Sample records for chronic degenerative disease

  1. DNA adducts and chronic degenerative diseases. Pathogenetic relevance and implications in preventive medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvio De Flora; Alberto Izzotti; Kurt Randerath; Erika Randerath; Helmut Bartsch; Jagadeesan Nair; Roumen Balansky; Frederikjan van Schooten; Paolo Degan; Gilberto Fronza; Debra Walsh; Joellen Lewtas

    1996-01-01

    Chronic degenerative diseases are the leading causes of death in developed countries. Their control is exceedingly difficult due to their multiplicity and diversity, the interconnection with a network of multiple risk factors and protective factors, the long latency and multistep pathogenesis, and the multifocal localization. Adducts to nuclear DNA are biomarkers evaluating the biologically effective dose, reflecting an enhanced risk

  2. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  3. Lumbar degenerative disk disease.

    PubMed

    Modic, Michael T; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2007-10-01

    The sequelae of disk degeneration are among the leading causes of functional incapacity in both sexes and are a common source of chronic disability in the working years. Disk degeneration involves structural disruption and cell-mediated changes in composition. Mechanical, traumatic, nutritional, and genetic factors all may play a role in the cascade of disk degeneration, albeit to variable degree in different individuals. The presence of degenerative change is by no means an indicator of symptoms, and there is a very high prevalence in asymptomatic individuals. The etiology of pain as the symptom of degenerative disease is complex and appears to be a combination of mechanical deformation and the presence of inflammatory mediators. The role of imaging is to provide accurate morphologic information and influence therapeutic decision making. A necessary component, which connects these two purposes, is accurate natural history data. Understanding the relationship of etiologic factors, the morphologic alterations, which can be characterized with imaging, and the mechanisms of pain production and their interactions in the production of symptoms will require more accurate and reproducible stratification of patient cohorts. PMID:17885180

  4. Cell-based therapy of chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Ye V; Ivanov, A I; Kolokoltsova, T D; Nechayeva, Ye A; Radayeva, I F; Korochkin, L I; Revischin, A V; Naumov, S A; Khlusovi, I A; Autenshlus, A I

    2003-01-01

    The traditional methods of pharmacotherapy of the degenerative diseases of the central nervous system do not frequently allow one to achieve the desired clinical effect. The fundamentally new approach for the treatment of severe neurological diseases is provided by the methods of biological medicine, in particular, transplantation of a complex of fetal tissues. Cell-based therapy was used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis; ante-, intra- and postnatal lesions; consequences of hemorrhagic and ischemic apoplexies; neuritis of facial nerve; sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Alzheimer's disease; epilepsy and other types of pathologic process. The source material for obtaining a suspension of cells was the fetuses of allogenic origin. The suspension of brain cells in amounts of up to 1.5 x 10(8) cells and vitality not less than 40% was administered to the patients into liquor spaces using the method of endolumbar puncture. The total number of transplantations was 1900. Practically in all the cases FT was tolerated well. Positive clinical and immunologic changes were observed in the majority of the patients, thus, remission induction (in the patients with the progressive course of multiple sclerosis) for a period over 12 months was registered in 87.5% of the cases. Noteworthy that considerable changes were observed in immunograms: depression of antibody levels to brain-specific proteins, native and denatured DNA; quantitative and qualitative improvement of lymphocyte subpopulation indices, positive changes in the immunoregulatory index. Clinically, in 69% of the cases there was an improvement in more than one neurological defect and a change in the values of the Kurtzke scale towards a decrease by 2-3 points. The conduct of cell therapy with the MS patients under the acute process conditions after liquorosorption allowed the arresting of clinical manifestations and the creation of preconditions for further restoration. The retrobulbar transplantations provided a quick arrest of the retrobulbar neuritis clinical symptoms and in one case an almost complete restoration of vision in the patient with amaurosis (blindness). The remission duration has a marked direct dependence on the number of courses of endolumbar transplantations. Thus, the method of cell therapy with the use of human tissue transplantations is safe and can be used for different neurodegenerative lesions of the central nervous system. The high efficacy of the method suggests the possibility and necessity of using this method as an alternative of classical pharmacological therapy. An important element of cell therapy is the control after the state of the patient's immunity system. PMID:12903713

  5. Contribution of Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation to Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Maria H.; Boia, Raquel; Santos, Paulo F.; Ambrósio, António F.; Santiago, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide and are characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation. There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process. A better understanding of the events elicited and mediated by retinal microglia will contribute to the clarification of disease etiology and might open new avenues for potential therapeutic interventions. This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25873768

  6. Degenerative joint disease: cartilage or vascular disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Imhof; M. Breitenseher; F. Kainberger; S. Trattnig

    1997-01-01

    The aetiology of degenerative joint diseases is multifactorial, but one main cause is overloading (mechanical stress). While\\u000a until recently it was well accepted that this represented primarily a disorder of cartilage with reactive subchondral changes,\\u000a there is now some evidence that it might be primarily a subchondral problem with secondary changes in the articular cartilage.\\u000a Early subchondral changes include redistribution

  7. Application of Encapsulated Cell Technology for Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weng Tao; Rong Wen

    Encapsulated cell technology (ECT) is essentially a cell-based delivery system that can be used to deliver therapeutic agents\\u000a to the target tissue, including the central nervous system (CNS) and the eye to treat chronic disorders. In this chapter,\\u000a we focus on its application in retinal degenerative diseases.

  8. Health assessment of environmental pollutants; Proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O. (Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (US))

    1987-01-01

    The health assessments of environmental air contaminants are at present frequently based upon probability of cancer, if this has been identified as a potential result of prolonged exposure to the particular inhalation hazard. However, for many airborne hazards chronic inhalation exposure may result in morbidity or mortality risks due to chronic degenerative diseases such as emphysema, fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that may be nearly as great or greater than those of more widely recognized neoplastic or proliferative disease. The relative hazards of environmentally released radioactive and chemical air contaminants, i.e., radon daughters and diesel engine exhaust, are discussed as examples.

  9. Diagnostic Testing for Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasz, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostic of degenerative disc disease should be reached with the help of various diagnostic studies. This article briefly review the information gained by the following tests: radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and discography. The article explains how each modality provides a piece of the diagnostic puzzle and how discography confirms the origin of the patient's pain. PMID:22844603

  10. Restorative chemotherapy in degenerative hip disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Denko

    1978-01-01

    Twenty patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the hip were treated for prolonged periods with an extract of cartilage and bone marrow. Although clinical improvement, lessened joint pain and increased function, occurred in a majority of the patients, the most significant changes were in four who had concomitant x-ray improvement. These patients had roentgenographic evidence of recovery of joint

  11. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease

    SciTech Connect

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

    1986-03-07

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

  12. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Panush; C. Schmidt; J. R. Caldwell; N. L. Edwards; S. Longley; R. Yonker; E. Webster; J. Nauman; J. Stork; H. Pettersson

    1986-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)\\/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal

  13. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body. PMID:25026144

  14. Total Disc Arthroplasty for Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Lumber disc arthroplasty is a technological advancement that has occurred in the last decade to treat lumbar degenerative disk diseases. Purpose The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the impact and outcomes of managing patients with lumbar degenerative disk disease who have been treated with lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA). Overview of Literature Several studies have shown promising results following this surgery. Methods We reviewed the files of 104 patients at the Department of Neurosurgery in Colmar (France) who had been operated on by lumbar spine arthroplasty (Prodisc) between April 2002 and October 2008. Results Among the 104 patients, 67 were female and 37 were male with an average age of 33.1 years. We followed the cases for a mean of 20 months. The most frequent level of discopathy was L4-L5 with 62 patients (59.6%) followed by L5-S1 level with 52 patients (50%). Eighty-three patients suffered from low back pain, 21 of which were associated with radiculopathy. The status of 82 patients improved after surgery according to the Oswestry Disability Index score, and 92 patients returned to work. Conclusions The results indicate that TDA is a good alternative treatment for lumbar spine disk disease, particularly for patients with disabling and chronic low back pain. This technique contributes to improve living conditions with correct patient selection for surgery. PMID:25705336

  15. Pathogenesis of Degenerative Joint Disease in the Human Temporomandibular Joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Haskin; Stephen B. Milam; Ivan L. Cameron

    1995-01-01

    The wide range of disease prevalences reported in epidemiological studies of temporomandibular degenerative joint disease reflects the fact that diagnoses are frequently guided by the presence or absence of non-specific signs and symptoms. Treatment is aimed at alleviating the disease symptoms rather than being guided by an understanding of the underlying disease processes. Much of our current understanding of disease

  16. Skipping Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization for Distant Segment Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Bilgehan; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Ataker, Yaprak; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To date, there is still no consensus on the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Current surgical techniques to manage painful spinal disorders are imperfect. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the prospective results of posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization, a novel surgical approach that skips the segments that do not produce pain. This technique has been proven biomechanically and radiologically in spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. A prospective study of 18 patients averaging 54.94 years of age with distant spinal segment degenerative disease. Indications consisted of degenerative disc disease (57%), herniated nucleus pulposus (50%), spinal stenosis (14.28%), degenerative spondylolisthesis (14.28%), and foraminal stenosis (7.1%). The Oswestry Low-Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were recorded preoperatively and at the third and twelfth postoperative months. Results. Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.05). We observed complications in one patient who had spinal epidural hematoma. Conclusion. We recommend skipping posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization for surgical treatment of distant segment spinal degenerative disease. PMID:23091736

  17. Stem cell-based therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yiming; Enzmann, Volker; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual function in inherited retinal disease. However, this treatment was less effective with advanced disease. Stem cell-based therapy is being pursued as a potential alternative approach in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. In this review, we will focus on stem cell-based therapies in the pipeline and summarize progress in treatment of retinal degenerative disease. PMID:20859770

  18. Degenerative periodontal-diseases and oral osteonecrosis: The role of gene-environment interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baldi; A. Izzotti; P. Bonica; P. Pera; A. Pulliero

    2009-01-01

    Chronic-degenerative dentistry diseases, including periodontal diseases and oral osteonecrosis, are widespread in human populations and represent a significant problem for public health. These diseases result from pathogenic mechanisms created by the interaction between environmental genotoxic risk-factors and genetic assets conferring individual susceptibility. Osteonecrosis occurs in subjects undergoing exposure to high doses of DNA-damaging agents for chemo- and radiotherapy of neoplastic

  19. Common mechanisms of amyloid oligomer pathogenesis in degenerative disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles G. Glabe

    2006-01-01

    Many age-related degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases and type II diabetes, are associated with the accumulation of amyloid fibrils. The protein components of these amyloids vary widely and the mechanisms of pathogenesis remain an important subject of competing hypotheses and debate. Many different mechanisms have been postulated as significant causal events in pathogenesis, so understanding which events are

  20. Degenerative Joint Disease Activated Osteoarthrosis Deformans: Hip, Knee, Shoulder and Other Joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Hildebrandt; Friedrich-Hugo Kamprad

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic, degenerative disorder of unknown cause characterized by the gradual loss of articular cartilage.\\u000a It is the most prevalent disease in the western societies, with a worldwide distribution. As a cause of disability (such as\\u000a walking and stair climbing) in the elderly in the west, osteoarthritis is second only to vascular diseases. Altogether 10%-15%\\u000a of adults over

  1. Oxidative stress and degenerative temporomandibular joint disease: A proposed hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B Milam; Gustavo Zardeneta; John P Schmitz

    1998-01-01

    The molecular events that underlie degenerative temporomandibular joint diseases are poorly understood. Recent studies have provided evidence that a variety of molecular species, including cytokines, matrix degrading enzymes, neuropeptides, and arachidonic acid catabolites may be involved. This paper advances the theory that mechanical stresses lead to the accumulation of damaging free radicals in affected articular tissues of susceptible individuals. This

  2. Chronic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. Schatz

    Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

  3. Degenerative joint disease: An example of calcium paradox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuo Fujita

    1998-01-01

    :   Osteoporosis and degenerative arthropathy such as osteoarthritis and spondylosis deformans represent the two most common\\u000a diseases seen in later life, sharing some common clinical features such as pain, deformity, and restriction of motion. Augmented\\u000a bone resorption, possibly mediated by cytokines such as interleukin 1, and favorable therapeutic response to estrogen also\\u000a characterize both diseases. Both osteoarthritis of the knee

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic lung disease) Pneumonia Pneumothorax Severe weight loss and malnutrition Thinning ...

  5. Degenerative disease in lumbar spine of military parachuting instructors.

    PubMed

    Bar-Dayan, Y; Weisbort, M; Bar-Dayan, Y; Velan, G J; Ravid, M; Hendel, D; Shemer, J

    2003-12-01

    Parachuting, be it static line or skydiving, places enormous stresses on the human spine. It is, therefore, important to determine the prevalence and severity of degenerative changes in the lumbar spine of subjects who practice this sport activity. Seventy four parachuting instructors, mean age 33 years and with an average of 410 static line and skydiving jumps, were included in the study. Past radiographs were examined and compared to current anterolateral and lateral views of the lumbar spine, in order to determine the prevalence of degenerative changes and document possible progression. Doubtful radiographic changes in the lumbar spine were identified in 47.4 percent of the parachuting instructors, mild degeneration in 9.6 percent, moderate degenerative disease in 10.9 percent and severe radiographic changes in 5.5 percent. Schmorll nodes were found in 8.1 percent of the subjects. Traction spurs--osteophytes were identified in 6.8 percent. The degenerative changes correlated with age and the number of jumps. Spondylolysis of L5-S1 and L3-L4 segments were observed in 12.2 and 1.4 percent respectively. Progressive spondylolisthesis was found in 2 subjects. No correlation was found between the severity of radiographic changes and either the prevalence and the severity of low back pain. The present findings provide a rational for considering repeated sheer stress as an etiology of degenerative changes in the spinal cord, and as a possible contributing factor to the pathogenesis of spondylolysis. Further study has to be done comparing parachuting instructors to a non-parachuting group, or equivalent physically active individuals, in order to assess the effect of sport-background on the development of degenerative changes. PMID:15015796

  6. Apraxia of speech in degenerative neurologic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Duffy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Only a limited number of case reports or case series have provided unequivocal evidence that apraxia of speech (AOS) can be the first or predominant sign of neurodegenerative disease. This may reflect a very low frequency of occurrence but may also reflect a failure in many studies to identify AOS or distinguish it from the diagnosis of primary progressive

  7. Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Yat-Hin Wong; Ming-Wai Poon; Rosita Tsz-Wai Pang; Qizhou Lian; David Wong

    With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore\\u000a the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy\\u000a in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and\\u000a ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are

  8. Molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of degenerative aortic valve disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daihiko Hakuno; Naritaka Kimura; Masatoyo Yoshioka; Keiichi Fukuda

    2009-01-01

    Morbidity from degenerative aortic valve disease is increasing worldwide, concomitant with the ageing of the general population\\u000a and the habitual consumption of diets high in calories and cholesterol. Immunohistologic studies have suggested that the molecular\\u000a mechanism occurring in the degenerate aortic valve resembles that of atherosclerosis, prompting the testing of HMG CoA reductase\\u000a inhibitors (statins) for the prevention of progression

  9. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. you may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  10. Feline degenerative joint disease: a genomic and proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiangming; Lee, Junyu; Malladi, Sukhaswami; Melendez, Lynda; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Al-Murrani, Samer

    2013-06-01

    The underlying disease mechanisms for feline degenerative joint disease (DJD) are mostly unidentified. Today, most of what is published on mammalian arthritis is based on human clinical findings or on mammalian models of human arthritis. However, DJD is a common occurrence in the millions of domestic felines worldwide. To get a better understanding of the changes in biological pathways that are associated with feline DJD, this study employed a custom-designed feline GeneChip, and the institution's unique access to large sample populations to investigate genes and proteins from whole blood and serum that may be up- or down-regulated in DJD cats. The GeneChip results centered around three main pathways that were affected in DJD cats: immune function, apoptosis and oxidative phosphorylation. By identifying these key disease-associated pathways it will then be possible to better understand disease pathogenesis and diagnose it more easily, and to better target it with pharmaceutical and nutritional intervention. PMID:23295270

  11. Basic aspects in MR imaging of degenerative lumbar disk disease.

    PubMed

    Heuck, Andreas; Glaser, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Degenerative disease may lead to spinal canal stenosis and long-lasting pain. It is among the leading cause of disability that may affect the ability to work. It has become more common in an increasingly aging population. MRI is the most comprehensive imaging modality and provides detailed morphologic information. A standardized terminology facilitates communication with referring physicians. Yet imaging findings need careful interpretation in conjunction with the results of clinical tests and symptoms to truly help guide therapeutic decision making. This review summarizes aspects of normal anatomy of the intervertebral disk, pathologic mechanisms, terminology, and examples of the imaging spectrum of disk degeneration and herniation. PMID:24896740

  12. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Shigenaga, M K; Hagen, T M

    1993-01-01

    Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8367443

  13. Targeted disruption of Mig6 in the mouse genome leads to early onset degenerative joint disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Wen Zhang; Yanli Su; Nathan Lanning; Pamela J. Swiatek; Roderick T. Bronson; Robert Sigler; Richard W. Martin; George F. Vande Woude

    2005-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease, also known as osteoarthritis, is the most common joint disorder in human beings. The molecular mechanism underlying this disease is not fully understood. Here, we report that disruption of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) in mice by homologous recombination leads to early onset degenerative joint disease, which is revealed by simultaneous enlargement and deformity of multiple joints, degradation

  14. Percutaneous posterior-lateral lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative disc disease using a B-Twin expandable spinal spacer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizu Xiao; Donglin Xiong; Qiang Zhang; Jin Jian; Husan Zheng; Yuhui Luo; Juanli Dai; Deren Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) causes gradual intervertebral space collapse, concurrent discogenic or facet-induced pain,\\u000a and possible compression radiculopathy. A new minimal invasion procedure of percutaneous posterior-lateral lumbar interbody\\u000a fusion (PPLIF) using a B-Twin stand-alone expandable spinal spacer (ESS) was designed to treat this disease and evaluated\\u000a by follow-up more than 1 year. 12 cases with chronic low back pain and compressive

  15. DISEASE IN WILDLIFE OR EXOTIC SPECIES Characterization of Degenerative Changes in the

    E-print Network

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    DISEASE IN WILDLIFE OR EXOTIC SPECIES Characterization of Degenerative Changes of the functional demands on the joint. Degenerative joint disease was observed in both cases and this was more of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is composed of the temporal bone dorsally, the mandibular condyle ventrally

  16. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a long time, doctors call it a chronic kidney disease. Children's kidney problems may be congenital (say: kun- ... Do Doctors Treat Kidney Problems? The treatment for chronic kidney ... bone disease. Sometimes unhealthy kidneys have problems producing a hormone ...

  17. Cell-based therapies for retinal degenerative diseases: a thousand strategies.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Retinal neuronal death causes a severe and irreversible loss of visual function in the patients of retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, but these degenerative diseases currently still lack effective medical treatments. The restorative properties of stem cells hold the promise in the treatment of these retinal degenerative diseases. The exciting progress has been made on stem cell research in the last decade. Many different stem cell types have been explored for their potential in treating the retinal degenerative diseases, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and retinal stem cells. This review will summarize the recent progress in this exciting area. PMID:23733127

  18. Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease –Update

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion? What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion? One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following: Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates; Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates); Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin. Summary of Findings The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review. Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials. Regard

  19. Massage Therapy for Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease: Alleviating a Pain in the Neck?

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Rhonda-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: A 66-year-old female client with cervical degenerative disc disease at lateral left facet joint C6/C7 was experiencing symptoms of chronic neck pain accompanied by limited cervical range of motion, as well as radicular left shoulder and arm pain. The objective of this case report was to describe the effect of therapeutic massage on the client’s symptoms and impairments of cervical DDD. Methods: Therapeutic massage interventions included soft-tissue manipulation using petrissage and neuromuscular techniques, fascial work, facilitated stretching, joint play, hydrotherapy, education on self-stretching, and positive guidance about condition management. Assessment included pain-free cervical ROM and a subjective verbal pain scale. Results: After several treatment sessions, client’s symptoms had decreased and cervical ROM had improved moderately. There was also a decrease in reported pain and an increase in functional daily activities. Client showed a greater understanding of the physiologic barriers which degenerative changes may present. Conclusions: This client responded favorably to massage therapy as a treatment intervention for cervical DDD symptoms. PMID:23087777

  20. Regenerative Therapies for Equine Degenerative Joint Disease: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

  1. First Cases of Degenerative Brain Disease CTE Found in Veterans with Blast Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... degenerative brain disease CTE found in veterans with blast injuries Follow NINDSnews For release: Friday, June 29, 2012 Some veterans who experience blast-related head injuries on the battlefield can develop ...

  2. Impact of degenerative spinal diseases on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in elderly women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeyuki Muraki; Seizo Yamamoto; Hideaki Ishibashi; Toshiyuki Horiuchi; Takayuki Hosoi; Hajime Orimo; Kozo Nakamura

    2004-01-01

    Degenerative diseases of lumbar spine commonly noted in elderly people may affect their lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study is to determine whether the degree of degenerative spinal diseases is correlated with lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD. This study included 630 women age 60 years or over (mean age 73.3 ± 6.9 years) visiting the Osteoporosis Outpatient

  3. Do musculoskeletal degenerative diseases affect mortality and cause of death after 10 years in Japan?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Tsuboi; Yukiharu Hasegawa; Yukihiro Matsuyama; Sadao Suzuki; Koji Suzuki; Shiro Imagama

    2011-01-01

    There are several reports from Europe and the United States on mortality from musculoskeletal degenerative diseases; however,\\u000a no reports have been published from Japan. This study is the first that has examined whether musculoskeletal degenerative\\u000a diseases affect life prognosis in Japan. As many as 944 persons who were 60 years of age and older and who underwent one or\\u000a more musculoskeletal

  4. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Sleep and Chronic Disease As chronic ... of depression be monitored among persons with a sleep disorder. 4, 5 References Knutson KL, Ryden AM, Mander ...

  5. Locking of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints in Degenerative Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. STEWART; E. A. WILLIAMS

    1981-01-01

    Nine cases of locking of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint are described. The previously asymptomatic middle finger joint in an elderly person was most likely to be affected. Radiology of the joint has shown degenerative changes in all cases. In two patients, spontaneous unlocking of the joint occurred and in a further six operative release was undertaken. The important anatomical features of

  6. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... cases, the condition is called type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PGA II). Less commonly, Hashimoto disease occurs ...

  7. Detection of degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint by bone scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Bloom, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nine patients with facial pain were evaluated with limited bone scans. The scintigrams correlated with microscopy in all patients, although radiographs correlated with microscopy in only five patients. The degenerative disease process in the temporomandibular joint was more extensive in the patients with radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities than in those with scintigraphic abnormalities alone. The limited bone scan appears useful in detecting early degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint.

  8. Abstract--Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, which causes the degradation of articular cartilage and

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Xiaopeng

    Abstract--Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, which causes the degradation of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The disease may result in mechanical abnormalities of the joints, including STEOARTHRITIS (OA) is a debilitating disease with a high prevalence in elderly individuals. OA affects nearly 27

  9. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ulcerative colitis Cancer , including lymphoma and Hodgkin disease Chronic kidney disease Long-term infections, such as bacterial endocarditis, osteomyelitis (bone infection), HIV/AIDS , hepatitis B or hepatitis C

  10. Chronic Disease Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Disease Control

    The Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI) is a cross-cutting set of 97 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large metropolitan areas to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data that are important to public health practice and available for states, territories and large metropolitan areas. 

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  12. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well as they should. Normal, healthy kidneys remove waste from the blood. The waste then leaves your body in your urine. The ... have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys cannot remove waste from the blood as well as they should. ...

  13. Systematic review of anterior interbody fusion techniques for single- and double-level cervical degenerative disc disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jacobs; P. C. P. H. Willems; M. Kruyt; J. van Limbeek; P. G. Anderson; P. Pavlov; R. H. M. A. Bartels; C. Oner

    2011-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: To determine which technique of anterior cervical interbody fusion (ACIF) gives the best outcome in patients with cervical degenerative disc disease. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The number of surgical techniques for decompression and ACIF as treatment for cervical degenerative disc disease has increased rapidly, but the rationale for the choice

  14. Motor Training in Degenerative Spinocerebellar Disease: Ataxia-Specific Improvements by Intensive Physiotherapy and Exergames

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames (“exergames”). The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability). Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease. PMID:24877117

  15. Combined anterior interbody fusion and posterior pedicle screw fixation in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. El Masry; W. S. Badawy; P. Rajendran; D Chan

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed 47 consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease. All patients were treated by anterior interbody fusion using an autogenous iliac bone graft in combination with posterior pedicle fixation but without a posterior fusion. There were 32 men and 15 women with a mean age of 44 (range 23–56) years. One third ( n=15) of the patients had previous

  16. Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jacobs; P. C. P. H. Willems; J. van Limbeek; R. H. M. A. Bartels; P. Pavlov; P. G. Anderson; C. Oner

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of surgical techniques for decompression and solid interbody fusion as treatment for cervical spondylosis has increased rapidly, but the rationale for the choice between different techniques remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine which technique of anterior interbody fusion gives the best clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with single- or double-level degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine.

  17. Causes of pain in degenerative bone and joint disease: a lesson from vertebroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Niv; Michael Gofeld; Marshall Devor

    2003-01-01

    Pain in degenerative bone and joint disease is usually attributed to sensitized nociceptors in inflamed periarticular soft tissues. Here we draw attention to the potential contribution of intrinsic bone innervation. The structure and innervation of articular bone ends is analogous to that of teeth. Although some dental pain derives from inflamed periodontal soft tissue, a more important source is the

  18. Efficacy of a Human Amniotic Tissue-derived Allograft, NuCel, in Patients Undergoing Posteriolateral Lumbar Fusions for Degenerative Disc Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-24

    Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease; Spinal Stenosis; Spondylolisthesis; Spondylosis; Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Intervertebral Disk Degeneration; Spinal Diseases; Bone Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Spondylolysis

  19. Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Accelerates Degenerative Disease at Adjacent Vertebral Segments

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Gwynedd E.; Theodore, Nicholas; Sonntag, Volker K.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical corpectomy provides the most direct and thorough surgical approach for anterior decompression when spinal cord compression is found directly behind the vertebral body. However, anterior cervical fusion has been shown to be associated with the development of new degenerative changes at levels immediately adjacent to the fused segments. Th e incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following anterior cervical corpectomy has not been widely reported. We set out to determine the incidence of clinical ASD following anterior cervical corpectomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all available medical charts and radiographic studies of all cases of anterior cervical corpectomy performed at the Barrow Neurological Institute over a 4-year period with a minimum 24-month follow-up. Factors assessed included the success of arthrodesis, the presence of degenerative changes on serial follow-up radiographs, and the development of new neurological symptoms. Results Seventy-six patients met the criteria for inclusion: 54 had undergone a 1-level corpectomy, 18 underwent a 2-level corpectomy, and 4 underwent a 3- or 4-level corpectomy. Arthrodesis was performed with either allograft or autograft and anterior cervical plating. All patients achieved successful fusion. Follow-up was available for a minimum of 2 years in all cases, with a mean length of 3.6 years. Sixteen patients (21%) eventually developed radiological and clinical evidence of degenerative changes at adjacent levels. In 10 of 11 patients who developed clinical symptoms within 2 years, the changes represented progression of pre-existing, asymptomatic degenerative disease. Five patients developed degenerative changes more than 5 years after surgery; these were all associated with an unrelated new insult to the cervical spine such as trauma. Conclusions Anterior cervical corpectomy with fixation can accelerate degenerative changes identified preoperatively at adjacent, asymptomatic levels of the cervical spine. Level of Evidence Retrospective cohort study (level 2b).

  20. Insights into neurogenesis and aging: potential therapy for degenerative disease?

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Robert A; Thomas, Rosanne M; Peterson, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis is the process by which new neural cells are generated from a small population of multipotent stem cells in the adult CNS. This natural generation of new cells is limited in its regenerative capabilities and also declines with age. The use of stem cells in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease may hold great potential; however, the age-related incidence of many CNS diseases coincides with reduced neurogenesis. This review concisely summarizes current knowledge related to adult neurogenesis and its alteration with aging and examines the feasibility of using stem cell and gene therapies to combat diseases of the CNS with advancing age. PMID:20806052

  1. Role of interleukin-7 in degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel AG van Roon; Floris PJG Lafeber

    2008-01-01

    IL-7 is known foremost for its immunostimulatory capacities, including potent T cell-dependent catabolic effects on bone. In joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, IL-7, via immune activation, can induce joint destruction. Now it has been demonstrated that increased IL-7 levels are produced by human articular chondrocytes of older individuals and osteoarthritis patients. IL-7 stimulates production of proteases by IL-7

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  4. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics and Titles : Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease On this page: What is anemia? How is ... carry oxygen throughout the body. [ Top ] What causes anemia in chronic kidney disease? When kidneys are diseased or damaged, they do ...

  5. Vitamin A Derivatives as Treatment Options for Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perusek, Lindsay; Maeda, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of both retinol and pro-vitamin A carotenoids. A series of enzymatic reactions, located in both the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium, transform retinol into the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, regenerating visual pigments. Retina specific proteins carry out the majority of the visual cycle, and any significant interruption in this sequence of reactions is capable of causing varying degrees of blindness. Among these important proteins are Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein (RPE65) known to be responsible for esterification of retinol to all-trans-retinyl esters and isomerization of these esters to 11-cis-retinal, respectively. Deleterious mutations in these genes are identified in human retinal diseases that cause blindness, such as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Herein, we discuss the pathology of 11-cis-retinal deficiency caused by these mutations in both animal disease models and human patients. We also review novel therapeutic strategies employing artificial visual chromophore 9-cis-retinoids which have been employed in clinical trials involving LCA patients. PMID:23857173

  6. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) rods: short-term results in lumbar spine degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Colangeli, S; Barbanti Brodàno, G; Gasbarrini, A; Bandiera, S; Mesfin, A; Griffoni, C; Boriani, S

    2015-06-01

    Pedicle screw and rod instrumentation has become the preferred technique for performing stabilization and fusion in the surgical treatment of lumbar spine degenerative disease. Rigid fixation leads to high fusion rates but may also contribute to stress shielding and adjacent segment degeneration. Thus, the use of semirigid rods made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been proposed. Although the PEEK rods biomechanical properties, such as anterior load sharing properties, have been shown, there are few clinical studies evaluating their application in the lumbar spine surgical treatment. This study examined a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent posterior lumbar fusion for degenerative disease using PEEK rods, in order to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes and the incidence of complications. PMID:25751575

  7. Advances in susceptibility genetics of intervertebral degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin'gang; Sun, Zhengming; Liu, Jiangtao; Guo, Xiong

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view that the etiology of lumbar disc herniation is primarily due to age, gender, occupation, smoking and exposure to vehicular vibration dominated much of the last century. Recent research indicates that heredity may be largely responsible for the degeneration as well as herniation of intervertebral discs. Since 1998, genetic influences have been confirmed by the identification of several genes forms associated with disc degeneration. These researches are paving the way for a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms. Now, many researchers unanimously agree that lumbar disc herniation appears to be similar to other complex diseases, whose etiology has both environmental and hereditary influence, each with a part of contribution and relative risk. Then addressing the etiological of lumbar disc herniation, it is important to integrate heredity with the environment factors. For the purpose of this review, we have limited our discussion to several susceptibility genes associated with disc degeneration. PMID:18781226

  8. Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin D. van den Eerenbeemt; Raymond W. Ostelo; Barend J. van Royen; Wilco C. Peul; Maurits W. van Tulder

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal\\u000a fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries,\\u000a can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails,\\u000a surgery

  9. Allelic variation in the vitamin D receptor, lifestyle factors and lumbar spinal degenerative disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme Jones; Christopher White; Philip Sambrook; John Eisman

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo describe the relation between spinal degenerative disease, allelic variation in the vitamin D receptor gene, and lifestyle factors in a population-based association study.METHODSRandom population-based sample of 110 men and 172 women over 60 years of age participating in the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study who had spinal radiographs (performed according to a standardised approach), assessment of lifestyle factors, bone densitometry

  10. Influence of degenerative joint disease on spinal bone mineral measurements in postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Yu; C.-C. Glüer; T. Fuerst; S. Grampp; J. Li; Y. Lu; H. K. Genant

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the impact of various forms of spinal degenerative joint disease (DJD) on bone mineral density (BMD) measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a group of postmenopausal women. Lateral (T4-L4) and AP (L1-L4) spinal radiographs were reviewed for fracture and DJD in 209 women (mean age 62.6±6.7). The severity of DJD findings was

  11. C5 palsy following anterior decompression and spinal fusion for cervical degenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro HashimotoMacondo; Macondo Mochizuki; Atsuomi Aiba; Akihiko Okawa; Koichi Hayashi; Tsuyoshi Sakuma; Hiroshi Takahashi; Masao Koda; Kazuhisa Takahashi; Masashi Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative C5 palsy is a common complication after cervical spine decompression surgery. However, the incidence, prognosis,\\u000a and etiology of C5 palsy after anterior decompression with spinal fusion (ASF) have not yet been fully established. In the\\u000a present study, we analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients who developed C5 palsy after ASF for\\u000a cervical degenerative diseases. The cases of

  12. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  13. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... body needs to stay healthy. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease CKD is a common condition that affects about ...

  14. Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease: Disc Degeneration Symptoms and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shafaq; Rehmani, Muhammad Asim Khan; Raees, Aisha; Alvi, Arsalan Ahmad; Ashraf, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional and observational. Purpose To evaluate the different aspects of lumbar disc degenerative disc disease and relate them with magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and symptoms. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc degenerative disease has now been proven as the most common cause of low back pain throughout the world. It may present as disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, facet joint arthropathy or any combination. Presenting symptoms of lumbar disc degeneration are lower back pain and sciatica which may be aggravated by standing, walking, bending, straining and coughing. Methods This study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. Study was conducted on the diagnosed patients of lumbar disc degeneration. Diagnostic criteria were based upon abnormal findings in MRI. Patients with prior back surgery, spine fractures, sacroiliac arthritis, metabolic bone disease, spinal infection, rheumatoid arthritis, active malignancy, and pregnancy were excluded. Results During the targeted months, 163 patients of lumbar disc degeneration with mean age of 43.92±11.76 years, came into Neurosurgery department. Disc degeneration was most commonly present at the level of L4/L5 105 (64.4%).Commonest types of disc degeneration were disc herniation 109 (66.9%) and lumbar spinal stenosis 37 (22.7%). Spondylolisthesis was commonly present at L5/S1 10 (6.1%) and associated mostly with lumbar spinal stenosis 7 (18.9%). Conclusions Results reported the frequent occurrence of lumbar disc degenerative disease in advance age. Research efforts should endeavor to reduce risk factors and improve the quality of life. PMID:24353850

  15. End Plate Disproportion and Degenerative Disc Disease: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Poureisa, Masoud; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Mesbahi, Sepideh; Hagigi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case-control. Purpose To determine whether a disproportion between two neighboring vertebral end plates is associated with degenerative disc disease. Overview of Literature Recently, it has been suggested that disproportion of the end plates of two adjacent vertebrae may increase the risk of disc herniation. Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images (n=160) with evidence of grades I-II lumbar degenerative disc disease (modified Pfirrmann's classification) and normal MR images of the lumbar region (n=160) were reviewed. On midsagittal sections, the difference of anteroposterior diameter of upper and lower end plates neighboring a degenerated (in the case group) or normal (in the control group) intervertebral disc was calculated (difference of end plates [DEP]). Results Mean DEP was significantly higher in the case group at the L5-S1 level (2.73±0.23 mm vs. 2.21±0.12 mm, p=0.03). Differences were not statistically significant at L1-L2 (1.31±0.13 mm in the cases vs. 1.28±0.08 mm in the controls, p=0.78), L2-L3 (1.45±0.12 mm in the cases vs. 1.37±0.08 mm in the controls, p=0.58), L3-L4 (1.52±0.13 mm in the cases vs. 1.49±0.10 mm in the controls, p=0.88), and L4-L5 (2.15±0.21 mm in the cases vs. 2.04±0.20 mm in the controls, p=0.31) levels. The difference at the L5-S1 level did not remain significant after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), which was significantly higher in the patients. Conclusions End plate disproportion may be a significant, BMI-dependent risk factor for lumbar degenerative disc disease. PMID:25187856

  16. Segment-specific association between cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) and degenerative joint disease (DJD)

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Maja; Peterson, Cynthia K

    2006-01-01

    Background Cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) is a recently described phenomenon of unknown etiology and clinical significance. Global assessment of pillar hyperplasia of the cervical spine as a unit has not shown a relationship with degenerative joint disease, but a more sensible explanation of the architectural influence of CPH on cervical spine biomechanics may be segment-specific. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the level of association between degenerative joint disease (DJD) and cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) in an age- and gender-matched sample on a [cervical spine] by-level basis. Research Methods Two-hundred and forty radiographs were collected from subjects ranging in age between 40 and 69 years. The two primary outcome measures used in the study were the segmental presence/absence of cervical pillar hyperplasia from C3 to C6, and segment-specific presence/absence of degenerative joint disease from C1 to C7. Contingency Coefficients, at the 5% level of significance, at each level, were used to determine the strength of the association between CPH and DJD. Odds Ratios (OR) with their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were also calculated at each level to assess the strength of the association. Results Our study suggests that an approximately two-to-one odds, or a weak-to-moderate correlation, exists at C4 and C5 CPH and adjacent level degenerative disc disease (DDD); with the strongest (overall) associations demonstrated between C4 CPH and C4–5 DDD and between C5 CPH and C5–6 DDD. Age-stratified results demonstrated a similar pattern of association, even reaching the initially hypothesized OR ? 5.0 (95% CI > 1.0) or "moderately-strong correlation of C ? .4 (p ? .05)" in some age categories, including the 40–44, 50–59, and 60–64 years of age subgroups; these ORs were as follows: OR = 5.5 (95% CI 1.39–21.59); OR = 6.7 (95% CI 1.65–27.34); and OR = 5.3 (95% CI 1.35–21.14), respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that CPH has around two-to-one odds, that is, only a weak-to-moderate association with the presence of DJD (DDD component) at specific cervical spine levels; therefore, CPH may be but one of several factors that contributes (to a clinically important degree) to the development of DJD at specific levels in the cervical spine. PMID:16970812

  17. Towards functional regeneration of the central nervous system : glial calcium signaling in reactive gliosis and the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for retinal degenerative diseases

    E-print Network

    Yu, Diana Xuan

    2008-01-01

    bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for retinal degenerative diseasesbone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for retinal degenerative diseasesbone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into functional photoreceptors for retinal degenerative diseases

  18. Preventing Chronic Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Persons with an interest in public health will want to make a beeline for this rather helpful and well-done journal offered by the Center for Disease Control (CDC). This online-only publication was started in January 2004, and contains a healthy mix of peer-reviewed articles, CDC announcements, and general interest pieces. The journal's interests are quite broad and include reproductive health, oral health, health risk behavior, and the value of policy and legislation in preventing chronic disease. Some of the recent articles in the journal have included pieces on childhood obesity prevention legislation, diabetes and tooth loss, and more specifically, "The Cradle to Prison Pipeline: An American Health Crisis". The site also contains an online archive and information for potential authors, peer reviewers, and information about email updates about new issues.

