with other types of hearing loss. PMID:1577628

Plath, P

1992-03-01

223

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 2: Assessment of functional outcome following lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Assessment of functional patient-reported outcome following lumbar spinal fusion continues to be essential for comparing the effectiveness of different treatments for patients presenting with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. When assessing functional outcome in patients being treated with lumbar spinal fusion, a reliable, valid, and responsive outcomes instrument such as the Oswestry Disability Index should be used. The SF-36 and the SF-12 have emerged as dominant measures of general health-related quality of life. Research has established the minimum clinically important difference for major functional outcomes measures, and this should be considered when assessing clinical outcome. The results of recent studies suggest that a patient's pretreatment psychological state is a major independent variable that affects the ability to detect change in functional outcome. PMID:24980579

Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

224

Hospital Stays Involving Chronic Pulmonary Heart Disease, 2005. Statistical Brief No. 43.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronic pulmonary heart disease, or pulmonary hypertension, is a serious cardiac disorder most often caused by lung disease. While almost any chronic lung disease can cause it, the most common cause is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic...

A. Elixhauser C. T. Merrill M. Nagamine

2007-01-01

225

Chronic idiopathic urticaria and Graves' disease.  

PubMed

Chronic urticaria is a common condition characterized by recurrent episodes of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions lasting for more than 6 weeks. In about 75% of cases, the underlying causes remain unknown, and the term chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is used to emphasize that wheals develop independently of identified external stimuli. Although CIU affects about 1.0% of the general population, its etiopathogenesis is not yet well understood. It is now widely accepted that in many cases CIU should be regarded as an autoimmune disorder caused by circulating and functionally active IgG autoantibodies specific for the IgE receptor (FceRI) present on mast cells and basophils or for IgE itself. The well-known association of CIU with other autoimmune processes/diseases represents further indirect evidence of its autoimmune origin. Autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially autoimmune thyroiditis, represent the most frequently investigated diseases in association with CIU. Here we review this topic with particular regard to the association between Graves' disease and CIU. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms and the clinical implications of such an association are discussed. PMID:23609949

Ruggeri, R M; Imbesi, S; Saitta, S; Campennì, A; Cannavò, S; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

2013-01-01

226

[Functional magnetic resonance of Peyronie's disease in the chronic stable phase].  

PubMed

La Peyronie's disease (induratio penis plastica) is a degenerative process involving the penis, whose cause is still not fully explained. Adequate treatment requires the correct staging of La Peyronie's disease. Diagnostic imaging plays a major role after case history and clinics. Several imaging methods are used, including self-photography, plain radiography, CT, pharmaco-cavernosography, plain and duplex Doppler US. Enhanced MRI can be useful to correctly localize the plaques and to detect early changes in La Peyronie's disease, since the fibrous plaques with persistent inflammatory infiltration can be distinguished from the plaques in which inflammation has ceased. The diagnostic approach to La Peyronie's disease has been substantially modified by adding an examination during the erection induced by the intracavernosal injection of papaverine to the examination in the flaccid state. The authors report on the capabilities of unenhanced MRI after the intracavernosal injection of papaverine in steady chronic La Peyronie's disease. MRI was performed with an 0.5 T superconductive unit. Six patients (age range: 46-60 years, mean 52 years) who had been ill for about five years were studied. SE T1-weighted images and FS T2-weighted images were performed in both the flaccid and the erect states. Our results prove MR capabilities in both states in steady chronic La Peyronie's disease, which suggests MRI as the technique of choice for planning surgical treatment. PMID:8296007

Tamburrini, O; Della Sala, M; Sessa, M; Carallo, O F; Imbimbo, C; Mirone, V; Morrone, G

1993-12-01

227

Circulating Endothelial Cells and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction may play a crucial role in initiation of the pathogenesis of vascular disease and atherosclerosis. The identification and quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) have been developed as a novel marker of endothelial function. We describe, in great detail, mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and CEC detachment. We also review the relationship between numbers of CEC and disease severity and response to treatment. In addition, we describe the possible clinical use of CEC in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney transplantation. In summary, CEC have been developed as a novel approach to assess the endothelial damage. Measurement of the CEC level would provide an important diagnostic and prognostic value on the endothelium status and the long-term outcome of vascular dysfunction.

Zhang, Kunying; Yin, Fang; Lin, Lin

2014-01-01

228

Progress and promise in the management of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 for the management of chronic kidney disease provide clear guidance for the co- operative care of patients with chronic kidney disease by all health care providers throughout the spectrum of disease. There are specific stages and recommendations for interven- tions to slow disease progression, prevent complications, and reduce morbidity and mortality. This is a major para- digm shift on

Garabed Eknoyan

2008-01-01

229

Risks of chronic metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks of chronic metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease Metabolic acidosis is associated with chronic renal failure (CRF). Often, maintenance dialysis therapies are not able to reverse this condition. The major systemic consequences of chronic metabolic acidosis are increased protein catabolism, decreased protein synthesis, and a negative protein balance that improves after bicarbonate supplementation. Metabolic acidosis also induces

Joel D. Kopple; KAMYAR KALANTAR-ZADEH; RAJNISH MEHROTRA

2005-01-01

230

Impact of total disc arthroplasty on the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease: Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal fusion is the most rapidly increasing type of lumbar spine surgery for various lumbar degenerative pathologies. The surgical treatment of lumbar spine degenerative disc disease may involve decompression, stabilization, or arthroplasty procedures. Lumbar disc athroplasty is a recent technological advance in the field of lumbar surgery. This study seeks to determine the clinical impact of anterior lumbar disc replacement on the surgical treatment of lumbar spine degenerative pathology. This is a retrospective assessment of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Methods: The NIS was searched for ICD-9 codes for lumbar and lumbosacral fusion (81.06), anterior lumbar interbody fusion (81.07), and posterolateral lumbar fusion (81.08), as well as for procedure codes for revision fusion surgery in the lumbar and lumbosacral spine (81.36, 81.37, and 81.38). To assess lumbar arthroplasty, procedure codes for the insertion or replacement of lumbar artificial discs (84.60, 84.65, and 84.68) were queried. Results were assayed from 2000 through 2008, the last year with available data. Analysis was done using the lme4 package in the R programming language for statistical computing. Results: A total of nearly 300,000 lumbar spine fusion procedures were reported in the NIS database from 2000 to 2008; assuming a representative cross-section of the US health care market, this models approximately 1.5 million procedures performed over this time period. In 2005, the first year of its widespread use, there were 911 lumbar arthroplasty procedures performed, representing 3% of posterolateral fusions performed in this year. Since introduction, the number of lumbar spine arthroplasty procedures has consistently declined, to 653 total procedures recorded in the NIS in 2008. From 2005 to 2008, lumbar arthroplasties comprised approximately 2% of lumbar posterolateral fusions. Arthroplasty patients were younger than posterior lumbar fusion patients (42.8 ± 11.5 vs. 55.9 ± 15.1 years, P < 0.0000001). The distribution of arthroplasty procedures was even between academic and private urban facilities (48.5% and 48.9%, respectively). While rates of posterolateral lumbar spine fusion steadily grew during the period (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.05-1.06, P < 0.0000001), rates of revision surgery and anterior spinal fusion remained static. Conclusions: The impact of lumbar arthroplasty procedures has been minimal. Measured as a percentage of more common lumbar posterior arthrodesis procedures, lumbar arthroplasty comprises only approximately 2% of lumbar spine surgeries performed in the United States. Over the first 4 years following the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, the frequency of lumbar disc arthroplasty has decreased while the number of all lumbar spinal fusions has increased.

Awe, Olatilewa O.; Maltenfort, Mitchel G.; Prasad, Srinivas; Harrop, James S.; Ratliff, John K

2011-01-01

231

Pulmonary complications in chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

The association of chronic liver disease with respiratory symptoms and hypoxia is well recognized. Over the last century, three pulmonary complications specific to chronic liver disease have been characterized: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), and hepatic hydrothorax (HH). The development of portal hypertension is fundamental in the pathogenesis of each of these disorders. HPS is the most common condition, found in 5%-30% of cirrhosis patients, manifested by abnormal oxygenation due to the development of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. The presence of HPS increases mortality and impairs quality of life, but is reversible with liver transplantation (LT). POPH is characterized by development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of portal hypertension, and is present in 5%-10% of cirrhosis patients evaluated for LT. Screening for POPH in cirrhosis patients eligible for LT is critical since severe POPH is a relative contraindication for LT. Patients with moderate POPH, who respond adequately to medical therapy, may benefit from LT, although sufficient controlled data are lacking. HH is a transudative pleural effusion seen in 5%-10% of cirrhosis patients, in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease. Diagnosis of HH should prompt consideration for LT, which is the ultimate treatment for HH. Conservative management includes salt restriction and diuretics, with thoracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) as second-line therapeutic options. PMID:24089295

Machicao, Victor I; Balakrishnan, Maya; Fallon, Michael B

2014-04-01

232

Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss.

Hall, Michael E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Juncos, Luis A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

2014-01-01

233

Time for chronic disease care and management.  

PubMed

To manage the future costs and quality of care, a health strategy must move beyond the individual, acute care model and address the care of older people with chronic, and often multiple, diseases. This strategy must address the issue of care gaps, ie, the differences between best care and usual care. It should also embrace broad partnerships in which providers may be a cross-disciplinary team of nurses, physicians and pharmacists; the patient partners may include all patients in the community with a disease or group of diseases; and the system managers should work with all to seek improved long-term care and share the governance of interventions and resources. This partnership is activated by repeated and widely communicated measurements of actual practices and outcomes, facilitating rapid knowledge gain and translation, including unmasking the invisible wait list of unmeasured care gaps. It drives continuous improvement in practices and outcomes. The time is right for such care models. There is increasing evidence of their clinical and financial benefits. There is a clear and immediate opportunity to evaluate them as part of a health strategy for effective chronic care in our aging society. Things can be better. PMID:17932573

Montague, Terrence J; Gogovor, Amédé; Krelenbaum, Marilyn

2007-10-01

234

Direct renin inhibition in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

For approximately 6 years, the only commercially available direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, which inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system at the initial rate limiting step, has been marketed for the treatment of hypertension. Concurrently, much attention has been given to the possibility that renin inhibition could hold potential for improved treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease, with diabetic nephropathy as an obvious group of patients to investigate, as the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is enhanced in these patients and as there is an unmet need for improved treatment and prognosis in these patients. Several short term studies have been performed in diabetic nephropathy, showing a consistent effect on the surrogate endpoint lowering of albuminuria, both as monotherapy and in combination with other blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In addition, combination treatment also seemed safe and effective in patients with impaired kidney function. These initial findings formed the basis for the design of a large morbidity and mortality trial investigating aliskiren as add-on to standard treatment. The study has just concluded, but was terminated early as a beneficial effect was unlikely and there was an increased frequency of side effects. Also in non-diabetic kidney disease a few intervention studies have been carried out, but there is no ongoing hard outcome study. In this review we provide the current evidence for renin inhibition in chronic kidney disease by reporting the studies published so far as well as a perspective on the future possibilities. PMID:23278708

Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik

2013-10-01

235

Vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review includes a summary of the data available on vitamin K status in patients across the spectrum of CKD as well as the link between vitamin K deficiency in CKD and bone dynamics, including mineralization and demineralization, as well as ectopic mineralization. It also describes two current clinical trials that are underway evaluating vitamin K treatment in CKD patients. These data may inform future clinical practice in this population. PMID:24212088

McCabe, Kristin M; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

2013-11-01

236

Desempeño clínico de perros con enfermedad articular degenerativa de rodilla tratados con ácido hialurónico y sulfato de condroitina Clinical performance of dogs with knee degenerative joint disease treated with hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was the assessment of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate association in the treatment of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in dogs. Ten mongrel dogs underwent sectioning of cranial cruciate ligament, and after 21 days, development of DJD was confi rmed by arthroscopy. Arthrotomy substitution of cranial cruciate ligament was carried out in all animals. The treatment

Cleuza Maria de Faria Rezende; Sergio Andrés; Arias Serrato; Eliane Gonçalves Melo

237

Nutrition for Later Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Families of pediatric patients with CKD should seek age-appropriate nutritional counseling from a pediatric renal dietitian. [ Top ] About the Nutrition for Chronic ...

238

Epidemiology of Chronic Respiratory Disease: A Literature Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review focuses on three disorders--asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Particular emphasis is directed toward the latter two maladies. Chronic lung diseases either cause or contribute to an increasing number of deaths throughout the world. Prac...

I. T. T. Higgins

1974-01-01

239

Management of patients with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent disease which worsens gradually to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). US kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI) guidelines indicate five stages of CKD based on the severity of kidney function which is assessed by estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula. The management of CKD patients with mild renal damage (stage 1-2 KDOQI) is articulated on the reduction of proteinuria (<500 mg/day), reduction of sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (<130/80 mmHg), salt restriction diet, diuretics (furosemide, spironolactone), antihypertensive agents (ACE inhibitors or ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) or both as first-line therapy), additional other antihypertensives (aliskiren, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, beta blockers), body weight reduction, cigarette smoking stopping, allopurinol therapy and non-use of some drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetaminophen, bisphosphonates, oral estrogens) and herbals. The management of CKD patients with moderate-severe renal damage (stage 3-5 KDOQI) is based on the above recommendations plus low protein diet, correction of hyperkalaemia, metabolic acidosis, and administration of vitamin D derivates and erythropoietin for the correction of mineral metabolism disorders and anemia, respectively. In conclusion, patients with CKD (stage 1-2 KDOQI) may be correctly managed by primary care physicians, individuals in stage 3-5 KDOQI need the supervision of nephrologists to assess those patients who progress to ESKD and require renal replacement therapy. PMID:22009616

Schena, Francesco P

2011-10-01

240

Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Heart failure is common and is associated with poor prognosis. Chronic kidney disease is common in heart failure, and shares many risk factors with heart failure such as age, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Over half of all heart failure patients may have moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. The presence of chronic kidney disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, yet it is also associated with underutilization of evidence-based heart failure therapy that may reduce morbidity and mortality. Understanding the epidemiology and outcomes of chronic kidney disease in heart failure is essential to ensure proper management of these patients.

Ahmed, Ali; Campbell, Ruth C.

2010-01-01

241

Pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

None of the drugs currently available for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are able to reduce the progressive decline in lung function which is the hallmark of this disease. Smoking cessation is the only intervention that has proved effective. The current pharmacological treatment of COPD is symptomatic and is mainly based on bronchodilators, such as selective ?2-adrenergic agonists (short- and long-acting), anticholinergics, theophylline, or a combination of these drugs. Glucocorticoids are not generally recommended for patients with stable mild to moderate COPD due to their lack of efficacy, side effects, and high costs. However, glucocorticoids are recommended for severe COPD and frequent exacerbations of COPD. New pharmacological strategies for COPD need to be developed because the current treatment is inadequate.

Montuschi, Paolo

2006-01-01

242

Achieving Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet.

McMahon, Emma J.; Campbell, Katrina L.; Mudge, David W.; Bauer, Judith D.

2012-01-01

243

Interleukin-21 in chronic inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Interleukin-21 (IL-21), a cytokine produced by various subsets of activated CD4+ T cells, regulates multiple innate and adaptive immune responses. Indeed, IL-21 controls the proliferation and function of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, drives the differentiation of B cells into memory cells and Ig-secreting plasma cells, enhances the activity of natural killer cells and negatively regulates the differentiation and activity of regulatory T cells. Moroever, IL-21 can stimulate nonimmune cells to synthesize various inflammatory molecules. Excessive production of IL-21 has been described in many human chronic inflammatory disorders and there is evidence that blockade of IL-21 helps attenuate detrimental responses in mouse models of immune-mediated diseases. In this article we briefly review data supporting the pathogenic role of IL-21 in immune-inflammatory pathologies and discuss the benefits and risks of IL-21 neutralization in patients with such diseases. PMID:23553807

Sarra, Massimiliano; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

2013-01-01

244

Is chronic traumatic encephalopathy a real disease?  

PubMed

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has received widespread media attention and is treated in the lay press as an established disease, characterized by suicidality and progressive dementia. The extant literature on CTE is reviewed here. There currently are no controlled epidemiological data to suggest that retired athletes are at increased risk for dementia or that they exhibit any type of unique neuropathology. There remain no established clinical or pathological criteria for diagnosing CTE. Despite claims that CTE occurs frequently in retired National Football League (NFL) players, recent studies of NFL retirees report that they have an all-cause mortality rate that is approximately half of the expected rate, and even lower suicide rates. In addition, recent clinical studies of samples of cognitively impaired NFL retirees have failed to identify any unique clinical syndrome. Until further controlled studies are completed, it appears to be premature to consider CTE a verifiable disease. PMID:24412888

Randolph, Christopher

2014-01-01

245

Musculoskeletal Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by airway obstruction and inflammation but also accompanied by several extrapulmonary consequences, such as skeletal muscle weakness and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle weakness is of major concern, since it leads to poor functional capacity, impaired health status, increased healthcare utilization, and even mortality, independently of lung function. Osteoporosis leads to fractures and is associated with increased mortality, functional decline, loss of quality of life, and need for institutionalization. Therefore, the presence of the combination of these comorbidities will have a negative impact on daily life in patients with COPD. In this review, we will focus on these two comorbidities, their prevalence in COPD, combined risk factors, and pathogenesis. We will try to prove the clustering of these comorbidities and discuss possible preventive or therapeutic strategies.

