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Sample records for chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

  1. Clinical aspects of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis: a contrast with cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças, G.

    1975-01-01

    The clinical picture of liver disease in endemic areas of Schistosomiasis mansoni differs in many ways from that observed in alcoholic and other types of cirrhosis. In hepatosplenic schistosomiasis there is predominance of the clinical manifestations of portal hypertension, e.g., bleeding esophageal varices, while ascites, jaundice, and hepatic precoma or coma are much less common. Ammonia tolerance is usually normal and helps explain the low mortality rate during bleeding. Of special interest is the observation of a high incidence of persistent hepatitis B surface antigenemia among patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, suggesting increased susceptibility of such patients to the development of virus-induced chronic active hepatitis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:128911

  2. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Pimenta Filho, Adenor Almeida; Ferreira, Rita de Cássia dos Santos; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; dos Santos, Bianka Santana; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Owen, James Stuart; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5–10%) progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55). Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X), protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status. PMID:26267788

  3. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in young patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni without overt symptoms.

    PubMed

    Manzella, Adonis; Borba-Filho, Paulo; Brandt, Carlos T; Oliveira, Keyla

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in young patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni without overt neurologic manifestations. This study included 34 young persons (age range = 9-25 years) with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni who had been previously treated. Patients were scanned on a 1.5-T system that included multiplanar pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences, and reports were completed by two radiologists after a consensus review. Twenty (58.8%) patients had MRI signal changes that were believed to be related to schistosomiasis mansoni. Twelve of the 20 patients had small focal hyperintensities on T2WI in the cerebral white matter, and eight patients had symmetric hyperintense basal ganglia on T1WI. There was a high frequency of brain MRI signal abnormalities in this series. Although not specific, these findings may be related to schistosomiasis. PMID:22665605

  4. Endomyocardial Fibrosis (EMF) in a Ugandan Child with Advanced Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis: Coincidence or Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Luzinda, Kenneth; Mpoya, Simon; Gothard, Philip; Stone, Neil; Wright, Stephen; Stothard, J. Russell

    2014-01-01

    An association between late-stage hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) has been suggested but not proven. We present the case of a 12-year-old Ugandan boy with striking comorbidities, including advanced periportal fibrosis caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection and right ventricular EMF, and discuss the possible correlation between both diseases. PMID:25002295

  5. Biosensor for Hepatocellular Injury Corresponds to Experimental Scoring of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sombetzki, Martina; Koslowski, Nicole; Doss, Sandra; Loebermann, Micha; Trauner, Michael; Reisinger, Emil C; Sauer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Severe hepatosplenic injury of mansonian schistosomiasis is caused by Th2 mediated granulomatous response against parasite eggs entrapped within the periportal tissue. Subsequent fibrotic scarring and deformation/sclerosing of intrahepatic portal veins lead to portal hypertension, ascites, and oesophageal varices. The murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection is suitable to establish the severe hepatosplenic injury of disease within a reasonable time scale for the development of novel antifibrotic or anti-infective strategies against S. mansoni infection. The drawback of the murine model is that the material prepared for complex analysis of egg burden, granuloma size, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis is limited due to small amounts of liver tissue and blood samples. The objective of our study was the implementation of a macroscopic scoring system for mice livers to determine infection-related organ alterations of S. mansoni infection. In addition, an in vitro biosensor system based on the detection of hepatocellular injury in HepG2/C3A cells following incubation with serum of moderately (50 S. mansoni cercariae) and heavily (100 S. mansoni cercariae) infected mice affirmed the value of our scoring system. Therefore, our score represents a valuable tool in experimental schistosomiasis to assess severity of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and reduce animal numbers by saving precious tissue samples. PMID:27376078

  6. Biosensor for Hepatocellular Injury Corresponds to Experimental Scoring of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sombetzki, Martina; Koslowski, Nicole; Doss, Sandra; Loebermann, Micha; Trauner, Michael; Reisinger, Emil C.; Sauer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Severe hepatosplenic injury of mansonian schistosomiasis is caused by Th2 mediated granulomatous response against parasite eggs entrapped within the periportal tissue. Subsequent fibrotic scarring and deformation/sclerosing of intrahepatic portal veins lead to portal hypertension, ascites, and oesophageal varices. The murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection is suitable to establish the severe hepatosplenic injury of disease within a reasonable time scale for the development of novel antifibrotic or anti-infective strategies against S. mansoni infection. The drawback of the murine model is that the material prepared for complex analysis of egg burden, granuloma size, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis is limited due to small amounts of liver tissue and blood samples. The objective of our study was the implementation of a macroscopic scoring system for mice livers to determine infection-related organ alterations of S. mansoni infection. In addition, an in vitro biosensor system based on the detection of hepatocellular injury in HepG2/C3A cells following incubation with serum of moderately (50 S. mansoni cercariae) and heavily (100 S. mansoni cercariae) infected mice affirmed the value of our scoring system. Therefore, our score represents a valuable tool in experimental schistosomiasis to assess severity of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and reduce animal numbers by saving precious tissue samples. PMID:27376078

  7. Increased IL-17, a Pathogenic Link between Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Di Summa, Alfonsina; Capone, Loredana; Stuefer, Josef; Piccin, Andrea; Porzia, Alessandra; Capozzi, Antonella; Sorice, Maurizio; Binazzi, Raffaella; Gandini, Lathá; Rimenti, Giovanni; Mian, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The immune system protects the organism from foreign invaders and foreign substances and is involved in physiological functions that range from tissue repair to neurocognition. However, an excessive or dysregulated immune response can cause immunopathology and disease. A 39-year-old man was affected by severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One question that arose was, whether there was a relation between the parasitic and the neurodegenerative disease. IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine, is produced mainly by T helper-17 CD4 cells, a recently discovered new lineage of effector CD4 T cells. Experimental mouse models of schistosomiasis have shown that IL-17 is a key player in the immunopathology of schistosomiasis. There are also reports that suggest that IL-17 might have an important role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is hypothesized that the factors that might have led to increased IL-17 in the hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni might also have contributed to the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the described patient. A multitude of environmental factors, including infections, xenobiotic substances, intestinal microbiota, and vitamin D deficiency, that are able to induce a proinflammatory immune response polarization, might favor the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in predisposed individuals. PMID:25379310

  8. A Huge Thrombosed Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm without Pulmonary Hypertension in a Patient with Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Salem, Elsayed S.; Ramadan, Mahmoud M.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 55 Final Diagnosis: Thrombosed pulmonary artery aneurysm Symptoms: Cough productive • fever • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Pericardiocentesis Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: We herein report a case of huge pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 55-year-old male farmer from the Nile delta (Lower-Egypt), mostly due to infestation with Schistosoma mansoni, which is the parasite causing hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Case Report: This male patient was admitted with a month-long history of progressive shortness of breath, 2-month history of fever, and a cough with mucoid sputum for 10 days. On examination, he had normal temperature and blood pressure, but he had tachypnea, tachycardia, and congested neck veins. Electrocardiography showed multifocal atrial tachycardia and right bundle branch block. Conclusions: The present case is unique in that it shows the presence of a huge pulmonary artery aneurysm despite the absence of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25746428

  9. Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew S.; Karunaratne, Laksiri B.; Lewis, Fred A.; Freitas, Tori C.; Liang, Yung-san

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most important parasitic disease in the world in terms of public health impact. Globally, it is estimated that the disease affects over 200 million people and is responsible for 200,000 deaths each year. The three major schistosomes infecting humans are Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium. Much immunological research has focused on schistosomiasis because of the pathological effects of the disease, which include liver fibrosis and bladder dysfunction. This Unit covers a wide range of aspects of maintaining the life cycles of these parasites, including preparation of schistosome egg antigen, maintenance of intermediate snail hosts, infection of the definitive and intermediate hosts, and others. The Unit primariiy focues on S. mansoni, but also includes coverage of S. japonicum and S. haematobium life cycles. PMID:18432750

  10. Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga H.; Kim, Nick H.; Mandel, Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Schistosomiasis, a parasite-borne disease, is highly prevalent in Africa and Asia; it is estimated that close to 20 million people worldwide have a severe form of the disease. The chronic form can affect the gastrointestinal system and lead to hepatosplenic disease, and it may cause cardiopulmonary complications, including pulmonary hypertension. The exact pathogenesis of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension (Sch-PH) remains unclear, although several mechanisms, including parasitic arterial embolization, pulmonary arteriopathy, and portopulmonary hypertension–like pathophysiology, have been suggested. The immunopathology of the disease is also unclear, although there are similarities with the immunology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Finally, the treatment of Sch-PH has not been well studied. There is some evidence on treating the underlying infection, with unclear effect on Sch-PH, and advanced PAH therapies are now being suggested, but more studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. PMID:25610596

  11. [Observation on negative changes of indirect hemagglutination assay in chronic schistosomiasis patients].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong

    2012-04-01

    A total of 135 chronic schistosomiasis patients were investigated with indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) kit for schistosomiasis issued by the national authority, and the titer > or = 1 : 10 was deemed as positive. The IHA positive patients were investigated with Kato-Katz technique and the hatching method, and the water contact survey was performed every year and the re-infection patients were excluded. In the fourth year, 93.65 per thousand of the patients became IHA negative. In conclusion, the schistosome antibody levels of the population by IHA test can be one of important indexes to judge whether the epidemic situation relapses in the process of continuous schistosomiasis surveillance. PMID:22799183

  12. Evaluation of the effect of Sm28GST-derived peptides in murine hepatosplenic schistosomiasis: interest of the lipopeptidic form of the C-terminal peptide.

    PubMed

    Pancré, V; Wolowczuk, I; Bossus, M; Gras-Masse, H; Guerret, S; Delanoye, A; Capron, A; Auriault, C

    1994-11-01

    Among the synthetic peptides derived from the 28-kDa Schistosoma mansoni glutathione S-transferase (Sm28GST), immunization with the C-terminal peptide comprising amino acid residues 190-211 induced a reduction in splenomegaly, in the number of hepatic eggs and in hepatic fibrosis in mice infected by Schistosoma mansoni. The absence of antibodies specific for the Sm28GST or for the 190-211 peptide observed in our conditions of immunization with this peptide argued in favour of the involvement of cellular-dependent mechanisms in the reduction in hepatic pathology. This was confirmed by the passive transfer of 190-211 peptide-specific T-cell enriched spleen cells which reproduced the protective effect conferred by immunization with the 190-211 peptide. These 190-211 peptide-specific cells produced little IL4 and high levels of IFN-gamma, a potent inhibitor of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, the use of a lipopeptidic form of the 190-211 peptide significantly improved the reduction in hepatic pathology obtained with the uncoupled peptide and induced a durable protective response. These results provide encouraging information for the possible use of synthetic peptides in the immunoprophylaxis of Schistosomiasis. PMID:7969186

  13. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    PubMed

    Nyakundi, Ruth K; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby; Akinyi, Mercy; Mulei, Isaac; Farah, Idle O; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian; Hau, Jann; Malhotra, Indu; Ozwara, Hastings; King, Christopher L; Kariuki, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Malaria and schistosomiasis coinfections are common, and chronic schistosomiasis has been implicated in affecting the severity of acute malaria. However, whether it enhances or attenuates malaria has been controversial due the lack of appropriately controlled human studies and relevant animal models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection. Four weeks later, the two groups plus a new malaria control group (n = 8) were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) Plasmodium knowlesi parasites and monitored daily for development of severe malaria. A total of 81% of baboons exposed to chronic S. mansoni infection with or without praziquantel treatment survived malaria, compared to only 25% of animals infected with P. knowlesi only (P = 0.01). Schistosome-infected animals also had significantly lower parasite burdens (P = 0.004) than the baboons in the P. knowlesi-only group and were protected from severe anemia. Coinfection was associated with increased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), suggesting an enhanced innate immune response, whereas animals infected with P. knowlesi alone failed to develop mitogen-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10, indicating the inability to generate adequate protective and balancing immunoregulatory responses. These results indicate that chronic S. mansoni attenuates the severity of P. knowlesi coinfection in baboons by mechanisms that may enhance innate immunity to malaria. PMID:26883586

  14. Hepatosplenic alphabeta T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yuya; Ikegame, Kazuhiro; Mori, Minako; Inoue, Daichi; Kimura, Takaharu; Shimoji, Sonoko; Togami, Katsuhiro; Tabata, Sumie; Kurata, Masayuki; Imai, Yukihiro; Matsushita, Akiko; Nagai, Kenichi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2010-04-01

    A 32-year-old male with chronic hepatitis B was admitted to a hospital with cellulitis in the right leg in September 2006. Pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and systemic superficial lymph node swelling were noted, and he was referred to our hospital. He developed fever and liver dysfunction in June 2007 and underwent a splenectomy. His pancytopenia subsequently improved. A pathologic diagnosis of hepatosplenic alphabeta T cell lymphoma was made by examining spleen tissue and biopsy specimens of the liver and mesenteric lymph node. He had stage IVB disease because neoplastic T cells were noted in the bone marrow. The response of the lymphoma to conventional chemotherapy including the CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisolone) and DeVIC (dexamethasone, etoposide, ifoshamide, carboplatin) regimens was poor and transient. A partial remission was obtained with an ESHAP (etoposide, cisplatin, cytarabine, methylprednisolone) regimen. Therefore, we planned a bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA-haploidentical sibling donor. He was moved to the Department of Hematology, Hyogo Medical College, to receive this BMT as part of a clinical trial. During the conditioning procedure for the transplantation, however, he died of septicemia. Since hepatosplenic alphabeta T cell lymphoma is very rare with only 23 reported cases to date, herein we report this case and discuss the therapeutic strategy. PMID:20217452

  15. [A case of chronic schistosomiasis four years after infestation].