  19. Chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Daus, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases) in animals may be associated with a zoonotic risk potential for humans as shown by the occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the wake of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic. Thus, the increasing exposure of humans in North America to cervid prions of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in elk and deer has prompted comprehensive risk assessments. The susceptibility of humans to CWD infections is currently under investigation in different studies using macaques as primate models. The necessity for such studies was recently reinforced when disease-associated prion protein and its seeding activity were detected in muscles of clinically inconspicuous CWD-infected white-tailed deer (WTD). Increasing evidence points to the existence of different CWD strains and CWD prions may also change or newly emerge over time. Therefore, CWD isolates examined in macaques should be characterized as precisely as possible for their molecular identity. On this basis other CWD field samples collected in the past, present or future could be systematically compared with macaque-tested inocula in order to assess whether they are covered by the ongoing risk assessments in primates. CWD typing by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy of pathological prion protein may provide a method of choice for this purpose. PMID:22453172

  20. Optimization of Protein Crosslinking Formulations for the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Slusarewicz, Paul; Zhu, Keng; Kirking, Bryan; Toungate, Justin; Hedman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Biochemical studies aimed at optimization of protein crosslinking formulations for the treatment of degenerative disc disease and subsequent biomechanical testing of tissues treated with these formulations. Objectives To optimize protein crosslinking formulations for treatment of degenerating spinal discs. Summary of Background Data Non-surgical exogenous crosslinking therapy is a potential new, non-invasive technology for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The technology is based upon the injection of protein crosslinking reagents into the pathological disc to restore its mechanical properties and also to potentially increase the permeability of the tissue and so facilitate the exchange of waste products and nutrients. Methods Diffusion of genipin was monitored following injection into spinal discs and the effects of surfactants on diffusion studied. Formulations for genipin and methylglyoxal were biochemically optimized and used to treat bovine spinal discs. Their effects on bovine annulus tissue were evaluated using a circumferential tensile test, while the genipin formulation was also tested with respect to its ability to reduce disc bulge under load. Results Genipin exhibited a distinct time-dependent diffusion and sodium-dodecyl-sulfate, but not Tween-20, enhanced diffusion by 30%. Two crosslinkers, genipin and methylglyoxal, were inhibited by amines but enhanced by phosphate ions. Both formulations could enhance a number of physical parameters of bovine annulus tissue, while the genipin formulation could reduce disc bulge following injections into spinal discs. Conclusions Formulations lacking amines and containing phosphate ions appear to be promising candidates for clinical use of the crosslinkers genipin and methylglyoxal. PMID:20595926

  1. Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

  2. De-novo generation of mitochondrial DNA plasmids following cytoplasmic transmission of a degenerative disease in Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Charter; K. W. Buck; C. M. Brasier

    1993-01-01

    A mitochondrial DNA plasmid was detected in an isolate of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi with a degenerative disease. The DNA plasmid was shown to be derived from the mitochondrial DNA and to map to a region corresponding to the large ribosomal RNA coding region. The DNA plasmid was not transmitted into sexual (ascospore) progeny, irrespective of whether the diseased isolate acted as

  3. Redox Signaling as a Therapeutic Target to Inhibit Myofibroblast Activation in Degenerative Fibrotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Peter; Zenzmaier, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative fibrotic diseases encompass numerous systemic and organ-specific disorders. Despite their associated significant morbidity and mortality, there is currently no effective antifibrotic treatment. Fibrosis is characterized by the development and persistence of myofibroblasts, whose unregulated deposition of extracellular matrix components disrupts signaling cascades and normal tissue architecture leading to organ failure and death. The profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) is considered the foremost inducer of fibrosis, driving myofibroblast differentiation in diverse tissues. This review summarizes recent in vitro and in vivo data demonstrating that TGF?-induced myofibroblast differentiation is driven by a prooxidant shift in redox homeostasis. Elevated NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) supported by concomitant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) signaling and reactive oxygen species scavengers are central factors in the molecular pathogenesis of fibrosis in numerous tissues and organs. Moreover, complex interplay between NOX4-derived H2O2 and NO signaling regulates myofibroblast differentiation. Restoring redox homeostasis via antioxidants or NOX4 inactivation as well as by enhancing NO signaling via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclases or inhibition of phosphodiesterases can inhibit and reverse myofibroblast differentiation. Thus, dysregulated redox signaling represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of wide variety of different degenerative fibrotic disorders. PMID:24701562

  4. Chronic Lung Disease Cerebral Palsy

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Chronic Lung Disease Diabetes Cerebral Palsy Sickle Cell Disease Hem ophilia Solid organ transplant Inflam m atory Bowel Disease Epilepsy Cystic Fibrosis Com plex Congential HeartDisease Acute Lym phoblastic Leukem ia Spina Bifida Medianencountersperyear Outpatient

  5. Biology and therapy of inherited retinal degenerative disease: insights from mouse models.

    PubMed

    Veleri, Shobi; Lazar, Csilla H; Chang, Bo; Sieving, Paul A; Banin, Eyal; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-02-01

    Retinal neurodegeneration associated with the dysfunction or death of photoreceptors is a major cause of incurable vision loss. Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in discovering genes and genetic defects that lead to retinal diseases. The primary focus has now shifted to uncovering disease mechanisms and designing treatment strategies, especially inspired by the successful application of gene therapy in some forms of congenital blindness in humans. Both spontaneous and laboratory-generated mouse mutants have been valuable for providing fundamental insights into normal retinal development and for deciphering disease pathology. Here, we provide a review of mouse models of human retinal degeneration, with a primary focus on diseases affecting photoreceptor function. We also describe models associated with retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction or synaptic abnormalities. Furthermore, we highlight the crucial role of mouse models in elucidating retinal and photoreceptor biology in health and disease, and in the assessment of novel therapeutic modalities, including gene- and stem-cell-based therapies, for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25650393

  6. Biology and therapy of inherited retinal degenerative disease: insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Veleri, Shobi; Lazar, Csilla H.; Chang, Bo; Sieving, Paul A.; Banin, Eyal; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Retinal neurodegeneration associated with the dysfunction or death of photoreceptors is a major cause of incurable vision loss. Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in discovering genes and genetic defects that lead to retinal diseases. The primary focus has now shifted to uncovering disease mechanisms and designing treatment strategies, especially inspired by the successful application of gene therapy in some forms of congenital blindness in humans. Both spontaneous and laboratory-generated mouse mutants have been valuable for providing fundamental insights into normal retinal development and for deciphering disease pathology. Here, we provide a review of mouse models of human retinal degeneration, with a primary focus on diseases affecting photoreceptor function. We also describe models associated with retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction or synaptic abnormalities. Furthermore, we highlight the crucial role of mouse models in elucidating retinal and photoreceptor biology in health and disease, and in the assessment of novel therapeutic modalities, including gene- and stem-cell-based therapies, for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25650393

  7. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions in degenerative cervical spine diseases requiring surgery.

    PubMed

    Freppel, S; Bisdorff, A; Colnat-Coulbois, S; Ceyte, H; Cian, C; Gauchard, G; Auque, J; Perrin, P

    2013-01-01

    Cervical proprioception plays a key role in postural control, but its specific contribution is controversial. Postural impairment was shown in whiplash injuries without demonstrating the sole involvement of the cervical spine. The consequences of degenerative cervical spine diseases are underreported in posture-related scientific literature in spite of their high prevalence. No report has focused on the two different mechanisms underlying cervicobrachial pain: herniated discs and spondylosis. This study aimed to evaluate postural control of two groups of patients with degenerative cervical spine diseases with or without optokinetic stimulation before and after surgical treatment. Seventeen patients with radiculopathy were recruited and divided into two groups according to the spondylotic or discal origin of the nerve compression. All patients and a control population of 31 healthy individuals underwent a static posturographic test with 12 recordings; the first four recordings with the head in 0° position: eyes closed, eyes open without optokinetic stimulation, with clockwise and counter clockwise optokinetic stimulations. These four sensorial situations were repeated with the head rotated 30° to the left and to the right. Patients repeated these 12 recordings 6weeks postoperatively. None of the patients reported vertigo or balance disorders before or after surgery. Prior to surgery, in the eyes closed condition, the herniated disc group was more stable than the spondylosis group. After surgery, the contribution of visual input to postural control in a dynamic visual environment was reduced in both cervical spine diseases whereas in a stable visual environment visual contribution was reduced only in the spondylosis group. The relative importance of visual and proprioceptive inputs to postural control varies according to the type of pathology and surgery tends to reduce visual contribution mostly in the spondylosis group. PMID:24120556

  8. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... White women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2005-2009) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  9. Models of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Zuo, Yiqin; Fogo, Agnes B.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney diseases result from recurrent or progressive injuries in glomeruli, tubules, interstitium and/or vasculature. In order to study pathogenesis, mechanisms and effects of interventions, many animal models have been developed, including spontaneous, genetic and induced models. However, these models do not exactly simulate human diseases, and most of them are strain, gender or age dependent. We review key information on various rodent models of chronic kidney diseases. PMID:21286234

  10. Laser technologies in treatment of degenerative-dystrophic bone diseases in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abushkin, Ivan A.; Privalov, Valery A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Noskov, Nikolay V.; Neizvestnykh, Elena A.; Kotlyarov, Alexander N.; Shekunova, Yulia G.

    2014-03-01

    Two low invasive laser technologies for treatment of degenerative-dystrophic bone diseases in children are presented. The first is the transcutaneous laser osteoperforation developed by us and initially applied for treatment of different inflammatory and traumatic diseases (osteomyelitides, osteal and osteoarticular panaritiums, delayed unions, false joints, and others). Now the technology was applied to treatment of aseptic osteonecrosis of different localizations in 134 children aged from 1 to 16 years, including 56 cases with necrosis of femoral head (Legg-Calve-Perthes disease), 42 with necrosis of 2nd metatarsal bone head (Kohler II disease), and 36 with necrosis of tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease). The second technology is the laser intracystic thermotherapy for treatment of bone cysts. The method was applied to 108 children aged from 3 to 16 years with aneurismal and solitary cysts of different localizations. In both technologies a 970 nm diode laser was used. The suggested technologies increase the efficiency of treatment, reduce its duration, can be performed on outpatient basis, which resulted in great economical effect.

  11. Dynamic Stabilization for Challenging Lumbar Degenerative Diseases of the Spine: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir

    2013-01-01

    Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been currently the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine over the last 4 decades. In all over the world the common experience was formed about fusion surgery. Satisfactory results of lumbar spinal fusion appeared completely incompatible and unfavorable within years. Rigid spinal implants along with fusion cause increased stresses of the adjacent segments and have some important disadvantages such as donor site morbidity including pain, wound problems, infections because of longer operating time, pseudarthrosis, and fatigue failure of implants. Alternative spinal implants were developed with time on unsatisfactory outcomes of rigid internal fixation along with fusion. Motion preservation devices which include both anterior and posterior dynamic stabilization are designed and used especially in the last two decades. This paper evaluates the dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and talks about chronologically some novel dynamic stabilization devices and thier efficacies. PMID:23662211

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology Following Anterior Decompression and Fusion Using Cage and Plate for the Treatment of Degenerative Cervical Spinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To analyze the incidence and prevalence of clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP) following anterior decompression and fusion with cage and plate augmentation for degenerative cervical diseases. Overview of Literature No long-term data on the use of cage and plate augmentation have been reported. Methods The study population consisted of 231 patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with cage and plate for degenerative cervical spinal disease. The incidence and prevalence of CASP was determined by using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. To analyze the factors that influence CASP, data on preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment, spinal canal diameter, the distance between the plate and adjacent disc, extent of fusion level, and the presence or absence of adjacent segment degenerative changes by imaging studies were evaluated. Results CASP occurred in 15 of the cases, of which 9 required additional surgery. At 8-year follow-up, the average yearly incidence was 1.1%. The rate of disease-free survival based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was 93.6% at 5 years and 90.2% at 8 years. No statistically significant differences in CASP incidence based on radiological analysis were observed. Significantly high incidence of CASP was observed in the presence of increased adjacent segment degenerative changes (p<0.001). Conclusions ACDF with cage and plate for the treatment of degenerative cervical disease is associated with a lower incidence in CSAP by 1.1% per year, and the extent of preoperative adjacent segment degenerative changes has been shown as a risk factor for CASP. PMID:25558313

  13. Enterovirus replication in valvular tissue from patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Li; Z. Pan; Y. Ji; T. Peng; L. C. Archard; H. Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Aims To investigate the involvement of enterovirus infection in chronic, rheumatic heart disease. Methods and Results Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, surgical samples of valve tissue were examined for the presence of enteroviral RNA and virus capsid protein VP1 by in situ hybridization and immunostaining. Of 53 cases, 33 were patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease and 20 had Marfan's syndrome or degenerative

  14. Cardiac Disease in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy A. Falk; Steven Kadiev; Gerard J. Criner; Steven M. Scharf; Omar A. Minai; Philip Diaz

    2008-01-01

    The cardiac manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are numerous. Impairments of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular disease are well known to complicate the clinical course of COPD and correlate inversely with survival. The pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease in COPD is likely multi- factorial and related to alterations in gas exchange and vascular biology, as well as

  15. Chronic Orchialgia and Associated Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halil Ciftci; Murat Savas; Ercan Yeni; Ayan Verit; Ufuk Topal

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Chronic scrotal pain (CSP) is one of the difficult medical evaluations. Approximately 25% of patients with chronic orchialgia have no obvious cause for the pain. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of CSP in daily urological practice and associated diseases for our patients. Patients and Methods: In this study, 2,375 men over 18 years of

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TREATMENT OF DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE WITH PERIARTICULAR, INTRAARTICULAR, AND INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS OF ZEEL T

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Lesiak; Rainer Gottwald; Michael Weiser

    Summary Effectiveness of the treatment of degenerative joint disease by Zeel injections was assessed on the basis of published work and our own experience, including the results of a study carried out in a group of 523 patients. The solution was injected into the affected joints, periarticularly and intramuscularly. We also assessed the product's tolerability. Women were predominant (71%) in

  17. Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease associ-ated with the degradation of articular cartilage, is a leading

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease associ- ated with the degradation of articular and progres- sion processes are poorly understood. Cartilage mechanics are highly sensitive to the poroelastic one cylindrical bo- vine cartilage plug ( 10mm x 10mm, 1mm cartilage 9mm subchondral bone). One sample

  18. Evidence that bone mineral density plays a role in degenerative disc disease: the UK Twin Spine Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Livshits; Sergey Ermakov; Maria Popham; Alex J MacGregor; Philip N Sambrook; Timothy D Spector; Frances M K Williams

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveOsteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis are often considered to lie at opposite ends of a spectrum of bone phenotypes. Lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDD) may be associated with low back pain (LBP) and is similar in many ways to OA. LDD is reported in small studies to be associated with increased spine bone mineral density (BMD). The present work aimed to

  19. Iontophoretically applied microtubule inhibitors induce transganglionic degenerative atrophy of primary central nociceptive terminals and abolish chronic autochtonous pain.

    PubMed

    Knyihár-Csillik, E; Szücs, A; Csillik, B

    1982-10-01

    Transcutaneous iontophoresis of microtubule inhibitors (Vinblastin, Vincristin, Formyl-Leurosin) in rats induces depletion of fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) and transganglionic degenerative atrophy (trggl. deg. atr.) of the central terminals of primary nociceptive neurons, probably via blockade of axoplasmic transport in the peripheral sensory nerves. Radiochemical experiments prove that about 0.2% of the microtubule inhibitors applied iontophoretically at the skin reach the level of nociceptive axon terminals. 40 out of 48 patients suffering from chronic intractable pain of diverse etiology (postherpetic, paresthetic, ischaemic and trigeminal neuralgia, alcoholic and diabetic polyneuropathy, meralgia, brachialgia, discopathia, arthropathia and terminal pain) were successfully treated with Vinblastin or Vincristin iontophoresis. Iontophoretically applied microtubule inhibitors do not affect the blood cell count, have no side-effects and do not impair the skin at the site of application. PMID:6183918

  20. Screening for Nuclear Replacement Candidates in Patients With Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pappou, Ioannis; Cammisa, Frank; Papadopoulos, Elias; Frelinghuysen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Nuclear replacement is an emerging surgical treatment for degenerative disc disease (DDD) and low back pain (LBP). While clinical experience is most extensive with the prosthetic disc nucleus PDN (Raymedica, Minneapolis, Minnesota), strict indications apply for the implantation of this device. The purpose of this study was to ascertain what percentage of patients treated surgically for degenerative disc disease with other surgical procedures would have been candidates for nuclear replacement implantation. Methods The charts and films of 85 consecutive patients with failed conservative management for LBP treated surgically with fusion, disc replacement, or annuloplasty were retrospectively reviewed. There were 53 patients with 1-level disease and 32 with 2-level disease, accounting for 117 treated levels. Patients with the following radiographic contraindications to nuclear replacement were serially eliminated: (1) Schmorl's nodes and > 50% collapse of the disc space, (2) irregular/convex endplates on the MRI, (3) complete tears and large annular defects (ie, both incomplete tears and complete tears were eliminated, but patients with local annular deficiency were deemed eligible for nuclear replacement), and (4) a BMI > 30. Results Fifty-nine levels (50.4%) had no radiographic contraindications to treatment with a nuclear replacement device. Twelve levels in 10 patients with a BMI > 30 were excluded. Overall, 47 out of 117 levels (40.2%) had no contraindications to a prosthetic nucleus device. The L5-S1 level was the most commonly treated level (55 out of 117, 47%), but only 25.5% had no radiographic contraindications, and overall only 21.8% of the levels were suitable for a nuclear replacement device. Upper lumbar levels (L3-4 and L4-5) had no radiographic contraindications in a higher percentage of cases (68.8% and 72.7%, respectively). The inclusion of the BMI criteria reduced these percentages to 50% and 59.1%, respectively. Conclusions The surgeon has to assess endplate integrity, disc height, endplate shape, annular integrity, and BMI when offering nuclear replacement as treatment for patients with DDD.

  1. Characterization of Intercostal Muscle Pathology in Canine Degenerative Myelopathy: A Disease Model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Brandie R.; Coates, Joan R.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Bujnak, Alyssa C.; Katz, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Dogs homozygous for missense mutations in the SOD1 gene develop a late-onset neuromuscular disorder called degenerative myelopathy (DM) that has many similarities to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both disorders are characterized by widespread progressive declines in motor functions accompanied by atrophic changes in the descending spinal cord tracts , and some forms of ALS are also associated with SOD1 mutations. In end-stage ALS, death usually occurs as a result of respiratory failure due to severe functional impairment of respiratory muscles. The mechanisms that lead to this loss of function are not known. Dogs with DM are euthanized at all stages of disease progression providing an opportunity to characterize the onset and progression of any pathological changes in the respiratory muscles that may precede respiratory failure. To characterize such potential disease-related pathology we evaluated intercostal muscles from Boxer and Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs that were euthanized at various stages of DM disease progression. DM was found to result in intercostal muscle atrophy, fibrosis, increased variability in muscle fiber size and shape, and an alteration in muscle fiber type composition. This pathology was not accompanied by retraction of the motor neuron terminals from the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes, suggesting that the muscle atrophy did not result from physical denervation. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that likely lead to respiratory failure in at least some forms of ALS and will be useful in the development and evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions using the DM model. PMID:24043596

  2. Diagnosis and Treatment of Degenerative Joint Disease in a Captive Male Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. Progression from minimal to moderate to severe osteoarthritis occurred in this animal over the course of 1 y. Treatment with chondroprotective supplements (that is, glucosamine chondroitin, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) and intraarticular corticosteroid injections (that is, methylprednisolone, ketorolac), together with pain management (that is, celecoxib, tramadol, carprofen), resulted in increased activity levels and decreased clinical signs of disease. DJD has a considerable negative effect on quality of life among the human geriatric population and therefore is likely to be one of the most significant diseases that will affect the increasingly aged captive chimpanzee population. As this case study demonstrates, appropriate treatment can improve and extend quality of life dramatically in these animals. However, in cases of severe osteoarthritis cases, medication alone may be insufficient to increase stability, and surgical options should be explored. PMID:21439223

  3. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 800.222.5864. References Mroz MM, Balkissoon R, Newman LS. Beryllium. In: Bringham E, Cohrssen B, Powell ... John Wiley & Sons 2001, 177-220. Balkissoon RC, Newman LS. Beryllium cooper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium ...

  4. Lumbar degenerative disc disease and tibiotalar joint arthritis: a 710-specimen postmortem study.

    PubMed

    Boiwka, Alex V; Bajwa, Navkirat S; Toy, Jason O; Eubanks, Jason; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2015-04-01

    Research has associated lumbar spinal disease with lower extremity arthrosis. These studies focused solely on the lumbar spine's connection with hip or knee pathology, failing to investigate potential ankle relationships. We specifically explored the interplay between lumbar disc degeneration and tibiotalar joint arthritis. Lumbar disc degeneration and tibiotalar joint arthritis was graded 0 to 4, according to osteophytosis of the vertebral rim and talar surface in 710 randomly selected cadaveric specimens. We corrected for confounding factors of age, sex, race, and height. A significant association was found between lumbar disc degeneration and tibiotalar joint arthritis (P < .01). Lumbar disc degeneration encompassing 3 intervetebral discs demonstrated the highest odds for development of severe tibiotalar joint arthritis. Severe lumbar degenerative disc disease was more prevalent than severe tibiotalar joint arthritis in individuals age 20 years and older. Furthermore, the presence of severe lumbar degeneration significantly predisposes individuals to the development of severe ankle arthritis (P < .05). Gait changes resulting from disc degeneration or neural compression in the lumbar spine may play a role in ankle osteoarthritis development. This association must be considered when treating patients with lumbar disc degeneration and leg pain. PMID:25844591

  5. Three-dimensional osteogenic and chondrogenic systems to model osteochondral physiology and degenerative joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter G; Gottardi, Riccardo; Lin, Hang; Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-09-01

    Tissue engineered constructs have the potential to function as in vitro pre-clinical models of normal tissue function and disease pathogenesis for drug screening and toxicity assessment. Effective high throughput assays demand minimal systems with clearly defined performance parameters. These systems must accurately model the structure and function of the human organs and their physiological response to different stimuli. Musculoskeletal tissues present unique challenges in this respect, as they are load-bearing, matrix-rich tissues whose functionality is intimately connected to the extracellular matrix and its organization. Of particular clinical importance is the osteochondral junction, the target tissue affected in degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA), which consists of hyaline articular cartilage in close interaction with subchondral bone. In this review, we present an overview of currently available in vitro three-dimensional systems for bone and cartilage tissue engineering that mimic native physiology, and the utility and limitations of these systems. Specifically, we address the need to combine bone, cartilage and other tissues to form an interactive microphysiological system (MPS) to fully capture the biological complexity and mechanical functions of the osteochondral junction of the articular joint. The potential applications of three-dimensional MPSs for musculoskeletal biology and medicine are highlighted. PMID:24994814

  6. National trends in outpatient surgical treatment of degenerative cervical spine disease.

    PubMed

    Baird, Evan O; Egorova, Natalia N; McAnany, Steven J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cho, Samuel K

    2014-08-01

    Study Design?Retrospective population-based observational study. Objective?To assess the growth of cervical spine surgery performed in an outpatient setting. Methods?A retrospective study was conducted using the United States Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases for California, New York, Florida, and Maryland from 2005 to 2009. Current Procedural Terminology, fourth revision (CPT-4) and International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify operations for degenerative cervical spine diseases in adults (age?>?20 years). Disposition and complication rates were examined. Results?There was an increase in cervical spine surgeries performed in an ambulatory setting during the study period. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion accounted for 68% of outpatient procedures; posterior decompression made up 21%. Younger patients predominantly underwent anterior fusion procedures, and patients in the eighth and ninth decades of life had more posterior decompressions. Charlson comorbidity index and complication rates were substantially lower for ambulatory cases when compared with inpatients. The majority (>99%) of patients were discharged home following ambulatory surgery. Conclusions?Recently, the number of cervical spine surgeries has increased in general, and more of these procedures are being performed in an ambulatory setting. The majority (>99%) of patients are discharged home but the nature of analyzing administrative data limits accurate assessment of postoperative complications and thus patient safety. This increase in outpatient cervical spine surgery necessitates further discussion of its safety. PMID:25083354

  7. Stand-alone cage for posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of high-degree degenerative disc disease: design of a new device for an “old” technique. A prospective study on a series of 116 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Costa; Marco Sassi; Alessandro Ortolina; Andrea Cardia; Roberto Assietti; Alberto Zerbi; Martin Lorenzetti; Fabio Galbusera; Maurizio Fornari

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lumbar pain due to degenerative disc disease affects a large number of people, including those of fully active age.\\u000a The usual self-repair system observed in nature is a spontaneous attempt at arthrodesis, which in most cases leads to pseudoarthrosis.\\u000a In recent years, many possible surgical fusion techniques have been introduced; PLIF is one of these. Because of the growing

  8. Chronic Disease and the Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physicians for Social Responsibility

    This site provides an overview of chronic diseases such as asthma, cancer and birth defects (with respect to infant mortality) and their environmental causes. Special topics include disease tracking, biomonitoring, Hispanic Americans and environmental health, public health infrastructure, and bioterrorism. The site also features links to current news and related resources.

  9. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  10. Treatment of chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M Turner; Carolyn Bauer; Matthew K Abramowitz; Michal L Melamed; Thomas H Hostetter

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can slow its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the therapies remain limited. Blood pressure control using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has the greatest weight of evidence. Glycemic control in diabetes seems likely to retard progression. Several metabolic disturbances of CKD may prove to be useful therapeutic

  11. [Occupational disease 2108. Degenerative changes of the cervical spine as a causality criterion in the assessment of discogenic diseases according to BeKV 2108].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, E; Schultheiss, M; Krämer, S; Ebert, V; Kinzl, L; Kramer, M

    2003-04-01

    With the second amendment to the Ordinance on Occupational Diseases (BeKV) of 18 December 1992, discogenic diseases of the spine are included in the disease register of occupational diseases for the first time. If occupations that impose stress on the spine have been practised for many years, the possibility exists of recognizing degenerative diseases as an occupational disease. In assessment practice, the radiological data on the spine exposed to stress is compared with that of regions which are remote from the stress (cervical/thoracic spine). This pattern of the distribution of degenerative disease is then used as the basis for determining a causal relationship between the occupation causing the stress and disease of the axial skeleton. The pattern of degeneration of the cervical spine was investigated in two groups, one with ( n =153) and one without ( n =333) occupations that impose stress on the lumbar spine. A cumulative score of degenerative changes was elaborated and presented as a new classification. No differences were found between the groups with regard to either the frequency of occurrence, segmental distribution or severity of disease. In both groups, degenerative changes correlated with age. The prevailing assessment practice is discussed on the basis of these data. PMID:12719851

  12. Mutations in RPGR and RP2 Account for 15% of Males with Simplex Retinal Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Branham, Kari; Othman, Mohammad; Brumm, Matthew; Karoukis, Athanasios J.; Atmaca-Sonmez, Pelin; Yashar, Beverly M.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Stover, Niamh B.; Trzupek, Karmen; Wheaton, Dianna; Jennings, Barbara; Ciccarelli, Maria Laura; Jayasundera, K. Thiran; Lewis, Richard A.; Birch, David; Bennett, Jean; Sieving, Paul A.; Andreasson, Sten; Duncan, Jacque L.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Iannaccone, Alessandro; Weleber, Richard G.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Heckenlively, John R.; Swaroop, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the proportion of male patients presenting simplex retinal degenerative disease (RD: retinitis pigmentosa [RP] or cone/cone-rod dystrophy [COD/CORD]) with mutations in the X-linked retinal degeneration genes RPGR and RP2. Methods. Simplex males were defined as patients with no known affected family members. Patients were excluded if they had a family history of parental consanguinity. Blood samples from a total of 214 simplex males with a diagnosis of retinal degeneration were collected for genetic analysis. The patients were screened for mutations in RPGR and RP2 by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA. Results. We identified pathogenic mutations in 32 of the 214 patients screened (15%). Of the 29 patients with a diagnosis of COD/CORD, four mutations were identified in the ORF15 mutational hotspot of the RPGR gene. Of the 185 RP patients, three patients had mutations in RP2 and 25 had RPGR mutations (including 12 in the ORF15 region). Conclusions. This study represents mutation screening of RPGR and RP2 in the largest cohort, to date, of simplex males affected with RP or COD/CORD. Our results demonstrate a substantial contribution of RPGR mutations to retinal degenerations, and in particular, to simplex RP. Based on our findings, we suggest that RPGR should be considered as a first tier gene for screening isolated males with retinal degeneration. PMID:23150612

  13. Klotho and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    Through alternative splicing, Klotho protein exists both as a secreted and a membrane form whose extracellular domain could be shed from the cell surface by secretases and released into the circulation to act as endocrine factor. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) to modulate FGF23 signal transduction, soluble Klotho is a multi-function protein present in the biological fluids including blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plays important roles in anti-aging, energy metabolism, inhibition of Wnt signaling, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, control of parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2VD3 production, and antagonism of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Emerging evidence from clinical and basic studies reveal that chronic kidney disease is a state of endocrine and renal Klotho deficiency, which may serve as an early biomarker and a pathogenic contributor to chronic progression and complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Supplementation of exogenous Klotho and/or up-regulation of endogenous Klotho production by using rennin angiotensin system inhibitors, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma agonists, or anti-oxidants may confer renoprotection from oxidation and suppression of renal fibrosis, and also on prevention or alleviation of complications in chronic kidney disease. Therefore, Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease. PMID:23652549

  14. Angiogenesis in Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voelkel, Norbert F.; Douglas, Ivor S.; Nicolls, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases like COPD, severe progressive pulmonary hypertension (PH), and interstitial lung diseases all have a lung vascular disease component. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling have been experimentally explored in many animal models, and it is now clear that microvessels are involved. In emphysema patients, there is a loss of lung microvessels, and in many forms of severe PH there is obliteration of precapillary arterioles by angioproliferation. Thus, COPD/emphysema and severe angioproliferative PH are on the opposite ends of a spectrum of vascular biology responses. Animal experiments have provided insight regarding some of the initiating events that shape the various forms of pulmonary vascular remodeling. In pulmonary fibrosis and in the postinjury phase of acute lung injury, the angiogenic/angiostatic balance is also affected. This review will therefore discuss angiogenesis in several chronic lung diseases and will speculate on how altered vascular homeostasis may contribute to lung disease development. PMID:17356107

  15. One decade follow up after nucleoplasty in the management of degenerative disc disease causing low back pain and radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nucleoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that is developed to treat patients with symptomatic, but contained disc herniations or bulging discs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a decade follow-up of coblation nucleoplasty treatment for protruded lumbar intervertebral disc. Methods: In this retrospective study there a total 50 patients who underwent intradiscal coblation therapy for symptomatic, but contained lumbar degenerative disc disease were included. Relief of low back pain, leg pain and numbness after the operation were assessed by visual analog pain scale (VAS). Function of lower limb and daily living of patients were evaluated by the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and subjective global rating of overall satisfaction were recorded and analyzed. Results: There were 27 male and 23 female with followup mean follow up of 115 months (range 105–130 months) with a mean age was 52 years (range 26–74 years). Analgesic consumption was reduced or stopped in 90% of these cases after 1 year. At 24 months follow up VAS was four points and ODI was 7.2. In three patients, we repeated the cool ablation after 36 months, at L3–4 level in two cases. Ten patients continue to be asymptomatic after 114 months of intervention. There were no complications with the procedure including nerve root injury, discitis or allergic reactions. Conclusions: Nucleoplasty may provide intermittent relief in contained disc herniation without significant complications and minimal morbidity. In accordance with the literature the evidence for intradiscal coablation therapy is moderate in managing chronic discogenic low back pain; nucleoplasty appears to be safe and effective.

  16. Diet and Chronic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that improve insulin sensitivity usually lead to improvements in risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in c...

  17. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  18. Controversies about interspinous process devices in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spine diseases: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Alfieri, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A large number of interspinous process devices (IPD) have been recently introduced to the lumbar spine market as an alternative to conventional decompressive surgery in managing symptomatic lumbar spinal pathology, especially in the older population. Despite the fact that they are composed of a wide range of different materials including titanium, polyetheretherketone, and elastomeric compounds, the aim of these devices is to unload spine, restoring foraminal height, and stabilize the spine by distracting the spinous processes. Although the initial reports represented the IPD as a safe, effective, and minimally invasive surgical alternative for relief of neurological symptoms in patients with low back degenerative diseases, recent studies have demonstrated less impressive clinical results and higher rate of failure than initially reported. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on interspinous implants, their mechanisms of action, safety, cost, and effectiveness in the treatment of lumbar stenosis and degenerative disc diseases. PMID:24822224

  19. Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

  20. Overweight + Inactivity = Increased Risk of Chronic Disease

    E-print Network

    Overweight + Inactivity = Increased Risk of Chronic Disease Excessive weight and inactivity are consistently linked with increased incidence of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high, severity and health care costs of other chronic diseases linked to excessive weight and inactivity. Contact

  1. Nutrition and chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Fouque; Solenne Pelletier; Denise Mafra; Philippe Chauveau

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at

  2. Complications of chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tsouka, Alexandra; McLin, Valérie A

    2012-06-01

    Children with chronic liver disease (CLD) need a head to toe approach and an early suspicion of multi organ involvement. Nutritional assessment and management is the cornerstone of management. Consider immune dysfunction in everyday treatment decisions. Consider early heart-lung-brain involvement in transplant evaluation. PMID:22521556

  3. Evidence showing the relationship between sagittal balance and clinical outcomes in surgical treatment of degenerative spinal diseases: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Le Huec, Jean-Charles; Faundez, Antonio; Dominguez, Dennis; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Aunoble, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The measure of radiographic pelvic and spinal parameters for sagittal balance analysis has gained importance in reconstructive surgery of the spine and particularly in degenerative spinal diseases (DSD). Fusion in the lumbar spine may result in loss of lumbar lordosis (LL), with possible compensatory mechanisms: decreased sacral slope (SS), increased pelvic tilt (PT) and decreased thoracic kyphosis (TK). An increase in PT after surgery is correlated with postoperative back pain. A decreased SS and/or abnormal sagittal vertical axis (SVA) after fusion have a higher risk of adjacent segment degeneration. High pelvic incidence (PI) increases the risk of sagittal imbalance after spine fusion and is a predictive factor for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Restoration of a normal PT after surgery is correlated with good clinical outcome. Therefore, there is a need for comparative prospective studies that include pre- and postoperative spinopelvic parameters and compare complication rate, degree of disability, pain and quality of life. PMID:25192690

  4. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Besarab A, Coyne DW. Iron supplementation to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nature Reviews Nephrology. 2010;6(12):699–710. [ Top ] How is AI/ACD treated? Anemia of inflammation and chronic disease often is not ...

  5. Chronic Lyme Disease: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis “Chronic Lyme disease” is a confusing term that has been used to describe very different patient populations. Studies have shown that most patients diagnosed with “chronic Lyme disease” either have no objective evidence of previous or current infection with B. burgdorferi or are patients that should be classified as having post-Lyme disease syndrome, which is defined as continuing or relapsing non-specific symptoms (such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints) in a patient previously treated for Lyme disease. Despite extensive study, there is currently no clear evidence that post-Lyme disease syndrome is due to persistent infection with B. burgdorferi. Four randomized placebo-controlled studies have shown that antibiotic therapy offers no sustained benefit to patients with post-Lyme disease syndrome. These studies also showed a substantial placebo effect and a significant risk of treatment-related adverse events. Further research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying persistent symptoms after Lyme disease and controlled trials of new approaches to the treatment and management of these patients are needed. PMID:18452806

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Martinez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    COPD is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The morphological basis for airflow obstruction results from a varying combination of obstructive changes in peripheral conducting airways and destructive changes in respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. A reduction of vascularity within the alveolar septa has been reported in emphysema. Typical physiological changes reflect these structural abnormalities. Spirometry documents airflow obstruction when the FEV1/FVC ratio is reduced below the lower limit of normality, although in early disease stages FEV1 and airway conductance are not affected. Current guidelines recommend testing for bronchoreversibility at least once and the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC be used for COPD diagnosis; the nature of bronchodilator response remains controversial, however. One major functional consequence of altered lung mechanics is lung hyperinflation. FRC may increase as a result of static or dynamic mechanisms, or both. The link between dynamic lung hyperinflation and expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing has been demonstrated. Hyperinflation may increase the load on inspiratory muscles, with resulting length adaptation of diaphragm. Reduction of exercise tolerance is frequently noted, with compelling evidence that breathlessness and altered lung mechanics play a major role. Lung function measurements have been traditionally used as prognostic indices and to monitor disease progression; FEV1 has been most widely used. An increase in FVC is also considered as proof of bronchodilatation. Decades of work has provided insight into the histological, functional, and biological features of COPD. This has provided a clearer understanding of important pathobiological processes and has provided additional therapeutic options. PMID:24692133

  7. The Effectiveness of Endoscopic Epidurolysis in Treatment of Degenerative Chronic Low Back Pain: A Prospective Analysis and Follow-up at 48 Months

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Di Donato; C. Fontana; R. Pinto; D. Beltrutti; G. Pinto

    \\u000a The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic epidurolysis in the treatment of degenerative\\u000a chronic low back pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Two hundred and thirty four patients affected by chronic low back pain, with VAS ? 5 and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability\\u000a Index (ODI) from 0 to 60% (0–20%, group A; 20–40%, group B; 40–60%, group C)

  8. Chronic granulomatous disease: why an inflammatory disease?

    PubMed Central

    Roxo-Junior, P.; Simão, H.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the genes encoding subunits of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase system. Patients can present with severe, recurrent infections and noninfectious conditions. Among the latter, inflammatory manifestations are predominant, especially granulomas and colitis. In this article, we systematically review the possible mechanisms of hyperinflammation in this rare primary immunodeficiency condition and their correlations with clinical aspects. PMID:25296353

  9. Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein-positive degenerative neurites exist even within kuru plaques not specific to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ohgami, T.; Kitamoto, T.; Weidmann, A.; Beyreuther, K.; Tateishi, J.