Cielen, Nele; Maes, Karen

2014-01-01

246

Chronic Kidney Disease Management: Comparison between Renal Transplant Recipients and Nontransplant Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Renal transplant recipients (RTR) and patients with native chronic kidney disease (CKD) have similar complications. It is not known how the management of CKD in RTR differs from that of patients with native CKD. This study compares the management of complications related to CKD between RTR and patients with native CKD. Methods: Cross-sectional study of all RTR with stage

Ayub Akbari; Naser Hussain; Jolanta Karpinski; Greg A. Knoll

2007-01-01

247

Models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem and is predicted to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Apart from the important preventive steps of smoking cessation, there are no other specific treatments for COPD that are as effective in reversing the condition, and therefore there is a need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to new therapeutic strategies. The development of experimental models will help to dissect these mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level. COPD is a disease characterized by progressive airflow obstruction of the peripheral airways, associated with lung inflammation, emphysema and mucus hypersecretion. Different approaches to mimic COPD have been developed but are limited in comparison to models of allergic asthma. COPD models usually do not mimic the major features of human COPD and are commonly based on the induction of COPD-like lesions in the lungs and airways using noxious inhalants such as tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide. Depending on the duration and intensity of exposure, these noxious stimuli induce signs of chronic inflammation and airway remodelling. Emphysema can be achieved by combining such exposure with instillation of tissue-degrading enzymes. Other approaches are based on genetically-targeted mice which develop COPD-like lesions with emphysema, and such mice provide deep insights into pathophysiological mechanisms. Future approaches should aim to mimic irreversible airflow obstruction, associated with cough and sputum production, with the possibility of inducing exacerbations.

Groneberg, David A; Chung, K Fan

2004-01-01

248

Bidirectional Relationship between Chronic Kidney Disease & Periodontal Disease  

PubMed Central

Non communicable diseases (NCDs) affect the life of an individual in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial crises. Main NCDs are diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), pulmonary diseases, osteoporosis and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). About 40% of the total deaths can be controlled by eliminating the risk factors for NCDs. Periodontitis have recently been labeled as an important potential risk factor for NCDs. CKD affect the oral health status of patients by inducing gingival hyperplasia, xerostomia, calcification of root canals and delayed eruption of teeth. Periodontitis increases systemic inflammatory burden leading to worsening of CKD which in turn has been has been found to negatively affect CKD of patients on hemodialysis therapy by altering their serum albumin and C-reactive protein levels. As hypoalbuminemia leads to increased mortality in CKD patients, it needs to be avoided by reducing systemic inflammatory burden in patients receiving HD therapy. Treating periodontal disease could be one factor that might decrease the systemic inflammatory burden and thereby improve quality of life of these patients. Sources of Data: Data from descriptive, cross sectional and longitudinal studies published between 2000 and 2012 were included. Data searches based on human studies only. Data Extraction: The key words, periodontitis, chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis, on MEDLINE, approximately 120 studies were identified. 35 of them were relevant to all three keywords. Most of them were cross sectional studies and total 7 clinical trials were identified regarding checking of serum levels after periodontal therapy with variable results. Conclusion: Patients with CKD have higher prevalence of periodontal disease while non-surgical periodontal therapy has been indicated to decrease the systemic inflammatory burden in patients with CKD specially those undergoing HD therapy.

Wahid, Arsalan; Chaudhry, Saima; Ehsan, Afifa; Butt, Sidra; Ali Khan, Ayyaz

2013-01-01

249

Updated management of chronic kidney disease in patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

Chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), are the primary threat to global public health in the 21st century. Recently updated guidelines from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative provide patient care benchmarks that physician assistants can use when caring for patients with diabetes and CKD and developing clinical performance improvement plans. PMID:24819952

Hass, Virginia McCoy

2014-06-01

250

Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both obstructive airway diseases that involve chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract, but the type of inflammation is markedly different between these diseases, with different patterns of inflammatory cells and mediators being involved. As described in this Review, these inflammatory profiles are largely determined by the involvement of different immune cells, which

Peter J. Barnes

2008-01-01

251

Early cardiovascular involvement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early cardiovascular involvement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. M. Malerba, G. Romanelli. Cardiovascular (CV) disease represents a consider- able risk factor in terms of both morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In fact, there is a considerable evidence of this association: for only 20 years forced expiratory vol- ume in 1 second (FEV1) has

M. Malerba; G. Romanelli

2009-01-01

252

Chronic Disease Medication Administration Rates in a Public School System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal reports suggest school nurses and staff treat increasing numbers of public school students with chronic diseases. However, professionals know little about actual disease burden in schools. This study measured prevalence of chronic disease medication administration rates in a large, urban midwestern school district. Data from daily…

Weller, Lawrence; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Burbach, Cindy; Molgaard, Craig A.; Ngong, Lolem

2004-01-01

253

Vitamin D and calcium deficits predispose for multiple chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence from both observational studies and clinical trials that calcium malnutrition and hypovitaminosis D are predisposing conditions for various common chronic diseases. In addition to skeletal disorders, calcium and vitamin D deficits increase the risk of malignancies, particularly of colon, breast and prostate gland, of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple

M. Peterlik; H. S. Cross

2005-01-01

254

Carnitine Levels in Patients with Chronic Rheumatic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Carnitine, a small aminoacid derivative plays a major role in fatty acid oxidation. Myocardial carnitine deficiency may cause malfunction of the heart. Rheumatic valvular heart disease can be associated with myocardial dysfunction. We have investigated myocardial and plasma-free carnitine levels in patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease.Material and Methods: Eleven patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease requiring valve replacement

Figen Narin; Nazmi Narin; Halit Andaç; Ali Ergin; Ali Co?kun; Muzaffer Üstdal; Hakan Ceyran

1997-01-01

255

Genomic Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge in nephrology and for public health care, affecting 14–15% of the adult U.S. population and consuming significant health care resources. In the next 20 years, the number of patients with end stage renal disease is projected to increase by 50%. Ideal biomarkers that allow early identification of CKD patients at high risk of progression are urgently needed for early and targeted treatment to improve patient care. Recent success of integrating molecular approaches for personalized management of neoplastic diseases, including diagnosis, staging, prognosis, treatment selection and monitoring, has strongly encouraged kidney researchers to pursue molecular definitions of patients with kidney disease. Challenges for molecular marker identification in CKD are a high degree of cellular heterogeneity of the kidney and the paucity of human tissue availability for molecular studies. Despite these limitations potential molecular biomarker candidates have been uncovered at multiple levels along the genome – phenome continuum. Here we will review the identification and validation of potential genomic biomarker candidates of CKD and CKD progression in clinical studies. The challenges in predicting CKD progression, as well as the promises and opportunities resulting from a molecular definition of CKD will be discussed.

Ju, Wenjun; Smith, Shahaan; Kretzler, Matthias

2012-01-01

256

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its comorbidities.  

PubMed

Comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, lung cancer, musculoskeletal dysfunction, osteoporosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, cardiac disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and sleep dysfunction, amongst others. These medical conditions are commonly reported in COPD patients; however, the true prevalence of these conditions based on epidemiological studies is variable. Tobacco exposure is a common risk factor between COPD and many of its comorbidities but there is recent evidence that suggests that the harmful effects of these conditions on COPD is independent of their association with smoking. There has recently been an increasing focus on the impact that these health problems may have on the morbidity and mortality associated with COPD as these are now being recognized as part of the overall burden of the disease. It remains to be seen whether or not effective treatment of COPD reduces the risk of developing one of the comorbidities associated with it as well as if interventions that address specific comorbidities, such as improving anemia or preventing, will alter the natural course of COPD. Further investigation is required to gain a better understanding of the interrelationship between COPD and its comorbidities. PMID:19776712

Panetta, N L; Krachman, S; Chatila, W M

2009-06-01

257

Genomic biomarkers for chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge in nephrology and for public health care, affecting 14% to 15% of the adult US population and consuming significant health care resources. In the next 20 years, the number of patients with end stage renal disease is projected to increase by 50%. Ideal biomarkers that allow early identification of CKD patients at high risk of progression are urgently needed for early and targeted treatment to improve patient care. Recent success of integrating molecular approaches for personalized management of neoplastic diseases, including diagnosis, staging, prognosis, treatment selection, and monitoring, has strongly encouraged kidney researchers to pursue molecular definitions of patients with kidney disease. Challenges for molecular marker identification in CKD are a high degree of cellular heterogeneity of the kidney and the paucity of human tissue availability for molecular studies. Despite these limitations, potential molecular biomarker candidates have been uncovered at multiple levels along the genome--phenome continuum. Here we will review the identification and validation of potential genomic biomarker candidates of CKD and CKD progression in clinical studies. The challenges in predicting CKD progression, as well as the promises and opportunities resulting from a molecular definition of CKD will be discussed. PMID:22424432

Ju, Wenjun; Smith, Shahaan; Kretzler, Matthias

2012-04-01

258

Glycocholic acid in chronic active hepatitis and mild liver diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum levels of fasting glycocholic acid were measured in various noncirrhotic liver diseases. Forty-five patients were evaluated, 15 with chronic active hepatitis and 30 with mild liver diseases including chronic persistent hepatitis, steatosis, and minimal changes. There were increased levels of glycocholic acid in 53.3% of chronic active hepatitis cases and in 10% of mile liver disease cases (P=0.003), and

J. Collazos; Servicio de Medicina Interna

1993-01-01

259

Application of Direct Renin Inhibition to Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Chronic kidney disease has serious implications with a high risk for progressive loss of renal function, increased cardiovascular\\u000a events as well as a substantial financial burden. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is activated in chronic\\u000a kidney disease, especially in diabetes and hypertension, which are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin\\u000a converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)

Christian W. Mende

2010-01-01

260

Optimizing bone health in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Phosphocalcic metabolism disorders often complicate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and worsen as kidney function declines, with a consequence on bone structural integrity. The risk of fracture exceeds that of the normal population in both patients with pre-dialysis CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The increasing incidence of CKD, the high mortality rate induced by hip fracture, the decreased quality of life and economic burden of fragility fracture make the renal bone disorders a major problem of public health around the world. Optimizing bone health in CKD patients should be a priority. Bone biopsy is invasive. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, commonly used to screen individuals at risk of fragility fracture in the general population, is not adequate to assess advanced CKD because it does not discriminate fracture status in this population. New non-invasive three-dimensional high-resolution imaging techniques, distinguishing trabecular and cortical bone, appear to be promising in the assessment of bone strength and might improve bone fracture prediction in this population. Therapeutic intervention in the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) should begin early in the course of CKD to maintain serum concentration of biological parameters involved in mineral metabolism in the normal recommended ranges, prevent the development of parathyroid hyperplasia, prevent extra-skeletal calcifications and preserve skeletal health. In this paper, we review studies of mineral and bone disorders in patients with CKD and ESRD, the utility of current techniques to assess bone health and the preventive and therapeutic strategies for managing CKD-MBD. PMID:20092971

Pelletier, Solenne; Chapurlat, Roland

2010-04-01

261

Development and application of chronic disease risk prediction models.  

PubMed

Currently, non-communicable chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a large proportion of chronic diseases are preventable through risk factor management. However, the prevention efficacy at the individual level is not yet satisfactory. Chronic disease prediction models have been developed to assist physicians and individuals in clinical decision-making. A chronic disease prediction model assesses multiple risk factors together and estimates an absolute disease risk for the individual. Accurate prediction of an individual's future risk for a certain disease enables the comparison of benefits and risks of treatment, the costs of alternative prevention strategies, and selection of the most efficient strategy for the individual. A large number of chronic disease prediction models, especially targeting cardiovascular diseases and cancers, have been suggested, and some of them have been adopted in the clinical practice guidelines and recommendations of many countries. Although few chronic disease prediction tools have been suggested in the Korean population, their clinical utility is not as high as expected. This article reviews methodologies that are commonly used for developing and evaluating a chronic disease prediction model and discusses the current status of chronic disease prediction in Korea. PMID:24954311

Oh, Sun Min; Stefani, Katherine M; Kim, Hyeon Chang

2014-07-01

262

Development and Application of Chronic Disease Risk Prediction Models  

PubMed Central

Currently, non-communicable chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a large proportion of chronic diseases are preventable through risk factor management. However, the prevention efficacy at the individual level is not yet satisfactory. Chronic disease prediction models have been developed to assist physicians and individuals in clinical decision-making. A chronic disease prediction model assesses multiple risk factors together and estimates an absolute disease risk for the individual. Accurate prediction of an individual's future risk for a certain disease enables the comparison of benefits and risks of treatment, the costs of alternative prevention strategies, and selection of the most efficient strategy for the individual. A large number of chronic disease prediction models, especially targeting cardiovascular diseases and cancers, have been suggested, and some of them have been adopted in the clinical practice guidelines and recommendations of many countries. Although few chronic disease prediction tools have been suggested in the Korean population, their clinical utility is not as high as expected. This article reviews methodologies that are commonly used for developing and evaluating a chronic disease prediction model and discusses the current status of chronic disease prediction in Korea.

Oh, Sun Min; Stefani, Katherine M.

2014-01-01

263

Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Navigating the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is both an important cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease. Evidence from numerous clinical trials has demonstrated the benefit of blood pressure control. However, it remains unclear whether available results could be extrapolated to patients with chronic kidney diseases because most studies on hypertension have excluded patients with kidney failure. In addition, chronic kidney disease encompasses a large group of clinical disorders with heterogeneous natural history and pathogenesis. In this paper, we review current evidence supporting treatment of hypertension in various forms of chronic kidney disease and highlight some of the gaps in the extant literature.

Tedla, F. M.; Brar, A.; Browne, R.; Brown, C.

2011-01-01

264

[Chronic inflammatory bowel disease--current status].  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses the disease entities, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). An aetiologic agent has not yet been defined and the diagnosis is based, therefore, on the sum of clinical, paraclinical, radiologic, endoscopic and histopathologic features. In recent years pathogenetic studies have focused on immune mechanisms, transmissible infectious agents, the potential role of the normal intestinal flora, dietary factors, enzymatic alterations and genetic features, in addition to vascular, neuromotor, allergic and psychologic factors. The prevalence of IBD is increased in first-degree relatives of patients and there is a high rate of disease concordance among monozygotic twins. Thus abnormal genes may encode for one or several immunoregulatory factors, while bacterial wall products seem to activate colonic inflammatory cells in a non-specific way, leading to increased production of cytokines, complement-derived peptides, eicosanoids, platelet activating factor, biogenic amines, kinins, chemotactic oligopeptides, and neuropeptides. The named soluble inflammatory mediators, in addition to free oxygen radicals, are considered responsible for the secondary amplification of the inflammatory process. The corner stones in medical therapy of IBD are still corticosteroids and sulphasalazine (SAZ). The new oral salicylates, which are analogues of SAZ or "slow release" preparations of 5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine), have provided a therapeutic progress, because they are tolerated better than SAZ. Immunosuppressive agents, such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, reduce the requirement for corticosteroids and are effective in refractory CD, but the effect is delayed up to several months. The therapeutic action of cyclosporine A is not sustained, but often associated with side effects. Metronidazole has a beneficial effect on perineal disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1413128

Madsen, J R; Laursen, L S; Lauritsen, K

1992-08-10

265

Emerging drugs for chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. Despite remarkable headway in slowing the progression of kidney diseases, the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing in all countries with a severe impact on patients and society. The high incidence of diabetes and hypertension, along with the aging population, may partially explain this growth. Currently, the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for CKD, aiming to slow progression to ESRD are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for their hemodynamic/antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory/antifibrotic action. However, novel drugs would be highly desirable to effectively slow the progressive renal function loss. Areas covered: Through the search engines, PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov, the scientific literature was reviewed in search of emerging drugs in Phase II or III trials, which appear to be the most promising for CKD treatment. Expert opinion: The great expectations for new drugs for the management of CKD over the last decade have unfortunately not been met. Encouraging results from preliminary studies with specific agents need to be tempered with caution, given the absence of consistent and adequate data. To date, several agents that showed great promise in animal studies have been less effective in humans. PMID:24836744

Stefoni, Sergio; Cianciolo, Giuseppe; Baraldi, Olga; Iorio, Mario; Angelini, Maria Laura

2014-06-01

266

Dirty electricity, chronic stress, neurotransmitters and disease.  

