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Management of degenerative disk disease and chronic low back pain.  


Degenerative disk disease is a strong etiologic risk factor of chronic low back pain (LBP). A multidisciplinary approach to treatment is often warranted. Patient education, medication, and cognitive behavioral therapies are essential in the treatment of chronic LBP sufferers. Surgical intervention with a rehabilitation regime is sometimes advocated. Prognostic factors related to the outcome of different treatments include maladaptive pain coping and genetics. The identification of pain genes may assist in determining individuals susceptible to pain and in patient selection for appropriate therapy. Biologic therapies show promise, but clinical trials are needed before advocating their use in humans. PMID:21944588

Karppinen, Jaro; Shen, Francis H; Luk, Keith D K; Andersson, Gunnar B J; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Samartzis, Dino



[Inappropriate prescribing in older adults with chronic-degenerative disease].  


Background: potentially inappropriate prescribing (IP) includes the use of drugs that represent greater risk than benefi t to the patient, the STOPP-START instrument, allows its detection, the aim was to evaluate its utility. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed. Randomly selecting records of older adults with at least one chronic degenerative disease, as last query had more than two months and have completed their monthly meeting at least four citations in the last 6 months were analyzed. Results: the files from 285 patients were reviewed, females were 60 %, and the mean age was 74 ± 6 years. A total of 1749 prescriptions included 126 different drugs. The prevalence of inappropriate prescribing was 55 % (95 % CI = 49-61) and 87 % polypharmacy (95 % CI = 83-91). The cardiovascular, endocrine and skeletal muscle system diseases had the highest number of prescriptions and inappropriate prescribing. It was detected the omission of one or more drugs listed in 72 % of 75 % specific clinical circumstances. Conclusions: the STOPP-START instrument is useful for detecting inappropriate prescribing. Also, the omission of indicated preventive treatments required for older adults with chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:23693101

Luna-Medina, María Aideé; Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Pineda-Aquino, Victoria; Durán-Fernández, Yubia Coral; Avalos-Mejía, Annia; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen


[Chronic-degenerative diseases in health care activities: data from health surveillance of Federico II University General Hospital in Naples].  


Recent average life increase, as well as new habits and lifestyles assumption, has determined a change in population health profiles, as a result of progressive increase in chronic-degenerative diseases prevalence. Among these latter; musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases are the most frequent ones. Health care workers also suffered from this change in health profiles. This study, performed thanks to the extension of Health Surveillance to all health care workers, aimed at evaluating chronic-degenerative diseases risk among three main welfare activities (medical, nursing and auxiliary). In conclusion, data showed that nurses, mainly the shift workers, are exposed to a higher risk of chronic-degenerative diseases. All other health care workers have not significant work risk factors, because of a greater burden of aging and lifestyles effects. PMID:18409865

Farina, A; Cavaliere, L; Boggia, B; Esposito, A; Ferrucci, R; Romano, L; Barletta, R; Carbone, U


Degenerative Disk Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When dealing with degenerative disease at the cervical spine, the target of any procedure must be the complete removal of\\u000a the cause of the damage to the myeloradicu-lar structures. When the pathological process causes an anterior compression, the\\u000a anterior approach should be preferred. The release of the compressed neural structures via an anterior approach can be performed\\u000a by several techniques,

Vincenzo Denaro; Luca Denaro; Alberto Di Martino; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Nicola Maffulli


Gene therapy for degenerative disc disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a chronic process that can become clinically manifest in multiple disorders such as idiopathic low back pain, disc herniation, radiculopathy, myelopathy, and spinal stenosis. The limited available technology for the treatment of these and other pathologic and disabling conditions arising from DDD is highly invasive (eg, surgical discectomy and fusion), manifesting a certain degree of

S Sobajima; JS Kim; LG Gilbertson; JD Kang



Pathophysiology of Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

The intervertebral disc is characterized by a tension-resisting annulus fibrosus and a compression-resisting nucleus pulposus composed largely of proteoglycan. The most important function of the annulus and nucleus is to provide mechanical stability to the disc. Degenerative disc disease in the lumbar spine is a serious health problem. Although the three joint complex model of the degenerative process is widely accepted, the etiological basis of this degeneration is poorly understood. With the recent progress in molecular biology and modern biological techniques, there has been dramatic improvement in the understanding of aging and degenerative changes of the disc. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disc degeneration can help in the appropriate choice of treatment and to develop tissue engineering for biological restoration of degenerated discs.



Dystonic Movement Disorders and Spinal Degenerative Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of degenerative spinal disease subsequent to dystonic movement disorders has been neglected and has received more attention only recently. Spinal surgery is challenging with regard to continuous mechanical stress when treatment of the underlying movement disorder is insufficient. To characterize better the particular features of degenerative spinal disease in patients with dystonia and to analyze operative strategies, we

Thomas J. Loher; Christian B. Bärlocher; Joachim K. Krauss




Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions ( Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal

Christine Kolmstetter; Linda Munson; Edward C. Ramsay


The classification of degenerative hip disease.  


It is probable that both genetic and environmental factors play some part in the aetiology of most cases of degenerative hip disease. Geneticists have identified some single gene disorders of the hip, but have had difficulty in identifying the genetics of many of the common causes of degenerative hip disease. The heterogeneity of the phenotypes studied is part of the problem. A detailed classification of phenotypes is proposed. This study is based on careful documentation of 2003 consecutive total hip replacements performed by a single surgeon between 1972 and 2000. The concept that developmental problems may initiate degenerative hip disease is supported. The influences of gender, age and body mass index are outlined. Biomechanical explanations for some of the radiological appearances encountered are suggested. The body weight lever, which is larger than the abductor lever, causes the abductor power to be more important than body weight. The possibility that a deficiency in joint lubrication is a cause of degenerative hip disease is discussed. Identifying the phenotypes may help geneticists to identify genes responsible for degenerative hip disease, and eventually lead to a definitive classification. PMID:22933490

Hamilton, H W; Jamieson, J



Advances in hydrogels applied to degenerative diseases.  


Hydrogels are currently applied in the treatment of numerous degenerative diseases because of their three dimensional (3D) nature, high water content and wide range of polymers that can be used for their fabrication. Hydrogels have been investigated and commercialized, for example, as soft contact lens-based ophthalmic drug delivery systems. These novel devices improved the bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs and their residence time. Hydrogels are also being investigated to facilitate and augment targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. This approach minimizes significantly the side effects associated with conventional administration of anti-cancer therapeutics. The application of hydrogels as 3D scaffold has recently gained momentum because they can mimic key features of the extracellular matrix. For this reason, hydrogels are representing a viable alternative to traditional tumor xenograft in cancer biology studies. This review highlights recent advances in the development of hydrogels that are applied in degenerative diseases such as ocular, cancer, spine and cartilage degenerative pathologies. PMID:22512441

Mawad, Damia; Boughton, Elizabeth Anne; Boughton, Philip; Lauto, Antonio



Hereditary familial vestibular degenerative diseases.  


Identification of genes involved in hereditary vestibular disease is growing at a remarkable pace. Mutant mouse technology can be an important tool for understanding the biological mechanism of human vestibular diseases. PMID:11710498

Sun, J C; Van Alphen, A M; Wagenaar, M; Huygen, P; Hoogenraad, C C; Hasson, T; Koekkoek, S K; Bohne, B A; De Zeeuw, C I



Degenerative joint disease in captive waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate degenerative joint disease (DJD) in captive waterfowl that died or were euthanized at Fresno's Chaffee Zoo in Fresno, California, USA from 2001 to 2005. Of these, 16 out of 33 birds (48%) had DJD in one or both stifle (femoral–tibiotarsal joint; n = 13), hock (tibiotarsal–tarsometatarsal joint; n = 4), or toe joints

L. A. Degernes; P. S. Lynch; H. L. Shivaprasad



Restorative chemotherapy in degenerative hip disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the hip were treated for prolonged periods with an extract of cartilage and bone marrow. Although clinical improvement, lessened joint pain and increased function, occurred in a majority of the patients, the most significant changes were in four who had concomitant x-ray improvement. These patients had roentgenographic evidence of recovery of joint

Charles W. Denko



Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.



Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)\\/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal

R. S. Panush; C. Schmidt; J. R. Caldwell; N. L. Edwards; S. Longley; R. Yonker; E. Webster; J. Nauman; J. Stork; H. Pettersson



Spinal fusion in degenerative disc disease.  


Low back pain caused by degenerative disc disease is of such intensity in a low percentage of cases that surgery is indicated. Surgery must not only stabilize, but it must above all correct the deformity, recovering the disc space. Among all of the methods available circumferential fusion with a double combined approach, that is, anterior and posterior, is held to be the most effective. PMID:8076465

Gallinaro, P; Indemini, E; Tabasso, G; Abbate, M


Management of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease.  


Symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease, or discogenic back pain, is difficult to treat. Patients often report transverse low back pain that radiates into the sacroiliac joints. Radicular or claudicatory symptoms are generally absent unless there is concomitant nerve compression. Physical examination findings are often unremarkable. Radiographic examination may reveal disk space narrowing, end-plate sclerosis, or vacuum phenomenon in the disk; magnetic resonance imaging is useful for revealing hydration of the disk, annular bulging, or lumbar spine end-plate (Modic) changes in the adjacent vertebral bodies. The use of diskography as a confirmatory study remains controversial. Recent prospective, randomized trials and meta-analyses of the literature have helped expand what is known about degenerative disk disease. In most patients with low back pain, symptoms resolve without surgical intervention; physical therapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the cornerstones of nonsurgical treatment. Intradiskal electrothermal treatment has not been shown to be effective, and arthrodesis remains controversial for the treatment of discogenic back pain. Nucleus replacement and motion-sparing technology are too new to have demonstrated long-term data regarding their efficacy. PMID:19202123

Madigan, Luke; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Spector, Leo R; Milam, R Alden



Chondroprotective drugs in degenerative joint diseases.  


Catabolic cytokine and anabolic growth factor pathways control destruction and repair in osteoarthritis (OA). A unidirectional TNF-alpha/IL-1-driven cytokine cascade disturbs the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in OA. Although chondrocytes in OA cartilage overexpress anabolic insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and its specific receptor (IGFRI) autocrine TNF-alpha released by apoptotic articular cartilage cells sets off an auto/paracrine IL-1-driven cascade that overrules the growth factor activities that sustain repair in degenerative joint disease. Chondroprotection with reappearance of a joint space that had disappeared has been documented unmistakably in peripheral joints of patients suffering from spondyloarthropathy when treated with TNF-alpha-blocking agents that repressed the unidirectional TNF-alpha/IL-1-driven cytokine cascade. A series of connective tissue structure-modifying agents (CTSMAs) that directly affect IL-1 synthesis and release in vitro and down-modulate downstream IL-1 features, e.g. collagenase, proteoglycanase and matrix metalloproteinase activities, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, the increased release of nitric oxide, and the secretion of prostaglandin E(2), IL-6 and IL-8, have been shown to possess disease-modifying OA drug (DMOAD) activities in experimental models of OA and in human subjects with finger joint and knee OA. Examples are corticosteroids, some sulphated polysaccharides, chemically modified tetracyclines, diacetylrhein/rhein, glucosamine and avocado/soybean unsaponifiables. PMID:16278282

Verbruggen, G



Mitral Valve Repair for Degenerative Disease: A 20Year Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Recent advances in surgical technique allow repair of most mitral valves with degenerative disease. However, few long-term data exist to support the superiority of repair versus prosthetic valve replacement, and repair could be limited by late durability or other problems. This study was designed to compare survival characteristics of mitral valve repair versus prosthetic replacement for degenerative disorders during

Mani A. Daneshmand; Carmelo A. Milano; J. Scott Rankin; Emily F. Honeycutt; Madhav Swaminathan; Linda K. Shaw; Peter K. Smith; Donald D. Glower



Comparison of the SF6D, the EQ5D, and the oswestry disability index in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative disc disease  

PubMed Central

Background The need for cost effectiveness analyses in randomized controlled trials that compare treatment options is increasing. The selection of the optimal utility measure is important, and a central question is whether the two most commonly used indexes - the EuroQuol 5D (EQ5D) and the Short Form 6D (SF6D) – can be used interchangeably. The aim of the present study was to compare change scores of the EQ5D and SF6D utility indexes in terms of some important measurement properties. The psychometric properties of the two utility indexes were compared to a disease-specific instrument, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), in the setting of a randomized controlled trial for degenerative disc disease. Methods In a randomized controlled multicentre trial, 172 patients who had experienced low back pain for an average of 6 years were randomized to either treatment with an intensive back rehabilitation program or surgery to insert disc prostheses. Patients filled out the ODI, EQ5D, and SF-36 at baseline and two-year follow up. The utility indexes was compared with respect to measurement error, structural validity, criterion validity, responsiveness, and interpretability according to the COSMIN taxonomy. Results At follow up, 113 patients had change score values for all three instruments. The SF6D had better similarity with the disease-specific instrument (ODI) regarding sensitivity, specificity, and responsiveness. Measurement error was lower for the SF6D (0.056) compared to the EQ5D (0.155). The minimal important change score value was 0.031 for SF6D and 0.173 for EQ5D. The minimal detectable change score value at a 95% confidence level were 0.157 for SF6D and 0.429 for EQ5D, and the difference in mean change score values (SD) between them was 0.23 (0.29) and so exceeded the clinical significant change score value for both instruments. Analysis of psychometric properties indicated that the indexes are unidimensional when considered separately, but that they do not exactly measure the same underlying construct. Conclusions This study indicates that the difference in important measurement properties between EQ5D and SF6D is too large to consider them interchangeable. Since the similarity with the “gold standard” (the disease-specific instrument) was quite different, this could indicate that the choice of index should be determined by the diagnosis.



Skipping Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization for Distant Segment Degenerative Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective. To date, there is still no consensus on the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Current surgical techniques to manage painful spinal disorders are imperfect. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the prospective results of posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization, a novel surgical approach that skips the segments that do not produce pain. This technique has been proven biomechanically and radiologically in spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. A prospective study of 18 patients averaging 54.94 years of age with distant spinal segment degenerative disease. Indications consisted of degenerative disc disease (57%), herniated nucleus pulposus (50%), spinal stenosis (14.28%), degenerative spondylolisthesis (14.28%), and foraminal stenosis (7.1%). The Oswestry Low-Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were recorded preoperatively and at the third and twelfth postoperative months. Results. Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.05). We observed complications in one patient who had spinal epidural hematoma. Conclusion. We recommend skipping posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization for surgical treatment of distant segment spinal degenerative disease.

Solmaz, Bilgehan; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Ataker, Yaprak; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir



Skipping posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization for distant segment degenerative disease.  


Objective. To date, there is still no consensus on the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Current surgical techniques to manage painful spinal disorders are imperfect. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the prospective results of posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization, a novel surgical approach that skips the segments that do not produce pain. This technique has been proven biomechanically and radiologically in spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. A prospective study of 18 patients averaging 54.94 years of age with distant spinal segment degenerative disease. Indications consisted of degenerative disc disease (57%), herniated nucleus pulposus (50%), spinal stenosis (14.28%), degenerative spondylolisthesis (14.28%), and foraminal stenosis (7.1%). The Oswestry Low-Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were recorded preoperatively and at the third and twelfth postoperative months. Results. Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.05). We observed complications in one patient who had spinal epidural hematoma. Conclusion. We recommend skipping posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization for surgical treatment of distant segment spinal degenerative disease. PMID:23091736

Solmaz, Bilgehan; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Ataker, Yaprak; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir



Stem cell-based therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.  


Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual function in inherited retinal disease. However, this treatment was less effective with advanced disease. Stem cell-based therapy is being pursued as a potential alternative approach in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. In this review, we will focus on stem cell-based therapies in the pipeline and summarize progress in treatment of retinal degenerative disease. PMID:20859770

Huang, Yiming; Enzmann, Volker; Ildstad, Suzanne T



Stem cell-based therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual function in inherited retinal disease. However, this treatment was less effective with advanced disease. Stem cell-based therapy is being pursued as a potential alternative approach in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. In this review, we will focus on stem cell-based therapies in the pipeline and summarize progress in treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

Huang, Yiming; Enzmann, Volker; Ildstad, Suzanne T.



Therapeutic Ultrasound and Pain in Degenerative Diseases of Musculoskeletal System  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Therapeutic ultrasound is a physical modality which is constantly expanding range of indications. Analgesic effect of ultrasound is still under discussion. Regardless the extensive application of pulsed ultrasound of low intensity, continuous ultrasound has a better analgesis effect, which is explained by its mechanism of action. Aims: The main research objective of this study was to determine the effect of continuous ultrasound to pain caused by degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system in the intensity and duration of ultrasound treatment. Other objectives are entailed determining the correlation between the degree of pain reduction with: location of pain, age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Material and methods: The study included 68 patients with chronic pain localized in the region of the spine or major joints of the extremities, depending on the localization of the degenerative changes. Patients are divided into two groups. The first group was treated with 10 applications of continuous ultrasound with frequency of 1 MHz, intensity 0.4 W/cm2 for 8 minutes, and the other group with 10 applications of ultrasound with frequency of 1 MHz, intensity 0.8 W/cm 2 for 4 minutes. Results and Discussion: Pain intensity was assessed before and after ultrasound therapy performed by subjective visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, numbered from 0-10, where 0 is the rating for the state of no pain, and 10 grades for severe pain. The average VAS improvement in the first group was 3.97, and 4.74 in second one. The results of F (1.66) = 2.93, p = 0.09 analysis of variance showed no significance difference between the average improvement of two groups. Correlation between the degree of pain reduction showed significance only with BMI, or that higher BMI is associated with a lower degree of pain reduction. The results of this study showed that application of continuous ultrasound in patients with chronic pain, caused by degenerative changes in the musculoskeletal system, led to a significant reduction in pain. Different intensity and duration of ultrasound application showed no significant effect on the degree of pain reduction. Body mass index showed significant negative correlation with the degree of pain reduction, but age, gender and location of pain did not show significant correlation.

Muftic, Mirsad; Miladinovic, Ksenija



Degenerative periodontal-diseases and oral osteonecrosis: The role of gene-environment interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic-degenerative dentistry diseases, including periodontal diseases and oral osteonecrosis, are widespread in human populations and represent a significant problem for public health. These diseases result from pathogenic mechanisms created by the interaction between environmental genotoxic risk-factors and genetic assets conferring individual susceptibility. Osteonecrosis occurs in subjects undergoing exposure to high doses of DNA-damaging agents for chemo- and radiotherapy of neoplastic

D. Baldi; A. Izzotti; P. Bonica; P. Pera; A. Pulliero



Common mechanisms of amyloid oligomer pathogenesis in degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many age-related degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases and type II diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of amyloid fibrils. The protein components of these amyloids vary widely and the mechanisms of pathogenesis remain an important subject of competing hypotheses and debate. Many different mechanisms have been postulated as significant causal events in pathogenesis, so understanding which events are

Charles G. Glabe



Degenerative disease of the thoracic spine in central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoracic spondylosis, better termed 'degenerative thoracic spine disease', is rare and failure to recognize it is mainly due to its rarity and to the complexity of symptomatology which can lead to prolonged and continued morbidity. During the past 4 years, the authors have treated 28 patients with thoracic spine degeneration with varied clinical manifestations, ranging from local pain, radiculopathy to

S R Mitra; S G Gurjar; K R Mitra



Effects of interspinous spacers on lumbar degenerative disease.  


The present study aimed to evaluate the early effects of interspinous spacers on lumbar degenerative disease. The clinical outcomes of 23 patients with lumbar degenerative disease, treated using interspinous spacer implantation alone or combined with posterior lumbar fusion, were retrospectively studied and assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Pre-operative and post-operative interspinous distance, disc space height, foraminal width and height and segmental lordosis were determined. The early effects and complications associated with the interspinous spacers were recorded. The surgical procedures performed with the in-space treatment were easy and minimally invasive. The VAS scores and ODI were improved post-operatively compared with pre-operatively. Significant changes in the interspinous distance, disc space height, foraminal width and height and segmental lordosis were noted. In-space treatment for degenerative lumbar disease is easy and safe, with good early effects. The in-space system provides an alternative treatment for lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:23407682

Zhou, Dong; Nong, Lu-Ming; DU, Rui; Gao, Gong-Ming; Jiang, Yu-Qing; Xu, Nan-Wei



Comparazione dei livelli di ansia e depressione in soggetti affetti da patologie reumatiche su base autoimmune e cronico-degenerative: dati preliminari Comparation of levels of anxiety and depression in patients with autommune and chronic-degenerative rheumatic: preliminary data  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Scientific research on rheumatic diseases was often focused on the link between psychological features and disease. Depression and anxiety are frequently observed with an higher incidence among rheumatic patients in comparison to general population. In autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, an important role for psychiatric symptoms could be played by the alteration of cytokines levels. In the chronic-degenerative

G. Bagnato; L. G. De Filippis; A. Caliri; G. De Filippis; A. Bruno; N. Gambardella; M. R. Muscatello; R. Cambria; R. Zoccali


Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Applications in Retinal Degenerative Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions\\u000a of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa\\u000a (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal\\u000a degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual

Yiming Huang; Volker Enzmann; Suzanne T. Ildstad



Analgesic effect of etidronate on degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 80 patients with degenerative joint disease, spondylosis deformans, and\\/or osteoarthritis of the knee\\u000a with back or joint pain, especially on movement and strain, were randomly divided into four groups. Group A received no etidronate,\\u000a while groups B, C and D received 66, 133 and 200 mg\\/day etidronate, respectively, for 12 months. Every 3 months, after evaluating

Takuo Fujita; Yoshio Fujii; Seiko F. Okada; Akimitsu Miyauchi; Yasuyuki Takagi



Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore\\u000a the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy\\u000a in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and\\u000a ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are

Ian Yat-Hin Wong; Ming-Wai Poon; Rosita Tsz-Wai Pang; Qizhou Lian; David Wong


Outcome in Cloward Anterior Fusion for Degenerative Cervical Spinal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶?The Cloward ventral interbody fusion is often employed for treatment of cervical degenerative disease. The present study\\u000a was aimed at evaluating results and complications in this classical type of autologous bone graft procedure in a cohort of\\u000a patients with radiculopathy (RP) or myeloradiculopathy (MRP). Indications for and limitations of the technique were investigated\\u000a by retrospective data analysis in a series

V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; T. Marx; W. Burkert



[Progress on dynamic neutralization system in treating lumbar degenerative diseases].  


Dynamic stabilization technology has increasingly become the hot spot in basic and clinical research for treating lumbar degenerative diseases. As one kind of dynamic stabilization technology,dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) keeps the spinal motion ability and improve clinical symptoms of patients, moreover, it shows a certain advantage in delaying the degeneration of adjacent segments. From the available documents,the preliminary biomechanical and clinical results of Dynesys were optimistically, it has become another choice in treating the lumbar degenerative diseases besides the lumbar fusion, and it primarily applies to the treatment of mild to moderate lumbar degenerative disease. However, it lacks a mechanism to maintain and restore the lumbar lordosis and patients need active stretching to achieve lordosis. What's more, how to extend the service life and prevent complications remain to be solved, the long-term effect and the mechanism of delaying the adjacent segment degeneration need further investigation. In this article, the design principle, biomechanical research, clinical outcome and clinical application of Dynesys was reviewed. PMID:24015664

Chen, Xi-Jun; Fan, Shun-Wu



Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

Sharon R. Schatz


DIAM Device for Low Back Pain in Degenerative Disc Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the DIAM device in patients affected by low back pain due to degenerative disc disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background: Recently a number of interspinous devices for dynamic interspinous distraction-stabilization have entered the clinical practice\\u000a in Europe. All of these devices have a common property of acting on the posterior part of the functional spinal unit by distracting

Josip Buric; Massimiliano Pulidori; Tariq Sinan; Sheikh Mehraj


[Value of injection therapy for degenerative diseases of lumbar spine].  


Local injection therapy is of great value in the border area between non-operative or operative treatment of discogenic and spinal stenotic radicular syndromes. With a series of deep periradicular infiltrations of local anesthetics and antiphlogistics it is possible to reduce the pain peaks in the spontaneous course of degenerative spinal diseases, so that planned surgery is no longer necessary. For the rare serious palsies immediate surgery is still necessary. On-going improvement is reached by physiotherapy and psychotherapy and with the back school. PMID:22349366

Theodoridis, T



Degenerative joint disease. Part I: Diagnosis and management considerations.  


Degenerative joint disease, primarily in the form of osteoarthrosis, affects the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) with symptoms similar to those found in other body joints. These symptoms include stiffness, pain, restriction of movement, inflammation, crepitus and radiographic changes. Symptoms can occur in both males and females at any age, starting with pre-adolescent, but most often occur in females age 30 and over. Most symptoms will last nine to 18 months (followed by remission) and are managed using anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, occlusal splints and dietary changes. Major areas for consideration in this article include epidemiology, signs and symptoms, radiography, etiopathology and symptom management. PMID:8118899

Bates, R E; Gremillion, H A; Stewart, C M



Feline degenerative joint disease: a genomic and proteomic approach.  


The underlying disease mechanisms for feline degenerative joint disease (DJD) are mostly unidentified. Today, most of what is published on mammalian arthritis is based on human clinical findings or on mammalian models of human arthritis. However, DJD is a common occurrence in the millions of domestic felines worldwide. To get a better understanding of the changes in biological pathways that are associated with feline DJD, this study employed a custom-designed feline GeneChip, and the institution's unique access to large sample populations to investigate genes and proteins from whole blood and serum that may be up- or down-regulated in DJD cats. The GeneChip results centered around three main pathways that were affected in DJD cats: immune function, apoptosis and oxidative phosphorylation. By identifying these key disease-associated pathways it will then be possible to better understand disease pathogenesis and diagnose it more easily, and to better target it with pharmaceutical and nutritional intervention. PMID:23295270

Gao, Xiangming; Lee, Junyu; Malladi, Sukhaswami; Melendez, Lynda; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Al-Murrani, Samer



Dynamic Stabilisation in the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease with Modic Changes  

PubMed Central

Objective. Posterior dynamic stabilization is an effective alternative to fusion in the treatment of chronic instability and degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2. Modic types 1 and 2 degeneration can be painful. Classic approach in such cases is spine fusion. We operated 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 via posterior dynamic stabilization. Good results were obtained after 2 years of followup. Methods. A total of 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 were selected for this study. The patients were included in the study between 2004 and 2010. All of them were examined with lumbar anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X-rays. Lordosis of the lumbar spine, segmental lordosis, and ratio of the height of the intervertebral disc spaces (IVSs) were measured preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was carried out, and according to the data obtained, the grade of disc degeneration was classified. The quality of life and pain scores were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Appropriate statistical method was chosen. Results. The mean 3- and 12-month postoperative IVS ratio was significantly greater than that of the preoperative group (P < 0.001). However, the mean 1 and 2 postoperative IVS ratio was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the mean preoperative and 1 and 2 postoperative angles of lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The mean VAS score and ODI, 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery, decreased significantly, when compared with the preoperative scores in the groups (P = 0.000). Conclusion. Dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2 was effective.

Eser, Olcay; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Ataker, Yaprak; Suzer, Tuncer; Ozer, Ali Fahir



Regenerative nanomedicine and the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases.  


Regenerative medicine deals with the repair or the replacement of tissues and organs using advanced materials and methodologies. Regenerative nanomedicine uses nanoparticles containing gene transcription factors and other modulating molecules that allow reprogramming of cells in vivo as well as nanomaterials to induce selective differentiation of neural progenitor cells and to create neural-mechanical interfaces. In this article, we consider some applications of nanotechnology that may be useful for the treatment of degenerative retinal diseases, for example, use of nanoparticles for drug and gene therapy, use of nanomaterials for neural interfaces and extracellular matrix construction for cell-based therapy and neural prosthetics, and the use of bionanotechnology to re-engineer proteins and cell behavior for regenerative medicine. PMID:22170869

Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert


Potential of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Applications for Neuro-Degenerative, Neuro-Traumatic and Muscle Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cell transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative and muscle degenerative diseases. Many kinds of cells, including embryonic stem cells and tissue stem cells, have been considered as candidates for transplantation therapy. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential as therapeutic agents since they are easy to isolate and can be expanded from patients without serious ethical or technical problems. We discovered a new method for the highly efficient and specific induction of functional Schwann cells, neurons and skeletal muscle lineage cells from both rat and human MSCs. These induced cells were transplanted into animal models of neurotraumatic injuries, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and muscle dystrophies, resulting in the successful integration of transplanted cells and an improvement in behavior of the transplanted animals. Here we focus on the respective potentials of MSC-derived cells and discuss the possibility of clinical application in degenerative diseases.

Dezawa, Mari; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Hoshino, Mikio; Itokazu, Yutaka; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi



Percutaneous posterior-lateral lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative disc disease using a B-Twin expandable spinal spacer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) causes gradual intervertebral space collapse, concurrent discogenic or facet-induced pain,\\u000a and possible compression radiculopathy. A new minimal invasion procedure of percutaneous posterior-lateral lumbar interbody\\u000a fusion (PPLIF) using a B-Twin stand-alone expandable spinal spacer (ESS) was designed to treat this disease and evaluated\\u000a by follow-up more than 1 year. 12 cases with chronic low back pain and compressive

Lizu Xiao; Donglin Xiong; Qiang Zhang; Jin Jian; Husan Zheng; Yuhui Luo; Juanli Dai; Deren Zhang



Cell-based therapies for retinal degenerative diseases: a thousand strategies.  


Retinal neuronal death causes a severe and irreversible loss of visual function in the patients of retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, but these degenerative diseases currently still lack effective medical treatments. The restorative properties of stem cells hold the promise in the treatment of these retinal degenerative diseases. The exciting progress has been made on stem cell research in the last decade. Many different stem cell types have been explored for their potential in treating the retinal degenerative diseases, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and retinal stem cells. This review will summarize the recent progress in this exciting area. PMID:23733127

Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting


Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease -Update  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion? What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion? One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following: Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates; Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates); Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin. Summary of Findings The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review. Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials. Regard



Massage Therapy for Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease: Alleviating a Pain in the Neck?  

PubMed Central

Background: A 66-year-old female client with cervical degenerative disc disease at lateral left facet joint C6/C7 was experiencing symptoms of chronic neck pain accompanied by limited cervical range of motion, as well as radicular left shoulder and arm pain. The objective of this case report was to describe the effect of therapeutic massage on the client’s symptoms and impairments of cervical DDD. Methods: Therapeutic massage interventions included soft-tissue manipulation using petrissage and neuromuscular techniques, fascial work, facilitated stretching, joint play, hydrotherapy, education on self-stretching, and positive guidance about condition management. Assessment included pain-free cervical ROM and a subjective verbal pain scale. Results: After several treatment sessions, client’s symptoms had decreased and cervical ROM had improved moderately. There was also a decrease in reported pain and an increase in functional daily activities. Client showed a greater understanding of the physiologic barriers which degenerative changes may present. Conclusions: This client responded favorably to massage therapy as a treatment intervention for cervical DDD symptoms.

Avery, Rhonda-Marie



Outcome of late surgical treatment in patients with incomplete paraplegia due to spinal degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective analysis.Objective:To assess the outcome of late surgical intervention in patients with incomplete paraplegia due to spinal degenerative diseases.Setting:Three men and four women with cervical or thoracic spinal degenerative diseases, who preoperatively were unable to walk for more than 6 months in Mie prefecture, Japan.Methods:Review of clinical records and questionnaire survey regarding the walking ability of patients 2 years

Y Kasai; D Shi; T Sugimoto; K Takegami; A Uchida



Clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid nitric oxide concentrations in degenerative cervical and lumbar diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animal models of degenerative lumbar disease, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in macrophages and Schwann\\u000a cells following compression of the cauda equina. We previously reported that NO metabolites (nitrite plus nitrate: [NOx])\\u000a in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlate with postoperative pain relief in patients with degenerative lumbar disease and\\u000a with neurologic recovery rate postoperatively or after conservative

Hiroshi Denda; Shinji Kimura; Akiyoshi Yamazaki; Noboru Hosaka; Yuichi Takano; Kenji Imura; Yoichi Yajiri; Naoto Endo



Interpersonal traits change as a function of disease type and severity in degenerative brain diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Different degenerative brain diseases result in distinct personality changes as a result of divergent patterns of brain damage, however, little is known about the natural history of these personality changes throughout the course of each disease. Objective To investigate how interpersonal traits change as a function of degenerative brain disease type and severity. Methods Using the Interpersonal Adjective Scales, informant ratings of retrospective premorbid and current scores for dominance, extraversion, warmth, and ingenuousness were collected annually for one to four years on 188 patients [67 behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 40 semantic dementia (SemD), 81 Alzheimer’s disease (AD)] and 65 older healthy controls. Using random coefficient models, interpersonal behaviour scores at very mild, mild, or moderate-to-severe disease stages were compared within and between patient groups. Results Group-level changes from premorbid personality occurred as a function of disease type and severity, and were apparent even at a very mild disease stage (Clinical Dementia Rating=0.5) for all three diseases. Decreases in interpersonal traits associated with emotional affiliation (i.e., extraversion, warmth, and ingenuousness) and more rigid interpersonal behaviour differentiated bvFTD and SemD patients from AD patients. Conclusions Specific changes in affiliative interpersonal traits differentiate degenerative brain diseases even at a very mild disease stage, and patterns of personality change differ across bvFTD, SemD, and AD with advancing disease. This study describes the typical progression of change of interpersonal traits in each disease, improving the ability of clinicians and caregivers to predict and plan for symptom progression.

Sollberger, Marc; Neuhaus, John; Ketelle, Robin; Stanley, Christine M.; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jung, Jang; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.



Microsurgery of the cervical spine in elderly patients Part 1: Surgery of degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The results of microsurgery for degenerative disease of the cervical spine are reported in 84 consecutive patients being 65 years of age or older at the time of surgery. Patients were suffering from either soft or hard disc disease or from advanced forms of cervical myelopathy. In 60 patients microsurgical resection of the involved cervical disc and posterior osteophytes

V. Seifert; F. M. van Krieken; M. Zimmermann; D. Stolke; S. D. Bao



Chronic Disease Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI) is a cross-cutting set of 97 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large metropolitan areas to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data that are important to public health practice and available for states, territories and large metropolitan areas. 

Control, Center F.


Segment-specific association between cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) and degenerative joint disease (DJD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) is a recently described phenomenon of unknown etiology and clinical significance. Global assessment of pillar hyperplasia of the cervical spine as a unit has not shown a relationship with degenerative joint disease, but a more sensible explanation of the architectural influence of CPH on cervical spine biomechanics may be segment-specific. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this

Maja Stupar; Cynthia K Peterson



A hydrogel-based stem cell delivery system to treat retinal degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative strategies for retinal degenerative diseases are limited by poor cellular survival, distribution and integration after transplantation to the sub-retinal space. To overcome this limitations a stem cell delivery system was developed, taking advantage of the minimally-invasive, injectable and biodegradable properties of a blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC). The physical and biological properties of this unique HAMC formulation were

Brian G. Ballios; Michael J. Cooke; Derek van der Kooy; Molly S. Shoichet



Induced pluripotent stem cells for retinal degenerative diseases: a new perspective on the challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the prodominant causes\\u000a of human blindness in the world; however, these diseases are difficult to treat. Currently, knowledge on the mechanisms of\\u000a these diseases is still very limited and no radical drugs are available. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are an innovative\\u000a technology that turns somatic cells into embryonic

Zi-Bing Jin; Satoshi Okamoto; Michiko Mandai; Masayo Takahashi



Outcome of the L5-S1 Segment after Posterior Instrumented Spinal Surgery in Degenerative Lumbar Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Posterior decompression, instrumentation, and posterolateral fusion are sur- gical procedures for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases. Solid fusion usually causes adjacent problems. This study investigated the clinical outcome and radiographic fate of the L5-S1 segment in patients who under- went posterior instrumented surgery for degenerative lumbar diseases. Methods: From January 1999 to December 2000, 181 patients (average age

Jen-Chung Liao; Wen-Jer Chen; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu


Degenerative Risks for Parkinson's Disease After Toxin Exposure and Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by deterioration of the dopamine (DA) nigrostriatal system. Loss of DA can be induced experimentally by neurotoxic lesion of DA neurotransmitter producing neurons in the substantia nigra, or through lesioning nigrostriat...