    1991-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between amyloid formation and amyloid precursor protein (APP), the brain sections from eight patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and four with Gerstmann-Sträussler Syndrome (GSS) were investigated immunohistochemically by the double-immunostaining method. In AD, most APP-positive senile plaques belong to classical plaques or primitive plaques, whereas in diffuse plaques, APP-positive neuritic components are rarely observed. The authors documented that anti-APP-labeled degenerative neurites surrounding kuru plaques in all four GSS patients. These kuru plaques were verified by double immunostaining using anti-prion protein and anti-APP. The APP-positive structures in kuru plaques were almost identical with those seen in the classical plaques in AD. The authors concluded that APP-positive degenerative neurites are not an early event in the amyloid formation of senile plaques. It is therefore postulated that depositions of beta/A4 and prion proteins are primary events that may involve the surrounding microenvironment and result in the secondary formation of APP-positive degenerative neurites, not specific to AD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1684265

  10. Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly Kramer

    2006-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The prevalence of obesity among U.S. adults has doubled within the past two decades, and if trends continue, over one-third of U.S. adults may be obese by the year 2008. Concurrent with the rising prevalence of obesity is an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an estimated 18 million U.S. adults currently affected. This review discusses the strong

  11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema including the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these diseases. It also reviews the anatomy of the respiratory system. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  12. Grading of degenerative disk disease and functional impairment: imaging versus patho-anatomical findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Quint; Hans-Joachim Wilke

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative instability affecting the functional spinal unit is discussed as a cause of symptoms. The value of imaging signs\\u000a for assessing the resulting functional impairment is still unclear. To determine the relationship between slight degrees of\\u000a degeneration and function, we performed a biomechanical study with 18 multisegmental (L2-S2) human lumbar cadaveric specimens.\\u000a The multidirectional spinal deformation was measured during the

  13. Chiropractic management of a veteran with lower back pain associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hypertrophy and degenerative disk disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jan A.; Wolfe, Tristy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to report the response of chiropractic care of a geriatric veteran with degenerative disk disease and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Clinical Features A 74-year-old man presented with low back pain (LBP) and loss of feeling in his lower extremities for 3 months. The LBP was of insidious onset with a 10/10 pain rating on the numeric pain scale (NPS) and history of degenerative disk disease and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hypertrophy. Oswestry questionnaire was 44% and health status questionnaire was 52%, which were below average for his age. The patient presented with antalgia and severe difficulty with ambulation and thus used a walker. Intervention and Outcome Chiropractic care included Activator Methods protocol. Two weeks into treatment, he reported no back pain; and after 4 treatments, he was able to walk with a cane instead of a walker. The NPS decreased from a 10/10 to a 0/10, and his Revised Oswestry score decreased from 44/100 to 13.3/100. His Health Status Questionnaire score increased 25 points to 77/100, bringing him from below average for his age to above average for his age. Follow-up with the patient at approximately 1 year and 9 months showed an Oswestry score of 10/100 and a Health Status Questionnaire score of 67/100, still above average for his age. Conclusion The findings in this case study showed that Activator-assisted spinal manipulative therapy had positive subjective and objective results for LBP and ambulation in a geriatric veteran with degenerative disk disease and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. PMID:23843763

  14. Comparison of stand-alone polyetheretherketone cages and iliac crest autografts for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zhou; Qing Xia; Jian Dong; Xilei Li; Xiaogang Zhou; Taolin Fang; Hong Lin

    2011-01-01

    Background  Anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical procedure for the treatment of cervical degenerative\\u000a disc diseases. This retrospective study was designed to analyze and compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical\\u000a fusion using stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous iliac crest grafts with the anterior cervical plating\\u000a system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 72 consecutive patients suffering

  15. Treatment of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jeffrey M; Bauer, Carolyn; Abramowitz, Matthew K; Melamed, Michal L; Hostetter, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can slow its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the therapies remain limited. Blood pressure control using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has the greatest weight of evidence. Glycemic control in diabetes seems likely to retard progression. Several metabolic disturbances of CKD may prove to be useful therapeutic targets but have been insufficiently tested. These include acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and vitamin D deficiency. Drugs aimed at other potentially damaging systems and processes, including endothelin, fibrosis, oxidation, and advanced glycation end products, are at various stages of development. In addition to the paucity of proven effective therapies, the incomplete application of existing treatments, the education of patients about their disease, and the transition to ESRD care remain major practical barriers to better outcomes. PMID:22166846

  16. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease 

    E-print Network

    McAllister, David Anthony

    2011-07-05

    Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

  18. Determination of superoxide dismutase activity by the polarographic method of catalytic currents in the cerebrospinal fluid of aging brain and neurologic degenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Bracco, F; Scarpa, M; Rigo, A; Battistin, L

    1991-01-01

    The activity of the superoxide dismutase was measured by the polarographic method of catalytic currents in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with age-related neurologic degenerative diseases, namely, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and of a reference group of normal subjects. The superoxide dismutase activity was found to increase with age in reference subjects (r = 0.81) while no significant correlation was found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease patients. The activity mean values were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in patients with neurologic degenerative diseases than in the reference subjects. The changes of superoxide dismutase activity in the aging brain and in age-related neurologic degenerative diseases are discussed. PMID:1984240

  19. Economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Lan Huong, Dao; Bao Giang, Kim; Byass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There remains a lack of information on economic aspects of chronic diseases. This paper, by gathering available and relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss current evidence on economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. Methods Data used in this paper were obtained from various information sources: international and national journal articles and studies, government documents and publications, web-based statistics and fact sheets. Results In Vietnam, chronic diseases were shown to be leading causes of deaths, accounting for 66% of all deaths in 2002. The burdens caused by chronic disease morbidity and risk factors are also substantial. Poorer people in Vietnam are more vulnerable to chronic diseases and their risk factors, other than being overweight. The estimated economic loss caused by chronic diseases for Vietnam in 2005 was about US$20 million (0.033% of annual national GDP). Chronic diseases were also shown to cause economic losses for families and individuals in Vietnam. Both population-wide and high-risk individual interventions against chronic disease were shown to be cost-effective in Vietnam. Conclusion Given the evidence from this study, actions to prevent chronic diseases in Vietnam are clearly urgent. Further research findings are required to give greater insights into economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. PMID:20057939

  20. Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    van den Eerenbeemt, Karin D.; van Royen, Barend J.; Peul, Wilco C.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries, can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails, surgery might be considered. For a long time, lumbar fusion has been the “gold standard” of surgical treatment for DDD. Total disc replacement (TDR) has increased in popularity as an alternative for lumbar fusion. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed up to October 2008. Two reviewers independently checked all retrieved titles and abstracts, and relevant full text articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data and outcomes. Three randomized controlled trials and 16 prospective cohort studies were identified. In all three trials, the total disc replacement was compared with lumbar fusion techniques. The Charité trial (designed as a non-inferiority trail) was considered to have a low risk of bias for the 2-year follow up, but a high risk of bias for the 5-year follow up. The Charité artificial disc was non-inferior to the BAK® Interbody Fusion System on a composite outcome of “clinical success” (57.1 vs. 46.5%, for the 2-year follow up; 57.8 vs. 51.2% for the 5-year follow up). There were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Prodisc artificial disc (also designed as a non-inferiority trail) was found to be statistically significant more effective when compared with the lumbar circumferential fusion on the composite outcome of “clinical success” (53.4 vs. 40.8%), but the risk of bias of this study was high. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Flexicore trial, with a high risk of bias, found no clinical relevant differences on pain and physical function when compared with circumferential spinal fusion at 2-year follow up. Because these are preliminary results, in addition to the high risk of bias, no conclusions can be drawn based on this study. In general, these results suggest that no clinical relevant differences between the total disc replacement and fusion techniques. The overall success rates in both treatment groups were small. Complications related to the surgical approach ranged from 2.1 to 18.7%, prosthesis related complications from 2.0 to 39.3%, treatment related complications from 1.9 to 62.0% and general complications from 1.0 to 14.0%. Reoperation at the index level was reported in 1.0 to 28.6% of the patients. In the three trials published, overall complication rates ranged from 7.3 to 29.1% in the TDR group and from 6.3 to 50.2% in the fusion group. The overall reoperation rate at index-level ranged from 3.7 to 11.4% in the TDR group and from 5.4 to 26.1% in the fusion group. In conclusion, there is low quality evidence that the Charité is non-inferior to the BAK cage at the 2-year follow up on the primary outcome measures. For the 5-year follow up, the same conclusion is supported only by very low quality evidence. For the ProDisc, there is very low quality evidence for contradictory results on the primary outcome measures when compared with anterior lumbar circumferential fusion. High quality randomized controlled trials with relevant control group and long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TDR. PMID:20508954

  1. Chronic kidney disease and stroke.

    PubMed

    El Husseini, Nada; Kaskar, Omran; Goldstein, Larry B

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. In addition to shared risk factors, this higher cerebrovascular risk is mediated by several CKD-associated mechanisms including platelet dysfunction, coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and increased risk of atrial fibrillation. CKD can also modify the effect of treatments used in acute stroke and in secondary stroke prevention. We review the epidemiology and pathophysiology that link CKD and stroke and the impact of CKD on stroke outcomes. Interdisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists, pharmacists, hematologists, nutrition therapists, primary care physicians, and neurologists in providing care to these subjects may potentially improve outcomes. PMID:25443575

  2. HIV and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmanian, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 - 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemoor peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV-infected patients; graft and patient survival appears to be similar to that of HIV-uninfected recipients. Early detection of kidney disease by implementation of screening on diagnosis of HIV infection and annual screening thereafter will have an impact on the burden of disease, together with access to ART to those who require it. Programs for prevention of HIV infection are essential to prevent this lethal disease. PMID:25725239

  3. Articular Chondrocytes from Animals with a Dermatan Sulfate Storage Disease Undergo a High Rate of Apoptosis and Release Nitric Oxide and Inflammatory Cytokines: A Possible Mechanism Underlying Degenerative Joint Disease in the Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calogera M. Simonaro; Mark E. Haskins; Edward H. Schuchman

    2001-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) Type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy Disease) is the lysosomal storage disease characterized by deficient arylsulfatase B activity and the resultant accumulation of dermatan sulfate-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A major feature of this and other MPS disorders is abnormal cartilage and bone development leading to short stature, dysostosis multiplex, and degenerative joint disease. To investigate the underlying cause(s) of degenerative joint disease

  4. Health literacy and knowledge of chronic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A Gazmararian; Mark V Williams; Jennifer Peel; David W Baker

    2003-01-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between health literacy and knowledge of disease among patients with a chronic disease. A total of 653 new Medicare enrollees aged 65 years or older who had at least one chronic disease (115 asthma, 266 diabetes, 166 congestive heart failure, 214 hypertension), completed both the in-person and telephone survey. Health literacy measured by the

  5. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  6. [Anemia in chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Amador-Medina, Lauro Fabián

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is almost unavoidable in the last stages of chronic kidney disease. It is defined as a condition where hemoglobin concentration is below 2 standard deviations from the mean hemoglobin level of the general population, corrected for age and sex (typically, hemoglobin < 13 g/dL in adults and 12 g/dL in women). Although the cause is multi-factorial, the most known is inadequate erythropoietin production. Anemia has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with several conditions such as cancer, chronic kidney disease and congestive heart failure. Treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, such as erythropoietin, is a logical strategy that has enabled clinical improvement and reduced transfusion requirements for the patients; however, total correction of anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents has demonstrated an increase in the risk of mortality or cardiovascular complications associated with these agents. In randomized trials, the achievement of normal or nearly normal hemoglobin levels is not associated with improved survival and reduced cardiovascular risk; however the ideal hemoglobin level with the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents seems to be problematic. More information is needed in order to obtain definite conclusions; in the meantime, using the lowest possible dose of erythropoietin seems to be the most prudent approach. PMID:25354060

  7. Mid-range outcomes in 64 consecutive cases of multilevel fusion for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Röllinghoff, Marc; Schlüter-Brust, Klaus; Groos, Daniel; Sobottke, Rolf; Michael, Joern William-Patrick; Eysel, Peer; Delank, Karl Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of multilevel degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine, spondylodesis plays a controversial role. Most patients can be treated conservatively with success. Multilevel lumbar fusion with instrumentation is associated with severe complications like failed back surgery syndrome, implant failure, and adjacent segment disease (ASD). This retrospective study examines the records of 70 elderly patients with degenerative changes or instability of the lumbar spine treated between 2002 and 2007 with spondylodesis of more than two segments. Sixty-four patients were included; 5 patients had died and one patient was lost to follow-up. We evaluated complications, clinical/radiological outcomes, and success of fusion. Flexion-extension and standing X-rays in two planes, MRI, and/or CT scans were obtained pre-operatively. Patients were assessed clinically using the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Surgery performed was dorsolateral fusion (46.9%) or dorsal fusion with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF; 53.1%). Additional decompression was carried out in 37.5% of patients. Mean follow-up was 29.4±5.4 months. Average patient age was 64.7±4.3 years. Clinical outcomes were not satisfactory for all patients. VAS scores improved from 8.6±1.3 to 5.6±3.0 pre- to post-operatively, without statistical significance. ODI was also not significantly improved (56.1±22.3 pre- and 45.1±26.4 post-operatively). Successful fusion, defined as adequate bone mass with trabeculation at the facets and transverse processes or in the intervertebral segments, did not correlate with good clinical outcomes. Thirty-five of 64 patients (54%) showed signs of pedicle screw loosening, especially of the screws at S1. However, only 7 of these 35 (20%) complained of corresponding back pain. Revision surgery was required in 24 of 64 patients (38%). Of these, indications were adjacent segment disease (16 cases), pedicle screw loosening (7 cases), and infection (one case). At follow-up of 29.4 months, patients with radiographic ASD had worse ODI scores than patients without (54.7 vs. 36.6; P<0.001). Multilevel fusion for degenerative disease still has a high rate of complications, up to 50%. The problem of adjacent segment disease after fusion surgery has not yet been solved. This study underscores the need for strict indication guidelines to perform lumbar spine fusion of more than two levels. PMID:21808698

  8. Disease management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Anjay; Linden, Ariel; Nissenson, Allen R

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health problem of epidemic proportions both in the United States and worldwide. The care of CKD patients, before and after starting dialysis, remains highly fragmented resulting in suboptimal clinical outcomes and high costs, creating a high burden of disease on patients and the health care system. Disease management (DM) is an approach to coordinating care for this complex population of patients that has the promise of improving outcomes and constraining costs. For CKD patients not yet on dialysis, the major goals of a DM program are (1) early identification of CKD patients and therapy to slow the progression of CKD, (2) identification and management of the complications of CKD per se, (3) identification and management of the complications of comorbid conditions, and (4) smooth transition to renal replacement therapy. For those CKD patients on dialysis, focused attention on avoidable hospitalizations is a key to a successful DM program. Multidisciplinary collaboration among physicians (nephrologist, primary care physician, cardiologist, endocrinologist, vascular surgeons, and transplant physicians) and participating caregivers (nurse, pharmacist, social worker, and dietician) is critical as well. There are several potential barriers to the successful implementation of a CKD/end-stage renal disease DM program, including lack of awareness of the disease state among patients and health care providers, late identification and referrals to a nephrologist, complex fragmented care delivered by multiple providers in many different sites of care, and reimbursement that does not align incentives for all involved. Recent experience suggests that these barriers can be overcome, with DM becoming a promising approach for improving outcomes for this vulnerable population. PMID:18155106

  9. Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

  10. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screw fixation plus contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation in lumbar degenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Feng, Zhenzhou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been used in lumbar degenerative diseases. Some researchers have applied unilateral fixation in TLIF to reduce operational trauma without compromising the clinical outcome, but it is always suspected biomechanically unstable. The supplementary contralateral translaminar facet screw (cTLFS) seemed to be able to overcome the inherent drawbacks of unilateral pedicle screw (uPS) fixation theoretically. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of TLIF using uPS with cTLFS fixation in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD). Materials and Methods: 50 patients (29 male) underwent the aforementioned surgical technique for their LDD between December 2009 and April 2012. The results were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS) of the leg and back, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. The radiographic examinations in form of X-ray, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used for comparison between the preoperative values and postoperative counterparts. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Among 50 patients, 22 received one level fusion and 28 two level's, with corresponding operation time and estimated blood loss being approximately 90 min, 150 ml and 120 min, 200 ml, respectively. No severe complications happened perioperatively. The mean VAS (back, leg) scores dropped from (7.6, 7.5) preoperatively to (2.1, 0.6) at 12 months’ followup, ODI from 49.1 preoperatively to 5.6 and JOA score raised from 10.6 preoperatively to 28.5, all P < 0.001, suggesting of good clinical outcome. From the three-dimensional reconstructed CT, 62 out of 70 segments displayed solid fusion with fusion rate of 88.6% at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions: TLIF using uPS fixation plus cTLFS fixation is a safe, feasible and effective technique in the treatment of one or two level lumbar degenerative diseases short termly. PMID:25143640

  11. Intradiscal pulsed radiofrequency application following provocative discography for the management of degenerative disc disease and concordant pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rohof, Olav

    2012-06-01

    The development of diagnostic criteria and the use of provocative discography allow identifying the degenerative disc as causative structure for chronic low-back pain. Unfortunately, none of the available interventional treatment options have been demonstrated to be effective over a prolonged period of time for a considerable number of patients. Pathophysiological studies indicate sprouting of sensory nerves and inflammatory processes as underlying pain mechanisms. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment in small and larger joints was described to reduce pain and improve healing by stimulating the immunology. Earlier findings of PRF applied in the disc annulus were promising. It is assumed that PRF applied in the nucleus would change the conductivity of nerve endings and provide a clinically relevant pain reduction. The application of the electric field of PRF in the disc may also activate the immune system, thus reducing the inflammation process of chronic pain. Pulsed radiofrequency in the nucleus was studied in 76 patients with discogenic pain confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and provocative discography. At 3-month follow-up, 38% of the patients had > 50% pain reduction, at 12 month the effect is maintained in 29%. In patients with unsatisfactory pain relief 3 months after the intervention, secondary pain sources may have been revealed. The latter were treated accordingly. Of all patients, 56% had > 50% pain reduction 1 year after first treatment. Our findings suggest that PRF in the nucleus may be considered for patients with proven discogenic pain. A randomized controlled trial to confirm our findings is justified.? PMID:22008239

  12. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin (chronic lower respiratory disease ... lost before age 75 for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin Health, United States, 2013, ...

  13. Managing Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. Krikorian

    2009-01-01

    Anemia begins early in the course of declining kidney function and is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease. Both anemia and chronic kidney disease are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Anemia is associated with significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality, including increased risks of left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Although the detrimental effects of anemia are more common in

  14. 582?Chronic Urticaria Associated with Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Guadalupe Peñaloza-González, Flor; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aida; Gonzalez-Carsolio, Aida; Burbano-Ceron, Andres-Leonardo; Barreto-Sosa, Adriana; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic urticaria has an incidence of 15% in the general population and sometimes is associated with chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, vitiligo and thyroid disorders. Chronic urticarial is characterized by wheals lasting more than 6 weeks, with alterations of the upper layers of the skin only. On histopathology there is a perivascular infiltrate characterized by T CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells. Cytokines produced by lymphocytes, mast cells and other cells increase the expression of vascular adhesion molecules. Other mediators such as histamine increase vascular permeability causing edema, clinically represented by wheals. Treatment of chronic urticaria includes first and second generation antihistamines as first line treatment. Sometimes there is a poor response to there drugs and second line treatments such as immunosupressors are indicated. A search for systemic disorders is helpful to identify associated pathology which makes chronic urticaria reluctant to therapy. Methods We performed a retrospective study considering patients with chronic urticaria attending our clinic during the last 5 years. Three hundred patients with urticaria were considered, with 16% (50 patients) with a chronic disease. Six patients with chronic urticaria were associated with thyroid disease. Results We considered 6 patients with chronic urticaria with altered thyroid function tests; 4 with subclinical hypothyroidism and 2 with subclinical hyperthyroidism. All of them had a poor response to antihistamines. When a thyroid disorder was identified, they received appropriate treatment achieving control of chronic urticaria. Treatment with antihistamines was continued. Conclusions Chronic urticaria is a disease often associated with systemic disorders including thyroid disease. We found an association with thyroid pathology in 2% of patients with chronic urticaria, with remission of cutaneous symptoms after treatment of endocrinologic disorder. No patient had clinical manifestation of thyroid disease so it is important to perform thyroid function tests to patients with chronic urticaria since identification of these disorders and appropriate treatment helps to control cutaneous symptoms.

  15. Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Siobhán M.; Taylor, Christopher E.; Hughes, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence now confirms that noncommunicable chronic diseases can stem from infectious agents. Furthermore, at least 13 of 39 recently described infectious agents induce chronic syndromes. Identifying the relationships can affect health across populations, creating opportunities to reduce the impact of chronic disease by preventing or treating infection. As the concept is progressively accepted, advances in laboratory technology and epidemiology facilitate the detection of noncultivable, novel, and even recognized microbial origins. A spectrum of diverse pathogens and chronic syndromes emerges, with a range of pathways from exposure to chronic illness or disability. Complex systems of changing human behavioral traits superimposed on human, microbial, and environmental factors often determine risk for exposure and chronic outcome. Yet the strength of causal evidence varies widely, and detecting a microbe does not prove causality. Nevertheless, infectious agents likely determine more cancers, immune-mediated syndromes, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other chronic conditions than currently appreciated. PMID:16836820

  16. Degenerative disease of the cervical spine and its relationship to athletes.

    PubMed

    Triantafillou, Konstantinos M; Lauerman, William; Kalantar, S Babak

    2012-07-01

    Each sport presents with unique risk factors and different mechanisms of injury, and therefore extrapolation of the data from one sport to another makes comparison difficult. The current evidence exploring the relationship of athletes and degenerative changes of the cervical spine leaves much to be debated, and future prospective longitudinal studies will be needed to clarify our understanding further. Such research will help structure clinical recommendations and improve sports safety and the care of athletes of all ages. Currently, there is evidence to suggest that participation in collision sports is implicated in premature degeneration of the cervical spine. There is some evidence to suggest that the same is true with noncollision sports and activities that result in direct and indirect repetitive loads to the cervical spine over time. The risk factors have yet to be clearly identified. The natural history and sequelae of premature degeneration have yet to be elucidated. Cervical spondylosis also appears to increase the severity, but not the frequency, of irreversible neurologic injury during collision sport participation. Prudence dictates that we not ignore the present evidence suggesting a link between neuropraxia and cervical stenosis. Proper screening for cervical stenosis in patients with transient neuropraxia with subsequent cessation of participation in collision sports if severe stenosis is present is suggested. There is no consensus for RTP guidelines in the setting of transient neurologic injuries in the athlete when severe degeneration is present, and each case must be considered individually with regard to the sport involved. PMID:22657999

  17. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67 Section 79.67 Judicial... § 79.67 Proof of chronic renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent employment...

  18. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57 Section 79.57 Judicial... § 79.57 Proof of chronic renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent employment...

  19. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57 Section 79.57 Judicial... § 79.57 Proof of chronic renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent employment...

  20. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67 Section 79.67 Judicial... § 79.67 Proof of chronic renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent employment...

  1. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57 Section 79.57 Judicial... § 79.57 Proof of chronic renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent employment...

  2. Nutrition for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Nutrition for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults On this page: Why is nutrition ... Why is nutrition important for someone with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD)? A person may prevent or delay some ...

  3. Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults On this page: Why is nutrition ... Why is nutrition important for someone with early chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Controlling blood glucose, also called blood sugar, ...

  4. Chronic Kidney Disease: What Does It Mean for Me?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Disease: What Does it Mean for Me? Chronic Kidney Disease: What Does it Mean for Me? Chronic Kidney ... and My Lifestyle CKD: Tracking My Test Results Chronic Kidney Disease: The Basics You've been told that you ...

  5. Comparative degenerative joint disease of the vertebral column in the medieval monastic cemetery of the Gilbertine Priory of St. Andrew, Fishergate, York, England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Knüsel; Sonia Göggel; David Lucy

    1997-01-01

    The pattern of degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the intervertebral and apophyseal joints of the vertebral column of 81 skeletons from the thirteenth to fourteenth century medieval priory cemetery of St. Andrew, Fishergate, York, was recorded in relation to their location of interment: eastern cemetery, southern cemetery, and intramurally (within the priory buildings). Archaeological context and ethnohistorical accounts support the

  6. Multi-resolution entropy analysis of gait symmetry in neurological degenerative diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuyuan Liao; Jue Wang; Ping He

    2008-01-01

    Gait rhythm of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been studied focusing on the fractal and correlation properties of stride time fluctuations. In this study, we investigated gait asymmetry in these diseases using the multi-resolution entropy analysis of stance time fluctuations. Since stance time is likely to exhibit fluctuations across multiple spatial

  7. Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Raffetto, J D; Mannello, F

    2014-06-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a debilitating condition with a prevalence between 60-70%. The disease pathophysiology is complex and involves genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, with individuals developing visible telengiectasias, reticular veins, and varicose veins. Patient with significant lower extremity symptoms have pain, dermal irritation, swelling, skin changes, and are at risk of developing debilitating venous ulceration. The signature of CVD is an increase in venous pressure referred to as venous hypertension. The various symptoms presenting in CVD and the clinical signs that are observed indicate that there is inflammation, secondary to venous hypertension, and it leads to a number of inflammatory pathways that become activated. The endothelium and glycocalyx via specialized receptors are critical at sensing changes in shear stress, and expression of adhesion molecules allows the activation of leukocytes leading to endothelial attachment, diapedisis, and transmigration into the venous wall/valves resulting in venous wall injury and inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues. There is a complex of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and proteinases, produced by activated leukocytes, that are expressed and unbalanced resulting in an environment of persistent inflammation with the clinical changes that are commonly seen, consisting of varicose veins to more advanced presentations of skin changes and venous ulceration. The structural integrity of protein and the extracellular matrix is altered, enhancing the progressive events of CVD. Work focusing on metabolic changes, miRNA regulation, inflammatory modulation and the glycocalyx will further our knowledge in the pathophysiology of CVD, and provide answers critical to treatment and prevention. PMID:24755829

  8. Genetic architecture of retinal and macular degenerative diseases: the promise and challenges of next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inherited retinal degenerative diseases (RDDs) display wide variation in their mode of inheritance, underlying genetic defects, age of onset, and phenotypic severity. Molecular mechanisms have not been delineated for many retinal diseases, and treatment options are limited. In most instances, genotype-phenotype correlations have not been elucidated because of extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, including exome, genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing, provide novel avenues towards achieving comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of RDDs. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has already revealed several new RDD genes, whereas RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq analyses are expected to uncover novel aspects of gene regulation and biological networks that are involved in retinal development, aging and disease. In this review, we focus on the genetic characterization of retinal and macular degeneration using NGS technology and discuss the basic framework for further investigations. We also examine the challenges of NGS application in clinical diagnosis and management. PMID:24112618

  9. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for the study and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Luke A; Burnight, Erin R; Songstad, Allison E; Drack, Arlene V; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the sense that we use to navigate the world around us. Thus it is not surprising that blindness is one of people's most feared maladies. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, collectively affecting as many as one-third of all people over the age of 75, to some degree. For decades, scientists have dreamed of preventing vision loss or of restoring the vision of patients affected with retinal degeneration through drug therapy, gene augmentation or a cell-based transplantation approach. In this review we will discuss the use of the induced pluripotent stem cell technology to model and develop various treatment modalities for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerative disease. We will focus on the use of iPSCs for interrogation of disease pathophysiology, analysis of drug and gene therapeutics and as a source of autologous cells for cell transplantation and replacement. PMID:25448922

  10. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients. PMID:25692105

  11. Cerebral small vessel disease and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients. PMID:25692105

  12. A meta-analysis of minimally invasive versus conventional mitral valve repair for patients with degenerative mitral disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunil; Chandrakumar, David; Nienaber, Thomas A.; Indraratna, Praveen; Ang, Su C.; Phan, Kevin; Yan, Tristan D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery through a mini-thoracotomy approach was developed in the mid-1990s as an alternative to conventional sternotomy, but with reduced trauma and quicker recovery. However, technical demands and a paucity of comparative data have thus far limited the widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair (MIMVR). Previous meta-analyses have grouped various surgical techniques and underlying valvular disease aetiologies together for comparison. The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of MIMVR versus conventional mitral valve repair in patients with degenerative mitral valve disease. Methods A systematic review of the current literature was performed through nine electronic databases from January 1995 to July 2013 to identify all relevant studies with comparative data on MIMVR versus conventional mitral valve surgery. Measured endpoints included mortality, stroke, renal failure, wound infection, reoperation for bleeding, aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, readmission within 30 days, cross clamp time, cardiopulmonary bypass time and durations of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and overall hospitalization. Echocardiographic outcomes were also assessed when possible. Results Seven relevant studies were identified according to the predefined study selection criteria, including one randomized controlled trial and six retrospective studies. Meta-analysis of clinical outcomes did not identify any statistically significant differences between MIMVR and conventional mitral valve repair. The duration of ICU stay was significantly shorter for patients who underwent MIMVR, but this did not translate to a shorter hospitalization period. Patients who underwent MIMVR required longer cross clamp time as well as cardiopulmonary bypass time. Both surgical techniques appeared to achieve satisfactory echocardiographic outcomes. Pain-related outcomes was assessed in one study and reported significantly less pain for patients who underwent MIMVR. However, this limited data was not suitable for meta-analysis. Conclusions The existing literature has limited data on comparative outcomes after MIMVR versus conventional mitral valve repair for patients with degenerative disease. From the available evidence, there are no significant differences between the two surgical techniques in regards to clinical outcomes. Patients who underwent MIMVR required longer cardiopulmonary bypass and cross clamp times, but the duration of stay in the ICU was significantly shorter than conventional mitral valve repair. PMID:24349970

  13. LONGEVITY AND LINEAGES: TOWARD THE INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY OF DEGENERATIVE DISEASES IN HEART, MUSCLE, AND BONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human aging is characterized by debilitating diseases, including heart failure, cardiac pacemaker defects, muscle wasting, and osteoporosis, in heart, skeletal muscle, and bone. Recent studies are identifying pathways for these aging-related diseases by examining how the process of aging influences ...

  14. Mandatory Testing of Drivers on the Basis of Age and Degenerative Diseases: Stakeholder Opinions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geri Adler; Susan J. Rottunda

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about the driving competence of older drivers have led to policy discussions about mandatory aged-based and disorder-based assessments. This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of older adults, law enforcement officers, and licensing authorities toward reexamination of driving skills for persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) and at varying ages. With few exceptions, participants across

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: emerging therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas WP Hay

    2000-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, extensive research on the underlying pathophysiology and specific therapeutics for this disease is, relatively, in its infancy. Several novel molecular targets are being investigated as potential treatments for the disease. The most exciting new class of compounds is the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors; Ariflo® (SB 207499) — a member

  16. INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF NON COMMUNICABLE CHRONIC DISEASES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    regarding the prevalence of obesity and NCDs. Keywords: Health capital, Chronic diseases and obesity, Social prevalence rates. Indeed, according to Abegunde and Stanciole (2006), NCDs are increasing worldwide to substantial disability. Examples of NCDs are car- diovascular diseases (mainly heart disease and stroke

  17. [Female sexual function and chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Bronner, Gila

    2006-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease. PMID:16509415

  18. Inflammation and cachexia in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai W. Cheung; Kyung Hoon Paik; Robert H. Mak

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with cachexia and increased mortality risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)\\u000a and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Inflammation suppresses appetite and causes the loss of protein stores. In CKD patients,\\u000a increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines may be caused by reduced renal function, volume overload, oxidative or\\u000a carbonyl stress, decreased levels of antioxidants, increased susceptibility

  19. The effectiveness of endoscopic epidurolysis in treatment of degenerative chronic low back pain: a prospective analysis and follow-up at 48 months.

    PubMed

    Donato, A Di; Fontana, C; Pinto, R; Beltrutti, D; Pinto, G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic epidurolysis in the treatment of degenerative chronic low back pain.Two hundred and thirty four patients affected by chronic low back pain, with VAS ? 5 and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI) from 0 to 60% (0-20%, group A; 20-40%, group B; 40-60%, group C) were enrolled and treated prospectively with endoscopic epidurolysis by means of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope introduced into the caudal epidural space and by the intermittent instillation of saline solution added with 150 UI hyaluronidase. Targeted application of ozone (8 ml; 38 ?/ml) and 50 mg ciprofloxacin close to the abnormal areas was also performed. Short and long term efficacy (1 week, 3 months, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months) was prospectively evaluated. VAS score <5 and ODI <40% were considered as a positive outcome.The treatment significantly reduced VAS score in all three groups of patients starting from the first week and throughout the entire follow-up period (P < 0.001). Disability Index (ODI) too showed encouraging results (P < 0.001) that was particularly evident at 3 months and maintained up to long-term follow-up intervals.Epiduroscopy by mechanical adhesiolysis and administration on targeted areas of ciprofloxacin and ozone seems to be, in this prospective study, an effective technique to provide a sensible and persisting pain relief and act of improving ODI in chronic low back pain. PMID:21107940

  20. Current Treatment of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    The current mainstay of management of chronic beryllium disease involves cessation of beryllium exposure and use of systemic corticosteroids. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of these interventions on the natural history of this disease. Despite this limitation, it is prudent to remove patients with chronic beryllium disease from further exposure and consider treating progressive disease early with long-term corticosteroids. The effect of treatment should be monitored using pulmonary function tests and high resolution computed tomography of chest. However, once pulmonary fibrosis has developed, corticosteroid therapy cannot reverse the damage. PMID:19894178

  1. Chronic beryllium disease: computed tomographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Patel, Jeet; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2010-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is a rare multisystem granulomatous disease predominantly involving the lungs and resulting from an immunologic response to long-term occupational exposure. Computed tomography of the chest reveals important lung parenchymal and mediastinal findings and plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up assessment of patients with chronic beryllium disease. Its significance lies in the exact localization and evaluation of the extent of lesions. We present an overview of the subject and a pictorial review of the spectrum of computed tomographic features of beryllium disease. PMID:21084914

  2. Current treatment of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-12-01

    The current mainstay of management of chronic beryllium disease involves cessation of beryllium exposure and use of systemic corticosteroids. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of these interventions on the natural history of this disease. Despite this limitation, it is prudent to remove patients with chronic beryllium disease from further exposure and consider treating progressive disease early with long-term corticosteroids. The effect of treatment should be monitored using pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. However, once pulmonary fibrosis has developed, corticosteroid therapy cannot reverse the damage. PMID:19894178

  3. AAV-mediated gene supply for treatment of degenerative and neovascular retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Colella, Pasqualina; Auricchio, Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Common blinding diseases that are currently untreatable include conditions characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, such as retinitis pigmentosa, leber congenital amaurosis or glaucoma, or characterized by ocular neovascularization, like wet age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying either neuronal degeneration or new vessel formation may be similar and independent of the mutation underlying the disease, thus allowing to test therapeutic strategies acting downstream of the primary causative event. Gene supply is the delivery of a gene that can prevent or arrest disease progression without being directly implicated in the disease pathogenesis. To this end, one of the most efficient and safe retinal gene delivery vehicles derives from the small adeno-associated virus (AAV). We review studies on AAV-mediated gene supply of: neurotrophic/antiapoptotic factors to prevent retinal neurons degeneration, and anti-angiogenic molecules to inhibit retinal neovascularization. Successful gene supply may represent a one-fit-all treatment for inherited and acquired blinding diseases. PMID:20712580

  4. Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 0d%0a . Accessed April 9, 2014. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Chronic Care: Making the Case for Ongoing Care . Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 2010:16. http://www.rwjf.org/content/ ...

  5. Microcirculation of the brain: morphological assessment in degenerative diseases and restoration processes.

    PubMed

    Kolinko, Yaroslav; Krakorova, Kristyna; Cendelin, Jan; Tonar, Zbynek; Kralickova, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Brain microcirculation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various brain diseases. Several specific features of the circulation in the brain and its functions deserve special attention. The brain is extremely sensitive to hypoxia, and brain edema is more dangerous than edema in other tissues. Brain vessels are part of the blood-brain barrier, which prevents the penetration of some of the substances in the blood into the brain tissue. Herein, we review the processes of angiogenesis and the changes that occur in the brain microcirculation in the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. There are no uniform vascular changes in the neurodegenerative diseases. In some cases, the vascular changes are secondary consequences of the pathological process, but they could also be involved in the pathogenesis of the primary disease and contribute to the degeneration of neurons, based on their quantitative characteristics. Additionally, we described the stereological methods that are most commonly used for generating qualitative and quantitative data to assess changes in the microvascular bed of the brain. PMID:25337818

  6. Degenerative Retinal Disorders Rod-derived Cone Viability Factor for Treating Blinding Diseases: From

    E-print Network

    replacement. Alternatively to the corrective gene therapy approach, replacement of the missing cells a potential therapy for these currently untreatable diseases. This protein, called rod-derived cone viability of a thioredoxin-like enzyme and protects both photoreceptor cells and, more specifically, its interacting protein

  7. Adult Chronic Kidney Disease: Neurocognition in Chronic Renal Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikhil S. Koushik; Steven F. McArthur; Anne D. Baird

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a keen interest in the neurocognitive sequelae of renal failure and subsequent end-stage renal\\u000a disease given its increasing prevalence and incidence. This review article summarizes the relevant information on cognitive\\u000a functioning in chronic kidney disease in adults before the initiation of dialysis, after the initiation of dialysis, and after\\u000a renal transplantation. In general, compared

  8. Unilateral versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation for Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: A Meta-Analysis of 10 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianzhou; Lv, Chaoliang; Yan, Tingzhen

    2015-01-01

    Background The common and effective treatment for degenerative lumbar diseases is lumbar spinal fusion. Controversy still exists on the choice for instrumentation with spinal fusion procedures. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis exclusively of RCTs to compare the clinical outcomes of patients receiving bilateral versus unilateral pedicle screw fixation (PSF). Material/Methods After systematic review of published and unpublished literature, a meta-analysis was conducted to compare the 2 treatment strategies. The methodological quality of the literature was assessed using the PEDro critical appraisal tool. Results Data synthesis showed less blood loss (P<0.001) and shorter operative time (P<0.001) in patients receiving unilateral PSF compared to bilateral PSF. However, there was no significant difference in fusion rates and functional outcomes between the 2 groups. Conclusions The meta-analysis indicated no significant difference in fusion rates and functional outcomes between the 2 treatment procedures, but unilateral PS fixation reduced blood loss and operative time. PMID:25774950

  9. Registration accuracy for VBM studies varies according to region and degenerative disease grouping.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J M S; Xiong, L; Acosta-Cabronero, J; Pengas, G; Williams, G B; Nestor, P J

    2010-02-01

    Voxel-based morphometry studies are frequently cited as having the advantage of being objective compared to region-of-interest methods. This statement assumes, however, that all regions are treated equally both in controls and diseased cohorts. This study aimed to test whether this statement is correct by analyzing fiducial landmarks in controls, Alzheimer's disease (as a model of mild generalized atrophy model); Frontotemporal Dementia (focal atrophy model) and Semantic Dementia (extreme focal atrophy model). Standard SPM5 and DARTEL were evaluated using either raw or skull-stripped/bias corrected scans. The results indicated that with all methods there was variability in the degree of misregistration across regions and that there was a disease grouping interaction-most severely in the extreme focal atrophy model (Semantic Dementia). Preprocessing improved VBM outputs both with standard SPM and DARTEL. In the latter case, this occurred to an extreme degree-DARTEL using raw data was grossly insensitive to a ground truth (manually verified hippocampal atrophy in AD) whereas DARTEL after preprocessing yielded excellent results with respect to this yardstick. PMID:19892022

  10. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  11. [Chronic neuroborreliosis in Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Logigian, E L

    1996-01-01

    Acute and chronic syndromes of Lyme neuroborreliosis are recognized. Acute syndromes are clinically pronounced and comprise meningitis, neuritis of the cranial nerve, radiculoneuritis. Chronic syndromes are less evident. These are moderate encephalopathy and radiculoneuropathy. The diagnosis of the chronic syndrome is based on the presence of early classic signs of BL. CSF must be tested for routine procedure and in pair with serum in the test for selective accumulation of antibodies to Bb in the CSF. Neurophysiological studies help detect memory defects. Electrophysiological tests verify radiculoneuropathy. NMR investigation of the brain and SPECT-scanning may demonstrate damage to the white brain matter. We have much experience with i.v. administration of ceftriaxone (2 g/day for 4 weeks) which relieved neurological syndromes several months later. PMID:9082597

  12. Regression Lines in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AGNES B. FOGO

    2003-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for millennia. The great physicians Rhazes (865-925 AD) and Abu Sina (aka Avicenna, 980 -1037 AD) in ancient Persia described kidney diseases in detail. In medieval times, the pisse prophets predicted outcomes for patients on the basis of uroscopy analyses. Catego- rization of CKD developed in the 20 th century from the nonspe-

  13. The Western diet and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Divya; Vellanki, Kavitha; Kramer, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of the Western diet that fueled the obesity epidemic may also impact kidney disease incidence and progression. Enlarging portion sizes over the past half century has been accompanied by increased intake of protein, sodium, and processed foods while consumption of fruits and vegetables has declined. Overall dietary patterns play a strong role for chronic disease risk including chronic kidney disease. While dietary patterns high in fresh fruits and vegetables and low in red meats, such as the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of chronic diseases, the Western diet, characterized by high intake of red meat, animal fat, sweets, and desserts and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, increases risk of chronic diseases. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms whereby several key characteristics of the typical Western diet may impact kidney disease incidence and progression. We also discuss a public health policy initiative to improve dietary choices. Reducing protein intake to the recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg/day and increasing intake of fruit and vegetables and fiber may mitigate kidney disease progression and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. PMID:25754321

  14. Skin problems in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk RJ Kuypers

    2009-01-01

    Skin disorders associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can markedly affect a patient's quality of life and can negatively impact their mental and physical health. Uremic pruritus, which is frequently encountered in patients with CKD, is considered to be an inflammatory systemic disease rather than a local skin disorder. Biomarkers of inflammation are increased in patients with uremic pruritus and

  15. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Besarab A, Coyne DW. Iron supplementation to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nature Reviews Nephrology . 2010;6(12):699–710. ... Anemia in Kidney Disease and Dialysis at www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov. 4 Anemia of Inflammation ... Eating, Diet, and Nutrition People with anemia caused ...