PubMed

Dirty electricity, also called electrical pollution, is high-frequency voltage transients riding along the 50 or 60 Hz electricity provided by the electric utilities. It is generated by arcing, by sparking and by any device that interrupts current flow, especially switching power supplies. It has been associated with cancer, diabetes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in humans. Epidemiological evidence also links dirty electricity to most of the diseases of civilization including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and suicide, beginning at the turn of the twentieth century. The dirty electricity level in a public library was reduced from over 10 000 Graham/Stetzer (G/S) units to below 50 G/S units by installing plug-in capacitive filters. Before cleanup, the urinary dopamine level of only one of seven volunteers was within normal levels, while four of seven phenylethylamine levels were normal. After an initial decline, over the next 18 weeks the dopamine levels gradually increased to an average of over 215 ?g/g creatinine, which is well above 170 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Average phenylethylamine levels also rose gradually to slightly above 70 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Neurotransmitters may be biomarkers for dirty electricity and other electromagnetic field exposures. We believe that dirty electricity is a chronic stressor of electrified populations and is responsible for many of their disease patterns. PMID:23323864

Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, David

2013-12-01

267

Neuromotor control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Neuromotor control of skeletal muscles, including respiratory muscles, is ultimately dependent on the structure and function of the motor units (motoneurons and the muscle fibers they innervate) comprising the muscle. In most muscles, considerable diversity of contractile and fatigue properties exists across motor units, allowing a range of motor behaviors. In diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there may be disproportional primary (disease related) or secondary effects (related to treatment or other concomitant factors) on the size and contractility of specific muscle fiber types that would influence the relative contribution of different motor units. For example, with COPD there is a disproportionate atrophy of type IIx and/or IIb fibers that comprise more fatigable motor units. Thus fatigue resistance may appear to improve, while overall motor performance (e.g., 6-min walk test) and endurance (e.g., reduced aerobic exercise capacity) are diminished. There are many coexisting factors that might also influence motor performance. For example, in COPD patients, there may be concomitant hypoxia and/or hypercapnia, physical inactivity and unloading of muscles, and corticosteroid treatment, all of which may disproportionately affect specific muscle fiber types, thereby influencing neuromotor control. Future studies should address how plasticity in motor units can be harnessed to mitigate the functional impact of COPD-induced changes. PMID:23329816

Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

2013-05-01

268

Sputum myeloperoxidase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Airway inflammation, especially neutrophilic airway inflammation, is a cardinal pathophysiologic feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The ideal biomarkers characterizing the inflammation might have important potential clinical applications in disease assessment and therapeutic intervention. Sputum myeloperoxidase (MPO) is recognized as a marker of neutrophil activity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether sputum MPO levels could reflect disease status or be regulated by regular medications for COPD. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database, CINAHL and http://www.controlled-trials.com for relevant reports published before September 2012. Observational studies comparing sputum MPO in COPD patients and healthy subjects or asthmatics, or within the COPD group, and studies comparing sputum MPO before and after treatment were all included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed using STATA 10.0 software. Results A total of 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Sputum MPO levels were increased in stable COPD patients when compared with normal controls, and this increase was especially pronounced during exacerbations as compared with MPO levels during the stable state. Theophylline treatment was able to reduce MPO levels in COPD patients, while glucocorticoid treatment failed to achieve the same result. Conclusion Sputum MPO might be a promising biomarker for guiding COPD management; however, further investigations are needed to confirm this.

2014-01-01

269

Phosphorus and nutrition in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency. PMID:22701173

González-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto

2012-01-01

270

Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency.

Gonzalez-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

2012-01-01

271

Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient.

Reddy Maddika, Srikanth; Vyas, Anix; Iyer, Viswanathan; Cheriyath, Pramil

2014-01-01

272

Immune Mechanisms Involved in Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustained status of chronic inflammation is closely linked to several complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as vascular degeneration, myocardial fibrosis, loss of appetite, insulin resistance, increased muscle catabolism and anemia. These consequences of a chronically activated immune system impact on the acceleration of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and development of heart dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that these immune-mediated

Andréa E. M. Stinghen; Sergio Bucharles; Miguel C. Riella; R. Pecoits-Filho

2010-01-01

273

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence for an Autoimmune Component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an irreversible limitation on pulmonary airflow associated with chronic inflammation and mucous hypersecretion (chronic bronchitis) and\\/or the pathological destruction of alveolar airspaces leading to emphysema. COPD, predominantly as a result of tobacco smoke exposure, represents the fourth leading cause of mortality worldwide and its prevalence is increasing. Despite this, much of the

Anna M. Stefanska; Patrick T. Walsh

2009-01-01

274

Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

Lee, S

2012-03-29

275

Growth hormone in chronic renal disease  

PubMed Central

Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height) is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3–6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH) therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

2012-01-01

276

Autonomic dysfunction in chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL) is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD). One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this.

Frith, James; Newton, Julia L

2011-01-01

277

[Iron, hepcidin and chronic kidney disease].  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is commonly observed in chronic kidney disease. Blood loss and iron consumption under erythropiesis activating agents (ESA) induce absolute deficiency whereas defect of iron intestinal absorption and storage release account for functional deficiency. High hepcidin plasma levels are probably induced by inflammatory process and can explain functional deficiency. However, hepcidin is negatively correlated with ESA needs and hepcidin expression is influenced by other factors as degree of renal insufficiency, iron pool, treatments (iron IV and ESA). IV iron is the common therapeutic approach of iron deficiency and only normalized iron marrow supply cannot account for his efficiency. New IV iron products allow us to conceive new therapeutic schemes. Hepcidin inhibition is another therapeutic alternative. PMID:21186144

Fievet, Patrick; Brazier, François

2011-04-01

278

Anemia of chronic disease and defective erythropoietin production in patients with celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Anemia due to hematinic deficiencies is common in patients with untreated celiac disease. Although celiac disease is a chronic condition characterized by an intense inflammator y response of the intestinal mucosa, scant data are available about the prevalence of anemia of chronic disease in celiac disease. Design and Methods One hundred and fifty-two patients with celiac disease at presentation

Gaetano Bergamaschi; Konstantinos Markopoulos; Riccardo Albertini; Federico Biagi; Rachele Ciccocioppo; Eloisa Arbustini; Gino Roberto Corazza

279

Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, and the presence of CKD worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is associated with specific risk factors. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathology and manifestation of CVD differ in the presence of CKD. During a clinical update conference convened by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes

Charles A Herzog; Richard W Asinger; Alan K Berger; David M Charytan; Javier Díez; Robert G Hart; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Bertram L Kasiske; Peter A McCullough; Rod S Passman; Stephanie S DeLoach; Patrick H Pun; Eberhard Ritz

2011-01-01

280

Safety and accuracy of robot-assisted versus fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw insertion for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine: a matched cohort comparison.  

PubMed

Object Recent years have been marked by efforts to improve the quality and safety of pedicle screw placement in spinal instrumentation. The aim of the present study is to compare the accuracy of the SpineAssist robot system with conventional fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw placement. Methods Ninety-five patients suffering from degenerative disease and requiring elective lumbar instrumentation were included in the study. The robot cohort (Group I; 55 patients, 244 screws) consisted of an initial open robot-assisted subgroup (Subgroup IA; 17 patients, 83 screws) and a percutaneous cohort (Subgroup IB, 38 patients, 161 screws). In these groups, pedicle screws were placed under robotic guidance and lateral fluoroscopic control. In the fluoroscopy-guided cohort (Group II; 40 patients, 163 screws) screws were inserted using anatomical landmarks and lateral fluoroscopic guidance. The primary outcome measure was accuracy of screw placement on the Gertzbein-Robbins scale (Grade A to E and R [revised]). Secondary parameters were duration of surgery, blood loss, cumulative morphine, and length of stay. Results In the robot group (Group I), a perfect trajectory (A) was observed in 204 screws (83.6%). The remaining screws were graded B (n = 19 [7.8%]), C (n = 9 [3.7%]), D (n = 4 [1.6%]), E (n = 2 [0.8%]), and R (n = 6 [2.5%]). In the fluoroscopy-guided group (Group II), a completely intrapedicular course graded A was found in 79.8% (n = 130). The remaining screws were graded B (n = 12 [7.4%]), C (n = 10 [6.1%]), D (n = 6 [3.7%]), and E (n = 5 [3.1%]). The comparison of "clinically acceptable" (that is, A and B screws) was neither different between groups (I vs II [p = 0.19]) nor subgroups (Subgroup IA vs IB [p = 0.81]; Subgroup IA vs Group II [p = 0.53]; Subgroup IB vs Group II [p = 0.20]). Blood loss was lower in the robot-assisted group than in the fluoroscopy-guided group, while duration of surgery, length of stay, and cumulative morphine dose were not statistically different. Conclusions Robot-guided pedicle screw placement is a safe and useful tool for assisting spine surgeons in degenerative spine cases. Nonetheless, technical difficulties remain and fluoroscopy backup is advocated. PMID:24725180

Schatlo, Bawarjan; Molliqaj, Granit; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Kotowski, Marc; Schaller, Karl; Tessitore, Enrico

2014-06-01

281

Radiographic Results of Single Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease: Focusing on Changes of Segmental Lordosis in Fusion Segment  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the radiographic results in patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), particularly the changes in segmental lordosis in the fusion segment, whole lumbar lordosis and disc height. Methods Twenty six cases of single-level TLIF in degenerative lumbar diseases were analyzed. The changes in segmental lordosis, whole lumbar lordosis, and disc height were evaluated before surgery, after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results The segmental lordosis increased significantly after surgery but decreased at the final follow-up. Compared to the preoperative values, the segmental lordosis did not change significantly at the final follow-up. Whole lumbar lordosis at the final follow-up was significantly higher than the preoperative values. The disc height was significantly higher in after surgery than before surgery (p = 0.000) and the disc height alter surgery and at the final follow-up was similar. Conclusions When performing TLIF, careful surgical techniques and attention are needed to restore and maintain the segmental lordosis at the fusion level.

Kim, Sang-Bum; Heo, Youn-Moo; Lee, Woo-Suk; Yi, Jin-Woong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Hwang, Cheol-Mog

2009-01-01

282

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: Brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace. PMID:24980591

Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

283

Reliability and discriminatory testing of a client-based metrology instrument, feline musculoskeletal pain index (FMPI) for the evaluation of degenerative joint disease-associated pain in cats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the readability, reliability, repeatability and discriminatory ability of an owner-completed instrument to assess feline degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated pain (feline musculoskeletal pain index, FMPI). Readability was explored using four different formulas (Flesch, Fry, SMOG and FOG) and the final FMPI instrument was produced. To assess the instrument, client-owned cats that were defined as normal (normal group) or as having DJD-associated pain and mobility impairment (pain-DJD group) were recruited. A total of 32 client-owned cats were enrolled in the study (normal, n=13; pain-DJD, n=19). Owners completed the FMPI on two occasions, 14days apart. Internal consistency (reliability) and repeatability (test-retest) were explored using Cronbach's ? and weighted ? statistic, respectively. Data from the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance (controlling for age) to evaluate discriminatory ability. The FMPI was constructed with 21 questions covering activity, pain intensity and overall quality of life. It had a 6th grade readability score. Reliability of the FMPI was excellent (Cronbach's ?>0.8 for all groupings of questions in normal and pain-DJD cats) and repeatability was good (weighted ? statistic >0.74) for normal and pain-DJD cats. All components of the FMPI were able to distinguish between normal cats and cats with DJD (P<0.001 for all components). This initial evaluation of the FMPI suggests that this instrument is worthy of continued investigation. PMID:23369382

Benito, J; Depuy, V; Hardie, E; Zamprogno, H; Thomson, A; Simpson, W; Roe, S; Hansen, B; Lascelles, B D X

2013-06-01

284

Vitamin D and chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a significant global health problem because of the increased risk of total and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is common in patients with CKD, and serum levels of vitamin D appear to have an inverse correlation with kidney function. Growing evidence has indicated that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to deteriorating renal function, as well as increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Recent studies have suggested that treatment with active vitamin D or its analogues can ameliorate renal injury by reducing fibrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation in animal models; this treatment also decreases proteinuria and mortality in patients with CKD. These renoprotective effects of vitamin D treatment are far beyond its classical role in the maintenance of bone and mineral metabolism, in addition to its pleiotropic effects on extra-mineral metabolism. In this review, we discuss the altered metabolism of vitamin D in kidney disease, and the potential renoprotective mechanisms of vitamin D in experimental and clinical studies. In addition, issues regarding the effects of vitamin D treatment on clinical outcomes are discussed.

Kim, Chang Seong

2014-01-01

285

Molecular diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, liver, brain and bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species, Klebsiella species, Burkholderia cepacia and Salmonella species. CGD is a rare (?1:250?000 births) disease caused by mutations in any one of the five components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in phagocytes. This enzyme generates superoxide and is essential for intracellular killing of pathogens by phagocytes. Molecular diagnosis of CGD involves measuring NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes, measuring protein expression of NADPH oxidase components and mutation analysis of genes encoding these components. Residual oxidase activity is important to know for estimation of the clinical course and the chance of survival of the patient. Mutation analysis is mandatory for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes the different assays available for the diagnosis of CGD, the precautions to be taken for correct measurements, the flow diagram to be followed, the assays for confirmation of the diagnosis and the determinations for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24016250

Roos, D; de Boer, M

2014-02-01

286

Chronic kidney disease in acute coronary syndromes  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high burden of coronary artery disease. In patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), CKD is highly prevalent and associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. Management of patients with CKD presenting with ACS is more complex than in the general population because of the lack of well-designed randomized trials assessing therapeutic strategies in such patients. The almost uniform exclusion of patients with CKD from randomized studies evaluating new targeted therapies for ACS, coupled with concerns about further deterioration of renal function and therapy-related toxic effects, may explain the less frequent use of proven medical therapies in this subgroup of high-risk patients. However, these patients potentially have much to gain from conventional revascularization strategies used in the general population. The objective of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the epidemiology and the clinical and prognostic relevance of CKD in ACS patients, in particular with respect to unresolved issues and uncertainties regarding recommended medical therapies and coronary revascularization strategies.

Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio

2012-01-01

287

Chronic kidney disease alters intestinal microbial flora.  

PubMed

The population of microbes (microbiome) in the intestine is a symbiotic ecosystem conferring trophic and protective functions. Since the biochemical environment shapes the structure and function of the microbiome, we tested whether uremia and/or dietary and pharmacologic interventions in chronic kidney disease alters the microbiome. To identify different microbial populations, microbial DNA was isolated from the stools of 24 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 12 healthy persons, and analyzed by phylogenetic microarray. There were marked differences in the abundance of 190 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the ESRD and control groups. OTUs from Brachybacterium, Catenibacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae, Nesterenkonia, Polyangiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Thiothrix families were markedly increased in patients with ESRD. To isolate the effect of uremia from inter-individual variations, comorbid conditions, and dietary and medicinal interventions, rats were studied 8 weeks post 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. This showed a significant difference in the abundance of 175 bacterial OTUs between the uremic and control animals, most notably as decreases in the Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Thus, uremia profoundly alters the composition of the gut microbiome. The biological impact of this phenomenon is unknown and awaits further investigation. PMID:22992469

Vaziri, Nosratola D; Wong, Jakk; Pahl, Madeleine; Piceno, Yvette M; Yuan, Jun; DeSantis, Todd Z; Ni, Zhenmin; Nguyen, Tien-Hung; Andersen, Gary L

2013-02-01

288

Building the chronic kidney disease management team.  

PubMed

The need to be efficient and the demands for performance-based service are changing how nephrologists deliver care. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in patients with complex medical and social problems. CKD management requires that multidisciplinary professionals provide patient education, disease management, and psychosocial support. To remain cost-efficient, many physicians are training and supervising midlevel practitioners in the delivery of specialized health care. Specialized care that meets present CKD patient needs is best delivered in a CKD clinic. Three models of CKD clinic are identified: (1) anemia management CKD clinic, (2) the basic CKD clinic, and (3) the comprehensive CKD clinic. Each clinic model is based on critical elements of staffing, billable services, and patient-focused health care. Billable services are anemia-management services, physician services that may be provided by midlevel practitioners, and medical nutrition therapy. In some cases, social worker services may be billable. Building a patient-focused clinic that offers CKD management requires planning, familiarity with federal regulations and statutes, and skillful practitioners. Making services cost-efficient and outcome oriented requires careful physician leadership, talented midlevel practitioners, and billing professionals who understand the goals of the CKD clinic. As Medicare payment reforms evolve, a well-organized CKD program can be well poised to meet the requirements of payers and congressional mandates for performance-based purchasing. PMID:18155107

Spry, Leslie

2008-01-01

289

Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity.  

