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  1. Major affective disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Chaiwong, Warawut; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Pisalthanapuna, Sangnual; Chetsadaphan, Nonglak; Inchai, Juthamas

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) have significant impacts on quality of life including psychomotor domain. Purpose To evaluate three major affective disorders in subjects with COPD compared with other CRDs and nonill population. Materials and methods The Thai version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used as a diagnostic instrument for three major affective disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and panic disorder) by face-to-face interview in assessing patients with CRDs [COPD, asthma, rhinasthma, all asthma (asthma and rhinasthma), and chronic rhinitis], and nonill subjects. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relation between major affective disorders and CRDs adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity. Results Major affective disorders were more prevalent in CRDs than nonill groups (adjusted OR =2.6 [95% CI, 1.8?3.9], P<0.001). COPD patients had significantly more generalized anxiety and panic disorder (adjusted OR =4.0 [95% CI, 1.4?11.9], P=0.011, and 4.4 [95% CI, 1.1?18.1], P=0.038, respectively) but not major depressive disorder (adjusted OR =2.7 [95% CI, 0.8?9.0, P=0.105]) than nonill group. Comparing with all asthma, COPD patients had lower occurrence of major depressive and panic disorders (adjusted OR =0.1 [95% CI, 0.0?0.4], P=0.002, and 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0?0.9], P=0.043, respectively). There was no difference in major mood disorders in COPD, rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis patients. Major affective disorders were not increased by disease severity in COPD. Conclusion Major affective disorders were significantly higher in CRDs than nonill population. Generalized anxiety and panic disorders were significantly high in COPD patients. Moreover, major depressive and panic disorders in COPD were significantly lower than all asthma. The prevalence of major affective disorders may not be related to severity of COPD. PMID:26300637

  2. Prion Protein Polymorphisms Affect Chronic Wasting Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chad J.; Herbst, Allen; Duque-Velasquez, Camilo; Vanderloo, Joshua P.; Bochsler, Phil; Chappell, Rick; McKenzie, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the PRNP gene in cervids naturally infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) suggested that PRNP polymorphisms affect the susceptibility of deer to infection. To test this effect, we orally inoculated 12 white-tailed deer with CWD agent. Three different PRNP alleles, wild-type (wt; glutamine at amino acid 95 and glycine at 96), Q95H (glutamine to histidine at amino acid position 95) and G96S (glycine to serine at position 96) were represented in the study cohort with 5 wt/wt, 3 wt/G96S, and 1 each wt/Q95H and Q95H/G96S. Two animals were lost to follow-up due to intercurrent disease. The inoculum was prepared from Wisconsin hunter-harvested homozygous wt/wt animals. All infected deer presented with clinical signs of CWD; the orally infected wt/wt had an average survival period of 693 days post inoculation (dpi) and G96S/wt deer had an average survival period of 956 dpi. The Q95H/wt and Q95H/G96S deer succumbed to CWD at 1,508 and 1,596 dpi respectively. These data show that polymorphisms in the PRNP gene affect CWD incubation period. Deer heterozygous for the PRNP alleles had extended incubation periods with the Q95H allele having the greatest effect. PMID:21445256

  3. Factors affecting medication adherence in Lebanese patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hajje, Amal; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Zein, Salam; Bawab, Wafa; El-Hajj, Zeinab; Zeid, Mayssam Bou; Yassine, Mohammad; Salameh, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to prescribed medications represents an obstacle toward achieving treatment goals. This problem is more pronounced in patients with chronic illness. Objective: To identify the extent of adherence in Lebanese outpatients with chronic diseases, and to suggest possible predictors of non-adherence in this population. The secondary objective was to assess if medication adherence affects patients’ quality of life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered face-to-face to a sample of Lebanese adults visiting the external clinics at two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Beirut. The level of adherence was assessed using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale which was first validated. The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients was measured using the EQ-5D. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses examined possible predictors of adherence. Results: Out of the 148 patients included in this study, 42.6% were classified as adherent. In the univariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of high adherence included good physician-patient relationship (p=0.029) and counseling (p=0.037), a high level of HRQoL (p<0.001), and a high level of perceived health (p<0.001). Predictors of low adherence included a declining memory (p<0.001), anxiety/depression (p=0.002), little drug knowledge (p<0.001), and postponing physician appointments (p<0.001). The multivariate analyses revealed similar results. In the linear regression, the most powerful predictor of non-adherence was the disbelief that the drug is ameliorating the disease (beta=0.279), however, in logistic regression, patient who were willing to skip or double doses in case of amelioration/deterioration were found to be 7.35 times more likely to be non-adherent than those who were not (aOR=0.136, 95% CI: 0.037-0.503). Conclusion: The findings of this study reassure the view that patients should be regarded as active decision makers. Patient education should be regarded as a cornerstone for treatment success. Additional studies as well are needed to test the practicability and effectiveness of interventions suggested to enhance adherence. PMID:26445621

  4. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  5. Sociodemographic factors contribute to the depressive affect among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is common in end-stage renal disease and is associated with poor quality of life and higher mortality; however, little is known about depressive affect in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. To measure this in a risk group burdened with hypertension and kidney disease, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals at enrollment in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. Depressive affect was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and quality of life by the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Beck Depression scores over 14 were deemed consistent with an increased depressive affect and linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with these scores. Among 628 subjects, 166 had scores over 14 but only 34 were prescribed antidepressants. The mean Beck Depression score of 11.0 varied with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from 10.7 (eGFR 50–60) to 16.0 (eGFR stage 5); however, there was no significant independent association between these. Unemployment, low income, and lower quality and satisfaction with life scale scores were independently and significantly associated with a higher Beck Depression score. Thus, our study shows that an increased depressive affect is highly prevalent in African Americans with chronic kidney disease, is infrequently treated with antidepressants, and is associated with poorer quality of life. Sociodemographic factors have especially strong associations with this increased depressive affect. Because this study was conducted in an African-American cohort, its findings may not be generalized to other ethnic groups. PMID:20200503

  6. Autologous Stem Cell Therapy: How Aging and Chronic Diseases Affect Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Efimenko, Anastasia Yu.; Kochegura, Tatiana N.; Akopyan, Zhanna A.; Parfyonova, Yelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During recent years different types of adult stem/progenitor cells have been successfully applied for the treatment of many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. The regenerative potential of these cells is considered to be due to their high proliferation and differentiation capacities, paracrine activity, and immunologic privilege. However, therapeutic efficacy of the autologous stem/progenitor cells for most clinical applications remains modest, possibly because of the attenuation of their regenerative potential in aged patients with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review we will discuss the risk factors affecting the therapeutic potential of adult stem/progenitor cells as well as the main approaches to mitigating them using the methods of regenerative medicine. PMID:26309780

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  8. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  9. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Yousef; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Balaan, Marvin; Lega, Mark; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic smoking-related lung disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. It carries an enormous economic burden on the health care system. This results in a significant social impact on affected patients and their families. In this article, we review COPD in general, critical care management of patients presenting with acute exacerbation of COPD, and methods of prevention. PMID:26919673

  10. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Andreotti, F.; Di Ricco, G.; Marini, C.; Rindi, M.; Biagini, A.; Milne, E.N.; Giuntini, C.

    1988-07-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions.

  11. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  12. Does Swimming Exercise Affect Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats Treated with Gum Acacia?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A.; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A.; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine –induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  13. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Sleep and Chronic Disease As chronic diseases have assumed an increasingly common role in premature ... sleep health in the development and management of chronic diseases has grown. Notably, insufficient sleep has been linked ...

  14. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  15. [Puberty, fertility and chronic diseases].

    PubMed

    Thébaut, A; Amouyal, M; Besançon, A; Collet, M; Selbonne, E; Valentin, C; Vonthron, M; Zakariya, M; Linglart, A

    2013-06-01

    The onset of puberty is the sum of complex and multifactorial mechanisms resulting from the action of both activating and inhibiting factors, leading to the maturation of the gonads and the ability to reproduce. Many contributors to pubertal development are involved in fat mass acquisition and their action is relayed through the hypothalamus. It is therefore easy to understand how chronic diseases can affect the development of puberty and fertility apart from the specific impact of their molecular alteration. We have chosen cystic fibrosis and chronic renal disease as examples of chronic disorders affecting puberty through distinct mechanisms. As drugs are undistinguishable from chronic diseases, we also describe the impact of corticosteroids and chemotherapy on reproductive function. Last, we describe the surveillance and care of pubertal delay and its consequences (growth and bone mineralization) of patients affected with chronic disorders during adolescence. PMID:23619213

  16. Markers of Bone Metabolism Are Affected by Renal Function and Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Methods Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6–18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10–60 ml/min/1.73m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Results Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Conclusion Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity. PMID:25659076

  17. Chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, Christina J.; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, chronic wasting disease of cervids, the only wildlife prion disease, was believed to be geographically concentrated to Colorado and Wyoming within the United States. However, increased surveillance has unveiled several additional pockets of CWD-infected deer and elk in 12 additional states and 2 Canadian provinces. Deer and elk with CWD have extensive aggregates of PrPSc not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral lymphoid tissues, skeletal muscle, and other organs, perhaps influencing prion shedding. Indeed, CWD is transmitted efficiently among animals by horizontal routes, although the mechanism of spread is unknown. Genetic polymorphisms in the Prnp gene may affect CWD susceptibility, particularly at codon 225 (S/F) in deer and codon 132 (M/L) in elk. Since CWD infects free-ranging animals and is efficiently spread, disease management will be a challenge. PMID:17223321

  18. Preventing Chronic Disease

    Cancer.gov

    Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion to address the interface between applied public health research, practice, and policy. Articles focus on preventing and controlling chronic diseases and conditions, promoting health, and examining the biological, behavioral, physical, and social determinants of health and their impact on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality across the life span.

  19. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Imaging studies are generally not needed to diagnose Hashimoto thyroiditis. This disease may also change the results of ...

  20. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LS. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitizations and disease in nuclear workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148:985- ... chronic beryllium disease. In: Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB, eds. Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects. Baltimore: ...

  1. Effectiveness of knowledge translation tools addressing multiple high-burden chronic diseases affecting older adults: protocol for a systematic review alongside a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, Monika; Perrier, Laure; Hamid, Jemila; Tricco, Andrea C; Cardoso, Roberta; Ivers, Noah M; Liu, Barbara; Marr, Sharon; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Wong, Geoff; Graves, Lisa; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The burden of chronic disease is a global phenomenon, particularly among people aged 65 years and older. More than half of older adults have more than one chronic disease and their care is not optimal. Chronic disease management (CDM) tools have the potential to meet this challenge but they are primarily focused on a single disease, which fails to address the growing number of seniors with multiple chronic conditions. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review alongside a realist review to identify effective CDM tools that integrate one or more high-burden chronic diseases affecting older adults and to better understand for whom, under what circumstances, how and why they produce their outcomes. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AgeLine and the Cochrane Library for experimental, quasi-experimental, observational and qualitative studies in any language investigating CDM tools that facilitate optimal disease management in one or more high-burden chronic diseases affecting adults aged ≥65 years. Study selection will involve calibration of reviewers to ensure reliability of screening and duplicate assessment of articles. Data abstraction and risk of bias assessment will also be performed independently. Analysis will include descriptive summaries of study and appraisal characteristics, effectiveness of each CDM tool (meta-analysis if appropriate); and a realist programme theory will be developed and refined to explain the outcome patterns within the included studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for this study. We anticipate that our findings, pertaining to gaps in care across high-burden chronic diseases affecting seniors and highlighting specific areas that may require more research, will be of interest to a wide range of knowledge users and stakeholders. We will publish and present our findings widely, and also plan more active dissemination strategies such as workshops with our key stakeholders. Trial registration number Our protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42014014489). PMID:25649215

  2. Clinical Factors Affecting the Direct Cost of Patients Hospitalized with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Örnek, Tacettin; Tor, Meltem; Alt?n, Remzi; Atalay, Figen; Geredeli, Elif; Soylu, Ömer; Erboy, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease of increasing significance in terms of economic and social burden due to its increasing prevalence and high costs. Direct costs of COPD are mostly associated with hospitalization expenditures. In this study, our objective was to investigate the costs of hospitalization and factors affecting these costs in patients hospitalized due to acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Methods: A total of 284 patients hospitalized AECOPD were included in the study. Data were examined retrospectively using the electronic hospital charts. Results: Mean duration of hospitalization was 11.38 ± 6.94 days among study patients. Rates of admission to the intensive care unit, initiation of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (MIV) were 37.3% (n=106), 44.4% (n=126) and 18.3% (n=52) respectively. The rate of mortality was 14.8% (n=42). Mean cost of a single patient hospitalized for an AECOPD was calculated as $1765 ± 2139. Mean cost of admission was $889 ± 533 in standard ward, and $2508 ± 2857 in intensive care unit (ICU). The duration of hospitalization, a FEV1% predicted value below 30%, having smoked 40 package-years or more, the number of co-morbidities, NIMV, IMV, ICU, exitus and the number of hospitalizations in the past year were among the factors that increased costs significantly. Hospital acquired pneumonia, chronic renal failure and anemia also increased the costs of COPD significantly. Conclusion: The costs of treatment increase with the severity of COPD or with progression to a higher stage. Efforts and expenditures aimed at preventing COPD exacerbations might decrease the costs in COPD. PMID:22701335

  3. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  4. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  5. [Malnutrition in chronic diseases].

    PubMed

    Cano, Noël; Melchior, Jean-Claude

    2003-02-01

    During chronic diseases, malnutrition is found in approximately 40% of patients. Malnutrition is correlated with complication rates, handicap, need for care as well as mortality. Malnutrition can be related to two mechanisms: insufficient feeding and abnormal nutrient absorption or metabolism. Nutritional assessment of patients with chronic diseases should be helpful for the early detection and management of malnutrition. Nutritional supplementation was shown to improve both nutritional status and survival in selected conditions. Future therapies of malnutrition in chronic diseases rely to the selection of patients susceptible to respond to a new therapeutic approach which, depending on primary disease, may associate nutritional supplementation to rehabilitation and, in some conditions, anabolizing hormones. PMID:12688057

  6. Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of blindness among adults. 6 Top of Page Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases Health risk behaviors ... of Page The Cost of Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Behaviors In the United States, chronic diseases and ...

  7. Chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm. PMID:25999227

  8. Chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer, elk, and moose in North America. This fatal neurodegenerative disease was first recognized 50 years ago and its distribution was limited to the Rocky Mountains for several decades. In the past few years, CWD has been found in the ea...

  9. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

  10. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  11. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Area Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) Phagocyte (purple) engulfing Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (yellow). Credit: NIAID CGD is a genetic ... types of bacteria and fungi, including the following: Staphylococcus aureus Serratia marcescens Burkholderia cepacia Nocardia species Aspergillus species ...

  12. [Chronic disease and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Bühlmann, U

    1992-01-25

    Chronic disease is not a strictly defined term and includes a large number of illnesses ranging from physical to mental impairment. It is estimated that between 10% and 20% of adolescents have a chronic disease. Independence and new relations, acceptance of a new body image and sexuality, career plans and cognitive maturation are core topics in development to adulthood. Chronic disease may interfere with these developmental tasks. Most often there is no specific psychopathology, but the type of impairment, its influence on family life and functioning, age at onset, gender, and other factors will interact with psychosocial maturation. Because of the important role of the family, not only the adolescent patient him/herself, but also parents and siblings need to be included in all major decisions. As hospitalizations may be disruptive they must be planned, taking in account the patient's plans and opinions. Chronic disease may lead to death during the period of adolescence. It is believed that the concept of one's own mortality develops at age 14 to 17 years, a fact that will influence care during the terminal stage of a disease. Whatever the problems and questions raised by the family, the developmental stage of the adolescent has always to be considered when dealing with specific issues of chronic disease. Periodic reassessment of psychosocial development is therefore one of the main tasks of the primary care physician. Counselling will address not only the disease but also the developmental tasks of any teenager. PMID:1734506

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. Chronic kidney disease can also ... healthy diet can also help to lower your blood pressure. If you have diabetes, your doctor will tell you what to do ...

  14. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50th percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared with those with higher (>50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced aBMD in some patients with COPD. PMID:26003953

  15. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (p<0.001). Compared to low intensity exercise, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (p<0.001) and Tnfrsf1b (p=0.047). In this study, high intensity interval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation. PMID:26453919

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  18. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  19. Modifiable lifestyle and social factors affect chronic kidney disease in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dunkler, Daniela; Kohl, Maria; Heinze, Georg; Teo, Koon K; Rosengren, Annika; Pogue, Janice; Gao, Peggy; Gerstein, Hertzel; Yusuf, Salim; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mann, Johannes F E

    2015-04-01

    This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes. PMID:25493953

  20. Granulomatous Diseases Affecting Jaws.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Baddam Venkat Ramana; Kuruba, Kiran K; Yalamanchili, Samatha; Mupparapu, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The common aspect of all granulomatous diseases is the typical form of chronic inflammatory response with distinct microscopic granulomas that are formed secondary to either definitive etiologic agents, like bacteria, fungal, or parasitic, or due to an unknown etiologic agent, such as trauma, autoimmune, or even neoplastic process. Although they can be histologically distinct, granulomatous diseases demonstrate a variety of clinical features that may not seem to be inflammatory. Two types of granulomas are typically encountered: foreign body granulomas and immune granulomas. The differences between the two types of granulomas lie in the pathogenesis. PMID:26614955

  1. A review of the role of exercise and factors affecting its uptake for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, H J; Feehally, J; Smith, A C

    2015-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a long-term progressive condition affecting 10-15% of people. The overlap of diabetes, hypertension and CKD in an aging population means that prevalence will only increase. CKD increases the risk of all-cause mortality, secondary to the elevated cardiovascular risk. It also significantly affects the patients' ability to engage in functional activities and their quality of life. The evidence base suggests that exercise has the capacity to improve symptom burden, functional ability and mental health. The majority of the patient population are pre-dialysis yet previous research has concentrated on dialysing patients. This review will focus on the patient group not requiring renal replacement therapy (non-RRT) as this is an area where further work is urgently needed. A large majority of people with CKD tend to be inactive despite emerging guidelines emphasising the positive effect of exercise for both people with chronic disease and healthy populations. This paper will review the evidence to support exercise to improve outcomes and quality of life and report on common barriers that patients experience and advocate the need for supported exercise interventions to help patients become more active and gain the potential resultant health benefits. Key words: kidney disease; exercise; quality of life. PMID:26076773

  2. Factors affecting conformity to renin-angiotensin system inhibitor usage in chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Laflam, Paul; Schmitt, Kristen E; Edie, Christine F; Simbartl, Loretta A; Thakar, Charuhas V

    2011-07-01

    Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASi) agents improve renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies examining conformity to guidelines have relied on pharmacy claims or filled prescriptions rather than provider-based information. The main outcome of RASi use was examined in 2889 patients with CKD and DM for its association with patient characteristics and specialty clinic visits. RASi use was 77% during the 2-year study period, and declined with worsening CKD stages (79%, 59%, and 48% in stages III, IV, and V, respectively; P<.0001). By multivariate analysis, hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 5.49, 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.16-7.25); older age (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93), and higher glomerular filtration rate (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.31-1.53) were associated with RASi use. In a model examining the effect of each specialty, RASi use was greater in patients attending cardiology (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 2.63-4.71), pharmacy (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.49-3.98), endocrine (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.22-5.16), and renal clinic visits (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.54-2.71). Diagnosis of hypertension increases RASi usage, whereas older age and lower glomerular filtration rate reduce that likelihood. Appropriate specialty referrals improve conformity to guidelines in practice. PMID:21762359

  3. Cigarette smoke affects dendritic cell maturation in the small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shi-Xia; Ding, Ting; Rao, Xi-Min; Sun, De-Sheng; Sun, Peng-Peng; Wang, Ya-Jun; Fu, Dan-Dan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ou-Yang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize and quantify the numbers and expression levels of cells markers associated with dendritic cell (DC) maturation in small airways in current smokers and non-smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung tissues from the following 32 patients were obtained during resection for lung cancer: Eight smokers with COPD, eight non-smokers with COPD, eight current smokers without COPD and eight non-smokers without COPD, serving as a control. The tissue sections were immunostained for cluster of differentiation (CD)83+ and CD1a+ to delineate mature and immature DCs, and chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7+) to detect DC migratory ability. Myeloid DCs were collected from the lung tissues, and subsequently the CD83+ and CCR7+ expression levels in the lung myeloid DCs were detected using flow cytometry. The expression levels of CD83+, CD1a+ and CCR7+ mRNA in total lung RNA were evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Evident chronic bronchitis and emphysema pathological changes were observed in the lung tissues of patients with COPD. The results revealed that the numbers of CD83+ and CCR7+ DCs were reduced but the numbers of CD1a+ DCs were significantly increased in the COPD group as compared with the control group (P<0.05, respectively). Using RT-qPCR, the expression levels of CCR7+ and CD83+ mRNA were found to be reduced in the smokers with COPD as compared with the non-smokers without COPD group (P<0.05, respectively). Excessive local adaptive immune responses are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. Cigarette smoke may stimulate immune responses by impairing the homing of airway DCs to the lymph nodes and reduce the migratory potential of DCs. The present study revealed that COPD is associated with reduced numbers of mature CD83+ DCs and lower CCR7+ expression levels in small airways. PMID:25338516

  4. Cigarette smoke affects dendritic cell maturation in the small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, SHI-XIA; DING, TING; RAO, XI-MIN; SUN, DE-SHENG; SUN, PENG-PENG; WANG, YA-JUN; FU, DAN-DAN; LIU, XIAO-LI; OU-YANG, YAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize and quantify the numbers and expression levels of cells markers associated with dendritic cell (DC) maturation in small airways in current smokers and non-smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung tissues from the following 32 patients were obtained during resection for lung cancer: Eight smokers with COPD, eight non-smokers with COPD, eight current smokers without COPD and eight non-smokers without COPD, serving as a control. The tissue sections were immunostained for cluster of differentiation (CD)83+ and CD1a+ to delineate mature and immature DCs, and chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7+) to detect DC migratory ability. Myeloid DCs were collected from the lung tissues, and subsequently the CD83+ and CCR7+ expression levels in the lung myeloid DCs were detected using flow cytometry. The expression levels of CD83+, CD1a+ and CCR7+ mRNA in total lung RNA were evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Evident chronic bronchitis and emphysema pathological changes were observed in the lung tissues of patients with COPD. The results revealed that the numbers of CD83+ and CCR7+ DCs were reduced but the numbers of CD1a+ DCs were significantly increased in the COPD group as compared with the control group (P<0.05, respectively). Using RT-qPCR, the expression levels of CCR7+ and CD83+ mRNA were found to be reduced in the smokers with COPD as compared with the non-smokers without COPD group (P<0.05, respectively). Excessive local adaptive immune responses are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. Cigarette smoke may stimulate immune responses by impairing the homing of airway DCs to the lymph nodes and reduce the migratory potential of DCs. The present study revealed that COPD is associated with reduced numbers of mature CD83+ DCs and lower CCR7+ expression levels in small airways. PMID:25338516

  5. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs. Incorporating bodily energy regulation into evolutionary medicine builds a framework to better understand pathophysiology of CIDs by considering that genes and networks used are positively selected if they serve acute, highly energy-consuming inflammation. It is predicted that genes that protect energy stores are positively selected (as immune memory). This could explain why energy-demanding inflammatory episodes like infectious diseases must be terminated within 3–8 weeks to be adaptive, and otherwise become maladaptive. Considering energy regulation as an evolved adaptive trait explains why many known sequelae of different CIDs must be uniform. These are, e.g. sickness behavior/fatigue/depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anorexia, malnutrition, muscle wasting—cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, alterations of steroid hormone axes, disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, hypertension, bone loss and hypercoagulability. Considering evolved energy trade-offs helps us to understand how an energy imbalance can lead to the disease sequelae of CIDs. In the future, clinicians must translate this knowledge into early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in CIDs. PMID:26817483

  6. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-12-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease. PMID:26637695

  7. Chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S

    2005-09-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The natural history of CWD is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. CWD has many features in common with scrapie, including early widespread distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in lymphoid tissues, with later involvement of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. This distribution likely contributes to apparent efficiency of horizontal transmission and, in this, is similar to scrapie and differs from BSE. Clinical features and lesions of CWD are qualitatively similar to the other animal TSEs. Microscopically, marked spongiform lesions occur in the central nervous system (CNS) after a prolonged incubation period and variable course of clinical disease. During incubation, PrP(d) can be identified in tissues by antibody-based detection systems. Although CWD can be transmitted by intracerebral inoculation to cattle, sheep, and goats, ongoing studies have not demonstrated that domestic livestock are susceptible via oral exposure, the presumed natural route of exposure to TSEs. Surveillance efforts for CWD in captive and free-ranging cervids will continue in concert with similar activities for scrapie and BSE. Eradication of CWD in farmed cervids is the goal of state, federal, and industry programs, but eradication of CWD from free-ranging populations of cervids is unlikely with currently available management techniques. PMID:16145200

  8. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients. PMID:25692105

  9. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mental Health Diabetes Digestive and Liver Digestive Diseases Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis Kidney Disease Oral and Dental Health Respiratory and Allergies Allergies and Hay Fever Asthma Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Infectious/Immune AIDS and HIV ...

  10. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  11. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Amit; Bhattad, Sagar; Singh, Surjit

    2016-04-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is the most common symptomatic phagocytic defect. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding protein subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. CGD is characterized by a defective intracellular killing of phagocytosed organisms due to a defective oxidative burst in the neutrophils and macrophages. It is inherited in either X-linked recessive or autosomal recessive pattern. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus species are the most common organisms reported. Infections with Burkholderia, Serratia, and Nocardia warrant a screen for CGD. Suppurative lymphadenitis, cutaneous abscesses, pneumonia and diarrhea constitute the most common problems in children with CGD. A small percentage of children develop autoimmune manifestations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, colitis, autoimmune hepatitis) and warrant immunosuppression. X-linked carriers of CGD are at an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases. Nitroblue-tetrazolium dye reduction test and dihydro-rhodamine assay by flow cytometry are the screening tests for this disorder. While most children do well on long term antibiotic and antifungal prophylaxis, those with severe forms warrant hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The role of regular interferon-γ injections is debatable. Evidence for white cell transfusions is sparse, and gene therapy is under trial.This current review highlights various aspects and studies in CGD. X-linked form of CGD has been noted to carry a poorer prognosis compared to autosomal recessive variants. However, recent evidence suggests that outcome in CGD is determined by the amount of residual NADPH oxidase activity irrespective of mode of inheritance. PMID:26865172

  12. [Chronic granulomatous disease].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cardona, Aristóteles; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2009-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency, a phagocyte defect that appears in 1:200,000 live births and is produced by mutations in the genes that codify for the enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase). The inheritance form is X linked (> 60%) or autosomic recesive (30-40%). The NADPH oxidase is responsible for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activated phagocyte ("respiratory burst"). When present, mutations on the NAPDH oxidase genes do not allow the ROS production, making the neutrophils of these patients incapable to destroy pathogens. These patients are especially susceptible to infections by staphylococcus, fungi and some gram-negative bacteria. The main clinical manifestations include recurrent life-threatening episodes of lymphadenitis, abscess, pneumonias, osteomyelitis, granuloma formation and sepsis. The diagnosis is suggested by a history of recurrent infections, familiar cases, fail to grow and confirmed with an altered test of ROS production and the specific mutation. Allogenic stem cells transplant is the curative treatment. The early diagnosis and the treatment with prophylactic antibiotics and interferon-gamma have modified favorably the morbidity and mortality of these patients. PMID:19999020

  13. Impact of diabetes, chronic heart failure, congenital heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on acute and chronic exercise responses

    PubMed Central

    Brassard, Patrice; Ferland, Annie; Marquis, Karine; Maltais, François; Jobin, Jean; Poirier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Several chronic diseases are known to negatively affect the ability of an individual to perform exercise. However, the altered exercise capacity observed in these patients is not solely associated with the heart and lungs dysfunction. Exercise has also been shown to play an important role in the management of several pathologies encountered in the fields of cardiology and pneumology. Studies conducted in our institution regarding the influence of diabetes, chronic heart failure, congenital heart disease and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease on the acute and chronic exercise responses, along with the beneficial effects of exercise training in these populations, are reviewed. PMID:17932595

  14. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  15. Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Pietro; Lyman, Kyle; Camacho, Andres; Fricchione, Marielle; Khanolkar, Aaruni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency that can be inherited in an X-linked (XL) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner. We reviewed our large, single-center US experience with CGD. Methods: We reviewed 27 patients at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago from March 1985 to November 2013. Fisher exact test was used to compare differences in categorical variables, and Student t test was used to compare means for continuous variables. Serious infections were defined as those requiring intravenous antibiotics or hospitalization. Results: There were 23 males and 4 females; 19 were XL and 8 were AR. The average age at diagnosis was 3.0 years; 2.1 years for XL and 5.3 years for AR inheritance (P = 0.02). There were 128 serious infections. The most frequent infectious agents were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 13), Serratia (n = 11), Klebsiella (n = 7), Aspergillus (n = 6) and Burkholderia (n = 4). The most common serious infections were pneumonia (n = 38), abscess (n = 32) and lymphadenitis (n = 29). Thirteen patients had granulomatous complications. Five patients were below the 5th percentile for height and 4 were below the 5th percentile for weight. Average length of follow-up after diagnosis was 10.1 years. Twenty-four patients were compliant and maintained on interferon-?, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and an azole. The serious infection rate was 0.62 per patient-year. Twenty-three patients are alive (1 was lost to follow-up). Conclusions: We present a large, single-center US experience with CGD. Twenty-three of 27 patients are alive after 3276 patient-months of follow-up (1 has been lost to follow-up), and our serious infection rate was 0.62 per patient-year. PMID:26181896

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page Content What ... pharmacist and provider need to know about your medicine and supplement use Your kidneys do not filter ...

  17. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Foundation U.S. Food and Drug Administration MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  18. Quality of Life in Chronic Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Megari, Kalliopi

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades there was an increasing predominance of chronic disorders, with a large number of people living with chronic diseases that can adversely affect their quality of life. The aim of the present paper is to study quality of life and especially Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic diseases. HRQOL is a multidimensional construct that consists of at least three broad domains – physical, psychological, and social functioning – that are affected by one’s disease and/or treatment. HRQoL is usually measured in chronic conditions and is frequently impaired to a great extent. In addition, factors that are associated with good and poor HRQoL, as well as HRQoL assessment will be discussed. The estimation of the relative impact of chronic diseases on HRQoL is necessary in order to better plan and distribute health care resources aiming at a better HRQoL. [«All the people perceive the concept of living good or being well, that is the same as being happy». (Aristotle. 384-322 BC. Ethica Nichomachea)

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ago. Kidney Disease About your kidneys About your kidneys Your kidneys are vital organs that remove waste ... long as possible. Kidney-friendly diet for CKD Kidney-friendly diet You may be able to prevent ...

  20. Diet and Chronic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that improve insulin sensitivity usually lead to improvements in risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in c...

  1. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  2. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) appear to share some common physiological characteristics, further suggesting that sleep apnea may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. 2 Obesity Laboratory research has found that short ...

  3. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... beryllium sensitizations and disease in nuclear workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148:985-991. Newman LS, ... by blood lymphocyte proliferative response to beryllium. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145:1212-1214. Steenland K, ...

  4. Chronic granulomatous disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lymph nodes There may be signs of a bone infection, which may affect multiple bones. Tests that may ... CGD may cause these complications: Bone damage and infections ... back and is hard to cure Lung damage Skin damage Swollen lymph ...

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Surya P; Dransfield, Mark T

    2013-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease of the lung associated with progressive airflow limitation and punctuated by episodes of acute exacerbation. There is growing recognition that the inflammatory state associated with COPD is not confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs. Epidemiologic and mechanistic studies indicate that COPD is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias, independent of shared risk factors. Possible pathways include complex interrelationships between chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative stress as well as shared risk factors such as age, cigarette smoking, and environmental pollutants. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiologic data linking COPD with cardiovascular disease, comment on the interrelationships among COPD, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, and highlight diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. PMID:23727296

  6. Framing international trade and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia S; Lencucha, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  7. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  8. Helping to Combat Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a disease of the nervous system that results in distinctive brain lesions. CWD affects elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer, but has not been documented in livestock or humans. The origins of the disease, as well as the modes of transmission, remain unknown. Infected deer and elk appear robust and healthy in the early stages of CWD; clinical signs might not show for years. Mortality typically occurs within months after the appearance of clinical signs. The route of transmission is unknown; likely routes include direct transmission between infected and noninfected animals and infected animals contaminating local environments.

  9. Chronic Lyme disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Studies have shown that most patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease either have no objective evidence of previous or current infection with Borrelia burgdorferi or are patients who should be classified as having post-Lyme disease syndrome, which is defined as continuing or relapsing nonspecific symptoms (such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints) in a patient previously treated for Lyme disease. Despite extensive study, there is currently no clear evidence that post-Lyme disease syndrome is caused by persistent infection with B burgdorferi. Four randomized placebo-controlled studies have shown that antibiotic therapy offers no sustained benefit to patients who have post-Lyme disease syndrome. These studies also showed a substantial placebo effect and a significant risk of treatment-related adverse events. Further research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying persistent symptoms after Lyme disease and controlled trials of new approaches to the treatment and management of these patients are needed. PMID:18452806

  10. Is kidney function affecting the management of myocardial infarction? A retrospective cohort study in patients with normal kidney function, chronic kidney disease stage III–V, and ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Marc; Karam, Boutros; Faddoul, Geovani; Douaihy, Youssef El; Yacoub, Harout; Baydoun, Hassan; Boumitri, Christine; Barakat, Iskandar; Saifan, Chadi; El-Charabaty, Elie; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are three times more likely to have myocardial infarction (MI) and suffer from increased morbidity and higher mortality. Traditional and unique risk factors are prevalent and constitute challenges for the standard of care. However, CKD patients have been largely excluded from clinical trials and little evidence is available to guide evidence-based treatment of coronary artery disease in patients with CKD. Our objective was to assess whether a difference exists in the management of MI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) among patients with normal kidney function, CKD stage III–V, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital for the diagnosis of MI between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to their kidney function: Data collected on the medical management and the use of statins, platelet inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were compared among the three cohorts, as well as medical interventions including: catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) when indicated. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions between nominal variables. Binary logistic analysis was used in order to determine associations between treatment modalities and comorbidities, and to account for possible confounding factors. Three hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 67.2±13.9 years) were included. In terms of management, medical treatment was not different among the three groups. However, cardiac catheterization was performed less in ESRD when compared with no CKD and CKD stage III–V (45.6% vs 74% and 93.9%) (P<0.001). CABG was performed in comparable proportions in the three groups and CABG was not associated with the degree of CKD (P=0.078) in binary logistics regression. Cardiac catheterization on the other hand carried the strongest association among all studied variables (P<0.001). This association was maintained after adjusting for other comorbidities. The length of stay for the three cohorts (non-CKD, CKD stage III–V, and ESRD on hemodialysis) was 16, 17, and 15 days, respectively and was not statistically different. Many observations have reported discrimination of care for patients with CKD considered suboptimal candidates for aggressive management of their cardiac disease. In our study, medical therapy was achieved at high percentage and was comparable among groups of different kidney function. However, kidney disease seems to affect the management of patients with acute MI; percutaneous coronary angiography is not uniformly performed in patients with CKD and ESRD when compared with patients with normal kidney function. PMID:26858529

  11. Is kidney function affecting the management of myocardial infarction? A retrospective cohort study in patients with normal kidney function, chronic kidney disease stage III-V, and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Saad, Marc; Karam, Boutros; Faddoul, Geovani; Douaihy, Youssef El; Yacoub, Harout; Baydoun, Hassan; Boumitri, Christine; Barakat, Iskandar; Saifan, Chadi; El-Charabaty, Elie; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are three times more likely to have myocardial infarction (MI) and suffer from increased morbidity and higher mortality. Traditional and unique risk factors are prevalent and constitute challenges for the standard of care. However, CKD patients have been largely excluded from clinical trials and little evidence is available to guide evidence-based treatment of coronary artery disease in patients with CKD. Our objective was to assess whether a difference exists in the management of MI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) among patients with normal kidney function, CKD stage III-V, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital for the diagnosis of MI between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to their kidney function: Data collected on the medical management and the use of statins, platelet inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were compared among the three cohorts, as well as medical interventions including: catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) when indicated. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions between nominal variables. Binary logistic analysis was used in order to determine associations between treatment modalities and comorbidities, and to account for possible confounding factors. Three hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 67.2±13.9 years) were included. In terms of management, medical treatment was not different among the three groups. However, cardiac catheterization was performed less in ESRD when compared with no CKD and CKD stage III-V (45.6% vs 74% and 93.9%) (P<0.001). CABG was performed in comparable proportions in the three groups and CABG was not associated with the degree of CKD (P=0.078) in binary logistics regression. Cardiac catheterization on the other hand carried the strongest association among all studied variables (P<0.001). This association was maintained after adjusting for other comorbidities. The length of stay for the three cohorts (non-CKD, CKD stage III-V, and ESRD on hemodialysis) was 16, 17, and 15 days, respectively and was not statistically different. Many observations have reported discrimination of care for patients with CKD considered suboptimal candidates for aggressive management of their cardiac disease. In our study, medical therapy was achieved at high percentage and was comparable among groups of different kidney function. However, kidney disease seems to affect the management of patients with acute MI; percutaneous coronary angiography is not uniformly performed in patients with CKD and ESRD when compared with patients with normal kidney function. PMID:26858529

  12. Perspectives on "chronic Lyme disease".

    PubMed

    Baker, Phillip J

    2008-07-01

    There is much controversy about the treatment of Lyme disease with respect to 2 poorly defined entities: "chronic Lyme disease" and "posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome." In the absence of direct evidence that these conditions are the result of a persistent infection, some mistakenly advocate extended antibiotic therapy (>/=6 months), which can do great harm and has resulted in at least 1 death. The purpose of this brief report is to review what is known from clinical research about these conditions to assist both practicing physicians and lawmakers in making sound and safe decisions with respect to treatment. PMID:18589049

  13. Homocysteine in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovitch, Elena A; Tabibzadeh, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia occurs in chronic- and end-stage kidney disease at the time when dialysis or transplant becomes indispensable for survival. Excessive accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) aggravates conditions associated with imbalanced homeostasis and cellular redox thereby resulting in severe oxidative stress leading to oxidation of reduced free and protein-bound thiols. Thiol modifications such as N-homocysteinylation, sulfination, cysteinylation, glutathionylation, and sulfhydration control cellular responses that direct complex metabolic pathways. Although cysteinyl modifications are kept low, under Hcy-induced stress, thiol modifications persist thus surpassing cellular proteostasis. Here, we review mechanisms of redox regulation and show how cysteinyl modifications triggered by excess Hcy contribute development and progression of chronic kidney disease. We discuss different signaling events resulting from aberrant cysteinyl modification with a focus on transsulfuration. PMID:26471081

  14. Animal models of chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Meyer, Christoph; Xu, Chengfu; Weng, Honglei; Hellerbrand, Claus; ten Dijke, Peter; Dooley, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases are frequent and potentially life threatening for humans. The underlying etiologies are diverse, ranging from viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and intoxications (including alcohol abuse) to imbalanced diets. Although at early stages of disease the liver regenerates in the absence of the insult, advanced stages cannot be healed and may require organ transplantation. A better understanding of underlying mechanisms is mandatory for the design of new drugs to be used in clinic. Therefore, rodent models are being developed to mimic human liver disease. However, no model to date can completely recapitulate the "corresponding" human disorder. Limiting factors are the time frame required in humans to establish a certain liver disease and the fact that rodents possess a distinct immune system compared with humans and have different metabolic rates affecting liver homeostasis. These features account for the difficulties in developing adequate rodent models for studying disease progression and for testing new pharmaceuticals to be translated into the clinic. Nevertheless, traditional and new promising animal models that mimic certain attributes of chronic liver diseases are established and being used to deepen our understanding in the underlying mechanisms of distinct liver diseases. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of recent advances in animal models recapitulating different features and etiologies of human liver diseases. PMID:23275613

  15. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect inpatient care use and costs among people with chronic disease?

    PubMed

    Xin, Haichang

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rising health care costs continue to be a significant concern in the United States. High cost-sharing strategies thus have been widely used to address rising health care costs. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies for physician care are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients, especially whether utilization and costs in inpatient care will increase in response. This study examined whether high cost sharing in physician care affects inpatient care utilization and costs differently between individuals with and without chronic conditions. Findings from this study will contribute to the insurance benefit design that can control care utilization and save costs of chronically ill individuals. Prior studies suffered from gaps that limit both internal validity and external validity of their findings. This study has its unique contributions by filling these gaps jointly. The study used data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample, with a cross-sectional study design. Instrumental variable technique was used to address the endogeneity between health care utilization and cost-sharing levels. We used negative binomial regression to analyze the count data and generalized linear models for costs data. To account for national survey sampling design, weight and variance were adjusted. The study compared the effects of high cost-sharing policies on inpatient care utilization and costs between individuals with and without chronic conditions to answer the research question. The final study sample consisted of 4523 individuals; among them, 752 had hospitalizations. The multivariate analysis demonstrated consistent patterns. Compared with low cost-sharing policies, high cost-sharing policies for physician care were not associated with a greater increase in inpatient care utilization (P = .86 for chronically ill people and P = .67 for healthy people, respectively) and costs (P = .38 for chronically ill people and P = .68 for healthy people, respectively). The sensitivity analysis with a 10% cost-sharing level also generated consistent insignificant results for both chronically ill and healthy groups. Relative to nonchronically ill individuals, chronically ill individuals may increase their utilization and expenditures of inpatient care to a similar extent in response to increased physician care cost sharing. This may be due to cost pressure from inpatient care and short observation window. Although this study did not find evidence that high cost-sharing policies for physician care increase inpatient care differently for individuals with and without chronic conditions, interpretation of this finding should be cautious. It is possible that in the long run, these sick people would demonstrate substantial demands for medical care and there could be a total cost increase for health plans ultimately. Health plans need to be cautious of policies for chronically ill enrollees. PMID:25748258

  16. Skin manifestations of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Robles-Mendez, J C; Vazquez-Martinez, O; Ocampo-Candiani, J

    2015-10-01

    Skin manifestations associated with chronic kidney disease are very common. Most of these conditions present in the end stages and may affect the patient's quality of life. Knowledge of these entities can contribute to establishing an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Severe renal pruritus is associated with increased mortality and a poor prognosis. Nail exploration can provide clues about albumin and urea levels. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a preventable disease associated with gadolinium contrast. Comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and secondary hyperparathyroidism, can lead to acquired perforating dermatosis and calciphylaxis, respectively. Effective and innovative treatments are available for all of these conditions. PMID:26093993

  17. Inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic liver diseases and the lung.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Bartolome, Sonja D; Huchon, Gérard; Krowka, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    This review is devoted to the distinct associations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and chronic liver disorders with chronic airway diseases, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma, and other chronic respiratory disorders in the adult population. While there is strong evidence for the association of chronic airway diseases with IBD, the data are much weaker for the interplay between lung and liver multimorbidities. The association of IBD, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, with pulmonary disorders is underlined by their heterogeneous respiratory manifestations and impact on chronic airway diseases. The potential relationship between the two most prevalent liver-induced pulmonary vascular entities, i.e. portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome, and also between liver disease and other chronic respiratory diseases is also approached. Abnormal lung function tests in liver diseases are described and the role of increased serum bilirubin levels on chronic respiratory problems are considered. PMID:26797027

  18. Serum theophylline concentrations and pulmonary function tests after administration of two sustained-release formulations containing theophylline in patients affected by chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Fontana, G; Cresci, F; Lo Sapio, P; Panuccio, P

    1987-01-01

    We compared serum theophylline concentrations in patients treated with one of two commercially available theophylline preparations: a sustained-release aminophylline and a sustained-release theophylline. Two comparable groups of 15 out-patients with stable, chronic obstructive lung diseases were studied: one group was given sustained-release aminophylline while the other took sustained-release theophylline. Both drugs were administered orally for 7 days at a daily dose, equivalent to 12 mg/kg in terms of anhydrous theophylline. Serum theophylline concentrations were always significantly lower after treatment with sustained-release aminophylline than after treatment with sustained-release theophylline, which latter frequently caused undesirable side-effects. Moreover, patients receiving sustained-release aminophylline always showed serum theophylline concentrations lower than 10 mcg/ml. Pulmonary function tests were unaffected by the administration of either drug. We conclude that sustained-release theophylline is more effective than sustained-release aminophylline in terms of induced serum theophylline concentrations. However neither drug was suitable for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease without other concomitant therapy. PMID:3667008

  19. Treatment of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jeffrey M; Bauer, Carolyn; Abramowitz, Matthew K; Melamed, Michal L; Hostetter, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can slow its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the therapies remain limited. Blood pressure control using angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has the greatest weight of evidence. Glycemic control in diabetes seems likely to retard progression. Several metabolic disturbances of CKD may prove to be useful therapeutic targets but have been insufficiently tested. These include acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and vitamin D deficiency. Drugs aimed at other potentially damaging systems and processes, including endothelin, fibrosis, oxidation, and advanced glycation end products, are at various stages of development. In addition to the paucity of proven effective therapies, the incomplete application of existing treatments, the education of patients about their disease, and the transition to ESRD care remain major practical barriers to better outcomes. PMID:22166846

  20. Sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Souza, Viviane Angelina de; Oliveira, Dílmerson de; Mansur, Henrique Novais; Fernandes, Natália Maria da Silva; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a chronic condition associated with physiological aging process and is defined by the reduction of the mass, muscle strength and function. In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), sarcopenia is prevalent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and the occurrence of cardiovascular complications. By analyzing sarcopenia in patients with renal insufficiency, complex mechanisms that contribute to loss of muscle mass are highlighted, such as activation of mediators that stimulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (SUP) ATP-dependent, inflammation, metabolic acidosis, angiotensin II and some hormonal factors. The therapeutic approach to sarcopenia in CKD includes exercises, correction of metabolic acidosis, hormone replacement therapy and insulin resistance. Thus, it is of paramount importance early recognition of sarcopenia in this population, in order to establish effective therapeutic interventions, thus avoiding the full range of complications associated with muscle wasting in CKD. PMID:25923756

  1. Caloric Restriction and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    González, Octavio A.; Tobia, Christine; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Novak, M. John

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in calorie intake (Caloric restriction), appears to consistently decrease the biological rate of aging in a variety of organisms as well as protect against age-associated diseases including chronic inflammatory disorders such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although the mechanisms behind this observation are not fully understood, identification of the main metabolic pathways affected by caloric restriction has generated interest in finding molecular targets that could be modulated by caloric restriction mimetics. This review describes the general concepts of caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetics as well as discusses evidence related to their effects on inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders. Additionally, emerging evidence related to the effects of caloric restriction on periodontal disease in non-human primates is presented. While the implementation of this type of dietary intervention appears to be challenging in our modern society where obesity is a major public health problem, caloric restriction mimetics could offer a promising alternative to control and perhaps prevent several chronic inflammatory disorders including periodontal disease. PMID:21749581

  2. Notch signaling affects biliary fibrosis via transcriptional regulation of RBP-jκ in an animal model of chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Jae; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kang, Yu-Na; Yoon, Ghil-Suk; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Liver repair in patients with a chronic liver disease requires the orchestrated action of epithelial, mesenchymal, and inflammatory cells. Notch components are expressed in both the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the adult liver and are differentially regulated after injury. However, the functional role of Notch signaling in regulating epithelial/mesenchymal cross-talk during fibrogenic pathologic repair remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how proliferation of the bile duct influences biliary fibrosis and to recognize the effect of inhibiting Notch signaling in biliary fibrotic tissue of the injured liver. We designed a synthetic decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) for recombination signal binding protein immunoglobulin kappa J (RBP-jκ), which is a common DNA-binding partner of Notch receptors. The effect of blocking RBP-jκ on fibrogenesis was assessed in the 3,5-Diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet mouse model. We observed the reduced fibrosis and decreased expression of associated signaling molecules after the RBP-jκ decoy ODN treatment. These data demonstrate that Notch signaling may play an important role in progression of ductular reaction and fibrosis. Further studies are required to unveil how ductular cells interact with other liver cell types, such as hepatic stellate cells or Kupffer cells,in patients with cholestatic liver diseases based on Notch signaling. These results suggest that controlling the ductular reaction using a synthetic ring type decoy RBP-jκ ODN will help develop a novel therapeutic approach targeting biliary fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. PMID:26722458

  3. HIV and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmania, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 – 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV-infected patients; graft and patient survival appears to be similar to that of HIV-uninfected recipients. Early detection of kidney disease by implementation of screening on diagnosis of HIV infection and annual screening thereafter will have an impact on the burden of disease, together with access to ART to those who require it. Programs for prevention of HIV infection are essential to prevent this lethal disease.