  16. Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LS Augustin; S Franceschi; DJA Jenkins; CWC Kendall; C La Vecchia

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The intent of this review is to critically analyze the scientific evidence on the role of the glycemic index in chronic Western disease and to discuss the utility of the glycemic index in the prevention and management of these disease states.Background: The glycemic index ranks foods based on their postprandial blood glucose response. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, as well

  17. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Luca; House, Andrew; Gorini, Antonio; Santoboni, Alberto; Russo, Domenico; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death represent main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pathogenesis includes close linkage between heart and kidneys and involves traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. According to a well-established classification of cardiorenal syndrome, cardiovascular involvement in CKD is known as "type-4 cardiorenal syndrome" (chronic renocardiac). The following review makes an overview about epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:25344016

  18. Regenerative Injection Therapy with Whole Bone Marrow Aspirate for Degenerative Joint Disease: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Orlofsky, Amos

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct injection of unfractionated whole bone marrow (WBM) into osteoarthritic joints in combination with hyperosmotic dextrose. Seven patients with hip, knee or ankle osteoarthritis (OA) received two to seven treatments over a period of two to twelve months. Patient-reported assessments were collected in interviews and by questionnaire. All patients reported improvements with respect to pain, as well as gains in functionality and quality of life. Three patients, including two whose progress under other therapy had plateaued or reversed, achieved complete or near-complete symptomatic relief, and two additional patients achieved resumption of vigorous exercise. These preliminary findings suggest that OA treatment with WBM injection merits further investigation. PMID:24046512

  19. Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system transmissible to experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Elisabeth; Daniel, P. M.

    1969-01-01

    The clinical features and the pathological changes in the central nervous system of scrapie and kuru are described and attention is drawn to the similarities between these conditions. In both, inoculation of tissues into experimental animals reproduces a similar disease after a prolonged latent period. The transmission of subacute presenile polioencephalopathy to a chimpanzee is noted. The work which led to the discovery of the transmissibility of these conditions is mentioned. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:4979006

  20. Modern treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. A. Calverley

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary,disease (COPD) is a major cause of ill health and medical expenditure,worldwide. Despite recent increases in the knowledge about the nature of the disease process and recognition of cytokine-mediated pathways of inflammation, current management is focussed on patient outcomes that relate to physiological measures,of dysfunction. The new,Global initiative in Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) management guidelines are evidence-based

  1. Diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin)-induced chronic pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ramakant; Dixit, Kalpana; Nuwal, Paras; Banerjee, Arunima; Sharma, Sidharth; Dave, Lokendra

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced respiratory diseases are difficult to diagnose and therefore usually not identified, probably underestimated and under-reported. We report a case of diphenylhydantoin/phenytoin-induced chronic pulmonary disease in a 62-year-old male patient presenting with progressive dyspnea, eosinophilia, and pulmonary abnormalities. The importance of drug history in clinical history-taking and early diagnosis of drug-induced respiratory diseases is emphasized so as to prevent permanent pulmonary damage. PMID:20532004

  2. Intervertebral disc replacement for cervical degenerative disease – clinical results and functional outcome at two years in patients implanted with the Bryan ® cervical disc prosthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Heidecke; W. Burkert; M. Brucke; N. G. Rainov

    2008-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background. This is a prospective study of patients with degenerative cervical disease who underwent ventral discectomy and disc replacement\\u000a with the Bryan® cervical disc prosthesis. The objective was to investigate clinical outcome at 2 years of patients implanted with the Bryan® disc and to evaluate function of the implant itself.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. Fifty-four consecutive patients with cervical disc herniation and\\/or

  3. Clinical and radiographic results after treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease with a Bryan disc prosthesis: a prospective study with 2-year follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xigong Li; Hongbing Cheng; Tiansi Tang; Huilin Yang; Weimin Jiang; Xuefeng Li

    We prospectively evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of 20 consecutive patients with single-level or 2-level cervical degenerative disc disease treated with a Bryan disc prosthesis. All patients were followed-up for at least 2years. The mean neck disability index and visual analogue scale for neck and arm pain scores were significantly reduced for all postoperative time periods compared to the

  4. Does Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Lead to Degenerative Disease?: Thirteen-Year Results After Bone–Patellar Tendon–Bone Autograft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. D. Murray; Amy M. Lindh; Niall A. Hogan; Alister J. Trezies; James W. Hutchinson; Erin Parish; John W. Read; Mervyn V. Cross

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reporting of long-term outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the patellar tendon (bone–patellar tendon–bone [BTB]) autograft is limited. There are concerns that degenerative joint disease is common in the long term, which may be associated with the procedure itself.Hypotheses: (1) ACL reconstruction with BTB provides good long-term outcome. (2) There are additional factors to surgical reconstruction that

  5. Clinical efficacy and tolerance of an extract of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) in dogs presumptively diagnosed with degenerative joint disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Pollard; WG Guilford; KL Ankenbauer-Perkins; D Hedderley

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of an extract of green-lipped mussel (GLME) in the management of mild-to-moderate degenerative joint disease (DJD) in dogs.METHODS: Eighty-one dogs presumptively diagnosed with DJD were treated orally daily with either GLME or a placebo for 56 days, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In an uncontrolled open-label extension to the study, all dogs were

  6. Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. N. Agusti; A. Noguera; J. Sauleda; E. Sala; J. Pons; X. Busquets

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary,disease (COPD) is characterised by an inappropriate\\/excessive inflammatory response of the lungs to respiratory pollutants, mainly tobacco smoking. Recently, besides the typical pulmonary pathology of COPD (i.e. chronic bronchitis and emphysema), several effects occurring outside the lungs have been described, the so- called systemic effects of COPD. These effects are clinically relevant because they modify,and can help

  7. Custom cerium oxide nanoparticles protect against a free radical mediated autoimmune degenerative disease in the brain.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Karin L; DeCoteau, William; Estevez, Ana; Reed, Kenneth J; Costanzo, Wendi; Sanford, David; Leiter, James C; Clauss, Jennifer; Knapp, Kylie; Gomez, Carlos; Mullen, Patrick; Rathbun, Elle; Prime, Kelly; Marini, Jessica; Patchefsky, Jamie; Patchefsky, Arthur S; Hailstone, Richard K; Erlichman, Joseph S

    2013-12-23

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles are potent antioxidants, based on their ability to either donate or receive electrons as they alternate between the +3 and +4 valence states. The dual oxidation state of ceria has made it an ideal catalyst in industrial applications, and more recently, nanoceria's efficacy in neutralizing biologically generated free radicals has been explored in biological applications. Here, we report the in vivo characteristics of custom-synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in an animal model of immunological and free-radical mediated oxidative injury leading to neurodegenerative disease. The CeNPs are 2.9 nm in diameter, monodispersed and have a -23.5 mV zeta potential when stabilized with citrate/EDTA. This stabilizer coating resists being 'washed' off in physiological salt solutions, and the CeNPs remain monodispersed for long durations in high ionic strength saline. The plasma half-life of the CeNPs is ?4.0 h, far longer than previously described, stabilized ceria nanoparticles. When administered intravenously to mice, the CeNPs were well tolerated and taken up by the liver and spleen much less than previous nanoceria formulations. The CeNPs were also able to penetrate the brain, reduce reactive oxygen species levels, and alleviate clinical symptoms and motor deficits in mice with a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, CeNPs may be useful in mitigating tissue damage arising from free radical accumulation in biological systems. PMID:24266731

  8. Common Pathways in Health Benefit Properties of RSV in Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancers and Degenerative Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Virginie; Delmas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Lots of epidemiological studies have put forward the beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols consumption in the prevention of diseases related to aging i.e vascular pathologies, neurodegeneration, cancers and associated inflammatory processes. Among polyphenols, resveratrol (trans-3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene, RSV), a naturally occurring stilbene widely distributed in foodstuffs such as grapes and wine, has been the most studied. Researches performed since the last decades in vitro, in animal models and in (pre)clinical studies have pointed out its pleiotropic health benefits by acting on multiple signaling pathways which go beyond its originally described direct antioxidant activity. However, its low bioavailability upon oral ingestion and lack of specificity may hamper the translation of the encouraging experimental data into human health benefits. Herein we provide an overview on the capacity of RSV to regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling and to modulate key components of signal transduction pathways which are commonly altered in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and cancer pathologies. We also have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook on RSV metabolism and biological activity of its main metabolites and discussed about the new strategies developed to circumvent its poor bioavailability and to improve its therapeutic efficacy, including synthesis of new derivatives and new formulations for its cell delivery. PMID:25601605

  9. Framing international trade and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia S; Lencucha, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  10. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  11. Chronic vitamin E deficiency promotes vitamin C deficiency in zebrafish leading to degenerative myopathy and impaired swimming behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lebold, Katie M.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Barton, Carrie L.; Miller, Galen W.; Labut, Edwin M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that zebrafish (Danio rerio) undergoing long-term vitamin E deficiency with marginal vitamin C status would develop myopathy resulting in impaired swimming. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y a defined diet without (E?) and with (E+) vitamin E (500 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet). For the last 150 days, dietary ascorbic acid concentrations were decreased from 3500 to 50 mg/kg diet and the fish sampled periodically to assess ascorbic acid concentrations. The ascorbic acid depletion curves were faster in the E? compared with E+ fish (P<0.0001); the estimated half-life of depletion in the E? fish was 34 days, while in it was 55 days in the E+ fish. To assess swimming behavior, zebrafish were monitored individually following a “startle-response” stimulus, using computer and video technology. Muscle histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining on paramedian sections of fixed zebrafish. At study end, E? fish contained 300-fold less ?-tocopherol (p<0.0001), half the ascorbic acid (p=0.0001) and 3-fold more malondialdehyde (p=0.0005) than did E+ fish. During the first minute following a tap stimulus (p<0.05), E+ fish swam twice as far as did E? fish. In the E? fish, the sluggish behavior was associated with a multifocal, polyphasic, degenerative myopathy of the skeletal muscle. The myopathy severity ranged from scattered acute necrosis to widespread fibrosis and was accompanied by increased anti-hydroxynonenal staining. Thus, vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish causes increased oxidative stress and a secondary depletion of ascorbic acid, resulting in severe damage to muscle tissue and impaired muscle function. PMID:23570751

  12. Chronic vitamin E deficiency promotes vitamin C deficiency in zebrafish leading to degenerative myopathy and impaired swimming behavior.

    PubMed

    Lebold, Katie M; Löhr, Christiane V; Barton, Carrie L; Miller, Galen W; Labut, Edwin M; Tanguay, Robert L; Traber, Maret G

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that zebrafish (Danio rerio) undergoing long-term vitamin E deficiency with marginal vitamin C status would develop myopathy resulting in impaired swimming. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y a defined diet without (E-) and with (E+) vitamin E (500 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet). For the last 150 days, dietary ascorbic acid concentrations were decreased from 3500 to 50 mg/kg diet and the fish sampled periodically to assess ascorbic acid concentrations. The ascorbic acid depletion curves were faster in the E- compared with E+ fish (P < 0.0001); the estimated half-life of depletion in the E- fish was 34 days, while in it was 55 days in the E+ fish. To assess swimming behavior, zebrafish were monitored individually following a "startle-response" stimulus, using computer and video technology. Muscle histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining on paramedian sections of fixed zebrafish. At study end, E- fish contained 300-fold less ?-tocopherol (p < 0.0001), half the ascorbic acid (p = 0.0001) and 3-fold more malondialdehyde (p = 0.0005) than did E+ fish. During the first minute following a tap stimulus (p < 0.05), E+ fish swam twice as far as did E- fish. In the E- fish, the sluggish behavior was associated with a multifocal, polyphasic, degenerative myopathy of the skeletal muscle. The myopathy severity ranged from scattered acute necrosis to widespread fibrosis and was accompanied by increased anti-hydroxynonenal staining. Thus, vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish causes increased oxidative stress and a secondary depletion of ascorbic acid, resulting in severe damage to muscle tissue and impaired muscle function. PMID:23570751

  13. Early clinical effects of the Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Lei; Tian, Ji-wei

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated early clinical effects of Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach in treating lumbar degenerative diseases. Material/Methods 37 patients with lumbar degenerative disease were treated with the Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach. Results Results showed that all patients healed from surgery without severe complications. The average follow-up time was 20 months (9–36 months). Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores decreased significantly after surgery and at the final follow-up. There was a significant difference in the height of the intervertebral space and intervertebral range of motion (ROM) at the stabilized segment, but no significant changes were seen at the adjacent segments. X-ray scans showed no instability, internal fixation loosening, breakage, or distortion in the follow-up. Conclusions The Dynesys system plus transfacet decompression through the Wiltse approach is a therapeutic option for mild lumbar degenerative disease. This method can retain the structure of the lumbar posterior complex and the motion of the fixed segment, reduce the incidence of low back pain, and decompress the nerve root. PMID:24859831

  14. Surgical results of dynamic nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for degenerative lumbar spinal diseases with instability: Minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Hideki; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Morishita, Yuichirou; Sakai, Tsubasa; Huang, George; Kida, Hirotaka; Takemitsu, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Background When spinal fusion is applied to degenerative lumbar spinal disease with instability, adjacent segment disorder will be an issue in the future. However, decompression alone could cause recurrence of spinal canal stenosis because of increased instability on operated segments and lead to revision surgery. Covering the disadvantages of both procedures, we applied nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System (Ulrich Medical, Ulm, Germany) and decompression. Methods The surgical results of 52 patients (35 men and 17 women) with a minimum 2-year follow-up were analyzed: 10 patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis, 15 with lumbar canal stenosis with disc herniation, 20 with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 6 with disc herniation, and 1 with lumbar discopathy. Results The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was improved, from 14.4 ± 5.3 to 25.5 ± 2.8. The improvement rate was 76%. Range of motion of the operated segments was significantly decreased, from 9.6° ± 4.2° to 2.0° ± 1.8°. Only 1 patient had adjacent segment disease that required revision surgery. There was only 1 screw breakage, but the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions Over a minimum 2-year follow-up, the results of nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for unstable degenerative lumbar disease were good. It is necessary to follow up the cases with a focus on adjacent segment disorders in the future.

  15. Interspinous spacer decompression (X-STOP) for lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative disk disease: a multicenter study with a minimum 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Puzzilli, Fabrizio; Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Neroni, Massimiliano; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Bolognini, Andrea; Callovini, Giorgio; Agrillo, Umberto; Alfieri, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Interspinous distraction devices provide an effective treatment for patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and/or degenerative disk disease. The aim of this multicenter study was the prospective evaluation of patients treated for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis with interspinous process decompression (IPD) implants compared with a population of patients managed with conservative treatment. 542 patients affected by symptomatic lumbar spine degenerative disease were enrolled in a controlled trial. 422 patients underwent surgical treatment consisting of X-STOP device implantation, whereas 120 control cases were managed conservatively. Both patient groups underwent follow-up evaluations at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months using the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire, the Visual Analog Scale score and spinal lumbar X-rays, CT scans and MR imaging. One-year follow-up evaluation revealed positive good results in the 83.5% of patients treated with IPD with respect to 50% of the nonoperative group cases. During the first three years, in 38 out of the 120 control cases, a posterior decompression and/or spinal fixation was performed because of unsatisfactory results of the conservative therapy. In 24 of 422 patients, the IPD device had to be removed, and a decompression and/or pedicle screw fixation was performed because of the worsening of neurological symptoms. Our results support the effectiveness of surgery in patients with stenosis. IPD may offer an effective and less invasive alternative to classical microsurgical posterior decompression in selected patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar degenerative disk diseases. PMID:25064150

  16. Physical Activity Transitions and Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Heath, Gregory W

    2009-07-01

    The 20(th) century in the United States (U.S.) has experienced a dramatic increase in life expectancy among adult men and women, an increase unprecedented in the history of this country. As a result, the pattern of disease and conditions most responsible for death in the U.S. shifted during the past century from infectious diseases and unintentional injuries to the current array of the leading causes of mortality dominated by the chronic diseases. During this same period, daily lifestyle dramatically shifted from a life full of active living to one of inactivity. The argument has been made that in the case of human beings, there has been little or no change in our genotype within the past 50 years. However, there have been major changes documented in the living environment among economically developed societies during this same time period. Through the collection of epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings, evidence exists to suggest that physical inactivity is associated with the onset of chronic diseases of our day. Trends in physical inactivity evident through the monitoring of transport, recreational, sport, and purposeful activity have demonstrated that the current lifestyle of the 21(st) century has contributed substantially to the chronic disease burden in the U.S. and elsewhere. By addressing the domains that influence physical activity behaviors including the environment (both physical and social/cultural), health systems access, and behavioral correlates of physical activity and inactivity, the current chronic disease crisis can potentially be addressed. PMID:20161359

  17. Management of Pruritus in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhalerao, Angeline; Mannu, Gurdeep S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. There continues to be uncertainty on the ideal treatment of pruritus in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to gather the latest information on the evidence-based management of pruritus in chronic liver disease. Methodology. A literature search for pruritus in chronic liver disease was conducted using Pubmed and Embase database systems using the MeSH terms “pruritus,” “chronic liver disease,” “cholestatic liver disease,” and “treatment.” Results. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus is described in addition to detailing research into contemporary treatment options of the condition. These medical treatments range from bile salts, rifampicin, and opioid receptor antagonists to antihistamines. Conclusion. The burden of pruritus in liver disease patients persists and, although it is a common symptom, it can be difficult to manage. In recent years there has been greater study into the etiology and treatment of the condition. Nonetheless, pruritus remains poorly understood and many patients continue to suffer, reiterating the need for further research to improve our understanding of the etiology and treatment for the condition.

  18. Systemic Diseases and Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Reger; Christina F. Herrera; Megan Abbott; Alexander G. Chiu

    Many systemic diseases can cause nasal symptoms, either as an initial presentation or a manifestation later in the disease process. When patients present with nasal symptoms resembling infection—such as purulent nasal discharge, crusting, and congestion—acute rhinosinusitis is likely to be diagnosed. However, when these symptoms persist despite appropriate medical therapy, other etiologies should be considered. In some cases, underlying inflammation

  19. Pathogenesis of degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Milam

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the study of molecular mechanisms involved in degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides. Based on recent findings, models of degenerative temporomandibular joint disease predict that mechanical loads trigger a cascade of molecular events leading to disease in susceptible individuals. These events involve the production or release of free radicals, cytokines, fatty acid

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Schneider; Ulrich Bothner; Susan S. Jick; Christoph R. Meier

    2010-01-01

    Previous large epidemiological studies reporting on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases mainly focussed on prevalent diseases rather than on the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular\\u000a outcomes. We used the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to assess the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases in COPD patients aged 40–79 between 1995 and 2005, and

  1. SECRETED KLOTHO AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble Klotho (sKl) in the circulation can be generated directly by alterative splicing of the Klotho transcript or the extracellular domain of membrane Klotho can be released from membrane-anchored Klotho on the cell surface. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sKl, acts as hormonal factor and plays important roles in anti-aging, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, and Wnt signaling. Emerging evidence reveals that Klotho deficiency is an early biomarker for chronic kidney diseases as well as a pathogenic factor. Klotho deficiency is associated with progression and chronic complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In multiple experimental models, replacement of sKl, or manipulated up-regulation of endogenous Klotho protect the kidney from renal insults, preserve kidney function, and suppress renal fibrosis, in chronic kidney disease. Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease. PMID:22396167

  2. Clinical and Radiological Comparison of Femur and Fibular Allografts for the Treatment of Cervical Degenerative Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyeong-Seok; Shim, Chan Shik; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective This consecutive retrospective study was designed to analyze and to compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using a fibular and femur allograft with anterior cervical plating. Methods A total of 88 consecutive patients suffering from cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) who were treated with ACDF from September 2007 to August 2010 were enrolled in this study. Thirty-seven patients (58 segments) underwent anterior interbody fusion with a femur allograft, and 51 patients (64 segments) were treated with a fibular allograft. The mean follow-up period was 16.0 (range, 12-25) months in the femur group and 19.5 (range, 14-39) months in the fibular group. Cage fracture and breakage, subsidence rate, fusion rate, segmental angle and height and disc height were assessed by using radiography. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale and neck disability index. Results At 12 months postoperatively, cage fracture and breakage had occurred in 3.4% (2/58) and 7.4% (4/58) of the patients in the femur group, respectively, and 21.9% (14/64) and 31.3% (20/64) of the patients in the fibular group, respectively (p<0.05). Subsidence was noted in 43.1% (25/58) of the femur group and in 50.5% (32/64) of the fibular group. No difference in improvements in the clinical outcome between the two groups was observed. Conclusion The femur allograft showed good results in subsidence and radiologic parameters, and sustained the original cage shape more effectively than the fibular allograft. The present study suggests that the femur allograft may be a good choice as a fusion substitute for the treatment of cervical DDD. PMID:23439721

  3. Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  4. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  5. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  6. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of the novel transcription method for selection of potential nerve root compression in MRI study in degenerative disease of the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Kubaszewski, ?ukasz; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Gasik, Robert; ?ab?dŸ, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Background Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is characterized by symptoms related to the affected nerve root. A recently described method allows the classification of the roots in relation to the occurrence of compression on its course. This method can serve as a clinical selection tool and decision support for semi-invasive pain therapy in back pain patients. Material/Methods We examined 40 lumbar spine MRIs in 3 sessions of transcription each, according to the method being evaluated. Every MRI evaluation was performed by each of 3 different observers. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was calculated using chance-corrected agreement using a weighted kappa (?) value with quadratic weights to assess reliability for each nerve root separately. Results We found high intraobserver agreement in indication of the root with most pronounced interference due to potential compression by degenerative changes, at the level mean ?=0.81 (with 95% CI, range 0.04). Less agreement was observed in the interobserver evaluation test with the mean ?=0.75 (95% CI within the range not exceeding 0.03), although it still reached the substantial agreement. Conclusions This zstudy provides evidence for substantial inter- and intraobserver agreement for the decision support method allowing selection of the most serious nerve structure compression in degenerative disease of the lumbar spine based on of the MRI description. PMID:23524527

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease Is Associated with Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Chonchol; Jeff Whittle; Angela Desbien; Michelle B. Orner; Laura A. Petersen; Nancy R. Kressin

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a dramatically increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Few prior studies have examined the independent association of CKD with coronary anatomy. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between CKD and severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in 261 male veterans with nuclear perfusion imaging tests suggesting coronary ischemia. We used chart review and patient and

  8. Chronic Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Degenerative Spinal Changes and Hypertrophy in Aging Pre-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  9. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

  11. [Phenotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Corhay, J-L; Schleich, F; Louis, R

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a multi-dimensional disorder with multiple phenotypes. The GOLD guidelines, used for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of COPD, do not fully reflect the heterogeneous nature of the disease. Historically, the two most recognized clinical phenotypes of COPD are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Most COPD patients encountered in practice actually share, both of these features. Genetic background, clinical presentation, variation in the response to treatment and propensity to exacerbations may also identify other phenotypes. Recently, using a mathematical approach, such as cluster analysis, which is based on pre-selected parameters, other interesting phenotypes were identified. A precise definition of COPD phenotypes should lead to a more targeted therapeutic approach based on these phenotypes. The purpose of this article is to point out that COPD is a heterogeneous disease and to summarize the current data available about the phenotypes of this disease. PMID:25158382

  12. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Labonté; Katia S Mohindra; Raphael Lencucha

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income\\u000a countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging\\u000a products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic\\u000a framework which

  13. Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Unanswered Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Spiegel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnesium ion is critical for life and is integrally involved in cellular function and a key component of normal bone mineral. In health, the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and bone are responsible for maintaining serum magnesium concentrations in the normal range and magnesium balance. Most clinical disorders involving magnesium, other than chronic kidney disease (CKD), result in hypomagnesemia, either from

  14. Hepatic disorders in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piergiorgio Messa; Carlo Basile; Paul Martin; Fabrizio Fabrizi

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are the most common and serious causes of liver damage in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The natural histories of HBV and HCV infections in patients with CKD are not fully understood; however, recent evidence has emphasized the adverse effect of HBV and\\/or HCV infection on survival in this

  15. Peripheral nerve function in chronic liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Seneviratne; O. A. Peiris

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerve function has been studied in 50 patients with chronic liver disease. An increase in the latency or a reduction in the response amplitude of the evoked sensory potential of the median nerve was detected in 34 of the 50 subjects. This was in striking contrast to the paucity of neurological signs and symptoms suggestive of peripheral nerve damage

  16. Geroscience: linking aging to chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Brian K; Berger, Shelley L; Brunet, Anne; Campisi, Judith; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Epel, Elissa S; Franceschi, Claudio; Lithgow, Gordon J; Morimoto, Richard I; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Rando, Thomas A; Richardson, Arlan; Schadt, Eric E; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Sierra, Felipe

    2014-11-01

    Mammalian aging can be delayed with genetic, dietary, and pharmacologic approaches. Given that the elderly population is dramatically increasing and that aging is the greatest risk factor for a majority of chronic diseases driving both morbidity and mortality, it is critical to expand geroscience research directed at extending human healthspan. PMID:25417146

  17. Case Management of Adolescents with Chronic Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    This training guide presents a model for optimum delivery of the primary duties, tasks, and steps required in the comprehensive case management of adolescents with chronic disease. Using a team approach to coordinated health care, the guide involves the patient and family as key members of the care team along with the physician, nurse, dietitian,…

  18. INTRODUCTION Chronic kidney disease impairs glomerular filtration

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    INTRODUCTION Chronic kidney disease impairs glomerular filtration rate (GFR) which is detected as elevated serum levels of kidney biomarkers such as creatinine and cystatin C. Prior studies have related. Mapping Associations between Creatinine, Cystatin C and Brain Atrophy in the Elderly: An N=716 ADNI Study

  19. Functional Impairment in Chronic Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Gonick; C. R. Kleeman; M. E. Rubini; M. H. Maxwell

    1969-01-01

    Summary(1) The present study has attempted to characterize the acidifying defect in chronic renal disease and to delineate differences which may exist between glomerular and tubular disorders. (2) The ability to excrete an acid load was examined in 45 patients (30 tubular and 15 glomerular disorders) and ten normal controls, employing the short acid-loading test of Wrong and Davies (1959).

  20. End stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Gherardi, Marco; Carpenè, Nicoletta

    2009-01-01

    Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) die each year as those with lung cancer but current guidelines make few recommendations on the care for the most severe patients i.e. those with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages III and IV with chronic respiratory failure. Only smoking cessation and long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improve survival in COPD. Although non invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) may have an adjunctive role in the management of chronic respiratory insufficiency there is little evidence for its use in the routine management of stable hypercapnic COPD patients. At difference, several prospective, randomised, controlled studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses show good level of evidence for clinical efficacy of NPPV in the treatment of acute on chronic respiratory failure due to acute exacerbations of COPD. NPPV is also alternative to invasive ventilation for symptom relief in end stage COPD. Surgical interventions for end stage COPD like bullectomy, different modalities of lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are likely to be of value to only a small percentage of patients. Nevertheless, there are specific indications, which, when added to pulmonary rehabilitation will further advance exercise capacity and quality of life. As in other chronic diseases when severity of disease increases along the natural history, therapy aimed to prolong life becomes less and less important in comparison to palliative therapy aimed to relieve symptoms. The most effective treatments for dyspnoea are bronchodilators, although also opiates may improve dyspnoea. Supplemental oxygen reduce exertional breathlessness and improve exercise tolerance in hypoxaemic COPD patients. There are difficulties in treating with antidepressant the frail and elderly COPD patients. Good clinical care can prevent or alleviate suffering by assessing symptoms and providing psychological and social support to the patients and their families. PMID:19462352

  1. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Steyers, Curtis M.; Miller, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-?), reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein), autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-?-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population. PMID:24968272

  2. Structural Studies on Acetylcholinesterase and Paraoxonase Directed Towards Development of Therapeutic Biomolecules for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases and Protection Against Chemical Threat Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Joel L.; Silman, Israel

    Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase are important targets for treatment of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis, respectively, both of which impose major burdens on the health care systems in Western society. Acetylcholinesterase is the target of lethal nerve agents, and paraoxonase is under consideration as a bioscavenger for their detoxification. Both are thus the subject of research and development in the context of nerve agent toxicology. The crystal structures of the two enzymes are described, and structure/function relationships are discussed in the context of drug development and of development of means of protection against chemical threats.

  3. Stroke and cerebrovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2014-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined as a reduced glomerular filtration rate or increased urinary albumin excretion, is recognised as a rapidly growing global health burden, and increasing evidence suggests that it contributes to the risk and severity of cerebrovascular diseases. In particular, chronic kidney disease is an established risk factor for stroke and is also strongly associated with subclinical cerebrovascular abnormalities and cognitive impairment, partly because it shares several traditional and non-traditional risk factors, and sometimes uraemia-related and dialysis-related factors, with cerebrovascular diseases. The effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke differs among regions and races and is greater in Asian than in non-Asian people. Chronic kidney disease seems to be predictive of severe neurological deficits and poor vital and functional outcomes after both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, which is partly due to the limitations of pharmacotherapies, including limited use and effects of novel oral anticoagulants, other antithrombotic treatments, and reperfusion treatment for hyperacute ischaemic stroke. In view of the strong two-way association between stroke and kidney disease, the pathophysiological interactions between the brain and kidney should be the subject of intensive study. PMID:25030514

  4. Does chronic disease self-management have a role in preventing chronic disease in rural Australia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Warren; Spencer Gulf; Debra Misan; Gary Misan

    Chronic disease accounts for nearly 43% of the total disease burden in Australia and is growing. The situation is much worse for Indigenous Australians. To make any impact on decreasing this burden, efforts need to be focused on the risk factors which cause these diseases: 30% of Australians aged 25 years and over have high blood pressure, 50% have high

  5. Pathophysiology of Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Papi; Fabrizio Luppi; Francesca Franco; Leonardo M. Fabbri

    2006-01-01

    Smokers with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have a chronic inflammation of the entire tracheobronchial tree character- ized by an increased number of macrophages and CD8 T lympho- cytes in the airway wall and of neutrophils in the airway lumen. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are consid- ered to reflect worsening of the underlying chronic inflammation ofthe airways,causedmainlybyviralandbacterialinfections andair

  6. Osteoporosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Bhardwaj, Rajeev; Madabhavi, Irappa; Khatana, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is associated with various comorbidities found in all stages of COPD. The comorbidities have significant impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden in COPD. Management of comorbidities should be incorporated into the comprehensive management of COPD as this will also have an effect on the outcome in COPD patients. Various comorbidities reported in COPD include cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle dysfunction, anemia, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a significant comorbidity in COPD patients. Various risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, and the use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are responsible for its occurrence in patients with COPD. This review will focus on the prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD patients. PMID:25788838

  7. Circulating progenitor cells in chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrad, Borna; Keane, Michael P; Gomperts, Brigitte N; Strieter, Robert M

    2007-08-01

    Tissue regeneration and repair are fundamental both to recovery of the lung from injury and to the pathology of many chronic lung diseases. There are two potential sources for the adult progenitor cells that participate in this reparative process: resident lung progenitors and bone marrow-derived circulating cells. Bone marrow-derived cells, in particular, have been shown to give rise to airway and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as lung mesenchymal cells. Emerging data have linked specific chemokine ligand-receptor interactions to the recruitment of these cells to the lung and has implicated these cells in chronic lung disorders such as asthma and interstitial lung diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the biology of adult circulating progenitors as related to lung disease. PMID:20477275

  8. Animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Joanne L.; Cosio, Manuel; Churg, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the genesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly defined. This area is complicated and difficult to model because COPD consists of four separate anatomic lesions (emphysema, small airway remodeling, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic bronchitis) and a functional lesion, acute exacerbation; moreover, the disease in humans develops over decades. This review discusses the various animal models that have been used to attempt to recreate human COPD and the advantages and disadvantages of each. None of the models reproduces the exact changes seen in humans, but cigarette smoke-induced disease appears to come the closest, and genetically modified animals also, in some instances, shed light on processes that appear to play a role. PMID:18456796

  9. [Triple therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Baloira, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important respiratory diseases, characterized by its multicomponent complexity, with chronic inflammation, increased airway resistance and exacerbations. Several drugs are currently available for its treatment, which act on distinct targets. Bronchodilators, especially prolonged-action bronchodilators, are the most potent and there are two groups: beta-2 mimetics and anticholinergics. Inhaled corticosteroids are the main anti-inflammatory drugs but have modest efficacy and their use is reserved for patients with severe disease and frequent exacerbations and/or asthma traits. Associating these three drugs can improve symptom control, improve quality of life and reduce the number of exacerbations. The present article reviews the evidence supporting this triple combination, as well as published studies. PMID:21334553

  10. Imbalanced Protein Expression Patterns of Anabolic, Catabolic, Anti-Catabolic and Inflammatory Cytokines in Degenerative Cervical Disc Cells: New Indications for Gene Therapeutic Treatments of Cervical Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mern, Demissew S.; Beierfuß, Anja; Fontana, Johann; Thomé, Claudius; Hegewald, Aldemar A.

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the cervical spine is common after middle age and can cause loss of disc height with painful nerve impingement, bone and joint inflammation. Despite the clinical importance of these problems, in current publications the pathology of cervical disc degeneration has been studied merely from a morphologic view point using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), without addressing the issue of biological treatment approaches. So far a wide range of endogenously expressed bioactive factors in degenerative cervical disc cells has not yet been investigated, despite its importance for gene therapeutic approaches. Although degenerative lumbar disc cells have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches, the quantities of disc cells and the concentrations of gene therapeutic factors used in animal models differ extremely. These indicate lack of experimentally acquired data regarding disc cell proliferation and levels of target proteins. Therefore, we analysed proliferation and endogenous expression levels of anabolic, catabolic, ant-catabolic, inflammatory cytokines and matrix proteins of degenerative cervical disc cells in three-dimensional cultures. Preoperative MRI grading of cervical discs was used, then grade III and IV nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues were isolated from 15 patients, operated due to cervical disc herniation. NP cells were cultured for four weeks with low-glucose in collagen I scaffold. Their proliferation rates were analysed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Their protein expression levels of 28 therapeutic targets were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During progressive grades of degeneration NP cell proliferation rates were similar. Significantly decreased aggrecan and collagen II expressions (P<0.0001) were accompanied by accumulations of selective catabolic and inflammatory cytokines (disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5, matrix metalloproteinase 3, interleukin-1?, interleukin-1 receptor) combined with low expression of anti-catabolic factor (metalloproteinase inhibitor 3) (P<0.0001). This study might contribute to inhibit inflammatory catabolism of cervical discs. PMID:24804684

  11. Degenerative disc disease of herniated intervertebral discs is associated with extracellular matrix remodeling, vimentin-positive cells and cell death.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Carla; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castorina, Alessandro; Loreto, Corrado; Martinez, Giuseppa

    2011-03-01

    We studied patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) to demonstrate that i) remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intervertebral disc (IVD), particularly the elastic fiber system, of subjects with herniated discs is dysregulated and that ii) it is accompanied by accelerated elastin degradation due to increased expression of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9). Moreover we wanted to obtain a deeper insight into the pathogenesis of DDD through the study of ECM calcification, DNA fragmentation using TUNEL analysis, BAX, bcl-2 and vimentin immunopositive cells. We studied herniated discs from patients of three age groups (group 1=30-40 years; group 2=40-50 years; and group 3=50-65 years) to evaluate the oxytalan fiber systemMMP-9, apoptosis and vimentin immunopositive cells. The results demonstrated the presence of oxytalan fibers in the annulus fibrosus (AF) and the nucleus pulposus (NP) of herniated discs. In the AF oxytalan fibers replaced disrupted mature elastic fibers in calcified areas, while in the NP they were mostly found in nests at the periphery of chondrocytes. MMP-9 was prevalently observed in NP nests above all in group 1 and group 3 discs while group 2 exhibited a lower MMP-9 immunostaining. Activation of the apoptotic process was demonstrated by upregulated BAX expression in group 3. BAX immunopositivity was inversely mirrored by a significant decrease in bcl-2 expression. Intermediate filament protein vimentin was strongly expressed only in group 1 samples. A large number of apoptotic TUNEL+ cells was observed in group 3 specimens. The presence of oxytalan fibers may be the result of a process of incomplete elastogenesis, or a response to mechanical stress trying to functionally replace the lack of elastic fibers. MMP-9 expression seems to relate to disc damage, while chondrocyte BAX upregulation and TUNEL+ cell staining revealed apoptosis activation regardless of patient age. Vimentin immunopositivity was clearly detected in group 1 annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus cells. In conclusion, as demonstrated by the vimentin-positive cells, the injured IVD has endogenous resources that can stem the DDD damage, including substitution of damaged elastic fibers by oxytalan fibers. In addition, induction of apoptosis suggests an increased cell turnover in response to repair needs. PMID:21330123

  12. Blood microvesicles during chronic lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Domnikova, N P; Dolgikh, T Yu; Sholenberg, E V; Vorontsova, E V; Goreva, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Gorbachenko, E A; Grishanova, A Yu

    2013-11-01

    The levels of CD19 (+) and CD20(+) microvesicles were estimated in the blood of patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma by flow cytometry method. It was found that the number of B cell microvesicles is several times higher in patients than in volunteers. The level of CD20 (+) microvesicles directly correlated with the number of CD20(+) lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphoproliferative diseases. Extramedullary tumors cells can be a source of CD19 (+) microvesicles. PMID:24319739

  13. Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ismail, T S

    2009-09-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events in COPD patients and place a large burden on healthcare resources. COPD patients with frequent exacerbations have accelerated decline in lung function, poorer health status and are at higher risk of mortality. The mainstay of treatment includes increasing short acting bronchodilator therapy and systemic glucocorticosteroids with or without antibiotics. Non invasive ventilation is indicated in those with respiratory failure with acidosis or hypercapnia. Preventive strategies to reduce exacerbations include smoking cessation, immunisation against influenza and S. pneumonia, chronic maintenance inhaled pharmacotherapy, pulmonary rehabilitation and self management education. PMID:20527283

  14. Age-Associated Chronic Diseases Require Age-Old Medicine: Role of Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    Most chronic diseases - such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity - are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease. PMID:22178471

  15. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  16. [Chronic complications of sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Pablo; Lionnet, François

    2014-10-01

    Chronic complications of sickle cell disease take an increasing role in the management of patients due to their morbidity and mortality impact. The prevalence of chronic organ damages increases as the age of patients followed in France. Few organs seem unaffected by the disease. The natural history of chronic complication is highly variable from one patient to another, and the distribution of those manifestations throughout life, is different depending on their nature and pathophysiology. Thus we can, for example, distinguish SS patients presenting a "hyperhemolytic" phenotype associated with dense red blood cells that have a high risk of vascular complications including kidney disease, pulmonary hypertension, leg ulcers and priapism, from SC patients with high hemoglobin levels, who have a higher risk of retinopathy, osteonecrosis and sensory syndrome, probably related to hyperviscosity. Dependent on the age, we could also oppose cerebral vasculopathy responsible of ischemic stroke since childhood, and kidney damage which effects are visible more gradually with aging. Sickle cell disease is one of the most systemic pathologies contrasting with its monogenic characteristic and its inter- and intra-individual variability. A better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for those complications is necessary to develop new preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25510140

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder On this page: What ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)? CKD-MBD ...