    PubMed

    Pedalino, M; Vercesi, E; Manini, C; Piras, D; Di Primio, O G; Vella, R; Marino, G

    2010-01-01

    Authors present a case of bilharziosis incidentally diagnosed in a patient undergoing TURB for suspected bladder cancer. The patient, who in 2005 had gone to Malaysia, had been suffering from recurrent hemorrhagic cystitis since 2007, which were treated with antibiotic therapy. In November 2009 he presented to our observation for persistent hematuria, underwent ultrasound examination, fibroscopy and TURB diagnostics for suspicious lesions. The histopathology diagnosis found granulomatous lesions with typical parasites eggs due to schistosomiasis eggs. As a consequence of that, the patient underwent medical therapy. The pathologist's role becomes nullifying not only for the diagnosis of parasitic infections but also for the exclusion or evidence of urothelial squamous neoplasia. The low incidence of this rare parasitic disease in European tourists and the presence of immigrants in our country require to spread the knowledge of these parasites and the most simple tests for early detection. PMID:21308673

  16. Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Santos, Hílton Antônio; Dutra, Fabianno Ferreira; Rocha, Carolina Carneiro; Lino, Fabiana Gonçalves; Xavier, Fabiola Ramos; Chinalia, Leandro Andrade; Hossy, Bryan Hudson; Castelo-Branco, Morgana Teixeira Lima; Teodoro, Anderson Junger; Paiva, Claudia N.

    2014-01-01

    In chronic schistosomiasis, hepatic fibrosis is linked to the portal hypertension that causes morbidity in Schistosoma mansoni infection. Silymarin (SIL) is a hepatoprotective and antioxidant medicament largely prescribed against liver diseases that has previously been shown to prevent fibrosis during acute murine schistosomiasis. Here we employed silymarin to try to reverse established hepatic fibrosis in chronic schistosomiasis. Silymarin or vehicle was administered to BALB/c mice every 48 h, starting on the 40th (80 days of treatment), 70th (50 days), or 110th (10 days) day postinfection (dpi). All mice were sacrificed and analyzed at 120 dpi. Treatment with silymarin reduced liver weight and granuloma sizes, reduced the increase in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and reduced the established hepatic fibrosis (assessed by hydroxyproline contents and picrosirius staining). Treatment with silymarin also reduced the levels of interleukin-13 (IL-13) in serum and increased the gamma interferon (IFN-γ)/IL-13 ratio. There was a linear correlation between IL-13 levels in serum and hydroxyproline hepatic content in both infected untreated and SIL-treated mice, with decreased IL-13 levels corresponding to decreased hydroxyproline hepatic contents. Treatment with either SIL or N-acetylcysteine reduced both proliferation of fibroblast cell lines and basal/IL-13-induced production of collagen I, indicating that besides inhibiting IL-13 production during infection, SIL antioxidant properties most likely contribute to inhibition of collagen production downstream of IL-13. These results show that silymarin interferes with fibrogenic cytokines, reduces established fibrosis, and inhibits downstream effects of IL-13 on fibrogenesis, indicating the drug as a safe and cheap treatment to liver fibrotic disease in schistosomiasis. PMID:24449779

  17. Schistosomiasis and the pulmonary vasculature (2013 Grover Conference series)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is associated with multiple forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), including autoimmune (scleroderma) and infectious (HIV, schistosomiasis) etiologies. More than 200 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma, predominantly in Brazil, Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. Schistosomiasis causes PAH in about 6.1% of those chronically infected and is particularly associated with the species Schistosoma mansoni. Treatment for schistosomiasis-associated PAH includes antihelminthic treatment, if active infection is present (although associated with little immediate benefit to the pulmonary hypertension), and then pharmacologic treatment with targeted pulmonary vascular therapies, including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists. The pathophysiological mechanism by which this parasitic infection causes pulmonary hypertension is unknown but is unlikely to be simple mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by parasite eggs. Preexisting hepatosplenic disease due to Schistosoma infection is likely important because of portopulmonary hypertension and/or because it allows egg embolization to the lung by portocaval shunts. Potential immune signaling originating in the periegg granulomas causing the pulmonary vascular disease includes the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-13, and transforming growth factor β. Modulating these pathways may be possible targets for future therapy of schistosomiasis-associated PAH specifically, and study of this disease may provide novel insights into other inflammatory causes of PAH. PMID:25621148

  18. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death. PMID:20306689

  19. Prevalence of schistosome antibodies with hepatosplenic signs and symptoms among patients from Kaoma, Western Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with over 200 million people infected worldwide. Eighty-five percent of cases are in Africa. The hepatosplenic form develops over time by an immune reaction to trapped Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the portal system leading to liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and oesophageal varices. Most patients presenting to the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka with oesophageal varices, come from Western province, but no formal studies have been carried out in this area assessing the burden of hepatosplenic pathology. We aimed to define the extent of the problem in Kaoma district, western Zambia, and to correlate signs and symptoms with serology. Findings A symptom questionnaire, demographic survey and physical examination was conducted amongst patients presenting to Kaoma district outpatient clinics. To assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections, blood was collected and screened for the presence of Schistosoma antibodies using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 110 patients screened, 97 (88%) were ELISA positive. Forty-six percent (51/110) reported haematochezia and 7% experienced haematemesis (8/110). On physical examination 27% (30/110) hepatomegaly and 17% (30/110) splenomegaly was observed amongst participants but there were few correlations between serology and signs/symptoms. On questioning 68% (75/110) of participants knew nothing about schistosomiasis transmission. Conclusions Our serological and clinical data indicate a very heavy burden of schistosomiasis-related portal hypertension. Our evidence highlights a need for mass treatment in Kaoma to address and prevent extensive pathology of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Safe water and health education throughout Western Province are clearly also important. PMID:23987918

  20. Schistosomiasis Presenting as a Case of Acute Appendicitis with Chronic Mesenteric Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Mohammed H; Chan, Wilson W; Morava-Protzner, Izabella; Kuhn, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The manifestations of schistosomiasis typically result from the host inflammatory response to parasitic eggs that are deposited in the mucosa of either the gastrointestinal tract or bladder. We present here a case of a 50-year-old gentleman with a rare gastrointestinal presentation of both schistosomal appendicitis and mesenteric thrombosis. PMID:27366174

  1. Schistosomiasis Presenting as a Case of Acute Appendicitis with Chronic Mesenteric Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wilson W.; Morava-Protzner, Izabella; Kuhn, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    The manifestations of schistosomiasis typically result from the host inflammatory response to parasitic eggs that are deposited in the mucosa of either the gastrointestinal tract or bladder. We present here a case of a 50-year-old gentleman with a rare gastrointestinal presentation of both schistosomal appendicitis and mesenteric thrombosis. PMID:27366174

  2. Imaging findings of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sabriye Sennur; Toprak, Huseyin; Seker, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    In our study, in a 52-year-old man, specific and nonspecific findings of Schistosoma infestation were examined using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On computed tomography, capsular and septal calcifications and contrast enhancement of the liver capsule were seen. On T1-weighted magnetic resonance images diffuse hypointensity was seen in periportal spaces; on T2-weighted images in the same spaces, diffuse hyperintensity was seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, in these same spaces marked contrast enhancement was manifested in the late venous phase. These signal changes indicate edema due to periportal fibrotic tissue inflammation and are accepted as pathognomonic for a liver infested by Schistosoma. PMID:27594939

  3. Down modulation of MHC surface molecules on B cells by suppressive immune complexes obtained from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients.

    PubMed

    Rezende, S A; Gollob, K J; Correa-Oliveira, R; Goes, A M

    1998-06-01

    Granulomatous inflammation around parasite eggs is the prominent lesion in human schistosomiasis. Studies have suggested the involvement of a series of suppressive mechanisms in the control of this reaction, such as macrophages, cytokines, idiotypic interactions and immune complexes (IC). The studies examine the role of IC obtained from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients (ISP) in the reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The results have shown that these immune complexes are able to suppress cell reactivity by inducing an increase in the production of soluble mediators such as prostaglandins and IL-10. To gain a better understanding of how this suppression occurs the present study examines the phenotypic pattern of PBMC after immune complex treatment in cell proliferation assays. These data show that cultures including immune complex present a higher percentage of B lymphocytes in which a lower expression of a MHC-class II gene product, HLA-DR was detected. This altered expression of the HLA-DR molecule on B lymphocytes after IC treatment suggests a novel mechanism for the suppression observed, that is, IC might decrease the antigen-presenting function of B lymphocytes. PMID:9698100

  4. Schistosomiasis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease of public health importance to a billion people. An estimated 200 million people are currently infected; an additional 779 million individuals are at risk to acquire the infection in 74 countries. Despite many years of implementation of mass anti-parasitic drug therapy programs and other control measures, this disease has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas.  The discovery of a protective vaccine still remains the most potentially effective means for the control of this disease, especially if the vaccine provides long-term immunity against the infection. A vaccine would contribute to the reduction of schistosomiasis morbidity through induced immune responses leading to decrease in parasite load and reduced egg production. This vaccine could be administered to children between the ages of 3 and 12 years to prevent severe infection in a particularly high risk population. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:22048120

  5. Human schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Daniel G; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Secor, W Evan; King, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis—or bilharzia—is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp. Adult schistosome worms colonise human blood vessels for years, successfully evading the immune system while excreting hundreds to thousands of eggs daily, which must either leave the body in excreta or become trapped in nearby tissues. Trapped eggs induce a distinct immune-mediated granulomatous response that causes local and systemic pathological effects ranging from anaemia, growth stunting, impaired cognition, and decreased physical fitness, to organ-specific effects such as severe hepatosplenism, periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, and urogenital inflammation and scarring. At present, preventive public health measures in endemic regions consist of treatment once every 1 or 2 years with the isoquinolinone drug, praziquantel, to suppress morbidity. In some locations, elimination of transmission is now the goal; however, more sensitive diagnostics are needed in both the field and clinics, and integrated environmental and health-care management will be needed to ensure elimination. PMID:24698483

  6. Molluscicides in schistosomiasis control

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, F. S.; Gayral, Ph.; Duncan, J.; Christie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Although mollusciciding can be a cost-effective method of controlling schistosomiasis transmission, only one organic molluscicide, niclosamide, is now being produced commercially, and only a few compounds are at present being tested in the laboratory. In future, improved cost-effective use of molluscicides will require more precise knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission patterns in each endemic area and improved application techniques. In snail control studies using controlled-release formulations only the organotins, especially tributyltin oxide (TBTO), have given satisfactory long-term results. However, large-scale field trials of organotin formulations have not been implemented and their use cannot be recommended as their chronic toxicity in mammals has not yet been determined. The development of molluscicides of indigenous plant origin deserves support. Endod, derived from the berries of the climbing plant Phytolacca dodecandra, is the most extensively tested plant molluscicide, but data on its chronic toxicity to non-target organisms are lacking. The mode of action of molluscicides has not been extensively studied, though knowledge of the properties required of molluscicidal molecules has contributed to the discovery and development of niclosamide and nicotinanilide. In general, molluscicides probably cause stress on the water balance system, which in gastropods in thought to be under neurosecretory control. PMID:6975179

  7. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  8. Schistosomiasis therapeutics: whats in the pipeline?