M. A. Ariano



Induced pluripotent stem cells for retinal degenerative diseases: a new perspective on the challenges.  


Retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the prodominant causes of human blindness in the world; however, these diseases are difficult to treat. Currently, knowledge on the mechanisms of these diseases is still very limited and no radical drugs are available. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are an innovative technology that turns somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES)-like cells with pluripotent potential via the exogenous expression of several key genes. It can be used as an unlimited source for cell differentiation or tissue engineering, either of which is a promising therapy for human degenerative diseases. Induced pluripotent cells are both an unlimited source for retinal regeneration and an expectant tool for pharmaprojects and developmental or disease modelling. In this review, we try to summarize the advancement of iPS-based technologies and the potential utility for retinal degenerative diseases. We also discuss the challenges of using this technology in the retinology field. PMID:20090205

Jin, Zi-Bing; Okamoto, Satoshi; Mandai, Michiko; Takahashi, Masayo



Chronic wasting disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer, elk, and moose in North America. This fatal neurodegenerative disease was first recognized 50 years ago and its distribution was limited to the Rocky Mountains for several decades. In the past few years, CWD has been found in the ea...


Chronic granulomatous disease  


CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... The condition is often discovered in very early childhood. Milder forms may be diagnosed during the teen ...


Chronic Kidney Disease  


You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...


Vitamin A derivatives as treatment options for retinal degenerative diseases.  


The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of both retinol and pro-vitamin A carotenoids. A series of enzymatic reactions, located in both the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium, transform retinol into the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, regenerating visual pigments. Retina specific proteins carry out the majority of the visual cycle, and any significant interruption in this sequence of reactions is capable of causing varying degrees of blindness. Among these important proteins are Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein (RPE65) known to be responsible for esterification of retinol to all-trans-retinyl esters and isomerization of these esters to 11-cis-retinal, respectively. Deleterious mutations in these genes are identified in human retinal diseases that cause blindness, such as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Herein, we discuss the pathology of 11-cis-retinal deficiency caused by these mutations in both animal disease models and human patients. We also review novel therapeutic strategies employing artificial visual chromophore 9-cis-retinoids which have been employed in clinical trials involving LCA patients. PMID:23857173

Perusek, Lindsay; Maeda, Tadao



Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: Current and Future Concepts of Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Low back pain as a result of degenerative disc disease imparts a large socioeconomic impact on the health care system. Traditional concepts for treatment of lumbar disc degeneration have aimed at symptomatic relief by limiting motion in the lumbar spine, but novel treatment strategies involving stem cells, growth factors, and gene therapy have the theoretical potential to prevent, slow, or even reverse disc degeneration. Understanding the pathophysiological basis of disc degeneration is essential for the development of treatment strategies that target the underlying mechanisms of disc degeneration rather than the downstream symptom of pain. Such strategies ideally aim to induce disc regeneration or to replace the degenerated disc. However, at present, treatment options for degenerative disc disease remain suboptimal, and development and outcomes of novel treatment options currently have to be considered unpredictable.

Taher, Fadi; Essig, David; Lebl, Darren R.; Hughes, Alexander P.; Sama, Andrew A.; Cammisa, Frank P.; Girardi, Federico P.



C5 palsy following anterior decompression and spinal fusion for cervical degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative C5 palsy is a common complication after cervical spine decompression surgery. However, the incidence, prognosis,\\u000a and etiology of C5 palsy after anterior decompression with spinal fusion (ASF) have not yet been fully established. In the\\u000a present study, we analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients who developed C5 palsy after ASF for\\u000a cervical degenerative diseases. The cases of

Mitsuhiro HashimotoMacondo; Macondo Mochizuki; Atsuomi Aiba; Akihiko Okawa; Koichi Hayashi; Tsuyoshi Sakuma; Hiroshi Takahashi; Masao Koda; Kazuhisa Takahashi; Masashi Yamazaki



Cervical Radiculopathy due to Cervical Degenerative Diseases : Anatomy, Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

A cervical radiculopathy is the most common symptom of cervical degenerative disease and its natural course is generally favorable. With a precise diagnosis using appropriate tools, the majority of patients will respond well to conservative treatment. Cervical radiculopathy with persistent radicular pain after conservative treatment and progressive or profound motor weakness may require surgery. Options for surgical management are extensive. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses, so the choice will depend on the patient's clinical profile and the surgeon's judgment.

Kim, Kyoung-Tae



Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal\\u000a fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries,\\u000a can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails,\\u000a surgery

Karin D. van den Eerenbeemt; Raymond W. Ostelo; Barend J. van Royen; Wilco C. Peul; Maurits W. van Tulder



Types and Prevalence of Coexisting Spine Lesions on Whole Spine Sagittal MR Images in Surgical Degenerative Spinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated types and prevalence of coexisting lesions found on whole spine sagittal T2-weighted images (WSST2I) acquired from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their clinical significance in surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Materials and Methods Coexisting spinal lesions were investigated using WSST2I from 306 consecutive patients with surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Severity of coexisting lesions was classified into four grades (0-3). Lesions of grade 2 and 3 were defined as "meaningful coexisting spine lesions" (MCSL). Degenerative spinal diseases were classified into three pathologies: simple disc herniation, degenerative spinal stenosis, and ligament ossification disease. The relationships between MCSL, gender, age, and primary spine lesions were analyzed. Results MCSL were found in 95 patients: a prevalence of 31.1%. Five out of 95 MCSL were surgically managed. The most common types of MCSL were disc herniation with 13.1% prevalence, followed by degenerative stenosis (9.5%) and ligament ossification diseases (6.8%). Older patients (age ? 40) showed a significantly higher prevalence of MCSL than younger patients. There was no significant difference between male and female patients. The prevalence of MCSL was significantly higher (52.4%) in ligament ossification diseases than in disc herniation or spinal stenosis. Conclusion Degenerative spinal diseases showed a high prevalence of MCSL, especially in old ages and ligament ossification diseases. WSST2I is useful for diagnosing coexisting spinal diseases and to avoid missing a significant cord-compressing lesion.

Han, In-Ho; Suh, Sang-Hyun; Kuh, Sung-Uk; Chin, Dong-Kyu



Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was first described in the 1950s and has become a paradigm for genetic neutrophil diseases.\\u000a It is characterized by recurrent infections with a narrow spectrum of bacteria and fungi as well as a common set of inflammatory\\u000a complications most notably including inflammatory bowel disease. Over the last half century major advances in management have\\u000a profoundly altered

Steven M. Holland



Grading of degenerative disk disease and functional impairment: imaging versus patho-anatomical findings.  


Degenerative instability affecting the functional spinal unit is discussed as a cause of symptoms. The value of imaging signs for assessing the resulting functional impairment is still unclear. To determine the relationship between slight degrees of degeneration and function, we performed a biomechanical study with 18 multisegmental (L2-S2) human lumbar cadaveric specimens. The multidirectional spinal deformation was measured during the continuous application of pure moments of flexion/extension, bilateral bending and rotation in a spine tester. The three flexibility parameters neutral zone, range of motion and neutral zone ratio were evaluated. Different grading systems were used: (1) antero-posterior and lateral radiographs (degenerative disk disease) (2) oblique radiographs (facet joint degeneration) (3) macroscopic and (4) microscopic evaluation. The most reliable correlation was between the grading of microscopic findings and the flexibility parameters; the imaging evaluation was not as informative. PMID:18839226

Quint, Ulrich; Wilke, Hans-Joachim



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.

Vijayan, V.K.



Sleep and Chronic Disease  


... found at . Sleep and Sleep Disorders ? Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ... of depression be monitored among persons with a sleep disorder. 4, 5 References Knutson KL, Ryden AM, Mander ...


Chronic Wasting Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The natural history of CWD is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spon- giform encephalopathy (BSE) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. CWD has many features

E. S. Williams



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation, and strongly associated with tobacco smoking, is estimated to cause >2.5 million deaths per year worldwide. Active smokers have more acute exacerbations, which correlate with long-term decline in lung function. The diagnosis, severity assessment and monitoring of COPD rely heavily but not exclusively on spirometry. Smoking cessation reduces exacerbation

S Singh



Clinical Experience of the Dynamic Stabilization System for the Degenerative Spine Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the dynamic stabilization system in the treatment of degenerative spinal diseases. Methods The study population included 20 consecutive patients (13 females, 7 males) with a mean age of 61±6.98 years (range 46-70) who underwent decompression and dynamic stabilization with the Dynesys system between January 2005 and August 2006. The diagnoses included spinal stenosis with degenerative spondylolisthesis (9/20, 45%), degenerative spinal stenosis (5/20, 25%), adjacent segmental disease after fusion (3/20, 15%), spinal stenosis with degenerative scoliosis (2/20, 10%) and recurrent intervertebral lumbar disc herniation (1/20, 5%). All of the patients completed the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The following radiologic parameters were measured in all patients : global lordotic angles and segmental lordotic angles (stabilized segments, above and below adjacent segments). The range of motion (ROM) was then calculated. Results The mean follow-up period was 27.25±5.16 months (range 16-35 months), and 19 patients (95%) were available for follow-up. One patient had to have the implant removed. There were 30 stabilized segments in 19 patients. Monosegmental stabilization was performed in 9 patients (47.3%), 9 patients (47.3%) underwent two segmental stabilizations and one patient (5.3%) underwent three segmental stabilizations. The most frequently treated segment was L4-5 (15/30, 50%), followed by L3-4 (12/30, 40%) and L5-S1 (3/30, 10%). The VAS decreased from 8.55±1.21 to 2.20±1.70 (p<0.001), and the patients' mean score on the Korean version of the ODI improved from 79.58%±15.93% to 22.17%±17.24% (p<0.001). No statistically significant changes were seen on the ROM at the stabilized segments (p=0.502) and adjacent segments (above segments, p=0.453, below segments, p=0.062). There were no patients with implant failure. Conclusion The results of this study show that the Dynesys system could preserve the motion of stabilized segments and provide clinical improvement in patients with degenerative spinal stenosis with instability. Thus, dynamic stabilization systems with adequate decompression may be an alternative surgical option to conventional fusion in selected patients.

Lee, Soo-Eon; Park, Sung-Bae; Chung, Chun-Kee; Kim, Hyun-Jib



Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

Richards, Bryan



MRI Assessment of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration with Lumbar Degenerative Disease Using the Pfirrmann Grading Systems  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate by MRI intervertebral disc degeneration in patients with lumbar degenerative disease using the Pfirrmann grading system and to determine whether Modic changes correlated with the Pfirrmann grades and modified Pfirrmann grades of disc degeneration. Methods The clinical data of 108 surgical patients with lumbar degenerative disease were reviewed and their preoperative MR images were analyzed. Disc degeneration was evaluated using the Pfirrmann grading system. Patients were followed up and low back pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the effect of back pain on the daily quality of life was assessed using Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results Forty-four cases had normal anatomical appearance (Modic type 0) and their Pfirrmann grades were 3.77±0.480 and their modified Pfirrmann grades were of 5.81±1.006. Twenty-seven cases had Modic type I changes and their Pfirrmann grades were 4.79±0.557 and their modified Pfirrmann grades were 7.00±0.832. Thirty-six cases exhibited Modic type II changes and their Pfirrmann grades and modified Pfirrmann grades were 4.11±0.398 and 6.64±0.867, respectively. One case had Modic type III changes. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant difference in modified Pfirrmann grade among Modic type 0, I and II changes (P<0.01) but no significant difference between Modic type I and II changes (P>0.05). Binary regression analysis showed that Modic changes correlated most strongly with disc degeneration. Follow up studies indicated that the VAS and ODI scores were markedly improved postoperatively. However, no difference was noted in VAS and ODI scores among patients with different Modic types. Conclusion Modic changes correlate with the Pfirrmann and modified Pfirrmann grades of disc degeneration in lumbar degenerative disease. There is no significant correlation between Modic types and surgical outcomes.

Yin, Guo-Yong; Ren, Yong-Xin; Hu, Zhi-Yi



Cantilever Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Upper Lumbar Degenerative Diseases (Minimum 2 Years Follow Up)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (c-TLIF) for upper lumbar diseases. Materials and Methods Seventeen patients (11 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age: 62 ± 14 years) who underwent c-TLIF using kidney type spacers between 2002 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated, at a mean follow-up of 44.1 ± 12.3 months (2 year minimum). The primary diseases studied were disc herniation, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), degenerative scoliosis, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degeneration of adjacent disc after operation. Fusion areas were L1-L2 (5 patients), L2-L3 (9 patients), L1-L3 (1 patient), and L2-L4 (2 patients). Operation time, blood loss, complications, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for back pain, bone union, sagittal alignment change of fusion level, and degeneration of adjacent disc were evaluated. Results JOA score improved significantly after surgery, from 12 ± 2 to 23 ± 3 points (p < 0.01). We also observed significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the fusion levels, from - 1.0 ± 7.4 to 5.2 ± 6.1 degrees (p < 0.01). Bony fusion was obtained in all cases. One patient experienced a subcutaneous infection, which was cured by irrigation. At the final follow-up, three patients showed degenerative changes in adjacent discs, and one showed corrective loss of fusion level. Conclusion c-TLIF is a safe procedure, providing satisfactory results for patients with upper lumbar degenerative diseases.

Hioki, Akira; Hosoe, Hideo; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Suzuki, Naoki; Shimizu, Katsuji



Comparison of Fusion with Cage Alone and Plate Instrumentation in Two-Level Cervical Degenerative Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assessed the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with cage alone compared with ACDF with plate instrumentation for radiologic and clinical outcomes in two-level cervical degenerative disease. Methods Patients with cervical degenerative disc disease from September 2004 to December 2009 were assessed retrospectively. A total of 42 patients received all ACDF at two-level cervical lesion. Twenty-two patients who underwent ACDF with cage alone were compared with 20 patients who underwent ACDF with plate fixation in consideration of radiologic and clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Robinson's criteria and posterior neck pain, arm pain described by a 10 point-visual analog scale. Fusion rate, subsidence, kyphotic angle, instrument failure and the degenerative changes in adjacent segments were examined during each follow-up examination. Results VAS was checked during each follow-up and Robinson's criteria were compared in both groups. Both groups showed no significant difference. Fusion rates were 90.9% (20/22) in ACDF with the cage alone group, 95% (19/20) in ACDF with the plate fixation group (p = 0.966). Subsidence rates of ACDF with cage alone were 31.81% (7/22) and ACDF with plate fixation were 30% (6/20) (p = 0.928). Local and regional kyphotic angle difference showed no significant difference. At the final follow-up, adjacent level disease developed in 4.54% (1/22) of ACDF with cage alone and 10% (2/20) of ACDF with plate fixation (p = 0.654). Conclusion In two-level ACDF, ACDF with cage alone would be comparable with ACDF with plate fixation with regard to clinical outcome and radiologic result with no significant difference. We suggest that the routine use of plate and screw in 2-level surgery may not be beneficial.

Lee, Jong-Won; Kwon, Ki-Young; Rhee, Jong-Joo; Lee, Hyun-Koo



Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Chronic Systemic Inflammatory Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in both the airways causing airway obstruction and the lung tissues causing emphysema. The disease is induced by inhalation of noxious gasses and particulate matter resulting in a chronic persistent inflammatory response in the lung, and the extent of the inflammatory reaction correlates with the severity of the disease. This

Stephan F. van Eeden; Don D. Sin



Plain film evaluation of degenerative disk disease at the lumbosacral junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Diagnosing degenerative disk disease (DDD) at the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) on plain films is often difficult, compared with\\u000a other disk levels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether criteria for diagnosis of DDD at the LSJ can be established\\u000a for plain films.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients  We retrospectively reviewed 100 lumbar MRI scans of patients who also had lumbar plain

Evan L. Cohn; Erik J. Maurer; Theodore E. Keats; Robert G. Dussault; Phoebe A. Kaplan



The features of degenerative diseases and their association with the loss of teeth in the elderly of East Jakarta (Indonesia).  


This epidemiological survey was conducted to find features of degenerative diseases associated with loss of teeth in the elderly. One hundred sixty-seven elderly (> or = 60 years old) people from local government health centers in East Jakarta, Indonesia were included in the study. The degenerative diseases (DM, hypertension, heart disease) were determined by physical examination, laboratory testing and questionnaires. Tooth loss was measured by the DMF-T (decay, missing, filling teeth) index. Oral hygiene condition was based on OHI-S (oral hygiene index simplified) index. The most common degenerative disease was hypertension (45.5%). DM was found a few (3.6%). Approximately 55% of respondents had moderate oral hygiene problems. The demand for professional dental care was low. There was no significant association between degenerative diseases and the loss of teeth. In conclusion, the loss of teeth was not associated with degenerative diseases, but may have been influenced by local factors such as a low demand for dental hygiene. PMID:18567460

Sudiono, Janti



Rehabilitation of chondral injuriesand chronic degenerative arthritis of the knee in the athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rehabilitation of chondral injuries and degenerative knees is challenging. Setting short- and long-term goals enables the athlete to cope with the psychology of injury while facilitating a return to sport. Rehabilitation must be gradual, progressive, and goal oriented for each individual. Protocols must include range of motion, flexibility exercises, strength training, and cross training. Compliance with all aspects off

Gene R Hagerman; John W. Atkins; Charles J Dillman



Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.



Optimization of Protein Crosslinking Formulations for the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

Study Design Biochemical studies aimed at optimization of protein crosslinking formulations for the treatment of degenerative disc disease and subsequent biomechanical testing of tissues treated with these formulations. Objectives To optimize protein crosslinking formulations for treatment of degenerating spinal discs. Summary of Background Data Non-surgical exogenous crosslinking therapy is a potential new, non-invasive technology for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The technology is based upon the injection of protein crosslinking reagents into the pathological disc to restore its mechanical properties and also to potentially increase the permeability of the tissue and so facilitate the exchange of waste products and nutrients. Methods Diffusion of genipin was monitored following injection into spinal discs and the effects of surfactants on diffusion studied. Formulations for genipin and methylglyoxal were biochemically optimized and used to treat bovine spinal discs. Their effects on bovine annulus tissue were evaluated using a circumferential tensile test, while the genipin formulation was also tested with respect to its ability to reduce disc bulge under load. Results Genipin exhibited a distinct time-dependent diffusion and sodium-dodecyl-sulfate, but not Tween-20, enhanced diffusion by 30%. Two crosslinkers, genipin and methylglyoxal, were inhibited by amines but enhanced by phosphate ions. Both formulations could enhance a number of physical parameters of bovine annulus tissue, while the genipin formulation could reduce disc bulge following injections into spinal discs. Conclusions Formulations lacking amines and containing phosphate ions appear to be promising candidates for clinical use of the crosslinkers genipin and methylglyoxal.

Slusarewicz, Paul; Zhu, Keng; Kirking, Bryan; Toungate, Justin; Hedman, Tom



[Prediction of outcomes of surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disk disease].  


The paper focuses on algorithms of outcomes assessment of surgical treatment of the patients with degenerative lumbar disk disease. From 1997 to 2006 389 patients with discogenic lumbar pain were operated in the Medical Center of Central Bank of Russia. 185 patients underwent radiofrequency destruction of facet nerves, laser percutaneous lumbar discectomy was performed in 39 patients, microdiscectomy -- in 131, and decompression combined with lumbar spine stabilization -- in 31 cases. Clinical and radiological data of each patient were recorded in the database using 3-point scale according to intensity of the feature. Assessment of patients' condition was performed pre- and postoperatively (after discharge and after 6, 12 and 24 months interval). Postoperative outcome was recorded for the current period in compliance with modified criteria of Kawabata et al. Obtained data were mathematically and statistically processed. Developed algorithms allowed assessment of postoperative outcome in the patients with degenerative lumbar disk disease. Outcome data can be used for evaluation of feasibility of surgical treatment as well as for selection of surgical technique. PMID:19505029

Zhuravlev, Iu I; Nazarenko, G I; Cherkashov, A M; Riazanov, V V; Nazarenko, A G


Chronic wasting disease  

PubMed Central

Until recently, chronic wasting disease of cervids, the only wildlife prion disease, was believed to be geographically concentrated to Colorado and Wyoming within the United States. However, increased surveillance has unveiled several additional pockets of CWD-infected deer and elk in 12 additional states and 2 Canadian provinces. Deer and elk with CWD have extensive aggregates of PrPSc not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral lymphoid tissues, skeletal muscle, and other organs, perhaps influencing prion shedding. Indeed, CWD is transmitted efficiently among animals by horizontal routes, although the mechanism of spread is unknown. Genetic polymorphisms in the Prnp gene may affect CWD susceptibility, particularly at codon 225 (S/F) in deer and codon 132 (M/L) in elk. Since CWD infects free-ranging animals and is efficiently spread, disease management will be a challenge.

Sigurdson, Christina J.; Aguzzi, Adriano



Anemia of chronic disease.  


Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) or inflammation may be secondary to infections, autoimmune disorders, chronic renal failure, or malignancies. It is characterized by an immune activation with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and resultant increase in hepcidin levels. In addition, inappropriate erythropoietin levels or hyporesponsiveness to erythropoietin and reduced red blood cell survival contribute to the anemia. Hepcidin being the central regulator of iron metabolism plays a key role in the pathophysiology of ACD. Hepcidin binds to the iron export protein, ferroportin, present on macrophages, hepatocytes, and enterocytes, causing degradation of the latter. This leads to iron trapping within the macrophages and hepatocytes, resulting in functional iron deficiency. Production of hepcidin is in turn regulated by iron stores, inflammation, and erythropoiesis via the BMP-SMAD and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Treatment of anemia should primarily be directed at the underlying disease, and conventional therapy such as red blood cell transfusions, iron, erythropoietin, and novel agents targeting the hepcidin-ferroportin axis and signaling pathways (BMP-SMAD, JAK-STAT) involved in hepcidin production also may be considered. PMID:23953340

Gangat, Naseema; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P



Dynamic Stabilization for Challenging Lumbar Degenerative Diseases of the Spine: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been currently the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine over the last 4 decades. In all over the world the common experience was formed about fusion surgery. Satisfactory results of lumbar spinal fusion appeared completely incompatible and unfavorable within years. Rigid spinal implants along with fusion cause increased stresses of the adjacent segments and have some important disadvantages such as donor site morbidity including pain, wound problems, infections because of longer operating time, pseudarthrosis, and fatigue failure of implants. Alternative spinal implants were developed with time on unsatisfactory outcomes of rigid internal fixation along with fusion. Motion preservation devices which include both anterior and posterior dynamic stabilization are designed and used especially in the last two decades. This paper evaluates the dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and talks about chronologically some novel dynamic stabilization devices and thier efficacies.

Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir



Postoperative Urinary Retention Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Cervical Disc Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) may cause bladder dysfunction, urinary tract infection, and catheter-related complications. It is important to be aware and to be able to identify patients at risk of developing POUR. However, there has been no study that has investigated the incidence and risk factors for the development of POUR following anterior cervical spine surgery for degenerative cervical disc disease. Methods We included 325 patients (164 male and 161 female), who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy due to primary cervical disc herniation and/or spondylosis, in the study. We did not perform en bloc catheterization in our patients before the operation. Results There were 36 patients (27 male and 9 female) that developed POUR with an overall incidence of 11.1%. The mean numbers of postoperative in-and-out catheterizations was 1.6 times and mean urine output was 717.7 mL. Thirteen out of 36 POUR patients (36%) underwent indwelling catheterization for a mean 4.3 days after catheterization for in-and-out surgery, because of persisting POUR. Seven out of 36 POUR patients (19%) were treated for voiding difficulty, urinary tract irritation, or infection. Chi-square test showed that patients who were male, had diabetes mellitus, benign prostate hypertrophy or myelopathy, or used Demerol were at higher risk of developing POUR. The mean age of POUR patients was higher than non-POUR patients (68.5 years vs. 50.8 years, p < 0.01). Conclusions To avoid POUR and related complications as a result of anterior cervical spine surgery for degenerative cervical disc disease, we recommend that a catheter be placed selectively before the operation in at-risk patients, the elderly in particular, male gender, diabetes mellitus, benign prostate hypertrophy, and myelopathy. We recommend that Demerol not be used for postoperative pain control.

Jung, Hyun Ju; Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Young-Yul; Park, Jangsu; Kim, Jong Bun



Spontaneous degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy in feeder pigs--a new motor neuron disease?  


A central nervous disorder occurred spontaneously in a herd of feeder pigs characterized by muscle fasciculations, convulsions, squealing, and acute death in numerous animals. Histopathology revealed a degenerative poliomyeloencephalopathy of brain stem and spinal cord consisting of neuronal hypertrophy, chromatolysis, neuronophagia, and satellitosis associated with Wallerian degeneration of ventral rootlets and neurogenic muscle atrophy of limb musculature. The sudden onset of clinical signs and the pattern of morphological findings were suggestive of intoxication. Though parathion was found in two animals, serum acetylcholine esterase activity and morphological findings were not compatible with an organophosphate poisoning. A hereditary disorder was excluded by genetic analysis. Summarized findings in the present cases are reminiscent of changes observed in ruminants suffering from patulin poisoning, a neuromycotoxicosis caused by Aspergillus clavatus. However, toxicological and microbiological investigations failed to identify the cause of this unusual and so far not described disease in pigs. Morphologically, lesion distribution and alterations of motor neurons resemble changes observed in equine motor neuron disease, spinal muscular atrophy of certain canine breeds, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) in man. Therefore, the term spontaneous porcine motor neuron disease (SPMND) is proposed for this new and unique entitiy. PMID:23227771

Wohlsein, Peter; Brügmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ina; Ammer, Hermann; Wolf, Petra; Baumgartner, Wolfgang; Peters, Martin


[Postural disorders as risk factors for the onset of degenerative diseases of the spine in meat-processing workers].  


The authors present a postural finding in 150 workers of the meat industry. The frequency of lumbar painful syndromes is 28.66%, and 6.66% for chronic cervical pain. In 97 workers without painful syndromes of the spine there were 63.9% of cases with a proper posture between the ages of 30 and 39 years. Kyphotic backs (21.9%) appear at the age of 50 to 59 years. In 53 workers with a clinically manifest degenerative disease, 13.2% of cases had a proper posture. In this group the percentage of persons with kyphotic backs was 50.9% in the age group of 30 to 39 years. Scolosis was present in 13.2% of cases. The authors suggest an individual approach to kinesitherapy, on the basis of a previous postural analysis of each patient. They emphasize the need for the reduction of excessive weight and give an important role to the education of workers, according to the ergonomic requirements of the work place. The authors point to the problem and the necessity of preventing postural disorders as early as the school age. PMID:1806779

Németh, E; Balint, Z



[Application of robotic assistance in surgical treatment of degenerative disease of lumbosacral spine].  


Robotic assistance has gained increasing popularity in spinal surgery recently. Robotic assistance provides higher effectiveness and safety especially in conditions of complicated anatomy. It also enables the novel, previously unavailable surgical techniques, such as GO-Lif for lumbar spine fusion. The aim of the study is to assess the applicability and effectiveness of the robotic assistance in surgical treatment of degenerative lesion of lumbar spine. 16 patients were operated with robotic assistance device (SpineAssist; MAZOR Surgical Technologies, Caesarea, Israel) between August 2009 and February 2010 in Spinal Department of Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia) with degenerative disc disease. Preoperative assessment included MRI, X-rays and high-resolution CT (slice < 1 mm). The CT is essential for preoperative planning using computed work station SpineAssist. The robot was utilized for automated intraoperative positioning of the instruments according to preoperatively planned trajectories. Basic parameters of surgeries were thoroughly recorded: overall surgery time, radiation dose (all manipulations were performed under fluoroscopic control), accuracy of screw placement relative to preoperative planning, which was assessed using postoperative high-resolution CT with 3D reconstruction. Particular interest of the study was focused on the novel fusion technique for lumbar spine: Go-Lif (Guided Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion). This fusion modality enables segment fixation with two screws only, it is comparable with pedicular screws in terms of stability, being far less invasive. It may be used standalone or together with TLIF techniques. Robotic assistance enabled optimal screw placement even in complex anatomical cases (thin pedicles and rotational deformity). No implant-related complications were recorded. Surgery time was much longer in first 2 cases, though in further it decreased nearly to conventional (without robot) surgery time. For radiation dose same tendency was observed--in first 2 cases all surgical steps were fluoroscopically controlled, in further cases--only for primary anatomy registration. Based on control CT, accuracy of implant placement with robotic assistance is 1 mm. PMID:21260933

Konovalov, N A; Shevelev, I N; Kornienko, V N; Nazarenko, A G; Zelenkov, P V; Isaev, K A; Asiutin, D S



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Effectiveness of the treatment of degenerative joint disease by Zeel injections was assessed on the basis of published work and our own experience, including the results of a study carried out in a group of 523 patients. The solution was injected into the affected joints, periarticularly and intramuscularly. We also assessed the product's tolerability. Women were predominant (71%) in

Andrzej Lesiak; Rainer Gottwald; Michael Weiser


Copper\\/zinc ratio and systemic oxidant load: effect of aging and aging-related degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that copper and zinc have pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties, respectively, so that their imbalance may be expected to condition oxidative stress status. Oxidative stress is relevant in aging and in age-related degenerative diseases. In this study, blood content of copper, zinc, and ceruloplasmin as well as of lipid peroxides were investigated in 81 healthy and 62 disabled

Andrea Mezzetti; Sante D Pierdomenico; Fabrizio Costantini; Ferdinando Romano; Domenico De Cesare; Franco Cuccurullo; Tiziana Imbastaro; Giuseppe Riario-Sforza; Franco Di Giacomo; Giovanni Zuliani; Renato Fellin



[Respiratory disorders during sleep in degenerative diseases of the brain stem].  


Sleep-disordered breathing may be present in patients with degenerative diseases affecting the brainstem. Indeed, this last structure contains the executive system of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (tegmentum of the pons), of respiratory drive (medulla oblongata and pons) and motor neurons of upper airways dilators (fifth, seventh, ninth, tenth and twelfth cranial roots). Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer frequently from insomnia, partly caused by nocturnal motor disability, and from REM sleep behavior disorder. In 20 percent of the patients, excessive daytime sleepiness is caused by a sleep apnea syndrome, with a partly levodopa-dependent upper airway dysfunction. In 40 percent of the patients, sleepiness mimics a secondary narcolepsy and may be associated with hypnagogic hallucinations. During supranuclear palsy, REM sleep is progressively curtailed with rare sleep-disordered breathing. Patients with multiple systemic atrophy may present a nocturnal stridor caused by laryngeal palsy and benefit from tracheotomy or continuous nasal positive airway pressure. Seldom sleep and respiratory studies in genetic ataxic diseases suggest a normal respiratory drive, occasional diaphragmatic dysfunction and night hypopneas. During amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the progressive loss of phrenic nerve leads to a diaphragmatic dysfunction, dyspnea and a lesser survival. Adequate ventilation is jeopardized during REM sleep with a consequent loss of this state. PMID:11924029

Arnulf, I; Derenne, J P



Characterization of intercostal muscle pathology in canine degenerative myelopathy: A disease model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  


Dogs homozygous for missense mutations in the SOD1 gene develop a late-onset neuromuscular disorder called degenerative myelopathy (DM) that has many similarities to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both disorders are characterized by widespread progressive declines in motor functions, accompanied by atrophic changes in the descending spinal cord tracts. Some forms of ALS are also associated with SOD1 mutations. In end-stage ALS, death usually occurs as a result of respiratory failure from severe functional impairment of respiratory muscles. The mechanisms that lead to this loss of function are not known. Dogs with DM are euthanized at all stages of disease progression, providing an opportunity to characterize the onset and progression of any pathological changes in the respiratory muscles that may precede respiratory failure. To characterize such potential disease-related pathology, we evaluated intercostal muscles from Boxer and Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs that were euthanized at various stages of DM disease progression. DM was found to result in intercostal muscle atrophy, fibrosis, increased variability in muscle fiber size and shape, and alteration in muscle fiber type composition. This pathology was not accompanied by retraction of the motor neuron terminals from the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes, suggesting that the muscle atrophy did not result from physical denervation. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that likely lead to respiratory failure in at least some forms of ALS and will be useful in the development and evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions using the DM model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24043596

Morgan, Brandie R; Coates, Joan R; Johnson, Gayle C; Bujnak, Alyssa C; Katz, Martin L



Pelvic parameters of sagittal balance in extreme lateral interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar disc disease.  


There is increasing interest in the use of pelvic indices to evaluate sagittal balance and predict outcomes in patients with spinal disease. Conventional posterior lumbar fusion techniques may adversely affect lumbar lordosis and spinal balance. Minimally invasive fusion of the lumbar spine is rapidly becoming a mainstay of treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease. To our knowledge there are no studies evaluating the effect of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) on pelvic indices. Hence, our aim was to study the effect of XLIF on pelvic indices related to sagittal balance, and report the results of a prospective longitudinal clinical study and retrospective radiographic analyses of patients undergoing XLIF in a single centre between January 2009 and July 2011. Clinical outcomes are reported for 30 patients and the retrospective analyses of radiographic data is reported for 22 of these patients to assess global and segmental lumbar lordosis and pelvic indices. Effect of XLIF on the correction of scoliotic deformity was assessed in 15 patients in this series. A significant improvement was seen in the visual analogue scale score, the Oswestry Disability Index and the Short Form-36 at 2months and 6months (p<0.0001). The mean pelvic index was 48.6°±11.9° (± standard deviation, SD) with corresponding mean sacral slopes and pelvic tilt of 32.0°±10.6° (SD) and 18.0°±9.5 (SD), respectively. XLIF did not significantly affect sacral slope or pelvic tilt (p>0.2). Global lumbar lordosis was not affected by XLIF (p>0.4). XLIF significantly increased segmental lumbar lordosis by 3.3° (p<0.0001) and significantly decreased the scoliotic Cobb angle by 5.9° (p=0.01). We found that XLIF improved scoliosis and segmental lordosis and was associated with significant clinical improvement in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. However, XLIF did not change overall lumbar lordosis or significantly alter pelvic indices associated with sagittal balance. Long-term follow-up with a larger cohort will be required to further evaluate the effects of XLIF on sagittal balance. PMID:23375396

Johnson, R D; Valore, A; Villaminar, A; Comisso, M; Balsano, M



Chronic granulomatous disease mimicking Crohn's disease.  


A 34-month-old boy with intermittent diarrhoea and abdominal distension from 2 months of age, a chronic microabscess of the cheek, gastric antral narrowing, and perianal abscesses containing granulomata was found at colonscopy to have extensive, noncaseating, submucosal ileal and colonic granulomata. He was initially thought to have Crohn's disease, but then developed a cervical abscess, and a diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease was established. This is an important, although rare, differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in childhood. PMID:3894611

Isaacs, D; Wright, V M; Shaw, D G; Raafat, F; Walker-Smith, J A



Stand-alone cage for posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of high-degree degenerative disc disease: design of a new device for an “old” technique. A prospective study on a series of 116 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lumbar pain due to degenerative disc disease affects a large number of people, including those of fully active age.\\u000a The usual self-repair system observed in nature is a spontaneous attempt at arthrodesis, which in most cases leads to pseudoarthrosis.\\u000a In recent years, many possible surgical fusion techniques have been introduced; PLIF is one of these. Because of the growing

Francesco Costa; Marco Sassi; Alessandro Ortolina; Andrea Cardia; Roberto Assietti; Alberto Zerbi; Martin Lorenzetti; Fabio Galbusera; Maurizio Fornari



COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)  


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) makes it hard for you to breathe. Coughing up mucus is often the first sign of ... common COPDs. Your airways branch out inside your lungs like an upside-down tree. At the end ...