  4. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  5. New Directions in Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Cho, Jae-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    A worldwide epidemic of chronic disease, and complications thereof, is underway, with no sign of abatement. Healthcare costs have increased tremendously, principally because of the need to treat chronic complications of non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, blindness, end-stage renal disease, and amputation of extremities. Current healthcare systems fail to provide an appropriate quality of care to prevent the development of chronic complications without additional healthcare costs. A new paradigm for prevention and treatment of chronic disease and the complications thereof is urgently required. Several clinical studies have clearly shown that frequent communication between physicians and patients, based on electronic data transmission from medical devices, greatly assists in the management of chronic disease. However, for various reasons, these advantages have not translated effectively into real clinical practice. In the present review, we describe current relevant studies, and trends in the use of information technology for chronic disease management. We also discuss limitations and future directions. PMID:26194075

  6. Kidneys in chronic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hartleb, Marek; Gutkowski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL, occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state, reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones. The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis. Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development, natriuresis, urine osmolality, response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion, and rarely on renal biopsy. Chronic glomerulonephritis and obstructive uropathy are rare causes of azotemia in cirrhotic patients. AKI is one of the last events in the natural history of chronic liver disease, therefore, such patients should have an expedited referral for liver transplantation. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is initiated by progressive portal hypertension, and may be prematurely triggered by bacterial infections, nonbacterial systemic inflammatory reactions, excessive diuresis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea or nephrotoxic agents. Each type of renal disease has a specific treatment approach ranging from repletion of the vascular system to renal replacement therapy. The treatment of choice in type 1 hepatorenal syndrome is a combination of vasoconstrictor with albumin infusion, which is effective in about 50% of patients. The second-line treatment of HRS involves a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, renal vasoprotection or systems of artificial liver support. PMID:22791939

  7. Disease management for chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Brass-Mynderse, N J

    1996-10-01

    The dilemma of the high cost of quality health care in a managed care environment for chronic disease populations has led to the development of a nurse-managed chronic care clinic that focuses on outpatient case management of chronic diseases beginning with chronic heart failure patients. The clinic provides advanced practice nurse management for heart failure patients in pharmacotherapy, education, counseling, dietary and lipid management, and exercise training via software management programs. The clinic is developing further management for comorbidity factors such as diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The history, development, and function of the clinic are reviewed. PMID:9069031

  8. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  9. Chronic non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Unwin, N; Alberti, K G M M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for almost 60% of global mortality, and 80% of deaths from NCD occur in low- and middle-income countries. One quarter of these deaths--almost 9 million in 2005--are in men and women aged <60 years. Taken together, NCD represent globally the single largest cause of mortality in people of working age, and their incidences in younger adults are substantially higher in the poor countries of the world than in the rich. The major causes of NCD-attributable mortality are cardiovascular disease (30% of total global mortality), cancers (13%), chronic respiratory disease (7%) and diabetes (2%). These conditions share a small number of behavioural risk factors, which include a diet high in saturated fat and low in fresh fruit and vegetables, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol excess. In low- and middle-income countries such risk factors tend to be concentrated in urban areas and their prevalences are increasing as a result of rapid urbanization and the increasing globalisation of the food, tobacco and alcohol industries. Because NCD have a major impact on men and women of working age and their elderly dependents, they result in lost income, lost opportunities for investment, and overall lower levels of economic development. Reductions in the incidences of many NCD and their complications are, however, already possible. Up to 80% of all cases of cardiovascular disease or type-2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer, for example, are probably preventable based on current knowledge. In addition, highly cost-effective measures exist for the prevention of some of the complications of established cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving these gains will require a broad range of integrated, population-based interventions as well as measures focused on the individuals at high risk. At present, the international-assistance community provides scant resources for the control of NCD in poor countries, partly, at least, because NCD continue to be wrongly perceived as predominantly diseases of the better off. As urbanization continues apace and populations age, investment in the prevention and control of NCD in low-and middle-income countries can no longer be ignored. PMID:16899148

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Karina; Abad-Capa, Jorge; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have shown that the interaction between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular comorbidity is complex and bidirectional, since each of these diseases complicates the prognosis of the other. Recent advances in imaging technology have led to better characterization of cardiac chambers and allowed the relationship between certain cardiac function parameters and COPD clinical and functional variables to be explored. Although cardiac abnormalities in COPD have been mainly associated with the right ventricle, several studies have reported that the left ventricle may also be affected in this disease. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved and their clinical implications will establish diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with both these conditions. PMID:24816034

  11. Growth failure and nutrition considerations in chronic childhood wasting diseases.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Ursula G; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Coss-Bu, Jorge A

    2015-04-01

    Growth failure is a common problem in many children with chronic diseases. This article is an overview of the most common causes of growth failure/growth retardation that affect children with a number of chronic diseases. We also briefly review the nutrition considerations and treatment goals. Growth failure is multifactorial in children with chronic conditions, including patients with cystic fibrosis, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, human immunodeficiency virus, inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome, and muscular dystrophies. Important contributory factors to growth failure include increased energy needs, increased energy loss, malabsorption, decreased energy intake, anorexia, pain, vomiting, intestinal obstruction, and inflammatory cytokines. Various metabolic and pathologic abnormalities that are characteristic of chronic diseases further lead to significant malnutrition and growth failure. In addition to treating disease-specific abnormalities, treatment should address the energy and protein deficits, including vitamin and mineral supplements to correct deficiencies, correct metabolic and endocrinologic abnormalities, and include long-term monitoring of weight and growth. Individualized, age-appropriate nutrition intervention will minimize the malnutrition and growth failure seen in children with chronic diseases. PMID:25378356

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in children.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S K; Lodha, R; Singhal, T

    2001-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not a well defined entity in children. A child presenting with chronic cough and wheezing should be investigated for asthma, recurrent aspiration airway compressions, chronic infection, cystic fibrosis and immune deficiency. If a specific cause is not identified; search should be made for environmental factors such as passive smoking, air pollution and irritants. The therapeutic option for patients with chronic productive cough without specific etiology include control of environmental factors, bronchodilators and chest physiotherapy. PMID:11411378

  13. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States, the term "COPD" includes two main conditions— emphysema (em-fih-SE-ma) and chronic bronchitis (bron- ... bronchitis discusses both acute and chronic bronchitis.) In emphysema, the walls between many of the air sacs ...

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes data on chronic pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence and deaths across the U.S. for the time periods 1997-2009 and 1979-2007, respectively. COPD, also known as chronic lung disease, may be partly caused or exacerbated by environmental exposures such as ...

  15. Phosphate fertilizer is a main source of arsenic in areas affected with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead. PMID:25763302

  16. Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vivekanand; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Li, Zuo; Naicker, Saraladevi; Plattner, Brett; Saran, Rajiv; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2013-07-20

    Chronic kidney disease is defined as a reduced glomerular filtration rate, increased urinary albumin excretion, or both, and is an increasing public health issue. Prevalence is estimated to be 8-16% worldwide. Complications include increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, kidney-disease progression, acute kidney injury, cognitive decline, anaemia, mineral and bone disorders, and fractures. Worldwide, diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, but in some regions other causes, such as herbal and environmental toxins, are more common. The poorest populations are at the highest risk. Screening and intervention can prevent chronic kidney disease, and where management strategies have been implemented the incidence of end-stage kidney disease has been reduced. Awareness of the disorder, however, remains low in many communities and among many physicians. Strategies to reduce burden and costs related to chronic kidney disease need to be included in national programmes for non-communicable diseases. PMID:23727169

  17. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23802624

  18. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V.; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  19. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.

    PubMed

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  20. [Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Dahl, R; Khaltaev, N

    2008-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people of all ages suffer from chronic respiratory diseases which include asthma and respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, occupational lung diseases and pulmonary hypertension. More than 500 million patients live in developing countries or in deprived populations. Chronic respiratory diseases are increasing in prevalence. Although the cost of inaction is clear and unacceptable, chronic respiratory diseases and their risk factors receive insufficient attention from the healthcare community, government officials, media, patients and families. The Fifty-Third World Health Assembly recognised the enormous human suffering caused by chronic diseases and requested the World Health Organization (WHO) Director General to give priority to the prevention and control of chronic diseases, with special emphasis on developing countries. This led to the formation of the WHO Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). GARD is a voluntary alliance of organisations, institutions and agencies working towards a common vision to improve global lung health according to local needs. GARD is developed in a stepwise approach using the following three planning steps: estimate population need and advocate action; formulate and adopt policy; and identify policy implementation steps. PMID:18843931

  1. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Dahl, R; Khaltaev, N

    2007-03-01

    Hundreds of millions of people of all ages suffer from chronic respiratory diseases which include asthma and respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, occupational lung diseases and pulmonary hypertension. More than 500 million patients live in developing countries or in deprived populations. Chronic respiratory diseases are increasing in prevalence. Although the cost of in action is clear and unacceptable, chronic respiratory diseases and their risk factors receive in sufficient attention from the health care community, government officials, media, patients and families. The Fifty-Third World Health Assembly recognized the enormous human suffering caused by chronic diseases and requested the World Health Organization (WHO) Director General to give priority to the prevention and control of chronic diseases, with special emphasis on developing countries. This led to the formation of the WHO Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). GARD is a voluntary alliance of organizations, institutions and agencies working towards a common vision to improve global lung health according to local needs. GARD is developed in a stepwise approach using the following three planning steps: estimate population need and advocate action; formulate and adopt policy; and identify policy implementation steps. PMID:17298337

  2. Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Dahl, R; Khaltaev, N

    2007-02-01

    Hundreds of millions of people of all ages suffer from chronic respiratory diseases which include asthma and respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, occupational lung diseases and pulmonary hypertension. More than 500 million patients live in developing countries or in deprived populations. Chronic respiratory diseases are increasing in prevalence. Although the cost of inaction is clear and unacceptable, chronic respiratory diseases and their risk factors receive insufficient attention from the healthcare community, government officials, media, patients and families. The Fifty-Third World Health Assembly recognised the enormous human suffering caused by chronic diseases and requested the World Health Organization (WHO) Director General to give priority to the prevention and control of chronic diseases, with special emphasis on developing countries. This led to the formation of the WHO Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). GARD is a voluntary alliance of organisations, institutions and agencies working towards a common vision to improve global lung health according to local needs. GARD is developed in a stepwise approach using the following three planning steps: estimate population need and advocate action; formulate and adopt policy; and identify policy implementation steps. PMID:17264322

  3. Dietary fatty acids linking postprandial metabolic response and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are by far one of the main causes of mortality in the world. One of the current global recommendations to counteract disability and premature death resulting from chronic diseases is to decrease the consumption of energy-dense high-fat diets, particularly those rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). The most effective replacement for SFA in terms of risk factor outcomes for chronic disease are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The biochemical basis for healthy benefits of such a dietary pattern has been widely evaluated under fasting conditions. However, the increasing amount of data available from multiple studies suggest that the postprandial state, i.e., "the period that comprises and follows a meal", plays an important, yet underappreciated, role in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. In this review, the potential of MUFA, PUFA, and SFA to postprandially affect selected metabolic abnormalities related to chronic diseases is discussed. PMID:22020286

  4. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  5. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  6. Mechanisms of progression of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in all age groups, including children. Regardless of the underlying cause, CKD is characterized by progressive scarring that ultimately affects all structures of the kidney. The relentless progression of CKD is postulated to result from a self-perpetuating vicious cycle of fibrosis activated after initial injury. We will review possible mechanisms of progressive renal damage, including systemic and glomerular hypertension, various cytokines and growth factors, with special emphasis on the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), podocyte loss, dyslipidemia and proteinuria. We will also discuss possible specific mechanisms of tubulointerstitial fibrosis that are not dependent on glomerulosclerosis, and possible underlying predispositions for CKD, such as genetic factors and low nephron number. PMID:17647026

  7. Patient Experiences of Depression and Anxiety with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeJean, D; Giacomini, M; Vanstone, M; Brundisini, F

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease, but remain undertreated despite significant negative consequences on patient health. A number of clinical groups have developed recommendations for depression screening practices in the chronic disease population. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to review empirical qualitative research on the experiences of patients with chronic disease (e.g., COPD, diabetes, heart disease, stroke) and comorbid depression or anxiety, and to highlight the implications of the screening and management of anxiety and/or depression on chronic disease outcomes. Review Methods We performed literature searches for studies published from January 2002 to May 2012. We applied a qualitative mega-filter to nine condition-specific search filters. Titles and abstracts were reviewed by two reviewers and, for the studies that met the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across relevant published primary research studies. Qualitative meta-synthesis produced a synthesis of evidence that both retained the original meaning of the authors and offered a new, integrative interpretation of the phenomenon through a process of comparing and contrasting findings across studies. Results The findings of 20 primary qualitative studies were synthesized. Patients tended to experience their chronic conditions and anxiety or depression as either independent or inter-related (i.e., the chronic disease lead to depression/anxiety, the depression/anxiety lead to the chronic disease, or the two conditions exacerbated each other). Potential barriers to screening for depression or anxiety were also identified. Limitations A wider array of issues might have been captured if the analysis had focused on broader psychological responses to the chronic disease experience. However, given the objective to highlight implications for screening for anxiety or depression, the more narrow focus seemed most relevant. Conclusions Chronic disease and anxiety or depression can be independent or inter-related. Patients may be reluctant to acknowledge depression or anxiety as a separate condition, or may not recognize that the conditions are separate because of overlapping physical symptoms. More qualitative research is needed to specifically address screening for depression or anxiety. Plain Language Summary Depression is a common complication of chronic disease. It may worsen the disease, and it may also affect the self-management of the disease. Screening for depression earlier, and then treating it, may reduce distress and improve symptoms of the chronic disease, leading to better quality of life. PMID:24228079

  8. Cardiovascular complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is a leading cause of death in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), with exceptionally high rates in young adults, according to the Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular complications are already present in children with CKD. This review summarizes the current literature on cardiac risk factors, mortality and morbidity in children with CKD. PMID:17120060

  9. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... COPD includes two main illnesses: chronic bronchitis and emphysema (say: “em-fa-see-ma”). Most people who ... makes it hard to breathe. If you have emphysema, you lose alveoli. This makes it hard for ...

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... term that is used to include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or a combination of both conditions. Asthma is ... they spring back to their original size. In emphysema, the walls of some of the alveoli have ...

  11. Heartburn Meds Linked to Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156632.html Heartburn Meds Linked to Chronic Kidney Disease While study can't ... heartburn medication called proton pump inhibitors may be linked to long-term kidney damage, a new study ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Chronic granulomatous disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What genes are related to chronic granulomatous disease? Mutations in the CYBA , CYBB , NCF1 , NCF2 , or NCF4 ... optimize healing and reduce injury to the body. Mutations in the CYBA , CYBB , NCF1 , NCF2 , and NCF4 ...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Also call your doctor if: You need to lean forward when sitting in order to breathe easily ... al. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). https://www. ...

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are drugs you take to control or prevent symptoms of ... Flare-ups are treated with quick-relief (rescue) drugs . Depending on the medicine, control drugs help you ...

  15. Dispelling the chronic Lyme disease myth.

    PubMed

    Kemperman, Melissa M; Bakken, Johan S; Kravitz, Gary R

    2008-07-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness endemic to Minnesota that can have potentially severe complications. As the incidence of Lyme disease continues to increase, it is important for physicians in Minnesota to become familiar with its clinical aspects, including the concept of "chronic Lyme disease." Chronic Lyme disease is a misnomer that is often applied to patients with nonspecific presentations who may or may not have a history of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent that causes Lyme disease. When a patient does present with persistent nonspecific symptoms attributed to chronic Lyme disease, clinicians should ascertain the presence of objective manifestations, obtain laboratory results, and get a history of tick exposure. If active infection with B. burgdorferi is unlikely, they should avoid prescribing empiric antibiotic therapy and instead thoroughly evaluate the patient for other possible causes of the complaints and recommend appropriate care. PMID:18714930

  16. Chronic kidney disease and erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Etsu; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Oba, Shigeyoshi; Takahashi, Masao; Homma, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition among male chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Its prevalence is estimated to be approximately 80% among these patients. It has been well established that the production of nitric oxide from the cavernous nerve and vascular endothelium and the subsequent production of cyclic GMP are critically important in initiating and maintaining erection. Factors affecting these pathways can induce ED. The etiology of ED in CKD patients is multifactorial. Factors including abnormalities in gonadal-pituitary system, disturbance in autonomic nervous system, endothelial dysfunction, anemia (and erythropoietin deficiency), secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs, zinc deficiency, and psychological problems are implicated in the occurrence of ED. An improvement of general conditions is the first step of treatment. Sufficient dialysis and adequate nutritional intake are necessary. In addition, control of anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism is required. Changes of drugs that potentially affect erectile function may be necessary. Further, zinc supplementation may be necessary when zinc deficiency is suspected. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are commonly used for treating ED in CKD patients, and their efficacy was confirmed by many studies. Testosterone replacement therapy in addition to PDE5Is may be useful, particularly for CKD patients with hypogonadism. Renal transplantation may restore erectile function. ED is an early marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which it frequently precedes; therefore, it is crucial to examine the presence of ED in CKD patients not only for the improvement of the quality of life but also for the prevention of CVD attack. PMID:25374815

  17. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: asthmatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic obstructive asthma?

    PubMed

    Slats, Annelies; Taube, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are different disease entities. They are both clinical diagnoses, with diagnostic tools to discriminate between one another. However, especially in older patients (>55 years) it seems more difficult to differentiate between asthma and COPD. This has led to the definition of a new phenotype called asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, our understanding of ACOS is at a very preliminary stage, as most research has involved subjects with existing diagnoses of asthma or COPD from studies with different definitions for ACOS. This has led to different and sometimes opposing results between studies on several features of ACOS, also depending on the comparison with COPD alone, asthma alone or both, which are summarized in this review.We suggest not using the term ACOS for a patient with features of both asthma and COPD, but to describe a patient with chronic obstructive airway disease as completely as possible, with regard to characteristics that determine treatment response (e.g. eosinophilic inflammation) and prognosis (such as smoking status, exacerbation rate, fixed airflow limitation, hyperresponsiveness, comorbidities). This will provide a far more clinically relevant diagnosis, and would aid in research on treatment in more homogenous groups of patients with chronic airways obstruction. More research is certainly needed to develop more evidence-based definitions for this patient group and to evaluate biomarkers, which will help to further classify these patients, treat them more adequately and unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:26596632

  18. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Falcone, E Liana; Petts, Jennifer R; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L; de la Morena, M Teresa; Greenberg, David E; Zerbe, Christa S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis. PMID:26886412

  19. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petts, Jennifer R.; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M.; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L.; de la Morena, M. Teresa; Greenberg, David E.; Zerbe, Christa S.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Holland, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis. PMID:26886412

  20. Lung Compliance and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Papandrinopoulou, D.; Tzouda, V.; Tsoukalas, G.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a chronic inflammatory response of the airways to noxious particles or gases, with resulting pathological and pathophysiological changes in the lung. The main pathophysiological aspects of the disease are airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The mechanical properties of the respiratory system and its component parts are studied by determining the corresponding volume-pressure (P-V) relationships. The consequences of the inflammatory response on the lung structure and function are depicted on the volume-pressure relationships. PMID:23150821

  1. Chronic migraine: epidemiology and disease burden.

    PubMed

    Manack, Aubrey N; Buse, Dawn C; Lipton, Richard B

    2011-02-01

    Chronic migraine is a common and disabling complication of migraine with a population prevalence of about 2%. Emerging evidence suggests that episodic migraine and chronic migraine differ not only in degree, but also in kind. Compared with patients with episodic migraine, those with chronic migraine have worse socioeconomic status, reduced health-related quality of life, increased headache-related burden (including impairment in occupational, social, and family functioning), and greater psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Each year, approximately 2.5% of patients with episodic migraine develop new-onset chronic migraine (ie, chronification). Understanding the natural disease course, improving treatment and management, and preventing the onset could reduce the enormous individual and societal burden of chronic migraine, and thus, have become important goals of headache research. This review provides a summary of the history of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria, as well as recent studies focusing on the epidemiology, natural history, and burden of chronic migraine. PMID:21063918

  2. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Other less common causes include ... and renal insufficiency, and albumin to assess your nutritional status. A stool sample may help define the type ...

  3. Chronic sequelae of foodborne disease.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, J A

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade the complexity of foodborne pathogens, as well as their adaptability and ability to cause acute illness, and in some cases chronic (secondary) complications, have been newly appreciated. This overview examines long-term consequences of foodborne infections and intoxications to emphasize the need for more research and education. PMID:9366595

  4. Screening and Management of Depression for Adults With Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is the leading cause of disability and the fourth leading contributor to the global burden of disease. In Canada, the 1-year prevalence of major depressive disorder was approximately 6% in Canadians 18 and older. A large prospective Canadian study reported an increased risk of developing depression in people with chronic diseases compared with those without such diseases. Objectives To systematically review the literature regarding the effectiveness of screening for depression and/or anxiety in adults with chronic diseases in the community setting. To conduct a non-systematic, post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether a screen-and-treat strategy for depression is associated with an improvement in chronic disease outcomes. Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 29, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, OVID PsycINFO, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 2002 until January 29, 2012. Review Methods No citations were identified for the first objective. For the second, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials that compared depression management for adults with chronic disease with usual care/placebo were included. Where possible, the results of randomized controlled trials were pooled using a random-effects model. Results Eight primary randomized controlled trials and 1 systematic review were included in the post-hoc analysis (objective 2)—1 in people with diabetes, 2 in people with heart failure, and 5 in people with coronary artery disease. Across all studies, there was no evidence that managing depression improved chronic disease outcomes. The quality of evidence (GRADE) ranged from low to moderate. Some of the study results (specifically in coronary artery disease populations) were suggestive of benefit, but the differences were not significant. Limitations The included studies varied in duration of treatment and follow-up, as well as in included forms of depression. In most of the trials, the authors noted a significant placebo response rate that could be attributed to spontaneous resolution of depression or mild disease. In some studies, placebo groups may have had access to care as a result of screening, since it would be unethical to withhold all care. Conclusions There was no evidence to suggest that a screen-and-treat strategy for depression among adults with chronic diseases resulted in improved chronic disease outcomes. Plain Language Summary People with chronic diseases are more likely to have depression than people without chronic diseases. This is a problem because depression may make the chronic disease worse or affect how a person manages it. Discovering depression earlier may make it easier for people to cope with their condition, leading to better health and quality of life. We reviewed studies that looked at screening and treating for depression in people with chronic diseases. In people with diabetes, treatment of depression did not affect clinical measures of diabetes management. In people with heart failure and coronary artery disease, treatment of depression did not improve heart failure management or reduce rates of heart attacks or death. At present, there is no evidence that screening and treating for depression improves the symptoms of chronic diseases or lead to use of fewer health care services. PMID:24133570

  5. Dermatological diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon1, Amy L.; Desai, Tejas

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are a variety of dermatological diseases that are more commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplants than the general population. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. Results: Some cutaneous diseases are clearly unique to this population. Of them, Lindsay’s Nails, xerosis cutis, dryness of the skin, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and acquired perforating dermatosis have been described in chronic kidney disease patients. The most common malignancy found in all transplant recipients is non-melanoma skin cancer. Conclusions: It is important for patients and physicians to recognize the manifestations of skin disease in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease to mitigate the morbidity associated with these conditions. PMID:24475435

  6. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  7. Physical Activity Transitions and Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century in the United States (U.S.) has experienced a dramatic increase in life expectancy among adult men and women, an increase unprecedented in the history of this country. As a result, the pattern of disease and conditions most responsible for death in the U.S. shifted during the past century from infectious diseases and unintentional injuries to the current array of the leading causes of mortality dominated by the chronic diseases. During this same period, daily lifestyle dramatically shifted from a life full of active living to one of inactivity. The argument has been made that in the case of human beings, there has been little or no change in our genotype within the past 50 years. However, there have been major changes documented in the living environment among economically developed societies during this same time period. Through the collection of epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings, evidence exists to suggest that physical inactivity is associated with the onset of chronic diseases of our day. Trends in physical inactivity evident through the monitoring of transport, recreational, sport, and purposeful activity have demonstrated that the current lifestyle of the 21st century has contributed substantially to the chronic disease burden in the U.S. and elsewhere. By addressing the domains that influence physical activity behaviors including the environment (both physical and social/cultural), health systems access, and behavioral correlates of physical activity and inactivity, the current chronic disease crisis can potentially be addressed. PMID:20161359

  8. SECRETED KLOTHO AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble Klotho (sKl) in the circulation can be generated directly by alterative splicing of the Klotho transcript or the extracellular domain of membrane Klotho can be released from membrane-anchored Klotho on the cell surface. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sKl, acts as hormonal factor and plays important roles in anti-aging, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, and Wnt signaling. Emerging evidence reveals that Klotho deficiency is an early biomarker for chronic kidney diseases as well as a pathogenic factor. Klotho deficiency is associated with progression and chronic complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In multiple experimental models, replacement of sKl, or manipulated up-regulation of endogenous Klotho protect the kidney from renal insults, preserve kidney function, and suppress renal fibrosis, in chronic kidney disease. Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease. PMID:22396167

  9. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  10. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  11. Investigation of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gerontoukou, Evangelia-Ioanna; Michaelidoy, Sofia; Rekleiti, Maria; Saridi, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    The health of an individual depends on both his/her physical and psychological condition. In recent years it has been observed that chronic patients have frequently an affected psycho-emotional state. The purpose of this study is to investigate anxiety and depression in patients with chronic diseases and the correlation of the results with daily physical activity levels and individual health levels, as well comorbidity. This study included patients with chronic diseases that were treated in a local general hospital or were visiting often outpatient clinics of the same hospital due to their condition. The sample in this particular study included 204 patients; 118 of them were women and 86 men. From the total sample that participated in our research, 118 (57.8%) were females and the majority of the participants were secondary/basic education graduates (67%), married (71%), living in urban areas (53%). Hypertension was the most frequent chronic disease in our sample, followed by hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus. Comparing the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms in both questionnaires in relation to the expected frequency in the general population, significant levels of depression and anxiety symptoms were recorded. Taking into consideration the findings of this research, anxiety and depression symptoms can have profound effects regarding the control of chronic diseases, the patients’ quality of life and their general health. PMID:26973961

  12. Milk--the promoter of chronic Western diseases.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2009-06-01

    Common chronic diseases of Western societies, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, obesity, dementia, and allergic diseases are significantly influenced by dietary habits. Cow's milk and dairy products are nutritional staples in most Western societies. Milk and dairy product consumption is recommended by most nutritional societies because of their beneficial effects for calcium uptake and bone mineralization and as a source of valuable protein. However, the adverse long-term effects of milk and milk protein consumption on human health have been neglected. A hypothesis is presented, showing for the first time that milk protein consumption is an essential adverse environmental factor promoting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Milk protein consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signalling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Of special concern is the possibility that milk intake during pregnancy adversely affects the early fetal programming of the IGF-1 axis which will influence health risks later in life. An accumulated body of evidence for the adverse effects of cow's milk consumption from fetal life to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and senescence will be provided which strengthens the presented hypothesis. PMID:19232475

  13. Microcirculation in Acute and Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zafrani, Lara; Ince, Can

    2015-12-01

    The renal microvasculature is emerging as a key player in acute and chronic kidney diseases. Renal microvascular disease involves alterations in endothelial barrier permeability, exaggerated inflammation, impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation involving the nitric oxide system, increased oxidative stress, and loss of angiogenic factors. Moreover, evidence suggests that there is a microvascular component to the pathogenesis of renal scarring. New technology is being developed to explore renal microcirculation in vivo in experimental models and humans. This technology will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney diseases and will help guide specific therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring the renal microcirculation. This article reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms of renal microvascular dysfunction in acute and chronic kidney diseases and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. Recent developments in the monitoring of renal microcirculation are described with respect to their advantages and limitations, and future directions are outlined. PMID:26231789

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

  15. Ubiquitin: new insights into chronic degenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Lowe, J; Mayer, R J

    1989-12-01

    Ubiquitin is a 76-amino-acid protein and is perhaps the most conserved gene product in evolution. It modulates degradation of abnormal or damaged proteins and belongs to the class of heat-shock proteins induced in conditions of cell stress. Recent work shows that ubiquitin is involved in several chronic degenerative diseases characterized by the formation of cellular inclusion bodies. The ubiquitin response to cell injury appears to be cytoprotective and particularly important in diseases of the nervous system. PMID:2558755

  16. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Steyers, Curtis M.; Miller, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein), autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population. PMID:24968272

  17. Pregnancy in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vellanki, Kavitha

    2013-05-01

    Despite vast improvements in fetal outcomes, pregnancy in women with CKD is fraught with hazards; worsening of renal function and complications like preeclampsia and premature delivery are common. To date, there is no accurate formula to calculate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Also, whether the current CKD classification is better than the older classification at predicting outcomes in pregnant women with CKD is unknown. Women with an estimated GFR ?1.4 mg/dL are at increased risk of progressive worsening of renal function regardless of the cause of the underlying kidney disease. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in pregnant women with underlying CKD, and serum markers such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PIGF) may lead the way for definitive diagnosis. New-onset lupus or lupus flare is an indication for kidney biopsy during pregnancy; cyclosporine is safe and is the most effective agent that can be used during pregnancy. Women with adult polycystic kidney disease are at increased risk of hypertension and preeclampsia during pregnancy, as well as hepatic cysts later in life, the latter occurring with multiple pregnancies. Strict blood pressure control is important in pregnant women with diabetic nephropathy. A multidisciplinary team that includes nephrologists and obstetricians who deal with high-risk pregnancies should be involved in the care of pregnant women with CKD for successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23928386

  18. Effects of iron overload on chronic metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Manco, Melania

    2014-06-01

    Iron can affect the clinical course of several chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis. Iron overload can affect major tissues involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (pancreatic ? cells, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) and organs affected by chronic diabetic complications. Because iron is a potent pro-oxidant, fine-tuned control mechanisms have evolved to regulate entry, recycling, and loss of body iron. These mechanisms include the interplay of iron with transferrin, ferritin, insulin, and hepcidin, as well as with adipokines and proinflammatory molecules. An imbalance of these homoeostatic mechanisms results in systemic and parenchymal siderosis that contributes to organ damage (such as ?-cell dysfunction, fibrosis in liver diseases, and atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability). Conversely, iron depletion can exert beneficial effects in patients with iron overload and even in healthy frequent blood donors. Regular assessment of iron balance should be recommended for patients with chronic metabolic diseases, and further research is needed to produce guidelines for the identification of patients who would benefit from iron depletion. PMID:24731656

  19. New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Villaça, Debora Strose; Lerario, Maria Cristina; Dal Corso, Simone; Neder, José Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the fact that these drugs can avert or minimize catabolism and stimulate protein synthesis, thereby reducing the loss of muscle mass and increasing exercise tolerance. This review summarizes the available data regarding the use of anabolic steroids, creatine, L-carnitine, branched-chain amino acids and growth hormones in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The advantage of using these ergogenic aids appears to lie in increasing lean muscle mass and inducing bioenergetic modifications. Within this context, most of the data collected deals with anabolic steroids. However, to date, the clinical benefits in terms of increased exercise tolerance and muscle strength, as well as in terms of the effect on morbidity and mortality, have not been consistently demonstrated. Dietary supplementation with substances of ergogenic potential might prove to be a valid adjuvant therapy for treating patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, especially those presenting loss of muscle mass or peripheral muscle weakness. PMID:17273571

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): factors influencing the occurrence.

    PubMed

    McPherson, E A; Lawson, G H; Murphy, J R; Nicholson, J M; Breeze, R G; Pirie, H M

    1979-07-01

    Breed, age, weight, type of work performed, seasonal onset, poor ventilation and exposure to moulds in the habitat were investigated in relation to the occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD was most commonly detected in showjumping and hacking horses. The older a horse, the more likely it was to become affected although most were 6 to 10 years of age. Of the horses in this sample of the population, which was not a random one, thoroughbred horses were affected least and ponies most often. The high incidence in ponies was related to their more frequent exposure to poor quality fodder and bedding. Most horses are exposed to the hazard of moulds, but more affected horses were so exposed than those not affected with COPD. Poor ventilation of the stable increased the chance of a horse becoming affected. Sex, body weight and season of onset of coughing had no influence on the occurrence of the disease. PMID:488065

  1. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  2. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  3. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  4. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  5. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  6. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  7. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  8. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  9. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  10. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  11. A Prediction Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Includes Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Monica A.; Taylor, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background An estimated 75% of the seven million Americans with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease are undiagnosed. Improved prediction models to identify high-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease enhance the ability of health care providers to prevent or delay serious sequelae, including kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Methods We identified 11,955 adults ≥18 years of age in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 ml/minute/1.73 m2. High-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease were identified by estimating the individual probability using β coefficients from the model of traditional and non-traditional risk factors. To evaluate this model, we performed standard diagnostic analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% probability cutoff points. Results The estimated probability of chronic kidney disease ranged from virtually no probability (0%) for an individual with none of the 12 risk factors to very high probability (98%) for an older, non-Hispanic white edentulous former smoker, with diabetes ≥10 years, hypertension, macroalbuminuria, high cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein, high C-reactive protein, lower income, and who was hospitalized in the past year. Evaluation of this model using an estimated 5% probability cutoff point resulted in 86% sensitivity, 85% specificity, 18% positive predictive value, and 99% negative predictive value. Conclusion This United States population–based study suggested the importance of considering multiple risk factors, including periodontal status, because this improves the identification of individuals at high risk for chronic kidney disease and may ultimately reduce its burden. PMID:19228085

  12. Osteoporosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Bhardwaj, Rajeev; Madabhavi, Irappa; Khatana, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is associated with various comorbidities found in all stages of COPD. The comorbidities have significant impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden in COPD. Management of comorbidities should be incorporated into the comprehensive management of COPD as this will also have an effect on the outcome in COPD patients. Various comorbidities reported in COPD include cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle dysfunction, anemia, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a significant comorbidity in COPD patients. Various risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, and the use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are responsible for its occurrence in patients with COPD. This review will focus on the prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD patients. PMID:25788838

  13. Comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Negewo, Netsanet A; McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G

    2015-11-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) often experience comorbid conditions. The most common comorbidities that have been associated with COPD include cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, metabolic disorder, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression, skeletal muscle dysfunction, cachexia, gastrointestinal diseases, and other respiratory conditions. Not only are comorbidities common but they also considerably influence disease prognosis and patients? health status, and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, perusal of literature indicates that little has been done so far to effectively assess, manage, and treat comorbidities in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to comprehensively narrate the comorbid conditions that often coexist with COPD, along with their reported prevalence and their significant impacts in the disease management of COPD. A perspective on integrated disease management approaches for COPD is also discussed. PMID:26521102

  14. Food Insecurity and Chronic Disease123

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Household food insecurity has been previously hypothesized to promote dependence on inexpensive, highly palatable foods that are energy dense. Such dependence, and the cyclical nature of having enough food in the beginning of the month followed by food scarcity at the end of the month, could lead to weight gain over a short period of time. Such dependence on energy-dense foods and weight gain may play a direct role in the development of chronic conditions. Other compounding factors that result from exposure to household food insecurity have been well described, including pathways by which stress promotes visceral fat accumulation and chronic disease. This symposium review paper summarizes the literature on the link between food insecurity and the following: 1) diet, 2) weight gain, and 3) chronic disease, especially among women. This paper also proposes a framework for considering how the lived experience of household food insecurity may potentiate the development of chronic disease by activating the stress response among individuals at critical developmental periods in a food-impoverished environment. PMID:23493536

  15. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  16. Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderjit; Ma, Kevin Cong; Berlin, David Adam

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The association of chronic lung disease and pulmonary hypertension portends a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension differs in the presence or absence of lung disease. We describe the physiological determinants of the normal pulmonary circulation to better understand the pathophysiological factors implicated in chronic parenchymal lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of 3 forms of chronic lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis. PMID:26706386

  17. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Castellon, Xavier; Bogdanova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increases in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and subclinical atherosclerosis as well as early-stage endothelial dysfunction screening using the FMD method (Flow Mediated Dilation). This phenomenon, referred to as accelerated pathological remodeling of arterial wall, could be attributed to traditional risk factors associated with atherosclerosis. Several new non-invasive techniques have been used to study arterial wall’s structural and functional alterations. These techniques (based of Radio Frequency, RF) allow for an assessment of artery age through calculations of intima-media thickness (RF- QIMT), pulse wave rate (RF- QAS) and endothelial dysfunction degree (FMD). The inflammatory and autoimmune diseases should now be considered as new cardiovascular risk factors, result of the major consequences of oxidative stress and RAS (Renin Angiotensin System) imbalance associated with the deleterious effect of known risk factors that lead to the alteration of the arterial wall. Inflammation plays a key role in all stages of the formation of vascular lesions maintained and exacerbated by the risk factors. The consequence of chronic inflammation is endothelial dysfunction that sets in and we can define it as an integrated marker of the damage to arterial walls by classic risk factors. The atherosclerosis, which develops among these patients, is the main cause for cardiovascular morbi-mortality and uncontrolled chronic biological inflammation, which quickly favors endothelial dysfunction. These inflammatory and autoimmune diseases should now be considered as new cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26815098

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Endothelial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Castellon, Xavier; Bogdanova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increases in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and subclinical atherosclerosis as well as early-stage endothelial dysfunction screening using the FMD method (Flow Mediated Dilation). This phenomenon, referred to as accelerated pathological remodeling of arterial wall, could be attributed to traditional risk factors associated with atherosclerosis. Several new non-invasive techniques have been used to study arterial wall's structural and functional alterations. These techniques (based of Radio Frequency, RF) allow for an assessment of artery age through calculations of intima-media thickness (RF- QIMT), pulse wave rate (RF- QAS) and endothelial dysfunction degree (FMD). The inflammatory and autoimmune diseases should now be considered as new cardiovascular risk factors, result of the major consequences of oxidative stress and RAS (Renin Angiotensin System) imbalance associated with the deleterious effect of known risk factors that lead to the alteration of the arterial wall. Inflammation plays a key role in all stages of the formation of vascular lesions maintained and exacerbated by the risk factors. The consequence of chronic inflammation is endothelial dysfunction that sets in and we can define it as an integrated marker of the damage to arterial walls by classic risk factors. The atherosclerosis, which develops among these patients, is the main cause for cardiovascular morbi-mortality and uncontrolled chronic biological inflammation, which quickly favors endothelial dysfunction. These inflammatory and autoimmune diseases should now be considered as new cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26815098

  19. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    PubMed Central

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems. PMID:21403882

  20. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turkey was 31.8%. The PatenT study also reported that overall awareness (40.7%), treatment (31.1%), and control rates (8.1%) of hypertension were strikingly low. Only 20.7% of the patients who were aware of their hypertension and receiving treatment had their blood pressure controlled to <140/90?mm?Hg. In the Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey (CREDIT) study (n=10,748), the overall prevalence of chronic kidney (including all stages) disease was 15.7% and increased with advancing age. In the same population, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome were reported as 32.7%, 12.7%, 76.3%, 20.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. The prevalence and awareness of hypertension in CREDIT population was 32.7% and 48.6%, respectively. According to the data obtained from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey is alarmingly high. To improve prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of these major public health problems, appropriate health strategies should be implemented by the government, together with medical societies, non-governmental organizations, industry, health-care providers, and academia. PMID:25019009

  1. Mechanisms of Cachexia in Chronic Disease States.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2015-10-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are muscle wasting syndromes associated with aging and with many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). While mechanisms are complex, these conditions are often accompanied by elevated angiotensin II (Ang II). Patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased Ang II levels and cachexia, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment improves weight loss. It was found that Ang II infusion in rodents leads to skeletal muscle wasting. Ang II increases cytokines and circulating hormones, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, serum amyloid-A and glucocorticoids, which regulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ang II-induced muscle wasting is caused by alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling, enhanced muscle protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome system and decreased appetite resulting from the downregulation of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, such as Npy and orexin. Ang II also inhibits 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and disrupts normal energy balance via the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphatase PP2Cα. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits skeletal muscle stem (satellite) cell proliferation, leading to lowered muscle regenerative capacity. Distinct satellite cell angiotensin receptor subtypes have different effects on different stages of differentiation and are critical for the regulation of muscle regeneration. These data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system plays a critical role in mechanisms underlying cachexia in chronic disease states, and it is a promising target for the treatment of muscle atrophy in patients with diseases such as CHF and CKD. PMID:26083652

  2. Comparative effectiveness research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Mularski, Richard A; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Lindenauer, Peter K; Lee, Todd A; Vollmer, William M; Au, David H; Carson, Shannon S; Krishnan, Jerry A

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects millions worldwide. It is America’s third leading cause of death, and results in significant morbidity and cost. Although many therapies exist and are being developed to alleviate symptoms and decrease morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, most have only been studied in placebo-controlled efficacy studies in highly selected populations. Comparative effectiveness and translational research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will require the development of infrastructures to support collaboration between researchers and the stakeholders who generate, disseminate and use new knowledge. Methodologies need to evolve to both prioritize research questions and to conduct collaborative comparative effectiveness research studies. Given the impracticality of testing every clinical intervention in comparative pragmatic trials for comparative effectiveness research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, we advocate expanding methodology that includes the use of observational databases with serially performed effectiveness analyses and quasi-experimental designs that include following healthcare changes longitudinally over time to assess benefit, harm, subgroups and cost. PMID:23105965

  3. When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > ... children tend to grow better. continue Helping Your Child Needs of kids with chronic kidney disease often ...

  4. Severe Combat Injuries Linked to Risk of Chronic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Severe Combat Injuries Linked to Risk of Chronic Diseases Diabetes, high blood pressure more common among seriously ... severe combat injuries are at high risk for chronic diseases, according to a new study. "The more severely ...