PubMed

Vegetarians form a non-homogenous group consisting of semivegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs and fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and vegans (plant food only). According to pure vegetarian ideologists, people consuming vegetarian diet have better health and live longer than nonvegetarians, because persons consuming milk, dairy products, meat, eggs and fish are at health risk. In fact the most healthy people in Europe are inhabitants of Iceland, Switzerland and Scandinavia, consuming great amounts of food of animal origin. Meta-analysis of several prospective studies showed no significant differences in the mortality caused by colorectal, stomach, lung, prostate or breast cancers and stroke between vegetarians and "health-conscious" nonvegetarians. In vegetarians, a decrease of ischemic heart disease mortality was observed probably due to lower total serum cholesterol levels, lower prevalence of obesity and higher consumption of antioxidants. Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful. Now, the largest cohort study of diet and health on more than half million of persons, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, will bring new data on the relationships between diet, lifestyle and environmental factors and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Vegetarianism is a form of food restriction; and in our overfed society, food restriction is a plus unless it results in a nutritional deficiency (Fig. 1, Tab. 2, Ref. 18). PMID:19166134

Ginter, E

2008-01-01

290

Arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease: causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, and heart failure and arrhythmias are the biggest causes of cardiovascular death in this population. Increased arterial stiffness is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease and is associated with adverse alterations in cardiac structure and function that may predispose to an increased risk of cardiovascular death. These changes are already apparent

Colin D Chue; Jonathan N Townend; Richard P Steeds; Charles J Ferro

2010-01-01

291

Bioecological control of chronic liver disease and encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal encephalopathy was originally associated with chronic liver disease but is increasingly associated with most other\\u000a chronic diseases and particularly with diabetes and also chronic disorders in other organs: kidneys, lungs, thyroid and with\\u000a obesity. It is increasingly with dramatically increased and more or less permanent increase in systemic inflammation, most\\u000a likely a result of Western lifestyle. Frequent physical exercise

Stig Bengmark

2009-01-01

292

Treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in the United States. It is estimated that nearly 20 million Americans have some degree of chronic kidney disease defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than sixty milliliters per minute or evidence of kidney damage by imaging study, biopsy, biochemical testing or urine tests with an estimated glomerular filtration rate more than sixty milliliters per minute. Hypertension is present in more than 80% of patients with CKD and contributes to progression of kidney disease toward end stage (ESRD) as well as to cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. In fact the risk for cardiovascular death in this patient population is greater than the risk for progression to ESRD. Proteinuria is an important co-morbidity in hypertensives with CKD and increase risk of disease progression and cardiovascular events. Treatment of hypertension is therefore imperative. The National Kidney Foundation clinical practice guidelines recommend a blood pressure goal of <130 mmHg systolic and <80 mmHg diastolic for all CKD patients. Recent post-hoc analyses of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study indicate that lower blood pressure may provide long-term kidney protection in patients with nondiabetic kidney disease. Specifically a mean arterial pressure <92 mmHg (e.g. 120/80 mmHg) as compared to 102-107 mmHg (e.g. 140/90 mmHg) is associated with reduced risk for ESRD. In most cases achieving this goal requires both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic intervention. Dietary sodium restriction to no more than 2 grams daily is important. In addition, moderate alcohol intake, regular exercise, weight loss in those with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/M(2) and reduced amount of saturated fat help to reduce blood pressure. The first line pharmacologic intervention should be an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker in those with diabetes or non-diabetics with more than 200 mg protein/gram creatinine on a random urine sample. For non-diabetics with less than 200 mg protein/gram creatinine on a random urine sample, no specific first-line drug class is recommended. After initial dosing with an ACEi, ARB or other drug, a diuretic should be added to the regimen. Thereafter, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, apha blockers and alpha 2 agonists (e.g. clonidine) and finally vasodilators (e.g. minoxidil) should be added to achieve blood pressure goal. Combinations of ACEi and ARB are helpful in reducing proteinuria and may also lower blood pressure further in some some cases. Blood pressure should be monitored closely in hypertensive patients with CKD and both clinic and home blood pressure measurements may help the clinician adjust treatment. PMID:16298269

Toto, Robert D

2005-11-01

293

Vitamin D and chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem and one of the most powerful predictors of premature cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that the progression of CKD and many of the cardiovascular complications may be linked to hypovitaminosis D. Patients with CKD have an exceptionally high rate of severe vitamin D deficiency that is further exacerbated by the reduced ability to convert 25-(OH)vitamin D into the active form, 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D. As new evidence has improved our understanding of classical, as well as the nonclassical, functions for vitamin D, it has become apparent that the autocrine role of vitamin D is an important modulator of several systems including the immune, renal and cardiovascular systems. In addition to the traditional supplementation of 1,25-vitamin D to CKD patients, by assessing and repleting 25-(OH)vitamin D deficiency, physicians will adequately fuel both the renal and extra-renal pathways of calcitriol synthesis maintaining the classical, as well as the non-classical, functions of vitamin D that ultimately influence clinical outcomes in this high-risk group of patients. Because of the high rates of hypovitaminosis D and progression of CKD to end-stage renal disease in minority populations, these findings are highly relevant to the national efforts to reduce health disparities. Healthcare providers are called to join the intensified efforts of public health officials to disseminate and implement updated guidelines and recommendations to halt the growing epidemic of vitamin D deficiency, particularly in high-risk populations. PMID:20077598

Williams, Sandra; Malatesta, Karla; Norris, Keith

2009-01-01

294

Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease  

PubMed Central

Background Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients. Methods The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis. Results Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61%) and asthma (18%), and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27%) and bone marrow transplants (14%). A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03). The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14); 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75). Conclusion Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the more traditional immunocompromised population.

Wessolossky, Mireya; Welch, Verna L; Sen, Ajanta; Babu, Tara M; Luke, David R

2013-01-01

295

Excision of Femoral Head and Neck for Treatment of Coxofemoral Degenerative Joint Disease in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Nonhuman primates are a valuable model for osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis has been extensively studied in nonhuman primates in both naturally occurring and induced disease states. However, little published information describes naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints of nonhuman primates. We report a case of naturally occurring coxofemoral joint osteoarthritis in a rhesus macaque. This case radiographically resembled hip dysplasia reported in other species and demonstrated a rapid progression in severity of lameness, with accompanying loss of muscle mass in the affected limb. We excised the femoral head and neck to alleviate the pain that accompanied the osteoarthritis. Physical therapy was initiated, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and video recordings were performed to evaluate the macaque's response to surgical intervention. By 3 mo postoperatively, the macaque had regained full use of the affected limb.

Dufour, Jason P; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine; Bohm, Rudolf P; Veazey, Ronald S; Carnal, Jean

2012-01-01

296

Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease.

Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

2014-01-01

297

Hemoglobin Decline in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Baseline Results from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: The level of glomerular filtration rate at which hemoglobin declines in chronic kidney disease is poorly described in the pediatric population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This cross-sectional study of North American children with chronic kidney disease examined the association of glomerular filtration rate, determined by the plasma disappearance of iohexol, and hemoglobin concentration. Results: Of the

Jeffrey J. Fadrowski; Christopher B. Pierce; Stephen R. Cole; Marva Moxey-Mims; Bradley A. Warady; Susan L. Furth

298

Disease progression and outcomes in chronic kidney disease and renal transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease progression and outcomes in chronic kidney disease and renal transplantation.BackgroundIt is unknown whether renal transplant recipients (RTR) have better outcomes and disease progression rates compared to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) when matched for the level of kidney function.MethodsWe analyzed data on 1762 patients with CKD (N = 872) and RTR (N = 890) over 16 years, applying

Arjang Djamali; Christina Kendziorski; Peter C. Brazy; Bryan N. Becker

2003-01-01

299

The spectrum of cardiovascular disease in children with predialysis chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in adults and children on chronic dialysis and in adults after kidney transplantation. Cardiovascular disease burden and cardiovascular mortality are high in adults with chronic kidney disease. The early development of cardiovascular disease risk factors, some of which are modifiable, largely explain this phenomenon. Limited data are available on the prevalence of

Blanche M Chavers; Charles A Herzog

2004-01-01

300

Prevalence of anemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: comparison to other chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary symptoms. The impaired lung function has long-term implications on metabolism and homeostasis of many organ systems such as the skeleton, heart, brain and skeletal muscle. The occurrence and prevalence of anemia in COPD has rarely been studied. Anemia is such a common and simple clinical finding that we may underestimate its physiological relevance in COPD. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the prevalence of anemia in a large population of COPD patients and to compare it to patients with chronic heart failure, renal insufficiency, cancer and asthma. A population of 7337 patients that was treated in the University Hospital Charité, Berlin, Germany, from 1996 to 2003 was subsetted according to the ICD-9/10 code of the discharge diagnoses into the above-mentioned diagnoses groups. The overall prevalence of anemia in COPD patients was 23.1%. It was comparable to the prevalence of anemia we found in patients with chronic heart failure (23.3%). Patients with renal insufficiency and cancer presented the highest anemia frequencies. The high prevalence of anemia in hospitalised COPD patients that were treated mostly for exacerbations gives evidence that anemia is also a comorbidity in COPD and may contribute to exercise limitation and dyspnoea. PMID:16242192

John, Matthias; Lange, Andre; Hoernig, Soeren; Witt, Christian; Anker, Stefan D

2006-08-28

301

[The diagnostic value of the aminophenazone breath test in chronic liver diseases].  

PubMed

In 230 patients (90 females, 140 males aged between 20 and 73 years, average age 47.8 years) with and without exception histologically and/or laparoscopically ascertained chronic liver diseases (degenerative damages of liver parenchyma in 45, fatty liver stage I in 28, fatty liver stage II in 36, cholangiohepatitis in 4, chronic persisting hepatitis in 31, chronic active hepatitis in 57 and liver cirrhosis in 59 cases) the incorporation of the aminophenazon breathing test in the so-called laboratory chemical liver spectrum was controlled. The restriction of the microsomal biotransformation established by means of the aminophenazon breathing test behaved parallel to the degree of severity of the disease. The aminophenazon breathing test was performed in the modification after Haustein and Schenker (1985). The largest delays in the decomposition were found in the complete cirrhotic transformation of the liver. The unequivocally pathologic result of the aminophenazon breathing test in severe irreversible damages of the liver parenchyma was confirmed by the formation of correlations with parameters of the conventional laboratory spectrum of the liver. Thus the restriction of the performance of the synthesis of the liver for coagulation factors and albumins was parallel to the loss of function of the mixed functional oxidases. In all patients with chronic liver diseases a connection between the value of the thromboplastin time (Quick's test) and result of the breathing test was found. Positive linear correlation between serum albumin and results of the breathing test could also be proved particularly in the group of the severe chronic inflammatory liver diseases. In chronic fibrosing liver diseases there were positive inverse correlations between gamma-globulin concentration in the serum and thymol turbidity test on the one hand as well as the aminophenazon breathing test on the other. There were no correlations between liver enzyme and aminophenazon breathing test. The results of the own investigations incorporate the aminophenazon breathing test as indicator of a severe liver cell damage which at the same time is established by the pathological result of the so-called synthesis parameters of the liver. PMID:1962492

Sensing, H; Treutler, J; Haustein, K O; Hüller, G

1991-09-01

302

The Microvasculature in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 have an increased risk of cardiac and other vascular disease. Here we examined the association of CKD 3 to 5 with small vessel caliber. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a cross-sectional observational study of 126 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and 126 age- and gender-matched hospital patients with CKD 1 or 2. Retinal vessel diameters were measured from digital fundus images by a trained grader using a computer-assisted method and summarized as the central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE). Results Patients with CKD 3 to 5 had a smaller mean CRAE and CRVE than hospital controls (139.4 ± 17.8 ?m versus 148.5 ± 16.0 ?m, P < 0.001; and 205.0 ± 30.7 ?m versus 217.4 ± 25.8 ?m, respectively; P = 0.001). CRAE and CRVE decreased progressively with each stage of renal failure CKD1–2 to 5 (P for trend = 0.08 and 0.04, respectively). CKD and hypertension were independent determinants of arteriolar narrowing after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking history. Patients with CKD 5 and diabetes had a larger mean CRAE and CRVE than nondiabetics (141.4 ± 14.9 ?m versus 132.9 ± 14.2 ?m; 211.1 ± 34.4 ?m versus 194.8 ± 23.8 ?m). Conclusions The microvasculature is narrowed in patients with reduced eGFR.

Ooi, Qi Lun; Tow, Foong Kien Newk-Fon Hey; Deva, Raj; Alias, Mohamad Afzal; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Y.; Mohamad, Nor; Colville, Deb; Hutchinson, Anastasia

2011-01-01

303

Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in severe forms, is commonly associated with multiple cognitive problems. Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA) is used to detect cognitive impairment evaluating several areas: visuospatial, memory, attention and fluency. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of stable COPD and exacerbation (AECOPD) phases on cognitive status using MoCA questionnaire. Methods We enrolled 39 patients (pts), smokers with COPD group D (30 stable and 9 in AECOPD) and 13 healthy subjects (control group), having similar level of education and no significant differences regarding the anthropometric measurements. We analyzed the differences in MoCA score between these three groups and also the correlation between this score and inflammatory markers. Results Patients with AECOPD had a significant (p<0.001) decreased MoCA score (14.6±3.4) compared to stable COPD (20.2±2.4) and controls (24.2±5.8). The differences between groups were more accentuated for the language abstraction and attention (p<0.001) and delayed recall and orientation (p<0.001) sub-topics. No significant variance of score was observed between groups regarding visuospatial and naming score (p?=?0.095). The MoCA score was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume (r?=?0.28) and reverse correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r?=??0.57), fibrinogen (r?=??0.58), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r?=??0.55) and with the partial pressure of CO2 (r?=??0.47). Conclusions According to this study, COPD significantly decreases the cognitive status in advanced and acute stages of the disease.

Crisan, Alexandru F.; Oancea, Cristian; Timar, Bogdan; Fira-Mladinescu, Ovidiu; Crisan, Alexandru; Tudorache, Voicu

2014-01-01

304

[Current trends in liver biopsy indications in chronic liver diseases].  

PubMed

Liver biopsy (LB) remains a major tool in chronic liver disease evaluation. Main current indications of LB in chronic liver disease are reviewed in this manuscript. Major development of non-invasive tools for evaluation of liver fibrosis led to decrease of LB indications in patients with chronic hepatitis C. LB is the only tool for exploration of necroinflammatory and fibrosis lesions in chronic hepatitis B as well as in autoimmune hepatitis. LB is the sole exam that can differentiate between bland steatosis and steatohepatitis in the setting of metabolic syndrome and to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis when corticosteroids are indicated. PMID:22425478

Cadranel, Jean-François; Nousbaum, Jean-Baptiste

2012-11-01

305

Venous disease and chronic oedema: treatment and patient concordance.  

PubMed

Compression therapy is the mainstay in the management of chronic venous disease, venous leg ulceration (VLU) and chronic oedema. The management of VLU alone is thought to cost a staggering £400 million per year and accounts for 13% of all district nursing visits. The predicted increase in elderly, obese and chronically ill patients will pose a further strain on already stretched resources. The impact of chronic venous and lymphovenous disease is also costly in terms of physical and psychological terms for patients. Adopting a preventive approach would reduce the financial, workload and symptomatic aspects of this condition. PMID:24820810

Todd, Marie

2014-05-01

306

Neurological complications of chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a critical and rapidly growing global health problem. Neurological complications occur in almost all patients with severe CKD, potentially affecting all levels of the nervous system, from the CNS through to the PNS. Cognitive impairment, manifesting typically as a vascular dementia, develops in a considerable proportion of patients on dialysis, and improves with renal transplantation. Patients on dialysis are generally weaker, less active and have reduced exercise capacity compared with healthy individuals. Peripheral neuropathy manifests in almost all such patients, leading to weakness and disability. Better dialysis strategies and dietary modification could improve outcomes of transplantation if implemented before surgery. For patients with autonomic neuropathy, specific treatments, including sildenafil for impotence and midodrine for intradialytic hypotension, are effective and well tolerated. Exercise training programs and carnitine supplementation might be beneficial for neuromuscular complications, and restless legs syndrome in CKD responds to dopaminergic agonists and levodopa treatment. The present Review dissects the pathophysiology of neurological complications related to CKD and highlights the spectrum of therapies currently available. PMID:19724248

Krishnan, Arun V; Kiernan, Matthew C

2009-10-01

307

Resistant Hypertension in Nondialysis Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above the target of less than 140/90?mmHg in the general population and 130/80?mmHg in people with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in spite of the use of at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic or as BP that reaches the target by means of four or more drugs. In CKD, RH is a common condition due to a combination of factors including sodium retention, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, and enhanced activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Before defining the hypertensive patient as resistant it is mandatory to exclude the so-called “pseudoresistance.” This condition, which refers to the apparent failure to reach BP target in spite of an appropriate antihypertensive treatment, is mainly caused by white coat hypertension that is prevalent (30%) in CKD patients. Recently we have demonstrated that “true” RH represents an independent risk factor for renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

Stanzione, Giovanna; Conte, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

308

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an urban Mexican population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an urban Mexican population.BackgroundThe present study was primarily designed to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a Mexican urban population residing in Mexico and to evaluate certain biologic and socioeconomic conditions as risk factors for the development of renal disease.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included 3564 patients of either gender

DANTE AMATO; CLETO ALVAREZ-AGUILAR; RUTILA CASTAÑEDA-LIMONES; ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ; MARCELA AVILA-DIAZ; FRANCISCO ARREOLA; ANEL GOMEZ; HIRAM BALLESTEROS; RAQUEL BECERRIL; RAMON PANIAGUA

2005-01-01

309

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among chronic hemodialysis patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between several traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and the presence or history of cardiovascular events in 936 hemodialysis patients enrolled in

Alfred K. Cheung; Mark J. Sarnak; Guofen Yan; Johanna T. Dwyer; Robert J. Heyka; Michael V. Rocco; Brendan P. Teehan; Andrew S. Levey

2000-01-01

310

Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease.  