C5 palsy following anterior decompression and spinal fusion for cervical degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Postoperative C5 palsy is a common complication after cervical spine decompression surgery. However, the incidence, prognosis, and etiology of C5 palsy after anterior decompression with spinal fusion (ASF) have not yet been fully established. In the present study, we analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients who developed C5 palsy after ASF for cervical degenerative diseases. The cases of 199 consecutive patients who underwent ASF were analyzed to clarify the incidence of postoperative C5 palsy. We also evaluated the onset and prognosis of C5 palsy. The presence of high signal changes (HSCs) in the spinal cord was analyzed using T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. C5 palsy occurred in 17 patients (8.5%), and in 15 of them, the palsy developed after ASF of 3 or more levels. Among ten patients who had a manual muscle test (MMT) grade ?2 at the onset, five patients showed incomplete or no recovery. Sixteen of the 17 C5 palsy patients presented neck and shoulder pain prior to the onset of muscle weakness. In the ten patients with a MMT grade ?2 at the onset, nine patients showed HSCs at the C3–C4 and C4–C5 levels. The present findings demonstrate that, in most patients with severe C5 palsy after ASF, pre-existing asymptomatic damage of the anterior horn cells at C3–C4 and C4–C5 levels may participate in the development of motor weakness in combination with the nerve root lesions that occur subsequent to ASF. Thus, when patients with spinal cord lesions at C3–C4 and C4–C5 levels undergo multilevel ASF, we should be alert to the possible occurrence of postoperative C5 palsy.

Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Mochizuki, Macondo; Aiba, Atsuomi; Okawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Koichi; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa



Modeling degenerative disk disease in the lumbar spine: a combined experimental, constitutive, and computational approach.  


Using a continuum approach for modeling the constitutive mechanical behavior of the intervertebral disk's annulus fibrosus holds the potential for facilitating the correlation of morphology and biomechanics of this clinically important tissue. Implementation of a continuum representation of the disk's tissues into computational models would yield a particularly valuable tool for investigating the effects of degenerative disease. However, to date, relevant efforts in the literature towards this goal have been limited due to the lack of a computationally tractable and implementable constitutive function. In order to address this, annular specimens harvested from a total of 15 healthy and degenerated intervertebral disks were tested under planar biaxial tension. Predictions of a strain energy function, which was previously shown to be unconditionally convex, were fit to the experimental data, and the optimized coefficients were used to modify a previously validated finite element model of the L4/L5 functional spinal unit. Optimization of material coefficients based on experimental results indicated increases in the micro-level orientation dispersion of the collagen fibers and the mechanical nonlinearity of these fibers due to degeneration. On the other hand, the finite element model predicted a progressive increase in the stress generation in annulus fibrosus due to stepwise degeneration of initially the nucleus and then the entire disk. Range of motion was predicted to initially increase with the degeneration of the nucleus and then decrease with the degeneration of the annulus in all rotational loading directions, except for axial rotation. Overall, degeneration was observed to specifically impact the functional effectiveness of the collagen fiber network of the annulus, leading to changes in the biomechanical behavior at both the tissue level and the motion-segment level. PMID:23083194

Ayturk, Ugur M; Gadomski, Benjamin; Schuldt, Dieter; Patel, Vikas; Puttlitz, Christian M



Segment-by-segment stabilization for degenerative disc disease: a hybrid technique  

PubMed Central

Patients with multisegmental degenerative disc disease (DDD) resistant to conservative therapy are typically treated with either fusion or non-fusion surgical techniques. The two techniques can be applied at adjacent levels using Dynesys® (Zimmer GmbH, Winterthur, Switzerland) implants in a segment-by-segment treatment of multiple level DDD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of patients treated using this segment-by-segment application of Dynesys in some levels as a non-fusion device and in other segments in combination with a PLIF as a fusion device. A consecutive case series is reported. The sample included 16 females and 15 males with a mean age of 53.6 years (range 26.3–76.4 years). Mean follow-up time was 39 months (range 24–90 months). Preoperative Oswestry disability index (ODI), back- and leg-pain scores (VAS) were compared to postoperative status. Fusion success and system failure were assessed by an independent reviewer who analyzed AP and lateral X-rays. Back pain improved from 7.3 ± 1.7 to 3.4 ± 2.7 (p < 0.000002), leg pain from 6.0 ± 2.9 to 2.3 ± 2.9 (p < 0.00006), and ODI from 51.6 ± 13.2% to 28.7 ± 18.0% (p < 0.00001). Screw loosening occurred in one of a total of 222 implanted screws (0.45%). The results indicate that segment-by-segment treatment with Dynesys® in combination with interbody fusion is technically feasible, safe, and effective for the surgical treatment of multilevel DDD.

Rohrbach, Nathalie; Berlemann, Ulrich



Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats  

PubMed Central

Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.



Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine — symptoms and surgical strategies depending on disease progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine is rare. Patients show signs of progredient myelopathy, radiculopathy\\u000a and pain. Treatment strategies include ventral, dorsal and combined fusion techniques with or without repositioning and decompression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study, we present 16 patients with degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis. The leading symptom was severe myelopathy\\u000a in 8 patients, radiculomyelopathy in 5 patients and neck pain in

Christian Woiciechowsky; Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale; Stefan-Nikolaus Kroppenstedt



Efficacy of ultrasound-guided steroid injections for pain management of midfoot joint degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injections for midfoot joint degenerative changes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The US images and radiographs of 63 patients with midfoot joint degenerative changes were retrospectively reviewed. In those\\u000a patients who had US-guided intra-articular steroid injection, the response to the injection was recorded by reviewing the\\u000a 2-week pain diaries and clinical notes. Partial or complete pain

Eleni E. Drakonaki; James S. B. Kho; Robert J. Sharp; Simon J. Ostlere



Chronic Kidney Diseases  


... pressure at a healthy level. Continue Kinds of Kidney Diseases Like any complicated machine, not all kidneys work ... to work the way they should. How Are Kidney Diseases Diagnosed? Kidney problems are often not noticed at ...


Anemia of Chronic Disease (Anemia of Inflammation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild-to-moderate anemia often develops in the setting of acute or chronic immune activation and is termed anemia of chronic disease (ACD) or anemia of inflammation. Anemia of chronic disease is the second most common type of anemia (after anemia of iron deficiency) and results in increased morbidity and mortality of the underlying disease. Anemia of chronic disease is mediated by

Neeraj Agarwal; Josef T. Prchal



Chronic Disease and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of chronic diseases such as asthma, cancer and birth defects (with respect to infant mortality) and their environmental causes. Special topics include disease tracking, biomonitoring, Hispanic Americans and environmental health, public health infrastructure, and bioterrorism. The site also features links to current news and related resources.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction


Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

Goldberg, Barry



Treatment of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can slow its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the therapies remain limited. Blood pressure control using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has the greatest weight of evidence. Glycemic control in diabetes seems likely to retard progression. Several metabolic disturbances of CKD may prove to be useful therapeutic

Jeffrey M Turner; Carolyn Bauer; Matthew K Abramowitz; Michal L Melamed; Thomas H Hostetter



Uromodulin and Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein) is produced in the kidney by cells of the thick ascending limb and distal tubule. Recent genetic studies suggest a role of uromodulin in chronic kidney disease. Mutations in the UMOD gene cause uromodulin storage disease. They code for amino acid substitutions that lead to misfolding of the molecule and its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Single

Karl Lhotta



Rethinking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex polygenic disease characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response to smoke, and results in a progressive and debilitating condition with declining lung function. The reasons why some smokers get COPD are not known.We suggest that corticosteroid resistance, which derives from oxidative stress, might actually be the cause of COPD and represent the starting

Antonella Tonello; Giovanni Poli



Genetics of Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current review collates what is already known of the genetics of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and focuses on new trends in genome-wide assessment of the inherited component of susceptibility to this condition. Early efforts to identify kidney disease susceptibility genetic loci using linkage and candidate gene strategies proved disappointing. More recently, genome-wide association studies have yielded highly promising results

Conall M. O’Seaghdha; Caroline S. Fox



Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

Goldberg, Barry



How Does Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease Affect the Disc Deformation at the Cephalic Levels In Vivo?  

PubMed Central

Study Design Case-control study. Objective . To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) on the disc deformation at the adjacent level and at the level one above the adjacent level during end ranges of lumbar motion. Summary of Background Data It has been reported that in patients with DDD, the intervertebral discs adjacent to the diseased levels have a greater tendency to degenerate. Although altered biomechanics have been suggested to be the causative factors, few data have been reported on the deformation characteristics of the adjacent discs in patients with DDD. Methods Ten symptomatic patients with discogenic low back pain between L4 and S1 and with healthy discs at the cephalic segments were involved. Eight healthy subjects recruited in our previous studies were used as a reference comparison. The in vivo kinematics of L3–L4 (the cephalic adjacent level to the degenerated discs) and L2–L3 (the level one above the adjacent level) lumbar discs of both groups were obtained using a combined magnetic resonance imaging and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique at functional postures. Deformation characteristics, in terms of areas of minimal deformation (defined as less than 5%), deformations at the center of the discs, and maximum tensile and shear deformations, were compared between the two groups at the two disc levels. Results In the patients with DDD, there were significantly smaller areas of minimal disc deformation at L3–L4 and L2–L3 than the healthy subjects (18% compared with 45% of the total disc area, on average). Both L2–L3 and L3–L4 discs underwent larger tensile and shear deformations in all postures than the healthy subjects. The maximum tensile deformations were higher by up to 23% (of the local disc height in standing) and the maximum shear deformations were higher by approximately 25% to 40% (of the local disc height in standing) compared with those of the healthy subjects. Conclusion Both the discs of the adjacent level and the level one above experienced higher tensile and shear deformations during end ranges of lumbar motion in the patients with DDD before surgical treatments when compared with the healthy subjects. The larger disc deformations at the cephalic segments were otherwise not detectable using conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Future studies should investigate the effect of surgical treatments, such as fusion or disc replacement, on the biomechanics of the adjacent segments during end ranges of lumbar motion.

Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Li, Weishi; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan



Chronic neuroinflammation in rats reproduces components of the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory processes may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the degenerative changes and cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria was used to produce chronic, global inflammation within the brain of young rats. Chronic infusion of LPS (0.25 ?g\\/h) into the 4th ventricle for four

Beatrice Hauss-Wegrzyniak; Pawel Dobrzanski; James D Stoehr; Gary L Wenk



Titanium Expandable Pedicle Screw for the Treatment of Degenerative and Traumatic Spinal Diseases in Osteoporotic Patients: Preliminary Experience.  


Osteoporosis is a major global health problem, with over 10 million people currently diagnosed with the disease. Although 80% of osteoporotic patients are women, a considerable number of men are also affected. Also, due to increasing life expectancy, the number of elderly patients with osteoporosis affected by degenerative and traumatic spinal diseases will increase further. Osteoporosis reduces bone quality through negative bone remodelling. Low bone quality can reduce the pull-out strength of pedicle screw, and negative bone remodelling can cause delayed bone fusion. However, pedicle screw instrumentation of the osteoporotic spine carries an increased risk of screw loosening, pull-out, and fixation failure. Our preliminary study aims to investigate the efficiency of expandable pedicle screws (OsseoScrew-Zodiac,® Scient'x® Alphatec Spine Inc, Carlsbad, CA) in osteoporotic spinal patients. All osteoporotic patients with degenerative and traumatic spinal diseases admitted in our department underwent a pre-operative spinal x-Ray and MRI or CT. Pre-operative clinical assesment of patients was based on the visual analog scale (VAS) and Owestry Disability (ODI) questionnaire-a disease-specific outcome measure. Ten osteoporotic patients were treated with expandable pedicle screws (OsseoScrew®). Post-operative clinical assessment of patients was based on the VAS and ODI questionnaire at 3 months and 1 year of follow-up. Post-operative radiologic follow-up was performed after 3 days (CT, x-ray); 3 months (xray); 6 months (spinal CT); and 1 year (spinal CT). Expandable pedicle screws improved pull-out strength as compared to standard pedicle screws in steoporotic patients with degenerative and traumatic spinal diseases. PMID:23023577

Gazzeri, Roberto; Roperto, Raffaelino; Fiore, Claudio



Chronic diseases among older cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: With the growing number of older cancer patients, the burden of chronic diseases among older cancer patients will become increasingly important. Chronic diseases often interfere with treatment decisions and prognosis for cancer patients. However, little is known about the occurrence of chronic diseases among older cancer patients. Aim: We aim to examine the frequency of pre-existing and subsequent chronic

L. D. Deckx; M. A. van der Akker; J. M. Metsemakers; A. K. Knottnerus; F. G. Schellevis; F. B. Buntinx



Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease.  


Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases has won the support of many surgeons. However, few data are available regarding clinical research on unilateral pedicle screw fixation associated with minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of lumbar spinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes in a selected series of patients with lumbar degenerative diseases treated with minimally invasive unilateral vs classic bilateral pedicle screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion. Patients in the unilateral group (n=43) underwent minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation with the Quadrant system (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee). The bilateral group (n=42) underwent bilateral instrumentation via the classic approach. Visual analog scale pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index scores, fusion rate, operative time, blood loss, and complications were analyzed. Mean operative time was 75 minutes in the unilateral group and 95 minutes in the bilateral group. Mean blood loss was 220 mL in the unilateral group and 450 mL in the bilateral group. Mean postoperative visual analog scale pain score was 3.10±0.16 in the unilateral group and 3.30±1.10 in the bilateral group. Mean postoperative Oswestry Disability Index score was 15.67±2.3 in the unilateral group and 14.93±2.6 in the bilateral group. Successful fusion was achieved in 92.34% of patients in the unilateral group and 93.56% of patients in the bilateral group. Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation is an effective and reliable option for the surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. It causes less blood loss, requires less operative time, and has a fusion rate comparable with that of conventional bilateral fixation. PMID:23937756

Lin, Bin; Xu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhang, Bi; Lin, Qiuyan; He, Mingchang



Grading of degenerative disk disease and functional impairment: imaging versus patho-anatomical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative instability affecting the functional spinal unit is discussed as a cause of symptoms. The value of imaging signs\\u000a for assessing the resulting functional impairment is still unclear. To determine the relationship between slight degrees of\\u000a degeneration and function, we performed a biomechanical study with 18 multisegmental (L2-S2) human lumbar cadaveric specimens.\\u000a The multidirectional spinal deformation was measured during the

Ulrich Quint; Hans-Joachim Wilke



Nutrition and chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at

Denis Fouque; Solenne Pelletier; Denise Mafra; Philippe Chauveau



Lumbago and radicular complaints: not always a disc hernia or degenerative stenosis of the spinal canal. A differential diagnosis of infrequent diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Low back ache and pain in the legs are not always due to disc displacement and lumbar spinal degenerative changes. Some infrequent,\\u000a but really not very rare diseases are presented in order to avoid mistakes which can have serious consequences for the patients.\\u000a Degenerative changes of the lumbar spine are very common, not only in aged people. A superficial

A. Benini




PubMed Central

Glomerulonephritis, often accompanied by the nephrotic syndrome, developed in CAF1 mice following the administration of spleen cells from normal BALB/c mice. The renal lesion was membranous glomerulonephritis. When studied with fluorescein-conjugated antisera to either mouse gamma globulin or ?1C-globulin, the glomeruli contained beaded and irregular deposits of these immunoproteins. The ultrastructure of the lesion was characterized by thickening of the glomerular basement membranes and the presence of electron-dense subepithelial deposits. Acid eluates of the diseased kidneys contained gamma globulin that failed to bind to sections of normal kidneys. These findings conform to the type of nephritis provoked by immune complexes. They indicate that this type of immune injury can be based on the reaction of intolerant immunocytes to normal antigens.

Lewis, Robert M.; Armstrong, Martine Y. K.; Andre-Schwartz, Janine; Muftuoglu, Asuman; Beldotti, Lorraine; Schwartz, Robert S.



Food insecurity and chronic disease.  


Household food insecurity has been previously hypothesized to promote dependence on inexpensive, highly palatable foods that are energy dense. Such dependence, and the cyclical nature of having enough food in the beginning of the month followed by food scarcity at the end of the month, could lead to weight gain over a short period of time. Such dependence on energy-dense foods and weight gain may play a direct role in the development of chronic conditions. Other compounding factors that result from exposure to household food insecurity have been well described, including pathways by which stress promotes visceral fat accumulation and chronic disease. This symposium review paper summarizes the literature on the link between food insecurity and the following: 1) diet, 2) weight gain, and 3) chronic disease, especially among women. This paper also proposes a framework for considering how the lived experience of household food insecurity may potentiate the development of chronic disease by activating the stress response among individuals at critical developmental periods in a food-impoverished environment. PMID:23493536

Laraia, Barbara A



Corticosteroids in infant chronic lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosteroids in infant chronic lung disease. C. May, A. Greenough. Chronic lung disease (CLD), defined as chronic oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, is increasing and associated with chronic respiratory morbidity and high health care utilisation at follow up. Many strategies, tested in randomised trials, have failed to reduce CLD. In contrast, corticosteroids if given systemically within the first

A. Greenough; Lung Biology; Anne Greenough


The p.A382T TARDBP gene mutation in Sardinian patients affected by Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonisms.  


Based on our previous finding of the p.A382T founder mutation in ALS patients with concomitant parkinsonism in the Sardinian population, we hypothesized that the same variant may underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) and/or other forms of degenerative parkinsonism on this Mediterranean island. We screened a cohort of 611 patients with PD (544 cases) and other forms of degenerative parkinsonism (67 cases) and 604 unrelated controls for the c.1144G > A (p.A382T) missense mutation of the TARDBP gene. The p.A382T mutation was identified in nine patients with parkinsonism. Of these, five (0.9 % of PD patients) presented a typical PD (two with familiar forms), while four patients (6.0 % of all other forms of parkinsonism) presented a peculiar clinical presentation quite different from classical atypical parkinsonism with an overlap of extrapyramidal-pyramidal-cognitive clinical signs. The mutation was found in eight Sardinian controls (1.3 %) consistent with a founder mutation in the island population. Our findings suggest that the clinical presentation of the p.A382T TARDBP gene mutation may include forms of parkinsonism in which the extrapyramidal signs are the crucial core of the disease at onset. These forms can present PSP or CBD-like clinical signs, with bulbar and/or extrabulbar pyramidal signs and cognitive impairment. No evidence of association has been found between TARDBP gene mutation and typical PD. PMID:23546887

Cannas, Antonino; Borghero, Giuseppe; Floris, Gian Luca; Solla, Paolo; Chiò, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J; Calvo, Andrea; Restagno, Gabriella; Majounie, Elisa; Costantino, Emanuela; Piras, Valeria; Lavra, Loredana; Pani, Carla; Orofino, Gianni; Di Stefano, Francesca; Tacconi, Paolo; Mascia, Marcello Mario; Muroni, Antonella; Murru, Maria Rita; Tranquilli, Stefania; Corongiu, Daniela; Rolesu, Marcella; Cuccu, Stefania; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna



Osteodystrophy in chronic liver diseases.  


Osteoporosis and osteomalacia are, to date, among the most common metabolic diseases in the world. Lately, an association between metabolic bone diseases and chronic liver disease has been increasingly reported, inducing many authors to create a new nosographic entity known as 'hepatic osteodystrophy.' The importance of such a condition is further increased by the morbidity of these two diseases, which greatly reduce the quality of life because of frequent fractures, especially vertebral and femoral neck ones. For this reason, early identification of high-risk patients should be routinely performed by measuring bone mass density. The explanation for the association between bone diseases and chronic liver disease is still uncertain, and involves many factors: from hypogonadism to use of corticosteroid drugs, from genetic factors to interferon therapy. To date, few studies have been conducted, and all with a small number of patients to establish definitive conclusions about the possible treatment, but some evidence is beginning to emerge about the safety and efficacy of bisphosphonates. PMID:22241574

Mansueto, Pasquale; Carroccio, Antonio; Seidita, Aurelio; Di Fede, Gaetana; Craxì, Antonio



Articular Chondrocytes from Animals with a Dermatan Sulfate Storage Disease Undergo a High Rate of Apoptosis and Release Nitric Oxide and Inflammatory Cytokines: A Possible Mechanism Underlying Degenerative Joint Disease in the Mucopolysaccharidoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) Type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy Disease) is the lysosomal storage disease characterized by deficient arylsulfatase B activity and the resultant accumulation of dermatan sulfate-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A major feature of this and other MPS disorders is abnormal cartilage and bone development leading to short stature, dysostosis multiplex, and degenerative joint disease. To investigate the underlying cause(s) of degenerative joint disease

Calogera M. Simonaro; Mark E. Haskins; Edward H. Schuchman



Cardiac Disease in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

The cardiac manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are numerous. Impairments of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular disease are well known to complicate the clinical course of COPD and correlate inversely with survival. The pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease in COPD is likely multifactorial and related to alterations in gas exchange and vascular biology, as well as structural changes of the pulmonary vasculature and mechanical factors. Several modalities currently exist for the assessment of pulmonary vascular disease in COPD, but right heart catheterization remains the gold standard. Although no specific therapy other than oxygen has been generally accepted for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in this population, there has been renewed interest in specific pulmonary vasodilators. The coexistence of COPD and coronary artery disease occurs frequently. This association is likely related to shared risk factors as well as similar pathogenic mechanisms, such as systemic inflammation. Management strategies for the care of patients with COPD and coronary artery disease are similar to those without COPD, but care must be given to address their respiratory limitations. Arrhythmias occur frequently in patients with COPD, but are rarely fatal and can generally be treated medically. Use of ?-blockers in the management of cardiac disease, while a theoretical concern in patients with increased airway resistance, is generally safe with the use of cardioselective agents.

Falk, Jeremy A.; Kadiev, Steven; Criner, Gerard J.; Scharf, Steven M.; Minai, Omar A.; Diaz, Philip



Bisalbuminemia in chronic kidney disease.  


Hereditary and acquired bisalbuminemia, in which the serum contains an albumin variant differing from albumin A by single amino-acid substitutions, have been reported in different races or ethnic groups and in association with various pathologic states. The importance of this rare condition in the pathophysiology of established diseases is uncertain. We evaluated a 68-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease who presented with worsened serum creatinine concentration despite lack of dietary or medical changes. Serum protein electrophoresis was performed with an automated rapid electrophoresis system. Bisalbuminemia was noted as an incidental finding on serum protein electrophoresis. The serum creatinine level stabilized with dietary protein restriction and a beta-blocking agent/diuretic combination for blood pressure control. Although the possibility that some physiologic or pharmacologic substances may not bind to abnormal albumin variants as well as they bind to normal albumin should not be discounted, the finding of bisalbuminemia did not influence the diagnosis, management, course, or prognosis of chronic kidney disease. The role of persistent bisalbuminemia in renal disease is uncertain. PMID:15480907

Ejaz, A Ahsan; Krishna, Murli; Wasiluk, Andrew; Knight, Janice D



Heritability of chronic venous disease  

PubMed Central

Varicose veins without skin changes have a prevalence of approximately 20% in Northern and Western Europe whereas advanced chronic venous insufficiency affects about 3% of the population. Genetic risk factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of both these chronic venous diseases (CVD). We evaluated the relative genetic and environmental impact upon CVD risk by estimating the heritability of the disease in 4,033 nuclear families, comprising 16,434 individuals from all over Germany. Upon clinical examination, patients were classified according to the CEAP guidelines as either C2 (simple varicose veins), C3 (oedema), C4 (skin changes without ulceration), C5 (healed ulceration), or C6 (active ulcers). The narrow-sense heritability (h2) of CVD equals 17.3% (standard error 2.5%, likelihood ratio test P = 1.4 × 10?13). The proportion of disease risk attributable to age (at ascertainment) and sex, the two main risk factors for CVD, was estimated as 10.7% (Kullback–Leibler deviance R2). The heritability of CVD is high, thereby suggesting a notable genetic component in the aetiology of the disease. Systematic population-based searches for CVD susceptibility genes are therefore warranted.

Krusche, Petra; Wolf, Andreas; Krawczak, Michael; Timm, Birgitt; Nikolaus, Susanna; Frings, Norbert; Schreiber, Stefan



Ghrelin in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often exhibit symptoms of anorexia and cachexia, which are associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Chronic inflammation may be an important mechanism for the development of anorexia, cachexia, renal osteodystrophy, and increased cardiovascular risk in CKD. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone. The biological effects of ghrelin are mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). The salutary effects of ghrelin on food intake and meal appreciation suggest that ghrelin could be an effective treatment for anorexic CKD patients. In addition to its appetite-stimulating effects, ghrelin has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The known metabolic effects of ghrelin and the potential implications in CKD will be discussed in this review. The strength, shortcomings, and unanswered questions related to ghrelin treatment in CKD will be addressed.

Cheung, Wai W.; Mak, Robert H.



Intradiscal pulsed radiofrequency application following provocative discography for the management of degenerative disc disease and concordant pain: a pilot study.  


The development of diagnostic criteria and the use of provocative discography allow identifying the degenerative disc as causative structure for chronic low-back pain. Unfortunately, none of the available interventional treatment options have been demonstrated to be effective over a prolonged period of time for a considerable number of patients. Pathophysiological studies indicate sprouting of sensory nerves and inflammatory processes as underlying pain mechanisms. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment in small and larger joints was described to reduce pain and improve healing by stimulating the immunology. Earlier findings of PRF applied in the disc annulus were promising. It is assumed that PRF applied in the nucleus would change the conductivity of nerve endings and provide a clinically relevant pain reduction. The application of the electric field of PRF in the disc may also activate the immune system, thus reducing the inflammation process of chronic pain. Pulsed radiofrequency in the nucleus was studied in 76 patients with discogenic pain confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and provocative discography. At 3-month follow-up, 38% of the patients had > 50% pain reduction, at 12 month the effect is maintained in 29%. In patients with unsatisfactory pain relief 3 months after the intervention, secondary pain sources may have been revealed. The latter were treated accordingly. Of all patients, 56% had > 50% pain reduction 1 year after first treatment. Our findings suggest that PRF in the nucleus may be considered for patients with proven discogenic pain. A randomized controlled trial to confirm our findings is justified.? PMID:22008239

Rohof, Olav



Neuropsychological Functioning in Chronic Lyme Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with

Holly James Westervelt; Robert J. McCaffrey



Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.  


Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease. PMID:12428915

Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J



Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.


Optimizing Disease Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem worldwide. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the US, and is projected to rank seventh in burden of disease worldwide by 2020. In contrast with a number of chronic diseases, COPD is most often associated with one or more co-morbid conditions, and this

Philip Corsello; David Tinkelman



Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease using anterior or posterior interbody fusion.  


Background. Anterior or posterior interbody fusion is performed to stabilise the mechanically inadequate segment of the lumbar spine. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion allows for simultaneous decompression of the spinal canal and restoration of the sagittal profile. Anterior interbody fusion allows for stabilisation of the segment without opening the spinal canal. The choice of technique has been the subject of much discussion. Material and methods. 111 patients with degenerative discopathy in the lumbar spine were treated surgically with either PLIF (Posterior Lumbar Intervertebral Fusion) or ALIF (Anterior Lumbar Intervertebral Fusion). The former group consisted of patients with nerve root symptoms; the latter, of patient with discogenic spinal pain. The outcomes were evaluated according to the Oswestry Index, the VAS, and patient satisfaction. Results. There were significant differences between groups in clinical presentation and radiological imaging. The main indication in the PLIF group was the need to decompress the nerve root. In the ALIF group, with no need to open the spinal canal, anterior fusion was performed from the extraperitoneal approach. In preliminary outcome analysis postoperative improvement was noted sooner in the ALIF group. Completion of the outcome analysis is in progress to assess the long-term effectiveness of these techniques. Conclusions. In my opinion the emphasis should be placed on early and proper diagnostic assessment allowing for the introduction of appropriate treatment including surgical intervention, at least in some groups of patients. PMID:17675984

Wójcik, Andrzej S



Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s disease)  


Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often seen in middle- ...


Rethinking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex polygenic disease characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response to smoke, and results in a progressive and debilitating condition with declining lung function. The reasons why some smokers get COPD are not known. We suggest that corticosteroid resistance, which derives from oxidative stress, might actually be the cause of COPD and represent the starting point of the pathology. The absence of response to corticosteroids would let the disease develop, impairing the organism capacity to suppress any kind of inflammatory process. Corticosteroid resistance may derive from smoke induced oxidative stress and plausibly impairs the organism capacity to suppress inflammation. Many factors may contribute to the development and persistence of corticosteroid resistance: inefficient antioxidant defences, a corticosteroid response less efficient or more sensitive to oxidative conditions, and also any other concomitant factor, environmental, genetic or intercurrent, which would contribute to amplify inflammation and hence oxidative stress. One or more of these factors might represent the variable component of the disease, which gives origin to COPD heterogeneity. This hypotheses may also explain why the disease persists after quitting smoking, as an inflammatory process severe enough to generate a strong oxidative stress may support itself by maintenance of corticosteroid resistance. PMID:21075542

Tonello, Antonella; Poli, Giovanni



GARD (Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Hundreds,of millions,of people,of all ages,suffer from,chronic,respiratory,diseases which include asthma and respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, occupational,lung,diseases,and,pulmonary,hypertension.,More than,500 million patients,live in developing,countries,or in deprived,populations.,Chronic,respiratory,diseases,are increasing,in prevalence. Although the cost of inaction is clear and unacceptable, chronic respiratory diseases and their risk factors receive insufficient attention from the healthcare community, government officials, media, patients and families. The Fifty-Third World Health

J. Bousquet; R. Dahl; N. Khaltaev



Kidneys in chronic liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL, occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state, reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones. The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis. Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development, natriuresis, urine osmolality, response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion, and rarely on renal biopsy. Chronic glomerulonephritis and obstructive uropathy are rare causes of azotemia in cirrhotic patients. AKI is one of the last events in the natural history of chronic liver disease, therefore, such patients should have an expedited referral for liver transplantation. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is initiated by progressive portal hypertension, and may be prematurely triggered by bacterial infections, nonbacterial systemic inflammatory reactions, excessive diuresis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea or nephrotoxic agents. Each type of renal disease has a specific treatment approach ranging from repletion of the vascular system to renal replacement therapy. The treatment of choice in type 1 hepatorenal syndrome is a combination of vasoconstrictor with albumin infusion, which is effective in about 50% of patients. The second-line treatment of HRS involves a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, renal vasoprotection or systems of artificial liver support.

Hartleb, Marek; Gutkowski, Krzysztof



Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease  

SciTech Connect

The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.



Health literacy and knowledge of chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to examine the relationship between health literacy and knowledge of disease among patients with a chronic disease. A total of 653 new Medicare enrollees aged 65 years or older who had at least one chronic disease (115 asthma, 266 diabetes, 166 congestive heart failure, 214 hypertension), completed both the in-person and telephone survey. Health literacy measured by the

Julie A Gazmararian; Mark V Williams; Jennifer Peel; David W Baker



Angiogenesis and chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing worldwide. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the importance of CKD as a risk factor in development of ESRD and in complicating cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been confirmed. In recent years, the involvement of angiogenesis-related factors in the progression of CKD has been studied, and the potential therapeutic effects on CKD of modulating these factors have been identified. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a potent pro-angiogenic factor, is involved in the development of the kidney, in maintenance of the glomerular capillary structure and filtration barrier, and in the renal repair process after injury. VEGF-A is also involved in the development of early diabetic nephropathy, demonstrated by the therapeutic effects of anti-VEGF-A antibody. Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 induces the maturation of newly formed blood vessels, and the therapeutic effects of Ang-1 in diabetic nephropathy have been described. In experimental models of diabetic nephropathy, the therapeutic effects of angiogenesis inhibitors, including angiostatin, endostatin and tumstatin peptides, the isocoumarin NM-3, and vasohibin-1, have been reported. Further analysis of the involvement of angiogenesis-related factors in the development of CKD is required. Determining the disease stage at which therapy is most effective and developing an effective drug delivery system targeting the kidney will be essential for pro-or anti-angiogenic strategies for patients with CKD.



Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is influenced by a number of dietary factors, including salt\\u000a and protein intake and energy balance (obesity).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a While the benefits of a low-protein intake in preventing the development of CKD are not firmly established, it is likely that\\u000a a high-protein intake is detrimental to individuals with even mild impairment

Srinivasan Beddhu


Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population.BackgroundThe extent of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Medicare population is relatively unknown. Also unknown is the effect of these diseases on patient survival before end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsPrevalent cohorts of Medicare enrollees from 1996 to 2000 were assessed for diabetes and CKD, presence of

Allan J. Collins; Shuling Li; David T. Gilbertson; Jiannong Liu; Shu-Cheng Chen; Charles A. Herzog



68 FR 3326 - Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Programs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Programs; Notice Federal Register...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Programs The Centers for Disease...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Programs. Table of...



Multi-resolution entropy analysis of gait symmetry in neurological degenerative diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  


Gait rhythm of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been studied focusing on the fractal and correlation properties of stride time fluctuations. In this study, we investigated gait asymmetry in these diseases using the multi-resolution entropy analysis of stance time fluctuations. Since stance time is likely to exhibit fluctuations across multiple spatial and temporal scales, the data series were decomposed into appropriate levels by applying stationary wavelet transform. The similarity between two corresponding wavelet coefficient series in terms of their regularities at each level was quantified based on a modified sample entropy method and a weighted sum was then used as gait symmetry index. We found that gait symmetry in subjects with PD and HD, especially with ALS is significantly disturbed. This method may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in monitoring disease progression and evaluating the effect of an individual treatment. PMID:17569571

Liao, Fuyuan; Wang, Jue; He, Ping



Cerebrospinal fluid Tau/?-synuclein ratio in Parkinson's disease and degenerative dementias.  


Although alpha-synuclein is the main constituent of Lewy bodies, cerebrospinal fluid determination on its own does not seem fundamental for the diagnosis of synucleinopathies. We evaluated whether the combination of classical biomarkers, A?(1-42) , total tau, phosphorylated tau, and ?-synuclein can improve discrimination of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and frontotemporal dementia. A?(1-42) , total tau, phosphorylated tau, and ?-synuclein were measured in a series of patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 38), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 32), Alzheimer's disease (n = 48), frontotemporal dementia (n = 31), and age-matched control patients with other neurological diseases (n = 32). Mean ?-synuclein levels in cerebrospinal fluid were significantly lower in the pathological groups than in cognitively healthy subjects. An inverse correlation of ?-synuclein with total tau (r = -0.196, P < .01) was observed. In the group of patients with Parkinson's disease, A?(1-42) , total tau, and phosphorylated tau values were similar to controls, whereas total tau/?-synuclein and phosphorylated tau/?-synuclein ratios showed the lowest values. Cerebrospinal fluid ?-synuclein alone did not provide relevant information for Parkinson's disease diagnosis, showing low specificity (area under the curve, 0.662; sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 25%). Instead, a better performance was obtained with the total tau/?-syn ratio (area under the curve, 0.765; sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 61%). Combined determination of ?-synuclein and classical biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid shows differential patterns in neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, total tau/?-synuclein and phosphorylated tau/?-synuclein ratios can contribute to the discrimination of Parkinson's disease. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:21469206

Parnetti, Lucilla; Chiasserini, Davide; Bellomo, Gianni; Giannandrea, David; De Carlo, Claudia; Qureshi, Mohamed M; Ardah, Mustafa T; Varghese, Shiji; Bonanni, Laura; Borroni, Barbara; Tambasco, Nicola; Eusebi, Paolo; Rossi, Aroldo; Onofrj, Marco; Padovani, Alessandro; Calabresi, Paolo; El-Agnaf, Omar



The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by chronic airflow limitation that is not fully reversible, with a precise definition varying between different management guidelines.The burden of COPD is considerable from all relevant viewpoints. From the perspective of society, the mortality is already considerable, and it is likely to increase from the sixth to the third most

P. Vermeire



Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J.A. Barbera `, V.I. Peinado, S. Santos. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its presence is associated with shorter survival and worse clinical evolution. In COPD, pulmonary hypertension tends to be of moderate severity and progresses slowly. However, transitory increases of pulmonary

J. A. Barbera; V. I. Peinado; S. Santos



Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


... available for COPD patients for education and opportunities to share experience with other patients and families. Will COPD ever go away? The term chronic in chronic ...