  5. Age-Associated Chronic Diseases Require Age-Old Medicine: Role of Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    Most chronic diseases - such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity - are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease. PMID:22178471

  6. Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, transmissible prion disease that affects captive and free-ranging deer, elk, and moose. Although the zoonotic potential of CWD is considered low, identification of multiple CWD strains and the potential for agent evolution upon serial passage hinders a definitive conclusion. Surveillance for CWD in free-ranging populations has documented a continual geographic spread of the disease throughout North America. CWD prions are shed from clinically and preclinically affected hosts, and CWD transmission is mediated at least in part by the environment, perhaps by soil. Much remains unknown, including the sites and mechanisms of prion uptake in the naive host. There are no therapeutics or effective eradication measures for CWD-endemic populations. Continued surveillance and research of CWD and its effects on cervid ecosystems is vital for controlling the long-term consequences of this emerging disease. PMID:22377159

  7. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. PMID:25107494

  8. Optimizing Chronic Disease Management Mega-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    PATH-THETA Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Background As Ontario’s population ages, chronic diseases are becoming increasingly common. There is growing interest in services and care models designed to optimize the management of chronic disease. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and expected budget impact of interventions in chronic disease cohorts evaluated as part of the Optimizing Chronic Disease Management mega-analysis. Data Sources Sector-specific costs, disease incidence, and mortality were calculated for each condition using administrative databases from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Intervention outcomes were based on literature identified in the evidence-based analyses. Quality-of-life and disease prevalence data were obtained from the literature. Methods Analyses were restricted to interventions that showed significant benefit for resource use or mortality from the evidence-based analyses. An Ontario cohort of patients with each chronic disease was constructed and followed over 5 years (2006–2011). A phase-based approach was used to estimate costs across all sectors of the health care system. Utility values identified in the literature and effect estimates for resource use and mortality obtained from the evidence-based analyses were applied to calculate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Given uncertainty about how many patients would benefit from each intervention, a system-wide budget impact was not determined. Instead, the difference in lifetime cost between an individual-administered intervention and no intervention was presented. Results Of 70 potential cost-effectiveness analyses, 8 met our inclusion criteria. All were found to result in QALY gains and cost savings compared with usual care. The models were robust to the majority of sensitivity analyses undertaken, but due to structural limitations and time constraints, few sensitivity analyses were conducted. Incremental cost savings per patient who received intervention ranged between $15 per diabetic patient with specialized nursing to $10,665 per patient wth congestive heart failure receiving in-home care. Limitations Evidence used to inform estimates of effect was often limited to a single trial with limited generalizability across populations, interventions, and health care systems. Because of the low clinical fidelity of health administrative data sets, intermediate clinical outcomes could not be included. Cohort costs included an average of all health care costs and were not restricted to costs associated with the disease. Intervention costs were based on resource use specified in clinical trials. Conclusions Applying estimates of effect from the evidence-based analyses to real-world resource use resulted in cost savings for all interventions. On the basis of quality-of-life data identified in the literature, all interventions were found to result in a greater QALY gain than usual care would. Implementation of all interventions could offer significant cost reductions. However, this analysis was subject to important limitations. Plain Language Summary Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in Ontario. They account for a third of direct health care costs across the province. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions that might improve the management of chronic diseases. The evaluated interventions led to lower costs and better quality of life than usual care. Offering these options could reduce costs per patient. However, the studies used in this analysis were of medium to very low quality, and the methods had many limitations. PMID:24228076

  9. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  10. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific ... seven times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times more ...

  11. Thoracic perspective revisited in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Kumar, Sachin; Arora, Ankur

    2015-08-01

    A variety of chest manifestations are seen in patients with chronic liver diseases, namely hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, intrathoracic portosystemic collaterals, hepatic hydrothorax, infections, drug-induced changes, manifestations of hepatocellular carcinoma, gynecomastia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, autoimmune changes, aspiration pneumonitis and changes due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Gastroenterologists and radiologists should be aware of these entities; knowledge of the imaging findings specific to each condition is of prime importance for managing such patients. PMID:25969457

  12. Thoracic perspective revisited in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Kumar, Sachin; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    A variety of chest manifestations are seen in patients with chronic liver diseases, namely hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, intrathoracic portosystemic collaterals, hepatic hydrothorax, infections, drug-induced changes, manifestations of hepatocellular carcinoma, gynecomastia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, autoimmune changes, aspiration pneumonitis and changes due to ?1-antitrypsin deficiency. Gastroenterologists and radiologists should be aware of these entities; knowledge of the imaging findings specific to each condition is of prime importance for managing such patients. PMID:25969457

  13. Psychological aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Agle, D P; Baum, G L

    1977-07-01

    This paper describes a number of psychological variables useful in the care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Attention to these factors does not replace destroyed lung tissue. Yet such efforts can lead to meaningful improvement in performance for many patients. The prolongation of life is not the only goal of comprehensive care. Equally important to the patient and his family are efforts to function as well and as comfortably as possible throughout the remainder of his life. PMID:559893

  14. Chiropractic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Masarsky, C S; Weber, M

    1988-12-01

    A patient with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease going back more than 20 years was treated with a combination of chiropractic manipulation, nutritional advice, therapeutic exercises, and intersegmental traction. Improvements were noted in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, coughing, fatigue, and ease of breathing (sign test significant at 0.005 level). Improvement was also noted in laryngospasm. Studies are made and speculation as to the mechanism of the treatment effect is provided. PMID:3253396

  15. Chronic diseases in the rubber industry

    PubMed Central

    Tyroler, H. A.; Andjelkovic, Dragana; Harris, Robert; Lednar, Wayne; McMichael, Anthony; Symons, Mike

    1976-01-01

    An overview is presented of epidemiologic studies of chronic diseases in the rubber industry. Analyses of the mortality experience during the period 1964-1972 of workers age 40–64 and retirees age 65–84 of two large rubber and tire manufacturing companies consistently disclosed excesses of deaths attributed to leukemia and lymphosarcoma, and for cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and prostate. The relation of site-specific malignancies to work histories and grouped occupational titles as surrogate measures of work-related exposures to possible carcinogens is described. There was no evidence of company-wide, sizable, consistent excess for the other major chronic diseases causes of death. Although a total cohort deficit in the mortality rate for lung cancer was found, there was a history of increased frequency of exposure to certain work areas among lung cancer decedents. Morbidity studies, including analysis of disability retirements, and ad hoc questionnaire and health testing surveys, disclosed excesses of chronic pulmonary diseases. There was evidence of an interactive effect in the association of work and smoking histories with pulmonary disability retirement. PMID:1026398

  16. The vulnerable patient with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Schlieper, Georg; Hess, Katharina; Floege, Jürgen; Marx, Nikolaus

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit an increased cardiovascular risk. The high susceptibility to cardiovascular disease renders CKD patients 'vulnerable patients'. The overall cardiovascular risk of a vulnerable patient with CKD is determined by the components of the vulnerable myocardium, the vulnerable vessel and the vulnerable blood which in sum contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality risk in CKD patients. Future therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population should address all three aspects of vulnerability in CKD patients. PMID:25744273

  17. Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

  18. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand; Tao Li, Philip Kam; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Couser, William G; Erk, Timur; Zakharova, Elena; Segantini, Luca; Shay, Paul; Riella, Miguel C; Osafo, Charlotte; Dupuis, Sophie; Kernahan, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Twelve March 2015 will mark the 10th anniversary of World Kidney Day (WKD), an initiative of the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort ever mounted to raise awareness among decision-makers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. Each year WKD reminds us that kidney disease is common, harmful and treatable. The focus of WKD 2015 is on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations. This article reviews the key links between poverty and CKD and the consequent implications for the prevention of kidney disease and the care of kidney patients in these populations. PMID:25713703

  19. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    Twelve March 2015 will mark the 10th anniversary of World Kidney Day (WKD), an initiative of the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort ever mounted to raise awareness among decision-makers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. Each year WKD reminds us that kidney disease is common, harmful and treatable. The focus of WKD 2015 is on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations. This article reviews the key links between poverty and CKD and the consequent implications for the prevention of kidney disease and the care of kidney patients in these populations. PMID:25713703

  20. Selenium and Chronic Diseases: A Nutritional Genomics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Méplan, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic data have revealed a key role for selenium (Se) and selenoproteins in biological pathways known to be altered in multifactorial diseases, such as cellular maintenance, response to oxidative stress and correct protein folding. Although epidemiological studies indicate that low Se intake is linked to increased risk for various chronic diseases, supplementation trials have given confusing outcomes, suggesting that additional genetic factors could affect the relationship between Se and health. Genetic data support this hypothesis, as risk for several chronic diseases, in particular cancer, was linked to a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) altering Se metabolism, selenoprotein synthesis or activity. Interactions between SNPs in selenoprotein genes, SNPs in related molecular pathways and biomarkers of Se status were found to further modulate the genetic risk carried by the SNPs. Taken together, nutritional genomics approaches uncovered the potential implication of some selenoproteins as well as the influence of complex interactions between genetic variants and Se status in the aetiology of several chronic diseases. This review discusses the results from these genetic associations in the context of selenoprotein functions and epidemiological investigations and emphasises the need to assess in future studies the combined contribution of Se status, environmental stress, and multiple or individual SNPs to disease risk. PMID:25988760

  1. Neprilysin inhibition in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Parminder; Haynes, Richard; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Despite current practice, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. Neprilysin inhibition (NEPi) is a new therapeutic strategy with potential to improve outcomes for patients with CKD. NEPi enhances the activity of natriuretic peptide systems leading to natriuresis, diuresis and inhibition of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which could act as a potentially beneficial counter-regulatory system in states of RAS activation such as chronic heart failure (HF) and CKD. Early NEPi drugs were combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors but were associated with unacceptable rates of angioedema and, therefore, withdrawn. However, one such agent (omapatrilat) showed promise of NEP/RAS inhibition in treating CKD in animal models, producing greater reductions in proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with isolated RAS inhibition. A new class of drug called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) has been developed. One such drug, LCZ696, has shown substantial benefits in trials in hypertension and HF. In CKD, HF is common due to a range of mechanisms including hypertension and structural heart disease (including left ventricular hypertrophy), suggesting that ARNi could benefit patients with CKD by both retarding the progression of CKD (hence delaying the need for renal replacement therapy) and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. LCZ696 is now being studied in a CKD population. PMID:25140014

  2. Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Nikolaos; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Spyratos, Dionysios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Arikas, Stamatis; Tsiouda, Theodora; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Argyriou, Michael; Kessisis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory airway disease whose incidence and mortality increases every year. It is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to toxic particles or gases (usually cigarette smoke). A central role in the pathophysiology has been shown to play a chronic inflammation of the airways that is expressed primarily by hypersecretion of mucus, stenosis of the smaller airways and the establishment of pulmonary emphysema. There is an increasing trend for assessing the inflammatory pattern of inflammatory airway diseases through mediators measured by noninvasive techniques. Markers in biological fluids and exhaled air have been the subject of intense evaluation over the past few years, with some of them reaching their introduction into clinical practice, while others remain as research tools. Of particular interest for the scientific community is the discovery of clinically exploitable biomarkers associated with specific phenotypes of the disease. Studying the effects of therapeutic interventions in these biomarkers may lead to targeted therapy based on phenotype and this is perhaps the future of therapeutics in COPD. PMID:24672691

  3. Secondary Care Clinic for Chronic Disease: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Michèle; Juneau, Lucille; Legault-Mercier, Samuel; Bernardino, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The complexity of chronic disease management activities and the associated financial burden have prompted the development of organizational models, based on the integration of care and services, which rely on primary care services. However, since the institutions providing these services are continually undergoing reorganization, the Centre hospitalier affilié universitaire de Québec wanted to innovate by adapting the Chronic Care Model to create a clinic for the integrated follow-up of chronic disease that relies on hospital-based specialty care. Objective The aim of the study is to follow the project in order to contribute to knowledge about the way in which professional and management practices are organized to ensure better care coordination and the successful integration of the various follow-ups implemented. Methods The research strategy adopted is based on the longitudinal comparative case study with embedded units of analysis. The case study uses a mixed research method. Results We are currently in the analysis phase of the project. The results will be available in 2015. Conclusions The project’s originality lies in its consideration of the macro, meso, and micro contexts structuring the creation of the clinic in order to ensure the integration process is successful and to allow a theoretical generalization of the reorganization of practices to be developed. PMID:25689840

  4. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Differences and Similarities.

    PubMed

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Dragisic, Dejan; Ustamujic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are obstructive pulmonary diseases that affected millions of people all over the world. Asthma is a serious global health problem with an estimated 300 million affected individuals. COPD is one of the major causes of chronic morbidity and mortality and one of the major public health problems worldwide. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the world and further increases in its prevalence and mortality can be predicted. Although asthma and COPD have many similarities, they also have many differences. They are two different diseases with differences in etiology, symptoms, type of airway inflammation, inflammatory cells, mediators, consequences of inflammation, response to therapy, course. Some similarities in airway inflammation in severe asthma and COPD and good response to combined therapy in both of these diseases suggest that they have some similar patophysiologic characteristics. The aim of this article is to show similarities and differences between these two diseases. Today asthma and COPD are not fully curable, not identified enough and not treated enough and the therapy is still developing. But in future better understanding of pathology, adequate identifying and treatment, may be and new drugs, will provide a much better quality of life, reduced morbidity and mortality of these patients. PMID:23678316

  5. Recent Developments in Epigenetics of Acute and Chronic Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Marpadga A.; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-01-01

    The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, the aging population as well as prevalence of drug abuse has led to significant increases in the rates of the closely associated acute and chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, evidence shows that parental behavior and diet can affect the phenotype of subsequent generations via epigenetic transmission mechanisms. These data suggest a strong influence of the environment on disease susceptibility and that, apart from genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms need to be evaluated to gain critical new information about kidney diseases. Epigenetics is the study of processes that control gene expression and phenotype without alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including cytosine DNA methylation and covalent post translational modifications of histones in chromatin are part of the epigenome, the interface between the stable genome and the variable environment. This dynamic epigenetic layer responds to external environmental cues to influence the expression of genes associated with disease states. The field of epigenetics has seen remarkable growth in the past few years with significant advances in basic biology, contributions to human disease, as well as epigenomics technologies. Further understanding of how the renal cell epigenome is altered by metabolic and other stimuli can yield novel new insights into the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In this review, we have discussed the current knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms (primarily DNA me and histone modifications) in acute and chronic kidney diseases, and their translational potential to identify much needed new therapies. PMID:25993323

  6. Recent developments in epigenetics of acute and chronic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Marpadga A; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-08-01

    The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, the aging population as well as prevalence of drug abuse has led to significant increases in the rates of the closely associated acute and chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, evidence shows that parental behavior and diet can affect the phenotype of subsequent generations via epigenetic transmission mechanisms. These data suggest a strong influence of the environment on disease susceptibility and that, apart from genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms need to be evaluated to gain critical new information about kidney diseases. Epigenetics is the study of processes that control gene expression and phenotype without alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including cytosine DNA methylation and covalent post-translational modifications of histones in chromatin, are part of the epigenome, the interface between the stable genome and the variable environment. This dynamic epigenetic layer responds to external environmental cues to influence the expression of genes associated with disease states. The field of epigenetics has seen remarkable growth in the past few years with significant advances in basic biology, contributions to human disease, as well as epigenomics technologies. Further understanding of how the renal cell epigenome is altered by metabolic and other stimuli can yield novel new insights into the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In this review, we have discussed the current knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms (primarily DNAme and histone modifications) in acute and chronic kidney diseases, and their translational potential to identify much needed new therapies. PMID:25993323

  7. Erectile dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: From pathophysiology to management.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eirini; Varouktsi, Anna; Lazaridis, Antonios; Boutari, Chrysoula; Doumas, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is encountered in millions of people worldwide, with continuously rising incidence during the past decades, affecting their quality of life despite the increase of life expectancy in these patients. Disturbance of sexual function is common among men with CKD, as both conditions share common pathophysiological causes, such as vascular or hormonal abnormalities and are both affected by similar coexisting comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The estimated prevalence of erectile dysfunction reaches 70% in end stage renal disease patients. Nevertheless, sexual dysfunction remains under-recognized and under-treated in a high proportion of these patients, a fact which should raise awareness among clinicians. A multifactorial approach in management and treatment is undoubtedly required in order to improve patients' quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26167462

  8. Erectile dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: From pathophysiology to management

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Eirini; Varouktsi, Anna; Lazaridis, Antonios; Boutari, Chrysoula; Doumas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is encountered in millions of people worldwide, with continuously rising incidence during the past decades, affecting their quality of life despite the increase of life expectancy in these patients. Disturbance of sexual function is common among men with CKD, as both conditions share common pathophysiological causes, such as vascular or hormonal abnormalities and are both affected by similar coexisting comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The estimated prevalence of erectile dysfunction reaches 70% in end stage renal disease patients. Nevertheless, sexual dysfunction remains under-recognized and under-treated in a high proportion of these patients, a fact which should raise awareness among clinicians. A multifactorial approach in management and treatment is undoubtedly required in order to improve patients’ quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26167462

  9. Recent updates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airways inflammation and progressive airflow limitation, is a common, preventable and treatable disease. Worldwide, COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor. This translational review of recent updates in COPD care for the primary care audience, includes recommendations from the 2015 Global Initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) report on diagnosis, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, prevalence of comorbidities, management of exacerbations and the asthma and COPD overlap syndrome, with a focus on the importance and benefit of physical activity and exercise in COPD patients. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity of COPD in individual patients. Management of exacerbations includes reducing the impact of the current exacerbation and preventing development of subsequent episodes. Healthcare professionals need to be alert to comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, anxiety/depression, lung cancer, infections and diabetes, which are common in COPD patients and can have a significant impact on HRQoL and prognosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended by a number of guidelines for all symptomatic COPD patients, regardless of severity, and involves exercise training, patient education, nutritional advice and psychosocial support. At all stages of COPD, regular physical activity and exercise can aid symptom control, improve HRQoL, reduce rates of hospitalization, and improve morbidity and respiratory mortality. Healthcare professionals play a pivotal role in improving HRQoL and health-related outcomes in COPD patients to meet their specific needs and in providing appropriate diagnosis, management and advice on smoking cessation. PMID:26560514

  10. [Pregnancy and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W; Hänert, E

    1991-11-01

    Chronic diseases have influence on fertility and course of pregnancy. Altogether 107 women who suffered from ulcerous colitis and Crohn's disease, respectively, were examined. The average weight and the size of the new-born after manifestation did not differ from those before the beginning of the disease. Low birth weight were observed after the medication of prednisolone and a manifestation of the ulcerous colitis during the gravidity. The ability for conception is not restricted when this disease is existing. An infertility rate being above the norm of the total population is to be found in Crohn's disease. There is no correlation to the localisation of the changes. It can be consented to a pregnancy in lacking Crohn's disease or in a mild activity of this disease. When there are moderately severe and severe attacks before the realization of the wish of having a child a dietetic, medicamentous or surgical therapy is to be recommended. The treatment with low-dosed azulfidine and corticosteroid has no influence on the development of the child. A prophylactic therapy is indicated in ulcerative colitis, an interruption is rarely to be proved. In an acute attack during the pregnancy, when the accurate diagnosis is imperative the fully effective dose in therapy is to be aspired to. PMID:1686510

  11. Curcumin, inflammation, and chronic diseases: how are they linked?

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Yue, Yuan; Zheng, Xi; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Shaohua; Du, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases. PMID:26007179

  12. Chronic kidney disease and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Junichiro James; Matsuo, Koji; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) is a syndrome defined as a systemic mineral metabolic disorder associated with CKD, and the term renal osteodystrophy indicates a pathomorphological concept of bone lesions associated with CKD-MBD. Cortical bone thinning, abnormalities in bone turnover and primary/secondary mineralization, elevated levels of circulating sclerostin, increased apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteocytes, disturbance of the coupling phenomenon, iatrogenic factors, accumulated micro-crackles, crystal/collagen disorientation, and chemical modification of collagen crosslinks are all possible candidates found in CKD that could promote osteopenia and/or bone fragility. Some of above factors are the consequences of abnormal systemic mineral metabolism but for others it seem unlikely. We have used the term uremic osteoporosis to describe the uremia-induced bone fragility which is not derived from abnormal systemic mineral metabolism. Interestingly, the disease aspect of uremic osteoporosis appears to be similar to that of senile osteoporosis. PMID:25653092

  13. Mechanisms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2015-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are important events that contribute to worsening health status, disease progression, and mortality. They are mainly triggered by respiratory viruses (especially rhinovirus, the cause of the common cold), but airway bacteria are also involved in their pathogenesis. Exacerbations are associated with both airway and systemic inflammation and, this is mainly neutrophilic in origin. Some patients are especially prone to develop exacerbations, and these have been identified as a high-risk group with increased airway inflammation and greater disease progression. Management of acute exacerbations involves therapy with oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics, and new therapies are needed. A number of interventions may prevent exacerbations, including vaccination, long-acting bronchodilators, antiinflammatory agents, and long-term antibiotic therapy. Understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of COPD exacerbations is important to develop novel therapies. PMID:26595732

  14. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Romme, Elisabeth A P M; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Rutten, Erica P A; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2013-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is being regarded as a heterogeneous disease with clinically significant pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, such as emphysema, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and, consequently, an increased risk of fracture. Fractures resulting from osteoporosis might contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in COPD patients. The high prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD patients is assumed to be due to common risk factors, such as older age and tobacco smoking, and COPD-specific risk factors, such as systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency and the use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids. This review provides a state-of-the-art summary of the prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, risk factors and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD patients. It also discusses potential mechanisms linking COPD with osteoporosis. PMID:23952337

  15. Vitamin D supplements in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nan; Wang, Jialin; Gu, Lijie; Wang, Ling; Yuan, Weijie

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem and Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in CKD and might be associated with calcium and phosphate metabolism, cardiovascular disease, infections as well as the progress of kidney dysfunction. Emerging evidence implies that Vitamin D supplements may be of benefit to CKD. Based on existing laboratory and clinical evidence, this review intends to discuss the effectiveness of Vitamin D supplements and controversy in clinical practice. The effect of Vitamin D in CKD patients is summarized in detail from CKD-mineral bone disease, the progression of renal function, cardiovascular events and immune system. Considerable disputes exist for the Vitamin D supplements in CKD, and a growing amount of experimental evidence and some clinical evidence are now gathering from in vitro, animal and epidemiological studies. PMID:26211501

  16. Role of autophagy in chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Song; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a common pathway of various glomerular diseases, which carries great morbidity and mortality to people. CKD is characterized by progressive kidney fibrosis and remodeling. CKD is also associated with the depletion of glomerular and tubular cells. Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. It plays an important role in both normal and disease states, including immunity, inflammation, and adaptation to stress. Evidence has indicated that impaired autophagic activity is involved in the development of CKD. Here, we review the progress in our understanding of the role of autophagy in the development and progression of CKD. Targeting the autophagic signaling pathways may be a therapeutic strategy for CKD. PMID:26885176

  17. Chronic kidney disease: considerations for nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Steiber, Alison L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent and has major health consequences for patients. Caring for patients with CKD requires knowledge of the food supply, renal pathophysiology, and nutrition-related medications used to work synergistically with diet to control the signs and symptoms of the disease. The nutrition care process and International Dietetic and Nutrition Terminology allow for systematic, holistic, quality care of patients with this complex, progressive disease. Nutrition interventions must be designed with the individual patients needs in mind while prioritizing factors with the largest negative impact on health outcomes and mortality risk. New areas of nutrition treatment are emerging that involve a greater focus on micronutrient needs, the microbiome, and vegetarian-style diets. These interventions may improve outcomes by decreasing inflammation, improving energy and protein delivery, and lowering phosphorus, electrolytes, and fluid retention. PMID:24637245

  18. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Jha, V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  19. The Indiana Chronic Disease Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Marc B; Holmes, Ann M; Ackermann, Ronald T; Murray, Michael D; Doebbeling, Caroline Carney; Katz, Barry; Li, Jingjin; Zillich, Alan; Prescott, Victoria M; Downs, Stephen M; Inui, Thomas S

    2006-01-01

    The Indiana Chronic Disease Management Program (ICDMP) is intended to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of care for Medicaid members with congestive heart failure (chronic heart failure), diabetes, asthma, and other conditions. The ICDMP is being assembled by Indiana Medicaid primarily from state and local resources and has seven components: (1) identification of eligible participants to create regional registries, (2) risk stratification of eligible participants, (3) nurse care management for high-risk participants, (4) telephonic intervention for all participants, (5) an Internet-based information system, (6) quality improvement collaboratives for primary care practices, and (7) program evaluation. The evaluation involves a randomized controlled trial in two inner-city group practices, as well as a statewide observational design. This article describes the ICDMP, highlights challenges, and discusses approaches to its evaluation. PMID:16529571

  20. Lymphangiosarcoma in chronic hereditary oedema (Milroy's disease).

    PubMed

    Broström, L A; Nilsonne, U; Kronberg, M; Söderberg, G

    1989-01-01

    Lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphoedema is extremely rare. In a reference population of about four million people, during a thirty year period (1957-1987), only four patients were treated for such a tumour. The neoplasm is almost exclusively seen in elderly patients after mastectomy but in two of our patients, reported in this paper, it arose in chronic hereditary oedema (Milroy's disease). In both these patients there was a considerable treatment delay because of wrong diagnosis. The tumour extent was difficult to assess macroscopically and ablative surgery had to be a disarticulation of the involved extremity. Macular or papular purple lesions in a lymphoedematous extremity should be a manifestation of this aggressive neoplasm. PMID:2624407

  1. The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging in age from 17 to 98 years (mean 59.5 years), including 64 athletes, 21 military veterans (86% of whom were also athletes) and one individual who engaged in self-injurious head banging behaviour. Eighteen age- and gender-matched individuals without a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury served as control subjects. In chronic traumatic encephalopathy, the spectrum of hyperphosphorylated tau pathology ranged in severity from focal perivascular epicentres of neurofibrillary tangles in the frontal neocortex to severe tauopathy affecting widespread brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe, thereby allowing a progressive staging of pathology from stages I–IV. Multifocal axonal varicosities and axonal loss were found in deep cortex and subcortical white matter at all stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 immunoreactive inclusions and neurites were also found in 85% of cases, ranging from focal pathology in stages I–III to widespread inclusions and neurites in stage IV. Symptoms in stage I chronic traumatic encephalopathy included headache and loss of attention and concentration. Additional symptoms in stage II included depression, explosivity and short-term memory loss. In stage III, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairment were found, and in stage IV, dementia, word-finding difficulty and aggression were characteristic. Data on athletic exposure were available for 34 American football players; the stage of chronic traumatic encephalopathy correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy was the sole diagnosis in 43 cases (63%); eight were also diagnosed with motor neuron disease (12%), seven with Alzheimer’s disease (11%), 11 with Lewy body disease (16%) and four with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (6%). There is an ordered and predictable progression of hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities through the nervous system in chronic traumatic encephalopathy that occurs in conjunction with widespread axonal disruption and loss. The frequent association of chronic traumatic encephalopathy with other neurodegenerative disorders suggests that repetitive brain trauma and hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposition promote the accumulation of other abnormally aggregated proteins including TAR DNA-binding protein 43, amyloid beta protein and alpha-synuclein. PMID:23208308

  2. Costs of Chronic Diseases at the State Level: The Chronic Disease Cost Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Louise B.; Khavjou, Olga A.; Li, Rui; Maylahn, Christopher M.; Tangka, Florence K.; Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek A.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Nwaise, Isaac; Chapman, Daniel P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have estimated national chronic disease costs, but state-level estimates are limited. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Chronic Disease Cost Calculator (CDCC), which estimates state-level costs for arthritis, asthma, cancer, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, other heart diseases, depression, and diabetes. Methods Using publicly available and restricted secondary data from multiple national data sets from 2004 through 2008, disease-attributable annual per-person medical and absenteeism costs were estimated. Total state medical and absenteeism costs were derived by multiplying per person costs from regressions by the number of people in the state treated for each disease. Medical costs were estimated for all payers and separately for Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurers. Projected medical costs for all payers (2010 through 2020) were calculated using medical costs and projected state population counts. Results Median state-specific medical costs ranged from $410 million (asthma) to $1.8 billion (diabetes); median absenteeism costs ranged from $5 million (congestive heart failure) to $217 million (arthritis). Conclusion CDCC provides methodologically rigorous chronic disease cost estimates. These estimates highlight possible areas of cost savings achievable through targeted prevention efforts or research into new interventions and treatments. PMID:26334712

  3. Update on the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Mannino, David M

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated chronic lung disease. Early and appropriate treatment may help modify the course of the disease with respect to exacerbation timing and frequency, quality of life, and mortality. Steady progress continues to be made in understanding the disease pathogenesis and treatment modalities, and there is some evidence that outcomes are improving. PMID:20948828

  4. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Juncos, Luis A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. PMID:24600241

  5. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Juncos, Luis A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. PMID:24600241

  6. [Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Calle Rubio, Myriam; Chacón, Beatriz Morales; Rodríguez Hermosa, Juan Luis

    2010-10-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are considered to be episodes of instability that favor disease progression, reduce quality of life, increase the risk of death and cause substantial healthcare resource use. These exacerbations are due to bacterial and viral infections and environmental stressors. However, other concomitant diseases such as heart disease, other lung diseases (e.g. pulmonary embolism, aspiration or pneumothorax) and other systemic processes can trigger or complicate these exacerbations. The two factors with the greatest influence on the physiopathology of exacerbations are dynamic overinflation and local and systemic inflammation. In most patients, drug treatment includes short-acting bronchodilators, systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics. Hypoxemic respiratory failure requires controlled oxygen therapy. In hypercapnic respiratory failure, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation may allow time to be gained until other treatments begin to take effect and can thus avoid endotracheal intubation. The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation should never delay intubation, if indicated. Hospital discharge criteria are based on both clinical and gasometric stabilization and on the patient's ability to manage his or her disease at home. Hospitalization at home can be a treatment option in COPD exacerbations and is as effective as conventional hospitalization. PMID:21316546

  7. Hypertension Treatment for Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Arjun D.; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is common and frequently complicated with hypertension. As a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in this high risk population, treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease is of paramount importance. We review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic kidney disease and then update the latest study results for treatment including salt restriction, invasive endovascular procedures, and pharmacologic therapy. Recent trials draw into question the efficacy of renal artery stenting or renal denervation for hypertension in chronic kidney disease, as well as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade as first line therapy of hypertension in end stage renal disease. Positive trial results reemphasize salt restriction and challenge the prevailing prejudice against the use of thiazide-like diuretics in advanced chronic kidney disease. Lastly, clinical practice guidelines are trending away from recommending tight blood pressure control in chronic kidney disease. PMID:25544866

  8. The link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Sarmad; Hernandez, German T.

    2014-01-01

    Context: It is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a strong risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the excess risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD is only partially explained by the presence of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: Chronic kidney disease even in its early stages can cause hypertension and potentiate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the practice of intensive blood pressure lowering was criticized in recent systematic reviews. Available evidence is inconclusive but does not prove that a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg as recommended in the guidelines improves clinical outcomes more than a target of less than 140/90 mmHg in adults with CKD. Conclusions: The association between CKD and CVD has been extensively documented in the literature. Both CKD and CVD share common traditional risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, cardiovascular disease remains often underdiagnosed und undertreated in patients with CKD. It is imperative that as clinicians, we recognize that patients with CKD are a group at high risk for developing CVD and cardiovascular events. Additional studies devoted to further understand the risk factors for CVD in patients with CKD are necessary to develop and institute preventative and treatment strategies to reduce the high morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. PMID:25093157

  9. Chronic Wasting Disease Positive Tissue Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center entered into an agreement with the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the Department of Veterinary Sciences at the University of Wyoming to produce a collection of positive tissues from cervids intentionally infected with chronic wasting disease. This agreement was facilitated through the University of Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit. Also, the investigators on this project sampled the animals incrementally over 2 years to show changes over time, and examined tissues from the animals by immunohistochemistry. CWD positive tissues are catalogued by species, sample site and time of infection. These data and more will soon be published.

  10. Baroreflex dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manpreet; Chandran, Dinu S; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The presence of traditional and CKD related risk factors results in exaggerated vascular calcification in these patients. Vascular calcification is associated with reduced large arterial compliance and thus impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) resulting in augmented blood pressure (BP) variability and hampered BP regulation. Baroreflex plays a vital role in short term regulation of BP. This review discusses the normal baroreflex physiology, methods to assess baroreflex function, its determinants along with the prognostic significance of assessing BRS in CKD patients, available literature on BRS in CKD patients and the probable patho-physiology of baroreflex dysfunction in CKD. PMID:26788464

  11. Atmospheric Pollution and Chronic Chest Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1971-01-01

    The author reviews possible relationships between chronic bronchitis and air pollution, drawing attention to the difference in incidence of chronic bronchitis between England and Canada, and the recent increase in mortality from respiratory diseases in Canada. Neither air pollution nor smoking habits can fully account for these phenomena. Dr. Shephard describes methods of measuring pollution and concludes that Toronto is intrinsically as dirty as other cities of comparable size, and that although there have been substantial decreases of smoke over the past decade, levels of gaseous acid have shown little improvement. Urban/rural comparisons suggest that high concentrations of pollutants can double the prevalence of chronic bronchitis; however, the effect is much less obvious if comparisons are restricted to non-smokers of comparable social status. Longitudinal surveys suggest a worsening of condition in bronchitics during periods of intense pollution. Justification for air pollution control programs lies more in the prevention of damage to buildings and beauty then in a specific effect upon human health. PMID:20468698

  12. EDTA chelation therapy in chronic degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Olszewer, E; Carter, J P

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective analysis of treatment results from 2870 patients, with various chronic degenerative and age-associated diseases, who were treated with di-sodium magnesium EDTA chelation therapy, suggests that the case against EDTA Chelation Therapy should be re-opened. Using qualitative but never-the-less standardized criteria for improvement, our analysis shows that EDTA Chelation Therapy resulted in "marked" improvement in 76.89% and "good" improvement in 16.56% of patients with ischemic heart disease; also, "marked" improvement in 91% and "good" improvement in 7.6% of patients with peripheral vascular disease and intermittent claudication. In a group of patients with cerebro-vascular and other degenerative cerebral diseases, 24% had "marked" improvement, and 30% had "good" improvement. Of four patients with scleroderma, three had "marked" improvement and one had "good" improvement. Seventy-five percent of all of the patients had "marked" improvement in "geriatric symptomatology of vascular origin". The authors recommend renewed study of EDTA Chelation Therapy. The possibility of a "tomato effect", i.e., a drug which works, but the majority of physicians believe that it doesn't work, needs to be ruled out. A favorable climate needs to be created, in which FDA-approved studies of its usefulness in treating peripheral vascular disease can take place. PMID:3144646

  13. Telomeres, NAFLD and Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Donati, Benedetta; Valenti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres consist of repeat DNA sequences located at the terminal portion of chromosomes that shorten during mitosis, protecting the tips of chromosomes. During chronic degenerative conditions associated with high cell replication rate, progressive telomere attrition is accentuated, favoring senescence and genomic instability. Several lines of evidence suggest that this process is involved in liver disease progression: (a) telomere shortening and alterations in the expression of proteins protecting the telomere are associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; (b) advanced liver damage is a feature of a spectrum of genetic diseases impairing telomere function, and inactivating germline mutations in the telomerase complex (including human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) and human Telomerase RNA Component (hTERC)) are enriched in cirrhotic patients independently of the etiology; and (c) experimental models suggest that telomerase protects from liver fibrosis progression. Conversely, reactivation of telomerase occurs during hepatocarcinogenesis, allowing the immortalization of the neoplastic clone. The role of telomere attrition may be particularly relevant in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver, an emerging cause of advanced liver disease. Modulation of telomerase or shelterins may be exploited to prevent liver disease progression, and to define specific treatments for different stages of liver disease. PMID:26999107

  14. Pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Montuschi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    None of the drugs currently available for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are able to reduce the progressive decline in lung function which is the hallmark of this disease. Smoking cessation is the only intervention that has proved effective. The current pharmacological treatment of COPD is symptomatic and is mainly based on bronchodilators, such as selective β2-adrenergic agonists (short- and long-acting), anticholinergics, theophylline, or a combination of these drugs. Glucocorticoids are not generally recommended for patients with stable mild to moderate COPD due to their lack of efficacy, side effects, and high costs. However, glucocorticoids are recommended for severe COPD and frequent exacerbations of COPD. New pharmacological strategies for COPD need to be developed because the current treatment is inadequate. PMID:18044097

  15. [Skin diseases associated with chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Podányi, B; Lengyel, G; Hársing, J; Becker, K; Horváth, A

    1998-11-01

    The authors are discussing hepatic and extrahepatic pathologic processes caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and they focus their interest to the skin disorders appearing in the presence of chronic, active HCV infections. The trigger of the immunologic processes leading to dermatologic manifestations are the activated T cells (CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes), cytokins, and also the expansion of certain B cells. Pathologic immunologic phenomena may initiate various dermatologic manifestations. Immunoglobulins, immuncomplexes generated by the disease itself are manifested as various forms of cutan vasculitis. In the present series of patients (pts), HCV related skin disorders known from the literature were diagnosed in eleven cases and they were representing 7 different disease entities. These were palpable purpura (3 pts), urticaria, prurigo and alopecia areata (2-2 pts), lichen ruber planus, pruritus and vitiligo (1-1 patient respectively). The case reports of 2 pts, one with palpable purpura (vasculitis purpurica), one with prurigo and vitiligo are presented in details. PMID:9842236

  16. Integrative Genomics of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Brian D.; Hersh, Craig P.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease with both environmental and genetic determinants, the most important of which is cigarette smoking. There is marked heterogeneity in the development of COPD among persons with similar cigarette smoking histories, which is likely partially explained by genetic variation. Genomic approaches such as genomewide association studies and gene expression studies have been used to discover genes and molecular pathways involved in COPD pathogenesis; however, these “first generation” omics studies have limitations. Integrative genomic studies are emerging which can combine genomic datasets to further examine the molecular underpinnings of COPD. Future research in COPD genetics will likely use network-based approaches to integrate multiple genomic data types in order to model the complex molecular interactions involved in COPD pathogenesis. This article reviews the genomic research to date and offers a vision for the future of integrative genomic research in COPD. PMID:25078622

  17. Musculoskeletal Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cielen, Nele; Maes, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by airway obstruction and inflammation but also accompanied by several extrapulmonary consequences, such as skeletal muscle weakness and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle weakness is of major concern, since it leads to poor functional capacity, impaired health status, increased healthcare utilization, and even mortality, independently of lung function. Osteoporosis leads to fractures and is associated with increased mortality, functional decline, loss of quality of life, and need for institutionalization. Therefore, the presence of the combination of these comorbidities will have a negative impact on daily life in patients with COPD. In this review, we will focus on these two comorbidities, their prevalence in COPD, combined risk factors, and pathogenesis. We will try to prove the clustering of these comorbidities and discuss possible preventive or therapeutic strategies. PMID:24783225

  18. NADPH Oxidases in Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Joy X.; Török, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common feature observed in a wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) are emerging as major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several major isoforms are expressed in the liver, including NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4. While the phagocytic NOX2 has been known to play an important role in Kupffer cell and neutrophil phagocytic activity and inflammation, the nonphagocytic NOX homologues are increasingly recognized as key enzymes in oxidative injury and wound healing. In this review, we will summarize the current advances in knowledge on the regulatory pathways of NOX activation, their cellular distribution, and their role in the modulation of redox signaling in liver diseases. PMID:26436133

  19. Infections and Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kucharzik, Torsten; Maaser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the more recent years since the introduction of anti-TNF therapy, the treatment strategy in chronic inflammatory bowel disease has developed more towards an early intensive, often double immunosuppression. While this leads to an improved therapeutic success, this intensified therapy also increases the risk for side effects and especially for infectious complications. The early detection of this complication in the immunocompromised patient is often more difficult due to the potential broad spectrum of infectious agents, the often atypical presentation in conjunction with the immunosuppression as well as often similar symptoms regarding intestinal infectious complications common for a flare of the underlying disease. In the first part, this overview will discuss the broad spectrum of potential infectious complications, using pulmonary infections as an example and presenting an algorithm for detection and therapy. In the second part, common intestinal infectious complications will be discussed from diagnosis to therapy. PMID:26288602

  20. Management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Grindrod, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common condition. There are an estimated 3 million cases in the UK. Of these, 2 million have not got a formal diagnosis. Community nurses meet patients with COPD frequently, although COPD may not be the primary reason for the encounter, or the COPD may be present but undiagnosed. The number of patients with COPD is believed to be increasing and, with increased awareness of the condition and an emphasis on improving diagnosis, the number of cases is expected to rise. Community nurses are well placed to raise concerns that a patient in their care may have undiagnosed COPD; if the condition is subsequently diagnosed and appropriate treatment is given, outcomes will improve for that individual. Community nurses can also support patients and their families to manage the condition through all stages of the disease trajectory, from diagnosis to the end-of-life phase. PMID:25651279

  1. Is chronic traumatic encephalopathy a real disease?

    PubMed

    Randolph, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has received widespread media attention and is treated in the lay press as an established disease, characterized by suicidality and progressive dementia. The extant literature on CTE is reviewed here. There currently are no controlled epidemiological data to suggest that retired athletes are at increased risk for dementia or that they exhibit any type of unique neuropathology. There remain no established clinical or pathological criteria for diagnosing CTE. Despite claims that CTE occurs frequently in retired National Football League (NFL) players, recent studies of NFL retirees report that they have an all-cause mortality rate that is approximately half of the expected rate, and even lower suicide rates. In addition, recent clinical studies of samples of cognitively impaired NFL retirees have failed to identify any unique clinical syndrome. Until further controlled studies are completed, it appears to be premature to consider CTE a verifiable disease. PMID:24412888

  2. [PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Corhay, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disorder and not all patients respond to all available drugs. The importance of personalized treatment in COPD is inceasingly recognized and, for clinicians, identification of phenotypes represents the first step in this process. The new GOLD does not fully reflect the heterogeneous nature of the disease, but represents a progress in the personalized treatment of COPD. Historically, the two most widely recognized clinical phenotypes of COPD are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Most COPD patients encountered in practice actually share both of these features. Genetic background, clinical presentation, comorbidities, variation in the response to treatment and propensity to exacerbations may also identify other phenotypes such as the frequent exacerbator,the asthma and COPD overlap syndrome and the persistent systemic inflammation phenotype. A more precise definition of COPD phenotypes should lead to a better targeted therapeutic approach based on these phenotypes. The purpose of this article is to point out that, in COPD, we are moving towards a more personalized therapeutic approach. PMID:26285458

  3. Health Technologies for the Improvement of Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). Objective The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. Data Sources The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Review Methods Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Results Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. Conclusions The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient outcomes; reduce resource utilization intensity; be cost-effective; and be a viable contributing factor to chronic disease management in the community. Plain Language Summary People with chronic diseases rely on the health care system to help manage their illness. Hospital use can be costly, so community-based alternatives are often preferred. Research published in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series between 2006 and 2011 was reviewed to identify health technologies that have been effective or cost-effective in helping to manage chronic disease in the community. All technologies identified led to better patient outcomes and less use of health services. Most were also cost-effective. Two technologies that can cure chronic disease and 1 that can prevent chronic disease were found. Eight technologies that can help manage chronic disease were also found. Health technologies should be considered an important part of chronic disease management in the community. PMID:24228075

  4. Treatment of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Chee, Alex; Sin, Don D

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an epidemic in many parts of the world. Most patients with COPD demonstrate mild disease. The cornerstone of management of mild disease is smoking cessation, which is the only proven intervention to relieve symptoms, modify its natural history and reduce mortality. For asymptomatic patients, it is the only required therapy. Short-acting bronchodilators can be added on an as needed basis for those with intermittent symptoms and regularly for those with persistent symptoms. Long-acting bronchodilators can be substituted for those who remain symptomatic despite regular use of short-acting bronchodilators. Inhaled corticosteroids do not modify the natural history of COPD and as such cannot be recommended as standalone therapy for mild COPD. However, for patients with refractory and intractable symptoms, they may be used in combination with long-acting beta-2 agonists. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and pulmonary rehabilitation are other therapies that may be considered for select patients with mild disease. In this paper, we summarize the current standard of care for patients with mild COPD. PMID:19281074

  5. Multisystem diseases affecting the skin and eye.

    PubMed

    Wanat, Karolyn A; Kim, Benjamin; Rosenbach, Misha

    2016-01-01

    There exist a wide variety of multisystem diseases that can affect both the eyes and skin. The skin and eyes may be the initial sites affected, leading to a new diagnosis of a systemic illness, or severe skin and eye involvement can drive treatment for patients with multisystem disease. It is important for physicians to be aware of how to recognize and diagnose these conditions, to evaluate patients for extent of disease, and to initiate appropriate therapies to combat these potentially severe diseases. This contribution will discuss the following diseases with a special emphasis on the mucocutaneous and ophthalmologic manifestations: reactive arthritis, sarcoidosis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma and other granulomatous diseases, amyloidosis, Behçet disease, cholesterol emboli, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, and the primary vasculitides. In each case, a thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations and ocular manifestations are critical to help guide appropriate evaluation of these patients, and managing the ocular and cutaneous manifestations are critical to prevent morbidity and potentially devastating long-term sequelae. PMID:26903187

  6. Chronic Disease Medication Administration Rates in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Lawrence; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Burbach, Cindy; Molgaard, Craig A.; Ngong, Lolem

    2004-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest school nurses and staff treat increasing numbers of public school students with chronic diseases. However, professionals know little about actual disease burden in schools. This study measured prevalence of chronic disease medication administration rates in a large, urban midwestern school district. Data from daily…

  7. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Werner; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, Simon; Martinez, Fernando J; Semigran, Marc J; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol U; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-24