  18. The Combined Use of a Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization System and a Prosthetic Disc Nucleus Device in Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease With Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Cosar, Murat; Ataker, Yaprak; Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir

    2008-01-01

    Background Prosthetic replacement of spinal discs is emerging as a treatment option for degenerative disc disease. Posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization (PDTS) and prosthetic disc nucleus (PDN) devices have been used sporadically in spinal surgery. Methods This was a prospective study of 13 patients averaging 40.9 years of age with degenerative disc disease who underwent posterior placement of a PDN with a PDTS. The Oswestry low-back pain disability questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were used to assess patient outcomes at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th postoperative months. Lumbar range of motion was evaluated using a bubble inclinometer preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. Radiological parameters including lumbar lordosis angle (LL), segmental lordosis angle (?), disc height at the operated level (DHo), and disc height of the adjacent level (DHu) were evaluated. A typical midline posterior approach for complete discectomy was followed by the simultaneous placement of the PDN with PDTS. Results Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < .05). There were no significant differences in LL, ?, DHo, and DHu parameters. We observed complications in 3 patients including 2 patients who had the PDN device embedded into the adjacent corpus; 1 had massive endplate degeneration, and the other experienced interbody space infection. In 1 patient, the PDN device migrated to one side in the vertebral space. Conclusion The use of a PDN in combination with posterior dynamic instrumentation can help to restore the physiologic motion of the anterior and posterior column and could help to establish posterior dynamic instrumentation as an important treatment of degenerative disc disease. Theoretically this concept is superior, but practically we need more advanced technology to replace disc material. Because this study examined the combination of the PDN and stabilization instrumention, the results cannot be compared with those reported in the literature for either PDN alone or dynamic screws alone. Level of Evidence Prospective cohort study with good follow-up (level 1b).

  19. Severity of chronic Chagas disease is associated with cytokine/antioxidant imbalance in chronically infected individuals

    E-print Network

    Roche, Benjamin

    Severity of chronic Chagas disease is associated with cytokine/antioxidant imbalance in chronically the pathogenic mechanisms in chronic Chagas disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America of Chagas disease is a consequence of a long-term and complex relationship between parasite persistence

  20. Optimizing Chronic Disease Management Mega-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    PATH-THETA Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Background As Ontario’s population ages, chronic diseases are becoming increasingly common. There is growing interest in services and care models designed to optimize the management of chronic disease. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and expected budget impact of interventions in chronic disease cohorts evaluated as part of the Optimizing Chronic Disease Management mega-analysis. Data Sources Sector-specific costs, disease incidence, and mortality were calculated for each condition using administrative databases from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Intervention outcomes were based on literature identified in the evidence-based analyses. Quality-of-life and disease prevalence data were obtained from the literature. Methods Analyses were restricted to interventions that showed significant benefit for resource use or mortality from the evidence-based analyses. An Ontario cohort of patients with each chronic disease was constructed and followed over 5 years (2006–2011). A phase-based approach was used to estimate costs across all sectors of the health care system. Utility values identified in the literature and effect estimates for resource use and mortality obtained from the evidence-based analyses were applied to calculate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Given uncertainty about how many patients would benefit from each intervention, a system-wide budget impact was not determined. Instead, the difference in lifetime cost between an individual-administered intervention and no intervention was presented. Results Of 70 potential cost-effectiveness analyses, 8 met our inclusion criteria. All were found to result in QALY gains and cost savings compared with usual care. The models were robust to the majority of sensitivity analyses undertaken, but due to structural limitations and time constraints, few sensitivity analyses were conducted. Incremental cost savings per patient who received intervention ranged between $15 per diabetic patient with specialized nursing to $10,665 per patient wth congestive heart failure receiving in-home care. Limitations Evidence used to inform estimates of effect was often limited to a single trial with limited generalizability across populations, interventions, and health care systems. Because of the low clinical fidelity of health administrative data sets, intermediate clinical outcomes could not be included. Cohort costs included an average of all health care costs and were not restricted to costs associated with the disease. Intervention costs were based on resource use specified in clinical trials. Conclusions Applying estimates of effect from the evidence-based analyses to real-world resource use resulted in cost savings for all interventions. On the basis of quality-of-life data identified in the literature, all interventions were found to result in a greater QALY gain than usual care would. Implementation of all interventions could offer significant cost reductions. However, this analysis was subject to important limitations. Plain Language Summary Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in Ontario. They account for a third of direct health care costs across the province. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions that might improve the management of chronic diseases. The evaluated interventions led to lower costs and better quality of life than usual care. Offering these options could reduce costs per patient. However, the studies used in this analysis were of medium to very low quality, and the methods had many limitations. PMID:24228076

  1. Advances in renal bone disease: Osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Barnato; Stuart M. Sprague

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common bone disease characterized by low bone density, microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue,\\u000a and a consequent increase in fracture risk. Recent decades have seen major advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology,\\u000a prevention, and treatment of this disorder. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more than 20 million Americans and is associated\\u000a with unique metabolic mineral disorders related

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an overview.

    PubMed

    Devine, John F

    2008-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a growing healthcare problem that is expected to worsen as the population ages and the worldwide use of tobacco products increases. Smoking cessation is the only effective means of prevention. Employers are in a unique position to help employees stop smoking. During the long asymptomatic phase, lung function nevertheless continues to decline; therefore, many patients seek medical attention only when they are at an advanced stage or when they have experienced an acute exacerbation. To help preserve patients' quality of life and reduce healthcare costs related to this chronic disease, clinicians need to accurately diagnose the condition and appropriately manage patients through the long course of their illness. This article discusses the current approach to patient management. PMID:25126252

  3. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuichi Jono; Atsushi Shioi; Yuji Ikari; Yoshiki Nishizawa

    2006-01-01

    Vascular calcification is often encountered in advanced atherosclerotic lesions and is a common consequence of aging. Calcification\\u000a of the coronary arteries has been positively correlated with coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden, increased risk of myocardial\\u000a infarction, and plaque instability. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have two to five times more coronary artery calcification\\u000a than healthy age-matched individuals. Vascular calcification is a

  4. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal X Chen; Sharon M Moe

    2004-01-01

    Dialysis patients have increased cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and vascular calcification, and the latter appears to impact the former. Recent evidence indicates that vascular calcification is an active, cell-mediated process. Osteoblast differentiation factor Cbfa1 and several bone-associated proteins (osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen) are present in histologic sections of arteries obtained from patients with end-stage renal disease (chronic

  5. Mechanisms of progression of chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes B. Fogo

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in all age groups, including children. Regardless of the underlying cause, CKD is characterized\\u000a by progressive scarring that ultimately affects all structures of the kidney. The relentless progression of CKD is postulated\\u000a to result from a self-perpetuating vicious cycle of fibrosis activated after initial injury. We will review possible mechanisms\\u000a of progressive renal damage, including

  6. Invasive Aspergillosis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahm H. Segal; Steven M. Holland

    \\u000a Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder of the NADPH oxidase complex in which phagocytes are defective\\u000a in generating superoxide anion. NADPH oxidase activation leads to release of sequestered neutrophil granular proteases, which\\u000a are likely the principal antimicrobial effectors. CGD is characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal\\u000a infections and by inflammatory complications such as wound dehiscence, obstructive

  7. Sustainable chronic disease management in remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Wakerman, John; Chalmers, Elizabeth M; Humphreys, John S; Clarence, Christine L; Bell, Andrew I; Larson, Ann; Lyle, David; Pashen, Dennis R

    2005-11-21

    The Sharing Health Care Initiative (SHCI) demonstration project, which aimed to improve management of chronic diseases, was implemented in four small remote communities in the Katherine region which are serviced by the Katherine West Health Board, a remote Aboriginal-community-controlled health organisation in the Northern Territory. We reviewed the project proposal, final report, evaluation reports and transitional funding proposal, and supplemented these with in-depth interviews with key individuals. We determined factors critical to the sustainability of the SHCI project in relation to context, community engagement, systems flexibility and adaptability, the availability and effect of information systems, and the human nature of health care and policy. The project had a significant impact on community awareness of chronic disease and an improvement in clinic processes. We found that a number of interrelated factors promoted sustainability, including: An implementation strategy sufficiently flexible to take account of local conditions; A high level of community engagement; Appropriate timeframes, timing and congruence between national policy and local readiness to implement a chronic disease project; Effective communication between participating organisations; Project champions (key individuals) in participating organisations; Effective use of monitoring and evaluation data; and Adequate and ongoing funding. The absence of a number of these factors, such as poor communication, inhibited sustainability. Other factors could both promote and inhibit. For example, the impact of key individuals was important, but could be idiosyncratic and have negative effects. PMID:16296955

  8. Oxidants in Acute and Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Sugunaraj, Jaya Prakash; Lee, Patty J; Sauler, Maor

    2015-01-01

    Oxidants play an important role in homeostatic function, but excessive oxidant generation has an adverse effect on health. The manipulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) can have a beneficial effect on various lung pathologies. However indiscriminate uses of anti-oxidant strategies have not demonstrated any consistent benefit and may be harmful. Here we propose that nuanced strategies are needed to modulate the oxidant system to obtain a beneficial result in the lung diseases such as Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We identify novel areas of lung oxidant responses that may yield fruitful therapies in the future. PMID:25705575

  9. Treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Matthew; Sherrington, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a long-term lung disease characterised by breathlessness, cough and sputum production. Progressively worsening breathlessness for the patient with COPD limits everyday activity, reduces quality of life and increases the risk of premature death. Beyond reducing symptoms and the rate and severity of exacerbations, the aim of treatment is to increase exercise capacity and improve overall health and wellbeing. Nurses have an important role in ensuring advance care planning is implemented for every patient. This article describes the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, and includes practical points for patient care. PMID:25351094

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zong, D-D; Ouyang, R-Y; Chen, P

    2015-03-01

    Epigenetic modification may affect the expression of multiple inflammatory genes in lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Major epigenetic events include DNA methylation and various post-translational modifications of histones, such as histone methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. Enzymes which regulate these epigenetic modifications can be activated by smoking. Both environmental and genetic factors play significant effect in development of COPD which have been reported by most references; however, little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in the disease. Understanding the epigenetic mechanisms can help us clarify the pathogenesis of COPD and identify novel targets for developing new therapies for patients with COPD. PMID:25807439

  11. Chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bartges, Joseph W

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs commonly in older dogs and cats. Advances in diagnostics, staging, and treatment are associated with increased quality and quantity of life. Dietary modification has been shown to increase survival and quality of life and involves more than protein restriction as diets modified for use with CKD are lower in phosphorous and sodium, potassium and B-vitamin replete, and alkalinizing, and they contain n3-fatty acids. Additionally, recognition and management of CKD-associated diseases such as systemic arterial hypertension, proteinuria, and anemia benefit patients. This article summarizes staging and management of CKD in dogs and cats. PMID:22720808

  12. Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, M.D. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

  13. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand; Tao Li, Philip Kam; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Couser, William G.; Erk, Timur; Zakharova, Elena; Segantini, Luca; Shay, Paul; Riella, Miguel C.; Osafo, Charlotte; Dupuis, Sophie; Kernahan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Twelve March 2015 will mark the 10th anniversary of World Kidney Day (WKD), an initiative of the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort ever mounted to raise awareness among decision-makers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. Each year WKD reminds us that kidney disease is common, harmful and treatable. The focus of WKD 2015 is on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations. This article reviews the key links between poverty and CKD and the consequent implications for the prevention of kidney disease and the care of kidney patients in these populations. PMID:25713703

  14. Chronic Granulomatous Disease as a Risk Factor for Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Ravin, Suk See; Naumann, Nora; Cowen, Edward W.; Friend, Julia; Hilligoss, Dianne; Marquesen, Martha; Balow, James E.; Barron, Karyl S.; Turner, Maria L.; Gallin, John I.; Malech, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent infections and granuloma formation. In addition, we have observed a number of diverse autoimmune conditions in our CGD population, suggesting that patients with CGD are at an elevated risk for development of autoimmune (AI) disorders. In this report, we describe antiphospholipid syndrome (aPL), recurrent pericardial effusion, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), IgA nephropathy, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune pulmonary disease in the setting of CGD. The presence and type of autoimmune disease has important treatment implications for patients with CGD. PMID:18823651

  15. Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelis, Nikolaos; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Arikas, Stamatis; Tsiouda, Theodora; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Argyriou, Michael; Kessisis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory airway disease whose incidence and mortality increases every year. It is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to toxic particles or gases (usually cigarette smoke). A central role in the pathophysiology has been shown to play a chronic inflammation of the airways that is expressed primarily by hypersecretion of mucus, stenosis of the smaller airways and the establishment of pulmonary emphysema. There is an increasing trend for assessing the inflammatory pattern of inflammatory airway diseases through mediators measured by noninvasive techniques. Markers in biological fluids and exhaled air have been the subject of intense evaluation over the past few years, with some of them reaching their introduction into clinical practice, while others remain as research tools. Of particular interest for the scientific community is the discovery of clinically exploitable biomarkers associated with specific phenotypes of the disease. Studying the effects of therapeutic interventions in these biomarkers may lead to targeted therapy based on phenotype and this is perhaps the future of therapeutics in COPD. PMID:24672691

  16. Neprilysin inhibition in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Judge, Parminder; Haynes, Richard; Landray, Martin J; Baigent, Colin

    2014-08-18

    Despite current practice, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. Neprilysin inhibition (NEPi) is a new therapeutic strategy with potential to improve outcomes for patients with CKD. NEPi enhances the activity of natriuretic peptide systems leading to natriuresis, diuresis and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which could act as a potentially beneficial counter-regulatory system in states of RAS activation such as chronic heart failure (HF) and CKD. Early NEPi drugs were combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors but were associated with unacceptable rates of angioedema and, therefore, withdrawn. However, one such agent (omapatrilat) showed promise of NEP/RAS inhibition in treating CKD in animal models, producing greater reductions in proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with isolated RAS inhibition. A new class of drug called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) has been developed. One such drug, LCZ696, has shown substantial benefits in trials in hypertension and HF. In CKD, HF is common due to a range of mechanisms including hypertension and structural heart disease (including left ventricular hypertrophy), suggesting that ARNi could benefit patients with CKD by both retarding the progression of CKD (hence delaying the need for renal replacement therapy) and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. LCZ696 is now being studied in a CKD population. PMID:25140014

  17. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, R M; Imbesi, S; Saitta, S; Campennì, A; Cannavò, S; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is a common condition characterized by recurrent episodes of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions lasting for more than 6 weeks. In about 75% of cases, the underlying causes remain unknown, and the term chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is used to emphasize that wheals develop independently of identified external stimuli. Although CIU affects about 1.0% of the general population, its etiopathogenesis is not yet well understood. It is now widely accepted that in many cases CIU should be regarded as an autoimmune disorder caused by circulating and functionally active IgG autoantibodies specific for the IgE receptor (FceRI) present on mast cells and basophils or for IgE itself. The well-known association of CIU with other autoimmune processes/diseases represents further indirect evidence of its autoimmune origin. Autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially autoimmune thyroiditis, represent the most frequently investigated diseases in association with CIU. Here we review this topic with particular regard to the association between Graves' disease and CIU. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms and the clinical implications of such an association are discussed. PMID:23609949

  18. Chronic Sorrow in Caregiving Spouses of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Mayer

    2001-01-01

    The article focuses on the concept of chronic sorrow in a sample of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregiving spouses. A study was designed to determine the long-term grief or chronic sorrow that develops in caregiving spouses and to increase knowledge of the nature of chronic sorrow. Utilizing the Burke Nursing Consortium for Research on Chronic Sorrow questionnaire

  19. Secondary Care Clinic for Chronic Disease: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Michèle; Juneau, Lucille; Legault-Mercier, Samuel; Bernardino, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The complexity of chronic disease management activities and the associated financial burden have prompted the development of organizational models, based on the integration of care and services, which rely on primary care services. However, since the institutions providing these services are continually undergoing reorganization, the Centre hospitalier affilié universitaire de Québec wanted to innovate by adapting the Chronic Care Model to create a clinic for the integrated follow-up of chronic disease that relies on hospital-based specialty care. Objective The aim of the study is to follow the project in order to contribute to knowledge about the way in which professional and management practices are organized to ensure better care coordination and the successful integration of the various follow-ups implemented. Methods The research strategy adopted is based on the longitudinal comparative case study with embedded units of analysis. The case study uses a mixed research method. Results We are currently in the analysis phase of the project. The results will be available in 2015. Conclusions The project’s originality lies in its consideration of the macro, meso, and micro contexts structuring the creation of the clinic in order to ensure the integration process is successful and to allow a theoretical generalization of the reorganization of practices to be developed. PMID:25689840

  20. Chronic kidney disease: considerations for nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Steiber, Alison L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent and has major health consequences for patients. Caring for patients with CKD requires knowledge of the food supply, renal pathophysiology, and nutrition-related medications used to work synergistically with diet to control the signs and symptoms of the disease. The nutrition care process and International Dietetic and Nutrition Terminology allow for systematic, holistic, quality care of patients with this complex, progressive disease. Nutrition interventions must be designed with the individual patients needs in mind while prioritizing factors with the largest negative impact on health outcomes and mortality risk. New areas of nutrition treatment are emerging that involve a greater focus on micronutrient needs, the microbiome, and vegetarian-style diets. These interventions may improve outcomes by decreasing inflammation, improving energy and protein delivery, and lowering phosphorus, electrolytes, and fluid retention. PMID:24637245

  1. Degenerative Pannus Mimicking Clival Chordoma Resected via an Endoscopic Transnasal Approach.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, Ahmad; Griauzde, Julius; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2011-05-01

    Lesions of the lower clivus represent a technically challenging subset of skull base disease that requires careful treatment. A 75-year-old woman with tongue atrophy was referred for resection of a presumed clival chordoma. The lesion was resected via an endoscopic transnasal transclival approach with no complications. Pathology revealed only chronic inflammatory tissue consistent with a degenerative pannus. Degenerative pannus should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower clival extradural lesions. The endoscopic transnasal transclival corridor should be considered for resection of such lesions as an alternative to larger, more morbid, traditional skull base approaches. PMID:23984195

  2. Degenerative Pannus Mimicking Clival Chordoma Resected via an Endoscopic Transnasal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Khaldi, Ahmad; Griauzde, Julius; Duckworth, Edward A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lesions of the lower clivus represent a technically challenging subset of skull base disease that requires careful treatment. A 75-year-old woman with tongue atrophy was referred for resection of a presumed clival chordoma. The lesion was resected via an endoscopic transnasal transclival approach with no complications. Pathology revealed only chronic inflammatory tissue consistent with a degenerative pannus. Degenerative pannus should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower clival extradural lesions. The endoscopic transnasal transclival corridor should be considered for resection of such lesions as an alternative to larger, more morbid, traditional skull base approaches. PMID:23984195

  3. [Functional magnetic resonance of Peyronie's disease in the chronic stable phase].

    PubMed

    Tamburrini, O; Della Sala, M; Sessa, M; Carallo, O F; Imbimbo, C; Mirone, V; Morrone, G

    1993-12-01

    La Peyronie's disease (induratio penis plastica) is a degenerative process involving the penis, whose cause is still not fully explained. Adequate treatment requires the correct staging of La Peyronie's disease. Diagnostic imaging plays a major role after case history and clinics. Several imaging methods are used, including self-photography, plain radiography, CT, pharmaco-cavernosography, plain and duplex Doppler US. Enhanced MRI can be useful to correctly localize the plaques and to detect early changes in La Peyronie's disease, since the fibrous plaques with persistent inflammatory infiltration can be distinguished from the plaques in which inflammation has ceased. The diagnostic approach to La Peyronie's disease has been substantially modified by adding an examination during the erection induced by the intracavernosal injection of papaverine to the examination in the flaccid state. The authors report on the capabilities of unenhanced MRI after the intracavernosal injection of papaverine in steady chronic La Peyronie's disease. MRI was performed with an 0.5 T superconductive unit. Six patients (age range: 46-60 years, mean 52 years) who had been ill for about five years were studied. SE T1-weighted images and FS T2-weighted images were performed in both the flaccid and the erect states. Our results prove MR capabilities in both states in steady chronic La Peyronie's disease, which suggests MRI as the technique of choice for planning surgical treatment. PMID:8296007

  4. Association between Celiac Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ashish; Reddy, Chandrasekhar; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh; Dhiman, Radha K

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occur together. Here, we describe 4 cases of celiac disease associated with chronic hepatitis C. This small case series indicates that chronic HCV infection and celiac disease are not causally associated.

  5. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Juncos, Luis A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. PMID:24600241

  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Scarlata, Simone; Pennazza, Giorgio; Santonico, Marco; Pedone, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) dramatically increases with age, and COPD complicated by chronic respiratory failure may be considered a geriatric condition. Unfortunately, most cases remain undiagnosed because of atypical clinical presentation and difficulty with current respiratory function diagnostic standards. Accordingly, the disease is under-recognized and undertreated. This is expected to impact noticeably the health status of unrecognized COPD patients because a timely therapy could mitigate the distinctive and important effects of COPD on the health status. Comorbidity also plays a pivotal role in conditioning both the health status and the therapy of COPD besides having major prognostic implication. Several problems affect the overall quality of the therapy for the elderly with COPD, and current guidelines as well as results from pharmacological trials only to some extent apply to this patient. Finally, physicians of different specialties care for the elderly COPD patient: physician's specialty largely determines the kind of approach. In conclusion, COPD, in itself a complex disease, becomes difficult to identify and to manage in the elderly. Interdisciplinary efforts are desirable to provide the practicing physician with a multidisciplinary guide to the identification and treatment of COPD. PMID:24183233

  7. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Juncos, Luis A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. PMID:24600241

  8. [Chronic graft-versus-host disease: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Servais, S; Willems, E; Beguin, Y; Baron, F

    2010-02-01

    Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. This review article describes recent advances in the classification and treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:20344918

  9. Chronic kidney disease in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, Joshua J; Warady, Bradley A

    2014-09-01

    An increased emphasis has been placed on the early identification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the neonatal population, given the long-term health consequences that can accompany this diagnosis. The definition of CKD in neonates and young infants differs from that of children older than 2 years and, if severe, treatment may mandate dialysis with appropriate ethical considerations. Special attention must also be directed to optimal nutrition because of its impact on height, weight, and brain development in the young child experiencing impaired kidney function. There has been steady improvement in patient survival over the last decade. PMID:25155723

  10. Chronic Wasting Disease Positive Tissue Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center entered into an agreement with the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the Department of Veterinary Sciences at the University of Wyoming to produce a collection of positive tissues from cervids intentionally infected with chronic wasting disease. This agreement was facilitated through the University of Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit. Also, the investigators on this project sampled the animals incrementally over 2 years to show changes over time, and examined tissues from the animals by immunohistochemistry. CWD positive tissues are catalogued by species, sample site and time of infection. These data and more will soon be published.

  11. Health Technologies for the Improvement of Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). Objective The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. Data Sources The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Review Methods Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Results Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. Conclusions The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient outcomes; reduce resource utilization intensity; be cost-effective; and be a viable contributing factor to chronic disease management in the community. Plain Language Summary People with chronic diseases rely on the health care system to help manage their illness. Hospital use can be costly, so community-based alternatives are often preferred. Research published in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series between 2006 and 2011 was reviewed to identify health technologies that have been effective or cost-effective in helping to manage chronic disease in the community. All technologies identified led to better patient outcomes and less use of health services. Most were also cost-effective. Two technologies that can cure chronic disease and 1 that can prevent chronic disease were found. Eight technologies that can help manage chronic disease were also found. Health technologies should be considered an important part of chronic disease management in the community. PMID:24228075

  12. The p.A382T TARDBP gene mutation in Sardinian patients affected by Parkinson’s disease and other degenerative parkinsonisms

    PubMed Central

    Cannas, Antonino; Borghero, Giuseppe; Floris, Gian Luca; Solla, Paolo; Chiò, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J.; Calvo, Andrea; Restagno, Gabriella; Majounie, Elisa; Costantino, Emanuela; Piras, Valeria; Lavra, Loredana; Pani, Carla; Orofino, Gianni; Di Stefano, Francesca; Tacconi, Paolo; Mascia, Marcello Mario; Muroni, Antonella; Murru, Maria Rita; Tranquilli, Stefania; Corongiu, Daniela; Rolesu, Marcella; Cuccu, Stefania; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on our previous finding of the p.A382T founder mutation in ALS patients with concomitant parkinsonism in the Sardinian population, we hypothesized that the same variant may underlie PD and/or other forms of degenerative parkinsonism on this Mediterranean island. Design We screened a cohort of 611 patients with PD (544 cases) and other forms of degenerative parkinsonism (67 cases), and 604 unrelated controls for the c.1144G>A (p.A382T) missense mutation of the TARDBP gene. Results The p.A382T mutation was identified in 9 patients with parkinsonism. Of these, 5 (0.9% of PD patients) presented a typical PD (2 with familiar forms), while 4 patients (6.0% of all other forms of parkinsonism) presented a peculiar clinical presentation quite different from classical atypical parkinsonism with an overlap of extrapyramidal-pyramidal-cognitive clinical signs. The mutation was found in 8 Sardinian controls (1.3%) consistent with a founder mutation in the island population. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the clinical presentation of the p.A382T TARDBP gene mutation may include forms of parkinsonism in which the extrapyramidal signs are the crucial core of the disease at onset. These forms can present PSP or CBD-like clinical signs, with bulbar and/or extrabulbar pyramidal signs and cognitive impairment. No evidence of association has been found between TARDBP gene mutation and typical PD. PMID:23546887

  13. Mass spectrometry in Chronic Kidney Disease research

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics has evolved into an invaluable tool for biomedical research and for research on renal diseases. A central player in the proteomic revolution is the mass spectrometer and its application to analyze biological samples. Our need to understand both the identity of proteins and their abundance has led to improvements in mass spectrometers and their ability to analyze complex tryptic peptide mixtures with high sensitivity and high mass accuracy in a high throughput fashion (such as the LTQ-Orbitrap). It should not be surprising that this occurred coincident with dramatic improvements in our understanding chronic kidney disease (CKD), the mechanisms through which CKD progresses and the development of candidate CKD biomarkers. This review attempts to present a basic framework for the operational components of mass spectrometers, basic insight into how they are used in renal research and a discussion of CKD research that was driven by mass spectrometry. PMID:21044768

  14. Ghrelin and cachexia in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Nakamura, Norifumi; Inui, Akio

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue and a potent orexigenic factor that stimulates feeding by interacting with hypothalamic feeding-regulatory nuclei. Its multifaceted effects are potentially beneficial as a treatment in human disease states. In both adult and pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, decreased appetite plays a major role in wasting, which in turn is linked to morbidity and mortality; wasting has also been linked to high levels of leptin and proinflammatory cytokines. The beneficial effects of ghrelin treatment in CKD are potentially mediated by multiple concurrent actions, including the stimulation of appetite-regulating centers, anti-inflammatory effects, and direct kidney effects. Further evaluation of this appetite-regulating hormone in CKD is needed to confirm previous findings and to determine the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22760416

  15. Is chronic traumatic encephalopathy a real disease?

    PubMed

    Randolph, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has received widespread media attention and is treated in the lay press as an established disease, characterized by suicidality and progressive dementia. The extant literature on CTE is reviewed here. There currently are no controlled epidemiological data to suggest that retired athletes are at increased risk for dementia or that they exhibit any type of unique neuropathology. There remain no established clinical or pathological criteria for diagnosing CTE. Despite claims that CTE occurs frequently in retired National Football League (NFL) players, recent studies of NFL retirees report that they have an all-cause mortality rate that is approximately half of the expected rate, and even lower suicide rates. In addition, recent clinical studies of samples of cognitively impaired NFL retirees have failed to identify any unique clinical syndrome. Until further controlled studies are completed, it appears to be premature to consider CTE a verifiable disease. PMID:24412888

  16. Musculoskeletal Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cielen, Nele; Maes, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by airway obstruction and inflammation but also accompanied by several extrapulmonary consequences, such as skeletal muscle weakness and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle weakness is of major concern, since it leads to poor functional capacity, impaired health status, increased healthcare utilization, and even mortality, independently of lung function. Osteoporosis leads to fractures and is associated with increased mortality, functional decline, loss of quality of life, and need for institutionalization. Therefore, the presence of the combination of these comorbidities will have a negative impact on daily life in patients with COPD. In this review, we will focus on these two comorbidities, their prevalence in COPD, combined risk factors, and pathogenesis. We will try to prove the clustering of these comorbidities and discuss possible preventive or therapeutic strategies. PMID:24783225

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease Management: Comparison between Renal Transplant Recipients and Nontransplant Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayub Akbari; Naser Hussain; Jolanta Karpinski; Greg A. Knoll

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Renal transplant recipients (RTR) and patients with native chronic kidney disease (CKD) have similar complications. It is not known how the management of CKD in RTR differs from that of patients with native CKD. This study compares the management of complications related to CKD between RTR and patients with native CKD. Methods: Cross-sectional study of all RTR with stage

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Drummond, M Bradley; Buist, A Sonia; Crapo, James D; Wise, Robert A; Rennard, Stephen I

    2014-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex set of conditions with multiple risk factors, disease mechanisms, and clinical manifestations. These characteristics make primary prevention of COPD challenging. Semantic issues related to prevalent and incident disease (e.g., the use of specific cut points on a continuous range) should not derail development of primary prevention initiatives. Potential targets for COPD prevention occur along the spectrum of disease development. Understanding risk factors early in life, whether specific to COPD or not, allows for study of interventions to optimize lung function at birth and to prolong the lung function plateau, potentially reducing the development of COPD. It is necessary to identify noninvasive ways to screen for early COPD in those at risk before progression to clinically significant disease. Identification of specific COPD subgroups, such as individuals with chronic bronchitis, those with ?1-antitrypsin deficiency, or early radiographic changes with normal spirometry, may offer specific opportunities for primary prevention. A better understanding of why COPD progresses despite smoking cessation is needed. Future research initiatives should also focus on identifying the underlying mechanisms and relevant interventions for nonsmokers with COPD, a currently poorly studied group. Ultimately, preventing the development of COPD will serve to reduce the tremendous burden of this chronic disease worldwide. PMID:24754824

  19. Insulin resistance and chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Itou, Minoru; Sakata, Masahiro; Sumie, Shuji; Sata, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Increased insulin resistance is frequently associated with chronic liver disease and is a pathophysiological feature of hepatogenous diabetes. Distinctive factors including hepatic parenchymal cell damage, portal-systemic shunting and hepatitis C virus are responsible for the development of hepatogenous insulin resistance/diabetes. Although it remains unclear whether insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is impaired as it is in type 2 diabetes, retinopathic and cardiovascular risk is low and major causes of death in cirrhotic patients with diabetes are liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemoglobin A1c is an inaccurate marker for the assessment and management of hepatogenous diabetes. Moreover, exogenous insulin or sulfonylureas may be harmful because these agents may promote hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, pathogenesis, cause of death, assessment and therapeutic strategy for hepatogenous insulin resistance/diabetes differ from those for lifestyle-related type 2 diabetes. In this article, we review features of insulin resistance in relationship to chronic liver disease. We also discuss the impact of anti-diabetic agents on interferon treatment and hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21731901

  20. Application of Direct Renin Inhibition to Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian W. Mende

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Chronic kidney disease has serious implications with a high risk for progressive loss of renal function, increased cardiovascular\\u000a events as well as a substantial financial burden. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is activated in chronic\\u000a kidney disease, especially in diabetes and hypertension, which are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin\\u000a converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)

  1. Development and Application of Chronic Disease Risk Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun Min; Stefani, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, non-communicable chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a large proportion of chronic diseases are preventable through risk factor management. However, the prevention efficacy at the individual level is not yet satisfactory. Chronic disease prediction models have been developed to assist physicians and individuals in clinical decision-making. A chronic disease prediction model assesses multiple risk factors together and estimates an absolute disease risk for the individual. Accurate prediction of an individual's future risk for a certain disease enables the comparison of benefits and risks of treatment, the costs of alternative prevention strategies, and selection of the most efficient strategy for the individual. A large number of chronic disease prediction models, especially targeting cardiovascular diseases and cancers, have been suggested, and some of them have been adopted in the clinical practice guidelines and recommendations of many countries. Although few chronic disease prediction tools have been suggested in the Korean population, their clinical utility is not as high as expected. This article reviews methodologies that are commonly used for developing and evaluating a chronic disease prediction model and discusses the current status of chronic disease prediction in Korea. PMID:24954311

  2. Smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Murray, Robert P

    2009-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in prevalence, and is predicted to become the third leading cause of deaths worldwide by 2020. The precise prevalence of COPD is not known, as many individuals with the disease are left undiagnosed, despite the requirement of only simple spirometry testing for disease detection. The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, with 90% of deaths from COPD directly attributable to smoking. Therefore smoking cessation is the most effective means of halting or slowing the progress of this disease. This review summarizes and compares the differential characteristics of smokers with COPD vs. those without COPD in relation to their smoking behavior and quitting attempts, and discusses the various strategies that can be used to help patients quit and improve their likelihood of long-term smoking cessation. Of the various behavioral interventions available that can increase the likelihood of smoking cessation, one of the simplest and most effective strategies that physicians can use is simply to advise their patients to quit, particularly if this advice is combined with informing the patients of their "lung age". We also discuss the pharmacologic therapies used to enhance the likelihood of quitting, including nicotine replacement, bupropion SR and varenicline, along with novel nicotine vaccines, which are currently undergoing clinical trials. PMID:19285850

  3. Genomic Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Wenjun; Smith, Shahaan; Kretzler, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge in nephrology and for public health care, affecting 14–15% of the adult U.S. population and consuming significant health care resources. In the next 20 years, the number of patients with end stage renal disease is projected to increase by 50%. Ideal biomarkers that allow early identification of CKD patients at high risk of progression are urgently needed for early and targeted treatment to improve patient care. Recent success of integrating molecular approaches for personalized management of neoplastic diseases, including diagnosis, staging, prognosis, treatment selection and monitoring, has strongly encouraged kidney researchers to pursue molecular definitions of patients with kidney disease. Challenges for molecular marker identification in CKD are a high degree of cellular heterogeneity of the kidney and the paucity of human tissue availability for molecular studies. Despite these limitations potential molecular biomarker candidates have been uncovered at multiple levels along the genome – phenome continuum. Here we will review the identification and validation of potential genomic biomarker candidates of CKD and CKD progression in clinical studies. The challenges in predicting CKD progression, as well as the promises and opportunities resulting from a molecular definition of CKD will be discussed. PMID:22424432

  4. Defining Disease Modification in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, David M.G.; Tashkin, Donald P.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating condition characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and represents substantial economic and social burden throughout the world. A range of interventions has been developed that decrease symptoms and address complications associated with COPD. However, to date few interventions have been unequivocally demonstrated to modify disease progression. Assessment of the potential for interventions to modify disease progression is complicated by the lack of a clear definition of disease modification and disagreement over appropriate markers by which modification should be evaluated. To clarify these issues, a working group of physicians and scientists from the USA, Canada and Europe was convened. The proposed working definition of disease modification resulting from the group discussions was “an improvement in, or stabilization of, structural or functional parameters as a result of reduction in the rate of progression of these parameters which occurs whilst an intervention is applied and may persist even if the intervention is withdrawn”. According to this definition, pharmacologic interventions may be considered disease-modifying if they provide consistent and sustained improvements in structural and functional parameters. Smoking cessation and lung volume reduction surgery would both qualify as disease-modifying interventions. PMID:19811377

  5. [Pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Werner; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, Simon; Martinez, Fernando J; Semigran, Marc J; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol U; Vachiéy, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis, are associated with a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is linked with exercise limitation and a worse prognosis. Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are particularly prone to the development of PH. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal modalities for the diagnosis of COPD and DPLD. For discrimination between group 1 PH patients with concomitant respiratory abnormalities and group 3 PH patients (PH caused by lung disease), patients should be transferred to a center with expertise in both PH and lung diseases for comprehensive evaluation. The task force encompassing the .authors of this article provided criteria for this discrimination and suggested using the following definitions for group 3 patients, as exemplified for COPD, IPF, and CPFE: COPD/IPF/CPFE without PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP]<25mmHg); COPD/IPF/CPFE with PH (mPAP25mmHg); PH-COPD, PH-IPF, and PH-CPFE); COPD/IPF/CPFE with severe PH (mPAP 35 mmHg or mPAP 25 mmHg with low cardiac index [CI <2.0.l/min/m2]; severe PH-COPD, severe PH-IPF, and severe PH-CPFE). The "severe PH group" includes only a minority of chronic lung disease patients who are suspected of having strong general vascular abnormalities (remodeling) accompanying the parenchymal disease and with evidence of an exhausted circulatory reserve rather than an exhausted ventilatory reserve underlying the limitation of exercise capacity. Exertional dyspnea disproportionate to pulmonary function tests, low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and rapid decline of arterial oxygenation upon exercise are typical clinical features of this subgroup with poor prognosis. Studies evaluating the effect of pulmonary arterial hypertension drugs currently not approved for group 3 PH patients should focus on this severe PH group, and for the time being, these patients should be transferred to expert centers for individualized patient care. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:D109-16) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. PMID:25697041

  6. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Werner; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, Simon; Martinez, Fernando J; Semigran, Marc J; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol U; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-24

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis, are associated with a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is linked with exercise limitation and a worse prognosis. Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are particularly prone to the development of PH. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal modalities for the diagnosis of COPD and DPLD. For discrimination between group 1 PH patients with concomitant respiratory abnormalities and group 3 PH patients (PH caused by lung disease), patients should be transferred to a center with expertise in both PH and lung diseases for comprehensive evaluation. The task force encompassing the authors of this article provided criteria for this discrimination and suggested using the following definitions for group 3 patients, as exemplified for COPD, IPF, and CPFE: COPD/IPF/CPFE without PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP] <25 mm Hg); COPD/IPF/CPFE with PH (mPAP ?25 mm Hg); PH-COPD, PH-IPF, and PH-CPFE); COPD/IPF/CPFE with severe PH (mPAP ?35 mm Hg or mPAP ?25 mm Hg with low cardiac index [CI <2.0 l/min/m(2)]; severe PH-COPD, severe PH-IPF, and severe PH-CPFE). The "severe PH group" includes only a minority of chronic lung disease patients who are suspected of having strong general vascular abnormalities (remodeling) accompanying the parenchymal disease and with evidence of an exhausted circulatory reserve rather than an exhausted ventilatory reserve underlying the limitation of exercise capacity. Exertional dyspnea disproportionate to pulmonary function tests, low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and rapid decline of arterial oxygenation upon exercise are typical clinical features of this subgroup with poor prognosis. Studies evaluating the effect of pulmonary arterial hypertension drugs currently not approved for group 3 PH patients should focus on this severe PH group, and for the time being, these patients should be transferred to expert centers for individualized patient care. PMID:24355635

  7. Reproductive Aging and Risk for Chronic Disease: Insights from Studies of Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Appt, Susan E.; Ethun, Kelly F.