Chronic Kidney Disease in Octogenarians  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives There are limited data on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its clinical importance in the very old. We examined the prevalence of CKD in octogenarians and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional analysis of 1028 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars, we evaluated association of prevalent CKD with CVD using multivariable logistic regression. CKD was defined as eGFR of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. GFR was estimated using CKD-Epi creatinine and cystatin C equations that incorporate coefficients for age, gender, and race (eGFREPI, eGFRCYS3var) and the one-variable cystatin C equation (eGFRCYS1var). Prevalent CVD was defined as a composite of coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke. Results Mean age was 86 years, 64% were women, 86% were Caucasians, 14% had diabetes, and 39% had prevalent CVD. Mean eGFREPI, eGFRCYS3var, and eGFRCYS1var were 59, 62, and 70 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 51%, 46%, and 33% had CKD, respectively. Associations of CKD with CVD varied by equation in adjusted analyses: CKDEPI (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.03), CKDCYS3var (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.25, 2.23), and CKDCYS1var (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.55, 2.83). Conclusions Reduced eGFR is highly prevalent in octogenarians, and the eGFRCYS1var equation yielded the lowest prevalence of CKD but the strongest association with prevalent CVD. Because there are no validated estimating equations in the elderly, estimation of kidney function on the basis of on any one equation should be interpreted with caution.

Shastri, Shani; Tighiouart, Hocine; Katz, Ronit; Rifkin, Dena E.; Fried, Linda F.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Newman, Anne B.



The retinoic acid binding protein CRABP2 is increased in murine models of degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease with poorly defined aetiology. Multiple signals are involved in directing the formation of cartilage during development and the vitamin A derivatives, the retinoids, figure prominently in embryonic cartilage formation. In the present study, we examined the expression of a retinoid-regulated gene in murine models of OA. METHODS: Mild and moderate forms of an

Ian D. Welch; Matthew F. Cowan; Frank Beier; Tully M. Underhill



Evidence that bone mineral density plays a role in degenerative disc disease: the UK Twin Spine Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis are often considered to lie at opposite ends of a spectrum of bone phenotypes. Lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDD) may be associated with low back pain (LBP) and is similar in many ways to OA. LDD is reported in small studies to be associated with increased spine bone mineral density (BMD). The present work aimed to confirm this association in a large population sample using MRI and explore the relationship further, in particular to determine whether it is mediated genetically. Methods A population based sample (N=908, age range 32–74 years) of UK female twins having MRI of the lumbar spine was used in this study. LDD traits and summary measures and their relationship with BMD at the lumbar spine and hip were examined using multivariate multiple regression and maximum likelihood based variance decomposition. Results There was a significant positive correlation between LDD and BMD at the lumbar spine and hip, which remained significant after adjustment for confounders. Both traits were highly heritable and the associations between them were mediated genetically. Conclusions A clear, significant and independent association of BMD at hip and lumbar spine with LDD was found which is, in part, genetically mediated. The association with the non-axial site, the hip, is of particular interest and suggests a systemic bone effect. This should encourage the search for pleiotropic genes to help in the understanding of the bone–cartilage relationship. Moreover, genetic variants identified could provide novel therapeutic targets in the management of LBP.

Livshits, Gregory; Ermakov, Sergey; Popham, Maria; MacGregor, Alex J; Sambrook, Philip N; Spector, Timothy D; Williams, Frances M K



Thoracolumbar spinal cord compression due to vertebral process degenerative joint disease in a family of Shiloh Shepherd dogs.  


Five young Shiloh Shepherd Dogs (4 males and 1 female) related by a common sire were studied because of progressive pelvic limb weakness and incoordination. All dogs had a spastic paraparesis and pelvic limb ataxia consistent with an upper motor neuron and general proprioceptive lesion between spinal cord segments T3 and L3. Proliferative lesions involving one or more of the articular processes from the 11th thoracic vertebrae to the 2nd lumbar vertebra were observed on radiographs of the thoracolumbar vertebrae. Dorsal compression of the spinal cord was identified during imaging studies at these sites. Abnormalities of the synovial joints and bony proliferation of the involved articular processes were identified at postmortem examination in 2 dogs. The articular processes and associated vertebral arches protruded into the vertebral canal, indenting the dorsal surface of the spinalcord. Degenerative joint disease (DJD) was identified histologically. A compressive myelopathy was diagnosed in the spinal cord. These dogs were affected by a compressive myelopathy as a consequence of vertebral process DJD that likely has a geneticcomponent. The DJD could have been caused by a primary vertebral malformation or an injury to the processes at a young age causing malarticulation. PMID:12892304

McDonnell, John J; Knowles, Kim E; deLahunta, Alexander; Bell, Jerold S; Lowrie, Charles T; Todhunter, Rory J


Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic  


... doctor if you have a family history of celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have unintentional weight loss, ... common small bowel disease in the U.S. is celiac disease, also called celiac sprue. Crohn’s disease can also ...


Classification of degenerative arthritis.  

PubMed Central

It is suggested that the former division of degenerative arthritis into idiopathic types and those secondary to some disease process is no longer valid. Recent studies have indicated that abnormal concentrations of force on cartilage lead to the development of this disease. A classification is presented that is based on the assumption that the process is initiated by abnormal concentrations of force on normal cartilage matrix, normal concentrations of force on abnormal cartilage matrix or normal concentrations of force on normal cartilage matrix that is supported by bone of abnormal consistency.

Mitchell, N. S.; Cruess, R. L.



Regenerative Injection Therapy with Whole Bone Marrow Aspirate for Degenerative Joint Disease: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct injection of unfractionated whole bone marrow (WBM) into osteoarthritic joints in combination with hyperosmotic dextrose. Seven patients with hip, knee or ankle osteoarthritis (OA) received two to seven treatments over a period of two to twelve months. Patient-reported assessments were collected in interviews and by questionnaire. All patients reported improvements with respect to pain, as well as gains in functionality and quality of life. Three patients, including two whose progress under other therapy had plateaued or reversed, achieved complete or near-complete symptomatic relief, and two additional patients achieved resumption of vigorous exercise. These preliminary findings suggest that OA treatment with WBM injection merits further investigation.

Hauser, Ross A.; Orlofsky, Amos



Regenerative injection therapy with whole bone marrow aspirate for degenerative joint disease: a case series.  


Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct injection of unfractionated whole bone marrow (WBM) into osteoarthritic joints in combination with hyperosmotic dextrose. Seven patients with hip, knee or ankle osteoarthritis (OA) received two to seven treatments over a period of two to twelve months. Patient-reported assessments were collected in interviews and by questionnaire. All patients reported improvements with respect to pain, as well as gains in functionality and quality of life. Three patients, including two whose progress under other therapy had plateaued or reversed, achieved complete or near-complete symptomatic relief, and two additional patients achieved resumption of vigorous exercise. These preliminary findings suggest that OA treatment with WBM injection merits further investigation. PMID:24046512

Hauser, Ross A; Orlofsky, Amos



28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57 Section 79.57...Millers § 79.57 Proof of chronic renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent...



Ipsilateral atrophy of paraspinal and psoas muscle in unilateral back pain patients with monosegmental degenerative disc disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the cross-sectional area (CSA) of both paraspinal and psoas muscles in patients with unilateral back pain using MRI and to correlate it with outcome measures. Methods 40 patients, all with informed consent, with a minimum of 3 months of unilateral back pain with or without sciatica and one-level disc disease on MRI of the lumbosacral spine were included. Patients were evaluated with self-report measures regarding pain (visual analogue score) and disability (Oswestry disability index). The CSA of multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum and psoas was measured at the disc level of pathology and the two adjacent disc levels, bilaterally. Comparison of CSAs of muscles between the affected vs symptomless side was carried out with Student's t-test and correlations were conducted with Spearman's test. Results The maximum relative muscle atrophy (% decrease in CSA on symptomatic side) independent of the level was 13.1% for multifidus, 21.8% for erector spinae, 24.8% for quadratus lumborum and 17.1% for psoas. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between sides (symptomatic and asymptomatic) in CSA of multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum and psoas. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the duration of symptoms (average 15.5 months), patient's pain (average VAS 5.3) or disability (average ODI 25.2) and the relative muscle atrophy. Conclusion In patients with long-standing unilateral back pain due to monosegmental degenerative disc disease, selective multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum and psoas atrophy develops on the symptomatic side. Radiologists and clinicians should evaluate spinal muscle atrophy of patients with persistent unilateral back pain.

Ploumis, A; Michailidis, N; Christodoulou, P; Kalaitzoglou, I; Gouvas, G; Beris, A



Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation Associated With Degenerative Spine Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis.  


Study Design. A case report by Kara Krajewski and Jan Regelsberger.Objective. To demonstrate a case of intradural lumbar disc herniation including imaging studies, intraoperative imaging and an intraoperative video.Summary of Background Data. The first case of lumbar intradural disc herniation was reported as early as 1942; since then over 150 cases have been reported, mostly in the lumbar spine. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is considered the gold standard for diagnosing this entity, though it is rarely peformed routinely in lumbar disc disease and diagnosis is often made intraoperatively.Methods. A 70-year-old man presented to the emergency department as a referral complaining of lower back pain, loss of sensation in the right thigh and difficulty walking. On examination, he showed uneven gait, right-sided foot drop (1/5), hypesthesias in the right inguinal area and ventral thigh and a positive straight leg raise test on the right. Anal sphincter tone was within normal limits. An MRI of the lumbar spine showed a large mediolateral herniated disc at L3/4, with caudal displacement and unclear signal changes intradurally.Results. Intraoperatively, the herniated disc was found upon opening the dural sac.Conclusion. Intradural disc herniations are a rare entity. The opening and inspection of the dural sack should be considered when the correct spinal level can be confirmed and insufficient herniated disc material can be visualized extradurally. PMID:23462573

Krajewski, K; Regelsberger, J



BEST1-related autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy: a degenerative disease with a range of developmental ocular anomalies  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the spectrum of phenotypic characteristics of BEST1-related autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) in a family with p.V86M mutation. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical, psychophysical, and electrophysiological phenotypes of six subjects with ADVIRC. Five family members were sequenced for mutations in the BEST1gene. Results A heterozygous change, p.V86M (c.256G>A), was identified in the BEST1gene in the three affected subjects tested, and was shown to segregate with the disease phenotype. The distance visual acuity ranged from ?20/25 to absent perception of light. Clinical features observed included angle closure glaucoma (n=2), microcornea with shallow anterior chamber (n=1), iris dysgenesis (n=2), cataracts (n=4), classical peripheral concentric band of retinal hyperpigmentation (n=5), and optic nerve dysplasia (n=1). Full-field electroretinogram response amplitudes ranged from low normal (two cases; 27 and 32 years) to non-recordable (two cases; 42 and 63 years). Goldmann fields were normal in two (27 and 28 years) but were abnormal in two older subjects. Optical coherence tomography showed macular thinning in the proband, whereas his affected daughter had normal macular thickness. Electro-oculography showed borderline Arden's ratio (1.50) in the lone case tested (27 years). Conclusion ADVIRC is a slowly progressive vitreoretinal degeneration that demonstrates marked intra-familial phenotypic variability. Optic nerve dysplasia and iris dysgenesis are novel observations that extend the ocular phenotype of ADVIRC.

Vincent, A; McAlister, C; VandenHoven, C; Heon, E



Modulation of genomic and postgenomic alterations in noncancer diseases and critical periods of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic and postgenomic changes are extensively investigated in cancer research. Similar alterations, affecting genome, transcriptome, mirnome and\\/or proteome end-points, have been detected in a variety of other chronic degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis, degenerative heart diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, neurological disorders, eye diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, skin ageing and alopecia. No generalization can be made due to the myriad

Silvio De Flora; Alberto Izzotti



Deciphering Structural Intermediates and Genotoxic Fibrillar Aggregates of Albumins: A Molecular Mechanism Underlying for Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

The misfolding and aggregation of proteins is involved in some of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. The importance of human serum albumin (HSA) stems from the fact that it is involved in bio-regulatory and transport phenomena. Here the effect of acetonitrile (ACN) on the conformational stability of HSA and by comparison, ovalbumin (OVA) has been evaluated in the presence and absence of NaCl. The results show the presence of significant amount of secondary structure in HSA at 70% ACN and in OVA at 50% ACN, as evident from far-UV Circular Dichroism (CD) and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transformed infra red spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Tryptophan and 8-Anilino-1-Naphthalene-Sulphonic acid (ANS) fluorescence indicate altered tryptophan environment and high ANS binding suggesting a compact “molten globule”-like conformation with enhanced exposure of hydrophobic surface area. However, in presence of NaCl no intermediate state was observed. Detection of aggregates in HSA and OVA was possible at 90% ACN. Aggregates possess extensive ?-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and ATR-FTIR. These aggregates exhibit increase Thioflavin T (Th T) fluorescence with a red shift of Congo red (CR) absorption spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed the presence of fibrillar aggregates. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay of these fibrillar aggregates showed the DNA damage resulting in cell necrosis confirming their genotoxic nature. Some proteins not related to any human disease form fibrils in vitro. In the present study ACN gives access to a model system to study the process of aggregation.

Naeem, Aabgeena; Amani, Samreen



Deciphering structural intermediates and genotoxic fibrillar aggregates of albumins: a molecular mechanism underlying for degenerative diseases.  


The misfolding and aggregation of proteins is involved in some of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. The importance of human serum albumin (HSA) stems from the fact that it is involved in bio-regulatory and transport phenomena. Here the effect of acetonitrile (ACN) on the conformational stability of HSA and by comparison, ovalbumin (OVA) has been evaluated in the presence and absence of NaCl. The results show the presence of significant amount of secondary structure in HSA at 70% ACN and in OVA at 50% ACN, as evident from far-UV Circular Dichroism (CD) and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transformed infra red spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Tryptophan and 8-Anilino-1-Naphthalene-Sulphonic acid (ANS) fluorescence indicate altered tryptophan environment and high ANS binding suggesting a compact "molten globule"-like conformation with enhanced exposure of hydrophobic surface area. However, in presence of NaCl no intermediate state was observed. Detection of aggregates in HSA and OVA was possible at 90% ACN. Aggregates possess extensive ?-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and ATR-FTIR. These aggregates exhibit increase Thioflavin T (Th T) fluorescence with a red shift of Congo red (CR) absorption spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed the presence of fibrillar aggregates. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay of these fibrillar aggregates showed the DNA damage resulting in cell necrosis confirming their genotoxic nature. Some proteins not related to any human disease form fibrils in vitro. In the present study ACN gives access to a model system to study the process of aggregation. PMID:23342075

Naeem, Aabgeena; Amani, Samreen



Intervertebral disc replacement for cervical degenerative disease – clinical results and functional outcome at two years in patients implanted with the Bryan ® cervical disc prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. This is a prospective study of patients with degenerative cervical disease who underwent ventral discectomy and disc replacement\\u000a with the Bryan® cervical disc prosthesis. The objective was to investigate clinical outcome at 2 years of patients implanted with the Bryan® disc and to evaluate function of the implant itself.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Fifty-four consecutive patients with cervical disc herniation and\\/or

V. Heidecke; W. Burkert; M. Brucke; N. G. Rainov



A new classification system for degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine based on magnetic resonance imaging, provocative discography, plain radiographs and anatomic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior attempts to classify degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine have been based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity. Internal disruption of the disc is not reliably diagnosed by MRI alone. No attempt has been made to include provocative discography and plain radiographs. The intervertebral joint is a three-joint complex consisting not only of the end plate–disc–end

John S. Thalgott; Todd J. Albert; Alexander R. Vaccaro; Charles N. Aprill; James M. Giuffre; John S. Drake; Jonathan P. Henke



HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.



Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD.



Non-Hormonal Medications and Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter explores the relation between breast cancer risk and the use of non-hormonal medications and chronic diseases.\\u000a Many drugs and diseases have been linked with breast cancer in case reports and epidemiologic studies. This chapter covers\\u000a those major medications and diseases where there is adequate epidemiologic evidence for evaluation.

Patricia F. Coogan


Natural Histories of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working English men over 8 years, was used to construct a proposed life-long natural history. Although this is a

Stephen I. Rennard; Jørgen Vestbo



Clinical and Radiological Comparison of Femur and Fibular Allografts for the Treatment of Cervical Degenerative Disc Diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective This consecutive retrospective study was designed to analyze and to compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using a fibular and femur allograft with anterior cervical plating. Methods A total of 88 consecutive patients suffering from cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) who were treated with ACDF from September 2007 to August 2010 were enrolled in this study. Thirty-seven patients (58 segments) underwent anterior interbody fusion with a femur allograft, and 51 patients (64 segments) were treated with a fibular allograft. The mean follow-up period was 16.0 (range, 12-25) months in the femur group and 19.5 (range, 14-39) months in the fibular group. Cage fracture and breakage, subsidence rate, fusion rate, segmental angle and height and disc height were assessed by using radiography. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale and neck disability index. Results At 12 months postoperatively, cage fracture and breakage had occurred in 3.4% (2/58) and 7.4% (4/58) of the patients in the femur group, respectively, and 21.9% (14/64) and 31.3% (20/64) of the patients in the fibular group, respectively (p<0.05). Subsidence was noted in 43.1% (25/58) of the femur group and in 50.5% (32/64) of the fibular group. No difference in improvements in the clinical outcome between the two groups was observed. Conclusion The femur allograft showed good results in subsidence and radiologic parameters, and sustained the original cage shape more effectively than the fibular allograft. The present study suggests that the femur allograft may be a good choice as a fusion substitute for the treatment of cervical DDD.

Oh, Hyeong-Seok; Shim, Chan Shik; Lee, Sang-Ho



Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion  


... chronic conditions have one or more daily activity limitations. 5 Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, with nearly 19 million Americans reporting activity limitations. 6 Diabetes continues to be the leading cause ...


Serum elastase 1 in chronic pancreatic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Elastase 1 and immunoreactive trypsin were assessed by a RIA technique in the sera of 29 control subjects, 24 pancreatic cancer patients, 22 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 31 with extra-pancreatic diseases to ascertain and compare their usefulness in chronic pancreatic disease diagnosis. Increased levels of elastase 1 were detected in 60.9% of pancreatic cancer and in 61.1% of

G. Del Favero; C. Fabris; M. Plebani; A. Panucci; A. Piccoli; L. Perobelli; A. Burlina; R. Naccarato



Exacerbation phenotyping in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are crucial events but causes remain poorly defined. A method to clinically 'phenotype' AECOPD have been proposed, and 52 hospitalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations according to underlying aetiology have now been prospectively phenotyped. Multiple exacerbation phenotypes were identified. A subpopulation coinfected with virus and bacteria had a significantly longer length of hospital stay, and this pilot study indicates that exacerbation phenotyping may be advantageous. PMID:24164687

Macdonald, Martin; Korman, Tony; King, Paul; Hamza, Kais; Bardin, Philip



Controversies in Chronic Kidney Disease Staging  

PubMed Central

In 2002, a new chronic kidney disease staging system was developed by the US National Kidney Foundation. The classification system represented a new conceptual framework for the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (moving to a schema based on disease severity defined by the glomerular filtration rate). While the introduction of the staging system stimulated significant clinical and research interest in kidney disease, there has been vigorous debate on its merits. This mini-review aims to summarise the recent controversies that have been raised since the introduction of the new classification.

Polkinghorne, Kevan R



Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of the novel transcription method for selection of potential nerve root compression in MRI study in degenerative disease of the lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is characterized by symptoms related to the affected nerve root. A recently described method allows the classification of the roots in relation to the occurrence of compression on its course. This method can serve as a clinical selection tool and decision support for semi-invasive pain therapy in back pain patients. Material/Methods We examined 40 lumbar spine MRIs in 3 sessions of transcription each, according to the method being evaluated. Every MRI evaluation was performed by each of 3 different observers. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was calculated using chance-corrected agreement using a weighted kappa (?) value with quadratic weights to assess reliability for each nerve root separately. Results We found high intraobserver agreement in indication of the root with most pronounced interference due to potential compression by degenerative changes, at the level mean ?=0.81 (with 95% CI, range 0.04). Less agreement was observed in the interobserver evaluation test with the mean ?=0.75 (95% CI within the range not exceeding 0.03), although it still reached the substantial agreement. Conclusions This zstudy provides evidence for substantial inter- and intraobserver agreement for the decision support method allowing selection of the most serious nerve structure compression in degenerative disease of the lumbar spine based on of the MRI description.

Kubaszewski, Lukasz; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Gasik, Robert; LabedY, Wojciech



Lung Compliance and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a chronic inflammatory response of the airways to noxious particles or gases, with resulting pathological and pathophysiological changes in the lung. The main pathophysiological aspects of the disease are airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The mechanical properties of the respiratory system and its component parts are studied by determining the corresponding volume-pressure (P-V) relationships. The consequences of the inflammatory response on the lung structure and function are depicted on the volume-pressure relationships.

Papandrinopoulou, D.; Tzouda, V.; Tsoukalas, G.



Lumbar degenerative classification study.  


The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a classification of indications for fusion in lumbar degenerative disease. Nineteen spine surgeons reviewed a series of 32 case histories and selected the indication for fusion based on an outlined classification system. To determine the degree of interrater variability, K coefficients were calculated (K for all 32 cases, 0.63). Results from this study show the significant difficulty in classifying the indication for fusion in lumbar degenerative disease. The level of the 19 surgeons' agreement regarding surgical indication was only moderate, despite a study design that eliminated controversial issues of patient and procedure selection. To a significant extent, the difficulty in classifying indication for fusion underlines the importance of the process. If we cannot agree on why a specific patient is selected for fusion, it is then impossible to accurately compare outcomes for a given disease process or surgical technique. For this reason, an ongoing effort to refine nomenclature and classification is necessary. PMID:16689515

Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y; Dimar, John R; Campbell, Mitchell J; Johnson, John R; Puno, Rolando M



Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Complications  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disease impacting more than twenty million individuals in the United States. Progression of CKD is associated with a number of serious complications, including increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, anemia and metabolic bone disease. CKD patients should be assessed for the presence of these complications and receive optimal treatment to reduce their morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary approach is required to accomplish this goal.

Thomas, Robert; Kanso, Abbas; Sedor, John R.



Structural Studies on Acetylcholinesterase and Paraoxonase Directed Towards Development of Therapeutic Biomolecules for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases and Protection Against Chemical Threat Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase are important targets for treatment of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis, respectively, both of which impose major burdens on the health care systems in Western society. Acetylcholinesterase is the target of lethal nerve agents, and paraoxonase is under consideration as a bioscavenger for their detoxification. Both are thus the subject of research and development in the context of nerve agent toxicology. The crystal structures of the two enzymes are described, and structure/function relationships are discussed in the context of drug development and of development of means of protection against chemical threats.

Sussman, Joel L.; Silman, Israel


Comorbidities in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comorbidities such as cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hyper- tension, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders are commonly reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but with great variability in reported prevalence. Tobacco smokingis a risk factorfor many of these comorbidities as well as for COPD,makingit difficultto draw conclusions aboutthe relationship between COPD and these comorbidities. However, recent large epi- demiologic

Wissam M. Chatila; Byron M. Thomashow; Omar A. Minai; Gerard J. Criner; Barry J. Make



Updated guidelines for managing chronic kidney disease.  


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the most costly disease covered by Medicare, and two common causes of CKD, diabetes and hypertension, are increasing worldwide. More than 60% of Americans will develop CKD in their lifetimes. This article reviews updated guidelines for managing CKD in primary care. PMID:24103894

Dobkowski, Darlene; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane



Systemic Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects various struc- tural and functional domains in the lungs. It also has significant extrapulmonary effects, the so-called systemic effects of COPD. Weight loss, nutritional abnormalities, and skeletal muscle dysfunc- tion are well-recognized systemic effects of COPD. Other less well- known but potentially important systemic effects include an in- creased risk of cardiovascular disease and

Alvar G. N. Agusti



Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The intent of this review is to critically analyze the scientific evidence on the role of the glycemic index in chronic Western disease and to discuss the utility of the glycemic index in the prevention and management of these disease states. Background: The glycemic index ranks foods based on their postprandial blood glucose response. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, as

LS Augustin; S Franceschi; DJA Jenkins; CWC Kendall; C La Vecchia


Respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory failure is still an important complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hospitalisation with an acute episode being a poor prognostic marker. However, other comorbid conditions, especially cardiovascular disease, are equally powerful predictors of mortality. The physiological basis of acute respiratory failure in COPD is now clear. Significant ventilation\\/perfusion mismatching with a relative increase in the physiolo- gical

P. M. A. Calverley



Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The intent of this review is to critically analyze the scientific evidence on the role of the glycemic index in chronic Western disease and to discuss the utility of the glycemic index in the prevention and management of these disease states.Background: The glycemic index ranks foods based on their postprandial blood glucose response. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, as well

LS Augustin; S Franceschi; DJA Jenkins; CWC Kendall; C La Vecchia



Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death. Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD, but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of

John D Scott; Naomi Garland



Nutrition for Chronic Kidney Disease in Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is any disease that causes the kidneys to function less efficiently over a long period of time. In the early stages of CKD, the kidneys continue to work. They just dont do their job as well as healthy kidneys. Because the decl...



Aetiology of chronic suppurative lung disease.  

PubMed Central

Forty one (1%) of 4000 children referred for respiratory disease had chronic suppurative lung disease not due to cystic fibrosis. Further investigations showed congenital malformations in six (15%), primary ciliary dyskinesia syndrome in seven (17%), 11 had immunological abnormalities (27%), and two bronchiectasis due to aspiration (5%). Therefore the underlying cause for the disease was found in 63%. Identification of predisposing causes may facilitate prevention of further bronchial damage.

Nikolaizik, W H; Warner, J O



Major and chronic diseases, report 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blind spots in European health information\\u000aOn June 6th 2008 the European Commission has published the Major and Chronic Diseases Report 2007. This report describes the state of the art of health information in Europe on 13 prevalent chronic conditions. Large differences between the Member States of the European Union became apparent. \\u000a\\u000aFor example, as compared to the old Member

S. Giampaoli; H. van Oyen; W. Devillé; M. Verschuuren



Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary,disease (COPD) is characterised by an inappropriate\\/excessive inflammatory response of the lungs to respiratory pollutants, mainly tobacco smoking. Recently, besides the typical pulmonary pathology of COPD (i.e. chronic bronchitis and emphysema), several effects occurring outside the lungs have been described, the so- called systemic effects of COPD. These effects are clinically relevant because they modify,and can help

A. G. N. Agusti; A. Noguera; J. Sauleda; E. Sala; J. Pons; X. Busquets



Chronic myelogenous leukemia: mechanisms underlying disease progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), characterized by the BCR-ABL gene rearrangement, has been extensively studied. Significant progress has been made in the area of BCR-ABL-mediated intracellular signaling, which has led to a better understanding of BCR-ABL-mediated clinical features in chronic phase CML. Disease progression and blast crisis CML is associated with characteristic non-random cytogenetic and molecular events. These can be viewed

AS Shet; BN Jahagirdar; CM Verfaillie



Systemic Diseases and Chronic Rhinosinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many systemic diseases can cause nasal symptoms, either as an initial presentation or a manifestation later in the disease process. When patients present with nasal symptoms resembling infection—such as purulent nasal discharge, crusting, and congestion—acute rhinosinusitis is likely to be diagnosed. However, when these symptoms persist despite appropriate medical therapy, other etiologies should be considered. In some cases, underlying inflammation

Christine Reger; Christina F. Herrera; Megan Abbott; Alexander G. Chiu


Framing international trade and chronic disease.  


There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia S; Lencucha, Raphael



Framing international trade and chronic disease  

PubMed Central

There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.




PubMed Central

Soluble Klotho (sKl) in the circulation can be generated directly by alterative splicing of the Klotho transcript or the extracellular domain of membrane Klotho can be released from membrane-anchored Klotho on the cell surface. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sKl, acts as hormonal factor and plays important roles in anti-aging, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, and Wnt signaling. Emerging evidence reveals that Klotho deficiency is an early biomarker for chronic kidney diseases as well as a pathogenic factor. Klotho deficiency is associated with progression and chronic complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In multiple experimental models, replacement of sKl, or manipulated up-regulation of endogenous Klotho protect the kidney from renal insults, preserve kidney function, and suppress renal fibrosis, in chronic kidney disease. Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease.

Hu, Ming Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.



COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... COPD and emphysema. Exposure to other irritants and pollution can also harm the lungs. There are also ... associated with these diseases. Avoiding other irritants and pollution is also important. Likewise, repairing lung damage is ...


Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder  


... Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder On this page: What is ... More Information Acknowledgments What is chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)? CKD-MBD occurs ...


Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage  

PubMed Central

Inadequate dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are widespread, most likely due to excessive consumption of energy-rich, micronutrient-poor, refined food. Inadequate intakes may result in chronic metabolic disruption, including mitochondrial decay. Deficiencies in many micronutrients cause DNA damage, such as chromosome breaks, in cultured human cells or in vivo. Some of these deficiencies also cause mitochondrial decay with oxidant leakage and cellular aging and are associated with late onset diseases such as cancer. I propose DNA damage and late onset disease are consequences of a triage allocation response to micronutrient scarcity. Episodic shortages of micronutrients were common during evolution. Natural selection favors short-term survival at the expense of long-term health. I hypothesize that short-term survival was achieved by allocating scarce micronutrients by triage, in part through an adjustment of the binding affinity of proteins for required micronutrients. If this hypothesis is correct, micronutrient deficiencies that trigger the triage response would accelerate cancer, aging, and neural decay but would leave critical metabolic functions, such as ATP production, intact. Evidence that micronutrient malnutrition increases late onset diseases, such as cancer, is discussed. A multivitamin-mineral supplement is one low-cost way to ensure intake of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients throughout life.

Ames, Bruce N.



The potential impact of anaemia of chronic disease in COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD), with chronically low levels of circulating haemoglobin, is an immune driven abnormality that occurs in many inflammatory diseases, and also in chronic heart failure. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is ''traditionally'' associated with polycythaemia, the systemic inflammation that is now recognised as a feature of COPD makes it a possible cause of ACD. If

T. Similowski; A. Agusti; W. MacNee; B. Schonhofer



Long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following stand-alone PLIF surgery using expandable cylindrical threaded cages in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Although posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using stand-alone cages was a popular arthrodesis method, the effectiveness\\u000a of using such cages has been questioned. We assessed retrospectively the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of PLIF\\u000a surgery using stand-alone cages for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disease, the incidences of pseudoarthrosis,\\u000a and its risk factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between May 2000 and May 2005,

Jin Hoon Park; Sung Woo Roh



ACR Appropriateness Criteria chronic chest pain-low to intermediate probability of coronary artery disease.  


Chronic chest pain can arise from a variety of etiologies. However, of those potential causes, the most life-threatening include cardiac disease. Chronic cardiac chest pain may be caused either by ischemia or atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or by other cardiac-related etiologies, such as pericardial disease. To consider in patients, especially those who are at low risk for coronary artery disease, are etiologies of chronic noncardiac chest pain. Noncardiac chest pain is most commonly related to gastroesophageal reflux disease or other esophageal diseases. Alternatively, it may be related to costochondritis, arthritic or degenerative diseases, old trauma, primary or metastatic tumors, or pleural disease. Rarely, noncardiac chest pain may be referred pain from organ systems below the diaphragm, such as the gallbladder. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:23542027

Woodard, Pamela K; White, Richard D; Abbara, Suhny; Araoz, Philip A; Cury, Ricardo C; Dorbala, Sharmila; Earls, James P; Hoffmann, Udo; Hsu, Joe Y; Jacobs, Jill E; Javidan-Nejad, Cylen; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Mammen, Leena; Martin, Edward T; Ryan, Thomas; Shah, Amar B; Steiner, Robert M; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; White, Charles S



Kimura's disease in a chronic hemodialysis patient.  


Eosinophilia is not an uncommon finding in chronic dialysis patients. It is usually benign in nature although definite pathogenesis is unknown. We have encountered a young uremic Chinese adult who developed Kimura's disease after being on maintenance hemodialysis for about 3 years. Asymptomatic eosinophilia had been noted for 1 year and 8 months prior to the development of progressively enlarged neck masses, which leads to the diagnosis of Kimura's disease. In contrast to most cases, eosinophilia was first noticed before the neck masses appeared. There is often a close correlation between Kimura's disease and glomerular disease, where renal involvement is considered as a systemic manifestation. However, we do not have strong evidence to support this relationship between terminal renal failure and Kimura's disease in this patient. To our knowledge, our patient is the first reported case of Kimura's disease occurring in chronic hemodialysis patients. Eosinophilia persisted for nearly 2 years before the neck mass developed and recurred after the excision. Besides, our patient also demonstrated a chronic and recurrent course typical of Kimura's disease. PMID:11275632

Lee, C T; Huang, C C; Lam, K K; Chen, J B


Chronic pain: a non-use disease.  


One of the major problems in modern medicine is to find remedies for the group of people with chronic pain syndromes. Low back pain is one of the most frequent syndromes and perhaps the most invalidating of all of them. Chronic pain seems to develop through several pathways affecting the spinal cord and the brain: (1) neuro-anatomical reorganisation, (2) neuro-physiological changes, and (3) activation of glia cells (immune reaction in the central nervous system). Although all of these pathways seem to provide a (partial) plausible explanation for chronic pain, treatments influencing these pathways often fail to alleviate chronic pain patients. This could be because of the probability that chronic pain develops by all three mechanisms of disease. A treatment influencing just one of these mechanisms can only be partially successful. Other factors that seem to contribute to the development of chronic pain are psychosocial. Fear, attention and anxiety are part of the chronic pain syndrome being cause or consequence. The three pathways and the psycho-emotional factors constitute a psycho-neuro-immunological substrate for chronic pain syndromes; a substrate which resembles the substrate for phantom pain and functional invalidity after stroke. Both phantom pain and functional invalidity are considered non-use syndromes. The similarity of the substrate of both these two neurological disorders and chronic pain makes it reasonable to consider chronic pain a non-use disease (the hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we developed a "paradoxal pain therapy". A therapy which combines the constraint induced movement therapy and strategies to dissociate pain from conditioning factors like fear, anxiety and attention. The aim of the therapy is to establish a behaviour perpendicular on the pathological pain-behaviour. Clinically, the treatment seems promising, although we just have preliminary results. Further clinical and laboratory studies are needed to measure eventual changes at neuro-anatomical and neuro-psychological level using modern neuro-imaging instruments (PET, SPECT, fMRI). Randomised clinical trials should be carried out to test our hypothesis for all-day use in clinical practice. The hypothesis: chronic pain is a non-use disease produced by psycho-emotional factors like fear, attention and anxiety. Optimal treatment should be based on physiological use, and dissociation of pain and the mentioned psycho-emotional factors. Paradoxal pain therapy could serve these treatment conditions. PMID:17071012

Pruimboom, L; van Dam, A C



Chronic Kidney Disease Is Associated with Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a dramatically increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Few prior studies have examined the independent association of CKD with coronary anatomy. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between CKD and severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in 261 male veterans with nuclear perfusion imaging tests suggesting coronary ischemia. We used chart review and patient and

Michel Chonchol; Jeff Whittle; Angela Desbien; Michelle B. Orner; Laura A. Petersen; Nancy R. Kressin



Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease.  