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis, are associated with a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is linked with exercise limitation and a worse prognosis. Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are particularly prone to the development of PH. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal modalities for the diagnosis of COPD and DPLD. For discrimination between group 1 PH patients with concomitant respiratory abnormalities and group 3 PH patients (PH caused by lung disease), patients should be transferred to a center with expertise in both PH and lung diseases for comprehensive evaluation. The task force encompassing the authors of this article provided criteria for this discrimination and suggested using the following definitions for group 3 patients, as exemplified for COPD, IPF, and CPFE: COPD/IPF/CPFE without PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP] <25 mm Hg); COPD/IPF/CPFE with PH (mPAP ?25 mm Hg); PH-COPD, PH-IPF, and PH-CPFE); COPD/IPF/CPFE with severe PH (mPAP ?35 mm Hg or mPAP ?25 mm Hg with low cardiac index [CI <2.0 l/min/m(2)]; severe PH-COPD, severe PH-IPF, and severe PH-CPFE). The "severe PH group" includes only a minority of chronic lung disease patients who are suspected of having strong general vascular abnormalities (remodeling) accompanying the parenchymal disease and with evidence of an exhausted circulatory reserve rather than an exhausted ventilatory reserve underlying the limitation of exercise capacity. Exertional dyspnea disproportionate to pulmonary function tests, low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and rapid decline of arterial oxygenation upon exercise are typical clinical features of this subgroup with poor prognosis. Studies evaluating the effect of pulmonary arterial hypertension drugs currently not approved for group 3 PH patients should focus on this severe PH group, and for the time being, these patients should be transferred to expert centers for individualized patient care. PMID:24355635

  8. [Pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Werner; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, Simon; Martinez, Fernando J; Semigran, Marc J; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol U; Vachiéy, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis, are associated with a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is linked with exercise limitation and a worse prognosis. Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are particularly prone to the development of PH. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal modalities for the diagnosis of COPD and DPLD. For discrimination between group 1 PH patients with concomitant respiratory abnormalities and group 3 PH patients (PH caused by lung disease), patients should be transferred to a center with expertise in both PH and lung diseases for comprehensive evaluation. The task force encompassing the .authors of this article provided criteria for this discrimination and suggested using the following definitions for group 3 patients, as exemplified for COPD, IPF, and CPFE: COPD/IPF/CPFE without PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP]<25mmHg); COPD/IPF/CPFE with PH (mPAP25mmHg); PH-COPD, PH-IPF, and PH-CPFE); COPD/IPF/CPFE with severe PH (mPAP 35 mmHg or mPAP 25 mmHg with low cardiac index [CI <2.0.l/min/m2]; severe PH-COPD, severe PH-IPF, and severe PH-CPFE). The "severe PH group" includes only a minority of chronic lung disease patients who are suspected of having strong general vascular abnormalities (remodeling) accompanying the parenchymal disease and with evidence of an exhausted circulatory reserve rather than an exhausted ventilatory reserve underlying the limitation of exercise capacity. Exertional dyspnea disproportionate to pulmonary function tests, low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and rapid decline of arterial oxygenation upon exercise are typical clinical features of this subgroup with poor prognosis. Studies evaluating the effect of pulmonary arterial hypertension drugs currently not approved for group 3 PH patients should focus on this severe PH group, and for the time being, these patients should be transferred to expert centers for individualized patient care. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:D109-16) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. PMID:25697041

  9. Gut microbiota and probiotics in chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Claudia; Tiso, Angelo; Del Prete, Anna; Cariello, Rita; Tuccillo, Concetta; Cotticelli, Gaetano; Del Vecchio Blanco, Camillo; Loguercio, Carmelina

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between liver and gut: the portal system receives blood from the gut, and intestinal blood content activates liver functions. The liver, in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion into the intestinal lumen. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis, such as infections, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and renal failure. Probiotics have been suggested as a useful integrative treatment of different types of chronic liver damage, for their ability to augment intestinal barrier function and prevent bacterial translocation. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut microbiota and chronic liver disease, both in the pathogenesis and in the treatment by probiotics of the liver damage. PMID:21163715

  10. Evaluation of chronic kidney disease in chronic heart failure: From biomarkers to arterial renal resistances

    PubMed Central

    Iacoviello, Massimo; Leone, Marta; Antoncecchi, Valeria; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease and its worsening are recurring conditions in chronic heart failure (CHF) which are independently associated with poor patient outcome. The heart and kidney share many pathophysiological mechanisms which can determine dysfunction in each organ. Cardiorenal syndrome is the condition in which these two organs negatively affect each other, therefore an accurate evaluation of renal function in the clinical setting of CHF is essential. This review aims to revise the parameters currently used to evaluate renal dysfunction in CHF with particular reference to the usefulness and the limitations of biomarkers in evaluating glomerular dysfunction and tubular damage. Moreover, it is reported the possible utility of renal arterial resistance index (a parameter associated with abnormalities in renal vascular bed) for a better assesment of kidney disfunction. PMID:25610846

  11. Energetic adaptation to chronic disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Toth, M J; Poehlman, E T

    2000-03-01

    Several chronic diseases occur with increased prevalence in the elderly. Body weight loss is a common feature of many chronic diseases. Weight loss increases the risk for morbidity and mortality and contributes to decreased functional independence and poor quality of life. Thus, an understanding of the effect of chronic disease on energy balance has important implications for nutritional supplementation and clinical outcome. This brief review will consider recent studies that have examined the effect of several chronic diseases (i.e., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and congestive heart failure) on daily energy expenditure in elderly individuals. Additionally, we put forth a model to explain the energetic adaptation to chronic disease in the elderly that is based on measurements of daily energy expenditure and its components. Studies suggest that chronic disease decreases daily energy expenditure in elderly individuals due to a marked reduction in physical activity energy expenditure. Moreover, these changes in daily energy expenditure often occur in the presence of increased resting energy expenditure. Thus, the net effect of chronic disease is to decrease daily energy expenditure. These results do not favor the hypothesis that increased energy expenditure contributes to disease-related weight loss. Instead, reduced energy intake appears to be a more likely mediator of the negative energy imbalance and weight loss that frequently accompany chronic disease in the elderly. PMID:10812919

  12. Chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents in Brunei Darussalam

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shi Ying; Naing, Lin; Han, Aye; Khalil, Muhammad Abdul Mabood; Chong, Vui Heng; Tan, Jackson

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine epidemiology of Bruneian paediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and factors that affect growth and progression of disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted on all children below 18 years old who were diagnosed with CKD over a ten year period (2004 to 2013). The reference population was all children (< 18 years old) suffering from CKD and attending the tertiary paediatric nephrology clinic in Brunei Darussalam. Demographic (current age, age of diagnosis, gender, ethnicity), anthropometric (weight and height), diagnosis, laboratory data (serum creatinine and haemoglobin, urinalysis) and blood pressure were extracted from the patients’ clinical case notes and recorded using a data collection form. RESULTS: The study revealed a high national prevalence [736 per million child population (pmcp)] and incidence (91 pcmp) of CKD. If CKD was defined at Stage 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, the associated prevalence figures were 736, 132, 83, 50 and 33 pmcp. Glomerulonephritis accounted for 69% of all prevalent cases, followed by congenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (20%) and tubulointerstitial diseases (8%). Minimal change disease being the most common histological diagnosis. The median age of diagnosis was 4.5 years, with congenital disease patients experiencing an earlier onset of diagnosis. A large proportion of patients were below the 5% percentile for height and weight. Non-glomerular diseases, adolescent and female patients were significantly associated with poor growth, but not glomerular filtration rate, age of diagnosis or steroid usage. CONCLUSION: Brunei has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the paediatric population with glomerulonephritis being the most common disease. PMID:26981447

  13. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Belarbia, Anis; Nouira, Safa; Sahtout, Wissal; Guedri, Yosra; Achour, Abdellatif

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients as well as its effects on the progression of CKD, we conducted a prospective, longitudinal study including 180 patients with chronic renal failure followed at the outpatient service of Nephrology at the Saloul's University Hospital of Sousse (Tunisia) over six months. Our study population consisted of 101 men and 79 women. Chronic glomerulonephritis (36.6%) was the most frequent nephropathy. The mean serum creatinine was 249 ± 200 mmol/L and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 55.8 ± 49.2 mL/min. Cardiovascular (CV) impairment was found in 27.2% of the patients. The prevalence of MS was 42.2%. Women had significantly more abdominal obesity than men. Subjects with MS were significantly older and predominantly females who had higher blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). CV complications were more frequent among the MS subjects than among the controls. Glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) were significantly higher in the group of CKD patients with MS. However, the occurrence of MS was not influenced by the nature of nephropathy, the degree of the CKD and the use of renin-angiotensin blockers or statins. In multivariate analysis, predictors of occurrence of MS in our series included older age, female gender and higher BMI and LDL-c levels. The prevalence of MS in patients with CKD is higher than the general population. These patients should receive special multidisciplinary care to limit CV complications. PMID:26354564

  14. Bisphenol A in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Krieter, Detlef H; Canaud, Bernard; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Rodriguez, Annie; Morgenroth, Andreas; von Appen, Kai; Dragoun, Gerd-Peter; Wanner, Christoph

    2013-03-01

    The estrogenic endocrine-disrupting substance bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used as a starting material for a variety of consumer plastic products including dialyzer materials. The present study was performed to explore plasma BPA levels in patients with impaired renal function and to investigate if dialyzers differing in elutable BPA influence plasma levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. In vitro BPA was eluted from high-flux polyethersulfone (PUREMA H, referred as PUR-H), high-flux polysulfone (referred as HF-PSu), and low-flux polysulfone (referred as LF-PSu) dialyzers by recirculation with water for 180?min. In a cross-sectional clinical study, plasma BPA levels of outpatients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) from four different centers were determined. Furthermore, in a prospective, randomized, and crossover setting, 18 maintenance dialysis patients were subjected successively to 4 weeks of thrice-weekly hemodialysis with each LF-PSu, HF-PSu, and PUR-H. In addition, the fractions of protein-bound and free BPA were determined in a subset of dialysis patients. The mass of BPA eluted from the blood compartments in vitro under aqueous conditions varied for the three dialyzers being very low for PUR-H (6.2?±?2.5?ng; P?affecting plasma BPA concentrations. Dialyzers are one additional source of BPA, but differences in the elutable BPA content are not associated with a significant effect on BPA plasma levels in Western European maintenance dialysis patients. Due to high protein binding, the removal of BPA by hemodialysis is limited. PMID:23145999

  15. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabolic factors may play key roles in CKD development and pathogenesis. These include raised proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and −6, tumor necrosis factor, altered hepatic acute phase proteins, including reduced albumin, increased C-reactive protein, and perturbations in normal anabolic hormone responses with reduced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis activity. Others include hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), with angiotensin II and aldosterone implicated in hypertension and the promotion of insulin resistance, and subsequent pharmacological blockade shown to improve blood pressure, metabolic control and offer reno-protective effects. Abnormal adipocytokine levels including leptin and adiponectin may further promote the insulin resistant, and proinflammatory state in CKD. Ghrelin may be also implicated and controversial studies suggest activities may be reduced in human CKD, and may provide a rationale for administration of acyl-ghrelin. Poor vitamin D status has also been associated with patient outcome and CVD risk and may indicate a role for supplementation. Glucocorticoid activities traditionally known for their involvement in the pathogenesis of a number of disease states are increased and may be implicated in CKD-associated hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes risk and cachexia, both directly and indirectly through effects on other systems including activation of the mineralcorticoid receptor. Insight into the multiple factors altered in CKD may provide useful information on disease pathogenesis, clinical assessment and treatment rationale such as potential pharmacological, nutritional and exercise therapies. PMID:22537670

  16. Optimism's Explicative Role for Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Avvenuti, Giulia; Baiardini, Ilaria; Giardini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest about dispositional optimism's role in health status and its positive modulating effect on health outcomes has led to a remarkable scientific production in the last decade. To date lot is known for which diseases optimism is relevant, instead much less is known about how optimism interacts with other factors, both biological and psychological, in determining health status. The aim of this mini review is to explore the literature derived from clinical and experimental research assessing the associations between dispositional optimism and health status. Dispositional optimism can be considered as facet of personality that is cognitive in nature which holds the global expectation that the future will be plenty of good events. Optimists view desired goals as obtainable, so they often confront adversities in active manners resulting in perseverance and increased goal attainment. Only studies that explicitly included optimism and health outcomes, as measurable variables, and that reported a clear association between them have been reviewed. Cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, and aging with multimorbidity were considered. Among the possible explicative hypotheses, two seem to best describe results: optimism may have a direct effect on the neuroendocrine system and on immune responses, and it may have an indirect effect on health outcomes by promoting protective health behaviors, adaptive coping strategies and enhancing positive mood. The research on optimism and health status has already shed light on important mechanisms regarding chronic diseases' management, however, further studies are needed to deepen the knowledge. PMID:26973582

  17. Sputum myeloperoxidase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Airway inflammation, especially neutrophilic airway inflammation, is a cardinal pathophysiologic feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The ideal biomarkers characterizing the inflammation might have important potential clinical applications in disease assessment and therapeutic intervention. Sputum myeloperoxidase (MPO) is recognized as a marker of neutrophil activity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether sputum MPO levels could reflect disease status or be regulated by regular medications for COPD. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database, CINAHL and http://www.controlled-trials.com for relevant reports published before September 2012. Observational studies comparing sputum MPO in COPD patients and healthy subjects or asthmatics, or within the COPD group, and studies comparing sputum MPO before and after treatment were all included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed using STATA 10.0 software. Results A total of 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Sputum MPO levels were increased in stable COPD patients when compared with normal controls, and this increase was especially pronounced during exacerbations as compared with MPO levels during the stable state. Theophylline treatment was able to reduce MPO levels in COPD patients, while glucocorticoid treatment failed to achieve the same result. Conclusion Sputum MPO might be a promising biomarker for guiding COPD management; however, further investigations are needed to confirm this. PMID:24588870

  18. Socioeconomic Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Susanne B.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Norris, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a national public health problem that afflicts persons of all segments of society. While racial/ethnic disparities in advanced CKD including dialysis dependent populations have been well established, the finding of differences in CKD incidence, prevalence and progression across different socioeconomic groups and racial and ethnic strata has only recently started to receive significant attention. Socioeconomics may exert both interdependent and independent effects on CKD and its complications, and may confound racial and ethnic disparities. Socioeconomic constellations influence not only access to quality care for CKD risk factors and CKD treatment, but may mediate many of the cultural and environmental determinants of health that are becoming more widely recognized as impacting complex medical disorders. In this manuscript we have reviewed the available literature pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status and economic factors in both non-dialysis dependent CKD and end-stage-renal disease. Advancing our understanding of the role of socioeconomic factors in patients with or at risk for CKD can lead to improved strategies for disease prevention and management. PMID:25573507

  19. Addressing health disparities in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I-Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-01-01

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008-2012. However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database. The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran's I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD. PMID:25514144

  20. Protein oxidation in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Caimi, Gregorio; Carollo, Caterina; Hopps, Eugenia; Montana, Maria; Lo Presti, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    An imbalance between oxidative processes and antioxidant systems has been widely demonstrated in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In this study we enrolled 26 healthy subjects, 27 patients with CKD on conservative treatment (CT-CKD) with various degrees of renal failure, and 31 CKD subjects in haemodialysis treatment (HD-CKD), evaluated before and after a standard haemodialysis session. In each group we measured protein carbonyl groups (PC) as an index of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and two plasma markers of leukocyte activation, elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In CT-CKD subjects the PC level was significantly higher than in normal controls, and it was negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. In HD-CKD patients the PC concentration was significantly increased also in comparison with CT-CKD. An increase in TBARS was present both in CT-CKD and in HD-CKD patients, but in HD-CKD patients TBARS were lower than in CT-CKD. Elastase was increased in both CKD groups, while MPO was not different among control and patient groups. In HD-CKD patients the HD session was followed by a further increase in PC, as well as by an increase in elastase and MPO, whereas TBARS did not change. Protein oxidation accelerates the glycation processes and seems to be connected with the chronic inflammatory state detectable in renal failure, although we did not observe any significant correlation between PC level and leukocyte activation markers. PMID:23719419

  1. Cryoglobulins in acute and chronic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Florin-Christensen, A.; Roux, María E. B.; Arana, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Cryoglobulins were detected in the sera of thirteen patients with acute viral hepatitis and of twelve with chronic hepatic diseases (active chronic hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cryptogenic cirrhosis). Their nature and antibody activity was studied. In both groups, most of them consisted of mixed cryoimmunoglobulins (IgM, IgG and/or IgA), but some were single-class immunoglobulins with one or both types of light chains. Unusual components were also found. ?1-fetoprotein was present in four cryoprecipitates: in two as the single constituent and in two associated to immunoglobulins; hepatitis-associated antigen co-existed in one of the latter. Some cryoglobulins showed antibody activity against human IgG, smooth muscle and mitochondrial antigens. In one case, the IgM-kappa of the cryoprecipitate had antibody activity against ?1-fetoprotein; this antigen was also present in the cryoprecipitate, suggesting immune-complex formation. Autoantibodies were also looked for in the sera of the twenty-five patients; apart from the most common ones, antibodies to ?1-fetoprotein were found in two patients. PMID:4143195

  2. Skeletal Implications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, Barbara M; Moreira, Carolina A; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with numerous comorbidities, among which osteoporosis is of high significance. Low bone mass and the occurrence of fragility fractures is a common finding in patients with COPD. Typical risk factors related directly or indirectly to these skeletal complications include systemic inflammation, tobacco smoking, vitamin D deficiency, and treatment with oral or inhaled corticosteroids. In particular, treatment with glucocorticoids appears to be a strong contributor to bone changes in COPD, but does not fully account for all skeletal complications. Additional to the effects of COPD on bone mass, there is evidence for COPD-related changes in bone microstructure and material properties. This review summarizes the clinical outcomes of low bone mass and increased fracture risk, and reports on recent observations in bone tissue and material in COPD patients. PMID:26861899

  3. The neurophysiology of dissociation and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Scaer, R C

    2001-03-01

    Dissociation as a clinical psychiatric condition has been defined primarily in terms of the fragmentation and splitting of the mind, and perception of the self and the body. Its clinical manifestations include altered perceptions and behavior, including derealization, depersonalization, distortions of perception of time, space, and body, and conversion hysteria. Using examples of animal models, and the clinical features of the whiplash syndrome, we have developed a model of dissociation linked to the phenomenon of freeze/immobility. Also employing current concepts of the psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we propose a model of PTSD linked to cyclical autonomic dysfunction, triggered and maintained by the laboratory model of kindling, and perpetuated by increasingly profound dorsal vagal tone and endorphinergic reward systems. These physiologic events in turn contribute to the clinical state of dissociation. The resulting autonomic dysregulation is presented as the substrate for a diverse group of chronic diseases of unknown origin. PMID:11387861

  4. Chronic granulomatous disease: six new cases.

    PubMed

    Martín Mateos, M A; Alvaro, M; Giner, M T; Plaza, A M; Sierra, J I; Muñoz-López, F

    1998-01-01

    We report six new cases of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) diagnosed at our service. The cases represent 1.1% of all primary immunodeficiencies diagnosed. Four of the children were boys and two were girls. The hereditary mechanism was X-linked in three cases and autosomal recessive in the other three. Clinical manifestations appeared before the age of 2 years in all cases; the illness appeared earlier in males, and was more severe, consisting of bacterial infections such as abscesses in the liver, lungs or skin, suppurating lymphadenitis and mastoiditis. None of the patients had osteomyelitis. The germs isolated were bacteria (Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus) and fungi (Candida, Aspergillus, Trichopyton). Orientative complementary evidence was intense leukocytosis, high levels of acute phase reactants (PCR and VSG), polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and high LB ant LT4 levels. Definitive diagnosis was provided by the NBT test and chemiluminescence in all cases. PMID:9885732

  5. [Iron, hepcidin and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Fievet, Patrick; Brazier, François

    2011-04-01

    Iron deficiency is commonly observed in chronic kidney disease. Blood loss and iron consumption under erythropiesis activating agents (ESA) induce absolute deficiency whereas defect of iron intestinal absorption and storage release account for functional deficiency. High hepcidin plasma levels are probably induced by inflammatory process and can explain functional deficiency. However, hepcidin is negatively correlated with ESA needs and hepcidin expression is influenced by other factors as degree of renal insufficiency, iron pool, treatments (iron IV and ESA). IV iron is the common therapeutic approach of iron deficiency and only normalized iron marrow supply cannot account for his efficiency. New IV iron products allow us to conceive new therapeutic schemes. Hepcidin inhibition is another therapeutic alternative. PMID:21186144

  6. Pay for Performance in Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Yamini; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2015-11-01

    With the advent of the Affordable Care Act, pay-for-performance programs have become widespread in the United States and are here to stay. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services started its pay-for-performance program, the Physician Quality Reporting Initiative, in 2007, and made it a permanent system, the Physician Quality Reporting System, in 2011. Although it started off as a pay-for-performance initiative, in which physicians and other health care professionals were rewarded for satisfactorily reporting on selected quality measures, it now has evolved into a penalty-based program. The Physician Quality Reporting System includes measures that target hepatitis C virus infection. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of these measures and the submission process to avoid penalties or other difficulties with reimbursement. This review describes the current measures in chronic liver disease, rates of submission, as well as the submission process and associated challenges. PMID:26164221

  7. Air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fanny W S; Hui, David S C

    2012-04-01

    Limited data suggest that outdoor air pollution (such as ambient air pollution or traffic-related air pollution) and indoor air pollution (such as second-hand smoking and biomass fuel combustion exposure) are associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there is insufficient evidence to prove a causal relationship at this stage. It also appears that outdoor air pollution is a significant environmental trigger for acute exacerbation of COPD, leading to increasing symptoms, emergency department visits, hospital admissions and even mortality. Improving ambient air pollution and decreasing indoor biomass combustion exposure by improving home ventilation are effective measures that may substantially improve the health of the general public. PMID:22142380

  8. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  9. Sexual function in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Priya; Schmidt, Rebecca J

    2007-04-01

    Endocrine abnormalities are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and lead to sexual dysfunction, anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and altered mineral metabolism. Common clinical problems include disturbances in menstruation in women, erectile dysfunction in men, and decreased libido and infertility in both sexes. Organic factors tend to be prominent and are related to uremia and other comorbid illnesses. Psychological factors and depression may exacerbate the primary problem. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are seen early in CKD and tend to worsen after patients start dialysis. Hypogonadism plays a dominant role in male sexual function, whereas changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function predominate in female sexual dysfunction. In patients on dialysis, treatment strategies include optimizing dose of dialysis, correction of anemia with erythropoietin, and correction of hyperparathyroidism. Successful kidney transplantation may restore normal sexual function, especially in younger patients. PMID:17395114

  10. Autonomic dysfunction in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Frith, James; Newton, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL) is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD). One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this. PMID:24367224

  11. Causal relationship between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Surya J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases. An association between periodontal disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been observed. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between periodontal health and COPD and to assess the potential health status of patients with and without COPD. Settings and Design: In this observational study, the association between periodontal disease and COPD has been assessed. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients were chosen for the study: group A comprising 50 COPD patients and group B consisting of 50 patients without COPD. Gingival Index (GI) and Papilla Bleeding Index (PBI) were used to assess the gingival status. Periodontal indices included Russell's Periodontal Index (PI) and Periodontal Index for Risk of Infectiousness (PIRI), which were assessed in all 100 patients. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was the statistical analysis used. Results: After eliminating age affects using ANCOVA, the mean indices of all variables between groups were found to be highly significant (P<0.001). The scores were highly significant in COPD group than in non-COPD group. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that there is an association between periodontal disease and COPD. It is suggested that periodontitis is one of the risk factors for COPD. PMID:22368360

  12. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes.The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  13. Physical activity of workers with and without chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Loef, Bette; de Hollander, Ellen L.; Boot, Cécile R.L.; Proper, Karin I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To contribute to the development of measures that increase physical activity (PA) levels in workers with and without chronic diseases, insight into workers' PA level is needed. Therefore, this study examined the association between the number of chronic diseases and PA in a Dutch working population. Methods Data of 131,032 workers from the Dutch Public Health Monitor 2012 were used in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 in the Netherlands. PA was operationalized as adherence (yes/no) to three PA guidelines. One of these was the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guideline (? 3 days/week, ? 20 min/day of vigorous-intensity activities). Also, the amount of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA in min/week for those who were physically active for > 0 min/week was calculated. Associations between chronic diseases (0, 1, ? 2 chronic diseases) and PA were examined using logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations stratified for age (19–54 years/55–64 years). Results Workers aged 19–54 years with one (OR = 0.90 (99% CI = 0.84–0.95)) and multiple chronic diseases (OR = 0.76 (99% CI = 0.69–0.83)) had lower odds of adhering to the ACSM-guideline than workers without chronic diseases. Similar patterns were found for older workers. Younger workers with one (B = 24.44 (99% CI = 8.59–40.30)) and multiple chronic diseases (B = 49.11 (99% CI = 26.61–71.61)) had a higher amount of moderate PA than workers without chronic diseases. Conclusion Workers with chronic diseases adhered less often to the ACSM-guideline, but among workers aged 19–54 years who were physically active for > 0 min/week, those with chronic diseases spent more time in moderate-intensity PA than those without chronic diseases. PMID:26844183

  14. Metabolic biomarkers for chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Breit, Marc; Weinberger, Klaus M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly recognized burden for patients and health care systems with high (and growing) global incidence and prevalence, significant mortality, and disproportionately high treatment costs. Yet, the available diagnostic tools are either impractical in clinical routine or have serious shortcomings impeding a well-informed disease management although optimized treatment strategies with proven benefits for the patients have become available. Advances in bioanalytical technologies have facilitated studies that identified genomic, proteomic, and metabolic biomarker candidates, and confirmed some of them in independent cohorts. This review summarizes the CKD-related markers discovered so far, and focuses on compounds and pathways, for which there is quantitative data, substantiating evidence from translational research, and a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. Also, multiparametric marker panels have been suggested that showed promising diagnostic and prognostic performance in initial analyses although the data basis from prospective trials is very limited. Large-scale studies, however, are underway and will provide the information for validating a set of parameters and discarding others. Finally, the path from clinical research to a routine application is discussed, focusing on potential obstacles such as the use of mass spectrometry, and the feasibility of obtaining regulatory approval for targeted metabolomics assays. PMID:26235490

  15. The Chronic Kidney Disease - Colonic Axis.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Madeleine V; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been known to cause significant gastrointestinal and colonic pathology. Recent advances in understanding of the role of colonic bacterial microbiome and its function and composition in health and disease have revealed previously unappreciated effects of CKD-associated colonic pathology on the development of uremic complications. CKD can result in profound changes in the microbiome composition and biosynthetic pattern, and the structure and function of the colon. Increases in bacteria that produce urease, uricase, p-cresol- and indole-forming enzymes and the depletion of bacteria that possess short chain fatty acid forming enzymes have been described in human and animal models. Disruption of the colonic epithelial tight junction in different animal models of CKD has been reported and is largely due to the conversion of luminal urea to ammonia by urease possessing bacteria. Together, these changes contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic inflammation and uremic toxicity by allowing the translocation of endotoxin and microbial fragments into the circulation. Additionally, colonic bacteria are the main source of several well-known pro-inflammatory uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate, P-cresol sulfate. This review is intended to provide an overview of the effects of CKD on the colonic microbiome and the intestinal epithelial barrier structure and function and their role in the pathogenesis the systemic inflammation and uremic toxicity. PMID:25855516

  16. Molecular diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Roos, D; de Boer, M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, liver, brain and bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species, Klebsiella species, Burkholderia cepacia and Salmonella species. CGD is a rare (?1:250?000 births) disease caused by mutations in any one of the five components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in phagocytes. This enzyme generates superoxide and is essential for intracellular killing of pathogens by phagocytes. Molecular diagnosis of CGD involves measuring NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes, measuring protein expression of NADPH oxidase components and mutation analysis of genes encoding these components. Residual oxidase activity is important to know for estimation of the clinical course and the chance of survival of the patient. Mutation analysis is mandatory for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes the different assays available for the diagnosis of CGD, the precautions to be taken for correct measurements, the flow diagram to be followed, the assays for confirmation of the diagnosis and the determinations for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24016250

  17. Vitamin D and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Seong

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a significant global health problem because of the increased risk of total and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is common in patients with CKD, and serum levels of vitamin D appear to have an inverse correlation with kidney function. Growing evidence has indicated that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to deteriorating renal function, as well as increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Recent studies have suggested that treatment with active vitamin D or its analogues can ameliorate renal injury by reducing fibrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation in animal models; this treatment also decreases proteinuria and mortality in patients with CKD. These renoprotective effects of vitamin D treatment are far beyond its classical role in the maintenance of bone and mineral metabolism, in addition to its pleiotropic effects on extra-mineral metabolism. In this review, we discuss the altered metabolism of vitamin D in kidney disease, and the potential renoprotective mechanisms of vitamin D in experimental and clinical studies. In addition, issues regarding the effects of vitamin D treatment on clinical outcomes are discussed. PMID:25045287

  18. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  19. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  20. Chronic kidney disease and the skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Fractures across the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could be due to osteoporosis, some form of renal osteodystrophy defined by specific quantitative histomorphometry or chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD). CKD–MBD is a systemic disease that links disorders of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD to either one or all of the following: abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone or vitamin D metabolism; abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth or strength; or vascular or other soft-tissue calcification. Osteoporosis, as defined by the National Institutes of Health, may coexist with renal osteodystrophy or CKD–MBD. Differentiation among these disorders is required to manage correctly the correct disorder to reduce the risk of fractures. While the World Health Organization (WHO) bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteoporosis can be used in patients with stages 1–3 CKD, the disorders of bone turnover become so aberrant by stages 4 and 5 CKD that neither the WHO criteria nor the occurrence of a fragility fracture can be used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The diagnosis of osteoporosis in stages 4 and 5 CKD is one of the exclusion—excluding either renal osteodystrophy or CKD–MBD as the cause of low BMD or fragility fractures. Differentiations among the disorders of renal osteodystrophy, CKD–MBD or osteoporosis are dependent on the measurement of specific biochemical markers, including serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and/or quantitative bone histomorphometry. Management of fractures in stages 1–3 CKD does not differ in persons with or without CKD with osteoporosis assuming that there is no evidence for CKD–MBD, clinically suspected by elevated PTH, hyperphosphatemia or fibroblast growth factor 23 due to CKD. Treatment of fractures in persons with osteoporosis and stages 4 and 5 CKD is not evidence-based, with the exception of post-hoc analysis suggesting efficacy and safety of specific osteoporosis therapies (alendronate, risedronate and denosumab) in stage 4 CKD. This review also discusses how to diagnose and manage fragility fractures across the five stages of CKD. PMID:26273531

  1. Burden of chronic kidney disease: North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Barsoum, Rashad S

    2013-01-01

    North Africa (NAF) is composed of six countries located in the African Sahara, namely the Western Sahara, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Common features between these countries include similar climate, ecology, population genetics, and the socioeconomic environment. This commonality reflects on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) profile in these countries. While there are some estimates on the epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease, that of earlier stages is unknown. Several national screening programs are currently addressing this issue, such as the EGIPT-CKD project in Egypt and the MAREMAR study in Morocco. Preliminary results from the former suggest a prevalence of proteinuria in 10.6% of the relatives of patients on regular dialysis treatment. Despite the lack of reliable registries, it was possible to gather information on the etiology of CKD by direct contact with leading nephrologists in those countries. It turns out that glomerulonephritis (GN) accounts for 9–20%, diabetes 11–18%, hypertensive nephrosclerosis 10–35%, chronic interstitial nephritis 7–17%, and polycystic disease 2–3%. Compared to two decades earlier, diabetes has become more common at the expense of GN, proliferative GN, and amyloidosis regressed in favor of IgA and membranous nephropathies in Tunisian adults. Conventional schistosomal nephropathies are regressing in favor of hepatitis C viral (HCV) nephropathy in Egyptians. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is increasing at the expense of proliferative GNs in the region at large. Access to regular dialysis has been optimized during the past decade, with favorable outcomes despite the high incidence of HCV infection, tuberculosis, and protein-calorie malnutrition. Kidney transplantation is available in all NAF countries except the Western Sahara. About 650 transplants are performed annually from live donors, the majority in Egypt, where data from the largest center in Mansoura display a 10-year graft survival of 62%. Many transplants are performed from living unrelated donors, particularly in Egypt, which creates an ethical debate. Legislation for deceased-donor transplantation has been passed successively over the past two decades in Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt, which is expected to reflect quantitatively and qualitatively on the transplantation activity in the near future. PMID:25018981

  2. Systemic disease sequelae in chronic inflammatory diseases and chronic psychological stress: comparison and pathophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Straub, Rainer H

    2014-05-01

    In chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), the neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk is important to allocate energy-rich substrates to the activated immune system. Since the immune system can request energy-rich substrates independent of the rest of the body, I refer to it as the "selfish immune system," an expression that was taken from the theory of the "selfish brain," giving the brain a similar position. In CIDs, the theory predicts the appearance of long-term disease sequelae, such as metabolic syndrome. Since long-standing energy requirements of the immune system determine disease sequelae, the question arose as to whether chronic psychological stress due to chronic activation of the brain causes similar sequelae. Indeed, there are many similarities; however, there are also differences. A major difference is the behavior of body weight (constant in CIDs versus loss or gain in stress). To explain this discrepancy, a new pathophysiological theory is presented that places inflammation and stress axes in the middle. PMID:24738934

  3. Health care provider perception of chronic kidney disease: knowledge and behavior among African American patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in the population, but also disproportionately affects African Americans. Disparities in care of chronic kidney disease and transplant for African Americans have also been reported. The purpose of this study is to determine the knowledge and reactions of chronic kidney disease patients regarding their disease, as perceived by nephrologists and clinic nurses in South Carolina. Methods Using a qualitative approach, key informant interviews were conducted with nephrologists, and three focus groups were held with nurses who specialize in chronic kidney disease. The results were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using Qualrus software and the Grounded Theory Method. Results Dominant themes in the interviews and focus groups include: reaction to chronic kidney disease, differences in race, patient thoughts on dialysis, patient knowledge of types of treatment available, information availability, compliance to treatment, information source, and thoughts on kidney transplantation. The study found that the majority of clinicians agreed that there is typically a wide range of reactions in patients with chronic kidney disease. Conclusions The majority of chronic kidney disease patients remain in denial of their diagnosis and do not want to agree to the necessary treatment to improve their condition. In addition, the clinicians reported that the incidence of chronic kidney disease is highest in the African American population and this population of patients typically gets their information on the disease from peers, others they have known that have had renal failure. We find clinicians report that patients typically do not remain compliant to recommended treatment regimens due to lack of knowledge and feelings of denial and fear, and frequently use religiosity as a coping mechanism. Silent progression and complexity of chronic kidney disease frequently result in many patients lacking essential knowledge and developing poor coping mechanisms to seek appropriate follow-up care and prevent progression and optimize outcome. Health care providers are aware of the barriers but may lack the tools and resources to overcome them. PMID:25012542

  4. Exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases by infectious agents: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases caused by obesity represent critical public health concerns worldwide. In these diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ that releases large quantities of inflammatory mediators into circulation. Besides classically recognized effectors on the development of obesity and resultant conditions, infection has attracted attention as an enhancer of chronic inflammatory diseases. Infectious diseases have long been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the infectious hypothesis for chronic inflammatory diseases has been challenged by inconclusive clinical trials. Nevertheless, the large body of evidence accumulated over decades on the association of infectious diseases with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease should not be disregarded. Instead, re-formulation of hypotheses of the mechanisms by which microbes affect obesity-associated diseases may be required with an emphasis on the early events in the progression of such diseases and the multifactorial nature of pathogen-host interactions. This review focuses on pathogens that directly promote obesity and on pathogens that cause chronic infections and thereby enhance metabolic diseases in obese patients. A new perspective on the interaction between infections and obesity-related diseases may improve management of chronic inflammatory diseases that rank high among global threats to human health. PMID:21537425

  5. Oral protein calorie supplementation for children with chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Damian K; Smith, Joanne; Saljuqi, Tawab; Watling, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. Objectives To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, reduced appetite, glucose intolerance, bloating and eating behaviour problems. Search methods Trials of oral protein calorie supplements in children with chronic diseases were identified through comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies marketing these products were also contacted. Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 24 February 2015. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing oral protein calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with existing conventional therapy (including advice on improving nutritional intake from food or no specific intervention) in children with chronic disease. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed the outcomes: indices of nutrition and growth; anthropometric measures of body composition; calorie and nutrient intake (total from oral protein calorie supplements and food); eating behaviour; compliance; quality of life; specific adverse effects; disease severity scores; and mortality; we also assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. Main results Four studies (187 children) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were carried out in children with cystic fibrosis and one study included children with paediatric malignant disease. Overall there was a low risk of bias for blinding and incomplete outcome data.Two studies had a high risk of bias for allocation concealment. Few statistical differences were found in the outcomes we assessed between treatment and control groups, except change in total energy intake at six and 12 months, mean difference 304.86 kcal per day (95% confidence interval 5.62 to 604.10) and mean difference 265.70 kcal per day (95% confidence interval 42.94 to 485.46), respectively. However, these were based on the analysis of just 58 children in only one study. Only two chronic diseases were included in these analyses, cystic fibrosis and paediatric malignant disease. No other studies were identified which assessed the effectiveness of oral protein calorie supplements in children with other chronic diseases. Authors' conclusions Oral protein calorie supplements are widely used to improve the nutritional status of children with a number of chronic diseases. We identified a small number of studies assessing these products in children with cystic fibrosis and paediatric malignant disease, but were unable to draw any conclusions based on the limited data extracted. We recommend a series of large, randomised controlled trials be undertaken investigating the use of these products in children with different chronic diseases. Until further data are available, we suggest these products are used with caution. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY The use of oral protein calorie supplements in children with chronic disease Background A lack of growth and poor nutrition are common in children with chronic diseases like cystic fibrosis and paediatric cancer. This may be due to reduced appetite, poor absorption and the need for extra calories due to the disease. Oral protein calorie supplements, either as milk or juices, may improve nutritional status and help children gain weight. Side effects of taking these supplements include the risk that the protein and calories in the supplement end up replacing those from normal food and have a negative effect on eating behaviour and physical side effects (e.g. bloating, vomiting and diarrhoea). Search date The evidence is current to: 24 February 2015. Study characteristics We looked for trials of oral protein calorie supplements compared to usual treatment or no alternative treatment where the children took the supplements for at least one month. The review included four trials with 187 children; in three of these the children had cystic fibrosis and in one they had cancer. Studies lasted from three months to one year. We recorded the results and judged whether the trials were at risk of being biased based on the design or the way it was run. We looked at outcomes such as weight and height, calorie intake, behaviour and also side effects. Key results One study (with 58 children) showed increases in the total calories consumed at both six and 12 months. None of the other outcomes we looked at showed any difference between treatments. This is an updated version of the review, which found no conclusive evidence to support the use of oral protein supplements. We suggest that at least one high quality trial be conducted.Therefore, we suggest that these products are used sparingly and with caution. Quality of the evidence Overall the included studies had a low risk of bias, except for two studies in which it was possible that the organisers knew which treatment group in which the children would be placed. These issues are unlikely to change the results as knowing which treatment one receives is unlikely to affect the results of body measurements (e.g. weight, height outcomes). All planned outcomes were reported on, with the exception of one study that did not report on eating behaviour and lipase intake which were measured. The quality of the results for the eating behaviour assessment was questionable and many of the children did not return the food diaries from which the lipase intake could be calculated. PMID:26014160

  6. Chronic kidney disease as a predictor of coronary lesion morphology.

    PubMed

    Kilickesmez, Kadriye Orta; Abaci, Okay; Okcun, Baris; Kocas, Cuneyt; Baskurt, Murat; Arat, Alev; Ersanli, Murat; Gurmen, Tevfik

    2010-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated whether CKD stage affected coronary lesion morphology in patients with established CAD. Coronary angiograms of 264 patients were evaluated. Chronic kidney disease was staged using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the serum creatinine prior to coronary angiography. Patients were divided into 3 groups: dialysis or severe decrease in GFR <30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (group 1; n = 60), patients with moderate kidney failure (group 2; n = 116), and patients with normal renal function or mild decrease in GFR (group 3; n = 88). The likelihood of CAD and lesion complexity increased with decreasing eGFR (P = .001). Patients with CKD also had more significant CAD. The risk of significant coronary obstruction and lesion complexity increased progressively with decreasing eGFR. The eGFR may predict lesion complexity among patients with CKD undergoing coronary angiography. PMID:19939822

  7. Chronic Ethanol Exposure: Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Disease and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Traphagen, Nicole; Tian, Zhi; Allen-Gipson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) is the world’s most commonly used drug, and has been widely recognized as a risk factor for developing lung disorders. Chronic EtOH exposure affects all of the organ systems in the body and increases the risk of developing pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and pneumonia, while exacerbating the symptoms and resulting in increased mortality in many other lung disorders. EtOH and its metabolites inhibit the immune response of alveolar macrophages (AMs), increase airway leakage, produce damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disrupt the balance of antioxidants/oxidants within the lungs. In this article, we review the role of EtOH exposure in the pathogenesis and progression of pulmonary disease. PMID:26492278

  8. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  9. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO OZONE CAUSES RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A chronic study to determine the progression and or/reversibility of ozone-induced lung disease was conducted. ale rats were exposed to a diurnal pattern of ozone (O3) for 1 wk, 3 wk, 3 mo, 12 mo, or 18 mo. he occurrence of chronic lung disease was determined by structural and fu...

  10. Can Incentives Improve Medicaid Patient Engagement and Prevent Chronic Diseases?

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Thomas J; Perry, Rebecca; Farrell, Kathleen; Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Under the Medicaid Incentives for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases model, 10 states are testing whether incentives can encourage Medicaid beneficiaries to lose weight, stop smoking, work to prevent diabetes, or control risk factors for other chronic diseases. This commentary describes these incentive programs and how they will be evaluated. PMID:26510225

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  12. Early-life risk factors for chronic nonrespiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Archana; Carpenter, David O; Callaway, Leonie; Sly, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    We have witnessed a change in disease patterns contributing to the global burden of disease, with a shift from early childhood deaths due to the classic infectious communicable diseases to years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases. In both developing and developed countries, the years lived with disability attributable to chronic disease have increased: cardiovascular diseases by 17.7%; chronic respiratory disease by 8.5%; neurological conditions by 12.2%; diabetes by 30.0%; and mental and behavioural disorders by 5.0% over the past 20 years. Recognition of the contribution made by adverse environmental exposures in early life to noncommunicable diseases in later life is increasing. These early-life exposures appear to contribute to both chronic respiratory and chronic nonrespiratory diseases. In this State of the Art article, we aim to examine early-life environmental exposures that have an epidemiological association with chronic nonrespiratory diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurocognitive and behavioural problems. We will highlight the potential overlap in environmental risks with respiratory diseases, and point out knowledge gaps and research opportunities. PMID:25395038

  13. Phylloquinone and vitamin D status: associations with incident chronic kidney disease in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD and vascular disease are etiologically linked. Evidence suggests deficiencies of vitamins D and K may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but data from longitudinal studies are lacking. W...