PubMed

Considerable knowledge has accumulated in recent decades concerning the significance of physical activity in the treatment of a number of diseases, including diseases that do not primarily manifest as disorders of the locomotive apparatus. In this review we present the evidence for prescribing exercise therapy in the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related disorders (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity), heart and pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, intermittent claudication), muscle, bone and joint diseases (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome) and cancer, depression, asthma and type 1 diabetes. For each disease, we review the effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis, on symptoms specific to the diagnosis, on physical fitness or strength and on quality of life. The possible mechanisms of action are briefly examined and the principles for prescribing exercise therapy are discussed, focusing on the type and amount of exercise and possible contraindications. PMID:16451303

Pedersen, B K; Saltin, B

2006-02-01

311

77 FR 43092 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Chronic Disease...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program Standardized Data...the Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program. DATES: Submit...through Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) Programs''...

2012-07-23

312

Pesticides and human chronic diseases: evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives.  

PubMed

Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. PMID:23402800

Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-04-15

313

Degenerative Scoliosis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative lumbar scoliosis is a coronal deviation of the spine that is prevalent in the elderly population. Although the\\u000a etiology is unclear, it is associated with progressive and asymmetric degeneration of the disc, facet joints, and other structural\\u000a spinal elements typically leading to neural element compression. Clinical presentation varies and is frequently associated\\u000a with axial back pain and neurogenic claudication.

Suhel Kotwal; Matthias Pumberger; Alex Hughes; Federico Girardi

314

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using a Double Cylindrical Cage versus an Anterior Cervical Plating System with Iliac Crest Autografts for the Treatment of Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is often complicated by subsidence, pseudoarthrosis, kyphosis, and graft donor site morbidities. To decrease the occurrence of these complications, various types of cages have been developed. We designed this retrospective study to analyze and compare the efficacy and outcomes of ACDF using double cylindrical cages (DCC) (BK Medical, Seoul, Korea) versus an anterior cervical plating system with autogenous iliac crest grafts. Methods Forty-eight patients were treated with autograft and plating (plate group), and 48 with DCC group from October 2007 to October 2011. We analyzed construct length, cervical lordotic curvarture, the thickness of the prevertebral soft tissue, segmental instability, and clinical outcomes. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the decrease in construct length or cervical lodortic curvature at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The prevertebral soft tissue was thinner in the DCC group than the plate group immediately after surgery and at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The difference in interspinous distance on flexion-extension was shorter in the plate group than the DCC group at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. However, there was no significant difference in this distance between the two groups at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion A double cylindrical cage is a good alternative for fusion in patients with cervical degenerative diseases; the surgical method is relatively simple, allows good synostosis, has less associated prevertebral soft tissue swelling, and complications associated with autografting can be avoided.

Kim, Seong Joon

2014-01-01

315

Long-Term Follow-Up Radiologic and Clinical Evaluation of Cylindrical Cage for Anterior Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Various procedures have been introduced for anterior interbody fusion in degenerative cervical disc disease including plate systems with autologous iliac bone, carbon cages, and cylindrical cages. However, except for plate systems, the long-term results of other methods have not been established. In the present study, we evaluated radiologic findings for cylindrical cervical cages over long-term follow up periods. Methods During 4 year period, radiologic findings of 138 patients who underwent anterior cervical fusion with cylindrical cage were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, and 36 postoperative months using plain radiographs. We investigated subsidence, osteophyte formation (anterior and posterior margin), cage direction change, kyphotic angle, and bone fusion on each radiograph. Results Among the 138 patients, a minimum of 36 month follow-up was achieved in 99 patients (mean follow-up : 38.61 months) with 115 levels. Mean disc height was 7.32 mm for preoperative evaluations, 9.00 for immediate postoperative evaluations, and 4.87 more than 36 months after surgery. Osteophytes were observed in 107 levels (93%) of the anterior portion and 48 levels (41%) of the posterior margin. The mean kyphotic angle was 9.87° in 35 levels showing cage directional change. There were several significant findings : 1) related subsidence [T-score (p=0.039) and anterior osteophyte (p=0.009)], 2) accompanying posterior osteophyte and outcome (p=0.05). Conclusion Cage subsidence and osteophyte formation were radiologically observed in most cases. Low T-scores may have led to subsidence and kyphosis during bone fusion although severe neurologic aggravation was not found, and therefore cylindrical cages should be used in selected cases.

Kim, Suhyeong; Yi, Hyeon-Joong; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Yoon Kyoung

2012-01-01

316

Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Efficacy in Retinal Degenerative Diseases of Lens Epithelium-derived Growth Factor Fragment (LEDGF1–326), a Novel Therapeutic Protein*  

PubMed Central

For vision-threatening retinitis pigmentosa and dry age-related macular degeneration, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments. We identified, biosynthesized, purified, and characterized lens epithelium-derived growth factor fragment (LEDGF1–326) as a novel protein therapeutic. LEDGF1–326 was produced at about 20 mg/liter of culture when expressed in the Escherichia coli system, with about 95% purity and aggregate-free homogeneous population with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 9 ± 1 nm. The free energy of unfolding of LEDGF1–326 was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal mol?1, and melting temperature was 44.8 ± 0.2 °C. LEDGF1–326 increased human retinal pigment epithelial cell viability from 48.3 ± 5.6 to 119.3 ± 21.1% in the presence of P23H mutant rhodopsin-mediated aggregation stress. LEDGF1–326 also increased retinal pigment epithelial cell FluoSphere uptake to 140 ± 10%. Eight weeks after single intravitreal injection in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, LEDGF1–326 increased the b-wave amplitude significantly from 9.4 ± 4.6 to 57.6 ± 8.8 ?V for scotopic electroretinogram and from 10.9 ± 5.6 to 45.8 ± 15.2 ?V for photopic electroretinogram. LEDGF1–326 significantly increased the retinal outer nuclear layer thickness from 6.34 ± 1.6 to 11.7 ± 0.7 ?m. LEDGF1–326 is a potential new therapeutic agent for treating retinal degenerative diseases.

Baid, Rinku; Upadhyay, Arun K.; Shinohara, Toshimichi; Kompella, Uday B.

2013-01-01

317

Chronic Lyme disease: the controversies and the science.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease has been embroiled in controversy for many years. This is exacerbated by the lack of a clinical or microbiologic definition, and the commonality of chronic symptoms in the general population. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease is the appropriate diagnosis for only a minority of patients in whom it is suspected. In prospective studies of Lyme disease, very few patients go on to have a chronic syndrome dominated by subjective complaints. There is no systematic evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiology of Lyme disease, can be identified in patients with chronic symptoms following treated Lyme disease. Multiple prospective trials have revealed that prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor alleviate such post-Lyme syndromes. Extended courses of intravenous antibiotics have resulted in severe adverse events, which in light of their lack of efficacy, make them contraindicated. PMID:21810051

Lantos, Paul M

2011-07-01

318

Periodontal Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: A Review  

PubMed Central

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder and being so it has been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and malnutrition. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients [National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Annual Data Report, 2010]. A recent scientific statement released by the American Heart Association [Lockhart et al.: Circulation 2012;125:2520-2544] claims that, even though evidence exists to believe that periodontal interventions result in a reduction in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, there is little evidence that those interventions prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease or modify the outcomes. In this review, we discuss the periodontal findings and their association with an increased prevalence of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients and CKD.

Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh K.; Nolph, Karl D.; Ringdahl, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

319

Periodontal disease in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease patients: a review.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder and being so it has been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and malnutrition. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients [National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Annual Data Report, 2010]. A recent scientific statement released by the American Heart Association [Lockhart et al.: Circulation 2012;125:2520-2544] claims that, even though evidence exists to believe that periodontal interventions result in a reduction in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, there is little evidence that those interventions prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease or modify the outcomes. In this review, we discuss the periodontal findings and their association with an increased prevalence of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients and CKD. PMID:23802000

Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh K; Nolph, Karl D; Ringdahl, Bruce E

2013-04-01

320

[Autoimmunity in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

For years, smoking induced inflammatory reaction, comprised mainly of neutrophils and macrophages, has been accepted to be the major component in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New developments in molecular and cell biology have provided scientists with new knowledge and understanding of inflammatory processes in lung. Recent reports have underlined the role of autoimmunity and T lymphocytes as a potential important factor, which takes place in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This article reviews potential mechanism of T cell mediated immune response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:15827384

Urboniene, Daiva; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Sitkauskiene, Brigita

2005-01-01

321

Reporting of ethnicity in research on chronic disease: update  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the inclusion of ethnicity and race as variables in current, leading edge research on chronic disease and its risk factors. Of 100 randomly selected original research articles published in high?impact journals in 2005, 85% did not report either a definition of ethnicity or its conceptualisation in terms of theoretical reasoning, and 98% did not report an actual measurement item. Ethnicity and race remain non?standardised and largely underdescribed variables in research on chronic disease. This represents an important loss of opportunity to articulate and test hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying ethnic group differences in chronic disease.

O'Loughlin, J; Dugas, E; Maximova, K; Kishchuk, N

2006-01-01

322

Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system.  

PubMed

Accelerated cardiovascular disease is a frequent complication of renal disease. Chronic kidney disease promotes hypertension and dyslipidemia, which in turn can contribute to the progression of renal failure. Furthermore, diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal failure in developed countries. Together, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are major risk factors for the development of endothelial dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory mediators are often elevated and the renin-angiotensin system is frequently activated in chronic kidney disease, which likely contributes through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species to the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in chronic kidney disease. Promoters of calcification are increased and inhibitors of calcification are reduced, which favors metastatic vascular calcification, an important participant in vascular injury associated with end-stage renal disease. Accelerated atherosclerosis will then lead to increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Consequently, subjects with chronic renal failure are exposed to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of cardiovascular events. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease are major considerations in the management of individuals with chronic kidney disease. PMID:17606856

Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Lipman, Mark L; Mann, Johannes F E

2007-07-01

323

Comparison of chronic analgesic drugs prevalence in Parkinson's disease, other chronic diseases and the general population.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently experienced pain. Nevertheless, there are no epidemiological data about frequency of pain in PD. We compare pain prevalence using analgesic prescription in PD patients, in the general population and in two samples of painful patients: diabetics and osteoarthritis patients in France. Data were obtained from the French System of Health Insurance for the year 2005. Medications (antiparkinsonian, antidiabetics drugs and osteoarthritis drugs) were used for identification of PD, diabetic and osteoarthritis patients. We estimated the prevalence of analgesic drugs prescription (at least one analgesic drug) and the prevalence of chronic analgesic drugs prescription (more than 90 DDD of analgesic drug). The study included 11,466 PD patients. PD patients significantly received more prescription of analgesics than the general population (82% versus 77%,) and fewer than patients with osteoarthritis (82% versus 90%). No significant difference was found between PD and diabetic patients. The chronic prescription of analgesic drugs was more prevalent in PD patients (33%) than in the general population (20%) and in diabetic patients (26%) and similar to that in osteoarthritis patients. PD patients were more exposed than the general population and diabetics to opiates, acetaminophen, and adjuvant analgesics chronic use. PMID:19062167

Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Grolleau, Sabrina; Thalamas, Claire; Bourrel, Robert; Allaria-Lapierre, Valérie; Loï, Robert; Micallef-Roll, Joelle; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

2009-01-01

324

Patient Experiences of Depression and Anxiety with Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease, but remain undertreated despite significant negative consequences on patient health. A number of clinical groups have developed recommendations for depression screening practices in the chronic disease population. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to review empirical qualitative research on the experiences of patients with chronic disease (e.g., COPD, diabetes, heart disease, stroke) and comorbid depression or anxiety, and to highlight the implications of the screening and management of anxiety and/or depression on chronic disease outcomes. Review Methods We performed literature searches for studies published from January 2002 to May 2012. We applied a qualitative mega-filter to nine condition-specific search filters. Titles and abstracts were reviewed by two reviewers and, for the studies that met the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across relevant published primary research studies. Qualitative meta-synthesis produced a synthesis of evidence that both retained the original meaning of the authors and offered a new, integrative interpretation of the phenomenon through a process of comparing and contrasting findings across studies. Results The findings of 20 primary qualitative studies were synthesized. Patients tended to experience their chronic conditions and anxiety or depression as either independent or inter-related (i.e., the chronic disease lead to depression/anxiety, the depression/anxiety lead to the chronic disease, or the two conditions exacerbated each other). Potential barriers to screening for depression or anxiety were also identified. Limitations A wider array of issues might have been captured if the analysis had focused on broader psychological responses to the chronic disease experience. However, given the objective to highlight implications for screening for anxiety or depression, the more narrow focus seemed most relevant. Conclusions Chronic disease and anxiety or depression can be independent or inter-related. Patients may be reluctant to acknowledge depression or anxiety as a separate condition, or may not recognize that the conditions are separate because of overlapping physical symptoms. More qualitative research is needed to specifically address screening for depression or anxiety. Plain Language Summary Depression is a common complication of chronic disease. It may worsen the disease, and it may also affect the self-management of the disease. Screening for depression earlier, and then treating it, may reduce distress and improve symptoms of the chronic disease, leading to better quality of life.

DeJean, D; Giacomini, M; Vanstone, M; Brundisini, F

2013-01-01

325

Patient Self-management of Chronic Disease in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic conditions make day-to-day decisions about—self- manage—their illnesses. This reality introduces a new chronic disease para- digm: the patient-professional partnership, involving collaborative care and self-management education. Self-management education complements tra- ditional patient education in supporting patients to live the best possible quality of life with their chronic condition. Whereas traditional patient edu- cation offers information and technical skills,

Thomas Bodenheimer; Kate Lorig; Halsted Holman; Kevin Grumbach

2005-01-01

326

Modulation of Lymphocyte Proliferation by Antioxidants in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) can result in chronic granulomatous inflammation characterized by the presence of Be-specific CD41 T cells. Studies show that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders. Objectives: We hypothesized that Be-induced oxidative stress mod- ulates the proliferation of Be-specific CD41 T cells. Methods: Thirty-three subjects with chronic beryllium disease (CBD),

Dave R. Dobis; Richard T. Sawyer; May M. Gillespie; Jie Huang; Lee S. Newman; Lisa A. Maier; Brian J. Day

2008-01-01

327

[Disorders of the larynx and chronic inflammatory diseases].  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory diseases including tuberculosis, rheumatic disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegeners's granulomatosis, relapsing polychondritis) and reflux disease are considered as systemic diseases, and may affect the larynx. The clinical symptoms are often unspecific, leading to prolonged intervals to diagnosis. Solid and haematological tumours should be considered in differential diagnosis and may require bioptic sampling. Treatment may require interdisciplinary approach. PMID:23044789

Pickhard, A; Smith, E; Rottscholl, R; Brosch, S; Reiter, R

2012-12-01

328

Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

329

Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is consistency in the findings that relate the acute increases in urban air pollution (mainly the particulate matter) and the short-term health effects (i.e. mortality and hospital admissions) on patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beyond the acute effects, a relevant public health and scientific question is to what extent chronic exposure to air pollution is related

J. Sunyer

2001-01-01

330

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - quick-relief drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... al. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). https://www.icsi.org/_asset/yw83gh/COPD.pdf. Accessed May 5, 2014. Balkissoon ...

331

Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Chronic Respiratory Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of several general and select populations were studied to elucidate the relationship of severe and partial alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency to chronic pulmonary disease. Methods used included respiratory questionnaire, pulmonary function tests and i...

R. H. Schwartz

1976-01-01

332

Hyperuricemia and Urate Excretion in Chronic Renal Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standard renal clearances were performed in 92 subjects, comparing uric acid excretion, glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow in normal people and people with proven chronic renal disease with normal and sub-normal glomerular filtration. Despite com...

J. J. McPhaul

1967-01-01

333

[Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: the positions of sevelamer].  