The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals (R) during metabolism is a necessary and normal process that ideally is compensated for by an elaborate endogenous antioxidant system. However, due to many environmental, lifestyle, and pathological situations, excess radicals can accumulate, resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases that account for a major portion of deaths today. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or prevent oxidative stress. This article examines the process of oxidative stress and the pathways by which it relates to many chronic diseases. We also discuss the role that endogenous and exogenous antioxidants may play in controlling oxidation and review the evidence of their roles in preventing disease. PMID:15462130

Willcox, Joye K; Ash, Sarah L; Catignani, George L



Cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been associated with cognitive impairment, the relation between lesser degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive impairment is less well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the cognitive function in patients with varying severity of CKD using P3 event-related potentials (P3ERPs). Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 15 neuro- logically

Pankaj Madan; Om P. Kalra; Sunil Agarwal; Om P. Tandon


Anemia in children with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Anemia is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, but the management of anemia in children is complex. Erythropoietin and supplemental iron are used to maintain hemoglobin levels. The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) clinical practice guidelines for the management of anemia specifically in children were recently published. Pediatric nephrologists are encouraged to use current clinical practice guidelines and best evidence in conjunction with their clinical experience to optimally manage patients with anemia.

Koshy, Susan M.



Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a complex, immune phenomenon that occurs after allogeneic stem cell transplant\\u000a (SCT) and resembles a plethora of autoimmune diseases [1]. It can have minimal features like a dry eye or can be disabling\\u000a with sclerodermatous fascitis and bronchiolitis obliterans. The incidence and time course is variable. Despite improvement\\u000a in other areas of SCT, little significant

Madan Jagasia; Steven Pavletic


Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years there have been major improvements in the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However,\\u000a most of the available epidemiological data stem from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registries and information on the earlier\\u000a stages of pediatric CKD is still limited. The median reported incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children aged\\u000a 0–19 years

Jérôme Harambat; Karlijn J. van Stralen; Jon Jin Kim; E. Jane Tizard


New Therapies for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem which is increasing throughout the world and a major cause of death. However, current therapies fail to prevent disease progression or mortality. The mainstay of current drug therapy are long-acting bronchodilators; several longer-acting inhaled ?2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists (and combinations) are now in development. No treatments have so far

Peter J. Barnes



Framing international trade and chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income\\u000a countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging\\u000a products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic\\u000a framework which

Ronald Labonté; Katia S Mohindra; Raphael Lencucha



End stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) die each year as those with lung cancer but current guidelines make few recommendations on the care for the most severe patients i.e. those with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages III and IV with chronic respiratory failure. Only smoking cessation and long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improve survival in COPD. Although non invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) may have an adjunctive role in the management of chronic respiratory insufficiency there is little evidence for its use in the routine management of stable hypercapnic COPD patients. At difference, several prospective, randomised, controlled studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses show good level of evidence for clinical efficacy of NPPV in the treatment of acute on chronic respiratory failure due to acute exacerbations of COPD. NPPV is also alternative to invasive ventilation for symptom relief in end stage COPD. Surgical interventions for end stage COPD like bullectomy, different modalities of lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are likely to be of value to only a small percentage of patients. Nevertheless, there are specific indications, which, when added to pulmonary rehabilitation will further advance exercise capacity and quality of life. As in other chronic diseases when severity of disease increases along the natural history, therapy aimed to prolong life becomes less and less important in comparison to palliative therapy aimed to relieve symptoms. The most effective treatments for dyspnoea are bronchodilators, although also opiates may improve dyspnoea. Supplemental oxygen reduce exertional breathlessness and improve exercise tolerance in hypoxaemic COPD patients. There are difficulties in treating with antidepressant the frail and elderly COPD patients. Good clinical care can prevent or alleviate suffering by assessing symptoms and providing psychological and social support to the patients and their families. PMID:19462352

Ambrosino, Nicolino; Gherardi, Marco; Carpenè, Nicoletta



Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Unanswered Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Magnesium ion is critical for life and is integrally involved in cellular function and a key component of normal bone mineral. In health, the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and bone are responsible for maintaining serum magnesium concentrations in the normal range and magnesium balance. Most clinical disorders involving magnesium, other than chronic kidney disease (CKD), result in hypomagnesemia, either from

David M. Spiegel



Dental disease in children with chronic illness  

PubMed Central

We focus on the role of the general paediatrician in promoting the importance of good dental health for all children and in particular those children "at risk". We present preventive measures, evidence based where available, that may improve dental care and promote the role of paediatric dental services in the multidisciplinary management of chronic disease.

Foster, H; Fitzgerald, J



Theophylline in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although theophylline has side effects when used in bronchodilator doses, increasing evidence shows that it has significant antiinflam- matory effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at lower plasma concentrations. These antiinflammatory effects are unlikely to be accounted for by phosphodiesterase inhibition or adenosine receptor antagonism, which require higher concentrations. There isnowevidencethattheophyllineatlowtherapeuticconcentrations is an activator of histone deacetylases and that this

Peter J. Barnes



Update on Pregnancy in Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been considered a dangerous event both for the mother and for the fetus. However, increasing evidence shows that the stage of CKD is the leading factor that can predict possible acceleration in the declining of renal function and complications of pregnancy. This review summarizes recent data on pregnancy

Giuseppe Castellano; Vincenzo Losappio; Loreto Gesualdo



Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included




Gene Therapy for Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of gene mutations responsible for leukocyte dysfunction along with the application of gene transfer technology has made genetic correction of such disorders possible. Much of the research into molecular therapy for inherited disorders of phagocytes has been focused on chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). CGD results from mutations in any one of the four genes encoding essential subunits of respiratory

W. Scott Goebel; Mary C. Dinauer



Fluid homeostasis in chronic obstructive lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to massive oedema and the development of what is usually called cor pulmonale. The mechanisms by which patients with COPD retain salt and water are not completely understood. Several abnormalities have been found including reduced renal blood flow with relatively preserved glomerular filtration rate and elevated levels of renin, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin and

P. W. de Leeuw; A. Dees



Dietary Fiber and the Relationship to Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventative medicine is targeting chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Intake of dietary fiber has beneficial effects on the risk factors for developing several chronic diseases. Dietary reference intakes recommend the consumption of 14 g of dietary fiber per 1000 kcal, or 25 g for women

Derek A. Timm; Joanne L. Slavin



[The use of minimally invasive instrumental spinal surgical technique in lumbar diseases of degenerative or traumatic origin].  


Paradigm change has recently taken place in spine surgery with the application of minimally invasive techniques. Minimally invasive techniques have several advantages over the open traditional techniques: less blood loss, preservation of spine muscle integrity, shorter hospitalization, early mobilization, reduced pain levels, lower risk of infection. The presented cases cover following lumbar pathologies: segmental spinal instability, LV-SI grade II. spondylolisthesis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, spine trauma. Unilateral or bilateral mini-open technique was employed in the degenerative cases, depending on symptoms and signes. If unilateral symptoms--pathology was identified, screws and rod were implanted percutaneously on the side contralateral to the pathology. The segmental fusion between vertebral bodies was always assured by a cage and autologous bone. The presented trauma case involved combined AO type A2 and B fractures. The anterior column was strengthened with vertebral body stents filled with bone cement, the posterior column was fixed with a percutaneously implanted screw rod system. Insertion of stents in the collapsed vertebra significantly increased the vertebral body height and also improved the stability of the spine. Minimally invasive spine surgery techniques appear more advantageous over the traditional open spine surgery that necessitates for large midline approaches. PMID:23750428

Schwarcz, Attila; Kasó, Gábor; Büki, András; Dóczi, Tamás



Future of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management.  


Bronchodilators play a pivotal role in the management of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhaled short-acting bronchodilators are used for all stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, primarily for the immediate relief of symptoms; inhaled long-acting bronchodilators are recommended for maintenance therapy in patients with moderate-to-very severe disease and those with daily symptoms. When symptoms are not adequately controlled by a single bronchodilator, combining bronchodilators of different classes may prove effective. Several long-acting ?(2)-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists with 24-h duration of action and inhalers combining different classes of long-acting, once-daily bronchodilators are in development. The place of these agents in the treatment algorithm will be determined by their efficacy and safety profiles and their long-term impact on relevant clinical outcomes. PMID:22788943

D'Urzo, Anthony; Vogelmeier, Claus



Pathophysiology of Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have a chronic inflammation of the entire tracheobronchial tree character- ized by an increased number of macrophages and CD8 T lympho- cytes in the airway wall and of neutrophils in the airway lumen. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are consid- ered to reflect worsening of the underlying chronic inflammation ofthe airways,causedmainlybyviralandbacterialinfections andair

Alberto Papi; Fabrizio Luppi; Francesca Franco; Leonardo M. Fabbri



Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.  


The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo



FastStats: Chronic Liver Disease/Cirrhosis  


... Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis (Data are for the U.S.) ... Hospital Inpatient Care Number of discharges with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis as the first-listed diagnosis: ...


Coexistence of chronic calcific pancreatitis and celiac disease.  


Coexistence of celiac disease with chronic calcific pancreatitis is rare. We describe a 26-year-old woman with chronic calcific pancreatitis in whom non-response to treatment was due to celiac disease. PMID:17401240

Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Sood, Neena; Bansal, Manu; Kaur, Manpreet; Goyal, Anuza; Sharma, Nidhi


64 FR 11915 - National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion's pending funding committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention...



Caloric restriction and chronic inflammatory diseases.  


A reduction in calorie intake [caloric restriction (CR)] appears to consistently decrease the biological rate of aging in a variety of organisms as well as protect against age-associated diseases including chronic inflammatory disorders such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although the mechanisms behind this observation are not fully understood, identification of the main metabolic pathways affected by CR has generated interest in finding molecular targets that could be modulated by CR mimetics. This review describes the general concepts of CR and CR mimetics as well as discusses evidence related to their effects on inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders. Additionally, emerging evidence related to the effects of CR on periodontal disease in non-human primates is presented. While the implementation of this type of dietary intervention appears to be challenging in our modern society where obesity is a major public health problem, CR mimetics could offer a promising alternative to control and perhaps prevent several chronic inflammatory disorders including periodontal disease. PMID:21749581

González, O A; Tobia, C; Ebersole, J L; Novak, M J



Analgesic use and chronic renal disease.  


To examine the use of analgesics as a cause of chronic renal disease, we performed a multicenter case-control study of 554 adults with newly diagnosed kidney disease (serum creatinine, greater than or equal to 130 mumol per liter [1.5 mg per deciliter]) and 516 matched control subjects selected randomly from the same area of North Carolina. Histories of use of analgesics (phenacetin, acetaminophen, and aspirin) were obtained by telephone interview with the patients or their proxies. Daily users of analgesics had significantly more renal disease than infrequent users (odds ratio, 2.79; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.85 to 4.21). The risk of renal disease was highest in daily users of phenacetin (odds ratio, 5.11; confidence interval, 1.76 to 14.9, after adjustment for the effects of other analgesics). The risk of renal disease was also increased in daily users of acetaminophen; after adjustment for the use of aspirin and phenacetin, the odds ratio was 3.21 (confidence interval, 1.05 to 9.80). There was no increased risk in daily aspirin users (adjusted odds ratio, 1.32; confidence interval, 0.69 to 2.51). The risks with daily use of either phenacetin or acetaminophen changed little after adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and the indication for analgesic use. We conclude that the long-term, regular use of phenacetin may increase the risk of chronic renal disease. The long-term, daily use of acetaminophen, the major metabolite of phenacetin, is associated independently with an increased risk of chronic renal disease. We could find no increased risk in daily users of aspirin. PMID:2651928

Sandler, D P; Smith, J C; Weinberg, C R; Buckalew, V M; Dennis, V W; Blythe, W B; Burgess, W P



Chronic wasting disease in Canada: Part 1  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of part 1 is to provide an overview of published literature (1980–2002) on chronic wasting disease (CWD) to inform Canadian readers about the disease and to explain Canadian regulatory approaches to the surveillance and control of CWD. Much of the scientific information is drawn from American publications obtained from internet searches in PubMed and Medline databases. The following keywords were used: chronic wasting disease, prion, diagnosis, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, CWD and deer, CWD and elk, and CWD and environment. The article also presents information from Canadian publications and unpublished observations, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) documents, and both government and nongovernment internet Web sites. The article highlights some different features of CWD in Canada, as compared with the situation in the United States, and mentions public health implications of the disease. It also describes the basis for development of Canada’s surveillance and control program. Part 2 will detail the activities and results of the surveillance and control program during 2000 to 2002 and discuss factors that will influence the feasibility of eradicating CWD. Chronic wasting disease appears to have been introduced into Canada through the importation of infected farmed elk from the United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s, at a time when little was known about the disease. Since then, eradication efforts in Canada have led to the control of the spread of CWD in the farmed elk industry. Still, management of this disease, especially in free-ranging cervids, is a challenge.



Age-associated chronic diseases require age-old medicine: role of chronic inflammation.  


Most chronic diseases--such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity--are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease. PMID:22178471

Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B



Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases in black Zimbabweans.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases seen in 52 black Zimbabweans was determined. These diseases constituted 2% of all treatable chronic endemic medical diseases registered around Gweru City. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gout were the commonest, 38.8% and 28.8% of the total respectively. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), polymyositis, progressive systemic sclerosis, mixed connective tissue disease, ankylosing spondylitis, and Reiter's diseases were seen less frequently. While the rarity of ankylosing spondylitis was not surprising, that of SLE was striking. RA seen in Zimbabwe was as severe as in East Africa, with a mean age of onset of 43.6 (SD 9.6) years, mean ESR 67 (SD 33) mm/h, seropositivity 78%, subcutaneous nodules 10%, and overall deformities in 35% of all cases. Gout was as seen elsewhere, with a mean age of onset 41.5 (SD 7.95) years, M:F ratio 6.5:1, mean male serum uric acid 10.8 (SD 2.69) mg/dl (0.64 +/- 0.16 mmol/l). Alcohol as a precipitating and aggravating factor was supported by a high mean drunkenness score of 10.3 (SD 3.89) out of a maximum of 17. Unawareness and underdiagnosis of these diseases are still likely problems in this part of the world.

Lutalo, S K



[Vaccination scheme in advanced chronic kidney disease].  


1. VACCINATION AGAINST HEPATITIS B a) All patients with chronic advanced renal disease and negative serology for HBsAg and antiHBs are to be vaccinated against hepatitis B (Evidence level: B). b) For classic vaccines (Engerix B and HBVAxpro) the adult vaccine dose is 40 mcg (20 mcg in the paediatric population). There are two dose regimens based on the medicinal product used: 0, 1 and 6 months with HBVAxpro and 0, 1, 2 and 6 months with Engerix B. With the new vaccine Fendrix, the dose is 20 mcg and the schedule 0, 1, 2 and 6 months (Evidence level: C). c) The antiHBs titre is to be measured 1-2 months after administration of the last dose. In patients whose antibody titres are below 10 mIU/mL, a booster may be administered, checking the response or administering a second full vaccination (Evidence level: B). d) In responders, antibody levels are to be tested at least once a year. If the antiHBs titre is below 10 mIU/mL, a booster is to be administered (Evidence level: C). 2. VACCINATION AGAINST INFLUENZA a) All patients with chronic advanced renal disease are to be vaccinated every year against influenza (Evidence level: B). b) The vaccination dose and regimen are the same as recommended for the general population (Evidence level: C) 3. VACCINATION AGAINST PNEUMOCOCCUS a) Vaccination against pneumococcus is recommended in patients with chronic renal disease associated with nephrotic syndrome or who may be future candidates for renal transplant (Evidence level: B). b) There is no evidence of the clinical value of the pneumococcal vaccine in adult patients with chronic renal failure, not transplanted. However, some regions are recommending routine vaccination in the population aged >or= 60 years, the age of a high percentage of our patients. c) To maintain immunisation, revaccination is required every 3- 5 years. 4. OTHER VACCINES a) Vaccination against hepatitis A is recommended in patients with renal failure associated with chronic liver disease or who are candidates for renal transplant (Evidence level: C). b) The recommendations for vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria are the same as for the general population (Evidence level: C). c) Chickenpox vaccine is indicated in children with chronic renal disease, particularly if they are candidates for transplant (Evidence level: B). Although there is no evidence of the value of this vaccine in adults, it is advisable to perform it in those who may be candidates for renal transplant with no protecting antibodies. d) There is no evidence of the clinical value of the vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:19018745

Barril, G; Teruel, J L



Diseases of the parathyroid gland in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, remarkable advances have been made in the understanding and the management of parathyroid diseases\\u000a in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the important insights is the identification of fibroblastic growth\\u000a factor 23, which has greatly reshaped our understanding of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The recent introduction of\\u000a calcimimetic cinacalcet hydrochloride has led to a

Hirotaka Komaba; Takatoshi Kakuta; Masafumi Fukagawa


Chronic GVHD as an autoimmune disease.  


Many of the clinical, histological and serological manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) resemble autoimmune disease (AD), and although the differences are significant, they may be more semantic than biological. Indeed, studies suggest that some ADs may represent a fetal-versus-maternal chronic GVHD. Both conditions involve dysregulated immune responses resulting in tissue inflammation, damage, scarring and organ dysfunction, and both may be associated with a genetic predisposition. Epitope-specific autoaggressive phenomena such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are often seen following allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT), implying a loss of specific tolerance to self structures. However, the more widespread manifestations of GVHD such as the well-known scleroderma-like symptoms differ in many fundamental respects from de-novo scleroderma, and other multisystem ADs such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:18503993

Tyndall, Alan; Dazzi, Francesco



Nursing management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality, which imposes a major burden on both society and the health service. It is a common condition that is on the increase and predominantly caused by smoking. Progressive damage to the lung tissue renders the patient increasingly breathless resulting in a frightening existence causing varying degrees of disability and handicap. It is therefore essential that healthcare professionals understand how this condition affects patients not only from a physical perspective, but also from a psychological and social perspective to provide effective nursing management. Nursing management of patients suffering from this disease is aimed at helping to control individual patient's symptoms and improve their quality of life. PMID:19060812

Barnett, Margaret


The genetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that COPD aggregates in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition to airflow obstruction. Many candidate genes have been assessed, but the data are often conflicting. We review the genetic factors that predispose smokers to COPD and highlight the future role of genomic scans in identifying novel susceptibility genes.

Lomas, David A; Silverman, Edwin K



Anemia management in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is one of the most common and morbid complications of chronic kidney disease, causing unpleasant symptoms and reducing the quality of life. The availability of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in 1989 has been one of the most important developments in the care of this population in the past several decades. Treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) has improved patients’ lives,

Steven Fishbane; Allen R Nissenson



Preventive care in chronic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify preventive care measures that are appropriate for and specific to patients with chronic liver disease and to\\u000a provide recommendations and information that can be shared with patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS: A review of the literature was undertaken using MEDLINE from 1970 to present. Priority was given to randomized controlled studies, but case reports, case-control studies, and reviews\\u000a were included.

Thomas R. Riley; Jill P. Smith



Mechanisms of progression of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in all age groups, including children. Regardless of the underlying cause, CKD is characterized\\u000a by progressive scarring that ultimately affects all structures of the kidney. The relentless progression of CKD is postulated\\u000a to result from a self-perpetuating vicious cycle of fibrosis activated after initial injury. We will review possible mechanisms\\u000a of progressive renal damage, including

Agnes B. Fogo



Endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: In this overview, the available literature on endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed, with stress on growth hormone\\/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroid hormone and the anabolic steroids. In COPD, little is known about circulating growth hormone or IGF-I concentrations. Some authors find a decrease in growth hormone or IGF-I, others an increase. An increase

E. C. Creutzberg; R. Casaburi



Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management  

SciTech Connect

Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

Rossman, M.D. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)



Effect of Sulfur Baths on Antioxidative Defense Systems, Peroxide Concentrations and Lipid Levels in Patients with Degenerative Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Due to possible antiinflammatory effects, sulfur baths are widely used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Previously it was demonstrated that drinking cures with sulfur can improve the antioxidative defense system and lower the peroxide levels of patients with chronic degenerative osteoarthritis. Objective: This study therefore sought to investigate the effect of 3-week therapy with sulfur baths on

C. Ekmekcioglu; G. Strauss-Blasche; F. Holzer; W. Marktl



Interstitial Lung Disease in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited phagocytes defect, characterized by defects of NADPH-oxidase and inability of bacterial killing, which leads to recurrent life-threatening infections. Respiratory problems, which are the major cause of morbidity in CGD, usually result from recurrent severe infections; however, vigorous inflammatory response could also cause respiratory diseases. Case Presentation Herein, an 11 year-old patient with CGD is presented who suffered from chronic cough and dyspnea for 7 years. Considering the results of chest X-ray, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function test, the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease was made. Conclusion Early recognition of manifestations associated with CGD and appropriate treatment could prevent further complications and reduce morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Kashef, Sara; Rezaei, Nima



Chronic granulomatous disease as a risk factor for autoimmune disease.  


Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent infections and granuloma formation. In addition, we have observed a number of diverse autoimmune conditions in our CGD population, suggesting that patients with CGD are at an elevated risk for development of autoimmune disorders. In this report, we describe antiphospholipid syndrome, recurrent pericardial effusion, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, IgA nephropathy, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune pulmonary disease in the setting of CGD. The presence and type of autoimmune disease have important treatment implications for patients with CGD. PMID:18823651

De Ravin, Suk See; Naumann, Nora; Cowen, Edward W; Friend, Julia; Hilligoss, Dianne; Marquesen, Martha; Balow, James E; Barron, Karyl S; Turner, Maria L; Gallin, John I; Malech, Harry L



Household Food Insecurity and Obesity, Chronic Disease, and Chronic Disease Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Studies examining the association between food insecurity and obesity in adults have produced conflicting results, and information is limited on the relationship between food insecurity and adult chronic health conditions, particularly in a high-risk population.Objective. To examine the association between household food insecurity and self-reported weight status and chronic disease in the Lower Mississippi Delta.Design. A two-stage stratified cluster

Patrick H. Casey; Carol L. Connell; Catherine M. Champagne; Jeffrey M. Gossett; David Harsha; Beverly McCabe-Sellers; James M. Robbins; Pippa M. Simpson; Kitty L. Szeto; Judith L. Weber; Margaret L. Bogle



[Cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic renal diseases].  


The risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic renal disease appears to be far greater than in the general population and the risk of cardiovascular death is much higher than the risk of eventually requiring renal replacement therapy. Heart failure is important finding and it is evident even before the initiation of dialysis; the frequency of heart failure is 10 to 30 times higher in patients on dialysis than in the general population. Left ventricular hypertrophy has incidence of nearly 75-80% and is closely related to heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, fatal myocardial infarction, aortic root dilatation and cerebrovascular event. Ischaemic heart disease is usually the consequence of coronary artery disease, but 27% of haemodialysis patients may have symptoms without atherosclerotic changes in coronary arteries. Silent myocardial ischemia is more frequent in dialysis population. Hypertension is present in 80-85% of patients and its prevalence is linearly related to glomerular filtration rate. Patients with end-stage renal disease are more likely to have an increase in pulse pressure and isolated systolic hypertension and they may not demonstrate the normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure. Patients on dialysis are prone to calcification of media and intima due to disbalance of promoters and inhibitors of calcification process. Now, there are no valid data about the privilege of one dialysis method over another in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous traditional and non-traditional risk factors urge for preventive measures for cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic renal diseases. PMID:18924484

Dimkovi?, Nada



Clinical study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Aesculap Activ-L(TM) artificial disc in the treatment of degenerative disc disease  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this clinical study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Activ-L Artificial Disc for treatment of single-level degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine in patients who have been unresponsive to at least six months of prior conservative care. The hypothesis of the study is that the Activ-L Disc is non-inferior to the control (the Charité® Artificial Disc [DePuy Spine] or ProDisc-L® Total Disc Replacement [Synthes Spine]) with respect to the rate of individual subject success at 24 months. Individual subject success is a composite of effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design The study proposed is a prospective, randomized, single-masked, controlled, multi-center clinical trial consisting of an estimated 414 subjects with single-level DDD of the lumbar spine (L4/L5, or L5/S1) who have failed to improve with conservative treatment for at least six months prior to enrollment. After enrollment, subjects will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either the Activ-L Disc (investigational device) or the control (Charité or ProDisc-L). Radiographic endpoints will be evaluated by an independent reviewer at an imaging core laboratory. Each subject will be followed for 5 years post-treatment. Discussion The safety and effectiveness of the Activ-L Artificial Disc for treatment of single-level degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine will be equivalent to Charité® Artificial Disc [DePuy Spine] or ProDisc-L® Total Disc Replacement [Synthes Spine] at 24 months. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials NCT00589797.



[Functional magnetic resonance of Peyronie's disease in the chronic stable phase].  


La Peyronie's disease (induratio penis plastica) is a degenerative process involving the penis, whose cause is still not fully explained. Adequate treatment requires the correct staging of La Peyronie's disease. Diagnostic imaging plays a major role after case history and clinics. Several imaging methods are used, including self-photography, plain radiography, CT, pharmaco-cavernosography, plain and duplex Doppler US. Enhanced MRI can be useful to correctly localize the plaques and to detect early changes in La Peyronie's disease, since the fibrous plaques with persistent inflammatory infiltration can be distinguished from the plaques in which inflammation has ceased. The diagnostic approach to La Peyronie's disease has been substantially modified by adding an examination during the erection induced by the intracavernosal injection of papaverine to the examination in the flaccid state. The authors report on the capabilities of unenhanced MRI after the intracavernosal injection of papaverine in steady chronic La Peyronie's disease. MRI was performed with an 0.5 T superconductive unit. Six patients (age range: 46-60 years, mean 52 years) who had been ill for about five years were studied. SE T1-weighted images and FS T2-weighted images were performed in both the flaccid and the erect states. Our results prove MR capabilities in both states in steady chronic La Peyronie's disease, which suggests MRI as the technique of choice for planning surgical treatment. PMID:8296007

Tamburrini, O; Della Sala, M; Sessa, M; Carallo, O F; Imbimbo, C; Mirone, V; Morrone, G



The Indiana Chronic Disease Management Program  

PubMed Central

The Indiana Chronic Disease Management Program (ICDMP) is intended to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of care for Medicaid members with congestive heart failure (chronic heart failure), diabetes, asthma, and other conditions. The ICDMP is being assembled by Indiana Medicaid primarily from state and local resources and has seven components: (1) identification of eligible participants to create regional registries, (2) risk stratification of eligible participants, (3) nurse care management for high-risk participants, (4) telephonic intervention for all participants, (5) an Internet-based information system, (6) quality improvement collaboratives for primary care practices, and (7) program evaluation. The evaluation involves a randomized controlled trial in two inner-city group practices, as well as a statewide observational design. This article describes the ICDMP, highlights challenges, and discusses approaches to its evaluation.

Rosenman, Marc B; Holmes, Ann M; Ackermann, Ronald T; Murray, Michael D; Doebbeling, Caroline Carney; Katz, Barry; Li, Jingjin; Zillich, Alan; Prescott, Victoria M; Downs, Stephen M; Inui, Thomas S



An Informatics-based Chronic Disease Practice  

PubMed Central

The authors present the case study of a 35-year informatics-based single subspecialty practice for the management of patients with chronic thyroid disease. This extensive experience provides a paradigm for the organization of longitudinal medical information by integrating individual patient care with clinical research and education. The kernel of the process is a set of worksheets easily completed by the physician during the patient encounter. It is a structured medical record that has been computerized since 1972, enabling analysis of different groups of patients to answer questions about chronic conditions and the effects of therapeutic interventions. The recording process and resulting studies severe as an important vehicle for medical education about the nuances of clinical practice. The authors suggest ways in which computerized medical records can become an integral part of medical practice, rather than a luxury or novelty.

Nordyke, Robert A.; Kulikowski, Casimir A.



The Relationship Between Chronic Kidney Disease and SYNTAX Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. We evaluated the association between CKD and severity of coronary artery stenosis by calculating SYNTAX Score in patients with left main coronary artery and\\/or 3-vessel coronary artery disease. Coronary angiograms of 217 patients were assessed. Chronic kidney disease was staged using the estimated glomerular filtration rate

Ugur Coskun; Kadriye Orta Kilickesmez; Okay Abaci; Cuneyt Kocas; Cem Bostan; Ahmet Yildiz; Murat Baskurt; Alev Arat; Murat Ersanli; Tevfik Gurmen



Disturbances of rhythm in chronic lung disease.  


Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease have a high incidence and wide variety of cardiac arrhythmias. These arrhythmias are often clinically significant and may be life threatening. Although they occur particularly in the context of acute respiratory failure, arrhythmias are not infrequent in clinically stable patients. The relatively high incidence of sudden arrhythmias seen in acute respiratory failure are associated with a very poor prognosis, in particular, ventricular premature beats and multifocal atrial tachycardia. Long-term electrocardiographic monitoring is valuable in increasing the detection of these arrhythmias and in assessing their clinical significance and response to therapy. The mechanisms producing these arrhythmias are poorly understood and probably multiple. However, disturbances of blood gases, blood pH, and electrolytes or the presence of cor pulmonale or associated coronary artery disease is probably important. The therapy of these arrhythmias must include efforts to improve the patient's ventilatory status as well as careful use of standard antiarrhythmic drugs. Further investigation is needed to define the mechanisms, determine the prognosis, and improve the therapy of the arrhythmias found in chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:584715

Biggs, F D; Lefrak, S S; Kleiger, R E; Senior, R M; Oliver, G C


[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women].  


For the past several years the number of women suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been steadily increasing. This fact prompts the debate which factors, in addition to considerably increasing prevalence of cigarette smoking among young women, are responsible for these epidemiologic changes. Differences in the natural history and prognosis of COPD in females and males are presented in the paper, as well as the number of potential ethiopathogenetic and pathophysiologic factors influencing these variations. Among them, differences in the COPD risk factors spectrum in both genders and in airways anatomy are pointed out, and the mechanisms responsible for greater women's susceptibility to components of cigarette smoke, which reflect genetic (enzyme polymorphisms), epigenetic (diminished DNA methylation) and hormonal (estrogens) influences on xenobiotics metabolism. Further, sex-related differences regarding COPD phenotypes (chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema), immunological markers and clinical manifestation of disease are underlined in the paper. More frequent coexistence of anxiety and depression, COPD exacerbations and worse quality of life in women are also emphasized. Other differences, pointed out by authors include autoimmunological conception of pathogenesis of COPD (greater female susceptibility to produce autoantibodies), risk factors of disease exacerbation and, at last, response to certain forms of COPD treatment (nicotine replacement therapy, long-term oxygen therapy). PMID:22370982

Uci?ska, Romana; Damps-Konsta?ska, Iwona; Siemi?ska, Alicja; Jassem, Ewa



Activity Monitoring in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

The measurement of daily physical activity (PA) has become a significant outcome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent data have shown the independent association between PA markers, hospitalizations, and mortality. Daily PA can be quantified by direct observation, assessment of energy expenditure, questionnaires, and activity monitors (motion sensors). This review aims to describe the methods used to quantify daily PA in COPD on the basis of the published literature and to suggest potential applications of activity monitoring methods in clinical research and daily care of COPD patients.

Benzo, Roberto



Experimental basis and new insights for cell therapy in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.  


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can be briefly described as air flow limitation and chronic dyspnea associated to an inflammatory response of the respiratory tract to noxious particles and gases. Its main feature is the obstruction of airflow and consequent chronic dyspnea. Despite recent advances, and the development of new therapeutic, medical and clinical approaches, a curative therapy is yet to be achieved. Therapies involving the use of tissue-specific or donor derived cells present a promising alternative in the treatment of degenerative diseases and injuries. Recent studies demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to modulate immune responses in acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis in animal models, as well as in human patients. Due to these aspects, different groups raised the possibility that the stem cells from different sources, such as those found in bone marrow or adipose tissue, could act preventing the emphysematous lesion progression. In this paper, it is proposed a review of the current state of the art and future perspectives on the use of cell therapy in obstructive lung diseases. PMID:23054962

de Faria, Carolina Arruda; de las Heras Kozma, Rodrigo; Stessuk, Talita; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu



Relationships of hip joint volume ratios with degrees of joint laxity and degenerative disease from youth to maturity in a canine population predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess relationships of acetabular volume (AV), femoral head volume (FV), and portion of the femoral head within in the acetabulum (FVIA) with each other and with degrees of hip joint laxity and degenerative joint disease from youth to maturity in dogs predisposed to developing hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). Animals 46 mixed-breed half- or full-sibling hound-type dogs. Procedures The distraction index (DI), AV, FV, FVIA, and degree of osteoarthritis (OA score) were quantified in 1 hip joint at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Relationships among variables were evaluated within and between ages. Ratios corresponding to OA scores were compared within ages. Differences among 16-week ratios corresponding to 32-week OA scores and among 16- and 32-week ratios corresponding to 104-week OA scores were evaluated. Results Significant positive relationships existed between FV and AV across ages as well as between FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV and between DI and OA score across and within most ages. Such relationships also existed within these variables across most ages. Negative relationships of DI and OA scores with FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV within and among all ages were significant. Sixteen-week AVs, FVs, and FVIAs were greater and FV/AVs and OA scores were less than 32- and 104-week values. The 32-week FVIA/FV was less than 16- and 104-week values, and the 32-week FVIA/AV was less than the 104-week value. The FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV were lower and the DI was higher with higher OA scores within and among most ages. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Structural volumes in lax canine hip joints changed predictably relative to each other during growth, despite degenerative changes. Measures developed in this study may augment current diagnosis and treatment strategies for hip dysplasia in dogs.

D'Amico, Laura L.; Xie, Lin; Abell, Lindsey K.; Brown, Katherine T.; Lopez, Mandi J.



Non-fusion stabilization of the lumbar spine in the case of degenerative diseases with a dynamic pedicle screw rod Estabilização dinâmica da coluna lombar no tratamento das doenças degenerativas ARTIGO ORIGINAL \\/ ORIGINAL ARTICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the results of the posterior non-fusion stabilizations and fusion in the treatment of painful degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Methods: Cosmic is a dynamic non-fusion pedicle screw rod system for the stabilization of the lumbar vertebral column. The hinged pedicle screw provides for the load being shared between the implant and the vertebral column and allows

Archibald von Strempel; Christoph Stoss; Dieter Moosmann; Arno Martin


Oral corticosteroids for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic lung disorder, usually related to cigarette smoking, representing a major and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. It is defined \\

Julia A E Walters; Haydn Walters; Richard Wood-Baker



Achieving Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet.

McMahon, Emma J.; Campbell, Katrina L.; Mudge, David W.; Bauer, Judith D.



Achieving salt restriction in chronic kidney disease.  


There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet. PMID:23320173

McMahon, Emma J; Campbell, Katrina L; Mudge, David W; Bauer, Judith D



Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Heart failure is common and is associated with poor prognosis. Chronic kidney disease is common in heart failure, and shares many risk factors with heart failure such as age, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Over half of all heart failure patients may have moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. The presence of chronic kidney disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, yet it is also associated with underutilization of evidence-based heart failure therapy that may reduce morbidity and mortality. Understanding the epidemiology and outcomes of chronic kidney disease in heart failure is essential to ensure proper management of these patients.

Ahmed, Ali; Campbell, Ruth C.



Insulin resistance and chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Increased insulin resistance is frequently associated with chronic liver disease and is a pathophysiological feature of hepatogenous diabetes. Distinctive factors including hepatic parenchymal cell damage, portal-systemic shunting and hepatitis C virus are responsible for the development of hepatogenous insulin resistance/diabetes. Although it remains unclear whether insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is impaired as it is in type 2 diabetes, retinopathic and cardiovascular risk is low and major causes of death in cirrhotic patients with diabetes are liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemoglobin A1c is an inaccurate marker for the assessment and management of hepatogenous diabetes. Moreover, exogenous insulin or sulfonylureas may be harmful because these agents may promote hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, pathogenesis, cause of death, assessment and therapeutic strategy for hepatogenous insulin resistance/diabetes differ from those for lifestyle-related type 2 diabetes. In this article, we review features of insulin resistance in relationship to chronic liver disease. We also discuss the impact of anti-diabetic agents on interferon treatment and hepatocarcinogenesis.

Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Itou, Minoru; Sakata, Masahiro; Sumie, Shuji; Sata, Michio



Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both obstructive airway diseases that involve chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract, but the type of inflammation is markedly different between these diseases, with different patterns of inflammatory cells and mediators being involved. As described in this Review, these inflammatory profiles are largely determined by the involvement of different immune cells, which

Peter J. Barnes



Early cardiovascular involvement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early cardiovascular involvement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. M. Malerba, G. Romanelli. Cardiovascular (CV) disease represents a consider- able risk factor in terms of both morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In fact, there is a considerable evidence of this association: for only 20 years forced expiratory vol- ume in 1 second (FEV1) has

M. Malerba; G. Romanelli



New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the fact that




Treatment of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an epidemic in many parts of the world. Most patients with COPD demonstrate mild disease. The cornerstone of management of mild disease is smoking cessation, which is the only proven intervention to relieve symptoms, modify its natural history and reduce mortality. For asymptomatic patients, it is the only required therapy. Short-acting bronchodilators can be added on an as needed basis for those with intermittent symptoms and regularly for those with persistent symptoms. Long-acting bronchodilators can be substituted for those who remain symptomatic despite regular use of short-acting bronchodilators. Inhaled corticosteroids do not modify the natural history of COPD and as such cannot be recommended as standalone therapy for mild COPD. However, for patients with refractory and intractable symptoms, they may be used in combination with long-acting beta-2 agonists. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and pulmonary rehabilitation are other therapies that may be considered for select patients with mild disease. In this paper, we summarize the current standard of care for patients with mild COPD.

Chee, Alex; Sin, Don D



Genomic Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge in nephrology and for public health care, affecting 14–15% of the adult U.S. population and consuming significant health care resources. In the next 20 years, the number of patients with end stage renal disease is projected to increase by 50%. Ideal biomarkers that allow early identification of CKD patients at high risk of progression are urgently needed for early and targeted treatment to improve patient care. Recent success of integrating molecular approaches for personalized management of neoplastic diseases, including diagnosis, staging, prognosis, treatment selection and monitoring, has strongly encouraged kidney researchers to pursue molecular definitions of patients with kidney disease. Challenges for molecular marker identification in CKD are a high degree of cellular heterogeneity of the kidney and the paucity of human tissue availability for molecular studies. Despite these limitations potential molecular biomarker candidates have been uncovered at multiple levels along the genome – phenome continuum. Here we will review the identification and validation of potential genomic biomarker candidates of CKD and CKD progression in clinical studies. The challenges in predicting CKD progression, as well as the promises and opportunities resulting from a molecular definition of CKD will be discussed.

Ju, Wenjun; Smith, Shahaan; Kretzler, Matthias



Application of Direct Renin Inhibition to Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Chronic kidney disease has serious implications with a high risk for progressive loss of renal function, increased cardiovascular\\u000a events as well as a substantial financial burden. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is activated in chronic\\u000a kidney disease, especially in diabetes and hypertension, which are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin\\u000a converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)

Christian W. Mende



Hypertension in chronic kidney disease: navigating the evidence.  


Hypertension is both an important cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease. Evidence from numerous clinical trials has demonstrated the benefit of blood pressure control. However, it remains unclear whether available results could be extrapolated to patients with chronic kidney diseases because most studies on hypertension have excluded patients with kidney failure. In addition, chronic kidney disease encompasses a large group of clinical disorders with heterogeneous natural history and pathogenesis. In this paper, we review current evidence supporting treatment of hypertension in various forms of chronic kidney disease and highlight some of the gaps in the extant literature. PMID:21747971

Tedla, F M; Brar, A; Browne, R; Brown, C



Deletion of RBP-J in adult mice leads to the onset of aortic valve degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factor RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling has been implicated in several inherited cardiovascular diseases including\\u000a aortic valve diseases (AVD). But whether Notch signal plays a role in AVD in adults has been unclear. This study aims to test\\u000a whether the deletion of RBP-J in adult mice would lead to AVD and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Cre-LoxP-mediated\\u000a gene deletion was employed

Zhi LiLei; Lei Feng; Chun-Mei Wang; Qi-Jun Zheng; Bi-Jun Zhao; Wei Yi; Jin-Zhou Zhang; Yue-Min Wang; Hai-Tao Guo; Ding-Hua Yi; Hua Han


Natriuretic Peptides in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are biomarkers of cardiovascular disease that is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Conflicting data on the influence of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on BNP and NT-proBNP levels in CKD may stem from failure to account fully for the effects of coexistent cardiac disease, dysfunction, and volume overload. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Prospective head-to-head comparison of plasma BNP and NT-proBNP in ambulatory euvolemic CKD patients with normal LV ejection fraction and no manifest cardiac or vascular disease. GFR was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, BNP and NT-proBNP measured using Abbott AxSYM and Roche Elecsys assays, respectively, and cardiac morphology and function assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. Results: In 142 patients (42% female) of mean age 60 ± 11 yr, mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 71% ± 6%, GFR 38 ± 14 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median BNP and NT-proBNP level 59 and 311 pg/ml, respectively. Multivariate predictors of NT-proBNP level were GFR, ?-blocker usage, LV mass index, and hemoglobin level. Plasma BNP was independently predicted by LV mass index and ?-blocker usage but not GFR. In the 74 patients without diastolic dysfunction, there was a significant rise in NT-proBNP but not BNP as GFR declined. Conclusions: Unlike NT-proBNP, plasma BNP level is relatively independent of GFR. BNP may therefore be the more appropriate biomarker to screen for cardiac dysfunction in CKD.

Tagore, Rajat; Ling, Lieng H.; Yang, Hong; Daw, Hla-Yee; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Sethi, Sunil K.



Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.  


Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabolic factors may play key roles in CKD development and pathogenesis. These include raised proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and -6, tumor necrosis factor, altered hepatic acute phase proteins, including reduced albumin, increased C-reactive protein, and perturbations in normal anabolic hormone responses with reduced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis activity. Others include hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), with angiotensin II and aldosterone implicated in hypertension and the promotion of insulin resistance, and subsequent pharmacological blockade shown to improve blood pressure, metabolic control and offer reno-protective effects. Abnormal adipocytokine levels including leptin and adiponectin may further promote the insulin resistant, and proinflammatory state in CKD. Ghrelin may be also implicated and controversial studies suggest activities may be reduced in human CKD, and may provide a rationale for administration of acyl-ghrelin. Poor vitamin D status has also been associated with patient outcome and CVD risk and may indicate a role for supplementation. Glucocorticoid activities traditionally known for their involvement in the pathogenesis of a number of disease states are increased and may be implicated in CKD-associated hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes risk and cachexia, both directly and indirectly through effects on other systems including activation of the mineralcorticoid receptor. Insight into the multiple factors altered in CKD may provide useful information on disease pathogenesis, clinical assessment and treatment rationale such as potential pharmacological, nutritional and exercise therapies. PMID:22537670

Slee, Adrian D



Neuromotor control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


Neuromotor control of skeletal muscles, including respiratory muscles, is ultimately dependent on the structure and function of the motor units (motoneurons and the muscle fibers they innervate) comprising the muscle. In most muscles, considerable diversity of contractile and fatigue properties exists across motor units, allowing a range of motor behaviors. In diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there may be disproportional primary (disease related) or secondary effects (related to treatment or other concomitant factors) on the size and contractility of specific muscle fiber types that would influence the relative contribution of different motor units. For example, with COPD there is a disproportionate atrophy of type IIx and/or IIb fibers that comprise more fatigable motor units. Thus fatigue resistance may appear to improve, while overall motor performance (e.g., 6-min walk test) and endurance (e.g., reduced aerobic exercise capacity) are diminished. There are many coexisting factors that might also influence motor performance. For example, in COPD patients, there may be concomitant hypoxia and/or hypercapnia, physical inactivity and unloading of muscles, and corticosteroid treatment, all of which may disproportionately affect specific muscle fiber types, thereby influencing neuromotor control. Future studies should address how plasticity in motor units can be harnessed to mitigate the functional impact of COPD-induced changes. PMID:23329816

Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C



Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

Lee, S



[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure].  


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with heart failure. Individuals with COPD have a 4.5-fold greater risk of developing heart failure than those without. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical judgment in the diagnosis of heart failure in patients with COPD can be enhanced by biological markers such as B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Correct interpretation of imaging results (mainly echocardiographic findings) and lung function tests can also help establish the co-occurrence of both conditions. There is little evidence on the management of patients with COPD and heart failure, although treatment of COPD undeniably affects the clinical course of patients with heart failure and viceversa. PMID:19595494

Villar Alvarez, Felipe; Méndez Bailón, Manuel; de Miguel Díez, Javier



Beryllium Sensitization Progresses to Chronic Beryllium Disease A Longitudinal Study of Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test is used in medical surveillance to identify both beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Approximately 50% of individuals with beryllium sensitization have chronic beryllium disease at the time of their initial clinical evaluation; however, the rate of progression from beryllium sensitization to chronic beryllium disease is unknown. We monitored a cohort of beryllium-sensitized patients

Lee S. Newman; Margaret M. Mroz; Ronald Balkissoon; Lisa A. Maier



Diseases of the parathyroid gland in chronic kidney disease.  


During the past few years, remarkable advances have been made in the understanding and the management of parathyroid diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the important insights is the identification of fibroblastic growth factor 23, which has greatly reshaped our understanding of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The recent introduction of calcimimetic cinacalcet hydrochloride has led to a major breakthrough in the management of SHPT. Recognition of circulating molecular forms of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is also a major milestone in the accurate assessment of parathyroid function in CKD. Primary hyperparathyroidism should also be considered in patients with CKD, because it can cause various renal manifestations and can also occur as a sporadic disease in these patients. Hypoparathyroidism is occasionally seen in dialysis patients in the setting of diabetes mellitus and malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, as well as after parathyroidectomy for advanced SHPT. For patients with adynamic bone disease due to hypoparathyroidism and/or skeletal resistance to PTH, teriparatide, a PTH analog, may have potential for improving bone metabolism and reducing the risk of fracture. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on diseases of the parathyroid gland in CKD patients, with a particular focus on recent work in the field. PMID:21818548

Komaba, Hirotaka; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi



[Chronic diseases and quality of life in primary health care].  


The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate quality of life in chronic patients treated at primary care services associated with the Catholic University of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Quality of life was assessed by WHOQOL-Bref, and data on chronic diseases were obtained from patients' medical records and categorized as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, endocrine diseases, mental illness, and other musculoskeletal diseases. A total of 920 subjects were interviewed. Low self-rated quality of life was associated with female gender, older age, low socioeconomic status, single conjugal status, and chronic disease. In all domains of quality of life, mean levels were lower in patients with diseases of the nervous system, except in the environmental domains, which were lower in patients with mental illness. The results corroborate that quality of life in patients with chronic diseases is a priority for public health policies. PMID:24068223

Azevedo, Ana Lucia Soares de; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Tomasi, Elaine; Quevedo, Luciana de Ávila



Hormones and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.  


Cardiovascular disease constitutes the major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Arterial stiffness is an important contributor to the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease. Various risk factors, including altered hormone levels, have been suggested to be associated with arterial stiffness. Based on the background that chronic kidney disease predisposes individuals to a wide range of hormonal changes, we herein review the available data on the association between arterial stiffness and hormones in patients with chronic kidney disease and summarize the data for the general population. PMID:23911970

Gungor, Ozkan; Kircelli, Fatih; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian; Ok, Ercan



Degenerative alterations of the cementum-periodontal ligament complex and early tooth loss in a young patient with periodontal disease.  


Premature exfoliation of primary or permanent teeth in children or adolescents is extremely rare and it can be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. This study aims to present the histological aspects associated with early tooth loss in a case of periodontal disease developed without local inflammation and with minimal periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The maxillary left second premolar was extracted together with a gingival collar attached to the root surface. The histological analysis recorded the resorption of the cementum in multiple areas of the entire root surface with the connective tissue of the desmodontium invading the lacunae defects. The connective tissue rich in cells occupied the periodontal ligamentar space and the resorptive areas. No inflammation was obvious in the periodontal ligament connective tissue. This report may warn clinicians about the possibility of the association of cemental abnormalities with early tooth loss. PMID:23303038

Petru?iu, S A; Buiga, Petronela; Roman, Alexandra; Danciu, Theodora; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Mihu, D



Reliability and discriminatory testing of a client-based metrology instrument, feline musculoskeletal pain index (FMPI) for the evaluation of degenerative joint disease-associated pain in cats.  


The objective of this study was to test the readability, reliability, repeatability and discriminatory ability of an owner-completed instrument to assess feline degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated pain (feline musculoskeletal pain index, FMPI). Readability was explored using four different formulas (Flesch, Fry, SMOG and FOG) and the final FMPI instrument was produced. To assess the instrument, client-owned cats that were defined as normal (normal group) or as having DJD-associated pain and mobility impairment (pain-DJD group) were recruited. A total of 32 client-owned cats were enrolled in the study (normal, n=13; pain-DJD, n=19). Owners completed the FMPI on two occasions, 14days apart. Internal consistency (reliability) and repeatability (test-retest) were explored using Cronbach's ? and weighted ? statistic, respectively. Data from the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance (controlling for age) to evaluate discriminatory ability. The FMPI was constructed with 21 questions covering activity, pain intensity and overall quality of life. It had a 6th grade readability score. Reliability of the FMPI was excellent (Cronbach's ?>0.8 for all groupings of questions in normal and pain-DJD cats) and repeatability was good (weighted ? statistic >0.74) for normal and pain-DJD cats. All components of the FMPI were able to distinguish between normal cats and cats with DJD (P<0.001 for all components). This initial evaluation of the FMPI suggests that this instrument is worthy of continued investigation. PMID:23369382

Benito, J; Depuy, V; Hardie, E; Zamprogno, H; Thomson, A; Simpson, W; Roe, S; Hansen, B; Lascelles, B D X



Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization versus Total Disc Replacement in the Treatment of Lumbar Painful Degenerative Disc Disease: A Comparison of Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Prospective clinical study. Objective. This study compares the clinical results of anterior lumbar total disc replacement and posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization in the treatment of degenerative disc disease. Summary and Background Data. Over the last two decades, both techniques have emerged as alternative treatment options to fusion surgery. Methods. This study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 with a total of 50 patients (25 in each group). The mean age of the patients in total disc prosthesis group was 37,32 years. The mean age of the patients in posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization was 43,08. Clinical (VAS and Oswestry) and radiological evaluations (lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis angles) of the patients were carried out prior to the operation and 3, 12, and 24 months after the operation. We compared the average duration of surgery, blood loss during the surgery and the length of hospital stay of both groups. Results. Both techniques offered significant improvements in clinical parameters. There was no significant change in radiologic evaluations after the surgery for both techniques. Conclusion. Both dynamic systems provided spine stability. However, the posterior dynamic system had a slight advantage over anterior disc prosthesis because of its convenient application and fewer possible complications.

Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir; Sasani, Mehdi; Ataker, Yaprak; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Celebi, Irfan



Chronic kidney disease in acute coronary syndromes  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high burden of coronary artery disease. In patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), CKD is highly prevalent and associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. Management of patients with CKD presenting with ACS is more complex than in the general population because of the lack of well-designed randomized trials assessing therapeutic strategies in such patients. The almost uniform exclusion of patients with CKD from randomized studies evaluating new targeted therapies for ACS, coupled with concerns about further deterioration of renal function and therapy-related toxic effects, may explain the less frequent use of proven medical therapies in this subgroup of high-risk patients. However, these patients potentially have much to gain from conventional revascularization strategies used in the general population. The objective of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the epidemiology and the clinical and prognostic relevance of CKD in ACS patients, in particular with respect to unresolved issues and uncertainties regarding recommended medical therapies and coronary revascularization strategies.

Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio



Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children.  


In the past 30 years there have been major improvements in the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, most of the available epidemiological data stem from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registries and information on the earlier stages of pediatric CKD is still limited. The median reported incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children aged 0-19 years across the world in 2008 was 9 (range: 4-18) [corrected] per million of the age-related population). [corrected] The prevalence of RRT in 2008 ranged from 18 to 100 per million of the age-related population. Congenital disorders, including congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and hereditary nephropathies, are responsible for about two thirds of all cases of CKD in developed countries, while acquired causes predominate in developing countries. Children with congenital disorders experience a slower progression of CKD than those with glomerulonephritis, resulting in a lower proportion of CAKUT in the ESRD population compared with less advanced stages of CKD. Most children with ESRD start on dialysis and then receive a transplant. While the survival rate of children with ERSD has improved, it remains about 30 times lower than that of healthy peers. Children now mainly die of cardiovascular causes and infection rather than from renal failure. PMID:21713524

Harambat, Jérôme; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Kim, Jon Jin; Tizard, E Jane



Bioecological control of chronic liver disease and encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal encephalopathy was originally associated with chronic liver disease but is increasingly associated with most other\\u000a chronic diseases and particularly with diabetes and also chronic disorders in other organs: kidneys, lungs, thyroid and with\\u000a obesity. It is increasingly with dramatically increased and more or less permanent increase in systemic inflammation, most\\u000a likely a result of Western lifestyle. Frequent physical exercise

Stig Bengmark



Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.



Workplace problems and solutions for employees with chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background While many employees who have a chronic disease manage their jobs well, others are hampered in work performance, experience work-related problems and are at risk for job loss. Aims To identify the practical and psychosocial barriers recognized by employees with chronic disease who experience work-related problems and to examine preferred work accommodations. Methods A questionnaire was sent by mail

I. Varekamp; Dijk van F. J. H



Chronic Disease Health Beliefs and Lifestyle Practices Among Vietnamese Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing alarm about the dramatic increase of chronic diseases among more acculturated Vietnamese (Yee, 1999). There were 180 Vietnamese adults, stratified by gender and age: 93 males and 87 females; young (ages 18–34), middle aged (ages 35–58), and older (ages 59+). A MANOVA was performed with nine Chronic Diseases Risk subscales, health behaviors, acculturation, depression, and health locus

Barbara W. K. Yee; Ha T. Nguyen; Martin Ha



Oxygen therapy during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen therapy during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A.G.N. Agusti´, M. Carrera, F. Barbe ´, A. Munoz, B. Togores. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Venturi masks (VMs) and nasal prongs (NPs) are widely used to treat acute respiratory failure (ARF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, these devices were compared in terms of their potentiality to

A. G. N. Agusti; M. Carrera; F. Barbe; A. Munoz; B. Togores


Amenorrhoea in women with non-alcoholic chronic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amenorrhoea is common in women with non-alcoholic chronic liver disease, but little is known about its causes or consequences. We investigated 12 young women with non-alcoholic chronic liver disease and amenorrhoea and compared them with 11 healthy age matched controls studied in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. None of the patients had raised serum concentrations of follicle stimulating

T F Cundy; J Butler; R M Pope; A K Saggar-Malik; M J Wheeler; R Williams



Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavonoids are effective antioxidants and may pro- tect against several chronic diseases. Objective: The association between flavonoid intake and risk of several chronic diseases was studied. Design: The total dietary intakes of 10 054 men and women dur- ing the year preceding the baseline examination were determined with a dietary history method. Flavonoid intakes were estimated, mainly on the

Paul Knekt; Jorma Kumpulainen; Ritva Järvinen; Harri Rissanen; Markku Heliövaara; Antti Reunanen; Timo Hakulinen; Arpo Aromaa


Vitamin D and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem and one of the most powerful predictors of premature cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that the progression of CKD and many of the cardiovascular complications may be linked to hypovitaminosis D. Patients with CKD have an exceptionally high rate of severe vitamin D deficiency that is further exacerbated by the reduced ability to convert 25-(OH)vitamin D into the active form, 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D. As new evidence has improved our understanding of classical, as well as the non-classical, functions for vitamin D, it has become apparent that the autocrine role of vitamin D is an important modulator of several systems including the immune, renal and cardiovascular systems. In addition to the traditional supplementation of 1,25-vitamin D to CKD patients, by assessing and repleting 25-(OH)vitamin D deficiency, physicians will adequately fuel both the renal and extra-renal pathways of calcitriol synthesis maintaining the classical, as well as the non-classical, functions of vitamin D that ultimately influence clinical outcomes in this high-risk group of patients. Because of the high rates of hypovitaminosis D and progression of CKD to end-stage renal disease in minority populations, these findings are highly relevant to the national efforts to reduce health disparities. Healthcare providers are called to join the intensified efforts of public health officials to disseminate and implement updated guidelines and recommendations to halt the growing epidemic of vitamin D deficiency, particularly in high-risk populations.

Williams, Sandra; Malatesta, Karla; Norris, Keith



Common lung conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


The etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic lung inflammation. In the United States, this inflammation most commonly is caused by smoking. COPD is diagnosed when an at-risk patient presents with respiratory symptoms and has irreversible airway obstruction indicated by a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio of less than 0.7. Management goals for COPD include smoking cessation, symptom reduction, exacerbation reduction, hospitalization avoidance, and improvement of quality of life. Stable patients with COPD who remain symptomatic despite using short-acting bronchodilators should start inhaled maintenance drugs to reduce symptoms and exacerbations, avoid hospitalizations, and improve quality of life. A long-acting anticholinergic or a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) can be used for initial therapy; these drugs have fewer adverse effects than inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). If patients remain symptomatic despite monotherapy, dual therapy with a long-acting anticholinergic and a LABA, or a LABA and an ICS, may be beneficial. Triple therapy (ie, a long-acting anticholinergic, a LABA, and an ICS) also is used, but it is unclear if triple therapy is superior to dual therapy. Roflumilast, an oral selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, is used to manage moderate to severe COPD. Continuous oxygen therapy is indicated for patients with COPD who have severe hypoxemia (ie, PaO2 less than 55 mm Hg or an oxygen saturation less than 88% on room air). Nonpharmacologic strategies also are useful to improve patient outcomes. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves dyspnea and quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation after an acute exacerbation reduces hospitalizations and mortality, and improves quality of life and exercise capacity. Smoking cessation is the most effective management strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. Lung volume reduction surgery, bullectomy, and lung transplantation are surgical interventions that are appropriate for some patients with COPD. PMID:23767419

Delzell, John E



Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency-related chronic diseases: molecular and cellular pathophysiology.  


A compromised vitamin D status, characterized by low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) serum levels, and a nutritional calcium deficit are widely encountered in European and North American countries, independent of age or gender. Both conditions are linked to the pathogenesis of many degenerative, malignant, inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Studies on tissue-specific expression and activity of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, 25-(OH)D-1 alpha-hydroxylase and 25-(OH)D-24-hydroxylase, and of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) have led to the understanding of how, in non-renal tissues and cellular systems, locally produced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) and extracellular Ca(2+) act jointly as key regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation and function. Impairment of cooperative signalling from the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR) and from the CaR in vitamin D and calcium insufficiency causes cellular dysfunction in many organs and biological systems, and, therefore, increases the risk of diseases, particularly of osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type I, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Understanding the underlying molecular and cellular processes provides a rationale for advocating adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium in all populations, thereby preventing many chronic diseases worldwide. PMID:19724293

Peterlik, M; Cross, H S



Stand-alone cage for posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of high-degree degenerative disc disease: design of a new device for an "old" technique. A prospective study on a series of 116 patients.  


Chronic lumbar pain due to degenerative disc disease affects a large number of people, including those of fully active age. The usual self-repair system observed in nature is a spontaneous attempt at arthrodesis, which in most cases leads to pseudoarthrosis. In recent years, many possible surgical fusion techniques have been introduced; PLIF is one of these. Because of the growing interest in minimally invasive surgery and the unsatisfactory results reported in the literature (mainly due to the high incidence of morbidity and complications), a new titanium lumbar interbody cage (I-FLY) has been developed to achieve solid bone fusion by means of a stand-alone posterior device. The head of the cage is blunt and tapered so that it can be used as a blunt spreader, and the core is small, which facilitates self-positioning. From 2003 to 2007, 119 patients were treated for chronic lumbar discopathy (Modic grade III and Pfirrmann grade V) with I-FLY cages used as stand-alone devices. All patients were clinically evaluated preoperatively and after 1 and 2 years by means of a neurological examination, visual analogue score (VAS) and Prolo Economic and Functional Scale. Radiological results were evaluated by polyaxial computed tomography (CT) scan and flexion-extension radiography. Fusion was defined as the absence of segmental instability on flexion-extension radiography and Bridwell grade I or II on CT scan. Patients were considered clinical "responders" if VAS evaluation showed any improvement over baseline values and a Prolo value >7 was recorded. At the last follow-up examination, clinical success was deemed to have been achieved in 90.5% of patients; the rate of bone fusion was 99.1%, as evaluated by flexion-extension radiography, and 92.2%, as evaluated by CT scan. Morbidity (nerve root injury, dural lesions) and complications (subsidence and pseudoarthrosis) were minimal. PLIF by means of the stand-alone I-FLY cage can be regarded as a possible surgical treatment for chronic low-back pain due to high-degree DDD. This technique is not demanding and can be considered safe and effective, as shown by the excellent clinical and radiological success rates. PMID:21404031

Costa, Francesco; Sassi, Marco; Ortolina, Alessandro; Cardia, Andrea; Assietti, Roberto; Zerbi, Alberto; Lorenzetti, Martin; Galbusera, Fabio; Fornari, Maurizio



Therapeutic vaccines for chronic diseases: successes and technical challenges  

PubMed Central

Chronic, non-communicable diseases are the major cause of death and disability worldwide and have replaced infectious diseases as the major burden of society in large parts of the world. Despite the complexity of chronic diseases, relatively few predisposing risk factors have been identified by the World Health Organization. Those include smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure as the cause of many of these chronic conditions. Here, we discuss several examples of vaccines that target these risk factors with the aim of preventing the associated diseases and some of the challenges they face.

Bachmann, Martin F.; Jennings, Gary T.



Hemoglobin Decline in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Baseline Results from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: The level of glomerular filtration rate at which hemoglobin declines in chronic kidney disease is poorly described in the pediatric population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This cross-sectional study of North American children with chronic kidney disease examined the association of glomerular filtration rate, determined by the plasma disappearance of iohexol, and hemoglobin concentration. Results: Of the

Jeffrey J. Fadrowski; Christopher B. Pierce; Stephen R. Cole; Marva Moxey-Mims; Bradley A. Warady; Susan L. Furth


Effectiveness of innovations in nurse led chronic disease management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review of evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the effectiveness of innovations in management of chronic disease involving nurses for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources 24 electronic databases searched for English or Dutch language studies published between January 1980 and January 2005. Review methods Included studies described inpatient, outpatient, and community based interventions for

Stephanie J. C. Taylor; Bridget Candy; Rosamund M. Bryar; Jean Ramsay; Hubertus J. M. Vrijhoef; Glenda Esmond; Jadwiga A. Wedzicha; Chris J. Griffiths



Pathogenesis of degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides.  


Over the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the study of molecular mechanisms involved in degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides. Based on recent findings, models of degenerative temporomandibular joint disease predict that mechanical loads trigger a cascade of molecular events leading to disease in susceptible individuals. These events involve the production or release of free radicals, cytokines, fatty acid catabolites, neuropeptides, and matrix-degrading enzymes. Under normal circumstances, these molecules may be involved in the remodeling of articular tissues in response to changing functional demands. However, if functional demands exceed the adaptive capacity of the temporomandibular joint or if the affected individual is susceptible to maladaptive responses, then a disease state will ensue. An individual's susceptibility to degenerative temporomandibular joint disease may be determined by several factors, including genetic backdrop, sex, age, and nutritional status. It is hoped that, by furthering our understanding of the molecular events that underlie degenerative temporomandibular joint diseases, improved diagnostics and effective therapies for these debilitating conditions will be developed. PMID:16170470

Milam, Stephen B



Genetics of Sputum Gene Expression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. We examined the genetics of gene expression in a relevant disease tissue from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to identify functional effects of known susceptibility genes and to find novel disease genes.

Weiliang Qiu; Michael H. Cho; John H. Riley; Wayne H. Anderson; Dave Singh; Per Bakke; Amund Gulsvik; Augusto A. Litonjua; David A. Lomas; James D. Crapo; Terri H. Beaty; Bartolome R. Celli; Stephen Rennard; Ruth Tal-Singer; Steven M. Fox; Edwin K. Silverman; Craig P. Hersh; Mark M. Wurfel



REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and REM Sleep Without Atonia as an Early Manifestation of Degenerative Neurological Disease  

PubMed Central

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by repeated episodes of dream enactment behavior and REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) during polysomnography recording. RSWA is characterized by increased phasic or tonic muscle activity seen on polysomnographic electromyogram channels. RSWA is a requisite diagnostic feature of RBD, but may also be seen in patients without clinical symptoms or signs of dream enactment as an incidental finding in neurologically normal individuals, especially in patients receiving antidepressant therapy. RBD may be idiopathic or symptomatic. Patients with idiopathic RBD often later develop other neurological features including parkinsonism, orthostatic hypotension, anosmia, or cognitive impairment. RSWA without clinical symptoms as well as clinically overt RBD also often occurs concomitantly with the ?-synucleinopathy family of neurodegenerative disorders, which includes idiopathic Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. This review article considers the epidemiology of RBD, clinical and polysomnographic diagnostic standards for both RBD and RSWA, previously reported associations of RSWA and RBD with neurodegenerative disorders and other potential causes, the pathophysiology of which brain structures and networks mediate dysregulation of REM sleep muscle atonia, and considerations for the effective and safe management of RBD.

McCarter, Stuart J.; St Louis, Erik K.



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a systemic disease: an epidemiological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a systemic disease: an epidemiological perspective. H. Andreassen, J. Vestbo. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been increasingly recognised as a systemic disease. The hormonal, metabolic and musculoskeletal implications of the generalised processes involving oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and endocrine hormones have only begun to be understood. Only a

H. Andreassen; J. Vestbo



The Microvasculature in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 have an increased risk of cardiac and other vascular disease. Here we examined the association of CKD 3 to 5 with small vessel caliber. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a cross-sectional observational study of 126 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and 126 age- and gender-matched hospital patients with CKD 1 or 2. Retinal vessel diameters were measured from digital fundus images by a trained grader using a computer-assisted method and summarized as the central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE). Results Patients with CKD 3 to 5 had a smaller mean CRAE and CRVE than hospital controls (139.4 ± 17.8 ?m versus 148.5 ± 16.0 ?m, P < 0.001; and 205.0 ± 30.7 ?m versus 217.4 ± 25.8 ?m, respectively; P = 0.001). CRAE and CRVE decreased progressively with each stage of renal failure CKD1–2 to 5 (P for trend = 0.08 and 0.04, respectively). CKD and hypertension were independent determinants of arteriolar narrowing after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking history. Patients with CKD 5 and diabetes had a larger mean CRAE and CRVE than nondiabetics (141.4 ± 14.9 ?m versus 132.9 ± 14.2 ?m; 211.1 ± 34.4 ?m versus 194.8 ± 23.8 ?m). Conclusions The microvasculature is narrowed in patients with reduced eGFR.

Ooi, Qi Lun; Tow, Foong Kien Newk-Fon Hey; Deva, Raj; Alias, Mohamad Afzal; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Y.; Mohamad, Nor; Colville, Deb; Hutchinson, Anastasia



Circulating Adipocytokines and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Adipokines have been associated with atherosclerotic heart disease, which shares many common risk factors with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but their relationship with CKD has not been well characterized. Methods We investigated the association of plasma leptin, resistin and adiponectin with CKD in 201 patients with CKD and 201 controls without. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or presence of albuminuria. Quantile regression and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between adipokines and CKD adjusting for multiple confounding factors. Results Compared to controls, adjusted median leptin (38.2 vs. 17.2 ng/mL, p<0.0001) and adjusted mean resistin (16.2 vs 9.0 ng/mL, p<0.0001) were significantly higher in CKD cases. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CKD comparing the highest tertile to the lower two tertiles was 2.3 (1.1, 4.9) for leptin and 12.7 (6.5, 24.6) for resistin. Median adiponectin was not significantly different in cases and controls, but the odds ratio comparing the highest tertile to the lower two tertiles was significant (1.9; 95% CI, 1.1, 3.6). In addition, higher leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were independently associated with lower eGFR and higher urinary albumin levels. Conclusions These findings suggest that adipocytokines are independently and significantly associated with the risk and severity of CKD. Longitudinal studies are warranted to evaluate the prospective relationship of adipocytokines to the development and progression of CKD.

Mills, Katherine T.; Hamm, L. Lee; Alper, A. Brent; Miller, Chad; Hudaihed, Alhakam; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Tarsia, Joseph; Rifai, Nader; Kleinpeter, Myra; He, Jiang; Chen, Jing



Resistant Hypertension in Nondialysis Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above the target of less than 140/90?mmHg in the general population and 130/80?mmHg in people with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in spite of the use of at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic or as BP that reaches the target by means of four or more drugs. In CKD, RH is a common condition due to a combination of factors including sodium retention, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, and enhanced activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Before defining the hypertensive patient as resistant it is mandatory to exclude the so-called “pseudoresistance.” This condition, which refers to the apparent failure to reach BP target in spite of an appropriate antihypertensive treatment, is mainly caused by white coat hypertension that is prevalent (30%) in CKD patients. Recently we have demonstrated that “true” RH represents an independent risk factor for renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

Stanzione, Giovanna; Conte, Giuseppe



[Chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases. Pathophysiology and therapy].  


The pathogenesis and therapy of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases are characterized by an obvious discrepancy. There is extensive agreement that the pathogenesis is substantially based on a disruption of the barrier of the intestinal mucous membrane against luminal bacteria. This has been demonstrated in recent years by evidence from various disciplines, in particular from genetics, microbiology, morphology and innate immunology. However, there is also the evidence-based therapy which, as in the past, is aimed against the effectors of the adaptive immune system. In this case the therapy with biologicals is more aggressive and takes the risk of a series of undesired side-effects. This dichotomy of pathological knowledge and therapeutic innovation is not only medically unsatisfactory but also makes it difficult to present a consistent picture of these symptoms. Despite this an attempt will be made to bridge these inconsistencies and to demonstrate possible future developments which will lead to a final causal therapy. An extended version of this article appears in our newly published book "Colitis ulcerosa und Morbus Crohn". PMID:19777197

Herrlinger, K; Wittig, B; Stange, E F



[The diagnostic value of the aminophenazone breath test in chronic liver diseases].  