  14. Predictors of Chronic Abdominal Pain Affecting the Well-Being of Children in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Spee, Leo A.A.; Leeuwen, Yvonne Lisman-van; Benninga, Marc A.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Abdominal pain is a frequent symptom among children but is rarely associated with organic disease. Although it may persist for years, no factors have been identified that predict its prognosis. Our aim was to determine whether patient characteristics at initial consultation can predict chronic abdominal pain severe enough to influence the child’s well-being at 1 year of follow-up. METHODS We conducted this prospective cohort study in primary care, including consecutive children aged 4 to 17 years seen for abdominal pain by their family physician. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors that predicted chronic abdominal pain 1 year later. Discriminative ability of identified predictors was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and explained variance. RESULTS The risk of having chronic abdominal pain at 1 year of follow-up was 37.1% in the cohort overall. Increasing age, waking up at night with pain, high levels of other somatic complaints, and chronic abdominal pain at baseline independently predicted chronic abdominal pain at 1 year. These predictors had a poor to moderate discriminative ability, however; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was only 0.69, and the predictors collectively explained only 14.3% of variance in the development of chronic abdominal pain. The absolute risk ranged from 19.4% among children having none of the predictors to 65.5% among children having 3 or 4 predictors. CONCLUSIONS Chronic abdominal pain sufficient to affect well-being is common among children initially seen for abdominal pain by family physicians. Although the risk of this outcome increases with number of predictors, these predictors are of limited value in identifying children in whom pain will become chronic, suggesting that other, as yet unidentified factors play an important role. PMID:25755037

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and glucose metabolism: a bitter sweet symphony

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are common and underdiagnosed medical conditions. It was predicted that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020. The healthcare burden of this disease is even greater if we consider the significant impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be considered as a novel risk factor for new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus via multiple pathophysiological alterations such as: inflammation and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, weight gain and alterations in metabolism of adipokines. On the other hand, diabetes may act as an independent factor, negatively affecting pulmonary structure and function. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of pulmonary infections, disease exacerbations and worsened COPD outcomes. On the top of that, coexistent OSA may increase the risk for type 2 DM in some individuals. The current scientific data necessitate a greater outlook on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be viewed as a risk factor for the new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conversely, both types of diabetes mellitus should be viewed as strong contributing factors for the development of obstructive lung disease. Such approach can potentially improve the outcomes and medical control for both conditions, and, thus, decrease the healthcare burden of these major medical problems. PMID:23101436

  16. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Wessolossky, Mireya; Welch, Verna L; Sen, Ajanta; Babu, Tara M; Luke, David R

    2013-01-01

    Background Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients. Methods The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis. Results Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61%) and asthma (18%), and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27%) and bone marrow transplants (14%). A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03). The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14); 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75). Conclusion Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the more traditional immunocompromised population. PMID:23761976

  17. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: chronic conditions affecting pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Burke, M E; Vangellow, J

    1990-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa primarily affect women who are in the childbearing years. While many anorectic patients are unable to ovulate second to the disruptions of normal body function associated with anorexia, there are still women who will ovulate and become pregnant. Bulimia nervosa may also disrupt the normal menstrual cycle if the disease is very severe. However, many bulimic patients will become pregnant. Both of these disease states cause a decrease in circulating plasma volume, fluid and electrolyte shifts, and other alterations that may increase the risk to a pregnancy and developing fetus. Severe disease states are associated with intrauterine fetal growth retardation (IUGR). The nursing care of the anorectic or bulimic patient who becomes pregnant is specialized and requires coordination between nursing, perinatology, and the psychiatric team, as well as support services including nutritionists. The nursing care of anorectic patients is difficult and requires an understanding of the complex psychological and physical pathophysiology of the disease. Bulimia nervosa also requires a complete understanding of the psychological and pathophysiology of the disease process. This article provides a review of the syndromes, risk factors, definitions of the disease states, and the nursing management of those patients experiencing a pregnancy complicated by the predisposing factors of anorexia nervosa, and/or bulimia nervosa. PMID:2202373

  18. Prevalence and Patterns of Chronic Disease Pairs and Multimorbidity among Older Chinese Adults Living in a Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yajun; Tan, Edwin C. K.; Cai, Chuanzhu; Jiang, Hui; Song, Aiqin; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic diseases in China is substantial now. Data on patterns of chronic diseases and multimorbidity among older adults, especially among those living in rural areas, are sparse. Objective We aim to investigate the prevalence and patterns of chronic disease pairs and multimorbidity in elderly people living in rural China. Methods This population-based study included 1480 adults aged 60 years and over (mean age 68.5 years, 59.4% women) living in a rural community. Data were derived from the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong, China (June 2010-July 2011). Chronic diseases were diagnosed through face-to-face interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory tests. Patterns of chronic disease pairs and multimorbidity were explored using logistic regression and exploratory factor analyses. Results The prevalence of individual chronic diseases ranged from 3.0% for tumor to 76.4% for hypertension, and each disease was often accompanied with three or more other chronic diseases. The observed prevalence of pairs of chronic conditions exceeded the expected prevalence for several conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders, as well as pulmonary diseases and degenerative disorders. Chronic multimorbidity (≥2 chronic diseases) affected more than 90% of subjects, and two patterns of chronic multimorbidity were identified: cardiopulmonary-mental-degenerative disorder pattern (overall prevalence, 58.2%), and cerebrovascular-metabolic disorder pattern (62.6%). Prevalence of the cardiopulmonary-mental-degenerative disorder pattern increased with age, and was higher in men than women; whereas prevalence of the cerebrovascular-metabolic disorder pattern was higher in women than in men but did not vary by age. Conclusion Chronic multimorbidity was highly prevalent among older Chinese adults living in rural areas, and there were specific patterns of the co-occurrence of chronic diseases. Effort is needed to identify possible preventative strategies based on the potential clustering of chronic diseases. PMID:26394368

  19. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S A Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-02-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  20. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S. A. Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  1. Therapeutic vaccines for chronic diseases: successes and technical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Martin F.; Jennings, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic, non-communicable diseases are the major cause of death and disability worldwide and have replaced infectious diseases as the major burden of society in large parts of the world. Despite the complexity of chronic diseases, relatively few predisposing risk factors have been identified by the World Health Organization. Those include smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure as the cause of many of these chronic conditions. Here, we discuss several examples of vaccines that target these risk factors with the aim of preventing the associated diseases and some of the challenges they face. PMID:21893545

  2. Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: cardiovascular links.

    PubMed

    Laratta, Cheryl R; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  3. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    PubMed Central

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  4. The Microvasculature in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Qi Lun; Tow, Foong Kien Newk-Fon Hey; Deva, Raj; Alias, Mohamad Afzal; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Y.; Mohamad, Nor; Colville, Deb; Hutchinson, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 have an increased risk of cardiac and other vascular disease. Here we examined the association of CKD 3 to 5 with small vessel caliber. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a cross-sectional observational study of 126 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and 126 age- and gender-matched hospital patients with CKD 1 or 2. Retinal vessel diameters were measured from digital fundus images by a trained grader using a computer-assisted method and summarized as the central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE). Results Patients with CKD 3 to 5 had a smaller mean CRAE and CRVE than hospital controls (139.4 ± 17.8 ?m versus 148.5 ± 16.0 ?m, P < 0.001; and 205.0 ± 30.7 ?m versus 217.4 ± 25.8 ?m, respectively; P = 0.001). CRAE and CRVE decreased progressively with each stage of renal failure CKD1–2 to 5 (P for trend = 0.08 and 0.04, respectively). CKD and hypertension were independent determinants of arteriolar narrowing after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking history. Patients with CKD 5 and diabetes had a larger mean CRAE and CRVE than nondiabetics (141.4 ± 14.9 ?m versus 132.9 ± 14.2 ?m; 211.1 ± 34.4 ?m versus 194.8 ± 23.8 ?m). Conclusions The microvasculature is narrowed in patients with reduced eGFR. PMID:21784828

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Brehm, John M; Celedón, Juan C

    2008-03-01

    Hispanics are individuals whose ancestry can be traced to Spain and/or areas previously under Spanish control (e.g., Mexico, Puerto Rico). They are a rapidly growing subset of the population of the United States and are quite diverse in their racial ancestry, country of origin, area of residence, socioeconomic status, tobacco use, and access to health care. Current evidence suggests that the prevalence and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary widely among Hispanic-American nations, with similar but limited findings among Hispanic subgroups in the United States. Potential reasons for such variation include differences in racial ancestry and genetic susceptibility, exposure to tobacco smoke and/or biomass smoke, access to health care, and disease management. Future studies of COPD in Hispanics should include large samples of subgroups that are well defined with regard to self-reported ethnicity, country of origin, area of residence, tobacco use, and socioeconomic status. Areas that need to be carefully examined include validation of COPD diagnoses for epidemiologic studies (e.g., by radiologic assessment), COPD in high-risk groups (e.g., Puerto Ricans), impact of biomass smoke (in rural areas) and air pollution (in urban areas) on COPD morbidity, effects of migration and acculturation on COPD prevalence and morbidity among Hispanic subgroups in the United States, development of reference values for spirometry, smoking cessation, and overcoming barriers to management. Public health measures, such as effective smoking prevention and cessation programs, reduction of air pollution and exposure to biomass smoke, and improved access to health care, would help reduce the burden of COPD among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. PMID:18029789

  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, John M.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Hispanics are individuals whose ancestry can be traced to Spain and/or areas previously under Spanish control (e.g., Mexico, Puerto Rico). They are a rapidly growing subset of the population of the United States and are quite diverse in their racial ancestry, country of origin, area of residence, socioeconomic status, tobacco use, and access to health care. Current evidence suggests that the prevalence and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary widely among Hispanic-American nations, with similar but limited findings among Hispanic subgroups in the United States. Potential reasons for such variation include differences in racial ancestry and genetic susceptibility, exposure to tobacco smoke and/or biomass smoke, access to health care, and disease management. Future studies of COPD in Hispanics should include large samples of subgroups that are well defined with regard to self-reported ethnicity, country of origin, area of residence, tobacco use, and socioeconomic status. Areas that need to be carefully examined include validation of COPD diagnoses for epidemiologic studies (e.g., by radiologic assessment), COPD in high-risk groups (e.g., Puerto Ricans), impact of biomass smoke (in rural areas) and air pollution (in urban areas) on COPD morbidity, effects of migration and acculturation on COPD prevalence and morbidity among Hispanic subgroups in the United States, development of reference values for spirometry, smoking cessation, and overcoming barriers to management. Public health measures, such as effective smoking prevention and cessation programs, reduction of air pollution and exposure to biomass smoke, and improved access to health care, would help reduce the burden of COPD among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. PMID:18029789

  7. Immunological aspects of chronic venous disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grudzi?ska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a very common health problem concerning up to 1/3 of the society. Although venous hypertension and valvular incompetence have been long known to be crucial for development of the illness, its exact aetiology remains unclear. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory processes may be crucial for development of incompetent valves and vein wall remodelling. One of the most interesting theories describes “leucocyte trapping” as the mechanism responsible for elevated vein wall permeability and oxidative stress in the veins. At the same time, the cytokine profile of the blood in incompetent veins has not been thoroughly examined. Popular anti-inflammatory drugs relieve some symptoms but do not have much proved effects in prevention and treatment. We intend to summarize the existing knowledge of the immunological aspects of CVD in order to emphasize its importance for understanding the aetiology of this illness. We also wish to indicate some aspects that remain to be studied in more detail. PMID:26155174

  8. Proof that chronic lyme disease exists.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The evidence continues to mount that Chronic Lyme Disease (CLD) exists and must be addressed by the medical community if solutions are to be found. Four National Institutes of Health (NIH) trials validated the existence and severity of CLD. Despite the evidence, there are physicians who continue to deny the existence and severity of CLD, which can hinder efforts to find a solution. Recognizing CLD could facilitate efforts to avoid diagnostic delays of two years and durations of illness of 4.7 to 9 years described in the NIH trials. The risk to society of emerging antibiotic-resistant organisms should be weighed against the societal risks associated with failing to treat an emerging population saddled with CLD. The mixed long-term outcome in children could also be examined. Once we accept the evidence that CLD exists, the medical community should be able to find solutions. Medical professionals should be encouraged to examine whether: (1) innovative treatments for early LD might prevent CLD, (2) early diagnosis of CLD might result in better treatment outcomes, and (3) more effective treatment regimens can be developed for CLD patients who have had prolonged illness and an associated poor quality of life. PMID:20508824

  9. Thiazide Diuretics in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Arjun D; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2015-03-01

    Widely prevalent in the general population, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently complicated with hypertension. Control of hypertension in this high-risk population is a major modifiable cardiovascular and renal risk factor but often requires multiple medications. Although thiazides are an attractive agent, guidelines have previously recommended against thiazide use in stage 4 CKD. We review the updated guidelines on thiazide use in advanced CKD, the antihypertensive mechanism of thiazides, and the clinical studies of thiazides in CKD. Older uncontrolled studies have shown that metolazone reduces blood pressure in CKD, but more recently small randomized controlled trials of hydrochlorothiazide in CKD have shown significant improvement in mean arterial pressure of 15 mmHg. Two recent uncontrolled studies of chlorthalidone including one that used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring found significant improvements in blood pressure. These findings all suggest that thiazides may be efficacious even in advanced CKD; however, electrolyte abnormalities were common in the studies reviewed so close monitoring is necessary during use. Adequately powered randomized trials are now needed before the routine use of thiazide diuretics in advanced CKD can be recommended. PMID:25749608

  10. Resistant Hypertension in Nondialysis Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stanzione, Giovanna; Conte, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above the target of less than 140/90 mmHg in the general population and 130/80 mmHg in people with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in spite of the use of at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic or as BP that reaches the target by means of four or more drugs. In CKD, RH is a common condition due to a combination of factors including sodium retention, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, and enhanced activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Before defining the hypertensive patient as resistant it is mandatory to exclude the so-called “pseudoresistance.” This condition, which refers to the apparent failure to reach BP target in spite of an appropriate antihypertensive treatment, is mainly caused by white coat hypertension that is prevalent (30%) in CKD patients. Recently we have demonstrated that “true” RH represents an independent risk factor for renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients. PMID:23710342

  11. Contextual Poverty, Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes. One of the strongest factors that impacts nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast food restaurants within particular regions markedly impact the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to impact CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

  12. [Policy for children with chronic neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Doi, M

    1996-05-01

    QOL for children with chronic neurological diseases (CND) depends mainly on the supporting system of children's development and respite measurements of their families. For supporting children's development with CND and for alleviating the burden on the family members, various staffs are needed such as pediatricians, nurses, psychologists, OT, PT, home helpers, etc. Especially children with CND are living at home needs in-home services supplied by these supporting staffs. An in-home care service center is desirable to be established in their living area. According to the maternal and child health law and child welfare law, several measures have been adopted, but these services are not available for children with CND and their family, without registration as handicapped children. All these children should be treated because they have the same problems as physically or mentally handicapped children. The capability of the medical and social service supply has been influenced by recent decrease of the birth rate and improvement of the level in the maternal and child health. The number of facilities, such as pediatric clinics or nursing homes for physically handicapped children, is decreasing because of poor profit. These trends will be continued if appropriate measurements are not introduced. The final estimation of need and supply must be made at the local community level. PMID:8688209

  13. Burden of Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, F Chermiti; Taktak, S; Chtourou, A; Mahouachi, R; Kheder, Ali Ben

    2011-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases involve a heterogenous group of diseases, including, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, sleep apnea syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and many occupational diseases. They affect more than one billion people worldwide. Their medical, social, and economic impacts are heavy, especially in developing countries such as Middle East and North Africa countries, where they represent a public health problem. They are essentially represented by COPD, asthma, and allergic diseases. Chronic respiratory diseases are increasing in frequency, morbidity, and mortality. In addition, their economic and social impact is increasing rapidly in this region. Main risk factors are represented by tobacco smoking and exposure to biomass fuel. Smoking prevention and standardized management programs for asthma and COPD are now available but prompt actions are needed to make them more effective in this region and thus avoid an adverse impact on national economic development. PMID:23283069

  14. [Current trends in liver biopsy indications in chronic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Cadranel, Jean-François; Nousbaum, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-11-01

    Liver biopsy (LB) remains a major tool in chronic liver disease evaluation. Main current indications of LB in chronic liver disease are reviewed in this manuscript. Major development of non-invasive tools for evaluation of liver fibrosis led to decrease of LB indications in patients with chronic hepatitis C. LB is the only tool for exploration of necroinflammatory and fibrosis lesions in chronic hepatitis B as well as in autoimmune hepatitis. LB is the sole exam that can differentiate between bland steatosis and steatohepatitis in the setting of metabolic syndrome and to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis when corticosteroids are indicated. PMID:22425478

  15. Chronic digestive disease in an urban black population.

    PubMed

    Segal, I

    1986-09-13

    There is a marked contrast in incidence of chronic digestive diseases between black populations of sub-Saharan Africa and Western populations. Environmental factors inherent in modern Western civilization have been incriminated as largely responsible for the differences observed. The significance of these factors in chronic digestive disease in Soweto is emphasized since they provide clues to aetiology. In this context research avenues with regard to specific diseases are suggested. PMID:3529455

  16. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, B K; Saltin, B

    2006-02-01

    Considerable knowledge has accumulated in recent decades concerning the significance of physical activity in the treatment of a number of diseases, including diseases that do not primarily manifest as disorders of the locomotive apparatus. In this review we present the evidence for prescribing exercise therapy in the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related disorders (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity), heart and pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, intermittent claudication), muscle, bone and joint diseases (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome) and cancer, depression, asthma and type 1 diabetes. For each disease, we review the effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis, on symptoms specific to the diagnosis, on physical fitness or strength and on quality of life. The possible mechanisms of action are briefly examined and the principles for prescribing exercise therapy are discussed, focusing on the type and amount of exercise and possible contraindications. PMID:16451303

  17. The Jeremiah Metzger Lecture: Inflammation, Immune Modulators, and Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Raymond N.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for many different diseases. It is clear that inflammation is associated with degenerative brain diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Throughout the past 100 years, changes in the causes of death in the US have been dramatic. The most recent data indicate that cardiovascular disease and cancer are now responsible for 63% of mortality in the US population. Although progression of these diseases is related to diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors, a common but often unrecognized link is the presence of underlying chronic inflammation. As of 2014, 83.6 million people were living with some form of cardiovascular disease, 29.1 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes, 14 million people carried the diagnosis of cancer, and 5.2 million people were living with Alzheimer disease. These diseases are a huge burden on our health care system and all have been associated with chronic inflammation. PMID:26330682

  18. Vitamin D and immune function in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Chih; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Lu, Chien-Lin; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2015-10-23

    The common causes of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are cardiovascular events and infectious disease. These patients are also predisposed to the development of vitamin D deficiency, which leads to an increased risk of immune dysfunction. Many extra-renal cells possess the capability to produce local active 1,25(OH)2D in an intracrine or paracrine fashion, even without kidney function. Vitamin D affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In innate immunity, vitamin D promotes production of cathelicidin and ?-defensin 2 and enhances the capacity for autophagy via toll-like receptor activation as well as affects complement concentrations. In adaptive immunity, vitamin D suppresses the maturation of dendritic cells and weakens antigen presentation. Vitamin D also increases T helper (Th) 2 cytokine production and the efficiency of Treg lymphocytes but suppresses the secretion of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. In addition, vitamin D can decrease autoimmune disease activity. Vitamin D has been shown to play an important role in maintaining normal immune function and crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Vitamin D deficiency may also contribute to deterioration of immune function and infectious disorders in CKD patients. However, it needs more evidence to support the requirements for vitamin D supplementation. PMID:26291576

  19. [Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and biofilm].

    PubMed

    Legnani, Delfino

    2009-07-01

    The lower respiratory tract of patients affected by COPD is constantly colonized by pathogenic microrganisms such as H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae. Role of bacterial colonization of big and small airways in patients affected by COPD is still unclear but it is likely to play a role in directly or indirectly maintaining the vicious circle of infection/inflammation. Colonizer pathogens are capable to stimulate mucus production, to alter the ciliary function by inducing dyskinesia and stasis; in addition, they represent a strong stimulus for neutrophils to come in the airways, which release elastase that, in turn, inhibit the mucus-ciliary function. The same pathogens are responsible for epithelial damage and chronic inflammation, by releasing neutrophilic elastase, leading to the damage progression and obstruction. Recent studies have also shown that infection sustained by H. influenzae is not limited to bronchial mucosa, i.e. surface epithelial cells, but that the pathogen is capable to penetrate cells, so spreading the infection in sub-epithelial cellular layers. In addition, the ability to produce biofilm is another possible defence mechanism which allows them to grow and colonise. Such a mechanism could in part explain the lack of response to antimicrobials and contribute to stimulation of parenchymal inflammatory response, the cause of pathological-anatomic damage which occurs in COPD. The impossibility to eradicate chronic infection and bacterial exacerbations of COPD are likely the elements that promt and worsen obstruction, so determining the disease's progression. PMID:19696555

  20. Does chronic nicotine alter neurotransmitter receptors involved in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.A.; Lapin, E.P.; Lajtha, A.; Maker, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    Cigarette smokers are fewer in number among Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients than among groups of persons who do not have PD. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. One which must be tested is the possibility that some pharmacologic agent present in cigarette smoke may interact with some central nervous system component involved in PD. To this end, they have investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on receptors for some of the neurotransmitters that are affected in PD. Rats were injected for six weeks with saline or nicotine 0.8 mg/kg S.C., then killed and brains removed and dissected. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-ketanserin to serotonin receptors in frontal cortex and of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone to dopamine receptors in caudate was not affected. However, the binding of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone in nucleus accumbens was altered: the K/sub d/ increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 nM to 0.61 +/- 0.07 nM, and the B/sub max/ increased from 507 +/- 47 fmol/mg protein to 910 +/- 43 fmol/mg (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These values are based on three ligand concentrations. Additional studies are in progress to substantiate the data. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration may alter dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens.

  1. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-04-15

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. PMID:23402800

  2. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body. PMID:25026144

  3. Chronic Lyme disease: the controversies and the science.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    The diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease has been embroiled in controversy for many years. This is exacerbated by the lack of a clinical or microbiologic definition, and the commonality of chronic symptoms in the general population. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease is the appropriate diagnosis for only a minority of patients in whom it is suspected. In prospective studies of Lyme disease, very few patients go on to have a chronic syndrome dominated by subjective complaints. There is no systematic evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiology of Lyme disease, can be identified in patients with chronic symptoms following treated Lyme disease. Multiple prospective trials have revealed that prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor alleviate such post-Lyme syndromes. Extended courses of intravenous antibiotics have resulted in severe adverse events, which in light of their lack of efficacy, make them contraindicated. PMID:21810051

  4. Morbid obesity in a young woman affected by advanced chronic kidney disease: an exceptional case report. Does a high dose of essential amino acids play a key role in therapeutic success?

    PubMed

    Caria, S; Murtas, S; Loria, G; Dioguardi, F S; Secci, R; Bolasco, P

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman, obese (219?kg), diabetic, hypertensive, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4, with low plasma albumin level (2.9?g?dl(-1)) and marked proteinuria (22?g per day) was studied. Given the advanced-stage CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, we supplemented low-protein diet with high doses of a tailored essential amino acid mixture (AAs: 44?g per day) to improve weight reduction in the patient. After 20 months of conservative therapy, the patient lost 43?kg; despite two episodes of infection, albumin plasma levels increased up to 3.7?g per day. After a further 20 months of dialysis, the patient maintained a diet of 1800 kcal supplemented with 32?g of AAs and lost 47?kg, whereas both albumin (3.89±0.12?g?dl(-1)) and C reactive protein returned to normal. During the follow-up period, anemia improved, erythropoietin was thus discontinued and insulin requirement decreased to 105 IU. This therapeutic option may be beneficial in advanced CKD patients with obesity and diabetes resulting from malnutrition. PMID:26926587

  5. Morbid obesity in a young woman affected by advanced chronic kidney disease: an exceptional case report. Does a high dose of essential amino acids play a key role in therapeutic success?

    PubMed Central

    Caria, S; Murtas, S; Loria, G; Dioguardi, F S; Secci, R; Bolasco, P

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman, obese (219 kg), diabetic, hypertensive, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4, with low plasma albumin level (2.9 g dl−1) and marked proteinuria (22 g per day) was studied. Given the advanced-stage CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, we supplemented low-protein diet with high doses of a tailored essential amino acid mixture (AAs: 44 g per day) to improve weight reduction in the patient. After 20 months of conservative therapy, the patient lost 43 kg; despite two episodes of infection, albumin plasma levels increased up to 3.7 g per day. After a further 20 months of dialysis, the patient maintained a diet of 1800 kcal supplemented with 32 g of AAs and lost 47 kg, whereas both albumin (3.89±0.12 g dl−1) and C reactive protein returned to normal. During the follow-up period, anemia improved, erythropoietin was thus discontinued and insulin requirement decreased to 105 IU. This therapeutic option may be beneficial in advanced CKD patients with obesity and diabetes resulting from malnutrition. PMID:26926587

  6. Reporting of ethnicity in research on chronic disease: update

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, J; Dugas, E; Maximova, K; Kishchuk, N

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the inclusion of ethnicity and race as variables in current, leading edge research on chronic disease and its risk factors. Of 100 randomly selected original research articles published in high‐impact journals in 2005, 85% did not report either a definition of ethnicity or its conceptualisation in terms of theoretical reasoning, and 98% did not report an actual measurement item. Ethnicity and race remain non‐standardised and largely underdescribed variables in research on chronic disease. This represents an important loss of opportunity to articulate and test hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying ethnic group differences in chronic disease. PMID:17099093

  7. Intramyocardial small-vessel disease in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Factor, S M

    1976-11-01

    A morphologic study of the small (50 to 200 micron) intramyocardial coronary arteries was performed. The cases chosen for study were selected from a relatively young group of patients without clinical evidence of alcoholic cardiomyopathy or pathologic evidence of large coronary artery disease, in order to evaluate alterations in the small vessels which could possibly be attributed to the chronic alcoholic state. Five basic vascular abnormalities were described. The most common alteration found in all nine cases was vascular wall edema (48 per cent), followed by perivascular fibrosis (42 per cent), vascular sclerosis (36 per cent), subendothelial humps (13 per cent), and vascular wall inflammation (11 per cent). The significance and pathogenesis of these changes were discussed. Primary endothelial cell damage was proposed as a common pathogenic mechanism for all five types of vascular abnormality. It was suggested that following endothelial damage, fluid and macromolecules penetrate into the vessel wall or into the perivascular space where, by incompletely understood processes, they induce vascular wall myocytes to produce collagen, elastin, and basement membrane-like substances. Evidence supporting this mechanism was derived from the common observation of vascular wall edema, from the occasional presence of erythrocytes and leukocytes within the vessel wall, and from experimental data in the literature. Several possible etiologic agents were implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial and vessel wall injury. These included alcohol itself, acetaldehyde, biogenic amines, and magnesium deficiency. It is probable, however, that there are multiple etiologic factors which affect the small cardiac vessels of the chronic alcoholic. Finally, the proposal was advanced that the nonspecific pathology of the myocardium in chronic alcoholism may be a result of ischemia secondary to disease of the small intramyocardial coronary ateries. PMID:983932

  8. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The golden decade. Implications for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    López-Giraldo, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Roisin, Robert; Agustí, Alvar

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous illness, which causes an important socio-economic burden. The last decade has witnessed significant advances in the understanding and knowledge of COPD with a paradigm shift in both the assessment and management of the disease. The article here reviews these changes with a particular focus on the last revision (2013) of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:24820902

  9. OCCUPATIONAL SILICA EXPOSURE AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Vupputuri, Suma; Parks, Christine G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Occupational exposure to silica may be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most studies have been conducted in occupational cohorts with high levels of exposure but small numbers of cases. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of occupational silica exposure and CKD. Methods Cases were hospital patients with newly diagnosed CKD and community controls were selected using random digit dialing and frequency matched by age, gender, race and proximity to the hospital. Silica exposure estimates were assigned by industrial hygiene review of lifetime job history data and weighted for certainty and intensity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for CKD conditioned on demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (range, 30-83 years), 56% were male and 54% were white. Any silica exposure (compared to none) was associated with a 40% increased risk of CKD (OR=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.89) in a multivariable adjusted model. The mean cumulative duration of silica exposure was significantly higher in exposed cases than in exposed controls (33.4 vs. 24.8 years, respectively). Overall, compared to non-exposed participants, the ORs (95% CI) for those below and above the median duration of silica exposure were 1.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.86) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.71), respectively. Conclusions We found a positive relationship between occupational silica exposure and CKD. A dose-response trend of increasing CKD risk with increasing duration of silica exposure was observed and was particularly strong among non-whites. PMID:22032652

  10. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available. PMID:26238637

  11. Subclinical intestinal inflammation in chronic granulomatous disease patients.

    PubMed

    Broides, Arnon; Sagi, Orli; Pinsk, Vered; Levy, Jacov; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2016-02-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species. Non-infectious colitis is common in chronic granulomatous disease, and high levels of antimicrobial antibodies that are associated with Crohn's disease are common even without colitis. Fecal calprotectin concentration is a marker for intestinal inflammation. We sought to determine whether subclinical intestinal inflammation occurs in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients. Asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients without overt gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of colitis at the time of enrollment were studied for fecal calprotectin concentration, antibodies associated with Crohn's disease and systemic inflammatory markers. Eight patients were included, aged 54-176 months. In 7/8 (87.5 %) fecal calprotectin concentration was normal (<50) and elevated (137 mg/kg) in only one patient. This patient later developed colitis. In 7/8 (87.5 %) anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody was positive. C-reactive protein, albumin, complete blood count and p-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were normal in all 8 patients. Subclinical colitis is not evident in most asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients; however, in some patients, fecal calprotectin concentration may be elevated, possibly indicating the presence of subclinical colitis and predicting the occurrence of clinically relevant colitis. Serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody concentrations do not seem to correlate with fecal calprotectin concentration in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients. PMID:26603166

  12. Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Miller, Michael W.; Barbian, Kent D.; Rubenstein, Richard; LaFauci, Giuseppe; Cervenakova, Larisa; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Donald; Long, Dan; Parnell, Michael; Striebel, James; Priola, Suzette A.; Ward, Anne; Williams, Elizabeth S.; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or prion disease, that affects deer, elk, and moose. Human susceptibility to CWD remains unproven despite likely exposure to CWD-infected cervids. We used 2 nonhuman primate species, cynomolgus macaques and squirrel monkeys, as human models for CWD susceptibility. CWD was inoculated into these 2 species by intracerebral and oral routes. After intracerebral inoculation of squirrel monkeys, 7 of 8 CWD isolates induced a clinical wasting syndrome within 33–53 months. The monkeys’ brains showed spongiform encephalopathy and protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) diagnostic of prion disease. After oral exposure, 2 squirrel monkeys had PrPres in brain, spleen, and lymph nodes at 69 months postinfection. In contrast, cynomolgus macaques have not shown evidence of clinical disease as of 70 months postinfection. Thus, these 2 species differed in susceptibility to CWD. Because humans are evolutionarily closer to macaques than to squirrel monkeys, they may also be resistant to CWD. PMID:19788803

  13. Association between chronic azotemic kidney disease and the severity of periodontal disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Lawrence T; Glickman, Nita W; Moore, George E; Lund, Elizabeth M; Lantz, Gary C; Pressler, Barrak M

    2011-05-01

    Naturally occurring periodontal disease affects >75% of dogs and has been associated with cardiac lesions and presumptive endocarditis. However, the relationships between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs have not been studied. In a retrospective longitudinal study the incidence of azotemic CKD was compared between a cohort of 164,706 dogs with periodontal disease and a cohort of age-matched dogs with no periodontal disease from a national primary care practice. These dogs contributed 415,971 dog-years of follow-up from 2002 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from Cox regression were used to compare the incidence of azotemic CKD in dogs with stage 1, 2, or 3/4 periodontal disease to dogs with no periodontal disease. The hazard ratio for azotemic CKD increased with increasing severity of periodontal disease (stage 1 hazard ratio=1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 2.1; stage 2 hazard ratio=2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.3; stage 3/4 hazard ratio=2.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.3, 3.0; P(trend)=<0.0001) after adjustment for age, gender, neuter status, breed, body weight, number of hospital visits, and dental procedures. Increasing severity of periodontal disease was also associated with serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl and blood urea nitrogen >36 mg/dl, independent of a veterinarian's clinical diagnosis of CKD. PMID:21345505

  14. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of captive and free ranging white tailed deer, mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose in the some parts of the United States and Canada. The presence of the disease has sharply curtailed movement of captive...

  15. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder Page Content On ...

  17. [Plasma histamine levels in various chronic diseases of the colon].

    PubMed

    Navruzov, S N; Khadzhiev, A K; Inogamov, T A; Dautov, F A; Ashirmatov, A E; Khadzhieva, Kh N

    1991-01-01

    Patients suffering from chronic colitis, chronic stasis disease and nonspecific ulcerous colitis were examined for blood plasma histamine. The level of blood plasma histamine was found to be dependent on the intensity of the pathological process. The role of histamine in the development of disorders of neurohumoral regulation, microcirculation and motor and evacuatory function of the colon is discussed. PMID:2048029

  18. Intestinal parasitic infection among Egyptian children with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Lerine Bahy El-Dine; El-Faramawy, Amel Abdel Magid; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Ismail, Khadiga Ahmed; Fouad, Sally Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) are often highly susceptible to parasitic infection due to a depressed immune system. The objective of this study was to detect the most commonly intestinal parasites found among Egyptian children with CLD. The present study was conducted on 50 children with CLD of different etiology (25 were having different intestinal symptoms, 25 without intestinal symptoms) and 50 non-CLD children with gastrointestinal complaints served as controls. All cases were subjected to stool examination and investigated by liver function tests. Also, anthropometric measurements were taken for all children including weight and height. It was found that the most commonly intestinal protozoa identified in the patients with CLD in order of frequency were: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (16 %), Giardia lamblia (14 %), Blastocystis hominis (14 %), Cryptosporidium parvum (10 %), E. histolytica and G. lamblia (2 %), E. histolytica and B. hominis (2 %), G. lamblia and B. hominis (2 %), B. hominis and Entamoeba coli (2 %), Microsporidium (2 %) and no cases were found infected with Strongyloides stercoralis. As compared to the controls, the observed incidence of these organisms in CLD patients was significantly higher (p < 0.045) as regards stool examination by unstained techniques while, there was no significant difference between both groups as regards stool examination by stained techniques (p < 0.478). In addition, this study showed that the weight and height of studied patients were affected by parasitic infection while, there was no significant correlation between parasitic infection and liver function tests. In conclusion, chronic liver diseases affect the immunity of the patients as shown in significant increase in the incidence of intestinal parasites in cases compared to controls. PMID:25698851

  19. Meditation Interventions for Chronic Disease Populations: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roxane Raffin; Larson, Janet L

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly growing body of research regarding the use of meditation interventions in chronic disease presents an opportunity to compare outcomes based on intervention content. For this review, meditation interventions were described as those interventions delivered to persons with chronic disease where sitting meditation was the main or only content of the intervention with or without the addition of mindful movement. This systematic review identified 45 individual research studies that examined meditations effect on levels of anxiety, depression, and chronic disease symptoms in persons with chronic disease. Individual studies were assessed based on interventional content, the consistency with which interventions were applied, and the research quality. This study identified seven categories of meditation interventions based on the meditation skills and mindful movement practices that were included in the intervention. Overall, half of the interventions had clearly defined and specific meditation interventions (25/45) and half of the studies were conducted using randomized control trials (24/45). PMID:25731777

  20. Patient-Centered Medical Home in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Gabriel; Fromer, Len

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive and debilitating but preventable and treatable disease characterized by cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and fixed or incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Most patients with COPD rely on primary care practices for COPD management. Unfortunately, only about 55% of US outpatients with COPD receive all guideline-recommended care. Proactive and consistent primary care for COPD, as for many other chronic diseases, can reduce hospitalizations. Optimal chronic disease management requires focusing on maintenance rather than merely acute rescue. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH), which implements the chronic care model, is a promising framework for primary care transformation. This review presents core PCMH concepts and proposes multidisciplinary team-based PCMH care strategies for COPD. PMID:22096340

  1. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective. PMID:20057258

  2. Chronic Kidney Disease: Highlights for the General Pediatrician

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease in the pediatric population has been increasing. Early detection and treatment can slow down the progression of kidney disease and help prevent the development of end stage renal disease. In addition, as the kidney function declines, there are many pathophysiologic interactions with other organ systems that need to be monitored and treated. In particular, because of impaired vitamin D metabolism, calcium and phosphorus homeostasis is dysregulated and results in secondary bone disease. Anemia is common due to a number of factors including impaired erythropoietin production. Growth is often impacted by chronic kidney disease but can be improved by proper treatment. Complications of chronic kidney disease can be minimized by proper monitoring and treatment of these parameters. The general pediatrician plays a critical role in this process. PMID:22829845

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Osteopathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cicchitti, Luca; Martelli, Marta; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) are globally highly prevalent and characterized by severe pathological medical conditions. Several trials were conducted aiming at measuring the effects of manipulative therapies on patients affected by CID. The purpose of this review was to explore the extent to which osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) can be benefi-cial in medical conditions also classified as CID. Methods This review included any type of experimental study which enrolled sub-jects with CID comparing OMT with any type of control procedure. The search was conducted on eight databases in January 2014 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent re-viewers conducted study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Heterogeneity was assessed and meta-analysis performed where possible. Results 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review enrolling 386 subjects. The search identified six RCTs, one laboratory study, one cross-over pilot studies, one observation-al study and one case control pilot study. Results suggest a potential effect of osteopathic medicine on patients with medical pathologies associated with CID (in particular Chronic Obstructive Pul-monary Disease (COPD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Asthma and Peripheral Arterial Disease) com-pared to no treatment or sham therapy although data remain elusive. Moreover one study showed possible effects on arthritis rat model. Meta-analysis was performed for COPD studies only show-ing no effect of any type of OMT applied versus control. No major side effects were reported by those receiving OMT. Conclusion The present systematic review showed inconsistent data on the effect of OMT in the treatment of medical conditions potentially associated with CID, however the OMT appears to be a safe approach. Further more robust trials are needed to determine the direction and magnitude of the effect of OMT and to generalize favorable results. PMID:25781621

  4. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-04-15

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ► There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ► Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ► Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ► Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up.

  5. Clinical management of the uraemic syndrome in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; Fouque, Denis; Glorieux, Griet; Heine, Gunnar H; Kanbay, Mehmet; Mallamaci, Francesca; Massy, Ziad A; Ortiz, Alberto; Rossignol, Patrick; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; London, Gérard Michel

    2016-04-01

    The clinical picture of the uraemic syndrome is a complex amalgam of accelerated ageing and organ dysfunction, which progress in parallel to chronic kidney disease. The uraemic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic bone disease, inflammation, protein energy wasting, intestinal dysbiosis, anaemia, and neurological and endocrine dysfunction. In this Review, we summarise specific, modern management options for the uraemic syndrome in chronic kidney disease. Although large randomised controlled trials are scarce, based on data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies, as well as pathophysiological reasoning, a therapeutic algorithm can be developed for this complex and multifactorial condition, with interventions targeting several modifiable factors simultaneously. PMID:26948372

  6. CFTR gene mutations in isolated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatti, P.F.; Bombien, C.; Marigo, C.

    1994-09-01

    In order to identify a possible hereditary predisposition to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have looked for the presence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene DNA sequence modifications in 28 unrelated patients with no signs of cystic fibrosis. The known mutations in Italian CF patients, as well as the most frequent worldwide CF mutations, were investigated. In addition, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of about half of the coding sequence of the gene in 56 chromosomes from the patients and in 102 chromosomes from control individuals affected by other pulmonary diseases and from normal controls was performed. Nine different CFTR gene mutations and polymorphisms were found in seven patients, a highly significant increase over controls. Two of the patients were compound heterozygotes. Two frequent CF mutations were detected: deletion F508 and R117H; two rare CF mutations: R1066C and 3667ins4; and five CF sequence variants: R75Q (which was also described as a disease-causing mutation in male sterility cases due to the absence of the vasa deferentia), G576A, 2736 A{r_arrow}G, L997F, and 3271+18C{r_arrow}T. Seven (78%) of the mutations are localized in transmembrane domains. Six (86%) of the patients with defined mutations and polymorphisms had bronchiectasis. These results indicate that CFTR gene mutations and sequence alterations may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of COPD.

  7. Compassion in Soranus' Gynecology and Caelius Aurelianus' On Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Porter, Amber J

    2016-01-01

    Compassion is considered an important quality for a successful physician today, but did ancient physicians display and value this emotion? How did they feel when faced with the pain and suffering of their patients? How did their patients' emotions affect their own? Many ancient physicians are not well-known for expressions of compassion in their writings; however, this seems to change in the second century AD. One medical writer who exemplifies this change is Soranus of Ephesus (c. 98-138 AD). In his Gynecology, there are a number of passages where compassion is addressed or expressed (such as the chapters on the qualities of the best midwife, the symptom of pica, childbirth, and superstition). The same points can be made of Soranus' On Chronic Diseases, preserved to some extent by the Latin version and adaptation by fifth century AD medical writer Caelius Aurelianus (see, for example, the chapters on chronic headache, mania and elephantiasis). Soranus and Caelius display compassion, understanding, and flexibility of approach when dealing with patient issues; they show themselves willing to change their medical technique when they see that it is doing more harm or discomfort than good. In Soranus and Caelius, we have an image of a physician who acknowledges and is aware of their patients' emotions, beliefs and attitudes, and who exhibits compassion for them. PMID:26946682

  8. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Kazancioğlu, Rumeyza

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease has become a serious public health issue. There are currently over 1.4 million patients receiving renal replacement therapy worldwide. One way to reduce the economic burden of chronic kidney disease would be early intervention. In order to achieve this, we should be able to identify individuals with increased risk of renal disease. An individual's genetic and phenotypic make-up puts him/her at risk for kidney disease. Factors such as race, gender, age, and family history are highly important. For instance, being of African-American decent, older age, low birth weight and family history of kidney disease are considered to be strong risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Moreover, smoking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus can also lead to kidney disease. An uncontrolled diabetic and/or hypertensive patient can easily and quickly progress to an end-stage kidney disease patient. Exposure to heavy metals, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and the use of analgesic medications also constitute risks. Experiencing acute kidney injury, a history of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, hepatitis C virus, HIV infection, and malignancy are further risk factors. Determination of serum creatinine levels and urinalysis in patients with chronic kidney disease risk will usually be sufficient for initial screening. PMID:25019021

  9. The contribution of natural selection to present-day susceptibility to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Brinkworth, Jessica F; Barreiro, Luis B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases have been the focus of many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) because they represent a significant cause of illness and morbidity, and many are heritable. Almost a decade of GWAS studies suggests that the pathological inflammation associated with these diseases is controlled by a limited number of networked immune system genes. Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are enigmatic from an evolutionary perspective because they exert a negative affect on reproductive fitness. The persistence of these conditions may be partially explained by the important roles the implicated immune genes play in pathogen defense and other functions thought to be under strong natural selection in humans. The evolutionary reasons for chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease persistence and uneven distribution across populations are the focus of this review. PMID:25458997

  10. Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Berkouk, K; Gergen, P; Antunes, J Pinto; Augé, P; Camuzat, T; Bringer, J; Mercier, J; Best, N; Bourret, R; Akdis, M; Arshad, S H; Bedbrook, A; Berr, C; Bush, A; Cavalli, G; Charles, M A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Gillman, M; Gold, D R; Goldberg, M; Holloway, J W; Iozzo, P; Jacquemin, S; Jeandel, C; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Koppelman, G H; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kuh, D; Lehmann, S; Carlsen, K C Lodrup; Maier, D; Méchali, M; Melén, E; Moatti, J P; Momas, I; Nérin, P; Postma, D S; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Samolinski, B; Siroux, V; Slagboom, P E; Smit, H A; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Van de Perre, P; Verdier, J M; Vrijheid, M; Wickman, M; Yiallouros, P; Zins, M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal and peri-natal events play a fundamental role in health, development of diseases and ageing (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)). Research on the determinants of active and healthy ageing is a priority to: (i) inform strategies for reducing societal and individual costs of an ageing population and (ii) develop effective novel prevention strategies. It is important to compare the trajectories of respiratory diseases with those of other chronic diseases. PMID:25616486

  11. Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Tariq A; Panzica, Louis; Kalathil, Suresh Gopi; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2015-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic disease. Chronic inflammation is the hallmark of COPD, involving the interplay of a wide variety of cells in the lung microenvironment. Cigarette smoke (CS) induces chronic lung inflammation and is considered a key etiological factor in the development and pathogenesis of COPD. Structural and inflammatory cells in the lung respond to CS exposure by releasing proinflammatory mediators that recruit additional inflammatory immune cells, which collectively contribute to the establishment of a chronic inflammatory microenvironment. Chronic inflammation contributes to lung damage, compromises innate and adaptive immune responses, and facilitates the recurrent episodes of respiratory infection that punctuate and further contribute to the pathological manifestations of the stable disease. A number of studies support the conclusion that immune dysfunction leads to exacerbations and disease severity in COPD. Our group has clearly demonstrated that CS exacerbates lung inflammation and compromises immunity to respiratory pathogens in a mouse model of COPD. We have also investigated the phenotype of immune cells in patients with COPD compared with healthy control subjects and found extensive immune dysfunction due to the presence and functional activity of T regulatory cells, CD4(+)PD-1(+) exhausted effector T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Manipulation of these immunosuppressive networks in COPD could provide a rational strategy to restore functional immune responses, reduce exacerbations, and improve lung function. In this review, we discuss the role of immune dysfunction in COPD that may contribute to recurrent respiratory infections and disease severity. PMID:26595735

  12. Association of the Functional MICA-129 Polymorphism With the Severity of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Ayo, Christiane Maria; Oliveira, Amanda Priscila de; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Mattos, Luiz Carlos de

    2015-10-15

    MICA-129 polymorphism affects the binding affinity of MICA molecules with the NKG2D receptor and influences effector cell function. The genotype met/met was associated with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease, while the val/val genotype was associated with the absence of LVSD. PMID:26129751

  13. Chronic liver inflammation: Clinical implications beyond alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to alcoholic liver disease, including hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and chronic inflammation can simultaneously cause systemic medical illness. Recent evidence suggests that alcoholic liver disease is a predictor for liver-related diseases, cardiovascular disease, immunologic disease, and bone disease. Chronic inflammation in alcoholic liver disease is mediated by a direct inflammatory cascade from the alcohol detoxification process and an indirect inflammatory cascade in response to gut microflora-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease and its related systemic illness is characterized by oxidative stress, activation of the immune cascade, and gut-liver interactions. Integrative therapeutic strategies for alcoholic liver disease include abstaining from alcohol consumption; general anti-inflammatories such as glucocorticoid, pentoxifylline, and tumour necrosis factor-α antagonist; antioxidants such as N- acetylcysteine; gut microflora and LPS modulators such as rifaximin and/or probiotics. This review focuses on the impact of chronic liver inflammation on systemic health problems and several potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24605015

  14. Personality Traits and Chronic Disease: Implications for Adult Personality Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Personality traits have been associated with chronic disease. Less is known about the longitudinal relation between personality and disease and whether chronic disease is associated with changes in personality. Method. Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,008) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and a standard medical interview at regularly scheduled visits; the Charlson Comorbidity Index, a weighted sum of 19 serious diseases, was derived from this interview. Using data from 6,685 visits, we tested whether personality increased risk of disease and whether disease was associated with personality change. Results. Measured concurrently, neuroticism and conscientiousness were associated with greater disease burden. The impulsiveness facet of neuroticism was the strongest predictor of developing disease across the follow-up period: For every standard deviation increase in impulsiveness, there was a 26% increased risk of developing disease and a 36% increased risk of getting more ill. Personality traits changed only modestly with disease: As participants developed chronic illnesses, they became more conservative (decreased openness). Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease. PMID:23685925

  15. Hailey-Hailey Disease (Benign Chronic Pemphigus)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Hailey-Hailey Disease Share | Hailey-Hailey disease, also ...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a systemic disease: an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, H; Vestbo, J

    2003-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been increasingly recognised as a systemic disease. The hormonal, metabolic and musculoskeletal implications of the generalised processes involving oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and endocrine hormones have only begun to be understood. Only a few studies have looked into the epidemiology of inflammatory markers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Common extrapulmonary effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include skeletal muscle dysfunction, wasting and osteoporosis. The resulting effects of a systemic inflammation can be measured at specific extrapulmonary organs such as skeletal muscle or in more general terms using body composition, body weight or derived measures, and only a few studies have set the parameters in an epidemiological context. Nevertheless, these studies indicate an association between inflammatory markers and forced expiratory volume in one second not only in subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Also, it is increasingly clear that systemic markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have important effects on prognosis. PMID:14621101