    PubMed

    Trainor-Moss, Santiago; Mutapi, Francisca

    2016-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by schistosome worms. Global efforts to control schistosomiasis rely predominantly on mass drug administration of the drug praziquantel to populations at risk of infection. We review the history of schistosome drug development and the current position of schistosome drug research. We conclude that with no additional candidates currently in the anti-schistosome drug clinical trial pipeline, a practical and necessary approach is to optimise the health benefits from praziquantel. We offer suggestions of where and how this can be achieved. We also highlight knowledge gaps in the utility of praziquantel particularly in the treatment of chronic schistosomiasis, which includes fibrosis, organomegaly and cervical lesions associated with female genital schistosomiasis. PMID:26508363

  9. Factors affecting illness in the developing world: chronic disease, mental health and traditional medicine cures.

    PubMed

    Douthit, Nathan T; Astatk, Hailemariam Alemu

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 24-year-old Ethiopian woman with a medical history of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. She suffers from chronic liver failure and portal hypertension. She has been hospitalised for 'hysteria' in the past but did not receive follow-up, outpatient treatment or psychiatric evaluation. After discontinuing her medications and leaving her family to use holy water, a religious medicine used by many Ethiopians, she was found at a nearby monastery. She was non-communicative and difficult to arouse. The patient was rushed to nearby University of Gondar Hospital where she received treatment for hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Her illness is the result of neglected tropical disease, reliance on traditional medicine as opposed to biomedical services and the poor state of psychiatric care in the developing world. PMID:27485874

  10. Genital Schistosomiasis in European Women

    PubMed Central

    Catteau, Xavier; Fakhri, Anass; Albert, Valérie; Doukoure, Brahima; Noël, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is an isolated chronic form of schistosomiasis. Although most infections occur in residents of endemic areas, it has been clearly documented that brief freshwater exposure is sufficient to establish infection; thus, travellers may also be infected. The clinical manifestations of FGS are nonspecific, and lesions may mimic any neoplastic or infectious process in the female genital tract. It is important to take a careful history and physical examination, making sure to consider travel history in endemic areas. The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopy with egg identification or by serology. The standard of care for treatment is a single dose of oral praziquantel which avoids complications and substantial morbidity. Herein, we report a rare and original case of FGS in a European woman. PMID:21776398

  11. Hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Andrés J M; Govi, Silvia; Pileri, Stefano A

    2012-08-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal lymphoma derived mostly from cytotoxic γδ T-cells. The peak incidence is in adolescents and young adults, and is more common in males. Up to 20% of HSTL arise in the setting of chronic immune suppression, most commonly solid organ transplantation or prolonged antigenic stimulation. Patients present with systemic symptoms (fever), abdominal pain, weakness, and marked hepatosplenomegaly in the absence of lymphadenopathy. Patients usually manifest marked thrombocytopenia, often with anaemia and leucopenia, a leukemic phase, and bone marrow involvement in 80% of cases. Lactate dehydrogenase levels are usually markedly elevated. HSTL exhibits a marked chemoresistance to currently used regimens, a rapidly progressive behavior, and dismal prognosis. Patients with post-transplant HSTL exhibit an especially poor outcome. Standard treatment has yet to be established. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy is associated with a satisfactory response in two thirds of patients, but poor long-term results. Complete remission is extremely uncommon, and most patients die from lymphoma within two years of diagnosis. A prognostic correlation between outcome and degree of thrombocytopenia has been reported. Relapsing disease is usually chemorefractory and fast growing, and patients' performance status and clinical conditions are poor. These aspects, as well as the lack of drugs with proven activity against HSTL, render salvage treatment almost impossible. A few cases of HSTL successfully treated with autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation have been reported. The use of 2'-deoxycoformycin and other targeted therapies, such as alemtuzumab, anti-γδ TCR monoclonal antibodies, and anti-CD44 therapy, have shown promising results in anecdotal reports. PMID:22047938

  12. Hepatosplenic Candidiasis Detected by 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Domenico; Bosio, Giovanni; Bertoli, Mattia; Petrilli, Giulia; Bertagna, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Hepatosplenic candidiasis is a fungal infection, which mostly affects patients with hematologic malignancies such as leukemia. The pathogenesis of this infection is not clear yet, and the liver is the most commonly affected organ. Diagnosis of hepatosplenic candidiasis can be only established via biopsy, since computed tomography (CT) scan, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yield non-specific results. The role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography /computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in diagnosis of hepatosplenic candidiasis remains undetermined, considering a few evidences in the literature. In this case report, we present the case of a 47-year-old patient, affected by acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated with three cycles of chemotherapy, resulting in the development of neutropenia and fever following the last cycle. The 18F-FDG PET/CT scan showed some foci of intense FDG uptake in the liver and spleen. The subsequent diagnostic investigations (i.e., abdominal CT scan and biopsy) were suggestive of hepatosplenic candidiasis. The patient was started on antifungal treatment with fluconazole. After one month, the clinical conditions were resolved, and the subsequent abdominal CT scan was negative.

  13. Hepatosplenic Candidiasis Detected by (18)F-FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Albano, Domenico; Bosio, Giovanni; Bertoli, Mattia; Petrilli, Giulia; Bertagna, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Hepatosplenic candidiasis is a fungal infection, which mostly affects patients with hematologic malignancies such as leukemia. The pathogenesis of this infection is not clear yet, and the liver is the most commonly affected organ. Diagnosis of hepatosplenic candidiasis can be only established via biopsy, since computed tomography (CT) scan, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yield non-specific results. The role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography /computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in diagnosis of hepatosplenic candidiasis remains undetermined, considering a few evidences in the literature. In this case report, we present the case of a 47-year-old patient, affected by acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated with three cycles of chemotherapy, resulting in the development of neutropenia and fever following the last cycle. The (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan showed some foci of intense FDG uptake in the liver and spleen. The subsequent diagnostic investigations (i.e., abdominal CT scan and biopsy) were suggestive of hepatosplenic candidiasis. The patient was started on antifungal treatment with fluconazole. After one month, the clinical conditions were resolved, and the subsequent abdominal CT scan was negative. PMID:27408899

  14. Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis Before and After Treatment in Young Children in Rusinga Island, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Mulama, Fridah; Kareko, Edmund Ireri; Harris, Robert; Ochola, Elizabeth; Samuels, Aaron M.; Rawago, Fredrick; Mwinzi, Pauline M.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Odiere, Maurice R.; Won, Kimberly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni infection is a major cause of organomegaly and ultimately liver fibrosis in adults. Morbidity in pre-school-aged children is less defined, and they are currently not included in mass drug administration (MDA) programs for schistosomiasis control. We report results of a study of the association of schistosomiasis with organomegaly in a convenience sample of 201 children under 7 years old in Rusinga, Kenya on two cross-sectional visits, before and after praziquantel treatment. Data included stool examination and serology for schistosomiasis, the Niamey ultrasound protocol to stage hepatosplenic morbidity including organomegaly, and potential confounders including malaria. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regressions were performed. The baseline prevalence of schistosomiasis by antibody and/or stool was 80.3%. Schistomiasis was associated with hepatomegaly (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–2.1) and splenomegaly (aPR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.2–3.7). The association with hepatomegaly persisted posttreatment (aPR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.6). Schistosomiasis was associated with morbidity in this cohort. Efforts to include young children in mass treatment campaigns should intensify. PMID:25758651

  15. Human Schistosomiasis: Clinical Perspective: Review

    PubMed Central

    Barsoum, Rashad S.; Esmat, Gamal; El-Baz, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis pass by acute, sub acute and chronic stages that mirror the immune response to infection. The later includes in succession innate, TH1 and TH2 adaptive stages, with an ultimate establishment of concomitant immunity. Some patients may also develop late complications, or suffer the sequelae of co-infection with other parasites, bacteria or viruses. Acute manifestations are species-independent; occur during the early stages of invasion and migration, where infection-naivety and the host’s racial and genetic setting play a major role. Sub acute manifestations occur after maturity of the parasite and settlement in target organs. They are related to the formation of granulomata around eggs or dead worms, primarily in the lower urinary tract with Schistosoma haematobium, and the colon and rectum with Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mekongi infection. Secondary manifestations during this stage may occur in the kidneys, liver, lungs or other ectopic sites. Chronic morbidity is attributed to the healing of granulomata by fibrosis and calcification at the sites of oval entrapment, deposition of schistosomal antigen-antibody complexes in the renal glomeruli or the development of secondary amyloidosis. Malignancy may complicate the chronic lesions in the urinary bladder or colon. Co-infection with salmonella or hepatitis viruses B or C may confound the clinical picture of schistosomiasis, while the latter may have a negative impact on the course of other co-infections as malaria, leishmaniasis and HIV. Prevention of schistosomiasis is basically geared around education and periodic mass treatment, an effective vaccine being still experimental. Praziquantel is the drug of choice in the treatment of active infection by any species, with a cure rate of 80%. Other antischistosomal drugs include metrifonate for S. haematobium, oxamniquine for S. mansoni and Artemether and, possibly

  16. Spinal cord schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Adeel, Ahmed Awad

    2015-01-01

    Acute myelopathy is increasingly being recognized as a common neurological complication of schistosomiasis. Schistosome eggs reach the spinal cord either as egg emboli or as eggs produced by ectopic worms. This leads to inflammatory reaction and granuloma formation around the eggs. Patients with spinal schistosomiasis may not have clinical evidence of schistosomiasis. The typical clinical picture is that of lumbar pain preceded by other symptoms by hours or up to 3 weeks. Patients may present with paraparesis, urinary retention or paraplegia. Definitive diagnosis of spinal cord schistosomiasis is by detection of the eggs in a spinal cord biopsy or at autopsy. However, most cases are diagnosed based on a presumptive diagnosis that depends on a suggestive clinical picture, history or evidence of active schistosomiasis and exclusion of other conditions. Investigations include stools and urine examination for schistosome eggs, blood tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment of cases is mainly by praziquantel, corticosteroids, surgical intervention and rehabilitation.

  17. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  18. Examining the Relationship between Urogenital Schistosomiasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mbabazi, Pamela Sabina; Andan, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Downs, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV. Conclusions/Significance Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for urogenital

  19. Schistosomiasis-associated kidney disease: A review

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Duarte, Daniella Bezerra; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by organisms from the genus Schistosoma. The disease is endemic in tropical areas, where there are currently millions of people living in areas with transmission risk. Schistosomiasis-associated kidney disease is not frequently described in literature. The disease has a chronic evolution, with variable severity. Glomerulonephritis is described in 10-12% in autopsy studies. Proteinuria is reported in 20% of patients with S. mansoni infection. Schistosomal glomerulopathy generally occur in young patients, male, with hepato-splenomegaly. The glomerular lesion in schistosomiasis has an immunological nature. Antigens from the parasite seem to be related to glomerulopathy and have been found in the sera of humans and animals infected by the S. mansoni. Vesical involvement is common in the infection by S. haematobium, a parasitic disease prevalent in African countries. In the S. haematobium infection, hematuria and dysuria can be observed due to inflammation and ulceration in the bladder mucosa, generaly occuring 3 to 4 months after primary infection. Specific antiparasitic treatment is indicated to all patients infected by Schistosoma. There are 2 drugs available for treatment, praziquantel and oxamniquine. We revise the general aspects of the disease and describe the features of renal involvement in schistosomiasis.

  20. Use of the Platelet Count/Spleen Diameter Ratio for the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Esophageal Varices in Patients with Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Adnan; Abdulhadi, Mamdouh M.; Marenco, Simona; Bella, Abdelhaleem; AlSaudi, Dib; El-Haddad, Ahmed; Inferrera, Simona; Savarino, Vincenzo; Giannini, Edoardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: In patients with liver cirrhosis, the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio has been validated as a parameter for the noninvasive diagnosis of esophageal varices. Schistosoma infection is a frequent cause of portal hypertension in Middle Eastern countries, and is associated with the development of esophageal varices. In this study we aimed to evaluate the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio as a noninvasive tool for the prediction of the presence of esophageal varices in patients with schistosoma-related chronic liver disease. Patients and Methods: Forty-three patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis underwent upper digestive endoscopy to check for the presence of esophageal varices. Furthermore, all patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography, and maximum spleen diameter (in mm) was measured. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio was calculated in all patients. Results: Esophageal varices were found in 31 patients (72%). Age and gender were not significantly different between patients with and without varices. In patients with varices, median platelet count (82,000/μL versus 172,000/μL, P < 0.0001) and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio (571 versus 1651, P < 0.0001) were significantly lower, while spleen diameter (147 mm versus 109 mm, P = 0.0006) was significantly larger. In multivariate analysis, the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio was the only parameter independently associated with the presence of varices (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In this study we have validated the use of the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio for the noninvasive diagnosis of esophageal varices in patients with portal hypertension caused by schistosoma infection. In these patients, the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio might be used to allow better rationalization of medical resources and use of endoscopy. PMID:21912056

  1. Endoscopic characteristics and causes of misdiagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuncui; Tan, Shiyun; Jiang, Lin; Li, Ming; Sun, Peng; Shen, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and endoscopic manifestations, and pathological characteristics of intestinal schistosomiasis in China, in order to raise awareness of intestinal schistosomiasis and prevent misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis. The retrospective analysis of clinical and endoscopic manifestations, and histopathological characteristics, were conducted for 96 patients with intestinal schistosomiasis. Among these patients, 21 lived in areas that were not infected with Schistosoma and 25 (26%) had no history of schistosome infection or contact with infected water. These patients were mainly hospitalized due to symptoms of diarrhea, mucus and bloody purulent stool. Sixteen cases were of the acute enteritis type, and colonoscopy results determined hyperaemic edema and dispersed small mucosal ulcers. The acute infection in patients was pathologically characterized by the deposition of intact ova with a large quantity of eosinocyte infiltration. Forty‑one cases were of the chronic enteritis type which predominantly manifested with yellow nodules and disorder of the vascular surfaces in the intestines. Thirty‑nine cases were diagnosed with mixed type enteritis, which demonstrated acute and chronic histopathological appearances. In addition, six cases of complicated colorectal cancer were observed. Of the 24 misdiagnosed patients, eight were misdiagnosed with ulcerative colitis, five with colorectal cancer, five with colorectal tuberculosis, four with chronic bacillary dysentery and two with irritable bowel syndrome. Intestinal schistosomiasis demonstrated no specific clinical or endoscopic manifestations and it was determined that patients with abdominal pain, diarrhea and mucous stool may be infected with intestinal schistosomiasis. Epidemiological investigations and colonoscopy combined with multi‑block and multi‑site biopsies may improve the diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis. In addition, it is necessary for intestinal