In 230 patients (90 females, 140 males aged between 20 and 73 years, average age 47.8 years) with and without exception histologically and/or laparoscopically ascertained chronic liver diseases (degenerative damages of liver parenchyma in 45, fatty liver stage I in 28, fatty liver stage II in 36, cholangiohepatitis in 4, chronic persisting hepatitis in 31, chronic active hepatitis in 57 and liver cirrhosis in 59 cases) the incorporation of the aminophenazon breathing test in the so-called laboratory chemical liver spectrum was controlled. The restriction of the microsomal biotransformation established by means of the aminophenazon breathing test behaved parallel to the degree of severity of the disease. The aminophenazon breathing test was performed in the modification after Haustein and Schenker (1985). The largest delays in the decomposition were found in the complete cirrhotic transformation of the liver. The unequivocally pathologic result of the aminophenazon breathing test in severe irreversible damages of the liver parenchyma was confirmed by the formation of correlations with parameters of the conventional laboratory spectrum of the liver. Thus the restriction of the performance of the synthesis of the liver for coagulation factors and albumins was parallel to the loss of function of the mixed functional oxidases. In all patients with chronic liver diseases a connection between the value of the thromboplastin time (Quick's test) and result of the breathing test was found. Positive linear correlation between serum albumin and results of the breathing test could also be proved particularly in the group of the severe chronic inflammatory liver diseases. In chronic fibrosing liver diseases there were positive inverse correlations between gamma-globulin concentration in the serum and thymol turbidity test on the one hand as well as the aminophenazon breathing test on the other. There were no correlations between liver enzyme and aminophenazon breathing test. The results of the own investigations incorporate the aminophenazon breathing test as indicator of a severe liver cell damage which at the same time is established by the pathological result of the so-called synthesis parameters of the liver. PMID:1962492

Sensing, H; Treutler, J; Haustein, K O; Hüller, G



Calciphylaxis presenting in early chronic kidney disease with mixed hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calciphylaxis is a disabling and life-threatening complication that primarily affects patients who are dialysis dependent. Reports have grown in the literature of cases occurring in those who have advanced chronic kidney disease (pre-end-stage renal disease) or in the setting of transplantation. There are also a few reports of cases occurring in those without any form of chronic kidney disease but

Michael Brucculeri; Allan H Haydon



Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among chronic hemodialysis patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between several traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and the presence or history of cardiovascular events in 936 hemodialysis patients enrolled in

Alfred K. Cheung; Mark J. Sarnak; Guofen Yan; Johanna T. Dwyer; Robert J. Heyka; Michael V. Rocco; Brendan P. Teehan; Andrew S. Levey



Chronic Kidney Disease in India: Challenges and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic diseases have become a major cause of global morbidity and mortality even in developing countries. The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India cannot be assessed accurately. The approximate prevalence of CKD is 800 per million population (pmp), and the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is 150–200 pmp. The most common cause of CKD in population-based studies

S. K. Agarwal; R. K. Srivastava



Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Booth FW, Lees SJ. Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases. Physiol Genomics 28: 146-157, 2007. First pub- lished October 10, 2006; doi:10.1152\\/physiolgenomics.00174.2006.— Currently our society is faced with the challenge of understanding the biological basis for the epidemics of obesity and many chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity increases the relative risk of coronary artery disease

Frank W. Booth; Simon J. Lees




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiformencephalopathy (TSE) of deer (Odocoileusspp.) and RockyMountain,elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). Other TSEs include important diseases of domestic animals (scrapie, bovine spongiformencephalopathy )and rare fatal diseases of humans (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); the bovine spongiform encephalopathyagent apparentlycauses variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In recent years intense interest in CWD has developed because of

Elizabeth S. Williams; Michael W. Miller; E. Tomthorne


Degenerative Scoliosis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative lumbar scoliosis is a coronal deviation of the spine that is prevalent in the elderly population. Although the\\u000a etiology is unclear, it is associated with progressive and asymmetric degeneration of the disc, facet joints, and other structural\\u000a spinal elements typically leading to neural element compression. Clinical presentation varies and is frequently associated\\u000a with axial back pain and neurogenic claudication.

Suhel Kotwal; Matthias Pumberger; Alex Hughes; Federico Girardi


Factors associated with chronic lung disease in preterm infants.  

PubMed Central

Among 659 infants of 30 weeks' gestation or less born in a regional perinatal centre between 1983 and 1989, 195 were ventilated for four days or more and survived to 28 days, and 87 of these developed chronic lung disease. There was a sevenfold increase in the annual incidence of chronic lung disease over time. During the same period there were significant increases in the number of infants who survived, the incidence of septicaemia, and the use of parenteral lipid emulsions. Chronic lung disease was significantly associated with low birth weight, shorter gestation, duration of ventilation, vaginal delivery, sepsis, and the use of lipid. Respiratory and physiological measurements at 96 hours were significantly worse in infants who subsequently developed chronic lung disease. Initial logistic regression showed that gestation, arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), and ventilation rate at 96 hours; and birth in 1988 or 1989, were independently associated with chronic lung disease, but when septicaemia and use of lipid during the first 21 days were included, only gestational age (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49 to 0.81 for each week) and use of lipid (odds ratio 8.1, 95% CI, 2.32 to 28.0) remained significantly associated with chronic lung disease. The observed increase in incidence of chronic lung disease in this population was associated with earlier use of parenteral lipids in infants of very low gestation rather than with changes in population, survival, or ventilator treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

Cooke, R W



Pesticides and human chronic diseases: evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives.  


Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. PMID:23402800

Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad



77 FR 43092 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Chronic Disease...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program Standardized...relating to the Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program. DATES...Disabilities through Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME)...



62 FR 28042 - Development of State Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Databases/Clearinghouses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Number 766] Development of State Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention...program for development of State health promotion and chronic disease prevention...bibliographies, literature, and health promotion and chronic disease...



64 FR 28000 - The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP); Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP); Meeting The National...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) of the Centers for...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion's funding announcement...



66 FR 8405 - Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Initiatives Related to Chronic Disease Prevention and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program Announcement 01018] Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Initiatives...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion World Health Organization...a cooperative agreement for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention...



Venous thromboembolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose Our aim was to compare clinical characteristics, prophylaxis, treatment, and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in patients with and without previously diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods We analyzed the population-based Worcester Venous Thromboembolism Study of 2,488 consecutive patients with validated venous thromboembolism to compare clinical characteristics, prophylaxis, treatment, and outcomes in patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results Of 2,488 venous thromboembolism patients, 484 (19.5%) had a history of clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 2,004 (80.5%) did not. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were older (mean age 68 years vs. 63 years) and had a higher frequency of heart failure (35.5% vs. 12.9%) and immobility (53.5% vs. 43.3%) than patients without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (all p<0.0001). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were more likely to suffer in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4%, p=0.01) and death within 30 days of venous thromboembolism diagnosis (12.6% vs. 6.5%, p<0.0001). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients demonstrated increased mortality despite a higher frequency of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Immobility doubled the risk of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio 2.21; 95% confidence interval 1.35–3.62) and death within 30 days of venous thromboembolism diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.04; 95% confidence interval 1.43–2.91). Conclusion Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have an increased risk of dying during hospitalization and within 30 days of venous thromboembolism diagnosis. Immobility in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients is an ominous risk factor for adverse outcomes.

Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Kroll, Aimee; Goldberg, Robert J.; Emery, Catherine; Spencer, Frederick A.



Posterior Interspinous Fusion Device for One-Level Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease : Comparison with Pedicle Screw Fixation - Preliminary Report of at Least One Year Follow Up  

PubMed Central

Objective Transpedicular screw fixation has some disadvantages such as postoperative back pain through wide muscle dissection, long operative time, and cephalad adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD). The purposes of this study are investigation and comparison of radiological and clinical results between interspinous fusion device (IFD) and pedicle screw. Methods From Jan. 2008 to Aug. 2009, 40 patients underwent spinal fusion with IFD combined with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). In same study period, 36 patients underwent spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation as control group. Dynamic lateral radiographs, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (K-ODI) scores were evaluated in both groups. Results The lumbar spine diseases in the IFD group were as followings; spinal stenosis in 26, degenerative spondylolisthesis in 12, and intervertebral disc herniation in 2. The mean follow up period was 14.24 months (range; 12 to 22 months) in the IFD group and 18.3 months (range; 12 to 28 months) in pedicle screw group. The mean VAS scores was preoperatively 7.16±2.1 and 8.03±2.3 in the IFD and pedicle screw groups, respectively, and improved postoperatively to 1.3±2.9 and 1.2±3.2 in 1-year follow ups (p<0.05). The K-ODI was decreased significantly in an equal amount in both groups one year postoperatively (p<0.05). The statistics revealed a higher incidence of ASD in pedicle screw group than the IFD group (p=0.029). Conclusion Posterior IFD has several advantages over the pedicle screw fixation in terms of skin incision, muscle dissection and short operative time and less intraoperative estimated blood loss. The IFD with PLIF may be a favorable technique to replace the pedicle screw fixation in selective case.

Kim, Ho Jung; Chun, Hyoung Joon; Oh, Suck Jun; Kang, Tae Hoon; Yang, Moon Sool



Biosynthesis, characterization, and efficacy in retinal degenerative diseases of lens epithelium-derived growth factor fragment (LEDGF1-326), a novel therapeutic protein.  


For vision-threatening retinitis pigmentosa and dry age-related macular degeneration, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments. We identified, biosynthesized, purified, and characterized lens epithelium-derived growth factor fragment (LEDGF1-326) as a novel protein therapeutic. LEDGF1-326 was produced at about 20 mg/liter of culture when expressed in the Escherichia coli system, with about 95% purity and aggregate-free homogeneous population with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 9 ± 1 nm. The free energy of unfolding of LEDGF1-326 was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1), and melting temperature was 44.8 ± 0.2 °C. LEDGF1-326 increased human retinal pigment epithelial cell viability from 48.3 ± 5.6 to 119.3 ± 21.1% in the presence of P23H mutant rhodopsin-mediated aggregation stress. LEDGF1-326 also increased retinal pigment epithelial cell FluoSphere uptake to 140 ± 10%. Eight weeks after single intravitreal injection in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, LEDGF1-326 increased the b-wave amplitude significantly from 9.4 ± 4.6 to 57.6 ± 8.8 ?V for scotopic electroretinogram and from 10.9 ± 5.6 to 45.8 ± 15.2 ?V for photopic electroretinogram. LEDGF1-326 significantly increased the retinal outer nuclear layer thickness from 6.34 ± 1.6 to 11.7 ± 0.7 ?m. LEDGF1-326 is a potential new therapeutic agent for treating retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23640891

Baid, Rinku; Upadhyay, Arun K; Shinohara, Toshimichi; Kompella, Uday B



Adolescents' Perception of Epilepsy Compared With Other Chronic Diseases: “Through a Teenager's Eyes”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent perception of physical and social impact of chronic illness was assessed to determine (1) if there is greater prejudice toward epilepsy than other chronic disease and (2) if adolescents with chronic disease have less prejudice toward similarly affected peers with all types of chronic disease or just their specific chronic disease. Cognitively normal teens aged 13 to 18 years

Christina Cheung; Elaine Wirrell



Corynebacterium aquaticum infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.  


Patients with chronic granulomatous disease are uniquely susceptible to infection with catalase-producing bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescans are common infecting organisms. A 17-month-old boy with Corynebacterium aquaticum bacteremia is reported. This is only the third documented infection with this non-JK diphtheroid and the first case infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. It is likely that our patient's underlying immune defect predisposed him to infection with this unusual, catalase-producing organism. Although these bacteria are common contaminants and rarely infecting agents, true infection should be considered in patients with chronic granulomatous disease from whom a diphtheroid is isolated. PMID:3407679

Kaplan, A; Israel, F



Stories of chronic kidney disease: listening for the unsayable.  


AIMS: To explore individuals' stories of chronic kidney disease, particularly those aspects of experience that are difficult to discuss using language (i.e. unsayable). BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is continuous, but it is also life-threatening and sometimes people ask difficult questions about life and death that can be challenging and for some, impossible to discuss. These 'unsayables' are the focus of this article. The unsayable may reside both within and beyond language. Careful analysis of narratives of illness for sayable and unsayable aspects of the experience can help illuminate new areas of concern for people with chronic kidney disease. DESIGN: Narrative inquiry, located in a social constructionist framework, guided this study. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was conducted with 46 in-depth interviews (collected between 2008-2011) with 14 people living with chronic kidney disease. FINDINGS: Through narrative thematic analysis, we identify that the unsayable includes the following five themes: living with death, embodied experiences that were difficult to language, that which was unthinkable, unknowable mystery and that which was untold/unheard. Whereas the first four themes attend to that which is unsayable for people living with chronic kidney disease, the last theme acknowledges that which is unsayable to people living with chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: Not all experiences of illness can be explicitly articulated in language. Listening for both the sayable and unsayable aspects of life with chronic and life-threatening illness is an important nursing role. PMID:23594086

Makaroff, Kara L Schick; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita




PubMed Central

Introduction Occupational exposure to silica may be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most studies have been conducted in occupational cohorts with high levels of exposure but small numbers of cases. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of occupational silica exposure and CKD. Methods Cases were hospital patients with newly diagnosed CKD and community controls were selected using random digit dialing and frequency matched by age, gender, race and proximity to the hospital. Silica exposure estimates were assigned by industrial hygiene review of lifetime job history data and weighted for certainty and intensity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for CKD conditioned on demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (range, 30-83 years), 56% were male and 54% were white. Any silica exposure (compared to none) was associated with a 40% increased risk of CKD (OR=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.89) in a multivariable adjusted model. The mean cumulative duration of silica exposure was significantly higher in exposed cases than in exposed controls (33.4 vs. 24.8 years, respectively). Overall, compared to non-exposed participants, the ORs (95% CI) for those below and above the median duration of silica exposure were 1.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.86) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.71), respectively. Conclusions We found a positive relationship between occupational silica exposure and CKD. A dose-response trend of increasing CKD risk with increasing duration of silica exposure was observed and was particularly strong among non-whites.

Vupputuri, Suma; Parks, Christine G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.



Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.


[Disorders of the larynx and chronic inflammatory diseases].  


Chronic inflammatory diseases including tuberculosis, rheumatic disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegeners's granulomatosis, relapsing polychondritis) and reflux disease are considered as systemic diseases, and may affect the larynx. The clinical symptoms are often unspecific, leading to prolonged intervals to diagnosis. Solid and haematological tumours should be considered in differential diagnosis and may require bioptic sampling. Treatment may require interdisciplinary approach. PMID:23044789

Pickhard, A; Smith, E; Rottscholl, R; Brosch, S; Reiter, R



A systems view of genetics in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tight interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental factors define the onset and the rate of progression of chronic renal disease. We are seeing a rapid expansion of information about genetic loci associated with kidney function and complex renal disease. However, discovering the functional links that bridge the gap from genetic risk loci to disease phenotype is one of the

Benjamin J Keller; Sebastian Martini; John R Sedor; Matthias Kretzler



Chronic Granulomatous Disease; fundamental stages in our understanding of CGD  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been 50 years since chronic granulomatous disease was first reported as a disease which fatally affected the ability of children to survive infections. Various milestone discoveries from the insufficient ability of patients' leucocytes to destroy microbial particles to the underlying genetic predispositions through which the disease is inherited have had important consequences. Longterm antibiotic prophylaxis has helped to

Tracy Assari



Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are both common respiratory problems that can present acutely with severe respiratory failure. Both are characterized by the presence of air flow limitation, which is variable in asthma and usually fixed in COPD. Chronic respiratory failure usually develops in COPD once FEV1 falls to less than 30% of predicted. Patients are often hospitalized

Simon Baudouin



Serum Pancreatic Enzyme Concentrations in Chronic Viral Liver Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum amylase and lipase concentrations weredetermined in 78 patients with chronic liver diseases[26 chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and 52 livercirrhosis] and in 15 healthy subjects. Pancreaticisoamylase concentrations and macroamylase complexes wereassayed in hyperamylasemic sera. Serum amylase levelswere abnormally elevated in 27 patients (35%; 22 livercirrhosis, 5 CAH), whereas serum lipase levels were elevated in 16 patients (21%; 15 livercirrhosis, 1

Raffaele Pezzilli; Pietro Andreone; Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate; Claudia Sama; Paola Billi; Carmela Cursaro; Bahjat Barakat; Annagiulia Gramenzi; Manuela Fiocchi; Federico Miglio; Mauro Bernardi



Chronic Diseases in the Pediatric Age Group. Matrix No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper briefly outlines current problems associated with chronic diseases in children and youth and provides indications for the types of future research and analysis needed to facilitate the development of solutions. In general, these problems are associated with the following: malignancies, hereditary anemias, cystic fibrosis, other chronic

Katz, Michael


Chronic unexplained hypertransaminasemia may be caused by occult celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a subset of patients attending liver units, a chronic increase in serum transaminases may remain of undeter- mined cause despite thorough investigations. On the other hand, elevated levels of serum transaminases have been reported in about 40% of adult celiac patients. To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical celiac disease in patients with chronic unexplained hypertransaminasemia in comparison with that

Maria Teresa Bardella; Maurizio Vecchi; Dario Conte; Ersilio Del Ninno; Mirella Fraquelli; Stefania Pacchetti; Eliseo Minola; Marina Landoni; Bruno Mario Cesana; Roberto De Franchis



Prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of comorbidity is high, with 80% of the elderly population having three or more chronic conditions. Comorbidity is associated with a decline in many health outcomes and increases in mortality and use of health care resources. The aim of this study was to identify, review and summarise studies reporting the prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in

Gillian E Caughey; Agnes I Vitry; Andrew L Gilbert; Elizabeth E Roughead




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Familial benign chronic pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey disease) is a blistering dermatosis, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and usually presents around the third and fourth decades. Painful erosions, vesico-pustules and scaly erythematous plaques appear at sites of friction such as the sides of the neck, the axillae, the groins and the perineum. A case of familial benign chronic

Ivelina Yordanova; Dimitar Gospodinov; Valentina Chavdarova; Savelina Popovska



Association between abnormal kinematics and degenerative change in knees of people with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: a magnetic resonance imaging study.  


Progressive degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee may be partly due to chondral trauma at the time of ACL rupture and repeat episodes of subluxation, but also due to aberrant kinematics altering the wear pattern at the tibiofemoral interface. The hypothesis that altered kinematics, represented by the tibiofemoral contact pattern, would be associated with articular cartilage degeneration in ACL-deficient knees was tested in a cross-sectional study of 23 subjects with a history of > 10 years ACL deficiency without knee reconstruction. Subjects were aged 31 to 67 years. Eleven were male, 12 were female. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans enabled tibiofemoral contact mapping as subjects performed a closed-chain leg-press. Images were acquired at 15 degree intervals from 0 degrees to 90 degrees knee flexion. Articular cartilage degeneration was assessed by diagnostic MRI and where possible, arthroscopy. The ACL-deficient knees had a posterior tibiofemoral contact pattern on the tibial plateau compared to the healthy knees (F((1,171)) = 9.2, p = 0.003). The difference appeared to be seen in the medial compartment (F((1,171)) = 3.2, p = 0.07), though this failed to reach significance. Articular cartilage degeneration in the medial compartment was related to the variation of the tibiofemoral contact pattern (r = -0.53, p = 0.01). Articular cartilage degeneration was not related to time since injury (r = -0.16, p = 0.65). The association between aberrant kinematics and degenerative change may stimulate thinking on the role of dynamic stability and neuromuscular co-ordination in joint protection. PMID:16321130

Scarvell, Jennifer M; Smith, Paul N; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Galloway, Howard R; Woods, Kevin R



Patient-Centered Medical Home in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive and debilitating but preventable and treatable disease characterized by cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and fixed or incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Most patients with COPD rely on primary care practices for COPD management. Unfortunately, only about 55% of US outpatients with COPD receive all guideline-recommended care. Proactive and consistent primary care for COPD, as for many other chronic diseases, can reduce hospitalizations. Optimal chronic disease management requires focusing on maintenance rather than merely acute rescue. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH), which implements the chronic care model, is a promising framework for primary care transformation. This review presents core PCMH concepts and proposes multidisciplinary team-based PCMH care strategies for COPD.

Ortiz, Gabriel; Fromer, Len



COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva ...


Enzymes in feces: Useful markers of chronic inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUlcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are characterized by a chronic intestinal inflammation. Since the precise etiology is still unknown, current therapies are aimed at reducing or eliminating inflammation.

Imerio Angriman; Marco Scarpa; Renata D'Incà; Daniela Basso; Cesare Ruffolo; Lino Polese; Giacomo C. Sturniolo; Davide F. D'Amico; Mario Plebani



Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease Occur Earlier in Children  


... lead to a shift in treatment, the largest prospective study of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has ... from these findings.” CKiD is a multi-center, prospective study of children and teenagers ages 1 to 16 ...


Bio-ecological control of chronic liver disease and encephalopathy.  


Minimal encephalopathy was originally associated with chronic liver disease but is increasingly associated with most other chronic diseases and particularly with diabetes and also chronic disorders in other organs: kidneys, lungs, thyroid and with obesity. It is increasingly with dramatically increased and more or less permanent increase in systemic inflammation, most likely a result of Western lifestyle. Frequent physical exercise and intake of foods rich in vitamins, antioxidants, fibres, lactic acid bacteria etc in combination with reduction in intake of refined and processed foods is known to reduce systemic inflammation and prevent chronic diseases. Some lactic acid bacteria, especially Lb paracasei, lb plantarum and pediococcus pentosaceus have proven effective to reduce inflammation and eliminate encephalopathy. Significant reduction in blood ammonia levels and endotoxin levels were reported in parallel to improvement of liver disease. Subsequent studies with other lactic acid bacteria seem to demonstrate suppression of inflammation and in one study also evidence of clinical improvement. PMID:19104922

Bengmark, Stig



Research involving participants with chronic diseases: overcoming recruitment obstacles.  


Chronic diseases are rampant in the United States and account for the majority of healthcare costs in this country. The implementation of research studies involving members of chronic disease populations is necessary to the development of interventions aimed at preventing these conditions and improving outcomes. The implementation of such studies hinges on the successful recruitment of an adequate number of study participants. Difficulties surrounding participant recruitment in behavioral studies are well documented and present a barrier to researchers aiming to conduct research involving persons with chronic diseases. Common recruitment challenges associated with recruiting chronic disease participants are reviewed, and a highly effective, alternative recruitment strategy used by the authors in a qualitative study involving persons with epilepsy is discussed in detail. PMID:24107754

Miller, Wendy R; Bakas, Tamilyn; Buelow, Janice M; Habermann, Barbara


Hyperuricemia and Urate Excretion in Chronic Renal Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standard renal clearances were performed in 92 subjects, comparing uric acid excretion, glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow in normal people and people with proven chronic renal disease with normal and sub-normal glomerular filtration. Despite com...

J. J. McPhaul



Correlative radiological, self-assessment and clinical analysis of evolution in instrumented dorsal and lateral fusion for degenerative lumbar spine disease. Autograft versus coralline hydroxyapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective longitudinal randomized clinical and radiological study compared the evolution of instrumented posterolateral lumbar and lumbosacral fusion using either coralline hydroxyapatite (CH), or iliac bone graft (IBG) or both in three comparable groups, A, B and C, which included 19, 18 and 20 patients, respectively, who suffered from symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and underwent decompression and fusion. The

Panagiotis Korovessis; Georgios Koureas; Spyridon Zacharatos; Zisis Papazisis; Elias Lambiris



Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: Objective The objective of this evidence-based review was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Technology Pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually tailored and designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy. Exercise training is the cornerstone of pulmonary re



Beryllium copper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium disease.  


We describe two newly confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease who presented to our clinic from a facility that only used 2% beryllium copper alloy. These cases illustrate that the 2% beryllium copper alloy continues to cause chronic beryllium disease and that appropriate preventive measures must be taken to control exposures and educate industries and their workers about the hazards of beryllium alloys. PMID:10224597

Balkissoon, R C; Newman, L S



Urinary phospholipase A2 excretion in chronic pancreatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study was performed to investigate the behavior of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in serum and urine of patients with chronic\\u000a pancreatic diseases and to ascertain whether any factors influenced the results. In 30 controls, 45 patients with pancreatic\\u000a cancer, 54 with chronic pancreatitis, and 64 with extrapancreatic diseases, serum and urinary PLA2, pancreatic isoamylase\\u000a and RNase, and urinary N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG)

C. Fabris; D. Basso; M. P. Panozzo; G. Del Favero; T. Meggiato; M. Plebani; C. Ferrara; P. Fogar; M. Zaninotto; R. Naccarato



Physical activity, genes, and lifetime predisposition to chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini-review summarizes the main associations between physical activity and chronic diseases and discusses the basic concepts\\u000a related to the role of genetic factors in studies evaluating the effects of physical activity\\/exercise therapy on chronic\\u000a disease prevention\\/treatment during the life course. Many observational cohort studies have shown that high physical activity\\u000a during young adulthood or middle age is associated with

Urho M. Kujala



Increased Serum Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Chronic Renal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) was significantly elevated in 16 of 48 patients with various types of chronic renal disease not on hemodialysis [45.6 ± (SD)16.7 nmol\\/min\\/ml, p < 0.001] and in 17 of 52 patients with chronic renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis (43.2 ± 13.8, p < 0.001) in comparison with 58 healthy adult controls (32.2 ± 9.8). There was

Emanuel Silverstein; John Brunswick; Sreepada Rao; Joan Friedland



Metagenomic Applications and the Potential for Understanding Chronic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Liver fibrosis is characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins that occurs in chronic liver disease\\u000a of any origin. Cirrhosis occurs with the development of regenerating nodules of hepatocytes. Patients with decompensated liver\\u000a cirrhosis have a poor prognosis, and liver transplantation is often necessary. There are no effective antifibrotic treatments\\u000a for patients with chronic liver diseases. Intestinal dysbiosis

Bernd Schnabl


Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT COOPER, C. B. Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,Vol. 33, No. 7, Suppl., pp. S671?S679, 2001. Endurance exercise training (EXT) is singly the most important aspect of rehabilitation for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. When effective, this modality of physical reconditioning leads to improved functional exercise capacity and reduced breathlessness. Early implementation is




Anemia and pregnancy: a link to maternal chronic diseases.  


Anemia is a global public health problem. It has serious short- and long-term consequences during pregnancy and beyond. The anemic condition is often worsened by the presence of other chronic diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and diabetes. Untreated anemia also leads to increased morbidity and mortality from these chronic conditions as well. It is surprising that despite these chronic conditions (such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV) often being preventable, they still pose a real threat to public health. This article aims to review the current understanding of the pathophysiology, risks, prevention, and treatment of anemia in the light of these chronic conditions. PMID:22099433

Gangopadhyay, Raja; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Keith, Louis



Decrease in Irisin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic kidney disease have abnormal energy expenditure and metabolism. The mechanisms underlying altered energy expenditure in uremia are unknown and remain to be elucidated. Irisin is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1-?–dependent myokine, and it increases energy expenditure in the absence of changes in food intake or activity. We hypothesize that chronic kidney disease patients have altered irisin levels. We measured resting irisin levels in 38 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease and in 19 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Plasma irisin levels were significantly decreased in chronic kidney disease patients (58.59%; 95% CI 47.9%–69.2%, p<0.0001). The decrease in irisin levels was inversely correlated with the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Further association analysis revealed that irisin level is independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that chronic kidney disease patients have lower than normal irisin levels at rest. Furthermore, irisin may play a major role in affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and abnormal energy expenditure in chronic kidney disease patients.

Wen, Ming-Shien; Wang, Chao-Yung; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Hung, Kuo-Chun



Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.  


Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23802624

Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J



Fish consumption and risk of major chronic disease in men  

PubMed Central

Background Although fish consumption may reduce specific disease endpoints, such as sudden cardiac death and prostate cancer, the effects on total burden of major chronic disease, reflecting sums of effects on a variety of endpoints and risk pathways, are not well established. Higher n-6 fatty acid consumption has also been hypothesized to reduce the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids in fish. Objective The aim was to study associations of fish and n-3 fatty acid consumption with risk of total major chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death), and to determine whether a high n-6 intake modifies the associations. Design Lifestyle and other risk factors were assessed every 2 y and diet every 4 y in 40,230 U.S. male health professionals aged 40–75 years and free of major chronic disease at baseline in 1986. During 18 y follow-up, 9715 major chronic disease events occurred, including 3639 cardiovascular disease events, 4690 cancers, and 1386 deaths from other causes. Results After multivariable adjustment, neither fish nor dietary n-3 fatty acid consumption was significantly associated with risk of total major chronic disease. Compared with fish consumption of <1 serving/mo, consumption of 1 serving/wk and 2–4 servings/wk was associated with a lower risk of total cardiovascular disease of ~15%. No significant associations were seen with cancer risk. Higher or lower n-6 fatty acid intake did not significantly modify the results (P for interaction >0.10). Conclusions Modest fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of total cardiovascular disease, consistent with cardiac mortality benefits, but not with total cancer or overall major chronic disease; n-6 fatty acid consumption did not influence these relations.

Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Rimm, Eric B.



Implications of gene-drug interactions in smoking cessation for improving the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.  


Tobacco smoking continues to be the major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent research strongly suggests that genetic background is associated with several aspects of smoking (e.g. initiation, maintenance, cessation, number of cigarettes smoked, indicators of nicotine dependence (ND) and nicotine withdrawal). Variations in two broad classes of genes have been shown to influence smoking: (1) genes that may influence the response to nicotine (e.g. nicotine metabolism, nicotinic receptors) and (2) genes that may predispose to addictive behaviour via their effects on key neurotransmitter pathways (e.g. dopamine, serotonin and opioid). Since these genetic variants might also influence the response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, smoking cessation rates might be increased by determining which treatment would be most effective based on the smoker's genetic background. This is expected to result in a more efficient use of smoking cessation therapies, increased cessation rates and ultimately, in reduced deaths from smoking. Until now, most research on the influence of genetic variation on smoking cessation pharmacotherapy has been directed to the two most widely accepted and licensed forms of smoking cessation therapy: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and the antidepressant bupropion. Overall, genotypes associated with increased dopamine availability seem to predict a better response to bupropion, while smokers with genotypes associated with reduced dopamine levels probably achieve better quit rates with NRT. A decreased metabolism for the drug used (e.g. bupropion or NRT), results in increased cessation rates as well. Furthermore, smokers with reduced dopaminergic and nicotinic receptor activity variants may experience greater benefit from nicotine spray, while smokers with increased activity variants in the opioid receptor may have greater success with transdermal patches. Thus it seems that genetic information may give directions in determining which treatment would be most effective for an individual smoker. However, several challenges will still have to be overcome before genetically tailored smoking cessation therapy can be implemented in standard clinical practice. PMID:19028511

Quaak, Marieke; van Schayck, Constant P; Knaapen, Ad M; van Schooten, Frederik J



Implications of gene–drug interactions in smoking cessation for improving the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking continues to be the major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent research strongly suggests that genetic background is associated with several aspects of smoking (e.g. initiation, maintenance, cessation, number of cigarettes smoked, indicators of nicotine dependence (ND) and nicotine withdrawal). Variations in two broad classes of genes have been shown to influence smoking:

Marieke Quaak; Constant P. van Schayck; Ad M. Knaapen; Frederik J. van Schooten



Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster



Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease, which is partly explained by the fact that 40–70% of patients receiving dialysis have significant coronary artery disease. Recent clinical studies have shown that lower serum magnesium (Mg) levels are associated with vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Mehmet Kanbay; David Goldsmith; Mehtap Erkmen Uyar; Faruk Turgut; Adrian Covic



A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology.  


A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology uses a multidisciplinary framework to understand the importance of time and timing in associations between exposures and outcomes at the individual and population levels. Such an approach to chronic diseases is enriched by specification of the particular way that time and timing in relation to physical growth, reproduction, infection, social mobility, and behavioral transitions, etc., influence various adult chronic diseases in different ways, and more ambitiously, by how these temporal processes are interconnected and manifested in population-level disease trends. In this review, we discuss some historical background to life course epidemiology and theoretical models of life course processes, and we review some of the empirical evidence linking life course processes to coronary heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, type II diabetes, breast cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We also underscore that a life course approach offers a way to conceptualize how underlying socio-environmental determinants of health, experienced at different life course stages, can differentially influence the development of chronic diseases, as mediated through proximal specific biological processes. PMID:15760279

Lynch, John; Smith, George Davey



Infectious causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Powerful diagnostic technology, plus the realization that organisms of otherwise unimpressive virulence can produce slowly progressive chronic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and disease outcomes, has resulted in the discovery of new infectious agents and new concepts of infectious diseases. The demonstration that final outcome of infection is as much determined by the genetic background of the patient as by the genetic makeup of the infecting agent is indicating that a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology are caused by one or more infectious agents. One well-known example is the discovery that stomach ulcers are due to Helicobacter pylori. Mycoplasmas may cause chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults, and Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently identified common cause of acute respiratory infection, has been associated with atherosclerosis. A number of infectious agents that cause or contribute to neoplastic diseases in humans have been documented in the past 6 years. The association and causal role of infectious agents in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer have major implications for public health, treatment, and prevention.

Cassell, G. H.



Chronic renal disease progression: treatment strategies and potassium intake.  


Disordered potassium homeostasis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and traditional management focuses on restricting potassium intake to avoid hyperkalemia. Permissive potassium intake carries the risk of hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia, and possibly may contribute to the development of uremic neuropathy. Excessive potassium restriction and removal by dialysis carries the risk of worsened chronic hypertension, intradialytic hypotension, renal fibrosis and cyst formation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Cohort studies have associated both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia with increased mortality in CKD. A single study of potassium intake in hemodialysis patients found increased intake associated with increased mortality despite adjustment for serum potassium concentration. We recommend avoiding mandatory potassium restriction in early chronic kidney disease. We endorse routine potassium restriction in advanced chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis and close monitoring of serum potassium concentration in any patients receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. PMID:23953806

Sinha, Arjun D; Agarwal, Rajiv



Chronic pediatric pulmonary disease and primary humoral antibody based immune disease.  


Chronic inflammation of the larger airways is a common occurrence in children. A number of factors such as younger age, premature birth, male gender, exposure to environmental smoke or pollution, and crowded housing can increase a child's susceptibility to chronic lung disease. Chronic bronchitis may be caused by an underlying humoral immunodeficiency if the clinical course is recurrent or prolonged. Primary humoral immunodeficiency accounts for approximately 70% of all immunodeficiencies. The differential of chronic bronchitis also includes Cystic Fibrosis, ciliary defects and immune cellular and phagocytic defects. This review will summarize the most common humoral antibody based immune based deficiencies associated with chronic pulmonary disease. PMID:21144721

Dosanjh, A



Care for chronic illness in Australian general practice – focus groups of chronic disease self-help groups over 10 years: implications for chronic care systems reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. AIM: The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare

Carmel M Martin; Chris Peterson; Rowena Robinson; Joachim P Sturmberg



Evaluation of the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) among chronically ill older people in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many chronically ill older patients in the Netherlands have a combination of more than one chronic disease. There is therefore a need for self-management programs that address general management problems, rather than the problems related to a specific disease. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) seems to be very suitable for this purpose. In evaluations of the program that have

Henrike Elzen; Joris P. J. Slaets; Tom A. B. Snijders; Nardi Steverink



Screening and Management of Depression for Adults With Chronic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is the leading cause of disability and the fourth leading contributor to the global burden of disease. In Canada, the 1-year prevalence of major depressive disorder was approximately 6% in Canadians 18 and older. A large prospective Canadian study reported an increased risk of developing depression in people with chronic diseases compared with those without such diseases. Objectives To systematically review the literature regarding the effectiveness of screening for depression and/or anxiety in adults with chronic diseases in the community setting. To conduct a non-systematic, post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether a screen-and-treat strategy for depression is associated with an improvement in chronic disease outcomes. Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 29, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, OVID PsycINFO, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 2002 until January 29, 2012. Review Methods No citations were identified for the first objective. For the second, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials that compared depression management for adults with chronic disease with usual care/placebo were included. Where possible, the results of randomized controlled trials were pooled using a random-effects model. Results Eight primary randomized controlled trials and 1 systematic review were included in the post-hoc analysis (objective 2)—1 in people with diabetes, 2 in people with heart failure, and 5 in people with coronary artery disease. Across all studies, there was no evidence that managing depression improved chronic disease outcomes. The quality of evidence (GRADE) ranged from low to moderate. Some of the study results (specifically in coronary artery disease populations) were suggestive of benefit, but the differences were not significant. Limitations The included studies varied in duration of treatment and follow-up, as well as in included forms of depression. In most of the trials, the authors noted a significant placebo response rate that could be attributed to spontaneous resolution of depression or mild disease. In some studies, placebo groups may have had access to care as a result of screening, since it would be unethical to withhold all care. Conclusions There was no evidence to suggest that a screen-and-treat strategy for depression among adults with chronic diseases resulted in improved chronic disease outcomes. Plain Language Summary People with chronic diseases are more likely to have depression than people without chronic diseases. This is a problem because depression may make the chronic disease worse or affect how a person manages it. Discovering depression earlier may make it easier for people to cope with their condition, leading to better health and quality of life. We reviewed studies that looked at screening and treating for depression in people with chronic diseases. In people with diabetes, treatment of depression did not affect clinical measures of diabetes management. In people with heart failure and coronary artery disease, treatment of depression did not improve heart failure management or reduce rates of heart attacks or death. At present, there is no evidence that screening and treating for depression improves the symptoms of chronic diseases or lead to use of fewer health care services.