PubMed

The paper shows the role of phosphate binders in the correction of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in chronic kidney disease. The results of clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of sevelamer are discussed. PMID:23875200

Fomin, V V; Shilov, E M; Svistunov, A A; Milovanov, Iu S

2013-01-01

334

Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Objective The objective of this evidence-based review was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Technology Pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually tailored and designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy. Exercise training is the cornerstone of pulmonary re

2012-01-01

335

Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Noninvasive ventilation is used for COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. Chronic respiratory failure in COPD patients may be due to the inability of the pulmonary system to coordinate ventilation, leading to adverse arterial level

2012-01-01

336

Chronic hypoxia as a mechanism of progression of chronic kidney diseases: from hypothesis to novel therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chronic kidney disease, functional impairment correlates with tubulointerstitial fibrosis characterised by inflammation, accumulation of extracellular matrix, tubular atrophy and rarefaction of peritubular capillaries. Loss of the microvasculature implies a hypoxic milieu and suggested an important role for hypoxia when the “chronic hypoxia hypothesis” was proposed a decade ago as an explanation for the progressive nature of fibrosis. Recent data

Leon G Fine; Jill T Norman

2008-01-01

337

Systematic Review of the Chronic Care Model in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevention and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Implementation of the chronic care model (CCM) has been shown to be an effective preventative strategy to improve outcomes in diabetes mellitus, de- pression, and congestive heart failure, but data are lack- ing regarding the effectiveness of this model in prevent- ing complications in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases

Sandra G. Adams; Paulla K. Smith; Patrick F. Allan; Antonio Anzueto; Jacqueline A. Pugh; John E. Cornell

2007-01-01

338

Chronic Disease Management: What Will It Take To Improve Care for Chronic Illness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

M eeting the complex needs of patients with chronic illness or impairment is the single greatest challenge facing organized medical practice. Usual care is not doing the job; dozens of surveys and audits have revealed that sizable proportions of chronically ill patients are not receiving effective therapy, have poor disease con- trol, and are unhappy with their care (1). Results

Edward H. Wagner

1998-01-01

339

Biomarkers of inflammation and progression of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomarkers of inflammation and progression of chronic kidney disease.BackgroundChronic kidney disease is associated with higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Statins have anti-inflammatory properties and may attenuate loss of kidney function. Although inflammation may mediate progressive renal injury, the relation between statin use, markers of inflammation, and the rate of kidney function loss has not been elucidated. We examined the association

MARCELLO TONELLI; FRANK SACKS; MARC PFEFFER; GIAN S JHANGRI; GARY CURHAN

2005-01-01

340

Prognosis and life expectancy in chronic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to define prognosis and life expectancy in patients with chronic liver disease of different etiologies and to relate them to an age- and sex-matched normal population. After a follow-up of 15 years, life expectancy of 620 patients with chronic liver disease was retrospectively calculated and compared with an age- and sex-matched normal population.

Albert Propst; Theresa Propst; Günther Zangerl; Dietmar Öfner; Gert Judmaier; Wolfgang Vogel

1995-01-01

341

Physical activity, genes, and lifetime predisposition to chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini-review summarizes the main associations between physical activity and chronic diseases and discusses the basic concepts\\u000a related to the role of genetic factors in studies evaluating the effects of physical activity\\/exercise therapy on chronic\\u000a disease prevention\\/treatment during the life course. Many observational cohort studies have shown that high physical activity\\u000a during young adulthood or middle age is associated with

Urho M. Kujala

2011-01-01

342

Increased Serum Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Chronic Renal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) was significantly elevated in 16 of 48 patients with various types of chronic renal disease not on hemodialysis [45.6 ± (SD)16.7 nmol\\/min\\/ml, p < 0.001] and in 17 of 52 patients with chronic renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis (43.2 ± 13.8, p < 0.001) in comparison with 58 healthy adult controls (32.2 ± 9.8). There was

Emanuel Silverstein; John Brunswick; Sreepada Rao; Joan Friedland

1984-01-01

343

Pulmonary vascular involvement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary vascular involvement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N.F. Voelkel, C.D. Cool. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive lung disease affects the entire lung, not just the airways. Although pulmonary hypertension (PH) has long been recognised in a subset of patients with COLD, the important pathophysiological questions remain unanswered. Oxygen supplementation, however, has been shown to blunt the exercise-induced

N. F. Voelkel; C. D. Cool

2003-01-01

344

OXIDATIVE STRESS RELATED APOPTOSIS IN SMOKERS AND CHRONIC LUNG DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke contains various carcinogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that cigarette smoking causes several chronic lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). There are mul- tiple markers used for oxidative damage\\/stress in smokers such as urinary 8- hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), serum hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and H2O2 in breath condensate.

Ratana Banjerdpongchai

2006-01-01

345

Metagenomic Applications and the Potential for Understanding Chronic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Liver fibrosis is characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins that occurs in chronic liver disease\\u000a of any origin. Cirrhosis occurs with the development of regenerating nodules of hepatocytes. Patients with decompensated liver\\u000a cirrhosis have a poor prognosis, and liver transplantation is often necessary. There are no effective antifibrotic treatments\\u000a for patients with chronic liver diseases. Intestinal dysbiosis

Bernd Schnabl

346

Neutrophil adherence in chronic liver disease and fulminant hepatic failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal adherence of neutrophils to nylon fibre in vitro was found in blood from 17 of 51 (33.3%) patients with chronic or acute liver disease of different aetiologies. Patients with chronic liver disease had a much wider range of values than the controls and the sub-group with alcoholic cirrhosis had significantly higher adherence (72.4 +\\/- SD 6.2%) than that of

M Altin; I A Rajkovic; R D Hughes; R Williams

1983-01-01

347

Advanced MRI Methods for Assessment of Chronic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

MRI plays an increasingly important role for assessment of patients with chronic liver disease. MRI has numerous advantages, including lack of ionizing radiation and the possibility of performing multiparametric imaging. With recent advances in technology, advanced MRI methods such as diffusion-, perfusion-weighted MRI, MR elastography, chemical shift based fat-water separation and MR spectroscopy can now be applied to liver imaging. We will review the respective roles of these techniques for assessment of chronic liver disease.

Taouli, Bachir; Ehman, Richard L.; Reeder, Scott B.

2010-01-01

348

Chronic disease trends due to excess body weight in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Trends in chronic diseases provide insights into strategies required to improve population health. The authors determined prevalence and multiple-adjusted population attributable risk (PAR) estimates of chronic diseases because of life- style factors among Australian adults between 1989-90 and 2004-5, accounting for demographic factors. Between 1989-90 and 2004-5, prevalence increased for diabetes (3.8-6.0%, P < 0.001) and high cholesterol (11.3-13.9%,

E. Atlantis; K. Lange; G. A. Wittert

2009-01-01

349

Chronic kidney disease in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by either absence or abnormalities of the mullerian structures. It is a rare disorder, resulting in complete or partial agenesis of the uterus and cervix and primary amenorrhea. It may rarely be associated with anomalies of the urinary tract, ovaries and skeleton. Renal failure secondary to chronic tubulo-interstitial disease has been reported. We report a case of MRKH syndrome presenting late with chronic kidney disease.

Wani, M. M.; Mir, S. A.

2010-01-01

350

Chronic kidney disease in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome.  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by either absence or abnormalities of the mullerian structures. It is a rare disorder, resulting in complete or partial agenesis of the uterus and cervix and primary amenorrhea. It may rarely be associated with anomalies of the urinary tract, ovaries and skeleton. Renal failure secondary to chronic tubulo-interstitial disease has been reported. We report a case of MRKH syndrome presenting late with chronic kidney disease. PMID:21206686

Wani, M M; Mir, S A

2010-10-01

351

Decrease in Irisin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic kidney disease have abnormal energy expenditure and metabolism. The mechanisms underlying altered energy expenditure in uremia are unknown and remain to be elucidated. Irisin is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1-?–dependent myokine, and it increases energy expenditure in the absence of changes in food intake or activity. We hypothesize that chronic kidney disease patients have altered irisin levels. We measured resting irisin levels in 38 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease and in 19 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Plasma irisin levels were significantly decreased in chronic kidney disease patients (58.59%; 95% CI 47.9%–69.2%, p<0.0001). The decrease in irisin levels was inversely correlated with the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Further association analysis revealed that irisin level is independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that chronic kidney disease patients have lower than normal irisin levels at rest. Furthermore, irisin may play a major role in affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and abnormal energy expenditure in chronic kidney disease patients.

Wen, Ming-Shien; Wang, Chao-Yung; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Hung, Kuo-Chun

2013-01-01

352

Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Objective The objective of this analysis was to conduct an evidence-based assessment of home telehealth technologies for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in order to inform recommendations regarding the access and provision of these services in Ontario. This analysis was one of several analyses undertaken to evaluate interventions for COPD. The perspective of this assessment was that of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, a provincial payer of me

Franek, J

2012-01-01

353

Direct medical costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: chronic bronchitis and emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we aimed to estimate direct medical costs of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by disease type; chronic bronchitis and emphysema.This study estimates direct costs in 1996 dollars using a prevalence approach and both aggregate and micro-costing.A societal perspective is taken using prevalence, and multiple national, state and local data sources are used to estimate health-care utilization and

L WILSON; E. B DEVINE; K SO

2000-01-01

354

Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster

2009-01-01

355

Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease, which is partly explained by the fact that 40–70% of patients receiving dialysis have significant coronary artery disease. Recent clinical studies have shown that lower serum magnesium (Mg) levels are associated with vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Mehmet Kanbay; David Goldsmith; Mehtap Erkmen Uyar; Faruk Turgut; Adrian Covic

2010-01-01

356

Patients, populations and policy: patient outcomes in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease represents an interesting illustration for evaluating an epidemic of chronic illness, the impact of care processes and technology on health outcomes, the impact of financial incentives and cost containment on health outcomes, and the choices society must consider in responding to a chronic illness. The evidence suggests that strong economic pressures exist in the care of chronic kidney disease and that cost containment is important. The results in large part reflect the impact of economic pressures on clinical decision making in the absence of good evidence on outcomes. To improve clinical decision making we need valid evidence linking specific processes of care to patient outcomes. Specific processes amenable to study include the provision of preventive services, physician and nurse technical and interpersonal care and adherence to clinical practice guidelines. The ESRD Quality Study (EQUAL) currently underway and supported by the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, may help to guide physicians and centers in caring for their patients with chronic kidney disease. This investigation examines the relation between process of care and outcomes and expands outcomes measure to include disease-specific quality-of-life measures and patient satisfaction and accounts for case mix using the Index of Co-Existent Disease, a measure of the extent of different comorbid diseases as well as their severity (18,19,20). Better data on how processes of care are linked to health outcomes can inform decision making and allow educated cost cutting and quality maintenance. PMID:11419454

Powe, N R

2001-01-01

357

Geographic Variation in the Surgical Treatment of Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease: American Board of Orthopedic Surgery (ABOS) Quality Improvement Initiative; Part II Candidates  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective case series Objective To examine and document the change in rates and the geographic variation in procedure type and utilization of plating by orthopaedic surgeons for anterior cervical discectomy--fusion (ACDF). Summary of Background Age- and gender-adjusted rates of cervical spine surgery have not increased but the rate of cervical spinal fusion has, accounting for 41% of all fusion procedures in 2004. Methods Records were selected from the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons Part II examination from 1999–2008. CPT and ICD-9-CM codes were used to determine utilization of structural allograft, autograft/interbody devices, and anterior cervical plating over time and within geographic region. Main outcome measures were physician workforce, and rates and variation of procedure types. Results From 1999 to 2008, the number of self-declared orthopaedic spine surgeon candidates increased 24%. Over this period, the annual number of discectomies with fusions for degenerative cervical disc disease increased by 67%, while the number of such operations per surgeon operating on at least one such case increased 48% (p=0.018). Interbody device (0% to 31%; p<0.0001), anterior cervical plating (39% to 79%; p<0.0001), and allograft (14% to 59%; p<0.0001) use increased, while autograft use decreased (86% to 10%; p<0.0001). The Southwest and Southeast were more likely than the Midwest to use interbody devices (OR 2.42 and 1.66 respectively). The Southwest and Northeast were more likely than the Midwest to use autograft (OR 1.55 and 1.49). The Southwest, Northeast, and Southeast were less likely to use allograft than the Midwest (OR 0.408, 0.742, and 0.770). The Northeast was less likely and the Southeast more likely than the Midwest to utilize anterior cervical plating (OR 0.67 and 1.33). Surgical complications were more often associated with autograft compared to allograft (OR 1.61). Conclusions From 1999–2008, the number of orthopaedic surgeon candidates performing spine surgery has increased. These surgeons are performing more fusions, and utilizing more structural allografts, interbody devices and/or anterior cervical plates. Regional variations also remain in the type of constructs utilized.

McGuire, Kevin J.; Harrast, John; Herkowitz, Harry; Weinstein, James N.

2012-01-01

358

Mobile technologies and the holistic management of chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Ageing populations and unhealthy lifestyles have led to some chronic conditions such as diabetes and heart disease reaching epidemic proportions in many developed nations. This paper explores the potential of mobile technologies to improve this situation. The pervasive nature of these technologies can contribute holistically across the whole spectrum of chronic care ranging from public information access and awareness, through monitoring and treatment of chronic disease, to support for patient carers. A related study to determine the perceptions of healthcare providers to m-health confirmed the view that attitudes were likely to be more important barriers to progress than technology. A key finding concerned the importance of seamless and integrated m-health processes across the spectrum of chronic disease management. PMID:19008280

Mirza, Farhaan; Norris, Tony; Stockdale, Rosemary

2008-12-01

359

Chronic liver inflammation: clinical implications beyond alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to alcoholic liver disease, including hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and chronic inflammation can simultaneously cause systemic medical illness. Recent evidence suggests that alcoholic liver disease is a predictor for liver-related diseases, cardiovascular disease, immunologic disease, and bone disease. Chronic inflammation in alcoholic liver disease is mediated by a direct inflammatory cascade from the alcohol detoxification process and an indirect inflammatory cascade in response to gut microflora-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease and its related systemic illness is characterized by oxidative stress, activation of the immune cascade, and gut-liver interactions. Integrative therapeutic strategies for alcoholic liver disease include abstaining from alcohol consumption; general anti-inflammatories such as glucocorticoid, pentoxifylline, and tumour necrosis factor-? antagonist; antioxidants such as N- acetylcysteine; gut microflora and LPS modulators such as rifaximin and/or probiotics. This review focuses on the impact of chronic liver inflammation on systemic health problems and several potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24605015

Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree

2014-03-01

360

Cost Analysis of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programmes Being Delivered in South Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Chronic disease accounts for the majority of healthcare costs. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of chronic disease. Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the cost of delivering the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in order to…

Page, Timothy F.; Palmer, Richard C.

2014-01-01

361

Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause versus treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction (including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity); and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life. PMID:23798298

Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Christian K; Laye, Matthew J

2012-04-01

362

Mouse exophthalmic chronic orbital inflammatory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mollicutes are cell wall deficient bacteria which may be overlooked or confused with viruses because of indistinct light microscopic morphology, poor staining, difficulty in cultivation, and the ability to pass 0.450 micron filters. As they have a distinctive ultrastructural appearance they can be identified using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]. Using TEM vitreous leucocytes from chronic endogenous uveitis patients may demonstrate

Emil Wirostko; Lewis Johnson; William Wirostko

1988-01-01

363

Anti-inflammatory treatments for chronic diseases: a review.  

PubMed

Inflammation is viewed as one of the major causes for the development of different diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and CNS related diseases such as depression and parkinson's disease; and this fervent phenomenon provides space for understanding different inflammatory markers. Increasing evidences have elucidated the outcome of inflammatory pathways dysregulation resulting in many symptoms of chronic diseases. The detection of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B), STAT and their gene products such as COX-2, cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors has laid molecular foundation for the important role of inflammation in chronic diseases in which the NF-?B is reported as a major mediator which makes a possible way for the development of new therapeutic approaches using synthetic and natural compounds that might eventually decrease the prevalence of these diseases. Even if many inflammatory markers like TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) are reported to be the major key factors with proved role in several inflammatory diseases, IL-1 and TNF-? are the important cytokines that can induce the expression of NF-?B which is the potential target in these inflammatory diseases. This review aims to explore and summarize that how some drugs and natural compounds show their modulatory activity in inflammatory pathways and chronic inflammatory markers in these inflammatory diseases. PMID:23876224

Laveti, Durgaprasad; Kumar, Manoj; Hemalatha, R; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Naidu, V G M; Talla, Venu; Verma, Vinod; Kaur, Navrinder; Nagpal, Ravinder

2013-10-01

364

Bisphenol A in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The estrogenic endocrine-disrupting substance bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used as a starting material for a variety of consumer plastic products including dialyzer materials. The present study was performed to explore plasma BPA levels in patients with impaired renal function and to investigate if dialyzers differing in elutable BPA influence plasma levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. In vitro BPA was eluted from high-flux polyethersulfone (PUREMA H, referred as PUR-H), high-flux polysulfone (referred as HF-PSu), and low-flux polysulfone (referred as LF-PSu) dialyzers by recirculation with water for 180?min. In a cross-sectional clinical study, plasma BPA levels of outpatients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) from four different centers were determined. Furthermore, in a prospective, randomized, and crossover setting, 18 maintenance dialysis patients were subjected successively to 4 weeks of thrice-weekly hemodialysis with each LF-PSu, HF-PSu, and PUR-H. In addition, the fractions of protein-bound and free BPA were determined in a subset of dialysis patients. The mass of BPA eluted from the blood compartments in vitro under aqueous conditions varied for the three dialyzers being very low for PUR-H (6.2?±?2.5?ng; P?