  17. Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to Chronic Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Amy V.; Seelig, Davis M.; Kraft, Susan L.; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. PMID:23236066

  18. Treatment of affective disorders in cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Mavrides, Nicole; Nemeroff, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) commonly have syndromal major depression, and depression has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of depression is between 17% and 47% in CVD patients. Pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions have long been studied, and in general are safe and somewhat efficacious in decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with CVD. The impact on cardiac outcomes remains unclear. The evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that antidepressants, especially selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, are overwhelmingly safe, and likely to be effective in the treatment of depression in patients with CVD. This review describes the prevalence of depression in patients with CVD, the physiological links between depression and CVD, the treatment options for affective disorders, and the clinical trials that demonstrate efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications and psychotherapy in this patient population. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between major depressive disorder and CVD—both health behaviors and shared biological risks such as inflammation. PMID:26246788

  19. Treatment of affective disorders in cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Mavrides, Nicole; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-06-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) commonly have syndromal major depression, and depression has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of depression is between 17% and 47% in CVD patients. Pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions have long been studied, and in general are safe and somewhat efficacious in decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with CVD. The impact on cardiac outcomes remains unclear. The evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that antidepressants, especially selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, are overwhelmingly safe, and likely to be effective in the treatment of depression in patients with CVD. This review describes the prevalence of depression in patients with CVD, the physiological links between depression and CVD, the treatment options for affective disorders, and the clinical trials that demonstrate efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications and psychotherapy in this patient population. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between major depressive disorder and CVD--both health behaviors and shared biological risks such as inflammation. PMID:26246788

  20. Substance P at the Nexus of Mind and Body in Chronic Inflammation and Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, research has demonstrated that chronic diseases characterized by dysregulation of inflammation are particularly susceptible to exacerbation by stress and emotion. Likewise, rates of depression and anxiety are overrepresented in individuals suffering from chronic inflammatory disease. In recent years, substance P has been implicated in…

  1. Substance P at the Nexus of Mind and Body in Chronic Inflammation and Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, research has demonstrated that chronic diseases characterized by dysregulation of inflammation are particularly susceptible to exacerbation by stress and emotion. Likewise, rates of depression and anxiety are overrepresented in individuals suffering from chronic inflammatory disease. In recent years, substance P has been implicated in…

  2. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Frank W.; Roberts, Christian K.; Laye, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause vs. treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction [including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity]; and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [Accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life. PMID:23798298

  3. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Christian K; Laye, Matthew J

    2012-04-01

    Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause versus treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction (including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity); and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life. PMID:23798298

  4. Unmet needs in severe chronic upper airway disease (SCUAD).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Canonica, Giorgio W; Casale, Thomas B; Cruz, Alvaro A; Lockey, Richard J; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2009-09-01

    Although the majority of patients with chronic upper airway diseases have controlled symptoms during treatment, many patients have severe chronic upper airway diseases (SCUADs). SCUAD defines those patients whose symptoms are inadequately controlled despite adequate (ie, effective, safe, and acceptable) pharmacologic treatment based on guidelines. These patients have impaired quality of life, social functioning, sleep, and school/work performance. Severe uncontrolled allergic rhinitis, nonallergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases, or occupational airway diseases are defined as SCUADs. Pediatric SCUADs are still unclear. In developing countries SCUADs exist, but risk factors can differ from those seen in developed countries. Comorbidities are common in patients with SCUADs and might increase their severity. The present document is the position of a group of experts considering that SCUADs should be considered differently from mild chronic upper airway diseases. It reviews the state of the art, highlighting gaps in our knowledge, and proposes several areas for a better understanding, prevention, and management of SCUADs. This document can also serve to optimize the pharmacoeconomic evaluation of SCUADs by means of comparison with mild chronic upper airway diseases. PMID:19660803

  5. Inflammatory Factors and Exercise in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Katherine L.; Smith, Alice C.; Burton, James O.; Bishop, Nicolette C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease frequently present with chronic elevations in markers of inflammation, a condition that appears to be exacerbated by disease progression and onset of haemodialysis. Systemic inflammation is interlinked with malnutrition and muscle protein wasting and is implicated in a number of morbidities including cardiovascular disease: the most common cause of mortality in this population. Research in the general population and other chronic disease cohorts suggests that an increase in habitual activity levels over a prolonged period may help redress basal increases in systemic inflammation. Furthermore, those populations with the highest baseline levels of systemic inflammation appear to have the greatest improvements from training. On the whole, the activity levels of the chronic kidney disease population reflect a sedentary lifestyle, indicating the potential for increasing physical activity and observing health benefits. This review explores the current literature investigating exercise and inflammatory factors in the chronic kidney disease population and then attempts to explain the contradictory findings and suggests where future research is required. PMID:23737775

  6. Anti-inflammatory treatments for chronic diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Laveti, Durgaprasad; Kumar, Manoj; Hemalatha, R; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Naidu, V G M; Talla, Venu; Verma, Vinod; Kaur, Navrinder; Nagpal, Ravinder

    2013-10-01

    Inflammation is viewed as one of the major causes for the development of different diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and CNS related diseases such as depression and parkinson's disease; and this fervent phenomenon provides space for understanding different inflammatory markers. Increasing evidences have elucidated the outcome of inflammatory pathways dysregulation resulting in many symptoms of chronic diseases. The detection of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B), STAT and their gene products such as COX-2, cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors has laid molecular foundation for the important role of inflammation in chronic diseases in which the NF-?B is reported as a major mediator which makes a possible way for the development of new therapeutic approaches using synthetic and natural compounds that might eventually decrease the prevalence of these diseases. Even if many inflammatory markers like TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) are reported to be the major key factors with proved role in several inflammatory diseases, IL-1 and TNF-? are the important cytokines that can induce the expression of NF-?B which is the potential target in these inflammatory diseases. This review aims to explore and summarize that how some drugs and natural compounds show their modulatory activity in inflammatory pathways and chronic inflammatory markers in these inflammatory diseases. PMID:23876224

  7. Building an Evidence Base for the Co-Occurrence of Chronic Disease and Psychiatric Distress and Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tyler C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental disorders and chronic diseases have been reported to independently affect half of the US population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comorbid nature of these conditions. Methods We analyzed data from 39,954 participants from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey who reported both psychological distress and impairment, on the basis of the Kessler 6 and the Sheehan Disability Scale, and 1 or more of 4 chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma, heart disease). Weighted and nonweighted multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the association between psychological distress and impairment and chronic disease, after adjusting for sex, age, race, current smoking, binge drinking in the previous year, moderate physical activity, and body mass index. Results After controlling for covariates in the model, we found a significant dose–response relationship between reported chronic diseases and psychiatric distress and impairment that ranged from 1.50 for 1 reported chronic disease to 4.68 for 4 reported chronic diseases. Conclusion The growing chronic disease burden should be understood clinically in the context of mental health conditions. Further research is needed to identify ways to integrate mental health and chronic disease prevention in primary care. PMID:25340360

  8. Clinical stage of infection is critical in the antemortem diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in deer and elk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted spongiform encephalopathy of cervids (e.g. deer, elk, and moose), and is the only known prion disease affecting both free-ranging wildlife and captive animals. The antemortem detection of CWD and other prion diseases has proven difficult, d...

  9. Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n?=?243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium?×?phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p?=?0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium?×?phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p?=?0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium?×?phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957

  10. Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Center Medical Education Institute, Inc. (MEI) MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Page Content On this page: ...

  11. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. PMID:25246500

  12. Cost Analysis of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programmes Being Delivered in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Palmer, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease accounts for the majority of healthcare costs. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of chronic disease. Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the cost of delivering the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in order to…

  13. Cost Analysis of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programmes Being Delivered in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Palmer, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease accounts for the majority of healthcare costs. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of chronic disease. Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the cost of delivering the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in order to…

  14. Treatable traits: toward precision medicine of chronic airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Agusti, Alvar; Bel, Elisabeth; Thomas, Mike; Vogelmeier, Claus; Brusselle, Guy; Holgate, Stephen; Humbert, Marc; Jones, Paul; Gibson, Peter G; Vestbo, Jørgen; Beasley, Richard; Pavord, Ian D

    2016-02-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two prevalent chronic airway diseases that have a high personal and social impact. They likely represent a continuum of different diseases that may share biological mechanisms (i.e. endotypes), and present similar clinical, functional, imaging and/or biological features that can be observed (i.e. phenotypes) which require individualised treatment. Precision medicine is defined as "treatments targeted to the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic, or psychosocial characteristics that distinguish a given patient from other patients with similar clinical presentations". In this Perspective, we propose a precision medicine strategy for chronic airway diseases in general, and asthma and COPD in particular. PMID:26828055

  15. Bone Marrow Therapies for Chronic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Keating, Armand; Gale, Robert Peter

    2015-11-01

    Chronic heart failure is a leading cause of death. The demand for new therapies and the potential regenerative capacity of bone marrow-derived cells has led to numerous clinical trials. We critically discuss current knowledge of the biology and clinical application of bone marrow cells. It appears unlikely that bone marrow cells can develop into functional cardiomyocyte after infusion but may have favorable paracrine effects. Most, but not all, clinical trials report a modest short- but not long-term benefit of infusing bone marrow-derived cells. Effect size appears to correlate with stringency of study-design: the most stringent trials report the smallest effect-sizes. We conclude there may be short- but not substantial long-term benefit of infusing bone marrow-derived cells into persons with chronic heart failure and any benefit observed is unlikely to result from trans-differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells into functioning cardiomyocytes. PMID:26086629

  16. Nervous system Lyme disease, chronic Lyme disease, and none of the above.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, causes nervous system involvement in 10-15 % of identified infected individuals. Not unlike the other well-known spirochetosis, syphilis, infection can be protracted, but is microbiologically curable in virtually all patients, regardless of disease duration. Diagnosis relies on 2-tier serologic testing, which after the first 4-6 weeks of infection is both highly sensitive and specific. After this early, acute phase, serologic testing should rely only on IgG reactivity. Nervous system involvement most commonly presents with meningitis, cranial neuritis and radiculoneuritis, but can also present with a broader array of peripheral nervous system manifestations. Central nervous system infection typically elicits a cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and, often, intrathecal production of specific antibody, findings that should not be expected in disease not affecting the CNS. Treatment with recommended courses of oral or, when necessary, parenteral antibiotics is highly effective. The attribution of chronic, non-specific symptoms to "chronic Lyme disease", in the absence of specific evidence of ongoing B. burgdorferi infection, is inappropriate and unfortunate, leading not only to unneeded treatment and its associated complications, but also to missed opportunities for more appropriate management of patients' often disabling symptoms. PMID:26377699

  17. Endothelin and Endothelin Antagonists in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Donald E.; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), with diabetes and hypertension accounting for the majority of cases, is on the rise, with up to 160 million individuals worldwide predicted to be affected by 2020. Given that current treatment options, primarily targeted at the renin angiotensin system, only modestly slow down progression to end-stage renal disease, the urgent need for additional effective therapeutics is evident. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), largely through activation of endothelin A receptors, has been strongly implicated in renal cell injury, proteinuria, inflammation and fibrosis leading to CKD. Endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) have been demonstrated to ameliorate or even reverse renal injury and/or fibrosis in experimental models of CKD, while clinical trials indicate a substantial antiproteinuric effect of ERAs in diabetic and non-diabetic CKD patients even on top of maximal renin angiotensin system blockade. This review summarizes the role of ET in CKD pathogenesis and discusses the potential therapeutic benefit of targeting the ET system in CKD, with attention to the risks and benefits of such an approach. PMID:24805108

  18. HDL abnormalities in nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2016-01-01

    Normal HDL activity confers cardiovascular and overall protection by mediating reverse cholesterol transport and through its potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antithrombotic functions. Serum lipid profile, as well as various aspects of HDL metabolism, structure, and function can be profoundly altered in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria or chronic kidney disease (CKD). These abnormalities can, in turn, contribute to the progression of cardiovascular complications and various other comorbidities, such as foam cell formation, atherosclerosis, and/or glomerulosclerosis, in affected patients. The presence and severity of proteinuria and renal insufficiency, as well as dietary and drug regimens, pre-existing genetic disorders of lipid metabolism, and renal replacement therapies (including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation) determine the natural history of lipid disorders in patients with kidney disease. Despite the adverse effects associated with dysregulated reverse cholesterol transport and advances in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, safe and effective therapeutic interventions are currently lacking. This Review provides an overview of HDL metabolism under normal conditions, and discusses the features, mechanisms, and consequences of HDL abnormalities in patients with nephrotic syndrome or advanced CKD. PMID:26568191

  19. Clinical value of natriuretic peptides in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Santos-Araújo, Carla; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Pestana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    According to several lines of evidence, natriuretic peptides (NP) are the main components of a cardiac-renal axis that operate in clinical conditions of decreased cardiac hemodynamic tolerance to regulate sodium homeostasis, blood pressure and vascular function. Even though it is reasonable to assume that NP may exert a relevant role in the adaptive response to renal mass ablation, evidence gathered so far suggest that this contribution is probably complex and dependent on the type and degree of the functional mass loss. In the last years NP have been increasingly used to diagnose, monitor treatment and define the prognosis of several cardiovascular (CV) diseases. However, in many clinical settings, like chronic kidney disease (CKD), the predictive value of these biomarkers has been questioned. In fact, it is now well established that renal function significantly affects the plasmatic levels of NP and that renal failure is the clinical condition associated with the highest plasmatic levels of these peptides. The complexity of the relation between NP plasmatic levels and CV and renal functions has obvious consequences, as it may limit the predictive value of NP in CV assessment of CKD patients and be a demanding exercise for clinicians involved in the daily management of these patients. This review describes the role of NP in the regulatory response to renal function loss and addresses the main factors involved in the clinical valorization of the peptides in the context of significant renal failure. PMID:26299165

  20. Diarrhea in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Wenzl, Heimo H

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhea is a common clinical feature of inflammatory bowel diseases and may be accompanied by abdominal pain, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The pathophysiology of diarrhea in these diseases is complex, but defective absorption of salt and water by the inflamed bowel is the most important mechanism involved. In addition to inflammation secondary to the disease, diarrhea may arise from a variety of other conditions. It is important to differentiate the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the diarrhea in the individual patient to provide the appropriate therapy. This article reviews microscopic colitis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease, focusing on diarrhea. PMID:22917170

  1. Modeling seasonal behavior changes and disease transmission with application to chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Oraby, Tamer; Vasilyeva, Olga; Krewski, Daniel; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2014-01-01

    Behavior and habitat of wildlife animals change seasonally according to environmental conditions. Mathematical models need to represent this seasonality to be able to make realistic predictions about the future of a population and the effectiveness of human interventions. Managing and modeling disease in wild animal populations requires particular care in that disease transmission dynamics is a critical consideration in the etiology of both human and animal diseases, with different transmission paradigms requiring different disease risk management strategies. Since transmission of infectious diseases among wildlife depends strongly on social behavior, mechanisms of disease transmission could also change seasonally. A specific consideration in this regard confronted by modellers is whether the contact rate between individuals is density-dependent or frequency-dependent. We argue that seasonal behavior changes could lead to a seasonal shift between density and frequency dependence. This hypothesis is explored in the case of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal disease that affects deer, elk and moose in many areas of North America. Specifically, we introduce a strategic CWD risk model based on direct disease transmission that accounts for the seasonal change in the transmission dynamics and habitats occupied, guided by information derived from cervid ecology. The model is composed of summer and winter susceptible-infected (SI) equations, with frequency-dependent and density-dependent transmission dynamics, respectively. The model includes impulsive birth events with density-dependent birth rate. We determine the basic reproduction number as a weighted average of two seasonal reproduction numbers. We parameterize the model from data derived from the scientific literature on CWD and deer ecology, and conduct global and local sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number. We explore the effectiveness of different culling strategies for the management of CWD: although summer culling seems to be an effective disease eradication strategy, the total culling rate is limited by the requirement to preserve the herd. PMID:24035840

  2. Awareness assessment in Turkish subpopulation with chronic oral mucosal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Okumus, Ozlem; Kalkan, Sevda; Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of group Turkish patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases by chronic oral mucosal diseases questionnaires (COMDQ). Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases were participated in the study. A detailed medical history of each patient was taken, and all the COMDQ questions, which were translated from English version, were filled out. The data were analyzed with the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences Statistics 22.0. Results: The mean ages of patients were 48.91 ± 13.36 years. Of the total 80 cases of chronic oral mucosal diseases identified 52 (65%) were female and 28 (35%) male. The standardized mean scores for COMDQ were 1.72 ± 1.11 for “pain and functional limitation,” 1.09 ± 0.94 for “medication and treatment,” 2.31 ± 1.06 for “social and emotional,” and 2.27 ± 0.83 for “patient support,” respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the Turkish version of the COMDQ has the profitable psychometric peculiarity and comfortable to patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases in Turkey.

  3. Periodontal disease as a risk marker in coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Monica A.; Borgnakke, Wenche S.; Taylor, George W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Over half a million Americans die each year from coronary heart disease (CHD), 26 million suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD), and a large proportion have periodontal disease (PD), a chronic infection of the tissues surrounding teeth. Chronic inflammation contributes to CHD and CKD occurrence and progression, and PD contributes to the cumulated chronic systemic inflammatory burden. This review examines recent evidence regarding the role of PD in CHD and CKD. Recent findings Periodontal pathogens cause both local infection and bacteremia, eliciting local and systemic inflammatory responses. PD is associated with the systemic inflammatory reactant CRP, a major risk factor for both CHD and CKD. Non-surgical PD treatment is shown to improve periodontal health, endothelial function and levels of CRP and other inflammatory markers. Evidence for the association of PD with CKD consists of a small body of literature represented mainly by cross-sectional studies. No definitive randomized-controlled trials exist with either CHD or CKD as primary endpoints. Summary Recent evidence links PD with CHD and CKD. Adding oral health self-care and referral for professional periodontal assessment and therapy to the repertoire of medical care recommendations is prudent to improve patients’ oral health and possibly reduce CHD and CKD risk. PMID:20948377

  4. Animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Girón-Martínez, Álvaro; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2015-03-01

    Animal models of disease have always been welcomed by the scientific community because they provide an approach to the investigation of certain aspects of the disease in question. Animal models of COPD cannot reproduce the heterogeneity of the disease and usually only manage to represent the disease in its milder stages. Moreover, airflow obstruction, the variable that determines patient diagnosis, not always taken into account in the models. For this reason, models have focused on the development of emphysema, easily detectable by lung morphometry, and have disregarded other components of the disease, such as airway injury or associated vascular changes. Continuous, long-term exposure to cigarette smoke is considered the main risk factor for this disease, justifying the fact that the cigarette smoke exposure model is the most widely used. Some variations on this basic model, related to exposure time, the association of other inducers or inhibitors, exacerbations or the use of transgenic animals to facilitate the identification of pathogenic pathways have been developed. Some variations or heterogeneity of this disease, then, can be reproduced and models can be designed for resolving researchers' questions on disease identification or treatment responses. PMID:25201221

  5. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this illness. PMID:24749006

  6. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer; Stricker, Raphael B

    2014-01-01

    Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this illness. PMID:24749006

  7. Chronic lyme disease: psychogenic fantasy or somatic infection?

    PubMed Central

    Mervine, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Sigal and Hassett published an article about Lyme disease in the EHP Supplements (Sigal and Hassett 2002), suggesting that chronic Lyme disease is "psychogenic." I do not think that Sigal and Hassett, non-psychiatrists, are qualified to speak about psychiatric matters. I, however, actually have had the disease, which they characterize as "medically unexplained," for over 25 years and have 15 years of experience as a patient advocate and educator. I beg to differ. PMID:12573917

  8. Metabolic acidosis and the progression of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. Accumulating evidence identifies acidosis not only as a consequence of, but as a contributor to, kidney disease progression. Several mechanistic pathways have been identified in this regard. The dietary acid load, even in the absence of overt acidosis, may have deleterious effects. Several small trials now suggest that the treatment of acidosis with oral alkali can slow the progression of kidney disease. PMID:24708763

  9. Epigenetic modifications of chronic hypoxia-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Le, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly people. AD is characterized by progressive and gradual decline in cognitive function and memory loss. While familial early-onset AD is usually associated with gene mutations, the etiology of sporadic late-onset form of AD is largely unknown. It has been reported that environmental factors and epigenetic alterations significantly contribute to the process of AD. Our previous studies have documented that chronic hypoxia is one of the environmental factors that may trigger the AD development and aggravate the disease progression. In this review, we will summarize the pathological effects of chronic hypoxia on the onset and development of AD and put forward the possible molecule mechanisms underlying the chronic hypoxia mediated AD pathogenesis. Finally, we propose that epigenetic regulations may represent new opportunity for the therapeutic intervention of this disease. PMID:24650677

  10. Relevance of chronic lyme disease to family medicine as a complex multidimensional chronic disease construct: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Vandevoorde, Jan; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429

  11. Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Goderis, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429

  12. Chronic Chagas disease: from basics to laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Haberland, Annekathrin; Saravia, Silvia Gilka Munoz; Wallukat, Gerd; Ziebig, Reinhard; Schimke, Ingolf

    2013-02-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America and has huge potential to become a worldwide problem, due to increasing migration, and international tourism, as well as infectant transfer by blood contact and transfusion, intrauterine transfer, and organ transplantation. Nearly 30% of chronically-infected patients become symptomatic, often with a latency of 10-30 years, developing life-threatening complications. Of those, nearly 90% develop Chagas heart disease, while the others manifest gastrointestinal disease and neuronal disorders. Besides interrupting the infection cycle and chemo therapeutic infectant elimination, starting therapy early in symptomatic patients is important for counteracting the disease. This would be essentially supported by optimized patient management, involving risk assessment, early diagnosis and monitoring of the disease and its treatment. From economic and logistic viewpoints, the tools of laboratory medicine should be especially able to guarantee this. After summarizing the basics of chronic Chagas disease, such as the epidemiological data, the pathogenetic mechanisms thought to drive symptomatic Chagas disease and also treatment options, we present tools of laboratory medicine that address patient diagnosis, risk assessment for becoming symptomatic and guidance, focusing on autoantibody estimation for risk assessment and heart marker measurement for patient guidance. In addition, increases in levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers in chronic Chagas disease are discussed. PMID:23045386

  13. Clinical application of expectorant therapy in chronic inflammatory airway diseases (Review)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, TING; ZHOU, XIANGDONG

    2014-01-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a significant clinical and pathological feature of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Its clinical presentations include recurrent coughing and phlegm. Airway mucus is closely associated with the occurrence, development and prognosis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases and critically affects the lung function, quality of life, hospitalization rate and mortality of patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Therefore, expectorant therapies targeting the potential mechanisms of mucus hypersecretion have been the focus of numerous studies. Conventional expectorants are mainly mucoactive medicines, including nausea-stimulating expectorants, mucolytics, mucokinetics, and proteases and nucleases. In addition, certain traditional Chinese herbal medicines and non-mucoactive agents, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists and macrolide antibiotics, have also shown expectorant effects. Several novel medicines for expectorant therapy have emerged, including cholesterol-lowering statins, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, stanozolol, surfactants, flavonoids, tachykinin receptor antagonists, protease inhibitors, cytokine antagonists and purinergic agonists. With the increasing number of multidisciplinary studies, the effectiveness of expectorant therapy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases has been confirmed. Therefore, the development of novel expectorants and the standardization of expectorant therapy are the direction and focus of future studies, thus benefiting patients who have a chronic inflammatory airway disease. PMID:24660026

  14. N-acetylcysteine prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress elicited in macrophages by serum albumin drawn from chronic kidney disease rats and selectively affects lipid transporters, ABCA-1 and ABCG-1.

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliana T; Iborra, Rodrigo T; Fusco, Fernanda B; Castilho, Gabriela; Pinto, Raphael S; Machado-Lima, Adriana; Nakandakare, Edna R; Seguro, Antonio C; Shimizu, Maria H; Catanozi, Sergio; Passarelli, Marisa

    2014-11-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD) nontraditional risk factors, such as oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products (AGE) contribute to cardiovascular disease. Particularly, disturbances in reverse cholesterol transport favor the development of atherosclerosis. We analyzed the influence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in CKD rats on plasma concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS) and AGE and on the impact of serum albumin in the development of macrophage endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and cholesterol efflux, namely apo A-I and HDL2-mediated cholesterol removal and ABCA-1 and ABCG-1 protein level. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in 2-month old male Wistar rats. Controls (Sham) were false operated. Animals were treated or not with NAC (600 mg/L of water). After 60 days serum albumin was isolated by FPLC and purified by alcoholic extraction. J774 macrophages were incubated with serum albumin (1 mg/mL; 18 h) from all groups, and the expression of ERS markers (protein disulfide isomerase - PDI, Grp78 and Grp94), ABCA-1 and ABCG-1 determined by immunoblot. HDL2 or apo A-I were used for cholesterol efflux assays. Protein and lipid composition of total HDL from Sham and CKD was determined and these particles tested on their abilities to accept cell cholesterol. Comparisons were done by one-way ANOVA and Newman Keuls post test. After 60 days of CKD, body weight was 10% lower in CKD compared to Sham (p < 0.01). This was prevented by NAC. Urea, creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) (mg/dL), proteinuria (mg/24 h) (Sham, n = 31; Sham + NAC, n = 20; CKD, n = 74; CKD + NAC, n = 32), total AGE and pentosidine (n = 8; fluorescence arbitrary unit) and TBARS (n = 7; nmoL/mL) were higher in CKD (122 ± 8; 0.9 ± 0.07; 151 ± 6; 83 ± 4; 46 ± 2.5; 32,620 ± 673; 16,700 ± 1,370; 6.6 ± 0.5, respectively) and in CKD + NAC (91.4 ± 5; 0.6 ± 0.02; 126 ± 7.5; 73 ± 6; 51 ± 3.5; 24,720 ± 1,114; 10,080 ± 748; 4.5 ± 0.5, respectively) in comparison to Sham (41 ± 0.9; 0.4 ± 0.03; 76 ± 2.7; 51.5 ± 3; 14 ± 0.9; 21,750 ± 960; 5,314 ± 129; 2.0 ± 0.2, respectively; p < 0.001) and Sham + NAC (40 ± 0.9; 0.3 ± 0.02; 76 ± 2.6; 68 ± 4; 18.4 ± 1.5; 20,040 ± 700; 5,050 ± 267; 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively; p < 0.001). TC, urea, creatinine, total AGE, pentosidine and TBARS were respectively, 17%, 25%, 33%, 24%, 40% and 28% (p < 0.01) lower in CKD + NAC, than in CKD. Glycemia was higher in Sham + NAC (107 ± 4.6) and CKD + NAC (107 ± 2.6) than in Sham (96 ± 1.8; p < 0.05) and CKD (98 ± 1.6; p < 0.01), respectively. In macrophages (n = 6), CKD albumin increased PDI (3 and 6 times, p < 0.01) and Grp94 (66% and 80%, p < 0.01) in comparison to Sham and CKD + NAC-albumin treated cells, respectively. ABCA-1 expression was lower (87% and 70%, p < 0.001) in macrophage treated with Sham + NAC and CKD albumin respectively in comparison to Sham albumin; ABCG-1 was higher (4 and 7 times, p < 0.001) in macrophages treated with Sham + NAC and CKD + NAC albumin, respectively in comparison to Sham and CKD albumin. Apo A-I mediated cholesterol efflux was lower (59% and 70%, p < 0.0001) in macrophage treated with Sham + NAC and CKD albumin respectively in comparison to Sham albumin, however, the HDL2 mediated cholesterol efflux was higher (54% and 25%, p < 0.0001) in macrophage treated with Sham + NAC albumin, in comparison to Sham and CKD + NAC albumin, respectively. CKD-HDL was enriched in total protein and lipids compared to Sham-HDL but preserved its capacity to remove cholesterol from macrophages. NAC reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and AGE and abrogates ERS induced by CKD-albumin. Despite diminishing ABCA-1, NAC increases ABCG-1 that counteracts the reduction in apo A-I-mediated cholesterol efflux. NAC may contribute to attenuate the deleterious effects of CKD-albumin on lipid accumulation in macrophages helping to prevent atherogenesis in CKD. PMID:25305669

  15. Chronic coinfections in patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, Paul M.; Wormser, Gary P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The controversial diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is often given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. Many such patients are also treated for chronic co-infections with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice. Methods Five systematic literature searches were performed using Boolean operators and the PubMed search engine. Results The literature searches did not demonstrate convincing evidence of 1) chronic anaplasmosis infection, 2) treatment responsive symptomatic chronic babesiosis in immunocompetent persons in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities and detectable parasitemia, 3) either geographically widespread or treatment responsive symptomatic chronic infection with Babesia duncani in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities and detectable parasitemia, 4) tick-borne transmission of Bartonella species, or 5) simultaneous Lyme disease and Bartonella infection. Conclusions The medical literature does not support the diagnosis of chronic, atypical tick-borne coinfections in patients with chronic, nonspecific illnesses. PMID:24929022

  16. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Ammon, H P T

    2006-10-01

    Oleogum resins from BOSWELLIA species are used in traditional medicine in India and African countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Animal experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The mechanism of this action is due to some boswellic acids. It is different from that of NSAID and is related to components of the immune system. The most evident action is the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. However, other factors such as cytokines (interleukins and TNF-alpha) and the complement system are also candidates. Moreover, leukocyte elastase and oxygen radicals are targets. Clinical studies, so far with pilot character, suggest efficacy in some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and bronchial asthma. Side effects are not severe when compared to modern drugs used for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:17024588

  17. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barna, Barbara P.; Judson, Marc A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis. PMID:25525507

  18. Underrecognized comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Mi?kowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Bia?as, Adam J; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Górski, Pawe?; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2015-01-01

    COPD is associated with different comorbid diseases, and their frequency increases with age. Comorbidities severely impact costs of health care, intensity of symptoms, quality of life and, most importantly, may contribute to life span shortening. Some comorbidities are well acknowledged and established in doctors’ awareness. However, both everyday practice and literature searches provide evidence of other, less recognized diseases, which are frequently associated with COPD. We call them underrecognized comorbidities, and the reason why this is so may be related to their relatively low clinical significance, inefficient literature data, or data ambiguity. In this review, we describe rhinosinusitis, skin abnormalities, eye diseases, different endocrinological disorders, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Possible links to COPD pathogenesis have been discussed, if the data were available. PMID:26203239

  19. Underrecognized comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mi?kowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Bia?as, Adam J; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Górski, Pawe?; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2015-01-01

    COPD is associated with different comorbid diseases, and their frequency increases with age. Comorbidities severely impact costs of health care, intensity of symptoms, quality of life and, most importantly, may contribute to life span shortening. Some comorbidities are well acknowledged and established in doctors' awareness. However, both everyday practice and literature searches provide evidence of other, less recognized diseases, which are frequently associated with COPD. We call them underrecognized comorbidities, and the reason why this is so may be related to their relatively low clinical significance, inefficient literature data, or data ambiguity. In this review, we describe rhinosinusitis, skin abnormalities, eye diseases, different endocrinological disorders, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Possible links to COPD pathogenesis have been discussed, if the data were available. PMID:26203239

  20. Colitis complicating chronic granulomatous disease. A clinicopathological case report.

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, J M; Cameron, C H; Maxwell, R J; McCluskey, D R; Collins, J S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This report concerns a female patient now aged 24 years, diagnosed at the age of 7 years as suffering from chronic granulomatous disease. At age 20 she developed diarrhoea accompanied by rectal bleeding. Endoscopy showed extensive colitis. She failed to respond to medical treatment and underwent total colectomy two years later. AIMS--To discuss the histological changes in the colon in chronic granulomatous disease. RESULTS--There was extensive mucosal inflammation throughout colon and rectum resembling ulcerative colitis. In addition characteristic large pigmented macrophages were distributed in the basal mucosa and superficial submucosa. Similar cells accompanied by granulomata were present in mesenteric lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS--Colitis is an unusual clinical manifestation of chronic granulomatous disease but the presence and characteristic distribution of such pigmented macrophages in colonic biopsy in children and young adults may suggest the diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8707099

  1. In Search of a Germ Theory Equivalent for Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The fight against infectious disease advanced dramatically with the consolidation of the germ theory in the 19th century. This focus on a predominant cause of infections (ie, microbial pathogens) ultimately led to medical and public health advances (eg, immunization, pasteurization, antibiotics). However, the resulting declines in infections in the 20th century were matched by a rise in chronic, noncommunicable diseases, for which there is no single underlying etiology. The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation (“metaflammation”), linked to inducers (broadly termed “anthropogens”) associated with modern man-made environments and lifestyles, suggests an underlying basis for chronic disease that could provide a 21st-century equivalent of the germ theory. PMID:22575080

  2. Should we treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Roberto A; MacNee, William

    2015-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by largely irreversible airflow limitation and is associated with several extrapulmonary manifestations and co-morbidities. Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent co-morbid conditions affecting patients with COPD and have important prognostic implications for hospitalization and mortality. In turn, COPD shares common risk factors with several cardiovascular diseases (i.e., smoking habit), while several features of COPD can predispose to cardiovascular disease (i.e., gas exchange abnormalities, polycythemia, systemic inflammation and sedentary lifestyle). Cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD are under-recognized and undertreated and should be actively sought and treated according to usual guidelines. This review will discuss the increased prevalence and prognostic implications of cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD. The effect of COPD on the outcomes in cardiovascular disease will also be highlighted and the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD will also be reviewed. Finally, options for the management of cardiovascular co-morbidities in patients with COPD will be discussed. PMID:26190174

  3. Why do young people with chronic kidney disease die early?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shankar; Bogle, Richard; Banerjee, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease poses the greatest risk of premature death seen among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Up to 50% of mortality risk in the dialysis population is attributable to cardiovascular disease and the largest relative excess mortality is observed in younger patients. In early CKD, occlusive thrombotic coronary disease is common, but those who survive to reach end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis are more prone to sudden death attributable mostly to sudden arrhythmic events and heart failure related to left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary vascular calcification and electrolyte disturbances. In this review, we discuss the basis of the interaction of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease with various pathological processes such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, low grade chronic inflammation, neurohormonal changes and vascular calcification and stiffness which account for the structural and functional cardiac changes that predispose to excess morbidity and mortality in young people with CKD. PMID:25374808

  4. Chronic granulomatous disease: lessons from a rare disorder.

    PubMed

    Segal, Brahm H; Veys, Paul; Malech, Harry; Cowan, Morton J

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency with X-linked or autosomal recessive inheritance involving defects in genes encoding phox proteins, which are the subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. This results in failure to produce superoxide anion and downstream antimicrobial oxidant metabolites and to activate antimicrobial proteases. Affected patients are susceptible to severe, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and excessive inflammation characterized by granulomatous enteritis resembling Crohn's disease and genitourinary obstruction. Early diagnosis of CGD and rapid treatment of infections are critical. Prophylaxis with antibacterial and mold-active antifungal agents and the administration of interferon-? has significantly improved the natural history of CGD. Currently, the only cure is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), although there remains controversy as to which patients with CGD should get a transplant. Allele-based HLA typing of alternative donors, improved supportive care measures, and use of reduced toxicity conditioning have resulted in event-free survival (EFS) of at least 80% even with an unrelated donor and even better when the patient has no active infections/inflammation. Gene correction of CGD would eliminate the risks of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the immunoablative chemotherapy required for allogeneic HCT. Based on gene therapy trials in patients with SCID-X1, ADA-SCID, and the early experience with CGD, it is clear that at least some degree of myeloablation will be necessary for CGD as there is no inherent selective growth advantage for gene-corrected cells. Current efforts for gene therapy focus on use of lentivector constructs, which are thought to be safer from the standpoint of insertional mutagenesis and more efficient in transducing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). PMID:21195301

  5. Is Gulf War Syndrome actually chronic Lyme disease?

    PubMed

    Owen, David C

    2005-01-01

    Symptoms of Gulf War Syndrome and chronic Lyme disease are very similar. Lyme disease is a condition which can be difficult to diagnose since one of the main features of the condition, the erythema migrans rash, may be absent or overlooked and serological testing for Lyme disease may be falsely negative. Symptoms of Lyme disease may not became apparent until years after exposure to the causative organism. Military personnel during training in the field are at risk of tick bites and it may be that those who developed Gulf War Syndrome entered the conflict with latent Lyme disease. There has been no systematic examination of Gulf War Syndrome sufferers for chronic Lyme disease and it is hypothesized that chronic Lyme disease has been overlooked as a cause of Gulf War Syndrome. To address this it is suggested that sufferers of Gulf War Syndrome or similar illnesses should be examined by physicians who have experience diagnosing and treating large numbers of patients with Lyme disease. PMID:15694687

  6. Semen quality in men with chronic kidney disease and its correlation with chronic kidney disease stages.

    PubMed

    Lehtihet, M; Hylander, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) has any impact on semen quality parameters in men with CKD stage 1-5. Results were collected from 66 men with different CKD stages (age 18-50 years). Age and BMI (body mass index) were recorded for each male. Higher CKD stage had a significant negative linear trend on semen volume (P < 0.05), progressive motility (P < 0.01), nonprogressive motility (P < 0.001), sperm concentration (P < 0.01), total sperm number (P < 0.01), cytoplasmic droplets (P < 0.01), teratozoospermia index (P < 0.05) and accessory gland markers, α-glucosidase activity (P < 0.05), zinc (P < 0.01) and fructose (P < 0.01). BMI per se had no significant effect on semen volume, sperm number, sperm concentration, morphology, α-glucosidase activity, fructose concentration or zinc level. A significant negative correlation between BMI and sexual-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P < 0.01) was observed but not with other sex hormones. Age per se was related to a significant decrease of sperm concentration (P < 0.05), normal forms (P < 0.01) and testosterone level (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that CKD stage per se is a factor determining the number of spermatozoa available in the epididymis for ejaculation, in part independent of age-related decrease of testosterone level and BMI. PMID:25487067

  7. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state

    PubMed Central

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-01-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient–healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity. PMID:20738388

  8. Improving chronic disease management with mobile health platform.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do-Youn; Bae, Sungchul; Song, Joon Hyun; Yi, Byoung-Kee; Kim, Il Kon

    2013-01-01

    In modern society, aging and chronic disease is becoming common phenomenon due to the increasing numbers of elderly patients. To best treat this growing segment of the population, medical care should be based on constant vital sign monitoring. In this study, we propose a mobile vital sign measurement and data collection system for chronic disease management.. And we implemented a middle ware using Multi-Agent platform in SOS (Self-Organizing System) platform that transmits patient clinical data for services. We also implemented a HL7 messaging interface for interoperability of clinical data exchange. We propose health services on a self-organized software platform. PMID:24110178

  9. Use of sevelamer in chronic kidney disease: beyond phosphorus control.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Osorio, Laura; Zambrano, Diana Pazmiño; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus; González Parra, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Sevelamer is a non-calcium phosphate binder used in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in dialysis for hyperphosphataemia control. Several experimental, observational studies and clinical trials have shown that sevelamer has pleiotropic effects, beyond hyperphosphataemia control, including actions on inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profile and atherogenesis, vascular calcification, endothelial dysfunction and the reduction of several uremic toxins. This is the biological basis for its global effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review focuses on these pleiotropic actions of sevelamer and their impact on cardiovascular health, with the experience published after more than ten years of clinical expertise. PMID:26300515

  10. Chronic kidney disease is associated with a higher 90-day mortality than other chronic medical conditions in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ashham; Mulwande, Evelyn; Steinau, Maximilian; Bergmann, Ingo; Popov, Aron Frederik; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    According to previous studies, the clinical course of sepsis could be affected by preexisting medical conditions, which are very common among patients with sepsis. This observational study aimed at investigating whether common chronic medical conditions affect the 90-day mortality risk in adult Caucasian patients with sepsis. A total of 482 patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. The ninety-day mortality was the primary outcome; organ failure was the secondary outcome. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and the requirements for organ support were evaluated to assess organ failure. A multivariate Cox regression model for the association between the 90-day mortality risk and chronic preexisting medical conditions adjusted for all relevant confounders and mortality predictors revealed the highest hazard ratio for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (hazard ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.46-3.46; p = 0.0002). Patients with CKD had higher SOFA scores than patients without CKD (8.9 ± 4.0 and 6.5 ± 3.4, respectively; p < 0.0001). Additionally, an analysis of organ-specific SOFA scores revealed higher scores in three organ systems (kidney, cardiovascular and coagulation). Patients with CKD have the highest 90-day mortality risk compared with patients without CKD or with other chronic medical conditions. PMID:25995131

  11. Chronic kidney disease is associated with a higher 90-day mortality than other chronic medical conditions in patients with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Ashham; Mulwande, Evelyn; Steinau, Maximilian; Bergmann, Ingo; Frederik Popov, Aron; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    According to previous studies, the clinical course of sepsis could be affected by preexisting medical conditions, which are very common among patients with sepsis. This observational study aimed at investigating whether common chronic medical conditions affect the 90-day mortality risk in adult Caucasian patients with sepsis. A total of 482 patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. The ninety-day mortality was the primary outcome; organ failure was the secondary outcome. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and the requirements for organ support were evaluated to assess organ failure. A multivariate Cox regression model for the association between the 90-day mortality risk and chronic preexisting medical conditions adjusted for all relevant confounders and mortality predictors revealed the highest hazard ratio for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (hazard ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.46-3.46; p = 0.0002). Patients with CKD had higher SOFA scores than patients without CKD (8.9 ± 4.0 and 6.5 ± 3.4, respectively; p < 0.0001). Additionally, an analysis of organ-specific SOFA scores revealed higher scores in three organ systems (kidney, cardiovascular and coagulation). Patients with CKD have the highest 90-day mortality risk compared with patients without CKD or with other chronic medical conditions. PMID:25995131

  12. Therapeutic vaccination to treat chronic infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boukhebza, Houda; Bellon, Nadine; Limacher, Jean Marc; Inchauspé, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    A famous milestone in the vaccine field has been the first successful vaccination against smallpox, in 1798, by Edward Jenner. Using the vaccinia cowpox virus, Jenner was able to protect vaccinees from variola or smallpox. The Modified Virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus strain has been one of the vaccines subsequently developed to prevent smallpox infection and was selected by the US government in their Biodefense strategy. Progress in molecular biology and immunology associated with MVA infection has led to the development of MVA as vaccine platform, both in the field of preventive and therapeutic vaccines. This later class of therapeutics has witnessed growing interest that has translated into an increasing number of vaccine candidates reaching the clinics. Among those, MVA-based therapeutic vaccines have addressed four major chronic infections including viral hepatitis, AIDS, human papillomavirus-linked pathologies and tuberculosis. Clinical trials encompass phase 1 and 2 and have started to show significant results and promises. PMID:22894957

  13. Sickle cell disease: a neglected chronic disease of increasing global health importance

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Subarna; Williams, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a single gene disorder causing a debilitating systemic syndrome characterised by chronic anaemia, acute painful episodes, organ infarction and chronic organ damage and by a significant reduction in life expectancy. The origin of SCD lies in the malarial regions of the tropics where carriers are protected against death from malaria and hence enjoy an evolutionary advantage. More recently, population migration has meant that SCD now has a worldwide distribution and that a substantial number of children are born with the condition in higher-income areas, including large parts of Europe and North and South America. Newborn screening, systematic clinical follow-up and prevention of sepsis and organ damage have led to an increased life expectancy among people with SCD in many such countries; however, in resource-limited settings where the majority continue to be born, most affected children continue to die in early childhood, usually undiagnosed, due to the lack of effective programmes for its early detection and treatment. As new therapies emerge, potentially leading to disease amelioration or cure, it is of paramount importance that the significant burden of SCD in resource-poor countries is properly recognised. PMID:25239949

  14. Chronic Lyme disease: misconceptions and challenges for patient management.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, causes both specific and nonspecific symptoms. In untreated chronic infection, specific manifestations such as a relapsing large-joint oligoarthritis can persist for years, yet subside with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Nervous system involvement occurs in 10%-15% of untreated patients and typically involves lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, and/or mononeuritis multiplex; in some rare cases, patients have parenchymal inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Nervous system infection is similarly highly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, including oral doxycycline. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, perceived cognitive slowing, headache, and others occur in patients with Lyme disease and are indistinguishable from comparable symptoms occurring in innumerable other inflammatory states. There is no evidence that these nonspecific symptoms reflect nervous system infection or damage, or that they are in any way specific to or diagnostic of this or other tick-borne infections. When these symptoms occur in patients with Lyme disease, they typically also subside after antimicrobial treatment, although this may take time. Chronic fatigue states have been reported to occur following any number of infections, including Lyme disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear, although there is no evidence in any of these infections that these chronic posttreatment symptoms are attributable to ongoing infection with B. burgdorferi or any other identified organism. Available appropriately controlled studies indicate that additional or prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy do not benefit patients with a chronic fatigue-like state after appropriately treated Lyme disease. PMID:26028977

  15. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Miguel; Herrera, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Central America, Egypt, India and Sri Lanka have reported a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. This essay examines the disease's case definitions, epidemiology (disease burden, demographics, associated risk factors) and causal hypotheses, by reviewing published findings from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, Egypt and India. The range of confirmed chronic kidney disease prevalence was 17.9%-21.1%. Prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 body surface area) based on a single serum creatinine measurement was 0%-67% men and 0%-57% women. Prevalence was generally higher in male farmworkers aged 20-50 years, and varied by community economic activity and altitude. Cause was unknown in 57.4%-66.7% of patients. The dominant histopathological diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Associations were reported with agricultural work, agrochemical exposure, dehydration, hypertension, homemade alcohol use and family history of chronic kidney disease. There is no strong evidence for a single cause, and multiple environmental, occupational and social factors are probably involved. Further etiological research is needed, plus interventions to reduce preventable risk factors. PMID:24878644