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive aging and ovarian senescence have considerable public health relevance because they are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), osteoporosis and other degenerative conditions including cognitive decline and potentially the metabolic syndrome. It has been suggested that the hormonal dysregulation that occurs during the perimenopausal transition may play a role in the initiation of pathobiological changes (e.g., adverse lipid profiles, atherosclerotic plaques) that will increase risk for chronic disease (e.g., CHD) during the postmenopausal years. Moreover, these early changes are suspected to establish a trajectory of disease progression that may be difficult to alter if interventions are not begun until after menopause. Even a slight increase in the rate of disease progression during the pre- or perimenopausal years could have substantial consequences for health and quality of life over the postmenopausal lifespan. Thus, the years leading up to menopause may offer a “critical window” for interventions aimed at reducing the postmenopausal disease burden. The relationship between perimenopausal hormonal dysregulation and the risk for chronic disease is poorly understood due, in large part, to the lack of available nonhuman primates (NHP) undergoing the perimenopausal transition and natural menopause. In this review we assesses studies of NHPs evaluated in various reproductive stages (naturally pre-, peri- and postmenopausal, surgically menopausal) and their contribution to our understanding about risk factors for chronic disease. Finally, because large numbers of naturally perimenopausal and menopausal NHPs are not available for research at present, experimental approaches that have the potential to hasten the onset of the perimenopausal transition will be described. PMID:20430541

  8. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 2: assessment of functional outcome following lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of functional patient-reported outcome following lumbar spinal fusion continues to be essential for comparing the effectiveness of different treatments for patients presenting with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. When assessing functional outcome in patients being treated with lumbar spinal fusion, a reliable, valid, and responsive outcomes instrument such as the Oswestry Disability Index should be used. The SF-36 and the SF-12 have emerged as dominant measures of general health-related quality of life. Research has established the minimum clinically important difference for major functional outcomes measures, and this should be considered when assessing clinical outcome. The results of recent studies suggest that a patient's pretreatment psychological state is a major independent variable that affects the ability to detect change in functional outcome. PMID:24980579

  9. Comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Related to disease severity?

    PubMed Central

    Echave-Sustaeta, Jose M; Comeche Casanova, Lorena; Cosio, Borja G; Soler-Cataluña, Juan Jose; Garcia-Lujan, Ricardo; Ribera, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Several diseases commonly co-exist with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in elderly patients. This study aimed to investigate whether there is an association between COPD severity and the frequency of comorbidities in stable COPD patients. Patients and methods In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, patients with spirometric diagnosis of COPD attended to by internal medicine departments throughout Spain were consecutively recruited by 225 internal medicine specialists. The severity of airflow obstruction was graded using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and data on demographics, smoking history, comorbidities, and dyspnea were collected. The Charlson comorbidity score was calculated. Results Eight hundred and sixty-six patients were analyzed: male 93%, mean age 69.8 (standard deviation [SD] 9.7) years and forced vital capacity in 1 second 42.1 (SD 17.7)%. Even, the mean (SD) Charlson score was 2.2 (2.2) for stage I, 2.3 (1.5) for stage II, 2.5 (1.6) for stage III, and 2.7 (1.8) for stage IV (P=0.013 between stage I and IV groups), independent predictors of Charlson score in the multivariate analysis were age, smoking history (pack-years), the hemoglobin level, and dyspnea, but not GOLD stage. Conclusion COPD patients attended to in internal medicine departments show high scores of comorbidity. However, GOLD stage was not an independent predictor of comorbidity. PMID:25429213

  10. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabolic factors may play key roles in CKD development and pathogenesis. These include raised proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and ?6, tumor necrosis factor, altered hepatic acute phase proteins, including reduced albumin, increased C-reactive protein, and perturbations in normal anabolic hormone responses with reduced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis activity. Others include hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), with angiotensin II and aldosterone implicated in hypertension and the promotion of insulin resistance, and subsequent pharmacological blockade shown to improve blood pressure, metabolic control and offer reno-protective effects. Abnormal adipocytokine levels including leptin and adiponectin may further promote the insulin resistant, and proinflammatory state in CKD. Ghrelin may be also implicated and controversial studies suggest activities may be reduced in human CKD, and may provide a rationale for administration of acyl-ghrelin. Poor vitamin D status has also been associated with patient outcome and CVD risk and may indicate a role for supplementation. Glucocorticoid activities traditionally known for their involvement in the pathogenesis of a number of disease states are increased and may be implicated in CKD-associated hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes risk and cachexia, both directly and indirectly through effects on other systems including activation of the mineralcorticoid receptor. Insight into the multiple factors altered in CKD may provide useful information on disease pathogenesis, clinical assessment and treatment rationale such as potential pharmacological, nutritional and exercise therapies. PMID:22537670

  11. [Bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)].

    PubMed

    Gillissen, Adrian; Buhl, Roland; Rabe, Klaus Friedrich; Vogelmeier, Claus; Welte, Tobias

    2005-05-13

    Bronchodilators form the foundation of the pharmacotherapy of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Scores of information from numerous large-scale clinical trials, mechanistic differences between classes of bronchodilators, and anti-inflammatory/bronchodilator fixed combinations make the decision what compound primarily to prefer in COPD treatment a challenge. In this review of large, double-blind, clinical trials with anticholinergic drugs, long- and short-acting beta(2)-agonists, xanthines and different application forms and combination of these compounds will be examined for clinical efficacy. The following practical objectives were accepted to define effective disease management: improvement of lung function, physical parameters such as 6-min walking distance, reduction of exacerbation rate and severity, improvement of quality of life and dyspnea score. Based on this review, inhalation therapy with a long-acting bronchodilator such as tiotropium, formoterol or salmeterol is proposed for early treatment algorithm. The combination of an anticholinergic compound and a long-acting bronchodilator may have an additive effect on bronchodilatation. The addition of inhaled corticosteroids is only recommended in stages III and IV. Besides, pharmacotherapy of COPD should always be flanked by smoking prevention programs, and supportive therapy, if indicated in severe disease stages. PMID:15902378

  12. [Prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations].

    PubMed

    Dusser, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) aggravate disease course, induce increased morbidity and mortality, impair quality of life, and raise the direct costs of COPD. Their prevention is essential and is an integral part of the COPD program defined by French health authorities for the 2005-2010 period. Both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches have been shown to be effective in preventing exacerbations, but these treatments are still underused and misused. Important nonpharmacologic therapies that directly decrease the risk of exacerbation or hospitalization include smoking cessation, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and education. Most of the drugs available for long-term management of COPD have significant effects on the frequency of exacerbations: tiotropium and salmeterol, each used alone, as well as fixed combinations of salmeterol/fluticasone or formoterol/budesonide. Tiotropium reduces the frequency of exacerbation in both moderate and severe COPD. Inhaled glucocorticosteroid agents are not recommended alone. They must be prescribed only with a long-acting bronchodilator and only to patients with severe disease and repeated exacerbations. Influenza vaccination is recommended. PMID:18829252

  13. Addressing health disparities in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I -Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-12-01

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008–2012.However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database.The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran's I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD. PMID:25587608

  14. Addressing health disparities in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I-Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-01-01

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008-2012. However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database. The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran's I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD. PMID:25514144

  15. Sputum myeloperoxidase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Airway inflammation, especially neutrophilic airway inflammation, is a cardinal pathophysiologic feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The ideal biomarkers characterizing the inflammation might have important potential clinical applications in disease assessment and therapeutic intervention. Sputum myeloperoxidase (MPO) is recognized as a marker of neutrophil activity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether sputum MPO levels could reflect disease status or be regulated by regular medications for COPD. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database, CINAHL and http://www.controlled-trials.com for relevant reports published before September 2012. Observational studies comparing sputum MPO in COPD patients and healthy subjects or asthmatics, or within the COPD group, and studies comparing sputum MPO before and after treatment were all included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed using STATA 10.0 software. Results A total of 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Sputum MPO levels were increased in stable COPD patients when compared with normal controls, and this increase was especially pronounced during exacerbations as compared with MPO levels during the stable state. Theophylline treatment was able to reduce MPO levels in COPD patients, while glucocorticoid treatment failed to achieve the same result. Conclusion Sputum MPO might be a promising biomarker for guiding COPD management; however, further investigations are needed to confirm this. PMID:24588870

  16. Thyroid disorders and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mohamedali, Mohamed; Reddy Maddika, Srikanth; Vyas, Anix; Iyer, Viswanathan; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient. PMID:24829799

  17. Addressing Health Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I.-Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-01-01

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008–2012. However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database. The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran’s I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD. PMID:25514144

  18. Virtual Communities for Diabetes Chronic Disease Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Chorbev, Ivan; Sotirovska, Marija; Mihajlov, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is classified as the world's fastest-growing chronic illness that affects millions of people. It is a very serious disease, but the bright side is that it is treatable and can be managed. Proper education in this view is necessary to achieve essential control and prevent the aggregation of this chronic sickness. We have developed a healthcare social network that provides methods for distance learning; opportunities for creation of virtual self-help groups where patients can get information and establish interactions among each other in order to exchange important healthcare-related information; discussion forums; patient-to-healthcare specialist communication. The mission of our virtual community is to increase the independence of people with diabetes, self-management, empower them to take care of themselves, make their everyday activities easier, enrich their medical knowledge, and improve their health condition, make them more productive, and improve their communication with other patients with similar diagnoses. The ultimate goal is to enhance the quality of their life. PMID:22121358

  19. [Chronic kidney disease, new therapeutic approaches].

    PubMed

    Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Ronco, Pierre; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Despite the use of angiotensin blockers, chronic kidney diseases still progress. New therapeutic approaches aim to strengthen and to complete angiotensin blocker effects. Endothelin receptor antagonists, in addition to angiotensin blockers reduce blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in diabetic nephropathies but can induce fluid overload. A second therapeutic approach consists in preventing the development of interstitial renal fibrosis which is a prognostic factor of CKD. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays a major role in this process. Several molecules such as pirfenidone, microARN are in development to block TGF-beta or its downstream signaling pathways. Another approach aims to promote resolution of inflammation and renal repair Interesting experimental results were obtained with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and with methyl of bardoxolone in humans. PMID:22335071

  20. Sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mohsenin, Vahid

    2005-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death, affecting 14 million adults in the United States. Symptoms related to sleep disturbances are common in moderate to severe COPD, particularly in elderly patients, in the form of morning tiredness and early awakenings. One major cause of morbidity in this population is abnormalities in gas exchange and resultant hypoxemia. Sleep has profound adverse effects on respiration and gas exchange in patients with COPD. There are several mechanisms underlying nonapneic oxygen desaturation during sleep. They include decreased functional residual capacity, diminished ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia, impaired respiratory mechanical effectiveness, diminished arousal responses, respiratory muscle fatigue, diminished nonchemical respiratory drive, increased upper airway resistance, and the position of baseline saturation values on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Smoking cessation, bronchodilation, and pulmonary rehabilitation are cornerstones of treatment of COPD. Improvement in lung mechanics and gas exchange should lead to better sleep quality and health status. PMID:16052423

  1. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  2. Mechanisms of progression of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in all age groups, including children. Regardless of the underlying cause, CKD is characterized by progressive scarring that ultimately affects all structures of the kidney. The relentless progression of CKD is postulated to result from a self-perpetuating vicious cycle of fibrosis activated after initial injury. We will review possible mechanisms of progressive renal damage, including systemic and glomerular hypertension, various cytokines and growth factors, with special emphasis on the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), podocyte loss, dyslipidemia and proteinuria. We will also discuss possible specific mechanisms of tubulointerstitial fibrosis that are not dependent on glomerulosclerosis, and possible underlying predispositions for CKD, such as genetic factors and low nephron number. PMID:17647026

  3. Endothelin system & its antagonism in chronic kidney disease 

    E-print Network

    Dhaun, Neeraj

    2012-06-30

    Since its discovery in 1988 the powerful vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as the cardiovascular disease with which it is ...

  4. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  5. Chronic kidney disease: supporting at-risk and diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Aysha

    2015-02-01

    Aysha Mendes discusses the effects of chronic kidney disease and points out the indispensable role that community nurses can play in terms of prevention, diagnosis, treatment and helping patients to live with the disease. PMID:25651285

  6. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a chronic degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system of cattle. The disease belongs to the group ... by BSE experience progressive degeneration of the nervous system. Affected animals may display changes in temperament (nervousness ...

  7. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A Herzog; Richard W Asinger; Alan K Berger; David M Charytan; Javier Díez; Robert G Hart; Kai-Uwe Eckardt; Bertram L Kasiske; Peter A McCullough; Rod S Passman; Stephanie S DeLoach; Patrick H Pun; Eberhard Ritz

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, and the presence of CKD worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is associated with specific risk factors. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathology and manifestation of CVD differ in the presence of CKD. During a clinical update conference convened by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes

  8. Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults with Kidney Disease and Diabetes ....

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Summary – Oct. 11, 2012 Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults With ... gov/ckd.cfm . Understanding Your Condition What is chronic kidney disease? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in ...

  9. Chronic Disease Management: A Definition And Systematic Approach To Component Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Norris; Russell E. Glasgow; Michael M. Engelgau; Patrick J. OConnor; David McCulloch

    2003-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases is tremendous, and traditional methods of healthcare delivery are unsuitable for addressing these needs. Chronic disease management has emerged as a new strategy for chronic disease care, but a consistent definition has not been utilized. Our objective is to present an operational definition of chronic disease management. Based on prior systematic reviews of chronic disease

  10. Arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease: causes and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D Chue; Jonathan N Townend; Richard P Steeds; Charles J Ferro

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, and heart failure and arrhythmias are the biggest causes of cardiovascular death in this population. Increased arterial stiffness is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease and is associated with adverse alterations in cardiac structure and function that may predispose to an increased risk of cardiovascular death. These changes are already apparent

  11. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca

    2013-04-15

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ? There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ? Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ? Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ? Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up.

  12. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  13. Correction of Anemia with Epoetin Alfa in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay K. Singh; Lynda Szczech; Kezhen L. Tang; Huiman Barnhart; Shelly Sapp; Marsha Wolfson; Donal Reddan

    2006-01-01

    Background Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease, usually develops as a consequence of erythropoietin deficiency. Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin alfa) is indicated for the correction of anemia associated with this condition. However, the optimal level of hemoglobin correction is not defined. Methods In this open-label trial, we studied 1432 patients with chronic kidney disease, 715 of whom were

  14. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO OZONE CAUSES RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A chronic study to determine the progression and or/reversibility of ozone-induced lung disease was conducted. ale rats were exposed to a diurnal pattern of ozone (O3) for 1 wk, 3 wk, 3 mo, 12 mo, or 18 mo. he occurrence of chronic lung disease was determined by structural and fu...

  15. Skeletal Disproportion in Children with Chronic Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Qayyum; Lolita Alcocer; Heather Maxwell; T. James Beattie; Anna V. Murphy; Ian J. Ramage; S. Faisal Ahmed

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess stature and skeletal disproportion in children with chronic renal disease. Methods: Cross-sectional study of height (HT), sitting height (SH), subischial leg length (SILL), sitting height\\/height ratio (SH:HT) and disproportion score (SH SDS minus SILL SDS) in 56 children (M:35) with median age 11.4 years (range 4.5,18.7) with chronic renal disease. Results: There were 19 children with chronic

  16. Therapeutic vaccine for acute and chronic motor neuron diseases: Implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Angelov, D. N.; Waibel, S.; Guntinas-Lichius, O.; Lenzen, M.; Neiss, W. F.; Tomov, T. L.; Yoles, E.; Kipnis, J.; Schori, H.; Reuter, A.; Ludolph, A.; Schwartz, M.

    2003-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination with Copaxone (glatiramer acetate, Cop-1) protects motor neurons against acute and chronic degenerative conditions. In acute degeneration after facial nerve axotomy, the number of surviving motor neurons was almost two times higher in Cop-1-vaccinated mice than in nonvaccinated mice, or in mice injected with PBS emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (P < 0.05). In mice that express the mutant human gene Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase G93A (SOD1), and therefore simulate the chronic human motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Cop-1 vaccination prolonged life span compared to untreated matched controls, from 211 ± 7 days (n = 15) to 263 ± 8 days (n = 14; P < 0.0001). Our studies show that vaccination significantly improved motor activity. In line with the experimentally based concept of protective autoimmunity, these findings suggest that Cop-1 vaccination boosts the local immune response needed to combat destructive self-compounds associated with motor neuron death. Its differential action in CNS autoimmune diseases and neurodegenerative disorders, depending on the regimen used, allows its use as a therapy for either condition. Daily administration of Cop-1 is an approved treatment for multiple sclerosis. The protocol for non-autoimmune neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, remains to be established by future studies. PMID:12668759

  17. Vitamin D and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Seong

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a significant global health problem because of the increased risk of total and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is common in patients with CKD, and serum levels of vitamin D appear to have an inverse correlation with kidney function. Growing evidence has indicated that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to deteriorating renal function, as well as increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Recent studies have suggested that treatment with active vitamin D or its analogues can ameliorate renal injury by reducing fibrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation in animal models; this treatment also decreases proteinuria and mortality in patients with CKD. These renoprotective effects of vitamin D treatment are far beyond its classical role in the maintenance of bone and mineral metabolism, in addition to its pleiotropic effects on extra-mineral metabolism. In this review, we discuss the altered metabolism of vitamin D in kidney disease, and the potential renoprotective mechanisms of vitamin D in experimental and clinical studies. In addition, issues regarding the effects of vitamin D treatment on clinical outcomes are discussed. PMID:25045287

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: definition and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Mannino, David M

    2003-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continues to cause a heavy health and economic burden in the United States and around the world. Some of the risk factors for COPD are well known and include smoking, occupational exposures, air pollution, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and certain genetic variations, although many questions remain, such as why < 20% of smokers develop substantial airway obstruction. There are several different definitions of COPD and the definitions depend on accurate diagnosis. Small differences in the definition can have large effects on the estimates of COPD in the population. In addition, newer measures, such as functional status or exercise capability, have emerged as important in determining the prognosis of COPD patients. Furthermore, evidence continues to emerge that COPD represents several different disease processes, with potentially different interventions required. In most of the world COPD prevalence and mortality are still increasing and will probably continue to rise in response to increases in smoking, particularly by women and adolescents. Resources aimed at smoking cessation and prevention, COPD education, early detection, and better treatment will be of the most benefit in our continuing efforts against this important cause of morbidity and mortality. PMID:14651759

  19. Chronic kidney disease in acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high burden of coronary artery disease. In patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), CKD is highly prevalent and associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. Management of patients with CKD presenting with ACS is more complex than in the general population because of the lack of well-designed randomized trials assessing therapeutic strategies in such patients. The almost uniform exclusion of patients with CKD from randomized studies evaluating new targeted therapies for ACS, coupled with concerns about further deterioration of renal function and therapy-related toxic effects, may explain the less frequent use of proven medical therapies in this subgroup of high-risk patients. However, these patients potentially have much to gain from conventional revascularization strategies used in the general population. The objective of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the epidemiology and the clinical and prognostic relevance of CKD in ACS patients, in particular with respect to unresolved issues and uncertainties regarding recommended medical therapies and coronary revascularization strategies. PMID:24175251

  20. Molecular diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease

    PubMed Central

    Roos, D; Boer, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, liver, brain and bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species, Klebsiella species, Burkholderia cepacia and Salmonella species. CGD is a rare (?1:250 000 births) disease caused by mutations in any one of the five components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in phagocytes. This enzyme generates superoxide and is essential for intracellular killing of pathogens by phagocytes. Molecular diagnosis of CGD involves measuring NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes, measuring protein expression of NADPH oxidase components and mutation analysis of genes encoding these components. Residual oxidase activity is important to know for estimation of the clinical course and the chance of survival of the patient. Mutation analysis is mandatory for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes the different assays available for the diagnosis of CGD, the precautions to be taken for correct measurements, the flow diagram to be followed, the assays for confirmation of the diagnosis and the determinations for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24016250

  1. Chronic kidney disease and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsu; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Oba, Shigeyoshi; Takahashi, Masao; Homma, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition among male chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Its prevalence is estimated to be approximately 80% among these patients. It has been well established that the production of nitric oxide from the cavernous nerve and vascular endothelium and the subsequent production of cyclic GMP are critically important in initiating and maintaining erection. Factors affecting these pathways can induce ED. The etiology of ED in CKD patients is multifactorial. Factors including abnormalities in gonadal-pituitary system, disturbance in autonomic nervous system, endothelial dysfunction, anemia (and erythropoietin deficiency), secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs, zinc deficiency, and psychological problems are implicated in the occurrence of ED. An improvement of general conditions is the first step of treatment. Sufficient dialysis and adequate nutritional intake are necessary. In addition, control of anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism is required. Changes of drugs that potentially affect erectile function may be necessary. Further, zinc supplementation may be necessary when zinc deficiency is suspected. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are commonly used for treating ED in CKD patients, and their efficacy was confirmed by many studies. Testosterone replacement therapy in addition to PDE5Is may be useful, particularly for CKD patients with hypogonadism. Renal transplantation may restore erectile function. ED is an early marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which it frequently precedes; therefore, it is crucial to examine the presence of ED in CKD patients not only for the improvement of the quality of life but also for the prevention of CVD attack. PMID:25374815

  2. Molecular diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Roos, D; de Boer, M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, liver, brain and bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species, Klebsiella species, Burkholderia cepacia and Salmonella species. CGD is a rare (?1:250?000 births) disease caused by mutations in any one of the five components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in phagocytes. This enzyme generates superoxide and is essential for intracellular killing of pathogens by phagocytes. Molecular diagnosis of CGD involves measuring NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes, measuring protein expression of NADPH oxidase components and mutation analysis of genes encoding these components. Residual oxidase activity is important to know for estimation of the clinical course and the chance of survival of the patient. Mutation analysis is mandatory for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes the different assays available for the diagnosis of CGD, the precautions to be taken for correct measurements, the flow diagram to be followed, the assays for confirmation of the diagnosis and the determinations for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24016250

  3. Burden of chronic kidney disease: North Africa.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Rashad S

    2013-05-01

    North Africa (NAF) is composed of six countries located in the African Sahara, namely the Western Sahara, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Common features between these countries include similar climate, ecology, population genetics, and the socioeconomic environment. This commonality reflects on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) profile in these countries. While there are some estimates on the epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease, that of earlier stages is unknown. Several national screening programs are currently addressing this issue, such as the EGIPT-CKD project in Egypt and the MAREMAR study in Morocco. Preliminary results from the former suggest a prevalence of proteinuria in 10.6% of the relatives of patients on regular dialysis treatment. Despite the lack of reliable registries, it was possible to gather information on the etiology of CKD by direct contact with leading nephrologists in those countries. It turns out that glomerulonephritis (GN) accounts for 9-20%, diabetes 11-18%, hypertensive nephrosclerosis 10-35%, chronic interstitial nephritis 7-17%, and polycystic disease 2-3%. Compared to two decades earlier, diabetes has become more common at the expense of GN, proliferative GN, and amyloidosis regressed in favor of IgA and membranous nephropathies in Tunisian adults. Conventional schistosomal nephropathies are regressing in favor of hepatitis C viral (HCV) nephropathy in Egyptians. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is increasing at the expense of proliferative GNs in the region at large. Access to regular dialysis has been optimized during the past decade, with favorable outcomes despite the high incidence of HCV infection, tuberculosis, and protein-calorie malnutrition. Kidney transplantation is available in all NAF countries except the Western Sahara. About 650 transplants are performed annually from live donors, the majority in Egypt, where data from the largest center in Mansoura display a 10-year graft survival of 62%. Many transplants are performed from living unrelated donors, particularly in Egypt, which creates an ethical debate. Legislation for deceased-donor transplantation has been passed successively over the past two decades in Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt, which is expected to reflect quantitatively and qualitatively on the transplantation activity in the near future. PMID:25018981

  4. Moraxella catarrhalis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Grant, Brydon J. B.; Sethi, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Moraxella catarrhalis is frequently present in the sputum of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about the role of M. catarrhalis in this common disease. Objective: To elucidate the burden of disease, the dynamics of carriage, and immune responses to M. catarrhalis in COPD. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 104 adults with COPD in an outpatient clinic at the Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Measurements: Clinical information, sputum cultures, molecular typing of isolates, and immunoassays to measure antibodies to M. catarrhalis. Main Results: Over 81 months, 104 patients made 3,009 clinic visits, 560 during exacerbations. Molecular typing identified 120 episodes of acquisition and clearance of M. catarrhalis in 50 patients; 57 (47.5%) of the acquisitions were associated with clinical exacerbations. No instances of simultaneous acquisition of a new strain of another pathogen were observed. The duration of carriage of M. catarrhalis was shorter with exacerbations compared with asymptomatic colonization (median, 31.0 vs. 40.4 days; p = 0.01). Reacquisition of the same strain was rare. The intensity of the serum IgG response was greater after exacerbations than asymptomatic colonization (p = 0.009). Asymptomatic colonization was associated with a greater frequency of a sputum IgA response than exacerbation (p = 0.009). Conclusions: M. catarrhalis likely causes approximately 10% of exacerbations of COPD, accounting for approximately 2 to 4 million episodes annually. The organism is cleared efficiently after a short duration of carriage. Patients develop strain-specific protection after clearance of M. catarrhalis from the respiratory tract. PMID:15805178

  5. Hemoglobin Decline in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Baseline Results from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Fadrowski; Christopher B. Pierce; Stephen R. Cole; Marva Moxey-Mims; Bradley A. Warady; Susan L. Furth

    Background and objectives: The level of glomerular filtration rate at which hemoglobin declines in chronic kidney disease is poorly described in the pediatric population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This cross-sectional study of North American children with chronic kidney disease examined the association of glomerular filtration rate, determined by the plasma disappearance of iohexol, and hemoglobin concentration. Results: Of the

  6. Effectiveness of innovations in nurse led chronic disease management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review of evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie J. C. Taylor; Bridget Candy; Rosamund M. Bryar; Jean Ramsay; Hubertus J. M. Vrijhoef; Glenda Esmond; Jadwiga A. Wedzicha; Chris J. Griffiths

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of innovations in management of chronic disease involving nurses for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources 24 electronic databases searched for English or Dutch language studies published between January 1980 and January 2005. Review methods Included studies described inpatient, outpatient, and community based interventions for

  7. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    PubMed Central

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  8. Common lung conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    The etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic lung inflammation. In the United States, this inflammation most commonly is caused by smoking. COPD is diagnosed when an at-risk patient presents with respiratory symptoms and has irreversible airway obstruction indicated by a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio of less than 0.7. Management goals for COPD include smoking cessation, symptom reduction, exacerbation reduction, hospitalization avoidance, and improvement of quality of life. Stable patients with COPD who remain symptomatic despite using short-acting bronchodilators should start inhaled maintenance drugs to reduce symptoms and exacerbations, avoid hospitalizations, and improve quality of life. A long-acting anticholinergic or a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) can be used for initial therapy; these drugs have fewer adverse effects than inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). If patients remain symptomatic despite monotherapy, dual therapy with a long-acting anticholinergic and a LABA, or a LABA and an ICS, may be beneficial. Triple therapy (ie, a long-acting anticholinergic, a LABA, and an ICS) also is used, but it is unclear if triple therapy is superior to dual therapy. Roflumilast, an oral selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, is used to manage moderate to severe COPD. Continuous oxygen therapy is indicated for patients with COPD who have severe hypoxemia (ie, PaO2 less than 55 mm Hg or an oxygen saturation less than 88% on room air). Nonpharmacologic strategies also are useful to improve patient outcomes. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves dyspnea and quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation after an acute exacerbation reduces hospitalizations and mortality, and improves quality of life and exercise capacity. Smoking cessation is the most effective management strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. Lung volume reduction surgery, bullectomy, and lung transplantation are surgical interventions that are appropriate for some patients with COPD. PMID:23767419

  9. REVIEW THE CHRONIC GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CHAGAS DISEASE

    E-print Network

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda; I Steven; M. Miller

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

  10. Indicators for chronic disease surveillance - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Holt, James B; Huston, Sara L; Heidari, Khosrow; Schwartz, Randy; Gollmar, Charles W; Tran, Annie; Bryan, Leah; Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are an important public health problem, which can result in morbidity, mortality, disability, and decreased quality of life. Chronic diseases represented seven of the top 10 causes of death in the United States in 2010 (Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD. Deaths: final data for 2010. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2013;6. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_04.pdf Adobe PDF file). Chronic diseases and risk factors vary by geographic area such as state and county, where essential public health interventions are implemented. The chronic disease indicators (CDIs) were established in the late 1990s through collaboration among CDC, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and the Association of State and Territorial Chronic Disease Program Directors (now the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors) to enable public health professionals and policymakers to retrieve data for chronic diseases and risk factors that have a substantial impact on public health. This report describes the latest revisions to the CDIs, which were developed on the basis of a comprehensive review during 2011-2013. The number of indicators is increasing from 97 to 124, with major additions in systems and environmental indicators and additional emphasis on high-impact diseases and conditions as well as emerging topics. PMID:25578080

  11. Lipid lowering in liver and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Cynthia; Litvin, Marina; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    2014-06-01

    Lipid lowering, particularly with HMG CoA reductase inhibitors ("statins"), reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Patients with chronic liver and kidney disease present challenges to the use of lipid medications. In the case of most liver disorders, the concern has been one of safety. There is evidence that most lipid-lowering medications can be used safely in many situations, although large outcomes trials are not available. In contrast, in chronic kidney disease, dosing of lipid medications may require substantial modification depending on creatinine clearance. There are significant alterations in lipid metabolism in chronic kidney disease with concomitant increases in cardiovascular risk. Some data are available on cardiovascular outcomes with dyslipidemia treatment in renal patients. This review will examine lipid physiology and cardiovascular risk in specific liver and kidney diseases and review the evidence for lipid lowering and the use of statin and non-statin therapies in chronic liver and kidney disease. PMID:24840263

  12. Risk factors and early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Postma, Dirkje S; Bush, Andrew; van den Berge, Maarten

    2015-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly a smoking-related disorder and affects millions of people worldwide, with a large effect on individual patients and society as a whole. Although the disease becomes clinically apparent around the age of 40-50 years, its origins can begin very early in life. Different risk factors in very early life--ie, in utero and during early childhood--drive the development of clinically apparent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in later life. In discussions of which risk factors drive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is important to realise that the disease is very heterogeneous and at present is largely diagnosed by lung function only. In this Review, we will discuss the evidence for risk factors for the various phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during different stages of life. PMID:25123778

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent...

  17. [Musculoskeletal pathology in occupational risks and common degenerative disease: reflections on the intensity and duration of the risk].

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Roberta; Astengo, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, in Italy the reports of mnusculoskeletal diseases increase as confirmed in the last INAIL (national insurance for occupational diseases and injuries) annual report. The Emilia-Ronmagna is one of the region with the highest number of reports: 15.9% of the total in 2012. The decree no. 81/08 has partially simplified the medico-legal activities related to musculoskeletal diseases; however, the medico-legal physicians have still to deal with some issues such as risk assessment quality, economic crisis, and specific work environments (e.g. agriculture and many handicraft activities). Tire risk factors of musculoskeletal diseases and their assessments are quite well studied. The latency period of these diseases needs to be investigated, since it could be a relevant aspect for legal medical judgment, insurance protection and prevention. Based on literature data and INAIL experience, authors propose some considerations useful for a scientific debate. PMID:25558730

  18. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an urban Mexican population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANTE AMATO; CLETO ALVAREZ-AGUILAR; RUTILA CASTAÑEDA-LIMONES; ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ; MARCELA AVILA-DIAZ; FRANCISCO ARREOLA; ANEL GOMEZ; HIRAM BALLESTEROS; RAQUEL BECERRIL; RAMON PANIAGUA

    2005-01-01

    Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an urban Mexican population.BackgroundThe present study was primarily designed to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a Mexican urban population residing in Mexico and to evaluate certain biologic and socioeconomic conditions as risk factors for the development of renal disease.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included 3564 patients of either gender

  19. Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank W. Booth; Simon J. Lees

    2006-01-01

    Booth FW, Lees SJ. Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases. Physiol Genomics 28: 146-157, 2007. First pub- lished October 10, 2006; doi:10.1152\\/physiolgenomics.00174.2006.— Currently our society is faced with the challenge of understanding the biological basis for the epidemics of obesity and many chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity increases the relative risk of coronary artery disease

  20. Parathyroid hormone and growth in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Waller

    2011-01-01

    Growth failure is common in children with chronic kidney disease, and successful treatment is a major challenge in the management\\u000a of these children. The aetiology is multi-factorial with “chronic kidney disease–metabolic bone disorder” being a key component\\u000a that is particularly difficult to manage. Parathyroid hormone is at the centre of this mineral imbalance, consequent skeletal\\u000a disease and, ultimately, growth failure.

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease in India: Challenges and Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Agarwal; R. K. Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Chronic diseases have become a major cause of global morbidity and mortality even in developing countries. The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India cannot be assessed accurately. The approximate prevalence of CKD is 800 per million population (pmp), and the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is 150–200 pmp. The most common cause of CKD in population-based studies

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Brehm, John M; Celedón, Juan C

    2008-03-01

    Hispanics are individuals whose ancestry can be traced to Spain and/or areas previously under Spanish control (e.g., Mexico, Puerto Rico). They are a rapidly growing subset of the population of the United States and are quite diverse in their racial ancestry, country of origin, area of residence, socioeconomic status, tobacco use, and access to health care. Current evidence suggests that the prevalence and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary widely among Hispanic-American nations, with similar but limited findings among Hispanic subgroups in the United States. Potential reasons for such variation include differences in racial ancestry and genetic susceptibility, exposure to tobacco smoke and/or biomass smoke, access to health care, and disease management. Future studies of COPD in Hispanics should include large samples of subgroups that are well defined with regard to self-reported ethnicity, country of origin, area of residence, tobacco use, and socioeconomic status. Areas that need to be carefully examined include validation of COPD diagnoses for epidemiologic studies (e.g., by radiologic assessment), COPD in high-risk groups (e.g., Puerto Ricans), impact of biomass smoke (in rural areas) and air pollution (in urban areas) on COPD morbidity, effects of migration and acculturation on COPD prevalence and morbidity among Hispanic subgroups in the United States, development of reference values for spirometry, smoking cessation, and overcoming barriers to management. Public health measures, such as effective smoking prevention and cessation programs, reduction of air pollution and exposure to biomass smoke, and improved access to health care, would help reduce the burden of COPD among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. PMID:18029789

  3. Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cri?an, Alexandru F.; Oancea, Cristian; Timar, Bogdan; Fira-Mladinescu, Ovidiu; Cri?an, Alexandru; Tudorache, Voicu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in severe forms, is commonly associated with multiple cognitive problems. Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA) is used to detect cognitive impairment evaluating several areas: visuospatial, memory, attention and fluency. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of stable COPD and exacerbation (AECOPD) phases on cognitive status using MoCA questionnaire. Methods We enrolled 39 patients (pts), smokers with COPD group D (30 stable and 9 in AECOPD) and 13 healthy subjects (control group), having similar level of education and no significant differences regarding the anthropometric measurements. We analyzed the differences in MoCA score between these three groups and also the correlation between this score and inflammatory markers. Results Patients with AECOPD had a significant (p<0.001) decreased MoCA score (14.6±3.4) compared to stable COPD (20.2±2.4) and controls (24.2±5.8). The differences between groups were more accentuated for the language abstraction and attention (p<0.001) and delayed recall and orientation (p<0.001) sub-topics. No significant variance of score was observed between groups regarding visuospatial and naming score (p?=?0.095). The MoCA score was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume (r?=?0.28) and reverse correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r?=??0.57), fibrinogen (r?=??0.58), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r?=??0.55) and with the partial pressure of CO2 (r?=??0.47). Conclusions According to this study, COPD significantly decreases the cognitive status in advanced and acute stages of the disease. PMID:25033379

  4. [New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-06-11

    Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has underwent a very important advance in the last five years. It has been developed a new long-lasting anticholynergic drug, tiotrope bromure, which has been found to improve lung function and exercise capacity and to decrease relapses. Also the combined treatment of long lasting beta 2 adrenergics with inhaled steroids (salmeterol/fluticasone and formoterol/budesonide) has proven similar results. However, the response to these new drugs is not the same in all patients. Individual characteristics such as gravity, degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, frequency of relapses, comorbidity, etc will determine the response to several agents. Thus, it is necessary to perform a detailed diagnostic study in COPD patients in order to select the best treatment in an individualized form. In the future, new specific antiinflammatories such as phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors or agents with a potential action in tissue regeneration could lead to new perspectives, as well as to new questions, in COPD treatment. PMID:15970187

  5. Thiazide diuretics in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Arjun D; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2015-04-01

    Widely prevalent in the general population, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently complicated with hypertension. Control of hypertension in this high-risk population is a major modifiable cardiovascular and renal risk factor but often requires multiple medications. Although thiazides are an attractive agent, guidelines have previously recommended against thiazide use in stage 4 CKD. We review the updated guidelines on thiazide use in advanced CKD, the antihypertensive mechanism of thiazides, and the clinical studies of thiazides in CKD. Older uncontrolled studies have shown that metolazone reduces blood pressure in CKD, but more recently small randomized controlled trials of hydrochlorothiazide in CKD have shown significant improvement in mean arterial pressure of 15 mmHg. Two recent uncontrolled studies of chlorthalidone including one that used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring found significant improvements in blood pressure. These findings all suggest that thiazides may be efficacious even in advanced CKD; however, electrolyte abnormalities were common in the studies reviewed so close monitoring is necessary during use. Adequately powered randomized trials are now needed before the routine use of thiazide diuretics in advanced CKD can be recommended. PMID:25749608

  6. Deletion of RBP-J in adult mice leads to the onset of aortic valve degenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi LiLei; Lei Feng; Chun-Mei Wang; Qi-Jun Zheng; Bi-Jun Zhao; Wei Yi; Jin-Zhou Zhang; Yue-Min Wang; Hai-Tao Guo; Ding-Hua Yi; Hua Han

    Transcription factor RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling has been implicated in several inherited cardiovascular diseases including\\u000a aortic valve diseases (AVD). But whether Notch signal plays a role in AVD in adults has been unclear. This study aims to test\\u000a whether the deletion of RBP-J in adult mice would lead to AVD and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Cre-LoxP-mediated\\u000a gene deletion was employed

  7. Could astrocytes be the primary target of an offending agent causing the primary degenerative diseases of the human central nervous system? A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sica, Roberto E

    2015-05-01

    Most of the named primary degenerative diseases of the human central nervous system have been attributed to a direct, primary damage of some particular population of neurons. Within the spectrum of these illnesses there are disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fronto-temporal dementia, Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's dementia and cerebellar ataxias affecting exclusively the human species. In the last years it has been shown that non-neural cells, mainly astrocytes, have a crucial role in the starting and development of these diseases. We suggest that the causative agent of these illnesses gets home first within the astrocytes, rather than the neurons, making them sick by modifying the structure of some proteins; from these cells the abnormal process would start a trip to other astrocytes having the same genetic, metabolic, structural and functional profiles that the originally affected astrocytes have, going through the gap junctions which connect that particular population devoted to a particular set of neurons. This appears to be a likely hypothesis because the astrocytes related to a defined population of neurons have their own, private properties and characteristics needed to support one particular set of neurons performing a defined function, making them a different and unique population, a fact which would limit the spreading of the disease to those astrocytes, sparing other astrocyte populations which do not share those characteristics. If this were the mechanism underlying these illnesses, the neurons, which their health depends on those astrocytes, would be deprived of their patronage and would start all the changes that characterizes a programmed cell death, and the clinical manifestations of a defined pathology would consequently appear. PMID:25697116

  8. 2014 National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diseases are getting better treatments. Top of Page Cardiovascular disease Having kidney disease increases your chances of also having cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, and strokes. Keeping your blood pressure, ...