  2. Hepatosplenic alphabeta T-cell lymphomas: a report of 14 cases and comparison with hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Macon, W R; Levy, N B; Kurtin, P J; Salhany, K E; Elkhalifa, M Y; Casey, T T; Craig, F E; Vnencak-Jones, C L; Gulley, M L; Park, J P; Cousar, J B

    2001-03-01

    Hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, characterized by occurrence in young adult males with hepatosplenomegaly, B-symptoms, peripheral blood cytopenias, and no lymphadenopathy; lymphomatous infiltrates in the splenic red pulp, hepatic sinusoids, and bone marrow sinuses; T-cell receptor (TCR) gammadelta chains and a cytotoxic T-cell phenotype; isochromosome 7q; and an aggressive clinical course. In comparison, this study describes the clinicopathologic features of 14 hepatosplenic T-cell lymphomas expressing TCR alphabeta chains. They occurred in 11 women and 3 men with a median age of 36 years. Clinical presentation was similar to that described previously for hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphomas, except for the female preponderance and age distribution (5 patients younger than 13 years of age and 5 patients older than 50 years of age). Disease distribution was primarily in the splenic red pulp and hepatic sinusoids, although liver infiltrates were largely periportal in four cases. Bone marrow involvement, observed in eight patients, was usually interstitial and/or within the sinuses. Lymph nodes were involved in five patients, although lymphadenopathy was demonstrable in only two. Ten cases were composed of intermediate-size tumor cells with round/oval nuclei, slightly dispersed chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and scant to moderate amounts of cytoplasm. Four lymphomas contained primarily large cells with irregular nuclei, dispersed chromatin, discernible nucleoli, and moderate to abundant cytoplasm. Tumor cells in all 14 lymphomas were cytotoxic alphabeta T-cells; 13 co-expressed natural killer cell-associated antigens and showed T-cell clonality. Three lymphomas were associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Two of four cases had an isochromosome 7q. Eleven patients are dead, eight within a year of diagnosis, and two patients have maintained complete remissions after combination chemotherapy. These data show that hepatosplenic T

  3. Predictive risk mapping of schistosomiasis in Brazil using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Gosoniu, Laura; Malone, John B; Chammartin, Frédérique; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2014-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. A national control programme was initiated in Brazil in the mid-1970s and proved successful in terms of morbidity control, as the number of cases with hepato-splenic involvement was reduced significantly. To consolidate control and move towards elimination, there is a need for reliable maps on the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis, so that interventions can target communities at highest risk. The purpose of this study was to map the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. We utilized readily available prevalence data from the national schistosomiasis control programme for the years 2005-2009, derived remotely sensed climatic and environmental data and obtained socioeconomic data from various sources. Data were collated into a geographical information system and Bayesian geostatistical models were developed. Model-based maps identified important risk factors related to the transmission of S. mansoni and confirmed that environmental variables are closely associated with indices of poverty. Our smoothed predictive risk map, including uncertainty, highlights priority areas for intervention, namely the northern parts of North and Southeast regions and the eastern part of Northeast region. Our predictive risk map provides a useful tool for to strengthen existing surveillance-response mechanisms. PMID:24361640

  4. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy. PMID:27169865

  5. Immunology of schistosomiasis*

    PubMed Central

    1974-01-01

    This Memorandum, after summarizing the life cycle of the different species of human schistosome, reviews the present knowledge of the immunology of schistosomiasis. Each stage of the parasite contains antigen that may stimulate an immune response. However, at the moment there are no accepted serological in vitro tests that correlate with protection; this develops only after the host has experienced a living infection, which suggests that the stimulation of immunity is due to some metabolic process involving the release of protective antigen. The adult worm, however, seems to be able to escape the immune mechanism of the host. Specific antigens are also released by the eggs, and the immune response against these antigens seems to cause granuloma formation around the egg itself. The granuloma is the main lesion found in schistosomiasis. Evidence for protective immunity in experimental animals and man is reviewed, together with the possible mechanism by which the adult worm escapes the immune response of the host. A review of methods used for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and a list of recommendations for further research are also included. PMID:4219757

  6. Schistosomiasis manifesting as a colon polyp: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is a rare disease with a common intestinal involvement. However, colon polyps associated with Schistosoma in the absence of inflammation have rarely been reported, especially in young people; this is the first case with the following presentation. Case presentation We describe the case of a 20-year-old Ethiopian woman living in Lebanon who presented with nonspecific abdominal symptoms. Her biochemical profile was normal in addition to the results of her stool and urine tests. A colonoscopy showed normal colonic mucosa but surprisingly a large pedunculated polyp was found in her ascending colon. Pathology revealed a hamartomatous polyp but it was full of partially calcified parasitic eggs of Schistosoma mansoni compatible with chronic schistosomiasis. Conclusions She was treated with two doses of praziquantel and showed immediate marked clinical improvement. This unusual case will give us the opportunity to discuss schistosomiasis, its occurrence in colon polyps, clinical significance and the various means of management. PMID:25296942

  7. Ultrasound assessment of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Botelho, M C; Holtfreter, M C; Akpata, R; El Scheich, T; Neumayr, A; Brunetti, E; Hatz, C; Dong, Y; Dietrich, C F

    2016-07-01

    In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued an ultrasound field protocol for assessing the morbidity due to Schistosoma (S.) haematobium and S. mansoni. The experience with this classification has recently been reviewed systematically. The WHO protocol was well accepted worldwide. Here we review the use of ultrasound to assess the morbidity due to schistosomiasis with emphasis on easy, quick, and reproducible ways that can be used in the field. Findings obtained with high-end ultrasound scanners in the hospital setting that might eventually have applications in the field are also described. PMID:27429103

  8. Cutaneous ectopic schistosomiasis: diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Barros, Cláudia Renata Castro do Rêgo; Maia, Daniela Cristina Caetano; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Medeiros, Camila Carolina Queiroz; de Araújo, Jessica Guido

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous schistosomiasis is a rare clinical manifestation of schistosomiasis, an infectious and parasitic disease, caused in Brazil by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. The lesions are due to the deposition of eggs or, rarely, adult worms, usually involving the genital and groin areas. Extra-genital lesions occur mainly on the torso as papules of zosteriform appearance. The case of a patient with ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis is reported in this article, due to the rarity of its occurrence and its difficult clinical diagnosis. PMID:26982792

  9. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma: A case series.

    PubMed

    Ashmore, Philippa; Patel, Moosa; Vaughan, Jenifer; Wiggill, Tracey; Willem, Pascale; van den Berg, Eunice; Philip, Vinitha; Lakha, Atul

    2015-06-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare type of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), grouped under the mature or peripheral T-cell lymphomas. It is characterised by extranodal infiltration and proliferation of malignant T-cells within the sinusoids of the liver, sinuses and red pulp of the spleen, and the bone marrow. The tumour cells express CD2 and CD3, but are CD4, CD5 and CD8 negative and express a clonally restricted gamma-delta (or less commonly alpha-beta) T-cell receptor. The disease has an aggressive clinical course associated with a poor prognosis. We highlight and report three patients from South Africa with HSTCL, all of whom had hepatosplenomegaly and cytopaenias, and despite being HIV seronegative and immunocompetent, had a poor outcome, with a mean survival of 7.5 months in the two evaluable patients. This rare entity has not previously been reported from South Africa and as yet needs to be adequately characterised in a population where lymphoma is the most common haematological malignancy in adults, and where approximately two thirds of the adult lymphoma population are HIV seropositive. PMID:25450840

  10. Development of a schistosomiasis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Rojo, Juan U; Siddiqui, Sabrina Z; Gray, Sean A; Carter, Darrick; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2016-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) of public health importance. Despite decades of implementation of mass praziquantel therapy programs and other control measures, schistosomiasis has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas. A schistosomiasis vaccine could play an important role as part of a multifaceted control approach. With regards to vaccine development, many biological bottlenecks still exist: the lack of reliable surrogates of protection in humans; immune interactions in co-infections with other diseases in endemic areas; the potential risk of IgE responses to antigens in endemic populations; and paucity of appropriate vaccine efficacy studies in nonhuman primate models. Research is also needed on the role of modern adjuvants targeting specific parts of the innate immune system to tailor a potent and protective immune response for lead schistosome vaccine candidates with the long-term aim to achieve curative worm reduction. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:26651503

  11. PARASITES AND POVERTY: THE CASE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS

    PubMed Central

    King, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly-measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. PMID:19962954

  12. Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    King, Charles H

    2010-02-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. PMID:19962954

  13. Still hope for schistosomiasis vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, Alessandra; Ndao, Momar

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by helminths belonging to the Schistosoma genus. Approximately 700 million people are at risk of infection and 200 million people are currently infected. Schistosomiasis is the most important helminth infection, and treatment relies solely on the drug praziquantel. Worries of praziquantel resistance as well as high disease burden are only some of the justifications which support the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. To date, only 2 schistosome vaccines have made it into clinical trials: Sh28GST (Bilhvax) and Sm14. However, there are several vaccine candidates, such as TSP-2, sm-p8, and Sm-Cathepsin B, which are generating promising results in pre-clinical studies. Schistosomiasis vaccine development has been an uphill battle, and there are still several hurdles to overcome in the future. Fortunately, the research groups involved in the research for vaccine development have not abandoned their work. Furthermore, in the last few years, schistosomiasis has garnered some additional attention on a global scale due to its significant impact on public health. PMID:26176659

  14. Scintigraphic findings in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Orduña, E; Silva, F

    1995-12-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is a tropical parasitic disease caused by a blood fluke which inhabits the portal system of humans. Fifteen pediatric patients with the acute disease were evaluated with liver and spleen scintigraphy (LSS). Clinical history, physical examination, and serum chemistries failed to reveal any other underlying systemic disease. Liver and spleen scintigraphies were performed before therapy, 7 months and 9 years after therapy with oxamniquine. LSS initially showed hepatomegaly in 93% of the patients. In the first follow up study a reactive spleen was evident in 78% of the cases, with an unchanged hepatic image. Long term follow up revealed that from the initially enlarged livers, 93% became normal. However, 47% of the spleens were abnormal. The scintigraphic changes observed in the liver over the years were those expected for an acute infection. The findings in the spleen might indicate the persistence of an immunologic reaction with a continuous trigger, probably an antibody. These observations suggest that the LSS can be used in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8637963

  15. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  16. Hepatosplenic sarcoidosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Tana, Claudio; Dietrich, Christoph F; Schiavone, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a complex granulomatous disease that affects virtually every organ and tissue, with a prevalence that varies significantly among the sites involved. The role of conventional imaging, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the assessment of hepatosplenic sarcoidosis is well established by revealing organ enlargement, multiple discrete nodules, and lymphadenopathy. In this review, we aim to describe contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) findings in liver and spleen involvement by sarcoidosis, reporting evidence from the literature and cases from our experience, after a brief update on safety profile, cost-effectiveness, and clinical indications of this novel technique. Furthermore, we highlight potential advantages of CEUS in assessing hepatosplenic sarcoidosis that may be useful in the clinical practice. PMID:25215299

  17. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings. PMID:9815445

  18. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christine V; Zhang, Fan; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edition of a review first published in 1997. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS and reference lists of articles up to 23 May 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antischistosomal drugs and drug combinations compared to placebo, no intervention, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two researchers independently screened the records, extracted the data and assessed risk of bias. The primary efficacy outcomes were parasitological failure (defined as the continued presence of S. haematobium eggs in the urine at time points greater than one month after treatment), and percent reduction of egg counts from baseline. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR), and continuous data as mean difference (MD), alongside their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate we combined trials in meta analyses or tables. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 30 RCTs enrolling 8165 participants in this review. Twenty-four trials were conducted in children in sub-Saharan Africa, and 21 trials were over 20 years old. Many studies were assessed as being at unclear risk of bias due to inadequate descriptions of study methods. Praziquantel On average, a single 40 mg/kg dose of praziquantel reduced the proportion of people still

  19. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour. PMID:24839538

  20. Determination and control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, F S

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this conference reflects the scientific community's interest in seeking to understand the complex causal web whose various social, economic, and biological components interact in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis and its control in relation to community participation. From the onset, the author stresses the impossibility of dealing separately with community participation, as if social components were just one more "weapon" in the arsenal for schistosomiasis control. This study begins with a brief historical review of the 71 years of control activities with this endemic disease, stressing the enormous efforts and huge expenditures in this field vis-à-vis the limited results, despite the extraordinary technological development of specific, classical control inputs such as new treatment drugs and molluscicides. The article then discusses the various strategies used in control programs, emphasizing ideological consistencies and contradictions. Interactions at the macro and micro levels are discussed, as are the determinants and risk factors involved in producing the disease's endemicity. Unequal occupation of space leaves the segregated portion of the population exposed to extremely favorable conditions for transmission of the disease. This raises the issue of how to control an endemic disease which is so closely linked to the way of life imposed on the population. The study challenges the classical control model and suggests an alternative model now undergoing medium-term investigation in the States of Espirito Santo, and Pernambuco, Brazil. The author concludes that we do not need new strategies, but a new control model, contrary to the prevailing classical model in both concept and practice. From the conceptual point of view, the new model mentioned above is different from others in that schistosomiasis control is seen from a social perspective stressing the population's accumulated knowledge in addition to the building of shared