  16. Chronic Lyme disease: misconceptions and challenges for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, causes both specific and nonspecific symptoms. In untreated chronic infection, specific manifestations such as a relapsing large-joint oligoarthritis can persist for years, yet subside with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Nervous system involvement occurs in 10%–15% of untreated patients and typically involves lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, and/or mononeuritis multiplex; in some rare cases, patients have parenchymal inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Nervous system infection is similarly highly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, including oral doxycycline. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, perceived cognitive slowing, headache, and others occur in patients with Lyme disease and are indistinguishable from comparable symptoms occurring in innumerable other inflammatory states. There is no evidence that these nonspecific symptoms reflect nervous system infection or damage, or that they are in any way specific to or diagnostic of this or other tick-borne infections. When these symptoms occur in patients with Lyme disease, they typically also subside after antimicrobial treatment, although this may take time. Chronic fatigue states have been reported to occur following any number of infections, including Lyme disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear, although there is no evidence in any of these infections that these chronic posttreatment symptoms are attributable to ongoing infection with B. burgdorferi or any other identified organism. Available appropriately controlled studies indicate that additional or prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy do not benefit patients with a chronic fatigue-like state after appropriately treated Lyme disease. PMID:26028977

  17. The Empirical Foundations of Telemedicine Interventions for Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Gary W.; Smith, Brian R.; Alverson, Dale C.; Antoniotti, Nina; Barsan, William G.; Bashshur, Noura; Brown, Edward M.; Coye, Molly J.; Doarn, Charles R.; Ferguson, Stewart; Grigsby, Jim; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Kvedar, Joseph C.; Linkous, Jonathan; Merrell, Ronald C.; Nesbitt, Thomas; Poropatich, Ronald; Rheuban, Karen S.; Sanders, Jay H.; Watson, Andrew R.; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Yellowlees, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The telemedicine intervention in chronic disease management promises to involve patients in their own care, provides continuous monitoring by their healthcare providers, identifies early symptoms, and responds promptly to exacerbations in their illnesses. This review set out to establish the evidence from the available literature on the impact of telemedicine for the management of three chronic diseases: congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. By design, the review focuses on a limited set of representative chronic diseases because of their current and increasing importance relative to their prevalence, associated morbidity, mortality, and cost. Furthermore, these three diseases are amenable to timely interventions and secondary prevention through telemonitoring. The preponderance of evidence from studies using rigorous research methods points to beneficial results from telemonitoring in its various manifestations, albeit with a few exceptions. Generally, the benefits include reductions in use of service: hospital admissions/re-admissions, length of hospital stay, and emergency department visits typically declined. It is important that there often were reductions in mortality. Few studies reported neutral or mixed findings. PMID:24968105

  18. [Acute atrioventricular block in chronic Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Vince; Zima, Endre; Gellér, László; Merkely, Béla

    2010-09-26

    The tick bite transmitted Lyme disease is one of the most common antropozoonosis, about 10 000 new infections are reported in Hungary each year. The progress and clinical presentation can vary, and carditis can occur in later stages. A serologically verified Lyme disease caused third degree atrioventricular block in young male presenting with presyncope. Based on the tick-bites mentioned a few weeks prior to hospital admission, Lyme carditis was considered with the administration of antibiotics and monitor observation. Typical skin lesions were not recognized and laboratory findings showed no pathology. An electrophysiological study recorded a predominant supra-His atrioventricular block. Total regression of conduction could be detected later and the serological tests established an underlying Lyme disease. Currently no definite treatment recommendation is available for the potentially reversible Lyme carditis. The tick bite seemed to be the key on our way to diagnosis; however, serological tests proved the disease to be older than one year. A detailed medical history and serological tests are essential in identifying the cause and pacemaker implantation can be avoided. PMID:20840915

  19. A Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model of Chronic Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lou Ella V.; Stotts, Nancy A.; Humphreys, Janice; Treadwell, Marsha J.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex multidimensional experience that includes biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors. To date, three models of pain associated with SCD (i.e., biomedical model; biopsychosocial model for SCD pain; Health Belief Model) are published. The biopsychosocial (BPS) multidimensional approach to chronic pain developed by Turk and Gatchel is a widely used model of chronic pain. However, this model has not been applied to chronic pain associated with SCD. In addition, a spiritual/religious dimension is not included in this model. Because spirituality/religion is central to persons affected by SCD, this dimension needs to be added to any model of chronic pain in adults with SCD. In fact, data from one study suggest that spirituality/religiosity is associated with decreased pain intensity in adults with chronic pain from SCD. A BPS-Spiritual model is proposed for adults with chronic pain from SCD since it embraces the whole person. This model includes the biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors relevant to adults with SCD based on past and current research. The purpose of this paper is to describe an adaptation of Turk and Gatchel’s model of chronic pain for adults with SCD and to summarize research findings that support each component of the revised model (i.e., biological, psychological, sociological, spiritual). The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the use of this model in research. PMID:24315252

  20. Pain and Opioid Use in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Shari S.; Winger, Daniel; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Szigethy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain is common in patients with liver disease, difficult to treat, and poorly understood. Aims The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with pain and prescription opioid use in a large cohort of patients with confirmed chronic liver. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with chronic liver disease visiting a tertiary-care hepatology clinic. Pain was determined by self-report and rated numerically from 0–10. Symptoms of mood and sleep disorders and emotional distress were based on a symptom checklist. Etiology and stage of liver disease and use of prescribed opioids were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Logistic regression was used to establish factors associated with pain and prescription opioid use. Results Among 1286 patients with chronic liver disease, 34% had pain and 25% used opioids. The strongest predictor of pain in multivariate modeling was emotional distress (OR=3.66, CI=2.40,5.64), followed by non-white race (OR=1.87, CI=1.24,2.79), mood symptoms (OR=1.47, CI=1.04,2.07), sleep disturbance/fatigue (OR=1.70, CI=1.24,2.32), and advanced liver disease (Child class B: OR=1.73, CI=1.15,2.60; Child class C: OR=2.78 CI=1.49,5.24) compared to no cirrhosis. Emotional distress, mood-related symptoms, and advanced liver disease were also significant predictors of prescription opioid use, as were age, nicotine use, and etiology of liver disease. Conclusions This large cohort study demonstrates the high prevalence of pain and opioid use in chronic liver disease. While disease variables contribute to pain, psychological symptoms were most strongly associated with pain and opioid use, providing rationale and target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23512406

  1. Nutrition therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related nutritional complications.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Amanda Carla; Bezerra, Olívia Maria de Paula Alves

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible airway obstruction. The innumerable complications that occur during the progression of the disease can affect the nutritional state of patients suffering from this illness. The objective of this study was to present a brief review of the literature regarding the nutrition therapy used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To that end, we performed a bibliographic search for related articles published within the last 18 years and indexed for the Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and Medline databases. Malnutrition is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, since it predisposes such patients to infections, as well as reducing respiratory muscle force, exercise tolerance and quality of life. Despite the fact that such malnutrition is extremely common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, it should be recognized as an independent risk factor, since it can be modified through appropriate and efficacious diet therapy and monitoring. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutrition therapy is initiated after the evaluation of the nutritional state of the patient, which identifies nutritional risk, thereby allowing the proper level of treatment to be established. In this evaluation, anthropometric and biochemical markers, as well as indicators of dietary consumption and body composition, should be used. The prescribed diet should contain appropriate proportions of macronutrients, micronutrients and immunonutrients in order to regain or maintain the proper nutritional state and to avoid complications. The physical characteristics of the diet should be tailored to the individual needs and tolerances of each patient. In the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, individualized nutrition therapy is extremely important and has been shown to be fundamental to improving quality of life. PMID:17268751

  2. Chronic kidney disease: targeting prostaglandin E2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Rania; Hassouneh, Ramzi; Hébert, Richard L

    2014-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. A better understanding of disease mechanisms has been gained in recent years, but the current management strategies are ineffective at preventing disease progression. A widespread focus of research is placed on elucidating the specific processes implicated to find more effective therapeutic options. PGE2, acting on its four EP receptors, regulates many renal disease processes; thus EP receptors could prove to be important targets for kidney disease intervention strategies. This review summarizes the major pathogenic mechanisms contributing to initiation and progression of chronic kidney disease, emphasizing the role of hyperglycemia, hypertension, inflammation, and oxidative stress. We have long recognized the multifaceted role of PGs in both the initiation and progression of chronic kidney disease, yet studies are only now seriously contemplating specific EP receptors as targets for therapy. Given the plethora of renal complications attributed to PG involvement in the kidney, this review highlights these pathogenic events and emphasizes the PGE2 receptor targets as options available to complement current therapeutic strategies. PMID:24966087

  3. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Perkovic, V; Cass, A; Patel, A A; Suriyawongpaisal, P; Barzi, F; Chadban, S; Macmahon, S; Neal, B

    2008-02-01

    We describe the prevalence of stage III and IV chronic kidney disease in Thailand from a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years and above using a stratified, multistage, cluster-sampling method. Population estimates were calculated by applying sampling weights from the 2000 Thai census. Glomerular filtration rates were estimated from serum creatinine using the Cockroft-Gault and the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulae. The prevalence of stage III disease among individuals aged 35 years and above was estimated to be about 20% using the Cockroft-Gault formula and about 13% from the MDRD formula. Stage IV disease was present in about 0.9 and 0.6% of this population using the respective formulae. The highest prevalence rates were observed in less well-developed rural areas and the lowest in developed urban areas. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was significantly higher than that reported in individuals over 40 years old from the United States for both stage III and IV disease and higher than the reported incidence in Taiwan and Australia. This high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thailand has obvious implications for the health of its citizens and for the allocation of health-care resources. PMID:18059458

  4. QUALITY OF LIFE AND PERCEPTION OF DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LEG ULCER.

    PubMed

    Brtan Romi?, Renata; Brtan, An?elka; Romi?, Ivan; Cvitanovi?, Hrvoje; Duvan?i?, Tomislav?; Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija

    2015-09-01

    Chronic wounds on lower extremities most commonly result from chronic venous insufficiency. Chronic leg ulcer impacts the quality of life in a number of ways such as reduced mobility, pain, unpleasant odor, sleep disturbances, social isolation, etc. This study included 100 patients with chronic wounds/lower leg ulcer (59% of women and 41% of men, aged 31 to 89) treated locally with special wound dressings for moist wound healing. Study results showed no age and sex correlation with the quality of life, and all participants evaluated their quality of life and health satisfaction as neither good nor bad, but it was found that the disease mostly affected social relationships and to a lesser extent patient satisfaction with their physical and mental health, and the environment. Results on the disease perception showed that the participants considered their disease to have a significant effect on their life and would last for a relatively long time, but they also believed they had good control of their disease. Also, they considered the disease to have many symptoms affecting them; they were worried about their disease which they understood relatively well; they were aware that treatment could be very helpful; and that the disease had moderate effect on their emotional health. According to sex, the disease was found to have greater effect on women (especially on their emotional condition) and women had more faith in successful treatment, while correlation with age was nonsignificant. This study confirmed the importance of the patient psychological condition and the need of due care of their psychological reactions to and facing with the disease. PMID:26666100

  5. Updated Mechanisms of Sickle Cell Disease-Associated Chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Brianna; Meiler, Steffen E.; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy, causes sickling of red blood cells, resulting in vessel blockage, stroke, anemia, inflammation, and extreme pain. A vast majority of SCD patients experience pain on a chronic basis, and many turn to opioids to provide limited relief. The side effects that come with chronic opioid use push for research into understanding the specific mechanisms of SCD-associated chronic pain. Current advances in SCD-associated pain have focused on alterations in the pain pathway including nociceptor sensitization and endogenous pain inducers. This article reviews the underlying pathophysiology of SCD, potential pain mechanisms, current treatments and their mechanism of action, and future directions of SCD-associated pain management. The information provided could help propel research in SCD-associated chronic pain and uncover novel treatment options for clinicians. PMID:26301256

  6. Adenocarcinoma arising from chronic perianal crohn's disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Massit, Hanane; Edderai, Meryem; Saouab, Rachida; Seddik, Hassan; El Fenni, Jamal; Benkirane, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation of perineal fistula in Crohn's disease has rarely been reported. We report a case of Crohn's disease with recurrent perineal fistulas. A 36-year-old male, diagnosed with Crohn's disease at the age of 24, developed adenocarcinoma in an anorectal fistula that had existed for years. He was treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy but died. A high index of suspicion and regular surveillance is recommended in chronic anorectal fistulas in Crohn's disease. The shorter duration of Crohn's fistulas prior to malignant degeneration necessitates an aggressive approach to rule out cancer.

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease Impairs Bone Defect Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiqing; Kang, Ning; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Dong, Yuliang; Zhou, Liyan; Lin, Yunfeng; Ye, Ling; Liang, Xing; Yuan, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a risk for bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CKD on bone defect repair in rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal renal ablation, and serum levels of BUN and PTH were significantly elevated four weeks after the second renal surgery. Calvarial defects of 5-mm diameter were created and implanted with or without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM). Micro-CT and histological analyses consistently revealed a decreased newly regenerated bone volume for CKD rats after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, 1.4-mm-diameter cortical bone defects were established in the distal end of femora and filled with gelatin sponge. CKD rats exhibited significantly lower values of regenerated bone and bone mineral density (BMD) within the cortical gap after 2 and 4 weeks. Moreover, histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in both osteoblast number (N.Ob/B.Pm) and osteoclast number (N.Oc/B.Pm) in CKD groups due to hyperparathyroidism. Notably, collagen maturation was delayed in CKD rats as verified by Masson's Trichrome staining. These data indicate that declined renal function negatively affects bone regeneration in both calvarial and femoral defects. PMID:26955758

  8. Factors Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Washington, Tiffany; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Browne, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected 26 million U.S. adults. Many end-stage CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis experience self-management challenges. However, factors associated with CKD self-management are underidentified. This article describes a mixed-methods study to identify factors associated with self-management in end-stage CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. A total of 107 patients age 50 and older were interviewed. Overall, participants had low mean scores for exercise (2.46), communication with physicians (2.50), and cognitive symptom management (0.89) and were adherent for greater than 11 days in a 2-week period with fluid (11.86) and diet (11.65) regimens. There were statistically significant age group differences in the self-management behavior of fluid adherence (p  <  .05) and communication with physicians (p = .05). None of the respondents discussed communicating with their physicians or cognitive symptom management, yet 90% and 77% of the respondents reported engaging in these behaviors, respectively. The findings from this study support the need for public health social work interventions aimed at increasing self-management behaviors in end-stage CKD patients. PMID:26799496

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease Impairs Bone Defect Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiqing; Kang, Ning; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Dong, Yuliang; Zhou, Liyan; Lin, Yunfeng; Ye, Ling; Liang, Xing; Yuan, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a risk for bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CKD on bone defect repair in rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal renal ablation, and serum levels of BUN and PTH were significantly elevated four weeks after the second renal surgery. Calvarial defects of 5-mm diameter were created and implanted with or without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM). Micro-CT and histological analyses consistently revealed a decreased newly regenerated bone volume for CKD rats after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, 1.4-mm-diameter cortical bone defects were established in the distal end of femora and filled with gelatin sponge. CKD rats exhibited significantly lower values of regenerated bone and bone mineral density (BMD) within the cortical gap after 2 and 4 weeks. Moreover, histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in both osteoblast number (N.Ob/B.Pm) and osteoclast number (N.Oc/B.Pm) in CKD groups due to hyperparathyroidism. Notably, collagen maturation was delayed in CKD rats as verified by Masson’s Trichrome staining. These data indicate that declined renal function negatively affects bone regeneration in both calvarial and femoral defects. PMID:26955758

  10. Febuxostat for hyperuricemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Tetsu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Chiharu; Iimura, Osamu; Tsunematsu, Sadao; Watanabe, Yuko; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Febuxostat is a nonpurine xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, which recently received marketing approval. However, information regarding the experience with this agent among advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is limited. In the current study, we investigated the effects of oral febuxostat in patients with advanced CKD with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. We demonstrated, for the first time, that not only the serum levels of uric acid (UA) but also those of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, were significantly reduced after six months of febuxostat treatment, with no adverse events. These results encouraged us to pursue further investigations regarding the clinical impact of lowering the serum UA levels with febuxostat in advanced CKD patients in terms of concomitantly reducing oxidative stress via the blockade of XO. More detailed studies with a larger number of subjects and assessments of the effects of multiple factors affecting hyperuricemia, such as age, sex, and dietary habits, would shed light on the therapeutic challenges of treating asymptomatic hyperuricemia in patients with various stages of CKD. PMID:25210423

  11. Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in CKD outcomes. One of the strongest factors that affects nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast-food restaurants within particular regions markedly affect the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to affect CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods, and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

  12. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases: novel vasoconstrictor pathways.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Simon C; Keane, Michael P; Gaine, Seán; McLoughlin, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a well recognised complication of chronic hypoxic lung diseases, which are among the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Development of pulmonary hypertension independently predicts reduced life expectancy. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, long-term oxygen therapy ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and greatly improves survival, although the correction of alveolar hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension is only partial. Advances in understanding of the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone show that chronic vasoconstriction plays a more important part in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension than previously thought, and that structural vascular changes contribute less. Trials of existing vasodilators show that pulmonary hypertension can be ameliorated and systemic oxygen delivery improved in carefully selected patients, although systemic hypotensive effects limit the doses used. Vasoconstrictor pathways that are selective for the pulmonary circulation can be blocked to reduce hypoxic pulmonary hypertension without causing systemic hypotension, and thus provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26895650

  13. Fibre in the prevention and management of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Potter, J D

    1982-04-01

    Some of the evidence of the role of dietary fibre in the prevention and treatment of disease is reviewed and the heterogeneous nature of fibre is considered. The relationships between various fibre fractions and colonic disorders, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity are discussed. It is concluded that an increase of dietary fibre constituents is only one part of a programme of dietary modification relevant to chronic diseases of a Western industrialised society. PMID:6287986

  14. Comorbidities and systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Gourab; Rabinovich, Roberto; MacNee, William

    2014-03-01

    Although primarily a lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now recognized to have extrapulmonary effects on distal organs, the so-called systemic effects and comorbidities of COPD. Skeletal muscle dysfunction, nutritional abnormalities including weight loss, cardiovascular complications, metabolic complications, and osteoporosis, among others, are all well-recognized associations in COPD. These extrapulmonary effects add to the burden of mortality and morbidity in COPD and therefore should be actively looked for, assessed, and treated. PMID:24507840

  15. [Treatment of main chronic diseases in childhood from birth].

    PubMed

    Casimir, G

    2015-09-01

    Children suffering from chronic diseases are very quickly diagnosed by neonatal screening and follow-up of the mother during the pregnancy. Early screening and diagnosis are essential to obtain continuous improvement of the prognosis in term of treatment and psychosocial outcome. Multidisciplinary teams are now well organized to treat all the complications of the disease. Registers at national and international levels allow professionals to compare themselves and to evaluate the improvement of clinical status and mid-life expectancy. PMID:26591306

  16. [Bone complications in chronic liver disease(hepatic osteodystrophy)].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hisanori

    2015-11-01

    Bone complication occurs in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, chronic hepatitis C, primary biliary cirrhosis(PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis(PSC)or post liver transplant. Prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture risk is high in these diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)is increasing in prevalence. Relation of NAFLD/NASH with osteoporosis, however, is not well known, and further investigation is needed. PMID:26503865

  17. Early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: definition, assessment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Rennard, Stephen I; Drummond, M Bradley

    2015-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. COPD, however, is a heterogeneous collection of diseases with differing causes, pathogenic mechanisms, and physiological effects. Therefore a comprehensive approach to COPD prevention will need to address the complexity of COPD. Advances in the understanding of the natural history of COPD and the development of strategies to assess COPD in its early stages make prevention a reasonable, if ambitious, goal. PMID:25943942

  18. Self-Management Support Interventions for Persons With Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Franek, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-management support interventions such as the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) are becoming more widespread in attempt to help individuals better self-manage chronic disease. Objective To systematically assess the clinical effectiveness of self-management support interventions for persons with chronic diseases. Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 15, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database for studies published between January 1, 2000, and January 15, 2012. A January 1, 2000, start date was used because the concept of non-disease-specific/general chronic disease self-management was first published only in 1999. Reference lists were examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing self-management support interventions for general chronic disease against usual care were included for analysis. Results of RCTs were pooled using a random-effects model with standardized mean difference as the summary statistic. Results Ten primary RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n = 6,074). Nine of these evaluated the Stanford CDSMP across various populations; results, therefore, focus on the CDSMP. Health status outcomes: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in favour of CDSMP across most health status measures, including pain, disability, fatigue, depression, health distress, and self-rated health (GRADE quality low). There was no significant difference between modalities for dyspnea (GRADE quality very low). There was significant improvement in health-related quality of life according to the EuroQol 5-D in favour of CDSMP, but inconsistent findings across other quality-of-life measures. Healthy behaviour outcomes: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in favour of CDSMP across all healthy behaviours, including aerobic exercise, cognitive symptom management, and communication with health care professionals (GRADE quality low). Self-efficacy: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in self-efficacy in favour of CDSMP (GRADE quality low). Health care utilization outcomes: There were no statistically significant differences between modalities with respect to visits with general practitioners, visits to the emergency department, days in hospital, or hospitalizations (GRADE quality very low). All results were measured over the short term (median 6 months of follow-up). Limitations Trials generally did not appropriately report data according to intention-to-treat principles. Results therefore reflect “available case analyses,” including only those participants whose outcome status was recorded. For this reason, there is high uncertainty around point estimates. Conclusions The Stanford CDSMP led to statistically significant, albeit clinically minimal, short-term improvements across a number of health status measures (including some measures of health-related quality of life), healthy behaviours, and self-efficacy compared to usual care. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the CDSMP improved health care utilization. More research is needed to explore longer-term outcomes, the impact of self-management on clinical outcomes, and to better identify responders and non-responders. Plain Language Summary Self-management support interventions are becoming more common as a structured way of helping patients learn to better manage their chronic disease. To assess the effects of these support interventions, we looked at the results of 10 studies involving a total of 6,074 people with various chronic diseases, such as arthritis and chronic pain, chronic respiratory diseases, depression, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Most trials focused on a program called the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). W

  19. Students with Chronic Diseases: Nature of School Physician Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Brennan, Jesse J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To educate children with chronic diseases in the least restrictive environment, schools must prevent, recognize, and react appropriately to symptom exacerbations. Schools are often pushed to their limits of knowledge, resources, and comfort level. This study determined the health conditions of students for whom districts seek school…

  20. Students with Chronic Diseases: Nature of School Physician Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Brennan, Jesse J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To educate children with chronic diseases in the least restrictive environment, schools must prevent, recognize, and react appropriately to symptom exacerbations. Schools are often pushed to their limits of knowledge, resources, and comfort level. This study determined the health conditions of students for whom districts seek school…

  1. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  2. Evaluation and treatment of gout as a chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria

    2012-11-01

    Gout is a disease caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals in tissues. One of the limitations for successful treatment of gout is to consider it as an intermittent disease rather than a chronic inflammatory disease which, if improperly treated, leads to chronic clinical manifestations. In addition, gout is linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Urate-lowering therapy comprises both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions, but most patients will need urate-lowering drugs to achieve target therapeutic serum urate levels. Reaching target serum urate levels is associated with improvement in clinical outcomes, including a reduction of acute inflammation episodes, resolution of tophi, and improvement in health-related quality of life perception.A number of urate-lowering drugs are available but a number of patients fail to achieve or maintain therapeutic serum urate levels and go on to develop refractory chronic gout. For such patients, efforts have been made to develop new treatments (e.g., febuxostat or pegloticase).This review intends to increase the awareness of gout as a chronic deposition disease, and show that efforts should be made to properly control serum urate levels in order to achieve complete disappearance of urate crystal deposition. PMID:23104464

  3. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  4. Chronic Diseases in the Pediatric Age Group. Matrix No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael

    This paper briefly outlines current problems associated with chronic diseases in children and youth and provides indications for the types of future research and analysis needed to facilitate the development of solutions. In general, these problems are associated with the following: malignancies, hereditary anemias, cystic fibrosis, other chronic…

  5. Experimental chronic wasting disease (CWD) in fallow deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to fallow deer (Cervus dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of CWD in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD br...

  6. Evaluation of Continuing Medical Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li Wang, Virginia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A continuing medical education program is discussed that addresses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and that links primary care physicians to a source of needed clinical knowledge at a relatively low cost. The educational methods, evaluation design, diagnosis of educational needs, selection of program content and behavioral outcomes are…

  7. Actinomyces in Chronic Granulomatous Disease: An Emerging and Unanticipated Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Janine; Lopatin, Uri; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Beovic, Bojana; Siler, Ulrich; Zbinden, Reinhard; Seger, Reinhard A.; Galmiche, Louise; Brousse, Nicole; Kayal, Samer; Güngör, Tayfun; Blanche, Stéphane; Holland, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections, mostly by catalase-producing organisms. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, chronic infections with Actinomyces species in 10 patients with CGD. Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous condition that commonly manifests as cervicofacial, pulmonary, or abdominal disease, caused by slowly progressive infection with oral and gastrointestinal commensal Actinomyces species. Treatment of actinomycosis is usually simple in immunocompetent individuals, requiring long-term, high-dose intravenous penicillin, but is more complicated in those with CGD because of delayed diagnosis and an increased risk of chronic invasive or debilitating disease. Methods Actinomyces was identified by culture, staining, 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction, and/ or a complement fixation test in 10 patients with CGD. Results All 10 patients presented with a history of fever and elevated inflammatory signs without evident focus. Diagnosis was delayed and clinical course severe and protracted despite high-dose intravenous antibiotic therapy and/or surgery. These results suggest an unrecognized and unanticipated susceptibility to weakly pathogenic Actinomyces species in patients with CGD because these are catalase-negative organisms previously thought to be nonpathogenic in CGD. Conclusions Actinomycosis should be vigorously sought and promptly treated in patients with CGD presenting with uncommon and prolonged clinical signs of infection. Actinomycosis is a catalase-negative infection important to consider in CGD. PMID:19874205

  8. DOES CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE LEAD TO LUNG DISEASE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential role of ozone in the induction of chronic lung diseases remains unclear. sing an ambient profile adopted from aerometric data from the Southwest Air Basin, rats were exposed to O3 for up to 18 months before assessments of pulmonary structure, function and biochemist...

  9. Corticosteroid Therapy for Liver Abscess in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Uzel, Gulbu; Malech, Harry L.; DeRavin, SukSee; Wilks, David; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Zerbe, Christa S.; Heller, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Liver abscesses in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are typically difficult to treat and often require surgery. We describe 9 X-linked CGD patients with staphylococcal liver abscesses refractory to conventional therapy successfully treated with corticosteroids and antibiotics. Corticosteroids may have a role in treatment of Staphylococcus aureus liver abscesses in CGD. PMID:22157170

  10. Children with Rare Chronic Skin Diseases: Hemangiomas and Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sheila Dove; Miller, Cynthia Dieterich

    The paper reports on studies involving children having the rare chronic skin diseases of hemangiomas and epidermolysis bullosa (characterized by easy blistering). One study compared the self-concept and psychosocial development of young (mean age 46 months) children (N=19) with hemangiomas with 19 children without hemangiomas. Findings indicated…

  11. Precipitating Factors of Acute Illness in Patients with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, D. S.

    1965-01-01

    The precipitating causes of acute illness in patients with chronic organic disease can often be prevented, reversed or controlled. The various kinds of precipitating factors are described, and their anticipation and the prompt institution of remedial measures are emphasized. PMID:5843867

  12. Dermal Mucinosis in Chronic Sclerodermoid Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Beroukhim, Kourosh; Palla, Beth; Smart, Chandra N

    2016-02-01

    Dermal mucinosis is characterized by the deposition of glycosaminoglycans (mucin), either focally or diffusely within the dermis. This may occur as a primary idiopathic disorder or secondary to several dermatoses, most notably lupus erythematous, scleroderma, and dermatomyositis. The authors present an unusual finding of dermal mucinosis in association with chronic sclerodermoid graft-versus-host disease. PMID:26322557

  13. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, L.S. |; Lloyd, J.; Daniloff, E.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressing into clinical disease. This article discusses the historical, recent, and ongoing studies germane to our understanding of CBD natural history, including the immunologic and inflammatory basis of the disease, the environmental and host risk factors for disease progression, biological markers of disease severity and activity that may help predict outcome, and the implications for broad-based workplace screening to identify patients at the earliest stages of beryllium sensitization and disease. 29 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Gan, Ren-You; Li, Sha; Zhou, Yue; Li, An-Na; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Overproduction of oxidants (reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species) in the human body is responsible for the pathogenesis of some diseases. The scavenging of these oxidants is thought to be an effective measure to depress the level of oxidative stress of organisms. It has been reported that intake of vegetables and fruits is inversely associated with the risk of many chronic diseases, and antioxidant phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are considered to be responsible for these health benefits. Antioxidant phytochemicals can be found in many foods and medicinal plants, and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. They often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities, as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes recent progress on the health benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals, and discusses their potential mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. PMID:26633317

  15. [Treatment of chronic itch in systemic disease : Current standards].

    PubMed

    Mettang, T; Ständer, S; Kremer, A E

    2015-12-01

    Chronic itch (CI) is a frequent and sometimes tormenting symptom in many skin and systemic diseases. In systemic diseases, it mostly appears on primarily unaffected skin. As a sequelae of intense scratching, secondary skin lesions such as excoriations, scars, and prurigo nodularis may occur. Due to the lack of valid pathogenetic concepts and good clinical trials, the therapy of CI remains mostly symptomatic. In Europe almost all drugs used to treat CI are not approved for this indication. CI is frequent in patients with chronic kidney diseases in advanced stages. Gabapentin and pregabalin, anticonvulsants, and centrally acting calcium channel blockers have been shown to exert a profound effect in CI. Furthermore, UVB phototherapy has been proven to attenuate pruritus in uremic patients. Randomized controlled studies have recently shown that nalfurafine, a ?-opioid receptor agonist, is able to ameliorate itch in patients with uremic itch. In patients suffering from cholestatic itch, the anion exchange resin colestyramine and rifampicin are effective antipruritic drugs. Furthermore, µ-opioid receptor antagonists and sertraline may be used to alleviate CI in hepatic diseases. In refractory cases, naso-biliary drainage or albumin dialysis are effective invasive procedures. For the treatment of chronic itch in hematological diseases no controlled trials have been performed so far. The mainstay in these cases is to treat the underlying disease. PMID:26585238

  16. Protection from acute and chronic lung diseases by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Narayanan; Punithavathi, Durairaj; Babu, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review has been to describe the current state of the therapeutic potential of curcumin in acute and chronic lung injuries. Occupational and environmental exposures to mineral dusts, airborne pollutants, cigarette smoke, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy injure the lungs, resulting in acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Despite major advances in treating lung diseases, until now disease-modifying efficacy has not been demonstrated for any of the existing drugs. Current medical therapy offers only marginal benefit; therefore, there is an essential need to develop new drugs that might be of effective benefit in clinical settings. Over the years, there has been increasing evidence that curcumin, a phytochemical present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), has a wide spectrum of therapeutic properties and a remarkable range of protective effects in various diseases. Several experimental animal models have tested curcumin on lung fibrosis and these studies demonstrate that curcumin attenuates lung injury and fibrosis caused by radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and toxicants. The growing amount of data from pharmacological and animal studies also supports the notion that curcumin plays a protective role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and allergic asthma, its therapeutic action being on the prevention or modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings give substance to the possibility of testing curcumin in patients with lung diseases. PMID:17569221

  17. Current best practice in pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    de Blasio, Francesco; Polverino, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic condition that negatively affects several patient-centered outcomes. Among these, exercise capacity, dyspnea, and quality of life are the most relevant. In this article, factors contributing to exercise limitation, increase in exercise-induced dyspnea, quality of life deterioration, and other pathophysiological aspects in patients with COPD are analyzed in detail. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and often have decreased daily life activities. PR has been clearly shown to induce favorable and long-lasting effects on all patient-centered outcomes. In addition, PR appears to have positive (even if not conclusively demonstrated) effects on other important outcomes in patients with COPD: number and severity of exacerbations, healthcare resource utilization, and survival. The organization of PR treatment, its components, outcome assessment, and future directions are discussed in light of the most robust scientific evidence. PMID:22563010

  18. [THE MODERN CONCEPTS OF HEMOSTASIS SYSTEM UNDER CHRONIC DISEASES OF LIVER: THE PUBLICATIONS REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Batirova, A S; Bakanov, M I; Surkov, A N

    2015-08-01

    The disorder of system of hemostasis under chronic diseases of liver results in coagulation imbalance affecting both primary and secondary hemostasis. The shifting of hemostasis balance beyond the limits of physiological standards in such patients can result either in bleeding or thrombosis. For a long time already it is considered that in patients with chronic diseases of liver alterations in hemostasis system and occurrence of bleeding are very often interrelated. However results of such screening coagulation tests as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time poorly correlate with onset and duration of bleeding, for example after liver biopsy and also with occurrence of gastro-intestinal bleeding in patients with terminal stage of diseases of liver The foreign publications of last decade contest concept of cause and effect relationship between changes of indicators of screening coagulation tests and risk of development of bleeding in patients with chronic diseases of liver The publications also dispute both usefulness of the given tests in evaluation of hemorrhages and expediency of therapeutic strategies in the case of correction of anomalous results of mentioned tests. This issue in patients with rare diseases is factually unexplored. For example, there are single publications concerning patients with glycogenous disease type. The bleeding in such patients begin in early childhood They are related to dysfunction of thrombocytes and decreasing of particular oligomers of von Willebrand factor Hence, disorders in various chains of hemostasis system in patients with chronic diseases of liver are characterized by many unresolved issues that hinder furthering of development of diagnostic biomarkers. At that, diagnostic of coagulopathies and correction of pathological conditions in such patients the new tests are to be developed to monitor states of hemostasis system in patients with chronic diseases of liver, rare nosologic forms included. PMID:26596047

  19. WAIS-III and WMS-III performance in chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Keilp, John G; Corbera, Kathy; Slavov, Iordan; Taylor, Michael J; Sackeim, Harold A; Fallon, Brian A

    2006-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the nature and degree of intellectual and memory deficits in chronic Lyme disease. In this study, 81 participants with rigorously diagnosed chronic Lyme disease were administered the newest revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III), and compared to 39 nonpatients. On the WAIS-III, Lyme disease participants had poorer Full Scale and Performance IQ's. At the subtest level, differences were restricted to Information and the Processing Speed subtests. On the WMS-III, Lyme disease participants performed more poorly on Auditory Immediate, Immediate, Auditory Delayed, Auditory Recognition Delayed, and General Memory indices. Among WMS-III subtests, however, differences were restricted to Logical Memory (immediate and delayed) and Family Pictures (delayed only), a Visual Memory subtest. Discriminant analyses suggest deficits in chronic Lyme are best characterized as a combination of memory difficulty and diminished processing speed. Deficits were modest, between one-third and two-thirds of a standard deviation, consistent with earlier studies. Depression severity had a weak relationship to processing speed, but little other association to test performance. Deficits in chronic Lyme disease are consistent with a subtle neuropathological process affecting multiple performance tasks, although further work is needed to definitively rule out nonspecific illness effects. PMID:16433951

  20. Bone Marrow and Kidney Transplant for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Blood Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-28

    Chronic Kidney Disease; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL); Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL); Hodgkin Disease; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Aplastic Anemia; AL Amyloidosis; Diamond Blackfan Anemia; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Disease; Sickle Cell Anemia; Autoimmune Diseases; Thalassemia

  1. Ammonium chloride poisoning in chronic renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Donald L.; Knight, Allan

    1974-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a long history of renal stone disease and urinary tract infection presented to the emergency room with exhaustion and air hunger. Laboratory data confirmed profound metabolic acidosis. Unduly large quantities of bicarbonate and potassium were required for correction of the deficits. She had been taking 6 g daily of ammonium chloride as a urine-acidifying agent for a period of six months in addition to agents directed against urinary tract infection. The combination of impaired renal function and effective hydrogen ion loading resulted in profound systemic acidosis. The metabolic derangements associated with the administration of ammonium chloride and its use as a therapeutic agent are discussed. PMID:4850503

  2. Bisphenol A in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    González-Parra, Emilio; Herrero, Jose Antonio; Elewa, Usama; Arduán, Alberto Ortiz; Egido, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Phenols are uremic toxins of intestinal origin formed by bacteria during protein metabolism. Of these molecules, p-cresol is the most studied and has been associated with renal function impairment and vascular damage. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a molecule with structural similarity with phenols found in plastic food and beverage containers as well as in some dialyzers. BPA is considered an environmental toxicant based on animal and cell culture studies. Japanese authorities recently banned BPA use in baby bottles based on observational association studies in newborns. BPA is excreted in urine and uremic patients present higher serum levels, but there is insufficient evidence to set cut-off levels or to link BPA to any harmful effect in CKD. However, the renal elimination and potential exposure during dialysis warrant the monitoring of BPA exposure and the design of observational studies in which the potential health risks of BPA for end-stage renal disease patients are evaluated. PMID:23997953

  3. How we treat chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a common and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD requiring systemic treatment is ?30% to 40% by National Institutes of Health criteria. The risk of chronic GVHD is higher and the duration of treatment is longer after HCT with mobilized blood cells than with marrow cells. Clinical manifestations can impair activities of daily living and often linger for years. Hematology and oncology specialists who refer patients to centers for HCT are often subsequently involved in the management of chronic GVHD when patients return to their care after HCT. Treatment of these patients can be optimized under shared care arrangements that enable referring physicians to manage long-term administration of immunosuppressive medications and supportive care with guidance from transplant center experts. Keys to successful collaborative management include early recognition in making the diagnosis of chronic GVHD, comprehensive evaluation at the onset and periodically during the course of the disease, prompt institution of systemic and topical treatment, appropriate monitoring of the response, calibration of treatment intensity over time in order to avoid overtreatment or undertreatment, and the use of supportive care to prevent complications and disability. PMID:25398933

  4. Chronic Granulomatous Disease: The European Experience

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, J. Merlijn; van Koppen, Elsbeth; Åhlin, Anders; Belohradsky, Bernd H.; Bernatowska, Ewa; Corbeel, Lucien; Español, Teresa; Fischer, Alain; Kurenko-Deptuch, Magdalena; Mouy, Richard; Petropoulou, Theoni; Roesler, Joachim; Seger, Reinhard; Stasia, Marie-José; Valerius, Niels H.; Weening, Ron S.; Wolach, Baruch; Roos, Dirk; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2009-01-01

    CGD is an immunodeficiency caused by deletions or mutations in genes that encode subunits of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase complex. Normally, assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex in phagosomes of certain phagocytic cells leads to a “respiratory burst”, essential for the clearance of phagocytosed micro-organisms. CGD patients lack this mechanism, which leads to life-threatening infections and granuloma formation. However, a clear picture of the clinical course of CGD is hampered by its low prevalence (∼1∶250,000). Therefore, extensive clinical data from 429 European patients were collected and analyzed. Of these patients 351 were males and 78 were females. X-linked (XL) CGD (gp91phox deficient) accounted for 67% of the cases, autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance for 33%. AR-CGD was diagnosed later in life, and the mean survival time was significantly better in AR patients (49.6 years) than in XL CGD (37.8 years), suggesting a milder disease course in AR patients. The disease manifested itself most frequently in the lungs (66% of patients), skin (53%), lymph nodes (50%), gastrointestinal tract (48%) and liver (32%). The most frequently cultured micro-organisms per episode were Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Aspergillus spp. (26%), and Salmonella spp. (16%). Surprisingly, Pseudomonas spp. (2%) and Burkholderia cepacia (<1%) were found only sporadically. Lesions induced by inoculation with BCG occurred in 8% of the patients. Only 71% of the patients received antibiotic maintenance therapy, and 53% antifungal prophylaxis. 33% were treated with γ-interferon. 24 patients (6%) had received a stem cell transplantation. The most prominent reason of death was pneumonia and pulmonary abscess (18/84 cases), septicemia (16/84) and brain abscess (4/84). These data provide further insight in the clinical course of CGD in Europe and hopefully can help to increase awareness and optimize the treatment of these patients. PMID:19381301

  5. Bridging Lung Development with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Relevance of Developmental Pathways in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boucherat, Olivier; Morissette, Mathieu C; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien; Maltais, François

    2016-02-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation. This generic term encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis, two common conditions, each having distinct but also overlapping features. Recent epidemiological and experimental studies have challenged the traditional view that COPD is exclusively an adult disease occurring after years of inhalational insults to the lungs, pinpointing abnormalities or disruption of the pathways that control lung development as an important susceptibility factor for adult COPD. In addition, there is growing evidence that emphysema is not solely a destructive process because it is also characterized by a failure in cell and molecular maintenance programs necessary for proper lung development. This leads to the concept that tissue regeneration required stimulation of signaling pathways that normally operate during development. We undertook a review of the literature to outline the contribution of developmental insults and genes in the occurrence and pathogenesis of COPD, respectively. PMID:26681127

  6. Chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration affects serotonin levels in the rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sagredo, Onintza; Ramos, José A; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Rodríguez, María L López; de Miguel, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Adult rats were subjected to chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or with vehicle, and their brains used to analyze the contents of serotonin (5HT) and of its intraneuronal metabolite, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA). 5HT and 5HIAA contents were not affected by chronic cannabinoid administration in most of the brain regions analyzed. We found a marked increase in 5HT contents in the frontal cortex that was accompanied by no changes in 5HIAA contents. This originated a decrease in 5HIAA/5HT ratio, which suggests a possible reduction in the activity of serotoninergic terminals reaching this cortical area. This effect was not seen after an acute injection of this cannabinoid. The relevance of these observations was that they occurred in a region where changes in serotoninergic transmission have been implicated in the development of depression; therefore, our data support the theory that the cannabinoid system might be a potential target for the treatment of this neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:16385404

  7. Systemic Diseases and Conditions Affecting Jaws.

    PubMed

    Kuperstein, Arthur S; Berardi, Thomas R; Mupparapu, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the radiographic manifestation of jaw lesions whose etiology may be traced to underlying systemic disease. Some changes may be related to hematologic or metabolic disorders. A group of bone changes may be associated with disorders of the endocrine system. It is imperative for the clinician to compare the constantly changing and dynamic maxillofacial skeleton to the observed radiographic pathology as revealed on intraoral and extraoral imagery. PMID:26614956

  8. Early and late oral features of chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Alessandra Oliveira Ferrari; Torres, Sandra Regina; Maiolino, Angelo; dos Santos, Cesar Werneck Noce; Silva Junior, Arley; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Moreira, Maria Cláudia Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Lucio de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and the mouth is one of the affected sites. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral features of this disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study that enrolled patients submitted to transplantation. Oral evaluations used the National Institutes of Health criteria, salivary flow rates, and the range of mouth opening. Pain and xerostomia were evaluated through a visual analogue scale. Patients were divided into two groups based on the transplantation time (up to one year and more than one year). Results Of the 57 evaluated recipients, 44 had chronic graft-versus-host disease: ten (22.72%) in the group with less than one year after transplantation, and 34 (77.27%) in the group with more than one year after transplantation. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques, erythematous lesions, xerostomia, and hyposalivation were the most commonly reported oral features. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques were significantly more common in patients within the first year after the transplant. The labial mucosa was affected more in the first year. No significant changes occurred in the frequency of xerostomia, hyposalivation, and reduced mouth opening regarding time after transplantation. Conclusion Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease lesions were identified early in the course of the disease. The changes observed in salivary gland function and in the range of mouth opening were not correlated with the time after transplantation. PMID:24624035

  9. Chronic disease epidemiology, cancer and mobile global approaches to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Linkov, F; Shubnikov, E; Padilla, N; McCallum, A; LaPorte, R

    2012-03-01

    The focus of this symposium was worldwide prevention of chronic disease through the use of inexpensive Internet pathways, as demonstrated with the Supercourse project, and other initiatives, including promoting mobile phone technology (m-health). This symposium highlighted the need to use the Supercourse to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also highlighted several components of the Supercourse library, including the former Soviet Union network, the Latin American network, and some other initiatives. PMID:22414605

  10. Hereditary pancreatitis: report of an affected Canadian kindred and review of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Girard, R. M.; Dubé, S.; Archambault, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis is an autosomal dominant disease with no other known cause. It usually begins in childhood and is characterized by recurrent attacks of abdominal pain of variable intensity and duration, followed by symptom-free periods. The diagnosis is usually made in early adult life, when pancreatic insufficiency and calcifications appear. Complications are less frequent than in nonhereditary chronic pancreatitis. There are also differences between the two forms of chronic pancreatitis in sex incidence, etiologic factors and life expectancy. In a Canadian kindred three generations are affected with hereditary pancreatitis; there are four definite and four suspected cases. More than 40 affected kindreds, including 195 proven cases and 190 suspected cases, have now been reported in the literature. Thus, hereditary pancreatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic relapsing pancreatitis of unknown cause as well as recurrent abdominal pain in childhood. Images FIG. 1 PMID:7026015

  11. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  12. Strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities. PMID:25655487

  13. Physical activity recommendations for children and adolescents with chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    Youth with low physical activity and fitness levels and high body fat levels are more likely to develop additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. Participation in daily physical activity can reduce body fat, encourage weight loss, and improve aerobic fitness in youth without disabilities. Recent research involving youth with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, cystic fibrosis, asthma, diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and hemophilia suggest positive effects of exercise therapy upon the aerobic capacity, functional ability, and quality of life of children and adolescents with disabilities and chronic diseases. Strategies exist for introducing exercise as a lifelong intervention in pediatric populations with chronic diseases. PMID:19005359

  14. Chronic unremitting headache associated with Lyme disease-like illness.

    PubMed

    Kowacs, Pedro André; Martins, Rodrigo Tomazini; Piovesan, Elcio Juliato; Pinto, Maria Cristina Araujo; Yoshinari, Natalino Hagime

    2013-07-01

    The Brazilian Lyme-disease-like illness (BLDLI) or Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome is a unique zoonosis found in Brazil. It reproduces all the clinical symptoms of Lyme disease except for the high frequencies of relapse and the presence of autoimmune manifestations. Two cases of borreliosis manifesting with unremitting headache, which is a symptom associated with late-stage BLDLI, were presented. Clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the BLDLI and its associated headaches were showed and discussed in this article. BLDLI diagnosis requires additional attention by physicians, since the disease has a tendency to progress to the late, recurrent stage or the chronic form, and the associated headache can be confused with chronic primary headache or with analgesic-overuse one. Special attention should be paid to patients with headaches who have traveled to endemic areas. PMID:23857618

  15. Neopterin: a potential marker in chronic peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Anzaldi, Massimiliano; Fiore, Valerio; Candido, Saverio; Di Marco, Roberto; Mangano, Katia; Quattrocchi, Cinzia; Neri, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Neopterin is a marker of macrophage activation that has exhibited high plasma levels in atherosclerotic diseases including coronary heart disease and critical limb ischemia. The role of neopterin in chronic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, neopterin (?) serum concentrations were analyzed in asymptomatic (AsP) and symptomatic (SyP) patients with PAD as well as controls (C). In total 120 subjects, 40 AsP [ankle brachial index (ABI) ?0.90], 40 SyP (ABI ?0.90 plus pain in legs) and 40 controls (ABI >0.9) were enrolled. The results of the present study showed that neopterin plasma levels were statistically different among the groups. These findings demonstrated that activation of N?mediated monocyte?macrophage, was also observed in chronic PAD. PMID:23563241

  16. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Respiratory Review of 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a diverse array of pulmonary and nonpulmonary manifestations, but our understanding of COPD pathogenesis and the factors that influence its heterogeneity in disease presentation is poor. Despite this heterogeneity, treatment algorithms are primarily driven by a single measurement, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) as a percentage of its predicted value (FEV1%). In 2011, a major shift in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) treatment recommendations was proposed that stratifies patients with COPD on the basis of symptoms and exacerbation history. This article reviews the work reported in 2013 that enlightens our understanding of COPD with respect to COPD classification systems, phenotype, biomarker, exacerbation, and management for patients with COPD. PMID:25368660

  17. [Social inequalities in the occurrence of chronic diseases].