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease and Sudden Death: Strategies for Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. McCullough; Keisha R. Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular death is accounted for, in part, by higher rates of serious arrhythmias. Research shows an independent relationship between worsened renal function and atrial fibrillation, heart block, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and asystole. These higher rates also associate with underlying structural heart disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, valvular disease, and left

  10. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio

    2003-01-01

    Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

  11. A systems view of genetics in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J Keller; Sebastian Martini; John R Sedor; Matthias Kretzler

    2012-01-01

    A tight interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental factors define the onset and the rate of progression of chronic renal disease. We are seeing a rapid expansion of information about genetic loci associated with kidney function and complex renal disease. However, discovering the functional links that bridge the gap from genetic risk loci to disease phenotype is one of the

  12. Strain Fidelity of Chronic Wasting Disease upon Murine Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina J. Sigurdson; Giuseppe Manco; Petra Schwarz; Pawel Liberski; Edward A. Hoover; Simone Hornemann; Magdalini Polymenidou; Michael W. Miller; Markus Glatzel; Adriano Aguzzi

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of deer and elk, is highly prevalent in some regions of North America. The establishment of mouse-adapted CWD prions has proven difficult due to the strong species barrier between mice and deer. Here we report the efficient transmission of CWD to transgenic mice overex- pressing murine PrP. All mice developed disease 500 62

  13. Chronic Granulomatous Disease in an Adult Female with Granulomatous Cheilitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Dusi; Giovanni Poli; Giorgio Berton; Paola Catalano; Cleto Veller Fornas; Andrea Peserico

    1990-01-01

    We describe in this paper a female patient affected by chronic granulomatous disease with all the features of the classic X-linked form of the disease and presenting a mild form of the disease, the major clinical manifestation being a granulomatous cheilitis. The capability of the patient’s phagocytes to undergo a respiratory burst in response to different stimuli was markedly depressed

  14. An Economic Overview of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirsch S. Ruchlin; Erik J. Dasbach

    2001-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Relatively few pharmacoeconomic studies have been conducted on this disease. This article reviews available information about the utilisation of healthcare resources and cost of care, and the cost or cost effectiveness of therapeutic interventions reported for this disease. Burden-of-illness data indicate that hospital care, medications and oxygen

  15. Chronic Chagas ’ heart disease – From pathogenesis to treatment regimes1

    E-print Network

    Silvia Gilka Munoz-saravia; Annekathrin Haberl; Gerd Wallukat; Ingolf Schimke

    Chagas ’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, was discovered nearly 100 years ago (1909) by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas. Chronic Chagas ’ disease is still ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Infected patients remain lifelong parasite carri-ers. With a

  16. INTRODUCTION Chronic ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, uveitis,

    E-print Network

    Meng, Ellis

    ; Ocular; Pump; Rabbit eye; Refilling Received 13 July 2009; accepted 01 December 2009 This manuscript192 INTRODUCTION Chronic ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, uveitis, and age-related macular plays a major role in the management of these diseases.2,3 Successful treat- ment of an ocular disease

  17. Restoring the renal microvasculature to treat chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill T. Norman; Leon G. Fine; David A. Long

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is characterized by progressive loss of the renal microvasculature, which leads to local areas of hypoxia and induction of profibrotic responses, scarring and deterioration of renal function. Revascularization alone might be sufficient to restore kidney function and regenerate the structure of the diseased kidney. For revascularization to be successful, however, the underlying disease process needs to be

  18. Chronic unexplained hypertransaminasemia may be caused by occult celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Bardella; Maurizio Vecchi; Dario Conte; Ersilio Del Ninno; Mirella Fraquelli; Stefania Pacchetti; Eliseo Minola; Marina Landoni; Bruno Mario Cesana; Roberto De Franchis

    1999-01-01

    In a subset of patients attending liver units, a chronic increase in serum transaminases may remain of undeter- mined cause despite thorough investigations. On the other hand, elevated levels of serum transaminases have been reported in about 40% of adult celiac patients. To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical celiac disease in patients with chronic unexplained hypertransaminasemia in comparison with that

  19. Chronic Diseases in the Pediatric Age Group. Matrix No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael

    This paper briefly outlines current problems associated with chronic diseases in children and youth and provides indications for the types of future research and analysis needed to facilitate the development of solutions. In general, these problems are associated with the following: malignancies, hereditary anemias, cystic fibrosis, other chronic

  20. Challenges and opportunities in late-stage chronic kidney disease*

    PubMed Central

    Fishbane, Steven; Hazzan, Azzour D.; Halinski, Candice; Mathew, Anna T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases are a major challenge for health delivery systems and treasuries. These are highly prevalent and costly diseases and frequency is expected to increase greatly as the population of many countries ages. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not received the same attention as other chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure; yet, the prevalence and costs of CKD are substantial. Greater recognition and support for CKD may require that the disease no longer be viewed as one continuous disease state. Early CKD stages require less complex care and generate lower costs. In contrast, late-stage CKD is every bit as complex and costly as other major chronic diseases. Health authorities may not recognize and fund CKD care appropriately until late-stage CKD is defined clearly as separate and distinct from earlier stages of disease. In this review, we describe the burden of chronic diseases, consider the challenges and barriers and propose processes to improve late-stage CKD care. In particular, we recommend the need for improved continuity of care, enhanced use of information technology, multidisciplinary care, timely referral to nephrologists, protocol use and improved patient engagement. PMID:25713711

  1. Reliability and discriminatory testing of a client-based metrology instrument, feline musculoskeletal pain index (FMPI) for the evaluation of degenerative joint disease-associated pain in cats.

    PubMed

    Benito, J; Depuy, V; Hardie, E; Zamprogno, H; Thomson, A; Simpson, W; Roe, S; Hansen, B; Lascelles, B D X

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test the readability, reliability, repeatability and discriminatory ability of an owner-completed instrument to assess feline degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated pain (feline musculoskeletal pain index, FMPI). Readability was explored using four different formulas (Flesch, Fry, SMOG and FOG) and the final FMPI instrument was produced. To assess the instrument, client-owned cats that were defined as normal (normal group) or as having DJD-associated pain and mobility impairment (pain-DJD group) were recruited. A total of 32 client-owned cats were enrolled in the study (normal, n=13; pain-DJD, n=19). Owners completed the FMPI on two occasions, 14days apart. Internal consistency (reliability) and repeatability (test-retest) were explored using Cronbach's ? and weighted ? statistic, respectively. Data from the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance (controlling for age) to evaluate discriminatory ability. The FMPI was constructed with 21 questions covering activity, pain intensity and overall quality of life. It had a 6th grade readability score. Reliability of the FMPI was excellent (Cronbach's ?>0.8 for all groupings of questions in normal and pain-DJD cats) and repeatability was good (weighted ? statistic >0.74) for normal and pain-DJD cats. All components of the FMPI were able to distinguish between normal cats and cats with DJD (P<0.001 for all components). This initial evaluation of the FMPI suggests that this instrument is worthy of continued investigation. PMID:23369382

  2. Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Objective The objective of this evidence-based review was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Technology Pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually tailored and designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy. Exercise training is the cornerstone of pulmonary re

  3. Chronic hypoxia as a mechanism of progression of chronic kidney diseases: from hypothesis to novel therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon G Fine; Jill T Norman

    2008-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease, functional impairment correlates with tubulointerstitial fibrosis characterised by inflammation, accumulation of extracellular matrix, tubular atrophy and rarefaction of peritubular capillaries. Loss of the microvasculature implies a hypoxic milieu and suggested an important role for hypoxia when the “chronic hypoxia hypothesis” was proposed a decade ago as an explanation for the progressive nature of fibrosis. Recent data

  4. Oral Disease Profiles in Chronic Graft versus Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Bassim, C W; Fassil, H; Mays, J W; Edwards, D; Baird, K; Steinberg, S M; Cowen, E W; Naik, H; Datiles, M; Stratton, P; Gress, R E; Pavletic, S Z

    2015-04-01

    At least half of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, have oral manifestations: mucosal lesions, salivary dysfunction, and limited mouth-opening. cGVHD may manifest in a single organ or affect multiple organ systems, including the mouth, eyes, and the skin. The interrelationship of the 3 oral manifestations of cGVHD with each other and with the specific manifestations of extraoral cGVHD has not been studied. In this analysis, we explored, in a large group of patients with cGVHD, the potential associations between: (1) oral mucosal disease and erythematous skin disease, (2) salivary gland dysfunction and lacrimal gland dysfunction, and (3) limited mouth-opening and sclerotic skin cGVHD. Study participants, enrolled in a cGVHD Natural History Protocol (NCT00331968, n = 212), underwent an oral examination evaluating: (1) mucosal cGVHD [NIH Oral Mucosal Score (OMS)], (2) salivary dysfunction (saliva flow and xerostomia), and (3) maximum mouth-opening measurement. Parameters for dysfunction (OMS > 2, saliva flow ? 1 mL/5 min, mouth-opening ? 35 mm) were analyzed for association with skin cGVHD involvement (erythema and sclerosis, skin symptoms), lacrimal dysfunction (Schirmer's tear test, xerophthalmia), Lee cGVHD Symptom Scores, and NIH organ scores. Oral mucosal disease (31% prevalence) was associated with skin erythema (P < 0.001); salivary dysfunction (11% prevalence) was associated with lacrimal dysfunction (P = 0.010) and xerostomia with xerophthalmia (r = 0.32, P = 0.001); and limited mouth-opening (17% prevalence) was associated with skin sclerosis (P = 0.008) and skin symptoms (P = 0.001). There was no association found among these 3 oral cGVHD manifestations. This analysis supports the understanding of oral cGVHD as 3 distinct diseases: mucosal lesions, salivary gland dysfunction, and mouth sclerosis. Clear classification of oral cGVHD as 3 separate manifestations will improve clinical diagnosis, observational research data collection, and the definitions of outcome measures in clinical trials. PMID:25740857

  5. Cardiovascular disease and its relationship with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Li, X-C; Lu, L; Cao, Y; Sun, R-R; Chen, S; Zhang, P-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death, is mostly precipitated by cardiometabolic risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD). CVD and kidney disease are closely interrelated and disease of one organ cause dysfunction of the other, ultimately leading to the failure of both organs. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at much higher risk of mortality due to CVD. Traditional CVD risk factors viz., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes do not account for the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients and also standard clinical interventions for managing CVD that are successful in the general population, are ineffective to lower the death rate in CKD patients. Nontraditional factors, related to disturbed mineral and vitamin D metabolism were able to provide some explanation in terms of vascular calcification, for the increased risk of CVD in CKD. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, a bone-derived hormone that regulates vitamin D synthesis in renal proximal tubules and renal phosphate reabsorption, has been suggested to be the missing link between CKD and CVD. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is strongly related to the progress of CVD and its early diagnosis and treatment has significant positive effect on the outcomes of CVD in the affected patients. Besides this, non-dialysable protein-bound uraemic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, produced by colonic microbes from dietary amino acids, appear to cause renal dysfunction. Thus, therapeutic approaches targeting colonic microbiota, have led to new prospects in early intervention for CKD patients. Intervention targets for preventing CVD events in CKD patients ideally should include control of blood pressure and dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, lowering proteinuria, correction of anemia, management of mineral metabolism abnormalities and life style changes including smoking cessation, decreased consumption of salt, and achievement of normal body mass index. Use of ?-blockers, renin-angiotensin blockers, diuretics, statins, and aspirin are helpful in the early stages of CKD. In this review, we will address the biological, pathological and clinical relationship between CVD and CKD and their therapeutic management. PMID:25339487

  6. Biomarkers of inflammation and progression of chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCELLO TONELLI; FRANK SACKS; MARC PFEFFER; GIAN S JHANGRI; GARY CURHAN

    2005-01-01

    Biomarkers of inflammation and progression of chronic kidney disease.BackgroundChronic kidney disease is associated with higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Statins have anti-inflammatory properties and may attenuate loss of kidney function. Although inflammation may mediate progressive renal injury, the relation between statin use, markers of inflammation, and the rate of kidney function loss has not been elucidated. We examined the association

  7. Bilateral versus single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Bavaria; Robert Kotloff; Harold Palevsky; Bruce Rosengard; John R. Roberts; Peter M. Wahl; Nancy Blumenthal; Christine Archer; Larry R. Kaiser

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Traditionally, despite ventilation\\/perfusion mismatch, single lung transplantation has been the mainstay for end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested the hypothesis that bilateral sequential lung transplantation has better short- and intermediate-term results than single lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Methods: One hundred twenty-six consecutive lung transplants have been performed from November 1991 to March 1996. Seventy-six have been

  8. [Vitamins and microelements in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Ma?gorzewicz, Sylwia; Jankowska, Magdalena; Kaczkan, Ma?gorzata; Czajka, Beata; Rutkowski, Boles?aw

    2014-01-01

    The supply of vitamins and microelements in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is very important and requires special attention. CKD patients presented deficiency of these substances in the diet and in organism, but also excess of fat-soluble vitamins or trace elements is observed. Studies indicate that deficiency of vitamins and antioxidants in diet and also enhanced oxidative stress are cause of many complications for example: accelerated process of arteriosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:25782215

  9. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23802624

  10. Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the surface of the legs to the deep veins and back to the heart; the valves ... is located in the superficial veins or the deep veins. (See "Diagnostic evaluation of chronic venous insufficiency" .) ...

  11. Care for chronic illness in Australian general practice – focus groups of chronic disease self-help groups over 10 years: implications for chronic care systems reforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmel M Martin; Chris Peterson; Rowena Robinson; Joachim P Sturmberg

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. AIM: The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare

  12. Excision of Femoral Head and Neck for Treatment of Coxofemoral Degenerative Joint Disease in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Jason P; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine; Bohm, Rudolf P; Veazey, Ronald S; Carnal, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are a valuable model for osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis has been extensively studied in nonhuman primates in both naturally occurring and induced disease states. However, little published information describes naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints of nonhuman primates. We report a case of naturally occurring coxofemoral joint osteoarthritis in a rhesus macaque. This case radiographically resembled hip dysplasia reported in other species and demonstrated a rapid progression in severity of lameness, with accompanying loss of muscle mass in the affected limb. We excised the femoral head and neck to alleviate the pain that accompanied the osteoarthritis. Physical therapy was initiated, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and video recordings were performed to evaluate the macaque's response to surgical intervention. By 3 mo postoperatively, the macaque had regained full use of the affected limb. PMID:23561889

  13. Evidence from Raman Spectroscopy of a Putative Link Between Inherent Bone Matrix Chemistry and Degenerative Joint Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Jemma G; Gikas, Panagiotis D; Buckley, Kevin; Shepperd, Adam; Birch, Helen L; McCarthy, Ian; Miles, Jonathan; Briggs, Timothy W R; Keen, Richard; Parker, Anthony W; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease that results in degeneration of cartilage and bone in the synovial joints. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of the subchondral bone matrix occur and may be associated with cartilage changes. The aim of this study was to explore whether the abnormal molecular changes observed in the matrix of OA subchondral bone can be identified with Raman spectroscopy. Methods Tibial plateaus from patients undergoing total knee replacement for OA (n = 10) were compared with healthy joints from patients undergoing leg amputation (n = 5; sex- and laterality-matched) and with non-OA cadaveric knee specimens (n = 5; age-matched). The samples were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and chemical analysis to compare changes in defined load-bearing sites in both the medial and lateral compartments. Results OA subchondral bone matrix changes were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Within each cohort, there was no spectral difference in bone matrix chemistry between the medial and lateral compartments, whereas a significant spectral difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the non-OA and OA specimens. Type I collagen chain ratios were normal in the non-OA specimens but were significantly elevated in the OA specimens. Conclusion In comparing the results of Raman spectroscopy with those obtained by other standard techniques, these findings show, for the first time, that subchondral bone changes, or inherent differences, exist in both the medial and lateral (beneath intact cartilage) compartments of OA knees. The development of Raman spectroscopy as a screening tool, based on molecular-specific modifications in bone, would facilitate the identification of clinical disease, including early molecular changes. PMID:24470432

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--a treatable disease.

    PubMed

    Osthoff, Mirjam; Jenkins, Christine; Leuppi, Jörg D

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health challenge and a leading cause of death worldwide. Several risk factors have been identified, with cigarette smoking being the most important. Diagnostic assessment is based on symptoms, risk of exacerbations and results of lung function testing. A fixed post-bronchodilator ratio for forced expiratory volume in one second to forced expiratory volume (FEV1/FVC) of <0.7 is required to make the diagnosis, and the severity of airflow obstruction defines the grade according to GOLD (Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD). The GOLD strategy makes therapeutic recommendations taking into account the grade, symptomatic assessment and future risk of exacerbations. This review focuses on the therapeutic options for COPD, in accordance with the GOLD strategy. Smoking cessation is the most effective treatment option in all COPD stages. Bronchodilators, namely long-acting antimuscarinic drugs and long-acting beta-agonists, form the mainstay of treatment in COPD. Patients with frequent exacerbations also benefited from the addition of inhaled corticosteroids. Roflumilast is an add-on option for patients with severe COPD. Several controversies are the subject of discussion: (1.) whether pharmacotherapy can modify the natural history of COPD; (2.) whether pharmacotherapy should be started in the early stages of COPD; (3.) the impact of therapy on comorbidities; (4.) whether patients benefit from a combination therapy with a long-acting beta-agonist, a long-acting antimuscarinic drug and an inhaled corticosteroid; (5.) step-down therapy. This overview also reviews the evidence for recommended vaccines in COPD, as well as nonpharmacological therapies. Rehabilitation is an essential part of COPD treatment. Oxygen therapy, noninvasive nocturnal ventilation and surgical treatment options only apply to a highly selected group of patients. Disease management programmes and guideline adherence are briefly discussed. In conclusion, although there is debate as to the extent with which pharmacological therapies influence mortality, adherence to the GOLD strategy is recommended. PMID:23592218

  15. Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease: Challenges and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Kanbay; David Goldsmith; Mehtap Erkmen Uyar; Faruk Turgut; Adrian Covic

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease, which is partly explained by the fact that 40–70% of patients receiving dialysis have significant coronary artery disease. Recent clinical studies have shown that lower serum magnesium (Mg) levels are associated with vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

  17. Pathogenesis of degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides.

    PubMed

    Milam, Stephen B

    2005-09-01

    Over the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the study of molecular mechanisms involved in degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides. Based on recent findings, models of degenerative temporomandibular joint disease predict that mechanical loads trigger a cascade of molecular events leading to disease in susceptible individuals. These events involve the production or release of free radicals, cytokines, fatty acid catabolites, neuropeptides, and matrix-degrading enzymes. Under normal circumstances, these molecules may be involved in the remodeling of articular tissues in response to changing functional demands. However, if functional demands exceed the adaptive capacity of the temporomandibular joint or if the affected individual is susceptible to maladaptive responses, then a disease state will ensue. An individual's susceptibility to degenerative temporomandibular joint disease may be determined by several factors, including genetic backdrop, sex, age, and nutritional status. It is hoped that, by furthering our understanding of the molecular events that underlie degenerative temporomandibular joint diseases, improved diagnostics and effective therapies for these debilitating conditions will be developed. PMID:16170470

  18. Chronic renal disease progression: treatment strategies and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Arjun D; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2013-05-01

    Disordered potassium homeostasis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and traditional management focuses on restricting potassium intake to avoid hyperkalemia. Permissive potassium intake carries the risk of hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia, and possibly may contribute to the development of uremic neuropathy. Excessive potassium restriction and removal by dialysis carries the risk of worsened chronic hypertension, intradialytic hypotension, renal fibrosis and cyst formation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Cohort studies have associated both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia with increased mortality in CKD. A single study of potassium intake in hemodialysis patients found increased intake associated with increased mortality despite adjustment for serum potassium concentration. We recommend avoiding mandatory potassium restriction in early chronic kidney disease. We endorse routine potassium restriction in advanced chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis and close monitoring of serum potassium concentration in any patients receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. PMID:23953806

  19. Cost Analysis of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programmes Being Delivered in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Palmer, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease accounts for the majority of healthcare costs. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of chronic disease. Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the cost of delivering the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in order to…

  20. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and REM Sleep Without Atonia as an Early Manifestation of Degenerative Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCarter, Stuart J.; St Louis, Erik K.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by repeated episodes of dream enactment behavior and REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) during polysomnography recording. RSWA is characterized by increased phasic or tonic muscle activity seen on polysomnographic electromyogram channels. RSWA is a requisite diagnostic feature of RBD, but may also be seen in patients without clinical symptoms or signs of dream enactment as an incidental finding in neurologically normal individuals, especially in patients receiving antidepressant therapy. RBD may be idiopathic or symptomatic. Patients with idiopathic RBD often later develop other neurological features including parkinsonism, orthostatic hypotension, anosmia, or cognitive impairment. RSWA without clinical symptoms as well as clinically overt RBD also often occurs concomitantly with the ?-synucleinopathy family of neurodegenerative disorders, which includes idiopathic Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. This review article considers the epidemiology of RBD, clinical and polysomnographic diagnostic standards for both RBD and RSWA, previously reported associations of RSWA and RBD with neurodegenerative disorders and other potential causes, the pathophysiology of which brain structures and networks mediate dysregulation of REM sleep muscle atonia, and considerations for the effective and safe management of RBD. PMID:22328094

  1. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Christian K; Laye, Matthew J

    2012-04-01

    Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause versus treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction (including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity); and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life. PMID:23798298

  2. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Frank W.; Roberts, Christian K.; Laye, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause vs. treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction [including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity]; and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [Accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life. PMID:23798298

  3. Inflammatory Factors and Exercise in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Katherine L.; Smith, Alice C.; Burton, James O.; Bishop, Nicolette C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease frequently present with chronic elevations in markers of inflammation, a condition that appears to be exacerbated by disease progression and onset of haemodialysis. Systemic inflammation is interlinked with malnutrition and muscle protein wasting and is implicated in a number of morbidities including cardiovascular disease: the most common cause of mortality in this population. Research in the general population and other chronic disease cohorts suggests that an increase in habitual activity levels over a prolonged period may help redress basal increases in systemic inflammation. Furthermore, those populations with the highest baseline levels of systemic inflammation appear to have the greatest improvements from training. On the whole, the activity levels of the chronic kidney disease population reflect a sedentary lifestyle, indicating the potential for increasing physical activity and observing health benefits. This review explores the current literature investigating exercise and inflammatory factors in the chronic kidney disease population and then attempts to explain the contradictory findings and suggests where future research is required. PMID:23737775

  4. END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN BRAZIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocemir R. Lugon

    The world is facing an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This report discusses the present state of chronic kidney disease care in Brazil. We report frequency of dialysis treat- ment and prevalence of kidney transplantation throughout Brazil. We estimated the number of CKD patients in the country through a mathematical extrapolation based on data generated by the NHANES. On

  5. Impact of treating the metabolic syndrome on chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aashish Shah; Casey Rice; Barry A. Franklin; Peter A. McCullough; Varun Agrawal

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is defined by the concurrent presence of at least three metabolic disorders that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results from prospective and cross-sectional studies also point to an association between the metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are two important features of the metabolic syndrome that

  6. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santo Dellegrottaglie; Javier Sanz; Sanjay Rajagopalan

    2006-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an extremely common condition, and cardiovascular diseases are frequently reported in this patient population. Traditional risk factors are not accurate prognostic predictors in CKD patients, and new potential markers to predict the cardiovascular involvement in uremic patients need to be identified. Vascular calcification (VC) represents a hallmark of the atherosclerotic process in CKD. This review

  7. Use of vitamin D in chronic kidney disease patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anca Gal-Moscovici; Stuart M Sprague

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a significant public health problem, with 20 million Americans, or 11% of the adult population, currently living with CKD. Life expectancy in patients with CKD is limited by the development of disturbances of mineral metabolism, which occurs in virtually all patients during the progression of their disease, and is associated with bone

  8. Emerging risk factors and markers of chronic kidney disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Kronenberg

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition with an increasing prevalence. A number of comorbidities are associated with CKD and prognosis is poor, with many patients experiencing disease progression. Recognizing the factors associated with CKD progression enables high-risk patients to be identified and given more intensive treatment if necessary. The identification of new predictive markers might improve our understanding

  9. Nutrition and growth in children with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Mak; Lesley Rees

    2011-01-01

    Poor growth in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a marker of disease severity and of quality of care. Causes are multifactorial, and include malnutrition, cachexia, hematological factors, endocrine problems and metabolic abnormalities. In this Review, we focus on the impact of inadequate nutrition on growth disturbances in children with CKD, and discuss all aspects of the epidemiology, causes and potential

  10. Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Collop

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death in the US. Numerous studies have demonstrated that sleep disturbances are common in COPD patients, with more prominent complaints in patients with more severe disease and with increasing age. Sleep disturbances may occur due to the effects of breathing abnormalities on sleep and sleep disruption. However, other

  11. Different CABG methods in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Güler; Kaan K?rali; Mehmet E Toker; Nilgün Bozbu?a; Suat N Ömero?lu; Esat Ak?nc?; Cevat Yakut

    2001-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary dysfunction is still a major problem in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of this randomized study was to determine the effect of different CABG techniques on pulmonary function.Methods. Fifty eight patients with severe obstructive pulmonary disease had elective isolated coronary surgery. The surgical methods for the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were standard CABG

  12. Racial and survival paradoxes in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csaba P Kovesdy; Stephen F Derose; Tamara B Horwich; Gregg C Fonarow; Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh

    2007-01-01

    Most of the 20 million people in the US with chronic kidney disease (CKD) die before commencing dialysis. One of every five dialysis patients dies each year in the US. Although cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among patients with CKD, conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and obesity are paradoxically associated with better survival

  13. Management of Pediatric Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Deborah Miller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina MacDonald

    Chronic kidney disease in children is associated with complications that require nursing interventions in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Given the progressive nature of the disease and the com- plexity of the treatment regimen, it is important that nurses be com- fortable implementing acute and preventive care strategies and facili- tating the coordination of care. In addition, the need

  14. Atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease: the role of macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Kon; MacRae F. Linton; Sergio Fazio

    2010-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and loss of renal parenchyma accelerates atherosclerosis in animal models. Macrophages are central to atherogenesis because they regulate cholesterol traffic and inflammation in the arterial wall. CKD influences macrophage behavior at multiple levels, rendering them proatherogenic. Even at normal creatinine levels, macrophages from uninephrectomized Apoe?\\/? mice

  15. The Role of Statins in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rigas G. Kalaitzidis; Moses S. Elisaf

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality not only amongst the general population, but also in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Persons with CKD are much more likely to die of CVD than to experience kidney failure. Clinical trials have demonstrated that statins are gaining widespread acceptance as a principal therapy for the primary and

  16. Physical Activity in the Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig S. Stump

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. The increase in CKD in recent decades has paralleled increases in obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor that may affect the development and course of CKD. It is well established that exercise training improves a number of metabolic

  17. Different CABG Methods in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Guler; Kaan Kirali; Mehmet E. Toker; Esat Akinci; Cevat Yakut

    2010-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary dysfunction is still a major problem in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of this randomized study was to determine the effect of different CABG techniques on pulmonary function. Methods. Fifty eight patients with severe obstructive pulmonary disease had elective isolated coronary sur- gery. The surgical methods for the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were

  18. Alzheimer's disease and chronic periodontitis: Is there an association?

    PubMed

    Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, an affliction of old age, is one of the leading causes for dementia worldwide. Various risk factors including family history, genetics and infections have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The cognitive decline in this condition is mainly a result of the formation of amyloid deposits that provoke neuroinflammation, ultimately resulting in cell death. Recently, an association between peripheral inflammation and Alzheimer's disease was hypothesized. It was suggested that chronic systemic inflammation worsened the inflammatory processes in the brain. This was mainly attributed to increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1, interleukin -6 and tumor necrosis factor-? in the plasma. As chronic periodontitis is a widespread peripheral immunoinflammatory condition, it has been proposed to play a significant role in the aggravation of Alzheimer's disease. With this background, the current review focuses on the relationship between Alzheimer's disease and chronic periodontitis, and its therapeutic implications. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 391-404. PMID:25511390

  19. The impact of chronic pain on direct medical utilization and costs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Melissa H; Mapel, Douglas W; Thomson, Heather N

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine how pain affects health care utilization and direct medical costs in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Study design A retrospective cohort analysis using administrative data of a managed health care system in the Southwestern US for years 2006–2010. Methods COPD patients age ?40 years were matched to similar patients with other chronic conditions on age, sex, insurance type, and a health care event (outpatient visit, emergency department visit, or inpatient stay). Chronic pain was indicated by pain-associated diagnoses and procedures, or fills for prescription pain medications. The study population was also stratified into those with and without chronic pain to examine clinical factors and costs associated with chronic pain. Results Seven thousand nine hundred and fifty-two COPD patients (mean age 69 years, 58% women) were matched to 15,904 patients with other chronic disease. COPD patients had significantly higher utilization for pain-related services and for overall services. COPD patients had a higher prevalence of any pain medication use over a 12-month period (41.2% versus 31.5%) and, among those using pain medications, a higher mean number of pain medication prescription fills (10.1 versus 6.4). Factors associated with chronic pain included age 40–65 years, being female, having more than one chronic morbidity, insurance type, some emergency department or hospital utilization, and having either COPD, heart failure, arthritis, or stroke. Among COPD patients, those with chronic pain had a mean annual direct cost for overall utilization of $24,261 versus $10,390 among those without chronic pain (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Conclusion COPD patients have substantially more utilization for pain medications and pain-related procedures than those with most other chronic diseases. Total direct medical costs among COPD patients who have chronic pain are more than double those of COPD patients without chronic pain. Pain management may be an opportunity for better and more cost-effective care for COPD patients.

  20. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Efficacy in Retinal Degenerative Diseases of Lens Epithelium-derived Growth Factor Fragment (LEDGF1–326), a Novel Therapeutic Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Baid, Rinku; Upadhyay, Arun K.; Shinohara, Toshimichi; Kompella, Uday B.

    2013-01-01

    For vision-threatening retinitis pigmentosa and dry age-related macular degeneration, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments. We identified, biosynthesized, purified, and characterized lens epithelium-derived growth factor fragment (LEDGF1–326) as a novel protein therapeutic. LEDGF1–326 was produced at about 20 mg/liter of culture when expressed in the Escherichia coli system, with about 95% purity and aggregate-free homogeneous population with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 9 ± 1 nm. The free energy of unfolding of LEDGF1–326 was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal mol?1, and melting temperature was 44.8 ± 0.2 °C. LEDGF1–326 increased human retinal pigment epithelial cell viability from 48.3 ± 5.6 to 119.3 ± 21.1% in the presence of P23H mutant rhodopsin-mediated aggregation stress. LEDGF1–326 also increased retinal pigment epithelial cell FluoSphere uptake to 140 ± 10%. Eight weeks after single intravitreal injection in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, LEDGF1–326 increased the b-wave amplitude significantly from 9.4 ± 4.6 to 57.6 ± 8.8 ?V for scotopic electroretinogram and from 10.9 ± 5.6 to 45.8 ± 15.2 ?V for photopic electroretinogram. LEDGF1–326 significantly increased the retinal outer nuclear layer thickness from 6.34 ± 1.6 to 11.7 ± 0.7 ?m. LEDGF1–326 is a potential new therapeutic agent for treating retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23640891

  1. Biosynthesis, characterization, and efficacy in retinal degenerative diseases of lens epithelium-derived growth factor fragment (LEDGF1-326), a novel therapeutic protein.

    PubMed

    Baid, Rinku; Upadhyay, Arun K; Shinohara, Toshimichi; Kompella, Uday B

    2013-06-14

    For vision-threatening retinitis pigmentosa and dry age-related macular degeneration, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments. We identified, biosynthesized, purified, and characterized lens epithelium-derived growth factor fragment (LEDGF1-326) as a novel protein therapeutic. LEDGF1-326 was produced at about 20 mg/liter of culture when expressed in the Escherichia coli system, with about 95% purity and aggregate-free homogeneous population with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 9 ± 1 nm. The free energy of unfolding of LEDGF1-326 was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1), and melting temperature was 44.8 ± 0.2 °C. LEDGF1-326 increased human retinal pigment epithelial cell viability from 48.3 ± 5.6 to 119.3 ± 21.1% in the presence of P23H mutant rhodopsin-mediated aggregation stress. LEDGF1-326 also increased retinal pigment epithelial cell FluoSphere uptake to 140 ± 10%. Eight weeks after single intravitreal injection in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, LEDGF1-326 increased the b-wave amplitude significantly from 9.4 ± 4.6 to 57.6 ± 8.8 ?V for scotopic electroretinogram and from 10.9 ± 5.6 to 45.8 ± 15.2 ?V for photopic electroretinogram. LEDGF1-326 significantly increased the retinal outer nuclear layer thickness from 6.34 ± 1.6 to 11.7 ± 0.7 ?m. LEDGF1-326 is a potential new therapeutic agent for treating retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23640891

  2. Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n?=?243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium?×?phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p?=?0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium?×?phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p?=?0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium?×?phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957

  3. Hydrocarbon exposure and chronic renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabih R. Asal; Harold L. Cleveland; Christian Kaufman; Wato Nsa; Deborah I. Nelson; Robert Y. Nelson; Elisa T. Lee; Beverly Kingsley

    1996-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate further the potential role of long-term exposure to hydrocarbons (HCs) in the development of idiopathic chronic glomerulopathy (ICG) using a more refined measurement of HC exposure. A total of 321 pairs of cases and controls, matched by age, gender, and geographical area, were assembled. A detailed questionnaire was blindly administered to cases and controls

  4. Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athos Bousvaros; Margaret Marcon; William Treem; Peter Waters; Robert Issenman; Richard Couper; Richard Burnell; Allan Rosenberg; Egla Rabinovich; Barbara S. Kirschner

    1999-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis(CRMO) is a rare disease of children characterized byaseptic inflammation of the long bones and clavicles. Noinfectious etiology has been identified, and CRMO has been associated with a number of autoimmunediseases (including Wegener's granulomatosis andpsoriasis). The relationship between CRMO andinflammatory bowel disease is poorly described. Throughan internet bulletin board subscribed to by 500pediatric gastroenterologists, we identified sixinflammatory

  5. Degenerative Scoliosis: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suhel Kotwal; Matthias Pumberger; Alex Hughes; Federico Girardi

    Degenerative lumbar scoliosis is a coronal deviation of the spine that is prevalent in the elderly population. Although the\\u000a etiology is unclear, it is associated with progressive and asymmetric degeneration of the disc, facet joints, and other structural\\u000a spinal elements typically leading to neural element compression. Clinical presentation varies and is frequently associated\\u000a with axial back pain and neurogenic claudication.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome, Components, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond R. Townsend; Amanda H. Anderson; Jing Chen; Crystal A. Gadebegku; Harold I. Feldman; Jeffrey C. Fink; Alan S. Go; Marshall Joffe; Lisa A. Nessel; Akinlolu Ojo; Daniel J. Rader; Muredach P. Reilly; Valerie Teal; Karen Teff; Jackson T. Wright; Dawei Xie

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Metabolic syndrome may increase the risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in the general population. It is unclear whether, and to what degree, metabolic syndrome is associated with CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined metabolic syndrome prevalence among individuals with a broad spectrum of kidney dysfunction, examining the role of the individual elements of

  7. Hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Taddei; Renato Nami; Rosa Maria Bruno; Ilaria Quatrini; Ranuccio Nuti

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a cardiovascular complication highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease\\u000a (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. LVH in CKD patients has generally a negative prognostic value, because it represents an\\u000a independent risk factor for the development of arrhythmias, sudden death, heart failure and ischemic heart disease. LVH in\\u000a CKD patients is secondary to both pressure

  8. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this illness. PMID:24749006

  9. Osteoporosis in chronic liver disease: a case–control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghizlane Wariaghli; Aziza Mounach; Lahsen Achemlal; Imane Benbaghdadi; Aziz Aouragh; Ahmed Bezza; Abdellah El Maghraoui

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become an increasingly recognized complication among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). The aim of\\u000a the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in patients with CLD (primary biliary cirrhosis\\u000a and chronic viral hepatitis B or C patients) in comparison with a group of age- and sex-matched controls. Sixty-four patients\\u000a with CLD (mean

  10. Extracorporeal photopheresis in chronic graft-versus-host disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FM Foss; G Gorgun; KB Miller

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant advances in stem cell manipulation and post-transplant immunosuppression, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a cause of major long-term morbidity in survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a novel therapeutic intervention which has demonstrated efficacy in patients with refractory acute and chronic GVHD. Clinical responses have been reported in skin and visceral GVHD. While the

  11. Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Goderis, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429

  12. Telomerase Therapeutics for Degenerative Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin B. Harley

    2005-01-01

    Telomerase is active in early embryonic and fetal development but is down-regulate d in all human somatic tissues before birth. Since telomerase is virtually absent or only transiently active in normal somatic cells throughout postnatal life, telomere length gradually decreases as a function of age in most human tissues. Although telomerase repression likely evolved as a tumor suppressor mechanism, a

  13. Distress screening in chronic disease: essential for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Petty, Lorie; Lester, Joanne

    2014-03-01

    Distress is a psychological state that is often observed in patients with chronic disease. Many cancers are considered chronic in nature, with patients experiencing long, disease-free states and intervals of metastatic disease. Distress can negatively affect the biopsychosocial balance in cancer survivors and impede their progress along the cancer trajectory. Distress can also affect medical and psychological outcomes and hinder advancement into long-term survivorship. Distress may contribute to disease progression, although despite research findings, health-care providers seldom screen for indications of persistent or unresolved distress. This article discusses research findings related to the prevalence of distress in multiple chronic diseases. Validated instruments used to screen for distress in cancer survivors, such as the Distress Thermometer and symptom checklist from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, are reviewed. With the availability of brief and concise instruments to screen for distress, providers have the ability to provide holistic and comprehensive care for cancer survivors. The overall financial impact of cancer-related distress is understudied, although similar psychological studies indicate that prevention or elimination of distress is beneficial. Cancer is a lifelong, chronic disease; patients have ongoing needs and varied sources of distress. As the number of cancer survivors exponentially increases, their psychosocial needs will likewise expand. PMID:25032045

  14. Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:24435355

  15. In Search of a Germ Theory Equivalent for Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The fight against infectious disease advanced dramatically with the consolidation of the germ theory in the 19th century. This focus on a predominant cause of infections (ie, microbial pathogens) ultimately led to medical and public health advances (eg, immunization, pasteurization, antibiotics). However, the resulting declines in infections in the 20th century were matched by a rise in chronic, noncommunicable diseases, for which there is no single underlying etiology. The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation (“metaflammation”), linked to inducers (broadly termed “anthropogens”) associated with modern man-made environments and lifestyles, suggests an underlying basis for chronic disease that could provide a 21st-century equivalent of the germ theory. PMID:22575080

  16. A public health framework for chronic disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Robles, Sylvia C

    2004-06-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases are leading causes of death and disability in many developing countries. Several low-income countries lack mortality and morbidity data and do not yet know their burden of noncommunicable diseases. Cost studies are scarce, but in middle-income countries such as those of Latin America and the Caribbean, the cost of illness not only represents much of the direct costs of medical care, but also has an impact on family disposable income. Studies have reported that in low-resource settings, given incomplete health coverage and partial insurance, out-of-pocket expenses are high. Persons with chronic conditions, in many instances, have to forego care because of their inability to pay. Poverty and chronic noncommunicable diseases have a two-way interaction. These conditions warrant attention from poverty-reduction programs. Evidence shows that to have an impact on the burden of chronic diseases, action must occur at three levels: population-wide policies, community activities, and health services. The latter includes both preventive services and appropriate care for persons with chronic conditions. A public health approach embodies a systems perspective, containing the continuum of prevention and control, from determinants to care. In this framework it is critical to identify and address interactions and interventions that connect between and among the three levels of action. PMID:15214266