  1. Achievements of schistosomiasis control in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongchang; Jiang, Qingwu; Zhao, Genming; He, Na

    2002-01-01

    The control of schistosomiasis has been spectacularly successful in terms of controlling endemicity and severity of the disease during the last 50 years. It can be categorized into two stages. From 1955 through 1980, the transmission-control strategy had been widely and successfully carried out. By the end of 1980, the epidemic of schistosomiasis was successfully circumscribed in certain core regions including areas at the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River and some mountainous areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, where control of schistosomiasis had been demonstrated to be very difficult to be sustained. Therefore, since 1980, schistosomiasis control in China has been modified to employ a stepwise strategy, based on which morbidity control has been given priorities and if possible transmission control has been pursued. However, since snail-ridden areas remain unchanged so far, reinfections occur frequently. This necessitates a maintenance phase to consolidate the achievements in the control of schistosomiasis. In the mean time, we are challenged with some environmental, social and economical changes in terms of controlling schistosomiasis. Successfully controlling schistosomiasis in China is still a long-term task but will be achieved without doubt along with the economic development and the promotion of living and cultural standard of people. PMID:12426618

  2. Schistosomiasis japonicum diagnosed on liver biopsy in a patient with hepatitis B co-infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic hepatitis B virus and schistosomiasis are independently associated with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite much geographic overlap between these conditions and no reason why co-infection should not exist, we present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first published report of a proven histological diagnosis of hepatic Schistosomiasis japonicum and chronic hepatitis B co-infection. A single case of hepatitis B and hepatic Schistosomiasis mansoni diagnosed by liver biopsy has previously been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 38-year-old Chinese man with known chronic hepatitis B virus infection presented with malaise, nausea and headache. Blood tests revealed increased transaminases and serology in keeping with hepatitis B virus e-antigen seroconversion. A liver biopsy was performed because some investigations, particularly transient elastography, suggested cirrhosis. Two schistosome ova were seen on liver histology, identified as S. japonicum, probably acquired in China as a youth. His peripheral eosinophil count was normal, schistosomal serology and stool microscopy for ova, cysts and parasites were negative. Conclusion Hepatic schistosomiasis co-infection should be considered in patients with hepatitis B virus infection who are from countries endemic for schistosomiasis. Screening for schistosomiasis using a peripheral eosinophil count, schistosomal serology and stool microscopy may be negative despite infection, therefore presumptive treatment could be considered. Transient elastography should not be used to assess liver fibrosis during acute flares of viral hepatitis because readings are falsely elevated. The impact of hepatic schistosomiasis on the sensitivity and specificity of transient elastography measurement for the assessment of hepatitis B is as yet unknown. PMID:24521427

  3. Asymptomatic schistosomiasis in a young Sudanese refugee.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jill

    2007-04-01

    In 2004-2005, approximately 13,000 refugees settled in Australia, 70% of them from Africa. Schistosomiasis is one of the many illnesses endemic in Africa and approximately 40% of refugees have been found to be infected by this parasite. It has the potential to cause serious morbidity and mortality in those who are infected and after malaria is the second most prevalent tropical disease worldwide. Australia is not known to have an appropriate snail vector and so schistosomiasis is unlikely to be a public health problem. This article presents a case that demonstrates one of the sequelae of schistosomiasis - pipe stem cirrhosis - with associated splenomegaly and oesophageal varices. PMID:17392939

  4. Schistosomiasis Research in the Dongting Lake Region and Its Impact on Local and National Treatment and Control in China

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Gray, Darren J.; Ross, Allen G.; Williams, Gail M.; He, Hong-Bin; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that has often been neglected because it is a disease of poverty, affecting poor rural communities in the developing world. This is not the case in the People's Republic of China (PRC), where the disease, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, has long captured the attention of the Chinese authorities who have, over the past 50–60 years, undertaken remarkably successful control programs that have substantially reduced the schistosomiasis disease burden. The Dongting Lake region in Hunan province is one of the major schistosome-endemic areas in the PRC due to its vast marshland habitats for the Oncomelania snail intermediate hosts of S. japonicum. Along with social, demographic, and other environmental factors, the recent completion and closure of the Three Gorges dam will most likely increase the range of these snail habitats, with the potential for re-emergence of schistosomiasis and increased transmission in Hunan and other schistosome-endemic provinces being a particular concern. In this paper, we review the history and the current status of schistosomiasis control in the Dongting Lake region. We explore the epidemiological factors contributing to S. japonicum transmission there, and summarise some of the key research findings from studies undertaken on schistosomiasis in Hunan province over the past 10 years. The impact of this research on current and future approaches for sustainable integrated control of schistosomiasis in this and other endemic areas in the PRC is emphasised. PMID:21912706

  5. Common variable immunodeficiency associated with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma mimicking juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jesus, A A; Jacob, C M A; Silva, C A; Dorna, M; Pastorino, A C; Carneiro-Sampaio, M

    2011-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder with susceptibility to infections, autoimmune manifestations, and cancer. To our knowledge, CIVD with T-cell lymphoma mimicking juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) was not described in the literature, and one case was reported herein. An 8-year-old female was admitted in our Pediatric Immunology Unit with a clinical history of hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent upper respiratory infections, and pneumonias. She had a marked decrease of three serum immunoglobulin isotypes, and the diagnosis of CVID was established. At the age of 17 years, she presented with oral ulceration, nonerosive arthritis, nephritis, serositis, cytopenia, positive antiphospholipid antibodies, and positive antinuclear antibody fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE. She was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone for three consecutive days, and intravenous immunoglobulin, and maintenance therapy of chloroquine, azathioprine and prednisone 40  mg/day. Two months later, she died of septic shock secondary to acute pneumonia. The necropsy showed hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma with diffuse involvement of bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lungs. The lymphoma cells were positive for CD3 immunostaining and negative for CD20 and lysozyme. In conclusion, the association of CVID and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma may simulate JSLE diagnosis. PMID:21776287

  6. Schistosomiasis elimination by 2020 or 2030?

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Alan; Jourdan, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Schistosomiasis has been a public health burden in a number of countries across the globe for centuries and probably beyond. The World Health Organization and partners are currently preparing to move towards elimination of this disease. However, given the historical challenges and barriers to ridding areas of this water-borne parasite infection, we question whether the current targets for eliminating schistosomiasis as a global health problem can be achieved. PMID:26907938

  7. [Ecological civilization and schistosomiasis control in Yujiang County].

    PubMed

    Ai, Dong-Yun; Liu, Bu-Yun

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the main approach of ecological civilization construction and great changes and achievements in the original schistosomiasis endemic areas, Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province. Ecological civilization is an important part of schistosomiasis control work. PMID:22590876

  8. Schistosomiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to its preferred body part, depending on its species. These areas include the: Bladder Rectum Intestines Liver ... Symptoms vary with the species of worm and the phase of ... cause fever, chills, swollen lymph nodes, and swollen liver and ...

  9. Schistosomiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... zi-a), is a disease caused by parasitic worms. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium , and S. japonicum causes ... or washing in contaminated water. Within several weeks, worms grow inside the blood vessels of the body ...

  10. Schistosomiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can get a schistosoma infection through contact with contaminated water. This parasite swims freely in open bodies ... disease is known to exist Been exposed to contaminated or possibly contaminated bodies of water

  11. Schistosomiasis transmission and control in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lan; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-03-01

    In the last 60 years, great progress has been made in controlling and preventing schistosomiasis in China. However, due to the ecosystem changes caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dams and the South-north Water Conversion Project, the effects of climate change, the scarcity of a highly sensitive surveillance and response system, schistosomiasis is still considered as a major public health problem and is listed among the top infectious diseases in the country prioritized for control and elimination. Based on the epidemiological pattern of schistosomiasis and ecological characteristics of the vector snail, endemic areas of schistosomiasis in China were categorized into three types: (i) plain region with waterway networks, (ii) mountainous and hilly regions, and (iii) marshland and lake regions. China aims to reach the criteria of transmission control threshold of less than 1% in the lake and marshland provinces and reach transmission interruption threshold in hilly provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan by the end of 2015. The purpose of this article is to use the deterministic model proposed in our earlier study in (Chen et al., 2010) to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from other lake and marshland provinces, including Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui. Our simulations demonstrate that the model can reasonably mimic the schistosomiasis infection data from these lake and marshland provinces. Thus, similar control and prevention measures can be designed and proposed for these provinces. We will also try to use the model to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in the mountainous and hilly regions where cattle farming is not as popular and important as in the lake and marshland provinces and find out that different control and prevention strategies are required. PMID:25559046

  12. Evaluation of a 25-Year-Program for the Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in an Endemic Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sarvel, Ana K.; Oliveira, Áureo A.; Silva, Alexandre R.; Lima, Anna C. L.; Katz, Naftale

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies showed that chemotherapy can control schistosomiasis morbidity, but association of measures (water supply, sewage disposal and increase of socioeconomic conditions) is necessary for transmission control. Methodology/Principal Findings A survey dealing with socioeconomic conditions, snail survey, contact with natural waters, and clinical and stool examinations was undertaken at an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodology used was the same for both evaluations (1981 and 2005). Four hundred and seventy-five out of 1,474 individuals studied in 1981 could be contacted. From these, 358 were submitted to stool examination, and 231 of them were clinically examined. Patients eliminating S. mansoni eggs in their stools were treated. The results showed that the prevalence rate in Comercinho, a municipality of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was substantially reduced to 70.4% and 1.7% in 1981 and 2005, respectively, as well as the frequency of the hepatosplenic form (7% to 1.3%) after five treatments effectuated between 1981 and 1992. No other new case of this form was detected from 1981 onwards. Another important aspect to be considered was the improvement of people's living standard that occurred in the region after more than two decades' efforts (better housing, professional skill and adequate basic sanitation). Conclusion/Significance The control of morbidity and very significant decrease of schistosomiasis transmission in an area until then considered as hyperendemic was possible by means of association of successive specific treatments of the local population, together with the construction of privies, water supply in the houses and improvement of socioeconomic conditions. PMID:21423644

  13. Recent situation of schistosomiasis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Izhar, Ali; Sinaga, R M; Sudomo, M; Wardiyo, N D

    2002-05-01

    Schistosomiasis in Indonesia is limited to two very isolated areas, the Napu and Lindu valleys, in the province of Central Sulawesi. The disease was initially found in 1937 in the village of Tomado. In 1940, a study on schistosomiasis in the Lake Lindu area was initiated and an infection rate of 56% among the people in the three villages of Anca, Tomado and Langko was found. Before a comprehensive control programme was initiated, the infection rate among the population of approximately 4000 people in the Napu valley was very high, e.g. 72% in the village of Winowanga. In 1982, more coordinated and intensive schistosomiasis control measures in the Napu and Lindu valleys were initiated. The average infection rate after control measures were greatly decreased-in Napu valley it was 1.83%, while in Lindu valley it was 0.46%, in 1999. The control approaches can be described over five phases, from 1982 to 1986, up to 1998 to present. In 1998, an agreement between the Government of Indonesia and the Asian Development Bank was signed to develop the schistosomiasis endemic areas of Central Sulawesi into a better socio-economic condition. The objectives of the project are not only to control schistosomiasis, but mainly to protect the National Park which is located between the Lindu and Napu valleys. It is an integrated project named 'Central Sulawesi Integrated Area Development and Conservation Project' and many relevant sectors have been involved in the implementation of this project for the development of the area, including control of schistosomiasis. The implementation of the integrated project started in 1999. PMID:12020902

  14. Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Schistosomiasis Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.-R.; Tang, L.-L.; Niu, H.-B.; Zhou, X.-N.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Ma, L.-L.; Zhou, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that menaces human health. In terms of impact this disease is second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease. Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma, and hence monitoring and controlling of the number of oncomelania is key to reduce the risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Remote sensing technology can real-timely access the large-scale environmental factors related to oncomelania breeding and reproduction, such as temperature, moisture, vegetation, soil, and rainfall, and can also provide the efficient information to determine the location, area, and spread tendency of oncomelania. Many studies show that the correlation coefficient between oncomelania densities and remote sensing environmental factors depends largely on suitable and high quality remote sensing data used in retrieve environmental factors. Research achievements on retrieving environmental factors (which are related to the living, multiplying and transmission of oncomelania) by multi-source remote data are shown firstly, including: (a) Vegetation information (e.g., Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Moisture Index, Fractional Vegetation Cover) extracted from optical remote sensing data, such as Landsat TM, HJ-1A/HSI image; (b) Surface temperature retrieval from Thermal Infrared (TIR) and passive-microwave remote sensing data; (c) Water region, soil moisture, forest height retrieval from synthetic aperture radar data, such as Envisat SAR, DLR's ESAR image. Base on which, the requirements of environmental factor accuracy for schistosomiasis monitoring will be analyzed and summarized. Our work on applying remote sensing technique to schistosomiasis monitoring is then presented. The fuzzy information theory is employed to analyze the sensitivity and feasibility relation between oncomelania densities and environmental factors. Then a mechanism model of predicting oncomelania distribution and