    PubMed

    Geyer, Siegfried

    2016-02-01

    The risks of the occurrence of most chronic diseases are unequally distributed. The highest risks occur in men and women with the lowest incomes, the lowest educational qualifications, and in occupations with the lowest decision latitude. Education, occupational position, and income as indicators of socio-economic position differ with regard to their latent content and can thus not be considered to be interchangeable. The relative magnitudes of their effects differ according to the diseases considered, but all three are not available in all studies. After an explanation of the latent content of the most frequently used indicators of social differentiation, health inequalities are considered by using four groups of chronic illnesses: oral, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The description is not designed to be an exhaustive assessment of the available empirical findings, but rather a representative presentation of the results and the explanatory value of education, occupation and income. PMID:26613741

  18. Landscape genetics and the spatial distribution of chronic wasting disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Scribner, K.T.; Weckworth, B.V.; Langenberg, J.A.; Filcek, K.B.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the spread of wildlife disease is critical for identifying populations at risk, targeting surveillance and designing proactive management programmes. We used a landscape genetics approach to identify landscape features that influenced gene flow and the distribution of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Wisconsin white-tailed deer. CWD prevalence was negatively correlated with genetic differentiation of study area deer from deer in the area of disease origin (core-area). Genetic differentiation was greatest, and CWD prevalence lowest, in areas separated from the core-area by the Wisconsin River, indicating that this river reduced deer gene flow and probably disease spread. Features of the landscape that influence host dispersal and spatial patterns of disease can be identified based on host spatial genetic structure. Landscape genetics may be used to predict high-risk populations based on their genetic connection to infected populations and to target disease surveillance, control and preventative activities. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  19. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  20. Severity grading of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the confounding effect of phenotype and thoracic gas compression.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Riccardo; Crimi, Emanuele; Gobbi, Alessandro; Torchio, Roberto; Antonelli, Andrea; Gulotta, Carlo; Baroffio, Michele; Papa, Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza; Dellacà, Raffaele; Brusasco, Vito

    2015-04-01

    Current guidelines recommend severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease be graded by using forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). But this measurement is biased by thoracic gas compression depending on lung volume and airflow resistance. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of thoracic gas compression on FEV1 is greater in emphysema than chronic bronchitis because of larger lung volumes, and this influences severity classification and prognosis. FEV1 was simultaneously measured by spirometry and body plethysmography (FEV1-pl) in 47 subjects with dominant emphysema and 51 with dominant chronic bronchitis. Subjects with dominant emphysema had larger lung volumes, lower diffusion capacity, and lower FEV1 than those with dominant chronic bronchitis. However, FEV1-pl, patient-centered variables (dyspnea, quality of life, exercise tolerance, exacerbation frequency), arterial blood gases, and respiratory impedance were not significantly different between groups. Using FEV1-pl instead of FEV1 shifted severity distribution toward less severe classes in dominant emphysema more than chronic bronchitis. The body mass, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise (BODE) index was significantly higher in dominant emphysema than chronic bronchitis, but this difference significantly decreased when FEV1-pl was substituted for FEV1. In conclusion, the FEV1 is biased by thoracic gas compression more in subjects with dominant emphysema than in those with chronic bronchitis. This variably and significantly affects the severity grading systems currently recommended. PMID:25414244

  1. The strength to cope: spirituality and faith in chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Unantenne, Nalika; Warren, Narelle; Canaway, Rachel; Manderson, Lenore

    2013-12-01

    The lifelong management of a chronic condition requires considerable mental fortitude and commitment in social adjustment and adherence to medical advice. In examining strategies of adaptation, we draw on ethnographic research, including interviews with 69 people with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. We explore how they incorporate spirituality into their self-management routines, with positive impact on their health and wellbeing, and highlight the role of spiritual practices in supporting people with chronic conditions mentally, physically and socially, so encouraging personal responsibility for one's health and wellbeing. PMID:22083464

  2. Cylindroma of the nasopharynx: a chronic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Z.Y.; Wu, X.L.; Hu, Y.H.; Gu, X.Z.

    1986-01-01

    From March 1958 to October 1984, 10 patients with cylindroma (cystic adenoid epithelioma) arising in the nasopharynx were treated in our hospital. The presenting symptoms of these patients ranged in duration for 2 weeks to 8 years, with an average of 25 months. Eighty percent of the patients had destruction of the base of skull and 60% had cranial nerve involvement. Of these 10 patients, two had Stage II disease, two had Stage III, and six had Stage IV. Response was seen in this tumor at tissue doses between 5000-8000 rad. Of the seven patients at risk for 5 years, 86% survived, yet 36% of the patients died of tumor between the fifth to tenth year. Fifty percent of the patients lived beyond 10 years. Based on this experience, a dose of more than 8000 rad is advised for the primary lesion. For the neck region, radiation is indicated only when there are lymph node metastases; prophylactic radiation of the neck is not necessary. Local recurrence or single distant metastasis is amenable to radiation therapy. Among the six patients who failed in the course of follow-up, three had local recurrences, two had pulmonary metastases, and one died of cerebral vascular accident.

  3. [Anti-diabetics and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Carlo; Iazzetta, Nicolangelo; Camocardi, Andrea; Pacilio, Mario; Iodice, Carmela; Minutolo, Roberto; De Nicola, Luca; Conte, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most important non-communicable disease after hypertension. Prevalence of type 2 DM has progressively increased over the last decades. In Italy, 11.8% of the general adult population can be identified as diabetic. The major complication of DM is diabetic nephropathy (DM-CKD), which develops in approximately one-third of diabetics. Achieving optimal glycemic control is the first therapeutic goal in the management of DM-CKD. In recent years, new antidiabetic drugs have been marketed (GLP1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors) to ameliorate glycemia in patients nave or treated by means of traditional agents, such as sulfonylureas, metformin, glinides, insulin. However, use of these drugs in DM-CKD should be evaluated carefully, mainly because of the higher risk of hypoglycemia that requires dosing adjustments. Metformin still represents an adequate choice if proper dose adjustments are made on the basis of renal function. Sulfonylureas with limited renal clearance, i.e., gliquidone, glipizide and gliclazide are an alternative to metformin and more effective than repaglinide on glycemic control. Other antidiabetic agents with potential nephroprotective effects, namely DPP-4 inhibitors, incretin analogues and SGLT-2 inhibitors, may allow nephroprotective effects independent of glycemic control. Insulin remains the cornerstone of therapy when oral therapy is no longer effective. PMID:26480253

  4. Antioxidants in food and chronic degenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Candlish, J K; Das, N P

    1996-09-01

    Both preventive and chain breaking antioxidants have a role in the limitation of free radical damage. Some of these may be regarded as "classical", like vitamins E and C but others are more recently discovered, such as the flavonoids, widespread in plant tissues, and the muscle constituents anserine and carnosine. The major conditions in which the role of antioxidants is under intense investigation include coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. There are theoretical underpinnings for the efficacy of antioxidants in each of these, with the protection of low density lipoprotein (in respect of the first) being exceptionally persuasive. Much attention is now being focussed on the flavonoids, which are surprisingly pleiotropic in their effects. For one of them, quercetin, over a dozen seemingly independent biological effects can be listed, including the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation. Flavonoids also inhibit peroxidation in foodstuffs, as opposed to tissues. There is much controversy over antioxidant supplementation policies, some authorities recommending a massive programme of supplementation for all ages and classes, others stressing the value of the traditional mixed diet. This matter is unlikely to be resolved soon, but in the meantime sensible supplementation policies should be continued for those most vulnerable, that is, babies and the aged. PMID:8886321

  5. Community perceptions of health and chronic disease in South Indian rural transitional communities: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Arabella K. M.; Jeffery, Roger; Sharma, Chitra; Prost, Audrey; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are now the leading cause of death and disability worldwide; this epidemic has been linked to rapid economic growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Understanding how characteristics of the physical, social, and economic environment affect behaviour in the light of these changes is key to identifying successful interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk. Design We undertook a qualitative study consisting of nine focus group discussions (FGDs) (n=57) in five villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, to understand people's perceptions of community development and urbanisation in relation to chronic disease in rural transitional communities. Specifically, we sought to understand perceptions of change linked to diet, physical activity, and pollution (because these exposures are most relevant to chronic diseases), with the aim of defining future interventions. The transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Participants believed their communities were currently less healthy, more polluted, less physically active, and had poorer access to nutritious food and shorter life expectancies than previously. There were contradictory perceptions of the effects of urbanisation on health within and between individuals; several of the participants felt their quality of life had been reduced. Conclusions In the present study, residents viewed change and development within their villages as an inevitable and largely positive process but with some negative health consequences. Understanding how these changes are affecting populations in transitional rural areas and how people relate to their environment may be useful to guide community planning for health. Measures to educate and empower people to make healthy choices within their community may help reduce the spread of chronic disease risk factors in future years. PMID:25669238

  6. Nutrition transition and chronic diseases in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, O E; Atinmo, T

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition goes with industrialisation that fosters human development which is usually desirable, especially in developing nations. However, the health consequences of this development include high rates of preventable non-communicable diseases which are usually undermined in the quest for industrialisation. The goal of the present paper is to provide evidence-based information that will promote healthy lifestyle including healthy consumption pattern among urban dwellers. Relevant local and international literature was accessed and reviewed to harvest evidence-based information through the use of validated review guide in addition to observation from the field experience. Industrialisation promotes creation of more job opportunities and this facilitates proliferation of fast-food eateries in the cities. However, it was also observed that many of the available workplaces in urban areas are not health-promoting because employees have poor access to preventive health information and sensitisation to healthy lifestyle has been poorly considered. Ironically, weight gain among urban workers which may be linked with increased intake of high-energy foods and low participation in physical activities as a result of accessibility to many energy saving devices have been highlighted as some of the pull-pull factors that attract many people to the cities. Using the concept of health promoting workplace, the workforce in urban areas can be trained as agent of change in health-promoting lifestyle. Consumption of healthy indigenous foods through aggressive promotion of its health potentials should be seriously advocated through the use of existing structure of urban fast-food vendors who constitute a strong stakeholder in nutrition transition. PMID:26242780

  7. A systems view of genetics in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin J; Martini, Sebastian; Sedor, John R; Kretzler, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A tight interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental factors define the onset and the rate of progression of chronic renal disease. We are seeing a rapid expansion of information about genetic loci associated with kidney function and complex renal disease. However, discovering the functional links that bridge the gap from genetic risk loci to disease phenotype is one of the main challenges ahead. Risk loci are currently assigned to a putative context using the functional annotation of the closest genes via a guilt-by-proximity approach. These approaches can be extended by strategies integrating genetic risk loci with kidney-specific, genome-wide gene expression. Risk loci-associated transcripts can be assigned a putative disease-specific function using gene expression coregulation networks. Ultimately, genotype-phenotype dependencies postulated from these associative approaches in humans need to be tested via genetic modification in model organisms. In this review, we survey strategies that employ human tissue-specific expression and the use of model organisms to identify and validate the functional relationship between genotype and phenotype in renal disease. Strategies to unravel how genetic risk and environmental factors orchestrate renal disease manifestation can be the first steps toward a more integrated, holistic approach urgently needed for chronic renal diseases. PMID:22012128

  8. Comorbidity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Diseases in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Olmos, Luis; Salvador, Carlos H.; Alberquilla, Ángel; Lora, David; Carmona, Montserrat; García-Sagredo, Pilar; Pascual, Mario; Muñoz, Adolfo; Monteagudo, José Luis; García-López, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare management is oriented toward single diseases, yet multimorbidity is nevertheless the rule and there is a tendency for certain diseases to occur in clusters. This study sought to identify comorbidity patterns in patients with chronic diseases, by reference to number of comorbidities, age and sex, in a population receiving medical care from 129 general practitioners in Spain, in 2007. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a health-area setting of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma), covering a population of 198,670 individuals aged over 14 years. Multiple correspondences were analyzed to identify the clustering patterns of the conditions targeted. Results Forty-two percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8–42.2) of the registered population had at least one chronic condition. In all, 24.5% (95% CI: 24.3–24.6) of the population presented with multimorbidity. In the correspondence analysis, 98.3% of the total information was accounted for by three dimensions. The following four, age- and sex-related comorbidity patterns were identified: pattern B, showing a high comorbidity rate; pattern C, showing a low comorbidity rate; and two patterns, A and D, showing intermediate comorbidity rates. Conclusions Four comorbidity patterns could be identified which grouped diseases as follows: one showing diseases with a high comorbidity burden; one showing diseases with a low comorbidity burden; and two showing diseases with an intermediate comorbidity burden. PMID:22359665

  9. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronically colonized with Haemophilus influenzae during stable disease phase have increased airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Ekberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show increased airway inflammation and bacterial colonization during stable phase. The aim of this study was to follow COPD patients and investigate chronic colonization with pathogenic bacteria during stable disease phase, and relate these findings to clinical parameters, inflammatory pattern, lung function, and exacerbations. Methods Forty-three patients with COPD were included while in a stable state and followed up monthly until exacerbation or for a maximum of 6 months. The patients completed the Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale questionnaires, and exhaled breath condensate was collected, followed by spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and sputum induction. Results Ten patients were chronically colonized (ie, colonized at all visits) with Haemophilus influenzae during stable phase. These patients had higher sputum levels of leukotriene B4 (P<0.001), 8-isoprostane (P=0.002), myeloperoxidase activity (P=0.028), and interleukin-8 (P=0.02) during stable phase when compared with other patients. In addition, they had lower forced vital capacity (P=0.035) and reactance at 5 Hz (P=0.034), but there was no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity % predicted, exhaled breath condensate biomarkers, C-reactive protein, or Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale results. Three patients had intermittent colonization (colonized at only some visits) of H. influenzae during stable phase, and had lower levels of inflammatory biomarkers in sputum when compared with the chronically colonized patients. The difference in airway inflammation seen during stable phase in patients chronically colonized with H. influenzae was not observed during exacerbations. Conclusion Some COPD patients who were chronically colonized with H. influenzae during stable phase showed increased airway inflammation and reduced lung volumes when compared with non-chronically colonized patients. PMID:26005341

  10. Healthcare Decision Support System for Administration of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ji-In; Yang, Jung-Gi; Lee, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A healthcare decision-making support model and rule management system is proposed based on a personalized rule-based intelligent concept, to effectively manage chronic diseases. Methods A Web service was built using a standard message transfer protocol for interoperability of personal health records among healthcare institutions. An intelligent decision service is provided that analyzes data using a service-oriented healthcare rule inference function and machine-learning platform; the rules are extensively compiled by physicians through a developmental user interface that enables knowledge base construction, modification, and integration. Further, screening results are visualized for the self-intuitive understanding of personal health status by patients. Results A recommendation message is output through the Web service by receiving patient information from the hospital information recording system and object attribute values as input factors. The proposed system can verify patient behavior by acting as an intellectualized backbone of chronic diseases management; further, it supports self-management and scheduling of screening. Conclusions Chronic patients can continuously receive active recommendations related to their healthcare through the rule management system, and they can model the system by acting as decision makers in diseases management; secondary diseases can be prevented and health management can be performed by reference to patient-specific lifestyle guidelines. PMID:25152830

  11. Chronic exposure to ozone causes restrictive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Costa, D.L.; Hatch, G.E.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A chronic study to determine the progression and/or reversibility of ozone-induced lung disease was conducted. Male rats were exposed to a diurnal pattern of ozone (O{sub 3}) for 1 week, 3 weeks, 3 months, 12 months, or 18 months. The occurrence of chronic lung disease was determined by structural and functional endpoints. Structurally, a biphasic response was observed with an initial acute inflammatory response after 1 week of exposure, a reduced acute response after 3 weeks of exposure, and an epithelial and interstitial response observed after 3 months which persisted or increased in intensity up to 18 months of exposure. Functional studies showed a persistence of decreased total lung capacity and residual volumes at 3, 12, and 18 months of exposure, a response indicative of restrictive lung disease. Biochemical changes in antioxidant metabolism were also observed after 12 and 18 months of exposure. Most significant changes were resolved after the clean-air recovery period. The study has shown that chronic exposure to O{sub 3} causes restrictive lung disease as characterized by the development of focal interstitial fibrosis.

  12. High Water Intake and Progression of Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Ha, Sung Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Impact of water intake on the courses of chronic kidney and urinary tract diseases, such as urolithiasis, urinary tract infections, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases and bladder cancer, has recently been studied. It still remains controversial whether increased water intake slows the progression of CKD or not. However, high water intake suppresses plasma levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is expected to be beneficial for the preservation of the kidney function. Previous studies suggest that water intake suppresses plasma levels of AVP, and high levels of AVP have been suggested to play deleterious roles in animal models of kidney disease. Moreover, recent epidemic of CKD of unknown origin, which was supposed to be related to the insufficient water intake and chronic volume depletion, has been reported in Central America, further suggesting that the suppression of AVP by sustained water intake might be beneficial in this CKD population. Indeed, the data from recent studies were consistent with the view that high water intake is associated with slower progression of CKD. However, contradictory findings also exist. The intriguing effects of increased urine volume in preserving the glomerular filtration rate in human patients with CKD require more large and well-designed randomized prospective clinical trials. PMID:26848303

  13. High Water Intake and Progression of Chronic Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Impact of water intake on the courses of chronic kidney and urinary tract diseases, such as urolithiasis, urinary tract infections, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases and bladder cancer, has recently been studied. It still remains controversial whether increased water intake slows the progression of CKD or not. However, high water intake suppresses plasma levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is expected to be beneficial for the preservation of the kidney function. Previous studies suggest that water intake suppresses plasma levels of AVP, and high levels of AVP have been suggested to play deleterious roles in animal models of kidney disease. Moreover, recent epidemic of CKD of unknown origin, which was supposed to be related to the insufficient water intake and chronic volume depletion, has been reported in Central America, further suggesting that the suppression of AVP by sustained water intake might be beneficial in this CKD population. Indeed, the data from recent studies were consistent with the view that high water intake is associated with slower progression of CKD. However, contradictory findings also exist. The intriguing effects of increased urine volume in preserving the glomerular filtration rate in human patients with CKD require more large and well-designed randomized prospective clinical trials. PMID:26848303

  14. The End of AIDS: HIV Infection as a Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Steven G.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Havlir, Diane V.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has been a spectacular success. People are now asking if the end of AIDS is possible. For those who are motivated to take therapy and who have access to lifelong treatment, AIDS-related illnesses are no longer the primary threat, but a new set of HIV-associated complications have emerged, resulting in a novel chronic disease that for many will span several decades of life. Treatment does not fully restore immune health; as a consequence, a number of inflammation-associated and/or immunodeficiency complications such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are increasing in importance. Cumulative toxicities from exposure to antiretroviral drugs for decades cause clinically-relevant metabolic disturbances and end-organ damage. There are growing concerns that the multi-morbidity associated with HIV disease may impact healthy aging and could overwhelm some health care systems, particularly those in resource-limited regions that have yet to fully develop a chronic care model. Given the problems inherent in treating and caring for a chronic disease that might persist for several decades, a global effort to identify a cure is now underway. PMID:24152939

  15. Advances in geroscience: impact on healthspan and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Burch, John B; Augustine, Alison Deckhut; Frieden, Leslie A; Hadley, Evan; Howcroft, T Kevin; Johnson, Ron; Khalsa, Partap S; Kohanski, Ronald A; Li, Xiao Ling; Macchiarini, Francesca; Niederehe, George; Oh, Young S; Pawlyk, Aaron C; Rodriguez, Henry; Rowland, Julia H; Shen, Grace L; Sierra, Felipe; Wise, Bradley C

    2014-06-01

    Population aging is unprecedented, without parallel in human history, and the 21st century will witness even more rapid aging than did the century just past. Improvements in public health and medicine are having a profound effect on population demographics worldwide. By 2017, there will be more people over the age of 65 than under age 5, and by 2050, two billion of the estimated nine billion people on Earth will be older than 60 (http://unfpa.org/ageingreport/). Although we can reasonably expect to live longer today than past generations did, the age-related disease burden we will have to confront has not changed. With the proportion of older people among the global population being now higher than at any time in history and still expanding, maintaining health into old age (or healthspan) has become a new and urgent frontier for modern medicine. Geroscience is a cross-disciplinary field focused on understanding the relationships between the processes of aging and age-related chronic diseases. On October 30-31, 2013, the trans-National Institutes of Health GeroScience Interest Group hosted a Summit to promote collaborations between the aging and chronic disease research communities with the goal of developing innovative strategies to improve healthspan and reduce the burden of chronic disease. PMID:24833579

  16. Surveillance for the prevention of chronic diseases through information association

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on Genomic medicine has suggested that the exposure of patients to early life risk factors may induce the development of chronic diseases in adulthood, as the presence of premature risk factors can influence gene expression. The large number of scientific papers published in this research area makes it difficult for the healthcare professional to keep up with individual results and to establish association between them. Therefore, in our work we aim at building a computational system that will offer an innovative approach that alerts health professionals about human development problems such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Methods We built a computational system called Chronic Illness Surveillance System (CISS), which retrieves scientific studies that establish associations (conceptual relationships) between chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity) and the risk factors described on clinical records. To evaluate our approach, we submitted ten queries to CISS as well as to three other search engines (Google™, Google Scholar™ and Pubmed®;) — the queries were composed of terms and expressions from a list of risk factors provided by specialists. Results CISS retrieved a higher number of closely related (+) and somewhat related (+/-) documents, and a smaller number of unrelated (-) and almost unrelated (-/+) documents, in comparison with the three other systems. The results from the Friedman’s test carried out with the post-hoc Holm procedure (95% confidence) for our system (control) versus the results for the three other engines indicate that our system had the best performance in three of the categories (+), (-) and (+/-). This is an important result, since these are the most relevant categories for our users. Conclusion Our system should be able to assist researchers and health professionals in finding out relationships between potential risk factors and chronic diseases in scientific papers. PMID:24479447

  17. Person-centered Health Promotion in Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Health promotion must be person-centered, not organ- or disease-centered, in order to be effective because physical, mental, social, and spiritual aspects of human functioning are inextricably intertwined. Chronic medical disorders, such as heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cancer, asthma, and arthritis, are strongly associated with immature personality, emotional instability, and social dysfunction. All indicators of physical, mental, and social well-being are strongly related to the level of maturity and integration of personality, so personality is a useful focus for the promotion of well-being. Assessment of personality also facilitates the awareness of the clinician and the patient about the patient’s strengths, weaknesses, and goals, thereby contributing to an effective therapeutic alliance. Health, well-being, resilience, and recovery of function all involve increasing levels of the character traits of Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence. Person-centered programs that enhance self-regulation of functioning to achieve personally valued goals improve compliance with medical treatment and quality of life in people with chronic disease. Effective therapeutic approaches to health promotion activate a complex adaptive system of feedback interactions among functioning, plasticity, and virtuous ways of thinking and acting. The probability of personality change can be predicted by high levels of Self-transcendence, which give rise to an outlook of unity and connectedness, particularly when combined with the temperament traits of high Novelty Seeking and high Persistence. In summary, person-centered psychobiological treatments that facilitate the development of well-being and personality development are crucial in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of chronic medical diseases. PMID:26339469

  18. Prevalence of chronic diseases among older patients in German general practices

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Louis; Breuer, Jessica; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic diseases (CDs) among older patients in German general practices (GPs). Methods: A total of 840,319 patients older than 65 years (359,289 male and 481,030 female) who consulted a GP between January and December 2014 were selected. Ten different CDs were considered: hypertension, lipid metabolism, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. The prevalence, defined as the proportion of patients diagnosed with these disorders, was estimated. Results: All CDs were very common in older subjects. Hypertension was the most common CD, affecting 65.7% of men and 66.1% of women. Stroke was the least frequent CD, with 6.6% of men and 5.1% of women displaying this condition. More than one out of two subjects had between one and three CDs (men: 57.7% and women: 59.3%). Approximately 25% of subjects had four or more CDs (men: 26.6% and women: 23.6%). Conclusions: Our study showed that the prevalence of CDs is high in the German elderly population. Hypertension was the most frequent chronic condition and around 25% of patients displayed at least four CDs. PMID:26977142

  19. A High Salt and Potassium Diet May Accelerate Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Salt and Potassium Diet May Accelerate Chronic Kidney Disease Study participants had far more sodium than ... high in sodium and potassium can make chronic kidney disease (CKD) worse, a new study claims. "These ...

  20. A retrospective study of clinical signs and epidemiology of chronic valve disease in a group of 207 Dachshunds in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic mitral valve disease is frequently seen in the Dachshund. Dachshunds (n=207) made up 11.73% of the dogs admitted to the Cardiology Service at the Small Animal Clinic, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland (first visits only). Results Of these, 35 dogs had no clinically detectable heart disease while 172 had chronic valve disease with the mitral valve affected most often (130 dogs), both mitral and tricuspid valves infrequently (39 dogs) and rarely the tricuspid valve (3 dogs). Males were affected more frequently than females and the average age of dogs with chronic valve disease was 11.9 years for females and 11.3 years for males. A majority of the diseased Dachshunds were classified as ISACHC 2 (79), followed by ISACHC 1 (60). Most frequent clinical signs noted by owners included coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea and tachypnea. Heart murmurs were generally louder with increased disease severity; however there were 20 dogs in the ISACHC 1 group with no audible heart murmurs. The most frequent electrocardiographic abnormalities included an increased P wave and QRS complex duration, increased R wave amplitude and tachycardia. With increased disease severity, echocardiography revealed an increase in heart size. A higher ISACHC class was related to increased heart size (based on echocardiography) and increased percentage of patients exhibiting enlargement of both left atrium and left ventricle (based on radiography). Conclusions The Dachshund is often affected by chronic mitral valvular disease with a late onset of associated clinical signs and few cardiac complications. PMID:23844824

  1. The Environment-Immune Route to Chronic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specific environmental factors including chemicals, drugs, microbes and both physical and psychological factors can affect the immune system producing dysfunction and, ultimately, an increased risk ofchronic disease. Several different types of immune alterations can result from e...

  2. Validation of Accelerometer Prediction Equations in Children with Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Samantha; Takken, Tim; Esliger, Dale W; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Beyene, Joseph; Tremblay, Mark; Schneiderman, Jane; Biggar, Doug; Longmuir, Pat; McCrindle, Brian; Abad, Audrey; Ignas, Dan; Van Der Net, Janjaap; Feldman, Brian

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion validity of existing accelerometer-based energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations among children with chronic conditions, and to develop new prediction equations. Children with congenital heart disease (CHD), cystic fibrosis (CF), dermatomyositis (JDM), juvenile arthritis (JA), inherited muscle disease (IMD), and hemophilia (HE) completed 7 tasks while EE was measured using indirect calorimetry with counts determined by accelerometer. Agreement between predicted EE and measured EE was assessed. Disease-specific equations and cut points were developed and cross-validated. In total, 196 subjects participated. One participant dropped out before testing due to time constraints, while 15 CHD, 32 CF, 31 JDM, 31 JA, 30 IMD, 28 HE, and 29 healthy controls completed the study. Agreement between predicted and measured EE varied across disease group and ranged from (ICC) .13-.46. Disease-specific prediction equations exhibited a range of results (ICC .62-.88) (SE 0.45-0.78). In conclusion, poor agreement was demonstrated using current prediction equations in children with chronic conditions. Disease-specific equations and cut points were developed. PMID:26182189

  3. Developmental Origins of Chronic Renal Disease: An Integrative Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Boubred, F.; Saint-Faust, M.; Buffat, C.; Ligi, I.; Grandvuillemin, I.; Simeoni, U.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality. Hypertension (HT) is one of the principal risk factors associated with death. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is probably underestimated, increases the risk and the severity of adverse cardiovascular events. It is now recognized that low birth weight is a risk factor for these diseases, and this relationship is amplified by a rapid catch-up growth or overfeeding during infancy or childhood. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the “early programming” of CKD are multiple and partially understood. It has been proposed that the developmental programming of arterial hypertension and chronic kidney disease is related to a reduced nephron endowment. However, this mechanism is still discussed. This review discusses the complex relationship between birth weight and nephron endowment and how early growth and nutrition influence long term HT and CKD. We hypothesize that fetal environment reduces moderately the nephron number which appears insufficient by itself to induce long term diseases. Reduced nephron number constitutes a “factor of vulnerability” when additional factors, in particular a rapid postnatal growth or overfeeding, promote the early onset of diseases through a complex combination of various pathophysiological pathways. PMID:24073334

  4. Changing bone patterns with progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Drüeke, Tilman B; Massy, Ziad A

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly held that osteitis fibrosa and mixed uremic osteodystrophy are the predominant forms of renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Osteitis fibrosa is a high-turnover bone disease resulting mainly from secondary hyperparathyroidism, and mixed uremic osteodystrophy is in addition characterized by a mineralization defect most often attributed to vitamin D deficiency. However, there is ancient and more recent evidence that in early chronic kidney disease stages adynamic bone disease characterized by low bone turnover occurs first, at least in a significant proportion of patients. This could be due to the initial predominance of bone turnover-inhibitory conditions such as resistance to the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH), reduced calcitriol levels, sex hormone deficiency, diabetes, and, last but not least, uremic toxins leading to repression of osteocyte Wnt/?-catenin signaling and increased expression of Wnt antagonists such as sclerostin, Dickkopf-1, and sFRP4. The development of high-turnover bone disease would occur only later on, when serum PTH levels are able to overcome peripheral PTH resistance and the other inhibitory factors of bone formation. Whether FGF23 and Klotho play a direct role in the transition from low- to high-turnover bone disease or participate only indirectly via regulating PTH secretion remains to be seen. PMID:26806832

  5. The Risk of Erectile Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) seemed high; however, large scale of population-based study was absent. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The cohort included 29,042 male patients who were newly diagnosed with COPD. Patients were recruited between 2000 and 2011, and the date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. Each patient was randomly matched with 1 male person from the general population without COPD according to age and the index year. The occurrence of ED was followed up until the end of 2011. The hazard ratios of ED were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, index year, comorbidities, and medications. The overall incidence of ED was 1.88-fold greater in the COPD cohort than in the non-COPD cohort (24.9 vs 13.3/1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61–2.18). Compared with non-COPD patients, the hazard ratio increased with the number of emergency room visits and admissions for COPD from 1.51 (95% CI 1.29–1.77) to 5.46 (95% CI 3.03–9.84) and from 1.50 (95% CI 1.28–1.76) to 11.5 (95% CI 5.83–22.6), respectively. Patients with COPD are at a significantly higher risk of developing ED compared with the general population regardless of age and presence of comorbidity. The results also support that poor control of COPD status is a key factor affecting ED development. PMID:25860206

  6. Tooth Loss Strongly Associates With Malnutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, E.; Swede, H.; Fares, G.; Himmelfarb, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In chronic kidney disease (CKD), inadequate nutritional intake, inflammation, and increased oxidative stress have been the major contributing factors in malnutrition pathogenesis. However, there is still a paucity of evidence assessing the magnitude of the effect of tooth loss on malnutrition in CKD populations. The authors hypothesize that among patients with CKD, tooth loss may affect nutritional status, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 1994 (NHANES III). Methods Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated based on cystatin C levels using the relevant equation. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (albuminuria) was calculated in milligrams per gram with a cutoff point of 30 mg/g. CKD was defined based on estimated GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73m2 and albuminuria ?30 mg/g. The cutoff point for serum albumin was set at 3.7 g/dL. Tooth loss categories were based on the number of missing and replaced teeth. Results A total of 2,749 patients was included and stratified based on their oral health status. There was a statistically significant correlation between tooth loss and the proportion of patients with low protein and caloric intake (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Serum albumin reached a frequency peak in the fully edentulous group without dentures (group 4, 19.2%). In the same group, individuals had lower protein (30.1%) and caloric intake (30.2%) (P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis confirmed the significant role of tooth loss on serum albumin and protein and energy intake in this population even after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion Tooth loss independently predicts low energy and protein intake, as well as serum albumin levels, biomarkers of malnutrition in CKD. PMID:24215204

  7. A disease marker for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Wei; Lee, Jeen-Wei; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-01-01

    There are currently no diagnostic methods in vitro for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria (AICU) except for the provocation test in vivo. To identify disease markers for AICU, we investigated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the promoter loci of high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI?) and CD203c expression level in Chinese patients with AICU. We studied two genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2427827 (-344C/T) and rs2251746 (-66T/C) gene polymorphisms of Fc?RI? in 20 patients with AICU, 52 subjects with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance, and 50 controls in a Chinese population. The results showed that the frequencies of two SNPs (-344C>T, -66C>T) were similar to the normal controls. The allele frequency of -344CC was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway sensitivity (p=0.019). We also studied both histamine release and CD203c expression on KU812 cells to assess aspirin-induced basophil activation. We found that the activity of basophil activation of AICU was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance. The mean fluorescence intensity of the CD203c expression were 122.5±5.2 vs. 103.3±3.3 respectively, (p<0.05), and the percentages of histamine release were 31.3%±7.4% vs. -24.0%±17.5%, (p<0.05) respectively. Although the mean fluorescence intensity of CD203c expression and the percentage of histamine release were significantly up-regulated by aspirin, they were not affected by anti-IgE antibodies. These results suggest that a single SNP of Fc?RI? (-344C>T) is less likely to develop AICU and the basophil activation activity in the sera by measuring CD203c expression can be applicable to confirm the diagnosis of AICU. PMID:25029546

  8. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection often occurring in neutropenic patients and has high mortality rates. In recent years, it has been reported that the incidence of IPA has also increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics and treatment responses of IPA in patients with COPD. Methods Seventy-one patients with a positive culture of Aspergillus from lower respiratory tract samples were examined retrospectively. Eleven (15.4%) of these patients, affected with grade 3 or 4 COPD, had IPA. Results Aspergillus hyphae were detected in lung biopsy in three (27.3%) out of 11 patients and defined as proven IPA; a pathological sample was not taken in the other eight (72.7%) patients, and these were defined as probable IPA. Aspergillus isolates were identified as six cases of Aspergillusfumigatus and three of Aspergillusniger in nine patients, while two isolates were not identified at species level. While five patients required intensive care unit admission, four of them received mechanical ventilation. The most common finding on chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) (respectively 63.6%, 72.7%) was infiltration. Amphotericin B was the initial drug of choice in all patients and five patients were discharged with oral voriconazole after amphotericin B therapy. Six patients (54.5%) died before treatment was completed. Conclusions IPA should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis particularly in patients with severe and very severe COPD presenting with dyspnea exacerbation, poor clinical status, and a new pulmonary infiltrate under treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and steroids. PMID:24135224

  9. Chronic mild cerebrovascular dysfunction as a cause for Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Humpel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder and is characterized by β-amyloid plaques and angiopathy, tau pathology, neuronal cell death, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this disease are not known. This review proposes the hypothesis that a chronic mild longlasting cerebrovascular dysfunction could initiate a cascade of events leading to AD. It is suggested that (vascular) risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia) causes either damage of the cerebrovascular system including silent strokes or causes dysregulation of beta-amyloid clearance at the blood-brain barrier resulting in increased brain beta-amyloid. A cascade of subsequent downstream events may lead to disturbed metabolic changes, and neuroinflammation and tau pathology. The role of NGF on the cell death of cholinergic neurons is discussed. Additional risk factors (e.g. acidosis, metals) contribute to plaque development. PMID:21112383

  10. Pediatric Severe Chronic Upper Airway Disease (P-SCUAD).

    PubMed

    Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Kalogjera, Livije; Karatzanis, Alexander D

    2015-12-01

    The term SCUAD (severe chronic upper airway disease) has been previously introduced to describe cases with upper airway disorders and symptoms not adequately controlled despite correct diagnosis and management. It has been so far applied mainly in adults and no specific focus has been given on the pediatric population. When the term SCUAD is considered for children specifically, a series of issues may arise. These issues involve accurate definition, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and socioeconomic implications. These issues seem to clearly differentiate adult from pediatric SCUAD. We attempt to shed light on these issues in an effort to provide directions for future guideline development and research. In this context, P-SCUAD (pediatric severe chronic upper airway disease) is hereby introduced. PMID:26462667

  11. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Manish; Ramachandran, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients. PMID:22470857

  12. Gut microbiota and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Denise; Fouque, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a multifactorial phenotype that in chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Recently, alterations in gut microbiota composition and intestinal barrier have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in CKD patients. Vanholder and Glorieux recently critically reviewed [Clin Kidney J (2015) 8 (2): 168-179] the current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in the production of uraemic toxins and the therapeutic implications. Where do we stand now? The basic mechanisms of the gut-kidney crosstalk must still be clarified. In addition, the efficacy and safety of therapeutic strategies to modulate the gut microbiota in order to decrease uraemic toxin production and inflammation in chronic kidney disease should be evaluated. Finally, an impact of such strategies on hard outcomes should be demonstrated before incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26034597

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:26024348

  14. Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Anne Marie; Meli, Yvonne; Meldrum, Catherine; Jellen, Patricia; Butler-Lebair, Marianne; Koczen-Doyle, Debra; Rising, Peter; Stavrolakes, Kim; Brogan, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The National Emphysema Treatment Trial used a multidisciplinary team approach to implement the maximum medical care protocol, including adjustment of medications and outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation for all patients and nutritional and psychological counseling as needed. This article discusses the benefits of such an approach in the care of the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Team member roles complement each other and contribute to the goal of providing the highest-quality medical care. The primary focus of the team is to reinforce the medical plan and to provide patient education and support. This article reviews the elements of the initial patient assessment and the functional and nutritional assessment. Patient education focuses on medication use, recognition and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation symptoms, smoking cessation, advance directives, and travel. PMID:18453373

  15. Chronic Disease Self-Management: A Hybrid Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wendy R.; Lasiter, Sue; Ellis, Rebecca Bartlett; Buelow, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases require chronic disease self-management (CDSM). Existing CDSM interventions, while improving outcomes, often do not lead to long-lasting effects. To render existing and new CDSM interventions more effective, an exploration of the concept of CDSM from both the literature and patient perspectives is needed. Purpose To describe the current conceptualization of CDSM in the literature, identify potential inadequacies in this conceptualization based on a comparison of literature- and patient-based CDSM descriptions, and to offer a more comprehensive definition of CDSM. Method A hybrid concept analysis was completed. Discussion In the literature, CDSM is defined as behaviors influenced by individual characteristics. Patients in the fieldwork phase discussed aspects of CDSM not well-represented in the literature. Conclusions CDSM is a complex process involving behaviors at multiple levels of a person's environment. Pilot work to develop and test CDSM interventions based on both individual and external characteristics is needed. PMID:25241136

  16. Pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An African perspective.

    PubMed

    Allwood, B; Calligaro, G

    2015-09-01

    The importance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a global health problem cannot be overstated. According to the latest World Health Organization statistics (2005), 210 million people suffer from COPD worldwide, and 5% of all deaths globally are estimated to be caused by this disease. This corresponds to >3 million deaths annually, of which 90% are thought to occur in low- and middle-income countries.While cigarette smoking remains the major risk factor, and much of the increase in COPD is associated with projected increases in tobacco use, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that in the majority of patients in developing countries the aetiology of COPD is multifactorial.This article summarises the epidemiology of and risk factors for COPD in Africa, including influences other than cigarette smoking that are important contributors to chronic irreversible airflow limitation in our setting. PMID:26636169

  17. Glycopyrronium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Riario-Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Ridolo, Erminia; Riario-Sforza, Edoardo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-02-01

    Glycopyrronium bromide is a new long-acting muscarinic antagonist to be used once-daily, which is approved as a bronchodilator for the symptomatic maintenance treatment of adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Glycopyrronium bromide in chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease airWays trials, treatment with inhaled glycopyrronium bromide at 50 ?g once daily achieved a significantly better lung function than placebo, as measured by the trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. The lung function improvement was maintained for up to 52 weeks. Other improved indexes were dyspnea scores, health status, exacerbation rates and time of exercise endurance. Studies comparing the efficacy of glycopyrronium versus tiotropium bromide found substantial equivalence of the two drugs. Glycopyrronium was generally well tolerated. These data add inhaled glycopyrronium bromide to the treatment of patients with moderate to severe COPD as an effective once-daily LAMA. PMID:25547422

  18. Sirtuin 1 and Aging Theory for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Conti, V.; Corbi, G.; Manzo, V.; Pelaia, G.; Filippelli, A.; Vatrella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory syndrome that represents an increasing health problem, especially in the elderly population. Drug therapies are symptomatic and inadequate to contrast disease progression and mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need to clarify the molecular mechanisms responsible for this condition in order to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Processes including oxidant/antioxidant, protease/antiprotease, and proliferative/antiproliferative balance and control of inflammatory response become dysfunctional during aging as well as in COPD. Recently it was suggested that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an antiaging molecule involved in the response to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, is implicated in both development and progression of COPD. The present review focuses on the involvement of SIRT1 in the regulation of redox state, inflammation, and premature senescence, all crucial characteristics of COPD phenotypes. Recent evidence corroborating the statement of the “aging theory for COPD” was also discussed. PMID:26236580

  19. Online Patient Education for Chronic Disease Management: Consumer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Than; Hassan, Naffisah Mohd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Probst, Yasmine

    2016-04-01

    Patient education plays an important role in chronic disease management. The aim of this study is to identify patients' preferences in regard to the design features of effective online patient education (OPE) and the benefits. A review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify the benefits of OPE and its essential design features. These design features were empirically tested by conducting survey with patients and caregivers. Reliability analysis, construct validity and regression analysis were performed for data analysis. The results identified patient-tailored information, interactivity, content credibility, clear presentation of content, use of multimedia and interpretability as the essential design features of online patient education websites for chronic disease management. PMID:26846749

  20. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves sleep quality in chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Soler, Xavier; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ries, Andrew L

    2013-04-01

    Sleep-related disorders are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, possibily, other lung disorders. Exercise has been shown to improve sleep disturbances. In patients with COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) produces important health benefits with improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and quality of life. However, the effect of PR on sleep quality remains unknown. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease and the role of PR as a non-pharmacologic treatment to improve sleep. Sixty-four patients with chronic lung disease enrolled in an 8-week comprehensive PR program, and completed the study (48% male; obstructive [72%], restrictive [20%], mixed [8%]; 44% on supplemental oxygen). Baseline spirometry [mean (SD)]: FEV1% pred = 48.9 (17.4), FVC% pred = 72.5 (18.1), and FEV1/FVC% = 53.1 (18.9). Exercise tolerance and questionnaires related to symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were obtained before and after PR. 58% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) at baseline. Sleep quality improved by 19% (p = 0.017) after PR, along with significant improvements in dyspnea, exercise tolerance, self-efficacy, and HRQL. Sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease was poor. In addition to expected improvements in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and HRQL after PR, the subgroup of patients with COPD had a significant improvement in sleep quality. These findings suggest that PR may be an effective, non-pharmacologic treatment option for sleep problems in patients with COPD. PMID:23514215