Krieter, Detlef H; Canaud, Bernard; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Rodriguez, Annie; Morgenroth, Andreas; von Appen, Kai; Dragoun, Gerd-Peter; Wanner, Christoph

2013-03-01

365

Hodgkin's disease developing after spontaneous remission of chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 71-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed 27 years ago. Initially, the disease was staged as Rai II and the patient suffered from secondary immunoglobulin deficiency. Nevertheless, no treatment was necessary at that time. Because of disease progression a single course of chemotherapy was given in 1984. During the following year there was a constant decline of

H. H. Schmidt; H. Sill; M. Eibl; C. Beham-Schmid; G. Höfler; O. A. Haas; G. J. Krejs; W. Linkesch

1995-01-01

366

Surrogates of Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a leading cause of disability and death in the United States. The identification and amelioration of systemic manifestations of COPD may improve long-term outcomes, including survival. These systemic manifestations often correlate with increased risk of mortality and may be considered surrogates of disease severity. Several potential clinical surrogates are evaluated, including airflow obstruction, dyspnea,

Claudia G. Cote

2006-01-01

367

Nutritional and metabolic modulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the perspective for nutritional modulation of systemic impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is discussed. Progressive weight loss is characterised by disease-specific elevated energy requirements unbalanced by dietary intake. Weight gain per se can be achieved by caloric supplementation while future studies may prove efficacy of amino acid modulation to stimulate protein synthesis and

A. M. W. J. Schols

2003-01-01

368

Direct Renin Inhibitor: Aliskiren in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and its increased complications such as hypertension (HT) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Previous studies suggested that aliskiren a direct renin inhibitor, blocks RAAS and may be effective for the management of CKD and its complications. This review focuses on the effects of aliskiren on CKD.

Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Kusano, Eiji

2012-01-01

369

Beta blockers in the management of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic nervous system modulates renal function through its receptors namely ?1 (cardiac output and renin release), ?1 (systemic and renovascular constriction), and ?2 renovascular dilation. Sympathetic overactivity is commonly seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is an important contributor to increasing the risk of cardiovascular events as well as increasing renal disease progression. Recent evaluations of drug use

G L Bakris; P Hart; E Ritz

2006-01-01

370

Anticholinergics in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. In the majority of cases, the disease is the result of years of cigarette smoking. Contributing factors leading to bronchial obstruction in COPD include mucus hypersecretion and an increase in bronchial muscle tone, which is triggered mainly by cholinergic mechanisms. Anticholinergic bronchodilators

Kai-Michael Beeh; Tobias Welte; Roland Buhl

2002-01-01

371

Racial and survival paradoxes in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the 20 million people in the US with chronic kidney disease (CKD) die before commencing dialysis. One of every five dialysis patients dies each year in the US. Although cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among patients with CKD, conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and obesity are paradoxically associated with better survival

Csaba P Kovesdy; Stephen F Derose; Tamara B Horwich; Gregg C Fonarow; Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh

2007-01-01

372

Management of Pediatric Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Deborah Miller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease in children is associated with complications that require nursing interventions in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Given the progressive nature of the disease and the com- plexity of the treatment regimen, it is important that nurses be com- fortable implementing acute and preventive care strategies and facili- tating the coordination of care. In addition, the need

Dina MacDonald

373

Physical Activity in the Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. The increase in CKD in recent decades has paralleled increases in obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor that may affect the development and course of CKD. It is well established that exercise training improves a number of metabolic

Craig S. Stump

2011-01-01

374

Cardiovascular Imaging in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several morphological and functional tests are available to assess the cardiovascular system. Since structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities have prognostic implications, their identification may become crucial for the implementation of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. We review the most frequently used imaging

Cristina Karohl; Paolo Raggi

2011-01-01

375

VNI cures acute and chronic experimental Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a deadly infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Afflicting approximately 8 million people in Latin America, Chagas disease is now becoming a serious global health problem proliferating beyond the traditional geographical borders, mainly because of human and vector migration. Because the disease is endemic in low-resource areas, industrial drug development has been lethargic. The chronic form remains incurable, there are no vaccines, and 2 existing drugs for the acute form are toxic and have low efficacy. Here we report the efficacy of a small molecule, VNI, including evidence of its effectiveness against chronic Chagas disease. VNI is a potent experimental inhibitor of T. cruzi sterol 14?-demethylase. Nontoxic and highly selective, VNI displays promising pharmacokinetics and administered orally to mice at 25 mg/kg for 30 days cures, with 100% cure rate and 100% survival, the acute and chronic T. cruzi infection. PMID:23372180

Villalta, Fernando; Dobish, Mark C; Nde, Pius N; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y; Hargrove, Tatiana Y; Johnson, Candice A; Waterman, Michael R; Johnston, Jeffrey N; Lepesheva, Galina I

2013-08-01

376

Treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease in 2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This article summarizes recent reports on the risks, pathogenesis and treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recent findings Chronic GVHD remains an elusive disorder to characterize and to treat. Recent evidence on tolerance induction by regulatory T cells and on B cells involvement shed some insights in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD. In a recent large comparative study, the overall risk profiles for acute and for chronic GVHD were similar, but risks factors were not changed after adjustment for prior acute GVHD, supporting the concept that chronic GVHD is not an end stage of acute GVHD. Glucocorticoids remain the standard initial treatment of chronic GVHD, but the outcomes are not satisfactory, particularly for patients with high-risk features. Many treatments for chronic GVHD including extracorporeal photopheresis, rituximab, sirolimus, mycofenolate mofetil, imatinib, pentostatin and infusion of mesenchymal stem cells have been reported in several retrospective and relatively small phase I/II studies with a wide range of overall responses. Summary No current therapies used for chronic GVHD have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Large well-designed prospective studies are warranted to establish better treatments. Targeted therapies based on the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD may lead to better outcomes.

Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Flowers, Mary E.D.

2012-01-01

377

Chronic granulomatous disease mimicking early-onset Crohn's disease with cutaneous manifestations  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare inherited disorder of the innate immune system. In patients with a clinical history of recurrent or persistent infections, especially infections caused by uncommon species, chronic granulomatous disease should be considered. Case presentation We report the case of a 5-year-old boy with a presumptive diagnosis of Crohn’s disease with extraintestinal manifestations. Chronic granulomatous disease was suspected in this case after Serratia marcescens was isolated from a skin ulcer culture. Granulomas were confirmed on histology and chronic granulomatous disease was diagnosed. Conclusion This case emphasizes the importance of high clinical suspicion of an alternative diagnosis of immune deficiency in patients with presumed inflammatory bowel disease and opportunistic infections, especially when disease occurs in early life.

2014-01-01

378

Anaemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Does it really matter?  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, with an increasing rate in morbidity and mortality. In recent years, there has been a greater awareness about the clinical importance of systemic effects and other chronic conditions associated with COPD, as these significantly impact on the course of disease. The most studied extrapulmonary manifestations in COPD include the presence of concomitant cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle wasting, osteoporosis and lung cancer. Anaemia is a recognised independent marker of mortality in several chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that anaemia in patients with COPD may be more frequent than expected, with a prevalence ranging from 5% to 33%. Some evidence suggests that systemic inflammation may play an important pathogenic role, but anaemia in COPD is probably multifactorial and may be caused by others factors, such as concealed chronic renal failure, decreased androgenic levels, iron depletion, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment and exacerbations. Low levels of haemoglobin and haematocrit in COPD patients have been associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes as well as with mortality and increased healthcare costs. Despite the potential clinical benefit of successfully treating anaemia in these patients, evidence supporting the importance of its correction on the prognosis of COPD is uncertain. PMID:23679907

Portillo, K; Martinez-Rivera, C; Ruiz-Manzano, J

2013-06-01

379

Childhood social disadvantage, cardiometabolic risk, and chronic disease in adulthood.  

PubMed

Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959-1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005-2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates. PMID:24970845

Non, Amy L; Rewak, Marissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E; Loucks, Eric B; Appleton, Allison A; Román, Jorge C; Buka, Stephen L; Kubzansky, Laura D

2014-08-01

380

[Chronic diseases and complexity: new roles in nursing. Advanced practice nurses and chronic patient].  

PubMed

The increase in chronic diseases and the progressive ageing of the population is a source of concern for the different agencies with responsibility for health care. This has led to the creation of many documents focused on the analysis of the current situation and care of chronic diseases, including the WHO recommendations intended to assist countries and health services design and implement strategies that will address the existing demand, control and prevention of chronic diseases. In addition, there is a need to respond to the demand generated by chronic diseases in every sense, and from the different systems it is becoming more difficult to get enough support from multidisciplinary teams where the nurse has a central importance. While chronic diseases are becoming a threat due to the costs they generate, it is also an opportunity for nursing to be at the forefront for advanced care requirements, performed by professionals with recognized advanced clinical skills and ability for case management while monitoring and controlling complex chronic patients. The different services of the National Health System have introduced nurses that play different roles (cases managers, liaison nurses, advanced practice nurses and so on). However, it could be argued that they are not being trained to a desirable development level. It is therefore time for health care authorities to determine the role of the advanced practice nurse in relation to functional positions, and allow them to make an advance in the development of unified skills for the whole National Health System. From our experience we have learned that the advanced practice nurse is a resource that helps in the sustainability of services, thanks to the efficiency shown in the results obtained from the care given to both chronic and complex chronic patients. PMID:24468495

Sánchez-Martín, C Inmaculada

2014-01-01

381

Chronic lyme disease: psychogenic fantasy or somatic infection?  

PubMed Central

Sigal and Hassett published an article about Lyme disease in the EHP Supplements (Sigal and Hassett 2002), suggesting that chronic Lyme disease is "psychogenic." I do not think that Sigal and Hassett, non-psychiatrists, are qualified to speak about psychiatric matters. I, however, actually have had the disease, which they characterize as "medically unexplained," for over 25 years and have 15 years of experience as a patient advocate and educator. I beg to differ.

Mervine, Phyllis

2003-01-01

382

Managing advanced chronic kidney disease: A primary care guide.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder that requires close collaboration between the primary care physician and nephrologist. Most aspects of early CKD can be managed in the primary care setting with nephrology input. As the disease progresses, many aspects of care should be transitioned to the nephrologist, especially as the patient nears end-stage renal disease, when dialysis and transplantation must be addressed. PMID:24789588

Sakhuja, Ankit; Hyland, Jennifer; Simon, James F

2014-05-01

383

Hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a cardiovascular complication highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease\\u000a (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. LVH in CKD patients has generally a negative prognostic value, because it represents an\\u000a independent risk factor for the development of arrhythmias, sudden death, heart failure and ischemic heart disease. LVH in\\u000a CKD patients is secondary to both pressure

Stefano Taddei; Renato Nami; Rosa Maria Bruno; Ilaria Quatrini; Ranuccio Nuti

2011-01-01

384

Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic obstructive lung diseases and so-called cor pulmonale have traditionally been connected by the link of pulmonary hypertension\\u000a (PH). The concept that right ventricular hypertrophy is attributed to the afterload of the right ventricle, i.e., attributable\\u000a to PH, has not been challenged and clinicians continue to attempt to explain cor pulmonale as a consequence of chronic PH.\\u000a Both pulmonary parenchyma

Norbert F. Voelkel; Catherine Grossman; Herman J. Bogaard

385

Chronic calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease arthropathy associated with hypomagnesemia.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a young woman with a magnesium renal wasting syndrome leading to severe hypomagnesemia and a chronic pseudo-osteoaritis calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPDD) arthropathy. A chronic CPDD arthropathy secondary to hypomagnesemia has not been previously reported. The identification of CPDD, particularly in the young, can be a clue to the presence of a potentially treatable underlying metabolic disorder, such as hypomagnesemia. PMID:19078120

Erickson, A R; Yeun, J Y; Enzenauer, R J

1997-02-01

386

Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: Getting to the heart of the matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with kidney disease is well described. This Canadian, multicenter, observational cohort study reports the prevalence and risk factors of CVD associated with kidney disease, in a cohort of patients with established chronic kidney disease (CKD), who are followed-up by nephrologists. This analysis sought to answer 2 questions: (1) in patients with

Adeera Levin; Ognjenka Djurdjev; Brendan Barrett; Ellen Burgess; Euan Carlisle; Jean Ethier; Kailash Jindal; David Mendelssohn; Sheldon Tobe; Joel Singer; Christopher Thompson

2001-01-01

387

Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey  

PubMed Central

Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this illness.

Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer

2014-01-01

388

In Search of a Germ Theory Equivalent for Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

The fight against infectious disease advanced dramatically with the consolidation of the germ theory in the 19th century. This focus on a predominant cause of infections (ie, microbial pathogens) ultimately led to medical and public health advances (eg, immunization, pasteurization, antibiotics). However, the resulting declines in infections in the 20th century were matched by a rise in chronic, noncommunicable diseases, for which there is no single underlying etiology. The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation (“metaflammation”), linked to inducers (broadly termed “anthropogens”) associated with modern man-made environments and lifestyles, suggests an underlying basis for chronic disease that could provide a 21st-century equivalent of the germ theory.

2012-01-01

389

Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:24435355

Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E

2014-07-01

390

Activated protein C based therapeutic strategies in chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Activated protein C (aPC) is a natural anticoagulant and a potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective agent. At the expense of increased bleeding risk aPC has been used - with some success - in sepsis. The design of cytoprotective-selective aPC variants circumvents this limitation of increased bleeding, reviving the interest in aPC as a therapeutic agent. Emerging studies suggest that aPC`s beneficial effects are not restricted to acute illness, but likewise relevant in chronic diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy, neurodegeneration or wound healing. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, reduction of oxidative stress, and regulation of ROS-dependent transcription factors are potential mechanisms of sustained cytoprotective effects of aPC in chronic diseases. Given the available data it seems questionable whether a unifying mechanism of aPC dependent cytoprotection in acute and chronic diseases exists. In addition, the signalling pathways employed by aPC are tissue and cell specific. The mechanistic insights gained from studies exploring aPC`s effects in various diseases may hence lay ground for tissue and disease specific therapeutic approaches. This review outlines recent investigations into the mechanisms and consequences of long-term modulation of aPC-signalling in models of chronic diseases. PMID:24652581

Bock, Fabian; Shahzad, Khurrum; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Isermann, Berend

2014-04-01

391

Distress Screening in Chronic Disease: Essential for Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Distress is a psychological state that is often observed in patients with chronic disease. Many cancers are considered chronic in nature, with patients experiencing long, disease-free states and intervals of metastatic disease. Distress can negatively affect the biopsychosocial balance in cancer survivors and impede their progress along the cancer trajectory. Distress can also affect medical and psychological outcomes and hinder advancement into long-term survivorship. Distress may contribute to disease progression, although despite research findings, health-care providers seldom screen for indications of persistent or unresolved distress. This article discusses research findings related to the prevalence of distress in multiple chronic diseases. Validated instruments used to screen for distress in cancer survivors, such as the Distress Thermometer and symptom checklist from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, are reviewed. With the availability of brief and concise instruments to screen for distress, providers have the ability to provide holistic and comprehensive care for cancer survivors. The overall financial impact of cancer-related distress is understudied, although similar psychological studies indicate that prevention or elimination of distress is beneficial. Cancer is a lifelong, chronic disease; patients have ongoing needs and varied sources of distress. As the number of cancer survivors exponentially increases, their psychosocial needs will likewise expand.

Petty, Lorie; Lester, Joanne

2014-01-01

392

[Behavior of the aminophenazone breath test in chronic liver diseases].  