  15. Human Schistosomiasis mansoni associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: current perspective.

    PubMed

    El-Tonsy, Manar Mahmoud; Hussein, Hesham Mohammed; Helal, Thanaa El-Sayed; Tawfik, Rania Ayman; Koriem, Khalid Mohamed; Hussein, Hend Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It was reported to account for about 4.7 % of chronic liver disease in Egyptian patients. The present study aimed at studying the different factors that may be implicated in the relationship of schistosomiasis mansoni with HCC in Egypt. A total of 75 Egyptian patients with primary liver tumours (HCC) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to full history taking and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. According to the results, the patients were categorized into two groups: Group I: 29 patients with negative IHA for schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive with no history or laboratory evidence of previous or current Schistosoma mansoni infection. Group II: 46 patients with positive IHA for schistosomiasis and HCV positive. The significant higher proportion of HCC patients in the present study had concomitant HCV and schistosomiasis (61.3 %) compared to HCC patients with HCV alone (38.7 %) suggesting that the co-infection had increased the incidence of HCC among these patients. Analysis of the age distribution among HCC patients revealed that patients in Group II were younger in age at time of diagnosis of HCC with mean age 57.1 years, as compared to patients in Group I with mean age 64.3 years with a highly significant statistical difference between the 2 groups. HCC in Group II was more common in rural residents while it was more common in urban areas in Group I with a significant statistical difference between the 2 groups. Analysis of the sex distribution among the studied groups showed that HCC was more common in males than females in both groups. As regards the aggression of HCC, it was more commonly multifocal and larger in size in patients with concomitant infection than in patients with HCV alone. PMID:27605822

  16. A case of hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma with a transient response to fludarabine and alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S; Milner, B J; Johnston, P W; Culligan, D J

    2006-06-01

    Hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma is a rare, usually fatal lymphoma and available literature on management is sparse. Allografting is probably the only curative option. We describe a further case with a dramatic, though transient response to Fludarabine and Alemtuzumab combination, following a failure of conventional chemotherapy. Given the dreadful prognosis with conventional chemotherapy, it is a regimen worth pursuing as a disease reduction strategy prior to allograft where appropriate. PMID:16548918

  17. Schistosoma mansoni-Related Hepatosplenic Morbidity in Adult Population on Kome Island, Sengerema District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Min, Duk-Young; Siza, Julius E.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su-Young; Changalucha, John M.; Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the important neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Tanzania, particularly in Lake Victoria zone. This baseline survey was a part of the main study of integrated control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) aimed at describing morbidity patterns due to intestinal schistosomiasis among adults living on Kome Island, Sengerema District, Tanzania. Total 388 adults from Kome Islands (about 50 people from each village) aged between 12 and 85 years, were examined by abdominal ultrasound according to the Niamey protocol. Liver image patterns (LIPs) A and B were considered normal, and C-F as distinct periportal fibrosis (PPF). The overall prevalence of PPF was 42.2%; much higher in males than in females (47.0% in male vs 34.4% in females, P=0.007). Abnormal increase of segmental branch wall thickness (SBWT) and dilated portal vein diameter (PVD) were also more common in males than in females. Hepatosplenomegaly was frequently encountered; 68.1% had left liver lobe hepatomegaly and 55.2% had splenomegaly. Schistosoma mansoni-related morbidity is quite high among adults in this community justifying the implementation of integrated control strategies through mass drug administration, improved water supply (pumped wells), and health education that had already started in the study area. PMID:26537033

  18. Schistosoma mansoni-Related Hepatosplenic Morbidity in Adult Population on Kome Island, Sengerema District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaatano, Godfrey M; Min, Duk-Young; Siza, Julius E; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su-Young; Changalucha, John M; Eom, Keeseon S; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the important neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Tanzania, particularly in Lake Victoria zone. This baseline survey was a part of the main study of integrated control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) aimed at describing morbidity patterns due to intestinal schistosomiasis among adults living on Kome Island, Sengerema District, Tanzania. Total 388 adults from Kome Islands (about 50 people from each village) aged between 12 and 85 years, were examined by abdominal ultrasound according to the Niamey protocol. Liver image patterns (LIPs) A and B were considered normal, and C-F as distinct periportal fibrosis (PPF). The overall prevalence of PPF was 42.2%; much higher in males than in females (47.0% in male vs 34.4% in females, P=0.007). Abnormal increase of segmental branch wall thickness (SBWT) and dilated portal vein diameter (PVD) were also more common in males than in females. Hepatosplenomegaly was frequently encountered; 68.1% had left liver lobe hepatomegaly and 55.2% had splenomegaly. Schistosoma mansoni-related morbidity is quite high among adults in this community justifying the implementation of integrated control strategies through mass drug administration, improved water supply (pumped wells), and health education that had already started in the study area. PMID:26537033

  19. Schistosomiasis: The World's Number One Health Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Elizabeth J.

    1977-01-01

    Provides an informative discussion of the disease called schistosomiasis. The discussion covers environmental factors contributing to the disease, its symptoms, the disease organism and its vectors, and treatment of the disease. The author points out the need for water and soil pollution control in disease prone areas. (MR)

  20. Advancing a vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Maureen; Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    Several candidate human schistosomiasis vaccines are in different stages of preclinical and clinical development. The major targets are Schistosoma haematobium (urogenitial schistosomiasis) and Schistosoma mansoni (intestinal schistosomiasis) that account for 99% of the world's 252 million cases, with 90% of these cases in Africa. Two recombinant S. mansoni vaccines - Sm-TSP-2 and Sm-14 are in Phase 1 trials, while Smp80 (calpain) is undergoing testing in non-human primates. Sh28GST, also known as Bilhvax is in advanced clinical development for S. haematobium infection. The possibility remains that some of these vaccines may cross-react to target both schistosome species. These vaccines were selected on the basis of their protective immunity in preclinical challenge models, through human immune-epidemiological studies or both. They are being advanced through a combination of academic research institutions, non-profit vaccine product development partnerships, biotechnology companies, and developing country vaccine manufacturers. In addition, new schistosome candidate vaccines are being identified through bioinformatics, OMICs approaches, and moderate throughput screening, although the full potential of reverse vaccinology for schistosomiasis has not yet been realized. The target product profiles of these vaccines vary but many focus on vaccinating children, in some cases following mass treatment with praziquantel, also known as vaccine-linked chemotherapy. Several regulatory pathways have been proposed, some of which rely on World Health Organization prequalification. PMID:27036511

  1. Hepatosplenic alpha/beta T-cell lymphoma masquerading as cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hariton, Eduardo; Kothari, Darshan; Pihan, German A.; Robson, Simon C.

    2013-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, prior hepatitis B infection and recently diagnosed cirrhosis with prior Babesiosis presented to our institution from an outside hospital with six months of worsening abdominal pain, myalgias and fevers. On admission, physical examination revealed jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and diffuse lymphadenopathy. Laboratory investigations demonstrated mild anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, and active Babesia microti infection were negative, however Epstein-Barr virus DNA by quantitative PCR was markedly elevated. CT scan revealed features suggestive of a cirrhotic liver without focal mass lesions as well as massive splenomegaly with axillary, retroperitoneal and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow and lymph node biopsies were obtained which ultimately revealed hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma. The patient’s initial liver biopsy from five months prior to presentation was re-evaluated by our institution’s pathologists. Histologic analysis showed hepatic sinusoidal and portal infiltration of atypical lymphocytes morphologically identical to those present on the more recently excised lymph node tissue. The hepatic sinusoidal lymphoid cells were strongly positive for CD2, CD3 and CD5 whereas CD4, CD8 stained only minor subsets of the T cells. Subsequent flow cytometric immunophenotypying of peripheral blood identified T-cell receptor alpha/beta positive cells that lacked CD4 and CD8 (double negative alpha/beta T cells). Given the established bone marrow involvement, he was diagnosed with stage IV disease and treated with chemotherapy. His clinical course involved multiple hospitalizations complicated by hyponatremia, neutropenic fevers and pulmonary emboli. Following his fourth cycle of chemotherapy, he developed worsening liver failure and expired approximately three months after initial diagnosis of lymphoma. Hepatosplenic lymphoma of alpha/beta T

  2. Molecular features of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma unravels potential novel therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Travert, Marion; Huang, Yenlin; De Leval, Laurence; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene; Berger, Françoise; Bosq, Jacques; Brière, Josette; Soulier, Jean; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Marafioti, Teresa; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Gaulard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare entity mostly derived from γδ T cells that shows a fatal outcome. Its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. HSTL samples (7γδ, 2αβ) and the DERL2 HSTL-cell line were subject to combined gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Compared to other T-cell lymphomas, HSTL disclosed a distinct molecular signature irrespective of TCR cell lineage. Compared to PTCL,NOS and normal γδ cells, HSTL overexpressed genes encoding NK-cell associated molecules, oncogenes (FOS, VAV3), the Sphingosine-1-phosphatase receptor 5 involved in cell trafficking and the tyrosine kinase SYK, whereas the tumor suppressor gene AIM1 was among the most downexpressed. Methylation analysis of DERL2 cells demonstrated highly methylated CpG islands of AIM1 and decitabine treatment induced significant increase in AIM1 transcripts. Notably, Syk was demonstrated in HSTL cells with its phosphorylated form present in DERL2 cells by Western blot, and in vitro DERL2 cells were sensitive to a Syk inhibitor. Genomic profiles confirmed recurrent isochromosome 7q (n=6/9) without alterations at 9q22 and 6q21 containing SYK and AIM1 genes, respectively. The current study identifies a distinct molecular signature for HSTL and highlights oncogenic pathways which offer rationale for exploring new therapeutic options such as Syk inhibitors and demethylating agents. PMID:22510872

  3. Hepatosplenic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma: clinicopathological features and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Falchook, G. S.; Vega, F.; Dang, N. H.; Samaniego, F.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Champlin, R. E.; Hosing, C.; Verstovsek, S.; Pro, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare peripheral T-cell lymphoma; treatment with standard anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimens has been disappointing, and an optimal treatment strategy for this patient population has not yet been determined. Methods: We identified 15 cases of pathologically confirmed HSTCL in the institution's database. Clinical characteristics and treatment results were reviewed. Results: Complete responses (CRs) were achieved in 7 of 14 patients who received chemotherapy. Achievement of CR was followed by hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in three patients. Median duration of CR was 8 months (range 2 to 32+ months) with four patients currently alive and in CR at 5, 8, 12, and 32 months, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 11 months (range 2 to 36+ months). Patients who achieved a CR had a median OS of 13 months, compared with 7.5 months in patients who did not achieve a CR. Risk factors associated with worse outcome included male gender, failure to achieve a CR, history of immunocompromise, and absence of a T-cell receptor gene rearrangement in the gamma chain. Conclusion: A better understanding of the pathophysiology of HSTCL and new therapeutic strategies are needed. PMID:19237479

  4. Research and control of advanced schistosomiasis japonica in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Aicheng; Huang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Among the three main schistosomes (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma haematobium) known to infect humans, S. japonicum causes the most serious pathological lesions. In China, only schistosomiasis japonica is transmitted. From the 1950s, massive epidemiological investigations and active control measures for schistosomiasis japonica have been carried out. At the early stage of schistosomiasis control program, there were about 12 million schistosomiasis patients, and about 5% of schistosomiasis patients belong to advanced patients, which was 600,000. After more than a half century of active schistosomiasis control work, the schistosomiasis situation has been reduced markedly. The nearest epidemiological investigation showed that, by the end of 2012, there were still 240,000 schistosomiasis patients with the descent rate of 98% and 30,000 advanced patients with the descent rate of 95%. This paper reviews the rich experiences of advanced schistosomiasis research and control in China, including that the epidemiology researches confirm there is a family aggregation of advanced schistosomiasis and advanced schistosomiasis patients have no significance to the schistosomiasis transmission in transmission-interrupted areas but still are an infection source in endemic areas; pathogenic mechanism researches verify that genetic factors and immunoregulation play important roles in the disease developing process; ultrasound image examinations are used not only in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of advanced schistosomiasis but also in the guidance of treatment and evaluation of therapeutic effects and, furthermore, in the risk predictions of portal hypertension and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; clinical practices demonstrate that praziquantel can be used in most of advanced schistosomiasis patients, and the therapy not only can interrupt the schistosomiasis transmission somewhat but also is favorable for liver fibrosis improvement; the

  5. Workshop report: Schistosomiasis vaccine clinical development and product characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mo, Annie X; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-02-17

    A schistosomiasis vaccine meeting was organized to evaluate the utility of a vaccine in public health programs, to discuss clinical development paths, and to define basic product characteristics for desirable vaccines to be used in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination programs. It was concluded that clinical evaluation of a schistosomiasis vaccine is feasible with appropriate trial design and tools. Some basic Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) for a human schistosomiasis vaccine and for a veterinary vaccine for bovine use were also proposed. PMID:26721329

  6. [Urinary schistosomiasis: remarks on a case].