  17. Why do young people with chronic kidney disease die early?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shankar; Bogle, Richard; Banerjee, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease poses the greatest risk of premature death seen among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Up to 50% of mortality risk in the dialysis population is attributable to cardiovascular disease and the largest relative excess mortality is observed in younger patients. In early CKD, occlusive thrombotic coronary disease is common, but those who survive to reach end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis are more prone to sudden death attributable mostly to sudden arrhythmic events and heart failure related to left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary vascular calcification and electrolyte disturbances. In this review, we discuss the basis of the interaction of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease with various pathological processes such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, low grade chronic inflammation, neurohormonal changes and vascular calcification and stiffness which account for the structural and functional cardiac changes that predispose to excess morbidity and mortality in young people with CKD. PMID:25374808

  18. Long-term follow-up of functional outcomes and radiographic changes at adjacent levels following lumbar spine fusion for degenerative disc disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malhar N. Kumar; Frederic Jacquot

    2001-01-01

    There are very few studies with more than 20 years' follow-up of lumbar spine fusions for disc degeneration. Currently, there is a lot of interest in the subject of degenerative changes above the level of fusion; this study is concerned with such changes in the very long term (30 years). Twenty-eight patients showing sound fusion on radiographs following posterior midline

  19. Cutaneous miliary tuberculosis in a chronic kidney disease patient.

    PubMed

    Suraprasit, Pudit; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Triwongwaranat, Daranporn

    2014-09-01

    A 79-year-old Thai woman with advanced renal failure, dyslipidemia and anemia of chronic disease was admitted to hospital with prolonged fever, productive cough and multiple discrete small pustules on her face, trunk and extremities. A chest X-ray revealed diffuse miliary infiltration. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in sputum and scrapings of pustules from her skin. Blood culture identified M. tuberculosis complex. Pulmonary and cutaneous miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed. The patient's symptoms improved after 3 weeks of treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. This report details a case of cutaneous miliary tuberculosis in a non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patient. PMID:25493081

  20. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew S. Levey; KAI-UWE ECKARDT; YUSUKE TSUKAMOTO; ADEERA LEVIN; JOSEF CORESH; JEROME ROSSERT; DICK DE ZEEUW; Thomas H. Hostetter; NORBERT LAMEIRE; GARABED EKNOYAN

    2005-01-01

    Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, with adverse outcomes of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death. A simple definition and classification of kidney disease is necessary for international development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Kidney Disease:

  1. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barna, Barbara P.; Judson, Marc A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis. PMID:25525507

  2. [Peripheral neurological changes in chronic Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Fortes-Rêgo, J; Macedo, V O; Prata, A

    1980-03-01

    The authors review the literature about the cronic nervous form of Chagas' disease, directing their attention toward peripheral neurological aspects. Specifically, they analyse the results obtained from a "bind" research realized in a small community in the countryside of the state of Bahia, Brazil, where a high frequency of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi is reported. From 99 individuals examined, 50 showed a positive sorological test for Chagas' disease. The most frequent neurological findings in the total of 99 individuals were sensory loss and impairment of the deep reflexes. Among those with abolition of deep reflexes, there were 18 cases carrying a positive sorology for Chagas' disease, being that 15 from these 18 cases additionally presented a mild sensory deficit, characterizing a polyneuritic syndrome. In conclusion, they suggest that there is a neuritic form, as subdivision of a nervous form of Chagas' disease, particularly identified as a mixed polyneuritis. PMID:6773510

  3. Blocking Interleukin-1? in Acute and Chronic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dinarello, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    An expanding spectrum of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases are considered “autoinflammatory” diseases. This review considers autoinflammatory diseases as being distinct from “autoimmune” diseases. Autoimmune diseases are associated with dysfunctional T-cells and treated with “biologicals” including anti-TNF?, CTLA-Ig, anti-IL-12/23, anti-CD20, anti-IL-17 and anti-IL-6 receptor. In contrast, autoinflammatory diseases are uniquely due to a dysfunctional monocyte caspase-1 activity and secretion of IL-1?; indeed, blocking IL-1? results in a rapid and sustained reduction in the severity of most autoinflammatory diseases. Flares of gout, Type-2 diabetes, heart failure and smoldering multiple myeloma are examples of seemingly unrelated diseases, which are uniquely responsive to IL-1? neutralization. PMID:21158974

  4. Update on the management of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Josette A; O'Hare, Ann M; Harper, G Michael

    2012-10-15

    Chronic kidney disease is common and associated with significant morbidity. Given the high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, it is important to identify and treat related risk factors. However, there is growing uncertainty about the benefits of some recommended treatment targets. The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines recommend an A1C level of less than 7 percent in patients with diabetes mellitus, although there is no evidence that treatment to this goal reduces cardiovascular events or progression to end-stage renal disease. Optimal blood pressure goals are controversial, and further study is needed to determine these goals in relation to amount of proteinuria. Concurrent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers leads to worsening kidney function and is not recommended. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, but not progression of chronic kidney disease. The treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and optimal hemoglobin goals, is also controversial. Studies have shown increased morbidity and mortality with use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents aimed at normalizing hemoglobin levels. Patients with chronic kidney disease are at high risk of morbidity and mortality from the use of intravenous contrast agents. Isotonic intravenous hydration with sodium bicarbonate or saline has been shown to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. Gadolinium-based contrast agents should be avoided if the glomerular filtration rate is less than 30 mL per minute per 1.73 m2 because of the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:23062158

  5. Semen quality in men with chronic kidney disease and its correlation with chronic kidney disease stages.

    PubMed

    Lehtihet, M; Hylander, B

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) has any impact on semen quality parameters in men with CKD stage 1-5. Results were collected from 66 men with different CKD stages (age 18-50 years). Age and BMI (body mass index) were recorded for each male. Higher CKD stage had a significant negative linear trend on semen volume (P < 0.05), progressive motility (P < 0.01), nonprogressive motility (P < 0.001), sperm concentration (P < 0.01), total sperm number (P < 0.01), cytoplasmic droplets (P < 0.01), teratozoospermia index (P < 0.05) and accessory gland markers, ?-glucosidase activity (P < 0.05), zinc (P < 0.01) and fructose (P < 0.01). BMI per se had no significant effect on semen volume, sperm number, sperm concentration, morphology, ?-glucosidase activity, fructose concentration or zinc level. A significant negative correlation between BMI and sexual-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P < 0.01) was observed but not with other sex hormones. Age per se was related to a significant decrease of sperm concentration (P < 0.05), normal forms (P < 0.01) and testosterone level (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that CKD stage per se is a factor determining the number of spermatozoa available in the epididymis for ejaculation, in part independent of age-related decrease of testosterone level and BMI. PMID:25487067

  6. Significance of bioinformatics in research of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease characterized by the progressive deterioration of pulmonary function and increasing airway obstruction, with high morality all over the world. The advent of high-throughput omics techniques provided an opportunity to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and process which contribute to the heterogeneity, and find target-specific and disease-specific therapies. As an interdispline, bioinformatics supplied vital information on integrative understanding of COPD. This review focused on application of bioinformatics in COPD study, including biomarkers searching and systems biology. We also presented the requirements and challenges in implementing bioinformatics to COPD research and interpreted these results as clinical physicians. PMID:22185624

  7. Single level Lumbar Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease is Associated with Worse outcomes compared to Fusion for Spondylolisthesis in a Workers' Compensation Setting.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2014-12-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort studyObjective. Compare lumbar fusion outcomes, return to work (RTW) status in particular, between workers' compensation (WC) subjects undergoing single level posterolateral fusion for either spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease (DDD)Summary of Background Data. Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis tends to yield more consistent outcomes than fusion for DDD and discogenic low back pain. Within the clinically distinct WC population, relatively few studies exist which evaluate lumbar fusion outcomes.Methods. 869 Ohio WC subjects were identified that underwent single level posterolateral lumbar fusion with or without posterior interbody fusion between 1993-2010 using CPT procedural and ICD-9 diagnostic codes. 269 underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis, and 620 of underwent fusion for DDD.Subjects were considered returned to work within a reasonable timeline if they made a stable RTW within 2 years of fusion and remained working for greater than 6 months of the following year. To determine predictors of RTW status, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis. We measured a number of secondary outcomes.Results. Fusion for spondylolisthesis was positively associated with RTW status (p = 0.050; OR 1.42,CI 1.00-2.00). 36.4% of the spondylolisthesis cohort and 24.4% of the DDD cohort returned to work in a reasonable timeline postoperatively.Other negative predictors included: age >50 at fusion (OR 0.66,CI 0.45-0.95), >2 years between injury and index fusion (OR 0.59,CI 0.41-0.84), permanent disability (OR 0.61,CI 0.43-0.86), legal representation (OR 0.67,CI 0.46-0.97), and psychological comorbidity before fusion (OR 0.30,CI 0.14-0.62).Subjects in the DDD cohort were prescribed opioid analgesics for an average of 294 of additional days postoperatively (p<0.001), which equated to 24,759 additional milligrams of morphine equivalents (p<0.001).Conclusions. Our study is supportive of the conclusion that DDD is a questionable indication for spinal fusion. Given the generally poor outcomes of this study, future studies should determine if lumbar fusion surgery is an effective treatment modality in similar WC patients. PMID:25494321

  8. Inter-examiner reliability of the diagnosis of cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) and the correlation between CPH and spinal degenerative joint disease (DJD)

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Maja; Mauron, Damien; Peterson, Cynthia K

    2003-01-01

    Background Cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) is a recently described phenomenon of unknown aetiology. Its clinical importance is poorly understood at the present time; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine (1) the inter-examiner reliability of detecting CPH and (2) if there is a clinically important correlation (r > 0.4) between the number of cervical spine levels showing signs of degenerative joint disease (DJD) and CPH. Methods The sample consisted of 320 radiographs of human male and female subjects who ranged from 40 to 79 years of age. The inter-examiner reliability of assessing the presence/absence of pillar hyperplasia was evaluated on 50 neutral lateral radiographs by two examiners using line drawings and it was quantified using the kappa coefficient of concordance. To determine the presence/absence of hyperplastic pillars as well as the presence/absence of DJD at each intervertebral disc and zygapophysial joint, 320 AP open mouth, AP lower cervical and neutral lateral radiographs were then examined. The unpaired t-test at the 5% level of significance was performed to test for a statistically significant difference between the number of levels affected by DJD in patients with and without hyperplasia. The Spearman's rho at the 5% level of significance was performed to quantify the correlation between DJD and age. Results The inter-examiner reliability of detecting cervical pillar hyperplasia was moderate with a kappa coefficient of 0.51. The unpaired t-test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the presence/absence of cervical pillar hyperplasia and the number of levels affected by DJD in an age-matched population, regardless of whether all elements were considered together, or the discs and facets were analyzed separately. A Spearman correlation rank of 0.67 (p < 0.05) suggested a moderately strong correlation between the number of elements (i.e. discs/facets) affected, and the age of the individual. Conclusion Cervical pillar hyperplasia is a reasonable concept that requires further research. Its evaluation is easy to learn and acceptably reliable. Previous research has suggested that CPH may affect the cervical lordosis, and therefore, alter biomechanics which may result in premature DJD. This current study, however, indicates that, globally, CPH does not appear to be related to the development of DJD. PMID:14678560

  9. MicroRNAs: New Insights into Chronic Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Omran, Ahmed; Elimam, Dalia; Yin, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and have shown increasing incidence rates among children in the last decades. Chronic illnesses in the pediatric population, even if well managed, affect social, psychological, and physical development and often limit education and active participation and increase the risk for health complications. The significant pediatric morbidity and mortality rates caused by chronic illnesses call for serious efforts toward better understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders. Recent studies have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various aspects of major pediatric chronic non-neoplastic diseases. This review focuses on the role of miRNAs in four major pediatric chronic diseases including bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and cystic fibrosis. We intend to emphasize the importance of miRNA-based research in combating these major disorders, as we believe this approach will result in novel therapies to aid securing normal development and to prevent disabilities in the pediatric population. PMID:23878802

  10. Chronic pancreatitis: A surgical disease? Role of the Frey procedure

    PubMed Central

    Roch, Alexandra; Teyssedou, Jérome; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques; Pessaux, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although medical treatment and endoscopic interventions are primarily offered to patients with chronic pancreatitis, approximately 40% to 75% will ultimately require surgery during the course of their disease. Although pancreaticoduodenectomy has been considered the standard surgical procedure because of its favorable results on pain control, its high postoperative complication and pancreatic exocrine or/and endocrine dysfunction rates have led to a growing enthusiasm for duodenal preserving pancreatic head resection. The aim of this review is to better understand the rationale underlying of the Frey procedure in chronic pancreatitis and to analyze its outcome. Because of its hybrid nature, combining both resection and drainage, the Frey procedure has been conceptualized based on the pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis. The short and long-term outcome, especially pain relief and quality of life, are better after the Frey procedure than after any other surgical procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25068010

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Chronic Disease: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tabas, Ira; Glass, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of widespread and devastating chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease, have a pathophysiologically important inflammatory component. In these diseases, the precise identity of the inflammatory stimulus is often unknown and, if known, is difficult to remove. Thus, there is interest in therapeutically targeting the inflammatory response. Although there has been success with anti-inflammatory therapy in chronic diseases triggered by primary inflammation dysregulation or autoimmunity, there are considerable limitations. In particular, the inflammatory response is critical for survival. As a result, redundancy, compensatory pathways, and necessity narrow the risk:benefit ratio of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, new advances in understanding inflammatory signaling and its links to resolution pathways, together with new drug development, offer promise in this area of translational biomedical research. PMID:23307734

  12. Gas exchange in disease: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Young, Iven H; Bye, Peter T P

    2011-04-01

    Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality is the underlying abnormality determining hypoxemia and hypercapnia in lung diseases. Hypoxemia in asthma is characterized by the presence of low VA/Q units, which persist despite improvement in airway function after an attack. This hypoxemia is generally attenuated by compensatory redistribution of blood flow mediated by hypoxic vasoconstriction and changes in cardiac output, however, mediator release and bronchodilator therapy may cause deterioration. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have more complex patterns of VA/Q inequality, which appear more fixed, and changes in blood flow and ventilation have less benefit in improving gas exchange efficiency. The inability of ventilation to match increasing cardiac output limits exercise capacity as the disease progresses. Deteriorating hypoxemia during exacerbations reflects the falling mixed venous oxygen tension from increased respiratory muscle activity, which is not compensated by any redistribution of VA/Q ratios. Shunt is not a feature of any of these diseases. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have no substantial shunt when managed according to modern treatment regimens. Interstitial lung diseases demonstrate impaired oxygen diffusion across the alveolar-capillary barrier, particularly during exercise, although VA/Q inequality still accounts for most of the gas exchange abnormality. Hypoxemia may limit exercise capacity in these diseases and in CF. Persistent hypercapnic respiratory failure is a feature of advancing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF, closely associated with sleep disordered breathing, which is not a prominent feature of the other diseases. Better understanding of the mechanisms of hypercapnic respiratory failure, and of the detailed mechanisms controlling the distribution of ventilation and blood flow in the lung, are high priorities for future research. PMID:23737199

  13. The Global Burden of Chronic Diseases Overcoming Impediments to Prevention and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Yach; Corinna Hawkes; C. Linn Gould; Karen J. Hofman

    Chronic diseases are the largest cause of death in the world. In 2002, the leading chronic diseases—cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respira- tory disease, and diabetes—caused 29 million deaths worldwide. Despite growing evidence of epidemiological and economic impact, the global re- sponse to the problem remains inadequate. Stakeholders include govern- ments, the World Health Organization and other United Nations bodies, aca-

  14. Bone Marrow and Kidney Transplant for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Blood Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-03

    Chronic Kidney Disease; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL); Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL); Hodgkin Disease; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Aplastic Anemia; AL Amyloidosis; Diamond Blackfan Anemia; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Disease; Sickle Cell Anemia; Autoimmune Diseases; Thalassemia

  15. Quality of life and emotional state in chronic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Pärna, Ene; Aluoja, Anu; Kingo, Külli

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic inflammatory skin conditions and patients' emotional state and quality of life. The following self-rated questionnaires were used: Emotional State Questionnaire, a self-report scale assessing depression and anxiety symptoms; Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI); and RAND-36, a measure of health-related quality of life. The study group comprised 40 patients with psoriasis, 40 with eczema, 40 with acne, 15 with seborrhoeic dermatitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients with chronic skin diseases had lower DLQI and lower RAND-36 physical functioning scores, more perceived physical limitations and pain, and lower emotional well-being and general health ratings compared with the control group. In conclusion, chronic skin diseases are associated with symptoms of emotional distress, in particular insomnia and general anxiety. PMID:24978135

  16. Therapeutic strategies to slow chronic kidney disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Wühl; Franz Schaefer

    2008-01-01

    Childhood chronic kidney disease commonly progresses toward end-stage renal failure, largely independent of the underlying\\u000a disorder, once a critical impairment of renal function has occurred. Hypertension and proteinuria are the most important independent\\u000a risk factors for renal disease progression. Therefore, current therapeutic strategies to prevent progression aim at controlling\\u000a blood pressure and reducing urinary protein excretion. Renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) antagonists preserve

  17. Understanding the role of genetic polymorphisms in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Luttropp; Peter Stenvinkel; Juan Jesús Carrero; Roberto Pecoits-Filho; Bengt Lindholm; Louise Nordfors

    2008-01-01

    Although no valid studies clearly indicate increasing or decreasing numbers of incident paediatric patients, the prevalence\\u000a of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is growing worldwide. This is mainly due to improved access\\u000a to renal replacement therapy (RRT), increased survival after dialysis and kidney transplantation and an increase in diagnosis\\u000a and referral of these patients. Although the

  18. The origin of interstitial myofibroblasts in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivica Grgic; Jeremy S. Duffield; Benjamin D. Humphreys

    Chronic kidney diseases (CKD), independent of their primary cause, lead to progressive, irreversible loss of functional renal\\u000a parenchyma. Renal pathology in CKD is characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis with excessive matrix deposition produced\\u000a by myofibroblasts. Because blocking the formation of these scar-forming cells represents a logical therapeutic target for\\u000a patients with progressive fibrotic kidney disease, the origin of renal myofibroblasts is

  19. Prevalence of Heart Disease in Asymptomatic Chronic Cocaine Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Roldan; Darius Aliabadi; Michael H. Crawford

    2001-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of heart disease in outpatient young asymptomatic chronic cocaine users, 35 cocaine users and 32 age-matched controls underwent resting and exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and Doppler echocardiography. Findings consistent with coronary artery disease were detected in 12 (34%) patients and 3 (9%) controls (p = 0.01). Decreased left ventricular systolic function was demonstrated in 5 (14%) patients,

  20. Friends, social networks, and progressive chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McClellan, William M; Doran, John J

    2015-04-01

    A report by Dunkler et al. reminds us that social factors are relevant for today's clinical scientist and practitioner. They report that an increasing number of friends reduces the incidence and progression of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. The observation that 'friends don't let friends' develop kidney disease suggests that social factors, as well as biomarkers, may be relevant in developing 'personalized renal medicine' and may identify areas for future nephrology research and education. PMID:25826543

  1. The contribution of chronic kidney disease to the global burden of major noncommunicable diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G Couser; Giuseppe Remuzzi; Shanthi Mendis; Marcello Tonelli

    2011-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the most common causes of premature death and morbidity and have a major impact on health-care costs, productivity, and growth. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease have been prioritized in the Global NCD Action Plan endorsed by the World Health Assembly, because they share behavioral risk factors amenable to public-health action and represent a

  2. Chronic Kidney Disease, Mortality, and Treatment Strategies among Patients with Clinically Significant Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONAL N. REDDAN; LYNDA ANNE SZCZECH; ROBERT H. TUTTLE; LINDA K. SHAW; ROBERT H. JONES; STEVE J. SCHWAB; MARK STAFFORD SMITH; ROBERT M. CALIFF; DANIEL B. MARK; WILLIAM F. OWEN JR

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of mortal- ity among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study describes associations between CKD, cardiac revascularization strategies, and mortality among patients with CKD and cardio- vascular disease. All patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at Duke University Medical Center (1995 to 2000) with documented stenosis 75% of at least one coronary artery and available

  3. Anemia and bone disease of chronic kidney disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Shemin, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    Anemia and metabolic bone disease accompany chronic kidney disease (CKD), and worsen as CKD progresses. It is likely that both processes contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality seen in CKD. This paper briefly reviews the pathogenesis and diagnosis of anemia and bone disease in CKD, and summarizes recent consensus guidelines for treatment. PMID:25463623

  4. Relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Asker, Muntecep; Asker, Selvi; Kucuk, Ugur; Kucuk, Hilal Olgun; Ozbay, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension and whether pulmonary hypertension is an additional risk factor for the presence and extent of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension, and undergone diagnostic coronary angiography for evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease constituted the study group. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease and compared for age, gender, accompanying chronic disease, and pulmonary function tests. A total of 95 patients were recruited in the study. Comparison of the groups revealed that two groups were significantly different on gender (p=0.029), presence of hypertension (p=0.027), and biomass (p=0.040). Correlation analysis of variables revealed that male gender (rs=0.224, p=0.029), hypertension (rs=0.227, p=0.07) were positively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=-0.253, p=0.013) and sPAP (rs=-0.215, p=0.037) were negatively correlated with the presence of coronary artery disease. High prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found. However, no correlation between the presence and severity of coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension was detected. PMID:25664116

  5. Self-Management Support Interventions for Persons With Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Franek, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-management support interventions such as the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) are becoming more widespread in attempt to help individuals better self-manage chronic disease. Objective To systematically assess the clinical effectiveness of self-management support interventions for persons with chronic diseases. Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 15, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database for studies published between January 1, 2000, and January 15, 2012. A January 1, 2000, start date was used because the concept of non-disease-specific/general chronic disease self-management was first published only in 1999. Reference lists were examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing self-management support interventions for general chronic disease against usual care were included for analysis. Results of RCTs were pooled using a random-effects model with standardized mean difference as the summary statistic. Results Ten primary RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n = 6,074). Nine of these evaluated the Stanford CDSMP across various populations; results, therefore, focus on the CDSMP. Health status outcomes: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in favour of CDSMP across most health status measures, including pain, disability, fatigue, depression, health distress, and self-rated health (GRADE quality low). There was no significant difference between modalities for dyspnea (GRADE quality very low). There was significant improvement in health-related quality of life according to the EuroQol 5-D in favour of CDSMP, but inconsistent findings across other quality-of-life measures. Healthy behaviour outcomes: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in favour of CDSMP across all healthy behaviours, including aerobic exercise, cognitive symptom management, and communication with health care professionals (GRADE quality low). Self-efficacy: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in self-efficacy in favour of CDSMP (GRADE quality low). Health care utilization outcomes: There were no statistically significant differences between modalities with respect to visits with general practitioners, visits to the emergency department, days in hospital, or hospitalizations (GRADE quality very low). All results were measured over the short term (median 6 months of follow-up). Limitations Trials generally did not appropriately report data according to intention-to-treat principles. Results therefore reflect “available case analyses,” including only those participants whose outcome status was recorded. For this reason, there is high uncertainty around point estimates. Conclusions The Stanford CDSMP led to statistically significant, albeit clinically minimal, short-term improvements across a number of health status measures (including some measures of health-related quality of life), healthy behaviours, and self-efficacy compared to usual care. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the CDSMP improved health care utilization. More research is needed to explore longer-term outcomes, the impact of self-management on clinical outcomes, and to better identify responders and non-responders. Plain Language Summary Self-management support interventions are becoming more common as a structured way of helping patients learn to better manage their chronic disease. To assess the effects of these support interventions, we looked at the results of 10 studies involving a total of 6,074 people with various chronic diseases, such as arthritis and chronic pain, chronic respiratory diseases, depression, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Most trials focused on a program called the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). W

  6. Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Home » Kidney Info » 1 in 9 Adults Risk Factors for CKD When you have a risk factor, it means you are more likely to have a problem than someone who does ... to prevent or delay kidney failure. Kidney Disease Risk Factors You Can Change Diabetes Type 2 diabetes ...

  7. Understanding panic disorder in chronic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Claire; Howard, Claire; Wray, Jo

    As well as being physically debilitating, respiratory diseases present significant challenges to the psychological well-being of individuals and their families and are recognized to have an impact on health-care services, resources and time. Panic attacks and disorder are particularly prevalent in people with respiratory conditions and appear to be associated with reduced lung function. However, recent evidence suggests that the aetiology of panic in this area may be related more to underlying psychological processes, which can influence cognitions that are related to the experience of respiratory disease and its symptoms. The aim of this article is to give a brief overview of the literature to identify key psychological factors associated with panic and respiratory diseases. The article concludes that panic has a complex aetiology, which requires the presence of specific respiratory-related cognitions. The self-regulatory model can foster understanding of the combination of beliefs/cognitions that can increase the prevalence of negative mood for patients with respiratory diseases. PMID:19448578

  8. Myocardial fibrosis in chronic kidney disease: potential benefits of torasemide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Begoña López; Arantxa González; Nerea Hermida; Concepción Laviades; Javier Díez

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial and perivascular fibrosis is a constant finding in heart biopsies and necropsy studies in patients with chronic kidney disease and hypertension, namely in those with left ventricular hypertrophy. Fibrosis is the result of the unbalance between exaggerated collagen synthesis and unchanged or depressed collagen degradation. A number of factors linked to hypertension and the progressive deterioration of renal function

  9. Regulation of fibroblast growth factor-23 in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per-Anton Westerberg; Torbjorn Linde; Bjorn Wikstrom; Osten Ljunggren; Mats Stridsberg; Tobias E. Larsson

    2007-01-01

    Background. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a circulating factor that regulates the renal reabsorption of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the current investigation was to study the regulation of FGF23 in CKD subjects with various degree of renal function. As such, we analysed the relationship between FGF23, Pi, calcium, parathyriod hormone

  10. The importance of early detection of chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Locatelli; Lucia Del Vecchio; Pietro Pozzoni

    Despite the absence of precise epidemiological data, we know there are a great many patients in the conservative phase of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incidence and prevalence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasing worldwide. As well as being a large and growing clinical problem, CKD is of an economic and organizational concern, since RRT consumes a considerable proportion

  11. Sleep Disorders over the Full Range of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Pierratos; Patrick J. Hanly

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disorders are common and underrecognized in patients at all stages of chronic kidney disease. They include sleep apnea, insomnia, excessive sleepiness, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. They can be related to underlying uremia or comorbidities. Sleep disorders can affect the quality of life, and some are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical assessment, polysomnography and

  12. Circulating Leptin in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NORIAKI TAKABATAKE; HIDENORI NAKAMURA; SHUICHI ABE; TOSHIHIKO HINO; HIROSHI SAITO; HIDEKI YUKI; SHUICHI KATO; HITONOBU TOMOIKE

    1999-01-01

    Unexplained weight loss is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since leptin, an obesity gene product, is known to play important roles in the control of body weight and energy expenditure, we investigated serum leptin levels, along with circulating tumor necrosis factor- a (TNF- a ) and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R55 and -R75) levels, in 31 patients

  13. Mineral and bone disorders in children with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Mehls; Claus Peter Schmitt

    2011-01-01

    As children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a long lifespan, optimal control of bone and mineral homeostasis is essential not only for the prevention of debilitating skeletal complications and for achieving adequate growth but also for preserving long-term cardiovascular health. As the growing skeleton is highly dynamic and at particular risk of deterioration, close control of bone and mineral

  14. DOES CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE LEAD TO LUNG DISEASE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential role of ozone in the induction of chronic lung diseases remains unclear. sing an ambient profile adopted from aerometric data from the Southwest Air Basin, rats were exposed to O3 for up to 18 months before assessments of pulmonary structure, function and biochemist...

  15. New vitamin D analogues for osteodystrophy in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Cunningham

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease has until recently comprised alfacalcidol or calcitriol, both of which effectively attenuate secondary hyperparathyroidism and the target organ consequences thereof. Unfortunately, both these agents also have significant calcaemic and phosphataemic actions leading to frequent episodes of hypercalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia and an increase in the CaxP product. It is likely that these in

  16. Palliative care provision for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abebaw Mengistu Yohannes

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in old age. Patients with advanced stage COPD are most likely to be admitted three to four times per year with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) which are costly to manage. The adverse events of AECOPD are associated with poor quality of life, severe physical disability,

  17. A Quantitative Approach to Drug Dosing in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali J. Olyaei; Jessica L. Steffl

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing at an alarming rate. Medication prescribing in this growing population is especially difficult. Many pharmacological agents or their metabolites are eliminated unchanged through the kidney. Drug dosing in CKD is challenging as most patients have a number of comorbid conditions. Patients with CKD take pharmacological agents with potential for drug interactions. Most patients also

  18. Hepatitis E virus superinfection in patients with chronic liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed S. Hamid; Muslim Atiq; Farooq Shehzad; Aneela Yasmeen; Tayyabun Nissa; Abdul Salam; Anwar Siddiqui; Wasim Jafri

    2002-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause severe illness in adult patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) caused by hepatitis C. In endemic areas such as South Asia, however, most adult patients already have been exposed to HAV but could still be susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We document that HEV superinfection in 4 of our CLD

  19. Home telecare: system architecture to support chronic disease management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farah Magrabi; Nigel H. Lovell; Khang Huynh; Branko G. Celler

    2001-01-01

    A system architecture to support information transfer between hospital, general practitioner and the home is described in the context of a Home Telecare System (HTS). The HTS facilitates the acquisition, review, analysis and archiving of a longitudinal clinical record to support chronic disease management. The system allows the clinician to schedule for his,her patient the regular recording of clinical measurements

  20. Mechanisms and treatment of extraosseous calcification in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansjörg Rothe; Thilo Krüger; Patrick H. Biggar; Georg Schlieper; Markus Ketteler

    2011-01-01

    Strong and unidirectional associations exist between the severity of cardiovascular calcifications and mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. In the past 10 years, a wealth of experimental and clinical information has been published on the key pathophysiological events that contribute to the development and progression of vascular and soft-tissue calcifications. These processes involve a sensitive balance of calcification

  1. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  2. Itraconazole to Prevent Fungal Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John I. Gallin; David W. Alling; Harry L. Malech; Robert Wesley; Deloris Koziol; Beatriz Marciano; Eli M. Eisenstein; Maria L. Turner; Ellen S. DeCarlo; Judith M. Starling; Steven M. Holland

    2003-01-01

    background Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare disorder in which the phagocytes fail to pro- duce hydrogen peroxide. The patients are predisposed to bacterial and fungal infec- tions. Prophylactic antibiotics and interferon gamma have reduced bacterial infec- tions, but there is also the danger of life-threatening fungal infections. We assessed the efficacy of itraconazole as prophylaxis against serious fungal infections

  3. Evaluation and treatment of gout as a chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria

    2012-11-01

    Gout is a disease caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals in tissues. One of the limitations for successful treatment of gout is to consider it as an intermittent disease rather than a chronic inflammatory disease which, if improperly treated, leads to chronic clinical manifestations. In addition, gout is linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Urate-lowering therapy comprises both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions, but most patients will need urate-lowering drugs to achieve target therapeutic serum urate levels. Reaching target serum urate levels is associated with improvement in clinical outcomes, including a reduction of acute inflammation episodes, resolution of tophi, and improvement in health-related quality of life perception.A number of urate-lowering drugs are available but a number of patients fail to achieve or maintain therapeutic serum urate levels and go on to develop refractory chronic gout. For such patients, efforts have been made to develop new treatments (e.g., febuxostat or pegloticase).This review intends to increase the awareness of gout as a chronic deposition disease, and show that efforts should be made to properly control serum urate levels in order to achieve complete disappearance of urate crystal deposition. PMID:23104464

  4. Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjita Betarbet; Todd B. Sherer; Gillian MacKenzie; Monica Garcia-Osuna; Alexander V. Panov; J. Timothy Greenamyre

    2000-01-01

    The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown, but epidemiological studies suggest an association with pesticides and other environmental toxins, and biochemical studies implicate a systemic defect in mitochondrial complex I. We report that chronic, systemic inhibition of complex I by the lipophilic pesticide, rotenone, causes highly selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration that is associated behaviorally with hypokinesia and rigidity. Nigral

  5. Bilateral pneumectomy (volume reduction) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Cooper; E. P. Trulock; A. N. Triantafillou; G. A. Patterson; M. S. Pohl; P. A. Deloney; R. S. Sundaresan; C. L. Roper

    1995-01-01

    We undertook surgical bilateral lung volume reduction in 20 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to relieve thoracic distention and improve respiratory mechanics. The operation, done through median sternotomy, involves excision of 20% to 30% of the volume of each lung. The most affected portions are excised with the use of a linear stapling device fitted with strips of

  6. Prevalence of Comorbidities in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Cazzola; Germano Bettoncelli; Emiliano Sessa; Claudio Cricelli; Gianluca Biscione

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with many comorbidities, but the percentage of COPD patients who develop comorbidities has not been clearly defined. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between COPD and comorbidities using information obtained from the Health Search Database (HSD) owned by the Italian College of General Practitioners (SIMG), which stores information on about 1.5%

  7. The clinical use of HVPG measurements in chronic liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan G. Abraldes; Annalisa Berzigotti; Juan Carlos García-Pagan; Jaime Bosch

    2009-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe, almost unavoidable complication of chronic liver diseases and is responsible for the main clinical consequences of cirrhosis. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is currently the best available method to evaluate the presence and severity of portal hypertension. Clinically significant portal hypertension is defined as an increase in HVPG to ?10 mmHg; above

  8. Management of cardiovascular disease risk in chronic inflammatory disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana J. Kaplan

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders are at increased risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the effects of inflammatory pathways on the vasculature, clear guidelines on the management of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic autoimmunity are lacking. Thus, rigorous studies assessing the individual contributions of the various treatments used

  9. Vascular calcification and cardiovascular function in chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mhairi Sigrist; Peter Bungay; Maarter W. Taal; Christopher W. McIntyre

    2005-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcification and arterial stiff- ening are independent predictors of all causes and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Few data are currently available comparing vascular calcification and its attendant functional cardiovascular consequences between CKD stage 4 patients and both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) (CKD stage 5) patients. Method. We studied 134 subjects (60 HD, 28

  10. IMPROVING CHRONIC DISEASE CARE USING PREDICTIVE MODELING AND DATA MINING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory W. Ramsey; Paul E. Johnson; Gediminas Adomavicius; Ryan M McCabe

    We use simulation technology to investigate patterns of physician treatments predictive of healthcare outcomes for patients with a specific chronic disease. Clinical encounters are simulated using statistical models of real patient data and explanatory models of physician treatment strategies. From these simulations, features representative of real physician-patient encounters are captured in a database. We perform subgroup analysis and then apply

  11. Prognostic Value of Nutritional Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLOTTE LANDBO; EVA PRESCOTT; PETER LANGE; JØRGEN VESTBO; THOMAS P. ALMDAL

    1999-01-01

    The association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic ob- structive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common clinical observation. We prospectively examined whether BMI is an independent predictor of mortality in subjects with COPD from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. In total, 1,218 men and 914 women, aged 21 to 89 yr, with airway

  12. Cause and Consequences of Sympathetic Hyperactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kotanko

    2006-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease and patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment show a sustained overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, which originates from signals arising in the failing kidneys and traveling via afferent renal nerves to cardiovascular centers in the brainstem. Additional important factors are increased levels of angiotensin II and asymmetrical dimethylarginine. The sympathetic overactivity contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular

  13. Drugs in Clinical Development for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Néstor A. Molfino

    2005-01-01

    Many drugs may be potentially useful in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but relatively few become available for human use due to lack of safety, lack of efficacy, or both. This is an inherent risk in the drug development process, which coupled with the limited understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of COPD, has produced a trend toward

  14. Students with Chronic Diseases: Nature of School Physician Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Brennan, Jesse J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To educate children with chronic diseases in the least restrictive environment, schools must prevent, recognize, and react appropriately to symptom exacerbations. Schools are often pushed to their limits of knowledge, resources, and comfort level. This study determined the health conditions of students for whom districts seek school…

  15. Experimental chronic wasting disease (CWD) in fallow deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to fallow deer (Cervus dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of CWD in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD br...

  16. Gender Differences in Chronic Kidney Disease: Underpinnings and Therapeutic Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Jesús Carrero

    2010-01-01

    In nephrology, gender differences exist with regard to the epidemiology, evolution and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In some cases, these differences run contrary to the general population trends. This review discusses such gender and sex disparities, including differing impact of traditional and novel risk factors, prescription patterns, differences in the responses to therapies, as well as hormonal factors,

  17. CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE OF CAPTIVE MULE DEER: A SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. WILLIAMS; S. YOUNG

    In the past 12 years (1967-79) a syndrome we identify as chronic wasting disease has been observed in 53 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) held in captivity in several wildlife facilities in Colorado and more recently in Wyoming. Clinical signs were seen in adultdeerand includedbehavioral alterations, progressive weight loss and death in 2

  18. Children with Rare Chronic Skin Diseases: Hemangiomas and Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sheila Dove; Miller, Cynthia Dieterich

    The paper reports on studies involving children having the rare chronic skin diseases of hemangiomas and epidermolysis bullosa (characterized by easy blistering). One study compared the self-concept and psychosocial development of young (mean age 46 months) children (N=19) with hemangiomas with 19 children without hemangiomas. Findings indicated…

  19. Consensus statement on chronic and subacute high altitude diseases.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, Fabiola; Maggiorini, Marco; Reeves, John T; Aldashev, Almaz; Asmus, Ingrid; Bernardi, Luciano; Ge, Ri-Li; Hackett, Peter; Kobayashi, Toshio; Moore, Lorna G; Penaloza, Dante; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Roach, Robert; Wu, Tianyi; Vargas, Enrique; Zubieta-Castillo, Gustavo; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This is an international consensus statement of an ad hoc committee formed by the International Society for Mountain Medicine (ISMM) at the VI World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology (Xining, China; 2004) and represents the committee's interpretation of the current knowledge with regard to the most common chronic and subacute high altitude diseases. It has been developed by medical and scientific authorities from the committee experienced in the recognition and prevention of high altitude diseases and is based mainly on published, peer-reviewed articles. It is intended to include all legitimate criteria for choosing to use a specific method or procedure to diagnose or manage high altitude diseases. However, the ISMM recognizes that specific patient care decisions depend on the different geographic circumstances involved in the development of each chronic high altitude disease. These guidelines are established to inform the medical services on site who are directed to solve high altitude health problems about the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the most common chronic high altitude diseases. The health problems associated with life at high altitude are well documented, but health policies and procedures often do not reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge. Most of the cases of high altitude diseases are preventable if on-site personnel identify the condition and implement appropriate care. PMID:16060849

  20. Clinical Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sitzia, Clementina; Erratico, Silvia; Torrente, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary progress in understanding several key features of stem cells has been made in the last ten years, including definition of the niche, and identification of signals regulating mobilization and homing as well as partial understanding of the mechanisms controlling self-renewal, commitment, and differentiation. This progress produced invaluable tools for the development of rational cell therapy protocols that have yielded positive results in preclinical models of genetic and acquired diseases and, in several cases, have entered clinical experimentation with positive outcome. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic cells with multilineage potential to differentiate into various tissues of mesodermal origin. They can be isolated from bone marrow and other tissues and have the capacity to extensively proliferate in vitro. Moreover, MSCs have also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory molecules which can modulate humoral and cellular immune responses. Considering their regenerative potential and immunoregulatory effect, MSC therapy is a promising tool in the treatment of degenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. It is obvious that much work remains to be done to increase our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating development, homeostasis, and tissue repair and thus to provide new tools to implement the efficacy of cell therapy trials. PMID:24876848