PubMed

In 230 patients with histologically ascertained chronic hepathopathies the aminophenazone breathing test in the modification after Haustein and Schenker was carried out. In contrast to a control group consisting of 16 test persons with healthy liver (14CO2 exhalation 1019 +/- 175 DPM/mmol-CO2/70 kg body weight) the hepatic elimination of the [14C]-aminophenazone in chronic liver diseases (626 +/- 203 DPM/mmol CO2/70 kg body weight) was significantly restricted (p less than 0.001). The values of the aminophenazone breathing test showed a dependence on the degree of severity of the liver disease. Hepatoses with partly questionable or slight value of the disease did not differ in their results (841 +/- 230 DPM/mmol CO2/70 kg body weight) from those of persons with healthy liver. Chronic inflammatory liver diseases (668 +/- 185 DPM/mmol CO2/70 kg body weight) occupied an average position (p less than 0.001). The lowest values were to be seen in patients with chronic fibrosing liver diseases, mainly with liver cirrhosis (403 +/- 218 DPM/mmol CO2/70 kg body weight). Compared with the control group the difference was significant (p less than 0.001). Broad regions of overlapping of the individual values of various chronic liver diseases do not allow an unequivocal coordination of regions of the breathing test values to certain morphologically defined chronic hepatopathies. For the determination of size and degree of severity of the damage of liver parenchyma the aminophenazone breathing test, however, may be a valuable help in the framework of a special programme of diagnostics. PMID:3245251

Treutler, J; Sensing, H; Haustein, K O; Hüller, G

1988-12-01

393

Chronic Diseases in Captive Geriatric Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population.

Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

2012-01-01

394

Diagnosis and management of chronic graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation (BSBMT) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). This guideline includes recommendations for the diagnosis and staging of chronic GvHD as well as primary treatment and options for patients with steroid-refractory disease. The goal of treatment should be the effective control of GvHD while minimizing the risk of toxicity and relapse. PMID:22533811

Dignan, Fiona L; Amrolia, Persis; Clark, Andrew; Cornish, Jacqueline; Jackson, Graham; Mahendra, Prem; Scarisbrick, Julia J; Taylor, Peter C; Shaw, Bronwen E; Potter, Michael N

2012-07-01

395

Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state  

PubMed Central

Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient–healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.

Karnilowicz, W

2011-01-01

396

Central pulse pressure in chronic kidney disease: a chronic renal insufficiency cohort ancillary study.  

PubMed

Central pulse pressure (PP) can be noninvasively derived using the radial artery tonometric methods. Knowledge of central pressure profiles has predicted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several populations of patients, particularly those with known coronary artery disease and those receiving dialysis. Few data exist characterizing central pressure profiles in patients with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease who are not on dialysis. We measured central PP cross-sectionally in 2531 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study to determine correlates of the magnitude of central PP in the setting of chronic kidney disease. Tertiles of central PP were <36 mm Hg, 36 to 51 mm Hg, and >51 mm Hg with an overall mean (+/-SD) of 46+/-19 mm Hg. Multivariable regression identified the following independent correlates of central PP: age, sex, diabetes mellitus, heart rate (negatively correlated), glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, glucose, and parathyroid hormone parathyroid hormone concentrations. Additional adjustment for brachial mean arterial pressure and brachial PP showed associations for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, weight, and heart rate. Discrete intervals of brachial PP stratification showed substantial overlap within the associated central PP values. The large size of this unique chronic kidney disease cohort provides an ideal situation to study the role of brachial and central pressure measurements in kidney disease progression and cardiovascular disease incidence. PMID:20660819

Townsend, Raymond R; Chirinos, Julio A; Parsa, Afshin; Weir, Matthew A; Sozio, Stephen M; Lash, James P; Chen, Jing; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Go, Alan S; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Rafey, Mohammed; Wright, Jackson T; Duckworth, Mark J; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Joffe, Marshall P

2010-09-01

397

Blocking Interleukin-1? in Acute and Chronic Autoinflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

An expanding spectrum of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases are considered “autoinflammatory” diseases. This review considers autoinflammatory diseases as being distinct from “autoimmune” diseases. Autoimmune diseases are associated with dysfunctional T-cells and treated with “biologicals” including anti-TNF?, CTLA-Ig, anti-IL-12/23, anti-CD20, anti-IL-17 and anti-IL-6 receptor. In contrast, autoinflammatory diseases are uniquely due to a dysfunctional monocyte caspase-1 activity and secretion of IL-1?; indeed, blocking IL-1? results in a rapid and sustained reduction in the severity of most autoinflammatory diseases. Flares of gout, Type-2 diabetes, heart failure and smoldering multiple myeloma are examples of seemingly unrelated diseases, which are uniquely responsive to IL-1? neutralization.

Dinarello, Charles A.

2010-01-01

398

CD46 Protects against Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema develops in 15% of ex-smokers despite sustained quitting, while 10% are free of emphysema or severe lung obstruction. The cause of the incapacity of the immune system to clear the inflammation in the first group remains unclear. Methods and Findings We searched genes that were protecting ex-smokers without emphysema, using microarrays on portions of human lungs surgically removed; we found that loss of lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema was associated with a lower expression of CD46 and verified this finding by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Also, there was a significant association among decreased CD46+ cells with decreased CD4+T cells, apoptosis mediator CD95 and increased CD8+T cells that were protecting patients without emphysema or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CD46 not only regulates the production of T regulatory cells, which suppresses CD8+T cell proliferation, but also the complement cascade by degradation of C3b. These results were replicated in the murine smoking model, which showed increased C5a (produced by C3b) that suppressed IL12 mediated bias to T helper 1 cells and elastin co-precipitation with C3b, suggesting that elastin could be presented as an antigen. Thus, using ELISA from elastin peptides, we verified that 43% of the patients with severe early onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease tested positive for IgG to elastin in their serum compared to healthy controls. Conclusions These data suggest that higher expression of CD46 in the lungs of ex-smoker protects them from emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by clearing the inflammation impeding the proliferation of CD8+ T cells and necrosis, achieved by production of T regulatory cells and degradation of C3b; restraining the complement cascade favors apoptosis over necrosis, protecting them from autoimmunity and chronic inflammation.

Grumelli, Sandra; Lu, Bao; Peterson, Leif; Maeno, Toshitaka; Gerard, Craig

2011-01-01

399

Therapeutic vaccination to treat chronic infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

A famous milestone in the vaccine field has been the first successful vaccination against smallpox, in 1798, by Edward Jenner. Using the vaccinia cowpox virus, Jenner was able to protect vaccinees from variola or smallpox. The Modified Virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus strain has been one of the vaccines subsequently developed to prevent smallpox infection and was selected by the US government in their Biodefense strategy. Progress in molecular biology and immunology associated with MVA infection has led to the development of MVA as vaccine platform, both in the field of preventive and therapeutic vaccines. This later class of therapeutics has witnessed growing interest that has translated into an increasing number of vaccine candidates reaching the clinics. Among those, MVA-based therapeutic vaccines have addressed four major chronic infections including viral hepatitis, AIDS, human papillomavirus-linked pathologies and tuberculosis. Clinical trials encompass phase 1 and 2 and have started to show significant results and promises.

Boukhebza, Houda; Bellon, Nadine; Limacher, Jean Marc; Inchauspe, Genevieve

2012-01-01

400

CHRONIOUS: an open, ubiquitous and adaptive chronic disease management platform for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal insufficiency.  

PubMed

CHRONIOUS is an highly innovative Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) research Initiative that aspires to implement its vision for ubiquitous health and lifestyle monitoring. The 17 European project partners are strictly working together since February 2008 to realize and open platform to manage and monitor elderly patients with chronic diseases and many difficulties to reach hospital centers for routine controls. The testing activities will be done in Italy and Spain involving COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) patients, these being widespread and highly expensive in terms of social and economic costs. Patients, equipped by wearable technologies and sensors and interacting with lifestyle interfaces, will be assisted by healthcare personnel able to check the health record and critical conditions through the Chronious platform data analysis and decision support system. Additionally, the new ontology based literature search engine will help the clinicians in the standardization of care delivery process. This paper is to present the main project objectives and its principal components from the intelligent system point of view. PMID:21096301

Rosso, R; Munaro, G; Salvetti, O; Colantonio, S; Ciancitto, F

2010-01-01

401

MicroRNAs: New Insights into Chronic Childhood Diseases  

PubMed Central

Chronic diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and have shown increasing incidence rates among children in the last decades. Chronic illnesses in the pediatric population, even if well managed, affect social, psychological, and physical development and often limit education and active participation and increase the risk for health complications. The significant pediatric morbidity and mortality rates caused by chronic illnesses call for serious efforts toward better understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders. Recent studies have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various aspects of major pediatric chronic non-neoplastic diseases. This review focuses on the role of miRNAs in four major pediatric chronic diseases including bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and cystic fibrosis. We intend to emphasize the importance of miRNA-based research in combating these major disorders, as we believe this approach will result in novel therapies to aid securing normal development and to prevent disabilities in the pediatric population.

Omran, Ahmed; Elimam, Dalia; Yin, Fei

2013-01-01

402

CD137 in Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.  

PubMed

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a high frequency. Preclinical animal chronic GVHD models outlined in this chapter allow for the delineation of events that occur during chronic GVHD development. The DBA/2 ? (C56BL/6 × DBA/2)F1 (BDF1) model is characterized by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like phenotype. The B10.D2 ? Balb/c model presents many features of autoimmune scleroderma. The former model is useful in defining how alloreactive donor CD4(+) T cells break B-cell tolerance, whereas the latter model is suitable for dissecting the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. Our laboratory has demonstrated that injection of a single dose of strong CD137 agonists can prevent or cure chronic GVHD in these two models. In general, these models are particularly suited to screening the immunomodulatory therapeutics. PMID:24788176

Kim, Juyang; Cho, Hong R; Kwon, Byungsuk

2014-01-01

403

Chronic pancreatitis: A surgical disease? Role of the Frey procedure  

PubMed Central

Although medical treatment and endoscopic interventions are primarily offered to patients with chronic pancreatitis, approximately 40% to 75% will ultimately require surgery during the course of their disease. Although pancreaticoduodenectomy has been considered the standard surgical procedure because of its favorable results on pain control, its high postoperative complication and pancreatic exocrine or/and endocrine dysfunction rates have led to a growing enthusiasm for duodenal preserving pancreatic head resection. The aim of this review is to better understand the rationale underlying of the Frey procedure in chronic pancreatitis and to analyze its outcome. Because of its hybrid nature, combining both resection and drainage, the Frey procedure has been conceptualized based on the pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis. The short and long-term outcome, especially pain relief and quality of life, are better after the Frey procedure than after any other surgical procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis.

Roch, Alexandra; Teyssedou, Jerome; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques; Pessaux, Patrick

2014-01-01

404

Proteomics and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are relatively frequent in developed countries. Physiopathological events involved in the etiology of IBDs include activation of immune, mesenchymal and epithelial cells. This review gives an overview of the currently applied proteomics technologies. It describes metabolic changes and goes into the approaches using this methodology to understand the molecular mechanisms implicated in the development of the

Emanuela Felley-Bosco; Muriel André

2004-01-01

405

Chronic interstitial nephritis in Whipple's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Report is given on a 68-year-old man who suffered primarily from progressive weight loss and repeated episodes of fever and arthralgia. Later, liver dysfunction and renal insufficiency developed. Liver and kidney biopsics disclosed granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis. Because of the morphologic and clinical findings, the diagnosis of Boeck's disease was made. Shortly before death, diarrhea developed. Autopsy revealed a

A. Schlumpf; U. A. Marbet; E. Stöcklin; W. Wegmann; B. Lämmle; M. Mujagic; W. Jösch; G. Thiel; H. Thölen; W. Olivieri; F. Gudat; J. Torhorst; H. U. Zollinger; M. J. Mihatsch

1983-01-01

406

Chronic Liver Diseases as Liver Tumor Precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cancer is a major global health problem and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75% of all liver carcinoma. HCC occurs more often in men than in women and mostly in people 50 to 60 years old. The disease is more common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia than in North and South America and Europe. Nevertheless its incidence

Jan Lata

2010-01-01

407

Animal models in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-an overview.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airway obstruction resultant from an augmented inflammatory response of the respiratory tract to noxious particles and gases. Previous reports present a number of different hypotheses about the etiology and pathophysiology of COPD. The generating mechanisms of the disease are subject of much speculation, and a series of questions and controversies among experts still remain. In this context, several experimental models have been proposed in order to broaden the knowledge on the pathophysiological characteristics of the disease, as well as the search for new therapeutic approaches for acute or chronically injured lung tissue. This review aims to present the main experimental models of COPD, more specifically emphysema, as well as to describe the main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, possibilities of application, and potential contribution of each of these models for the knowledge on the pathophysiological aspects and to test new treatment options for obstructive lung diseases. PMID:24785359

Marcelino, Monica Yonashiro; Fuoco, Natalia Langenfeld; Faria, Carolina Arruda de; Kozma, Rodrigo de Las Heras; Marques, Lais Fernanda; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

2014-08-01

408

Chronic kidney disease in an adult with propionic acidemia.  

PubMed

We report an adult male with classic propionic acidemia (PA) who developed chronic kidney disease in the third decade of his life. This diagnosis was recognized by an increasing serum creatinine and confirmed by reduced glomerular filtration on a (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) scan. Histopathology of the kidney showed moderate glomerulo- and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with very segmental mesangial IgA deposits. This is the second reported case of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia possibly indicating that chronic kidney disease may be a late-stage complication of propionic acidemia. Additionally, this is the first description of the histopathology of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia. As more cases emerge, the clinical course and spectrum of renal pathology in this disorder will be better defined. PMID:23756992

Vernon, H J; Bagnasco, S; Hamosh, A; Sperati, C J

2014-01-01

409

Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Chronic Disease: Challenges and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

A number of widespread and devastating chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease, have a pathophysiologically important inflammatory component. In these diseases, the precise identity of the inflammatory stimulus is often unknown and, if known, is difficult to remove. Thus, there is interest in therapeutically targeting the inflammatory response. Although there has been success with anti-inflammatory therapy in chronic diseases triggered by primary inflammation dysregulation or autoimmunity, there are considerable limitations. In particular, the inflammatory response is critical for survival. As a result, redundancy, compensatory pathways, and necessity narrow the risk:benefit ratio of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, new advances in understanding inflammatory signaling and its links to resolution pathways, together with new drug development, offer promise in this area of translational biomedical research.

Tabas, Ira; Glass, Christopher K.

2013-01-01

410

Clinical Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Extraordinary progress in understanding several key features of stem cells has been made in the last ten years, including definition of the niche, and identification of signals regulating mobilization and homing as well as partial understanding of the mechanisms controlling self-renewal, commitment, and differentiation. This progress produced invaluable tools for the development of rational cell therapy protocols that have yielded positive results in preclinical models of genetic and acquired diseases and, in several cases, have entered clinical experimentation with positive outcome. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic cells with multilineage potential to differentiate into various tissues of mesodermal origin. They can be isolated from bone marrow and other tissues and have the capacity to extensively proliferate in vitro. Moreover, MSCs have also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory molecules which can modulate humoral and cellular immune responses. Considering their regenerative potential and immunoregulatory effect, MSC therapy is a promising tool in the treatment of degenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. It is obvious that much work remains to be done to increase our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating development, homeostasis, and tissue repair and thus to provide new tools to implement the efficacy of cell therapy trials.

Sitzia, Clementina; Erratico, Silvia; Torrente, Yvan

2014-01-01

411

Therapeutic strategies to slow chronic kidney disease progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood chronic kidney disease commonly progresses toward end-stage renal failure, largely independent of the underlying\\u000a disorder, once a critical impairment of renal function has occurred. Hypertension and proteinuria are the most important independent\\u000a risk factors for renal disease progression. Therefore, current therapeutic strategies to prevent progression aim at controlling\\u000a blood pressure and reducing urinary protein excretion. Renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) antagonists preserve

Elke Wühl; Franz Schaefer

2008-01-01

412

Expression of DNA topoisomerases in chronic proliferative kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of DNA topoisomerases in chronic proliferative kidney disease.BackgroundCirculating autoantibodies to human topoisomerases have been reported in glomerular kidney disease associated with scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, limited information is available about the expression of topoisomerases in the kidney under normal and pathological conditions.MethodsThe expression of DNA topoisomerases I and II? was studied by immunohistochemistry on archival biopsies from

Lilija V. Ivanova; Pierre Rudolph; Udo Kellner; Anja Jürgensen; Irina E. Tareeva; Per Alm; Dietfrid Proppe

2000-01-01

413

Emerging therapies for chronic kidney disease: what is their role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. The best therapies currently available focus on the control of blood pressure and optimization of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockade. Currently available agents are only partially effective against hard end points such as the development of end-stage renal disease and are not discussed in this Review. Many other agents have been shown

David C. H. Harris; Eswari Vilayur

2009-01-01

414

Self-Management Support Interventions for Persons With Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Self-management support interventions such as the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) are becoming more widespread in attempt to help individuals better self-manage chronic disease. Objective To systematically assess the clinical effectiveness of self-management support interventions for persons with chronic diseases. Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 15, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database for studies published between January 1, 2000, and January 15, 2012. A January 1, 2000, start date was used because the concept of non-disease-specific/general chronic disease self-management was first published only in 1999. Reference lists were examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing self-management support interventions for general chronic disease against