    PubMed

    Scarlata, F; Giordano, S; Romano, A; Marasa, L; Lipani, G; Infurnari, L; Titone, L

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by S. haematobium with a wide range of clinical manifestations related to the mucosal and submucosal granulomatous lesions of the bladder. It affects about 80 million people in Africa, Middle-East and India, while in Italy it is rarely seen among immigrants from endemic areas and returning travellers. The authors describe a case occurred in a 26 years old man, recently emigrated from a rural area of Ghana. He had the symptoms of a haemorrhagic cystitis. Cystoscopy and biopsy showed granulomatous lesions of bladder with calcified eggs. Microscopic examination of urine was positive for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The therapy with Praziquantel (40 mg/Kg una tantum) was effective. The authors emphasized the risk of introduction of schistosomiasis in some regions of our country, in consideration of the presence of the intermediate host as well as of an appropriate climate. PMID:16388282

  7. Schistosomiasis and the social patterning of infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Manderson, L

    1992-08-01

    Social, cultural, behavioural and economic factors interact with local environmental and ecological factors to produce extraordinary variation in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis, including with respect to prevalence and intensity of infection and the potential for control. This article reviews the literature on schistosomiasis infection, primarily derived from African studies, to identify its major social themes. Research has demonstrated a strong link between economic development strategies, where irrigation has been introduced to boost agricultural production, and the increased transmission of infection. Water-contact studies have provided the fullest and most detailed descriptions of social risk factors, and have isolated age, sex, religion and occupation as primary risk factors. However, fuller explorations of the social and cultural context of infection have yet to be undertaken. The social context of water-related behaviour and patterns of water use within communities and households, the intersection of social and economic activities, and the significance that people give to these activities, remains poorly explored, and although research papers concerned with community-based interventions refer to poor community understanding of the cause, prevention and treatment of the disease, this domain has also received little scholarly attention. Finally, economic studies have focused primarily on working capacity, and extrapolated these findings to generalize about the impact that this might have on productivity, but have yet to address either household or community costs of schistosomiasis infection. PMID:1359746

  8. Water-based interventions for schistosomiasis control

    PubMed Central

    Evan Secor, William

    2014-01-01

    Mass drug administration with praziquantel is the mainstay of programs for the control of schistosomiasis morbidity. However, there is a growing recognition that treatment alone will not be sufficient for eventually effecting elimination and that additional measures will be required to interrupt transmission. In the absence of a safe and an effective vaccine for human schistosomiasis, the strategies to reduce infection levels will necessarily involve some interventions that affect the water-related stages of the schistosome life cycle: by reducing exposure to infectious water, by moderating availability of the intermediate snail host, or by decreasing contamination of water with egg-containing excreta. While much research on the importance of water on schistosomiasis has been performed, advances in these areas have perhaps languished with the ready availability of a cost-effective treatment. As some endemic areas near a shift to an elimination goal, a better understanding of water-based interventions that can be used alone or in concert with treatment will be needed. Reinvigoration of laboratory, field, and human behavioral aspects of this research now will ensure that the appropriate strategies are available by the time their implementation becomes necessary. PMID:25175875

  9. Prognostic Factors of Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma: Clinicopathologic Study of 28 Cases.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Mariko; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Tang, Guilin; Wang, Sa A; Ahmed, Sairah; Nieto, Yago; Hu, Shimin; Bhagat, Govind; Oki, Yasuhiro; Patel, Keyur P; Routbort, Mark; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Fanale, Michelle A; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Vega, Francisco; Chen, Weina; Hoehn, Daniela; Konoplev, Sergej; Milton, Denai R; Wistuba, Ignacio; Li, Shaoying; You, M James; Young, Ken H; Miranda, Roberto N

    2016-05-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare type of lymphoma. Patients have a poor prognosis, and there is no standard of care. We evaluated 28 HSTCL patients to determine factors that may be associated with outcome. There were 19 men and 9 women with a median age of 32.5 years. Most patients had massive splenomegaly, and bone marrow showed sinusoidal involvement by lymphoma. The HSTCL cells expressed γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) in 20 (74%), αβ TCR in 5 (19%), and neither in 2 (7%) patients (1 case not assessed). Conventional cytogenetics and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in 24 patients at diagnosis showed isochromosome 7q (i7q) in 10 (42%) and trisomy 8 in 8 (33%) patients. Median overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were each 28.3 months. Serum bilirubin level ≥1.5 mg/dL, αβ TCR expression, and trisomy 8 each correlated significantly with shorter OS and EFS. Patients with HSTCL received a variety of chemotherapy regimens with no regimen better than any other. However, patients who underwent stem cell transplant showed longer survival (OS: hazard ratio 0.3, P=0.09; EFS: hazard ratio 0.2, P=0.034). In conclusion, although HSTCL patients have a poor prognosis overall, the data presented support the novel suggestions that HSTCL patients can be stratified into 2 prognostic groups, with an elevated serum bilirubin level, αβ TCR expression, and trisomy 8 identifying a poorer prognostic group. In addition, the outcomes of this patient cohort suggest that stem cell transplantation has value for the treatment of patients with HSTCL. PMID:26872013

  10. Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex in children with hepatosplenic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T J; Whitcomb, P; Piscitelli, S; Figg, W D; Hill, S; Chanock, S J; Jarosinski, P; Gupta, R; Pizzo, P A

    1997-09-01

    The safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) were studied in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients. Six children with hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) received 2.5 mg of ABLC/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks for a total dosage of 105 mg/kg. Mean serum creatinine (0.85 +/- 0.12 mg/dl at baseline) was stable at the end of therapy at 0.85 +/- 0.18 mg/dl and at 1-month follow-up at 0.72 +/- 0.12 mg/dl. There was no increase in hepatic transaminases. Mean plasma concentrations over the dosing interval (C(ave)) and area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24h)) increased between the first and seventh doses but were similar between doses 7 and 42, suggesting that steady state was achieved by day 7 of therapy. Following the final (42nd) dose of ABLC, mean AUC(0-24h) was 11.9 +/- 2.6 microg h/ml, C(ave) was 0.50 +/- 0.11 microg/ml, maximum concentration of the drug in whole blood was 1.69 +/- 0.75 microg/ml, and clearance was 3.64 +/- 0.78 ml/min/kg. Response of hepatic and splenic lesions was monitored by serial computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans. The five evaluable patients responded to ABLC with complete or partial resolution of physical findings and of lesions of HSC. During the course of ABLC infusions and follow-up, there was no progression of HSC, breakthrough fungemia, or posttherapy recurrence. Hepatic lesions continued to resolve after the completion of administration of ABLC. Thus, ABLC administered in multiple doses to children was safe, was characterized by a steady state attainable within 1 week of therapy, and was effective in treatment of HSC. PMID:9303390

  11. [Evolution of schistosomiasis control and prevention strategies in hilly regions with schistosomiasis endemic in China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Long-ting; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Li-juan; Zhong, Bo; Feng, Xi-guang; Xu, Xiao-lin; Guo, Jia-gang

    2013-10-01

    This article expatiates the epidemiological characteristics, the evolution process of control and prevention strategies and measures in hilly regions with schistosomiasis endemic, especially the research progress and obstacle factors existed in the implementation process of the comprehensive strategy focused on controlling infection source, aiming at providing references for the hilly regions to reach transmission interrupted standard. PMID:24490372

  12. Evaluation of the use of C-terminal part of the Schistosoma mansoni 200kDa tegumental protein in schistosomiasis diagnosis and vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gardênia Braz Figueiredo de; Pacífico, Lucila Gonçalves Grossi; Pimenta, Deborah Laranjeira Ferreira; Siqueira, Liliane Maria Vidal; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Pinheiro, Carina da Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Fonseca, Cristina Toscano

    2014-04-01

    Schistosoma mansoni tegument is involved in essential functions for parasite survival and represents a target for screening candidates for vaccine and diagnosis. Our group using reverse vaccinology selected six candidates, previously demonstrated by proteomics studies to be expressed in the parasite tegument, among them was Sm200. In this work we have cloned and expressed a recombinant form of Sm200 C-terminal (1069-1520) region. The efficacy of rSm200 (1069-1520) in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and in the formulation of a vaccine against S. mansoni was assessed respectively in an ELISA based diagnostic assay and immunization protocols in mice. Significant differences between non-infected and acutely infected or chronically infected animals were observed and no cross-recognition was observed with sera from Ascaris suum or Ancylostoma ceylanicum infected mice. rSm200-ELISA test could also discriminate infected individuals from healthy donors not living in endemic area for schistosomiasis but failed to discriminate between individuals from a low endemic area for schistosomiasis known to have positive or negative stools after examination. Recombinant Sm200 also failed to induce protection against schistosomiasis, demonstrating that the C-terminal part of Sm200 is unable to induce protective immune response in mice. Therefore rSm200 (1069-1520)-ELISA represents an important tool to be used in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. PMID:24560833

  13. Treatment of a Celiac Trunk Aneurysm Close to the Hepato-splenic Bifurcation by Using Hepatic Stent-graft Implantation and Splenic Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio Lupattelli, Tommaso; Magnano, Marco; Giulietti, Giorgio; Privitera, Giambattista; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Monaca, Vincenzo; Ettorre, Giancarlo

    2007-02-15

    We present a case of a 73-year-old man in whom a celiac trunk aneurysm close to the hepato-splenic bifurcation was discovered and treated by using celiac-hepatic stent-grafts implantation and splenic artery embolization.

  14. Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma: A Clinicopathologic Review With an Emphasis on Diagnostic Differentiation From Other T-Cell/Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yang; Wang, Endi

    2015-09-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma is a rare, aggressive T-cell lymphoma, characterized by hepatosplenic sinusoidal infiltration of monotonous, medium-sized, nonactivated cytotoxic T cells, usually of γ/δ T-cell receptor type. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma occurs more frequently in immunocompromised patients, especially in those receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Patients usually manifest hepatosplenomegaly without lymphadenopathy. The bone marrow is also involved in two-thirds of cases and is often accompanied by circulating lymphoma cells, which, along with anemia and thrombocytopenia, may raise suspicion for acute leukemia. The differential diagnosis includes aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia, T-large granular lymphocytic leukemia, T-lymphoblastic leukemia, enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma type II, primary cutaneous γ/δ T-cell lymphoma, other peripheral T-cell lymphomas, myelodysplastic syndrome, and infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis is usually established from the combination of clinical findings, histologic features, and immunophenotype, although cytogenetic/molecular studies are occasionally needed. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma exhibits a dismal clinical course with a poor response to currently available therapies. PMID:26317456

  15. A comparative cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in a community in northeastern Brazil (1979-2010)

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Eric Vinaud; da Costa, Walfredo; Conceição, Maria José; Coura, José Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis was conducted in the main settlement of the municipality of Alhandra, in the southern coastal region of the state of Paraíba, in 2010. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in the same area in 1979. The systematic sampling per family conglomerate included approximately 10% of the resident population in the urban area of Alhandra. Faecal examinations were performed using the Kato-Katz method. The clinical forms of the disease were classified in accordance with FS Barbosa as Type I - intestinal form, Type II - hepatointestinal form and Type III - hepatosplenic form. The prevalence of the infection in 2010 was 10.05%, whereas in 1979 it was 46.6% among untreated patients. The percentages of the three clinical forms in 2010 were as follows: 95.3% Type I, 4.6% Type II and 0% Type III; in 1979, the percentages were 94.4%, 3% and 2.6% for Types I, II and III, respectively. In 1979, 6.07% of the Biomphalaria glabrata specimens (the intermediate host in this area) excreted cercariae, where in 2010 only 1.27% of the specimens caught excreted the parasite. PMID:24831552

  16. Topical application of DEET for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram; He, Yi-Xun; Salafsky, Buz; Shibuya, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (also known as DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent that is used extensively against both human and animal pests, worldwide. Recent studies show that topical lipid formulations of DEET, such as LipoDEET, are highly effective in killing schistosome cercariae in the skin. Minimal systemic absorption, low manufacturing cost, and a wide range of activity against insects and schistosomes potentially makes compounds such as LipoDEET an excellent prophylactic agent against human and animal schistosomiasis in endemic areas, especially for travelers, until an effective vaccine is available. PMID:14642762

  17. Radiographic spectrum of rectocolonic calcification from schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Fataar, S; Bassiony, H; Hamed, M S; Ghoneim, I; Satyanath, S; Hebbar, H G; Elgindy, N N; Hanna, R M

    1984-05-01

    Rectocolonic calcification was detected radiographically in 17 sites in 14 patients undergoing excretory urography for the assessment of urinary schistosomiasis. The right colon was involved in 11 sites, the rectum in four, and the left colon in two. The pattern of calcification varied according to the degree of bowel distension. A laminar pattern was common to all sites and occurred when the rectum or colon was distended with air, feces, or barium. A laminar or irregular amorphous density was found in the empty colon, whereas the calcified, empty rectum had a corrugated pattern. Rectocolonic calcification is probably the most common radiographic manifestation of schistosomal infestation of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:6609576