Hydrocarbon exposure and chronic renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study objective was to investigate further the potential role of long-term exposure to hydrocarbons (HCs) in the development of idiopathic chronic glomerulopathy (ICG) using a more refined measurement of HC exposure. A total of 321 pairs of cases and controls, matched by age, gender, and geographical area, were assembled. A detailed questionnaire was blindly administered to cases and controls

Nabih R. Asal; Harold L. Cleveland; Christian Kaufman; Wato Nsa; Deborah I. Nelson; Robert Y. Nelson; Elisa T. Lee; Beverly Kingsley



Gender and human chronic renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gender affects the incidence, prevalence, and progression of renal disease. In animal models of the disease, female sex appears to modify the course of progression. Hormonal manipulation by male or female castration also changes the course of renal disease progression, suggesting direct effects of sex hormones in influencing the course of these maladies.Objective: This review examines the pertinent animal

Sharon Silbiger; Joel Neugarten



Older Adults, Chronic Disease and Leisure-time Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of older adults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (?1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease.

Ashe, Maureen C.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Noreau, Luc



Inflammatory factors and exercise in chronic kidney disease.  


Patients with chronic kidney disease frequently present with chronic elevations in markers of inflammation, a condition that appears to be exacerbated by disease progression and onset of haemodialysis. Systemic inflammation is interlinked with malnutrition and muscle protein wasting and is implicated in a number of morbidities including cardiovascular disease: the most common cause of mortality in this population. Research in the general population and other chronic disease cohorts suggests that an increase in habitual activity levels over a prolonged period may help redress basal increases in systemic inflammation. Furthermore, those populations with the highest baseline levels of systemic inflammation appear to have the greatest improvements from training. On the whole, the activity levels of the chronic kidney disease population reflect a sedentary lifestyle, indicating the potential for increasing physical activity and observing health benefits. This review explores the current literature investigating exercise and inflammatory factors in the chronic kidney disease population and then attempts to explain the contradictory findings and suggests where future research is required. PMID:23737775

Dungey, Maurice; Hull, Katherine L; Smith, Alice C; Burton, James O; Bishop, Nicolette C



Anti-inflammatory treatments for chronic diseases: a review.  


Inflammation is viewed as one of the major causes for the development of different diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and CNS related diseases such as depression and parkinson's disease; and this fervent phenomenon provides space for understanding different inflammatory markers. Increasing evidences have elucidated the outcome of inflammatory pathways dysregulation resulting in many symptoms of chronic diseases. The detection of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B), STAT and their gene products such as COX-2, cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors has laid molecular foundation for the important role of inflammation in chronic diseases in which the NF-?B is reported as a major mediator which makes a possible way for the development of new therapeutic approaches using synthetic and natural compounds that might eventually decrease the prevalence of these diseases. Even if many inflammatory markers like TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) are reported to be the major key factors with proved role in several inflammatory diseases, IL-1 and TNF-? are the important cytokines that can induce the expression of NF-?B which is the potential target in these inflammatory diseases. This review aims to explore and summarize that how some drugs and natural compounds show their modulatory activity in inflammatory pathways and chronic inflammatory markers in these inflammatory diseases. PMID:23876224

Laveti, Durgaprasad; Kumar, Manoj; Hemalatha, R; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Naidu, V G M; Talla, Venu; Verma, Vinod; Kaur, Navrinder; Nagpal, Ravinder



Angiotensin1 Converting Enzyme Polymorphisms in Chronic Beryllium Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype is associated with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and disease severity, we studied 50 cases of CBD and compared their ACE genotype to that of two different control groups, consisting of: ( 1 ) 50 participants from a beryl- lium machining facility; and ( 2 ) 50 participants from a




Vascular Calcification in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an extremely common condition, and cardiovascular diseases are frequently reported in this patient population. Traditional risk factors are not accurate prognostic predictors in CKD patients, and new potential markers to predict the cardiovascular involvement in uremic patients need to be identified. Vascular calcification (VC) represents a hallmark of the atherosclerotic process in CKD. This review

Santo Dellegrottaglie; Javier Sanz; Sanjay Rajagopalan



Emerging risk factors and markers of chronic kidney disease progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition with an increasing prevalence. A number of comorbidities are associated with CKD and prognosis is poor, with many patients experiencing disease progression. Recognizing the factors associated with CKD progression enables high-risk patients to be identified and given more intensive treatment if necessary. The identification of new predictive markers might improve our understanding

Florian Kronenberg



Chronic kidney disease in the United States: An underrecognized problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued growth of the population with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is partially related to the underrecognition of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and risk factors for the development of CKD. There are several published estimates of the prevalence of CKD in the United States. From Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data it has been estimated

Gregorio T. Obrador; Brian J. G. Pereira; Annamaria T. Kausz



Defective tryptophan catabolism underlies inflammation in mouse chronic granulomatous disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Half a century ago, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was first described as a disease fatally affecting the ability of children to survive infections. Various milestone discoveries have since been made, from an insufficient ability of patients' leucocytes to kill microbes to the underlying genetic abnormalities. In this inherited disorder, phagocytes lack NADPH oxidase activity and do not generate reactive oxygen

Luigina Romani; Francesca Fallarino; Antonella de Luca; Claudia Montagnoli; Carmen D'Angelo; Teresa Zelante; Carmine Vacca; Francesco Bistoni; Maria C. Fioretti; Ursula Grohmann; Brahm H. Segal



Nutrition and growth in children with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor growth in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a marker of disease severity and of quality of care. Causes are multifactorial, and include malnutrition, cachexia, hematological factors, endocrine problems and metabolic abnormalities. In this Review, we focus on the impact of inadequate nutrition on growth disturbances in children with CKD, and discuss all aspects of the epidemiology, causes and potential

Robert H. Mak; Lesley Rees



Arterial Stiffness and Osteoporosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associ- ated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and osteoporo- sis. Increasedarterialstiffnessis anindependentpredictorofcardio- vascular disease. Objectives: Wetested thehypothesisthat patientswithCOPD would have increased arterial stiffness, which would be associated with osteoporosis and systemic inflammation. Methods: We studied 75 clinically stable patients with a range of severity of airway obstruction and 42 healthy smoker

Ramsey Sabit; Charlotte E. Bolton; Peter H. Edwards; Rebecca J. Pettit; William D. Evans; Carmel M. McEniery; Ian B. Wilkinson; John R. Cockcroft; Dennis J. Shale



Nutritional and metabolic modulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the perspective for nutritional modulation of systemic impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is discussed. Progressive weight loss is characterised by disease-specific elevated energy requirements unbalanced by dietary intake. Weight gain per se can be achieved by caloric supplementation while future studies may prove efficacy of amino acid modulation to stimulate protein synthesis and

A. M. W. J. Schols



Total burden of chronic diseases among older cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Both chronic diseases and cancer are associated with ageing. As the population ages, also the number of older cancer patients with comorbidity will increase dramatically. In the future, general practitioners will be confronted with older patients with cancer and two, three or more concomitant diseases. Aim: We aim to assess the occurrence of comorbidity among older cancer patients as

L. D. Deckx; M. A. van der Akker; S. B. Bartholomeeusen; J. M. Metsemakers; A. K. Knottnerus; F. G. Schellevis; F. B. Buntinx



The unrecognized prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common and exhibit synergistic associations with premature mortality. Current diabetes guidelines in the UK recommend annual urinary albumin and serum creatinine determinations to screen for diabetic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of CKD in patients with diabetes and examine the ability of serum creatinine

Rachel J. Middleton; Robert N. Foley; Janet Hegarty; Ching M. Cheung; Patrick McElduff; J. Martin Gibson; Philip A. Kalra; Donal J. O'Donoghue; John P. New



Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death in the US. Numerous studies have demonstrated that sleep disturbances are common in COPD patients, with more prominent complaints in patients with more severe disease and with increasing age. Sleep disturbances may occur due to the effects of breathing abnormalities on sleep and sleep disruption. However, other

Nancy Collop



Alterations in Serum Leptin in Chronic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of leptin in anorexia associated with liver cirrhosis remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the serum leptin level in patients with hepatocellular or cholestatic liver disease and to assess its relationship with serum insulin, body mass index, and serum lipoproteins. The study population included 30 women, 15 with chronic hepatocellular liver disease and 15

Ziv Ben-Ari; Zahava Schafer; Jaqueline Sulkes; Varda Manhaim; Ran Tur-Kaspa; Menahem Fainaru



The Neglected Global Burden of Chronic Oral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global burden of oral diseases, in fact, has been outlined in a very recent Bulletin of the World Health Organization: The vast majority of diseases affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity, in fact, have a chronic nature, are strongly associated with socio-behavioral risk factors, and represent a larger problem in underprivileged groups in both developing

M. D. Mignogna; S. Fedele



Atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease: the role of macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and loss of renal parenchyma accelerates atherosclerosis in animal models. Macrophages are central to atherogenesis because they regulate cholesterol traffic and inflammation in the arterial wall. CKD influences macrophage behavior at multiple levels, rendering them proatherogenic. Even at normal creatinine levels, macrophages from uninephrectomized Apoe?\\/? mice

Valentina Kon; MacRae F. Linton; Sergio Fazio



Management of Pediatric Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Deborah Miller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease in children is associated with complications that require nursing interventions in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Given the progressive nature of the disease and the com- plexity of the treatment regimen, it is important that nurses be com- fortable implementing acute and preventive care strategies and facili- tating the coordination of care. In addition, the need

Dina MacDonald


Anticholinergics in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. In the majority of cases, the disease is the result of years of cigarette smoking. Contributing factors leading to bronchial obstruction in COPD include mucus hypersecretion and an increase in bronchial muscle tone, which is triggered mainly by cholinergic mechanisms. Anticholinergic bronchodilators

Kai-Michael Beeh; Tobias Welte; Roland Buhl



Histological diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and four children were initially assessed by clinical, radiological, and endoscopic criteria as chronic inflammatory bowel disease. All were assessed independently using precise histological diagnostic criteria. Fifty eight patients were diagnosed as Crohn's disease, 25 as ulcerative colitis, 15 remained provisionally categorised as indeterminate colitis and six proved to be normal. Diagnostic granulomas were found in 36% of

S K Chong; A J Blackshaw; S Boyle; C B Williams; J A Walker-Smith



Intergenerational transmission of non-communicable chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a theoretical framework that contributes to the understanding of non-communicable chronic diseases' (NCDs) epidemics: even if NCDs are non-infectious diseases, they may spread due to the social transmission of unhealthy activities such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking. In particular, we study the intergener- ational dimension of this mechanism. We find that, due to the social transmission

Catarina Goulao; Agustin Pérez-Barahona



Racial and survival paradoxes in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the 20 million people in the US with chronic kidney disease (CKD) die before commencing dialysis. One of every five dialysis patients dies each year in the US. Although cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among patients with CKD, conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and obesity are paradoxically associated with better survival

Csaba P Kovesdy; Stephen F Derose; Tamara B Horwich; Gregg C Fonarow; Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh



Direct Renin Inhibitor: Aliskiren in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and its increased complications such as hypertension (HT) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Previous studies suggested that aliskiren a direct renin inhibitor, blocks RAAS and may be effective for the management of CKD and its complications. This review focuses on the effects of aliskiren on CKD.

Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Kusano, Eiji



Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outcome Measurements: What's Important? What's Useful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and patients' response to therapy are difficult to assess. The traditional measure, spirometry, correlates poorly with important clinical fea- tures of the disease, such as survival and quality of life (QOL). Moreover, COPD has recently been recognized as a systemic dis- ease,anditssystemicmanifestations,suchasweightlossandmuscle weakness, are only poorly related to lung function. Therefore, al-

Nicholas J. Gross



Uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the dialysis population and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure. The conventional Framingham cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (ie, hypertension, smoking, age, hyper- cholesterolemia, and a family history of CV disease) have typically been the focus of risk stratification and subse- quent primary and\\/or secondary

Caroline E. Stigant


Clinical application of ghrelin for chronic respiratory diseases.  


The discovery of ghrelin has resulted in the development of potential therapeutics for cachexia caused by multiple underlying diseases. When chronic respiratory diseases progress to their advanced stages, cachexia often occurs, thereby worsening the patient's prognosis. A small clinical trial that enrolled cachectic patients with chronic respiratory disease revealed that administration of ghrelin improved their nutritional status and exercise tolerance. Short-term administration of ghrelin was found to be safe and tolerated with adverse events, including suffusion, sleepiness, peristalsis, hunger, and sweating. Further large-scale and long-term clinical trials are needed. PMID:22975067

Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu



[Chronic disease management: mistaken approach in the elderly].  


Lifestyle changes, including unhealthy eating habits and high rates of physical inactivity and stress, along with an increase in life expectancy have been accompanied by increasing rates of chronic non-communicable diseases. Chronic diseases are the main causes of death and disability in Brazil. Chronic disease management is one of the most important challenges facing health managers who are constantly seeking interventions and strategies to reduce costs and hospital admissions and to prevent other conditions. However, most existing models of health care have focused exclusively on disease, but it is a mistaken approach. An integrated approach is required to effectively meet patient needs. The purpose of this article was to further discuss policies and strategies for the development of new models of care for the elderly with an emphasis on prevention and resolution actions. PMID:23503534

Veras, Renato Peixoto



Treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease in 2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This article summarizes recent reports on the risks, pathogenesis and treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recent findings Chronic GVHD remains an elusive disorder to characterize and to treat. Recent evidence on tolerance induction by regulatory T cells and on B cells involvement shed some insights in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD. In a recent large comparative study, the overall risk profiles for acute and for chronic GVHD were similar, but risks factors were not changed after adjustment for prior acute GVHD, supporting the concept that chronic GVHD is not an end stage of acute GVHD. Glucocorticoids remain the standard initial treatment of chronic GVHD, but the outcomes are not satisfactory, particularly for patients with high-risk features. Many treatments for chronic GVHD including extracorporeal photopheresis, rituximab, sirolimus, mycofenolate mofetil, imatinib, pentostatin and infusion of mesenchymal stem cells have been reported in several retrospective and relatively small phase I/II studies with a wide range of overall responses. Summary No current therapies used for chronic GVHD have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Large well-designed prospective studies are warranted to establish better treatments. Targeted therapies based on the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD may lead to better outcomes.

Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Flowers, Mary E.D.



Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis(CRMO) is a rare disease of children characterized byaseptic inflammation of the long bones and clavicles. Noinfectious etiology has been identified, and CRMO has been associated with a number of autoimmunediseases (including Wegener's granulomatosis andpsoriasis). The relationship between CRMO andinflammatory bowel disease is poorly described. Throughan internet bulletin board subscribed to by 500pediatric gastroenterologists, we identified sixinflammatory

Athos Bousvaros; Margaret Marcon; William Treem; Peter Waters; Robert Issenman; Richard Couper; Richard Burnell; Allan Rosenberg; Egla Rabinovich; Barbara S. Kirschner



Stereotypic behaviors in degenerative dementias.  


Stereotypies are simple or complex involuntary/unvoluntary behaviors, common in fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), but not studied in other types of degenerative dementias. The aim was to investigate stereotypy frequency and type in patients with FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) in a multicenter observational study; and to investigate the relation of stereotypies to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairment. One hundred fifty-five consecutive outpatients (45 AD, 40 FTD, 35 PSP and 35 PDD) were studied in four hospitals in northern Italy. Stereotypies were examined by the five-domain Stereotypy Rating Inventory. Cognition was examined by the Mini Mental State and Frontal Assessment Battery, neuropsychiatric symptoms by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and motor impairment and invalidity by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, and activities of daily living. Stereotypies were present in all groups. FTD and PDD had the greatest frequency of one-domain stereotypies; FTD also had the greatest frequency of two-or-more domain stereotypies; movement stereotypies were the most common stereotypies in all groups. AD patients had fewer stereotypies than the other groups. Stereotypies are not exclusive to FTD, but are also fairly common in PSP and PDD, though less so in AD. Stereotypies may be underpinned by dysfunctional striato-frontal circuits, known to be damaged in PSP and PDD, as well as FTD. PMID:22648476

Prioni, S; Fetoni, V; Barocco, F; Redaelli, V; Falcone, C; Soliveri, P; Tagliavini, F; Scaglioni, A; Caffarra, P; Concari, L; Gardini, S; Girotti, F



[Chronic inflammation in patients with acute coronary syndrome and chronic kidney disease].  


Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide growing problem in public health. It is a risk factor for complications in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Diabetes, hypertension (hypertrophy and left ventricular failure), impaired fibrinolysis and coagulation processes, as well as the rapid development of atherosclerosis (partly associated with chronic inflammation) are responsible for higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease. Inflammatory process of unknown aetiology belongs to the so-called non-traditional risk factors in development of cardiovascular system diseases. It is thought that this process is responsible for adverse remodelling of atherosclerosis plaque and its instability which causes plaque rupture and as a result a coronary syndrome occurrence. Important inflammatory mediators, which take part in pathogenesis of ACS, are acute phase proteins such as: C-reactive protein, adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, selectins, plasma amyloid A, metalloproteinases, interleukins-1 and -6, tumour necrosis factor-a and vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:21523678

Owczarek, Aleksander; Babi?ska, Magdalena; Szygu?a-Jurkiewicz, Bo?ena; Chudek, Jerzy



Diarrhea in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.  


Diarrhea is a common clinical feature of inflammatory bowel diseases and may be accompanied by abdominal pain, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The pathophysiology of diarrhea in these diseases is complex, but defective absorption of salt and water by the inflamed bowel is the most important mechanism involved. In addition to inflammation secondary to the disease, diarrhea may arise from a variety of other conditions. It is important to differentiate the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the diarrhea in the individual patient to provide the appropriate therapy. This article reviews microscopic colitis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease, focusing on diarrhea. PMID:22917170

Wenzl, Heimo H



Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the overlap syndrome.  


Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by heterogeneous chronic airway inflammation and airway obstruction. In both conditions, chronic inflammation affects the whole respiratory tract, from central to peripheral airways, with different inflammatory cells recruited, different mediators produced, and thus differing responses to therapy. Airway obstruction is typically intermittent and reversible in asthma but is progressive and largely irreversible in COPD. However, there is a considerable pathologic and functional overlap between these 2 heterogeneous disorders, particularly among the elderly, who may have components of both diseases (asthma-COPD overlap syndrome). The definitions for asthma and COPD recommended by current guidelines are useful but limited because they do not illustrate the full spectrum of obstructive airway diseases that is encountered in clinical practice. Defining asthma and COPD as separate entities neglects a considerable proportion of patients with overlapping features and is largely based on expert opinion rather than on the best current evidence. The presence of different phenotypes or components of obstructive airway diseases, therefore, needs to be addressed to individualize and optimize treatment to achieve the best effect with the fewest side effects for the patient. Although specific interventions vary by disease, the treatment goals of obstructive airway diseases are similar and driven primarily by the need to control symptoms, optimize health status, and prevent exacerbations. PMID:23833163

Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Hawkins, Clare; Barbandi, Farouk


Metabolic Syndrome, Components, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Metabolic syndrome may increase the risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in the general population. It is unclear whether, and to what degree, metabolic syndrome is associated with CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined metabolic syndrome prevalence among individuals with a broad spectrum of kidney dysfunction, examining the role of the individual elements of

Raymond R. Townsend; Amanda H. Anderson; Jing Chen; Crystal A. Gadebegku; Harold I. Feldman; Jeffrey C. Fink; Alan S. Go; Marshall Joffe; Lisa A. Nessel; Akinlolu Ojo; Daniel J. Rader; Muredach P. Reilly; Valerie Teal; Karen Teff; Jackson T. Wright; Dawei Xie



Chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa of patients with obstructive lung diseases: cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated in sputum cultures from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and adults with bronchiectasis (BS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it is not well known if the characteristics of colonization in these latter patients are similar to those with CF. We examined 125 P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from 31 patients suffering from these diseases by pulsed field

Andrea D. Valderrey; María José Pozuelo; Pedro A. Jiménez; María D. Maciá; Antonio Oliver; Rafael Rotger



Chronic lyme disease: psychogenic fantasy or somatic infection?  

PubMed Central

Sigal and Hassett published an article about Lyme disease in the EHP Supplements (Sigal and Hassett 2002), suggesting that chronic Lyme disease is "psychogenic." I do not think that Sigal and Hassett, non-psychiatrists, are qualified to speak about psychiatric matters. I, however, actually have had the disease, which they characterize as "medically unexplained," for over 25 years and have 15 years of experience as a patient advocate and educator. I beg to differ.

Mervine, Phyllis



Quantitative sputum gram stains in chronic bronchial disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of bacterial flora of the bronchial system can provide useful information for determining the presence of acute\\u000a bacterial infections in patients with chronic bronchial disease. The authors examined the value of quantitative sputum gram\\u000a stains performed in patients during acute bronchial exacerbations, recovery from such exacerbations, acute allergic exacerbations\\u000a of chronic extrinsic asthma, and a stable period. The

W. Baigelman; S. Chodosh; D. Pizzuto; T. Sadow



Extracorporeal photopheresis in chronic graft-versus-host disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant advances in stem cell manipulation and post-transplant immunosuppression, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a cause of major long-term morbidity in survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a novel therapeutic intervention which has demonstrated efficacy in patients with refractory acute and chronic GVHD. Clinical responses have been reported in skin and visceral GVHD. While the

FM Foss; G Gorgun; KB Miller



The management of chronic diseases in rural Missouri practices.  


This qualitative study describes the challenges of managing chronic diseases in small, rural, health care practices in Missouri. Four recurrent themes were identified from each of the nine focus groups: the similarity of their patient population and community characteristics, their unfamiliarity with aspects of the chronic care model, the consistent problem of poverty as a barrier to health care access for patients, and the uncertainty about what health care reform will mean for rural practice settings. PMID:22860289

Enriquez, Maithe; Moormeier, Jill; Lafferty, William


Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Chronic Pancreatic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in urinary kallikrein in pancreatic diseases were ascertained, and possible influencing factors were investigated. Serum amylase and urinary excretion of glandular kallikrein, pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase),?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and amylase were measured in 24 control subjects, 39 patients with pancreatic cancer, 49 with pancreatitis and 63 with extra-pancreatic diseases. Urinary kallikrein was found to be elevated in a substantial number of

Carlo Fabris; Maria Piera Panozzo; Daniela Basso; Giuseppe Del Favero; Mario Plebani; Martina Zaninotto; Paola Fogar; Tamara Meggiato; Paola Scalon; Chiara Ferrara; Remo Naccarato



Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease: Unresolved Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-stage renal disease is epidemic in the United States. As a measure to control this epidemic, it has been recommended that individuals who are at risk for CKD be tested for undetected kidney disease during routine health care encounters. There are generally accepted criteria against which screening recommendations for CKD control and prevention programs should be judged. If detection strategies




Psychological impact of chronic hepatitis C: Comparison with other stressful life events and chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine the psychological impact of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) diagnosis in a large cohort of CHC patients as compared with other stressful life events and chronic diseases carrying a risk of life-threatening complications. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five outpatients with compensated CHC were asked to self-grade, using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), the degree of stress caused

Laurent Castera; Aymery Constant; Pierre-Henri Bernard; Victor de Ledinghen; Patrice Couzigou



In Search of a Germ Theory Equivalent for Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

The fight against infectious disease advanced dramatically with the consolidation of the germ theory in the 19th century. This focus on a predominant cause of infections (ie, microbial pathogens) ultimately led to medical and public health advances (eg, immunization, pasteurization, antibiotics). However, the resulting declines in infections in the 20th century were matched by a rise in chronic, noncommunicable diseases, for which there is no single underlying etiology. The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation (“metaflammation”), linked to inducers (broadly termed “anthropogens”) associated with modern man-made environments and lifestyles, suggests an underlying basis for chronic disease that could provide a 21st-century equivalent of the germ theory.



Revisions to chronic disease surveillance indicators, United States, 2004.  


To allow public health officials to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data, Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance was released by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists in 1999. This publication provided standard definitions for 73 indicators developed by epidemiologists and chronic disease program directors at the state and federal levels. The indicators were selected because of their importance to public health and the availability of state-level data. This report describes the latest revisions to the chronic disease indicators published in 2004. The revised set of 92 indicators includes 24 for cancer; 15 for cardiovascular disease; 11 for diabetes; 7 for alcohol; 5 each for nutrition and tobacco; 3 each for oral health, physical activity, and renal disease; and 2 each for asthma, osteoporosis, and immunizations. The remaining 10 indicators cover such overarching conditions as poverty, education, and life expectancy. Although multiple states have used the indicators, wider adoption depends on increased epidemiology capacity at the state level and improved access to surveillance data. PMID:15963317

Pelletier, Andrew R; Siegel, Paul Z; Baptiste, Mark S; Maylahn, Christopher



Spectrum of anemia associated with chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Anemia of diverse etiology is a common complication of chronic liver diseases. The causes of anemia include acute or chronic gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and hypersplenism secondary to portal hypertension. Severe hepatocellular disease predisposes to hemorrhage because of impaired blood coagulation caused by deficiency of blood coagulation factors synthesized by hepatocytes, and/or thrombocytopenia. Aplastic anemia, which is characterized by pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow, may follow the development of hepatitis. Its presentation includes progressive anemia and hemorrhagic manifestations. Hematological complications of combination therapy for chronic viral hepatitis include clinically significant anemia, secondary to treatment with ribavirin and/or interferon. Ribavirin-induced hemolysis can be reversed by reducing the dose of the drug or discontinuing it altogether. Interferons may contribute to anemia by inducing bone marrow suppression. Alcohol ingestion is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease and may contribute to associated anemia. In patients with chronic liver disease, anemia may be exacerbated by deficiency of folic acid and/or vitamin B12 that can occur secondary to inadequate dietary intake or malabsorption.

Gonzalez-Casas, Rosario; Jones, E Anthony; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo



Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure  


... suffered from disabling bone disease, dementia caused by aluminum intoxication, and severe fatigue from uncontrollable anemia. High ... life of dialysis patients. Dialysis dementia due to aluminum toxicity no longer occurs. Premature death due to ...


Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)  


... Patient information: Doppler ultrasound (The Basics) Patient information: Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs) (The Basics) Patient ... disease in the legs (The Basics) Patient information: Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs) (The Basics) Patient ...


69 FR 64057 - National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Conference Support Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Conference Support Program Announcement...Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Conference Support Program...conferences in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention...



Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state  

PubMed Central

Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient–healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.

Karnilowicz, W



Drug dosing adjustments in patients with chronic kidney disease.  


Chronic kidney disease affects renal drug elimination and other pharmacokinetic processes involved in drug disposition (e.g., absorption, drug distribution, nonrenal clearance [metabolism]). Drug dosing errors are common in patients with renal impairment and can cause adverse effects and poor outcomes. Dosages of drugs cleared renally should be adjusted according to creatinine clearance or glomerular filtration rate and should be calculated using online or electronic calculators. Recommended methods for maintenance dosing adjustments are dose reductions, lengthening the dosing interval, or both. Physicians should be familiar with commonly used medications that require dosage adjustments. Resources are available to assist in dosing decisions for patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:17555141

Munar, Myrna Y; Singh, Harleen



Adjacent segment degenerative disease: is it due to disease progression or a fusion-associated phenomenon? Comparison between segments adjacent to the fused and non-fused segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this study was to determine whether fusion causes adjacent segment degeneration or whether degeneration is\\u000a due to disease progression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Eighty-seven patients that had undergone single level anterior cervical decompression and fusions with at least 5 years of\\u000a follow-up were enrolled in this retrospective study. Segments adjacent to fusion levels (above or below) were allocated to\\u000a group

Kyung-Jin Song; Byung-Wan Choi; Taek-Soo Jeon; Kwang-Bok Lee; Han Chang


Chronic inflammatory diseases and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review.  


Despite recent advancements in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), it remains the number one cause of death in the world. While traditional risk factors partially account for the development of CAD, other novel risk factors have recently been implicated. Specifically, chronic inflammation has been postulated to play a role in the development and propagation of this disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to determine if patients with chronic inflammatory diseases have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published between 1980-2009. We focused on studies that assessed hard cardiovascular endpoints in subjects with chronic inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although largely based on small studies, our review indicates that patients with chronic inflammatory conditions are likely at elevated risk for the development of CAD. Further research consisting of prospective cohort studies is needed to better quantify this risk. PMID:21459266

Roifman, Idan; Beck, Paul L; Anderson, Todd J; Eisenberg, Mark J; Genest, Jacques


CD46 Protects against Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema develops in 15% of ex-smokers despite sustained quitting, while 10% are free of emphysema or severe lung obstruction. The cause of the incapacity of the immune system to clear the inflammation in the first group remains unclear. Methods and Findings We searched genes that were protecting ex-smokers without emphysema, using microarrays on portions of human lungs surgically removed; we found that loss of lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema was associated with a lower expression of CD46 and verified this finding by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Also, there was a significant association among decreased CD46+ cells with decreased CD4+T cells, apoptosis mediator CD95 and increased CD8+T cells that were protecting patients without emphysema or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CD46 not only regulates the production of T regulatory cells, which suppresses CD8+T cell proliferation, but also the complement cascade by degradation of C3b. These results were replicated in the murine smoking model, which showed increased C5a (produced by C3b) that suppressed IL12 mediated bias to T helper 1 cells and elastin co-precipitation with C3b, suggesting that elastin could be presented as an antigen. Thus, using ELISA from elastin peptides, we verified that 43% of the patients with severe early onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease tested positive for IgG to elastin in their serum compared to healthy controls. Conclusions These data suggest that higher expression of CD46 in the lungs of ex-smoker protects them from emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by clearing the inflammation impeding the proliferation of CD8+ T cells and necrosis, achieved by production of T regulatory cells and degradation of C3b; restraining the complement cascade favors apoptosis over necrosis, protecting them from autoimmunity and chronic inflammation.

Grumelli, Sandra; Lu, Bao; Peterson, Leif; Maeno, Toshitaka; Gerard, Craig



CHRONIOUS: an open, ubiquitous and adaptive chronic disease management platform for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal insufficiency.  


CHRONIOUS is an highly innovative Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) research Initiative that aspires to implement its vision for ubiquitous health and lifestyle monitoring. The 17 European project partners are strictly working together since February 2008 to realize and open platform to manage and monitor elderly patients with chronic diseases and many difficulties to reach hospital centers for routine controls. The testing activities will be done in Italy and Spain involving COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) patients, these being widespread and highly expensive in terms of social and economic costs. Patients, equipped by wearable technologies and sensors and interacting with lifestyle interfaces, will be assisted by healthcare personnel able to check the health record and critical conditions through the Chronious platform data analysis and decision support system. Additionally, the new ontology based literature search engine will help the clinicians in the standardization of care delivery process. This paper is to present the main project objectives and its principal components from the intelligent system point of view. PMID:21096301

Rosso, R; Munaro, G; Salvetti, O; Colantonio, S; Ciancitto, F



Chronic acalculous gallbladder disease: A clinical enigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with classic symptoms of gallbladder disease who have negative oral cholecystograms (OCG) or ultrasonography present perplexing management problems. The surgical literature attests to the fact that there is a marked difference of opinion as to the role of surgery in these patients. The high recurrence rate of symptoms in patients following surgery reported in some series has been a

Paul F. Nora; Robert P. Davis; Michael J. Fernandez



Neuropsychiatric complications of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is emerging that cognitive impairment, delirium and depression are very common in patients with renal disease. All of these conditions are associated with prolonged hospitalization and an increased risk of mortality. A good understanding of these conditions is key to their prevention, early intervention and management. This Review summarizes the clinical features of various forms of cognitive dysfunction that

Rory McQuillan; Sarbjit V. Jassal



Malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


Malnutrition in patients with COPD is associated with an impaired pulmonary status, reduced diaphragmatic mass, lower exercise capacity, and higher mortality rate when compared with adequately nourished individuals with COPD. Deterioration in patients with COPD may be the result of malnutrition. In addition, malnutrition could be a sign of other factors directly altered by the disease. PMID:17150429

Schwartz, Denise Baird



Chronic Liver Diseases as Liver Tumor Precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cancer is a major global health problem and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75% of all liver carcinoma. HCC occurs more often in men than in women and mostly in people 50 to 60 years old. The disease is more common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia than in North and South America and Europe. Nevertheless its incidence

Jan Lata



MicroRNAs: new insights into chronic childhood diseases.  


Chronic diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and have shown increasing incidence rates among children in the last decades. Chronic illnesses in the pediatric population, even if well managed, affect social, psychological, and physical development and often limit education and active participation and increase the risk for health complications. The significant pediatric morbidity and mortality rates caused by chronic illnesses call for serious efforts toward better understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders. Recent studies have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various aspects of major pediatric chronic non-neoplastic diseases. This review focuses on the role of miRNAs in four major pediatric chronic diseases including bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and cystic fibrosis. We intend to emphasize the importance of miRNA-based research in combating these major disorders, as we believe this approach will result in novel therapies to aid securing normal development and to prevent disabilities in the pediatric population. PMID:23878802

Omran, Ahmed; Elimam, Dalia; Yin, Fei



Beneficial effect of salmon roe phosphatidylcholine in chronic liver disease.  


Phosphatidylcholine (PC), especially dilinoleoyl-PC, has been reported to be effective in preventing hepatic fibrosis in chronically alcohol-fed baboons. Continuous hepatic inflammation predisposes the structure of the liver to fibrosis. Since n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect, we tested the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA PC as a dietary supplement has a beneficial effect on chronic liver disease susceptible to fibrosis. Salmon roe phospholipids, 90% of which are PC, were extracted and encapsulated. Almost a third of the PC fatty acids were docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3) and 10% were eicosapentanoic acid (20:5 n3). About 1600 mg/day of the phospholipids was administered for six months to six chronic liver disease patients, four with hepatitis B infection (three with cirrhosis, one with chronic hepatitis), one with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis and one with alcoholic cirrhosis. There was no change in the results of blood chemistry studies related to liver function, except in globulin, which decreased from 3.80 g/dl to 3.67 g/dl (p < 0.05). Among the lipid parameters, HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E increased significantly. Although this was a small trial, n-3 PUFA PC may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic liver diseases. PMID:10621924

Hayashi, H; Tanaka, Y; Hibino, H; Umeda, Y; Kawamitsu, H; Fujimoto, H; Amakawa, T



Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, with adverse outcomes of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death. A simple definition and classification of kidney disease is necessary for international development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Kidney Disease:




A rodent model of chronic compressive cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative chronic spinal cord compression induced cervical myelopathy is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. The disease generally leads to impairment of the sensory and motor function of the cord progressively and insidiously. However, the underlying pathophysiology and the precise mechanism of the disease are still uncertain and remain to be investigated. The establishment of an animal model which

Darrell T. H. Li; Y. Hu; Ed X. Wu; K. D. K. Luk



Pulmonary epithelium, cigarette smoke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease involving a wide variety of cells and inflammatory mediators. The most important etiological factor in the development of this disease is cigarette smoking. Much of the research into the mechanisms of COPD has been concerned with the induction of inflammation and the role of neutrophils and macrophages in the pathophysiology of the disease. The possible contribution of the epithelium to the development of COPD has only recently become apparent and remains unclear. In this article we review research into the effect of cigarette smoke on the pulmonary epithelium with particular emphasis on oxidative stress, proteolytic load, pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile and epithelial secretions. In addition, we have also reviewed how cigarette smoke may affect epithelial damage and repair processes.

Thorley, Andrew J; Tetley, Teresa D