  18. Enhancing schistosomiasis control strategy for zimbabwe: building on past experiences.

    PubMed

    Chimbari, Moses J

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata) are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized. PMID:22655171

  19. [Effect of comprehensive control project on schistosomiasis in Nanjian county].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ji-Mao; Wu, Jun-Sheng; Yang, Meng-Xian; Li, Dian; Jiao, Dian; Lian, Fu; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2011-04-01

    The comprehensive control project for schistosomiasis was implemented in Nanjian County from 2004 to 2008. After the implementation of the control project, the infection rates of population and livestock decreased by 94.39% and 83.29% in 2008, respectively, with both infection rates less than 1%, no acute schistosomiasis cases had been found since 2005. Snail areas decreased by 70.01%, no infected snails had been found since 2007. Through the implementation of the comprehensive control project, schistosomiasis had been effectively controlled in Nanjian County. PMID:22164604

  20. A Microfiltration Device for Urogenital Schistosomiasis Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Hsieh, Michael; Liao, Joseph; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. This study reports the design and development of a microfiltration device for isolating schistosome eggs in urine for rapid diagnostics of urogenital schistosomiasis. The design of the device comprises a linear array of microfluidic traps to immobilize and separate schistosome eggs. Sequential loading of individual eggs is achieved autonomously by flow resistance, which facilitates observation and enumeration of samples with low-abundance targets. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and experimental characterization are performed to optimize the trapping performance. By optimizing the capture strategy, the trapping efficiency could be achieved at 100% with 300 μl/min and 83% with 3000 μl/min, and the filtration procedure could be finished within 10 min. The trapped eggs can be either recovered for downstream analysis or preserved in situ for whole-mount staining. On-chip phenotyping using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy identifies the microstructure of the trapped schistosome eggs. The device provides a novel microfluidic approach for trapping, counting and on-chip fluorescence characterization of urinal Schistosoma haematobium eggs for clinical and investigative application. PMID:27124499

  1. A Microfiltration Device for Urogenital Schistosomiasis Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Hsieh, Michael; Liao, Joseph; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. This study reports the design and development of a microfiltration device for isolating schistosome eggs in urine for rapid diagnostics of urogenital schistosomiasis. The design of the device comprises a linear array of microfluidic traps to immobilize and separate schistosome eggs. Sequential loading of individual eggs is achieved autonomously by flow resistance, which facilitates observation and enumeration of samples with low-abundance targets. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and experimental characterization are performed to optimize the trapping performance. By optimizing the capture strategy, the trapping efficiency could be achieved at 100% with 300 μl/min and 83% with 3000 μl/min, and the filtration procedure could be finished within 10 min. The trapped eggs can be either recovered for downstream analysis or preserved in situ for whole-mount staining. On-chip phenotyping using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy identifies the microstructure of the trapped schistosome eggs. The device provides a novel microfluidic approach for trapping, counting and on-chip fluorescence characterization of urinal Schistosoma haematobium eggs for clinical and investigative application. PMID:27124499

  2. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    PubMed Central

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and

  3. Potential schistosomiasis foci in China: a prospective study for schistosomiasis surveillance and response.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Shi-Zhu; Xu, Jing; Yang, Kun; Huang, Yi-Xin; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Miu, Feng; Dang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Qiang; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica was endemic in 12 provinces (including municipalities and autonomous regions) in the People's Republic of China (PR China). Despite the tremendous decrease of schistosomiasis incidence after almost 60 years of control, the distribution of snail-breeding sites has not been reduced significantly. In order to verify current transmission risks and identify the potential establishment of new foci of schistosomiasis driven by environmental changes, we conducted surveillance in selected risk areas of three provinces: Jiangsu, Anhui and Shandong from 2008 to 2010 in addition to routine snail surveillance. We investigated populations and possible reservoirs in sentinel sites and report that the total number of new acute cases did not diminish further in spite of ongoing control activities. In Anhui Province the local count compared to the national count was 43% (19/44) in 2008, 33% (25/75) in 2009 and 40% (17/42) in 2010. In all, 31.58 km(2) areas of snail breeding sites were newly detected nationwide through the year 2008-2010, of which the proportion of Anhui was 42% (5.03/11.98) in 2008, 95% (8.39/8.79) in 2009 and 79% (8.52/10.81) in 2010. Sentinel surveillance showed eight, nine and five confirmed cases of acute schistosomiasis in mobile populations (fishermen, migrant workers) in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. All these cases were detected in Chaohu County, which must therefore be deemed an area at risk. We conclude that continuous surveillance with an emphasis on snails must be enhanced in potential risk areas in PR China. PMID:24012536

  4. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  5. Macrophages are required for host survival in experimental urogenital schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Odegaard, Justin I.; Hsieh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium worm infection, afflicts millions of people with egg-triggered, fibrotic bladder granulomata. Despite the significant global impact of urogenital schistosomiasis, the mechanisms of bladder granulomogenesis and fibrosis are ill defined due to the prior lack of tractable animal models. We combined a mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis with macrophage-depleting liposomal clodronate (LC) to define how macrophages mediate bladder granulomogenesis and fibrosis. Mice were injected with eggs purified from infected hamsters or vehicle prepared from uninfected hamster tissues (xenoantigen and injection trauma control). Empty liposomes were controls for LC: 1) LC treatment resulted in fewer bladder egg granuloma-infiltrating macrophages, eosinophils, and T and B cells, lower bladder and serum levels of eotaxin, and higher bladder concentrations of IL-1α and chemokines (in a time-dependent fashion), confirming that macrophages orchestrate leukocyte infiltration of the egg-exposed bladder; 2) macrophage-depleted mice exhibited greater weight loss and bladder hemorrhage postegg injection; 3) early LC treatment postegg injection resulted in profound decreases in bladder fibrosis, suggesting differing roles for macrophages in fibrosis over time; and 4) LC treatment also led to egg dose-dependent mortality, indicating that macrophages prevent death from urogenital schistosomiasis. Thus, macrophages are a potential therapeutic target for preventing or treating the bladder sequelae of urogenital schistosomiasis.—Fu, C.-L., Odegaard, J. I., Hsieh, M. H. Macrophages are required for host survival in experimental urogenital schistosomiasis. PMID:25351984

  6. Enhancing collaboration between China and African countries for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Yu, Qing; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Bergquist, Robert; Sacko, Moussa; Utzinger, Jürg; Lin, Dan-Dan; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Shi-Zhu; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important public health issue, with a large number of cases reported across sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. China was once highly endemic, but has made substantial progress and is moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis. Meanwhile, despite long-term, repeated, school-based chemotherapy in many African countries, more than 90% of all schistosomiasis cases are concentrated in Africa, and hence, this continent constitutes the key challenge for schistosomiasis control. Opportunities and issues for international collaboration in the fight against schistosomiasis are outlined with a focus on China's experiences, including the role of public health authorities and intersectoral collaboration, use of new and effective snail control approaches and diagnostic tools adapted to the specific stage of control, as well as the strengthening of risk mapping and surveillance-response mechanisms. Training courses targeting African governmental officials and professionals, coupled with field visits of African scientists and control programme managers to China, and vice versa, are considered important for improved schistosomiasis control and elimination. The crucial question remains whether the Chinese experience can be translated and applied in African countries to improve the effectiveness of health interventions and scale-up. PMID:26851829

  7. Socioeconomic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Brazil: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Kloos, Helmut; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quites, Humberto Ferreira; Souza, Márcia Christina; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This review finds considerable evidence that socioeconomic status has significantly influenced the transmission, spread and treatment of schistosomiasis in Brazil. High infection rates persist among both the rural and urban poor. Rural living, poor housing and water supplies and low educational level were major factors in schistosomiasis occurrence among agricultural populations. In urban areas, prevailing living conditions in shantytowns and labor migrations from and periodic return movements to rural areas were predictive of schistosomiasis. The risk of the establishment of new transmission foci exists in both rural and urban areas, conferred by and affecting poorer people. Associations between schistosomiasis and socioeconomic parameters, persisting inequities in health services accessibility, prevailing health impacts of schistosomiasis, and the ongoing decentralization of health services point to opportunities and strategies for focused interventions aimed at promoting health-enhancing behavior and living conditions and improving access to health care. The authors call for multidisciplinary studies to better examine the complexities of the socioeconomic environment in relation to schistosomiasis and for economic programs to reduce prevailing socioeconomic inequalities. PMID:18694715

  8. Spinal Cord Schistosomiasis: Two Different Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alsomaili, Mohammed; Abulaban, Ahmad A.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord schistosomiasis is difficult to diagnose in nonendemic areas. We report the clinical profile of 2 young Saudi males who presented with myelopathy. The first patient arrived at our hospital relatively late, i.e. 3 months following the presentation of initial symptoms, and had received both pulse steroid therapy and a plasma exchange. Praziquantel was administered late and the patient did not recover. The second case presented early, i.e. within around 8 weeks of initial symptoms. This patient received praziquantel without any kind of steroid and had a complete recovery. We concluded that prompt recognition and early treatment with praziquantel is crucial for a better outcome. The role of steroids in these cases still needs to be proven. PMID:27293404

  9. Observer design for a schistosomiasis model.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Mouhamadou; Iggidr, Abderrahman; Sy, Mamadou

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the state estimation for a schistosomiasis infection dynamical model described by a continuous nonlinear system when only the infected human population is measured. The central idea is studied following two major angles. On the one hand, when all the parameters of the model are supposed to be well known, we construct a simple observer and a high-gain Luenberger observer based on a canonical controller form and conceived for the nonlinear dynamics where it is implemented. On the other hand, when the nonlinear uncertain continuous-time system is in a bounded-error context, we introduce a method for designing a guaranteed interval observer. Numerical simulations are included in order to test the behavior and the performance of the given observers. PMID:26334676

  10. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Maha M.; El-Moslemany, Riham M.; Ramadan, Alyaa A.; Amer, Eglal I.; El-Azzouni, Mervat Z.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.

    2015-01-01

    Miltefosine (MFS) is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD). This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%), good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs, allowing targeting

  11. BLOCKADE OF PGE2, PGD2 RECEPTORS CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST PREPATENT SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghany, Rasha; Rabia, Ibrahim; El-Ahwany, Eman; Saber, Sameh; Gamal, Rasha; Nagy, Faten; Mahmoud, Olaa; Hamad, Rabab Salem; Barakat, Walled

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease with considerable social impact. Despite the availability of affordable chemotherapy, drug treatment has not significantly reduced the overall number of disease cases. Among other mechanisms, the parasite produces PGE2 and PGD2 to evade host immune defenses. To investigate the role of PGE2 and PGD2 in schistosomiasis, we evaluated the effects of L-161,982, Ah6809 (PGE2 receptor antagonists alone of combined with each other) and MK-0524 (PGD2 receptor antagonist) during prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally an hour before and 24 hours after infection of C57BL/6 mice with 100 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. L-161,982, Ah6809, their combination and MK-0524 caused partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection which was mediated by biasing the immune response towards Th1 phenotype. These results showed that blockade of PGE2 and PGD2 receptors confers partial protection against pre-patent S. mansoni infection in mice and that they may be useful as adjunctive therapy to current anti-schistosomal drugs or vaccines. PMID:26939228

  12. Evaluation of eight serological tests for diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, Hans-Friedemann; Dittrich, Sabine; Bäumer, Britta; Weitzel, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The diagnosis of schistosomiasis in individuals from countries where the disease is not endemic is challenging, and few data are available on the accuracy of serological diagnosis in those patients. We evaluated the performance of eight serological assays, including four commercial kits, in the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis in individuals from areas where the disease is not endemic, including six enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using three different antigens, an indirect hemagglutination assay, and an indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. To analyze the assays, we used a total of 141 serum samples, with 121 derived from patients with various parasitic infections (among which were 37 cases of schistosomiasis) and 20 taken from healthy volunteers. The sensitivity values for detection of schistosomiasis cases ranged from 41% to 78% and were higher for Schistosoma mansoni than for S. haematobium infections. Specificity values ranged from 76% to 100%; false-positive results were most frequent for samples from patients with cestode infections. By combining two or more tests, sensitivity improved markedly and specificity decreased only moderately. Serological tests are useful instruments for diagnosing imported schistosomiasis in countries where the disease is not endemic, but due to limitations in test sensitivities, we recommend the use of two or more assays in parallel. PMID:22441394

  13. The USAID/Government of Egypt's Schistosomiasis Research Project (SRP).

    PubMed

    El Khoby, T; Galal, N; Fenwick, A

    1998-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is the major public health problem in rural Egypt, with almost six million Egyptians infected as at mid-1996. In 1983, the prevalence of schistosomiasis in rural Egypt was greater than 50%, but a ten-year campaign of diagnosis and treatment has reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. Parallel to this campaign, the government of the USA has funded a research project to examine all aspects of schistosomiasis with a view to improving the control strategy. As outlined here by Taha El Khoby, Nabil Galal and Alan Fenwick, after almost ten years, the project's achievements include: assisting WHO in its attempts to develop a vaccine against schistosomiasis, developing a suspension formulation of praziquantel suitable for young children, and establishing a unit to monitor reports of resistance to praziquantel. In addition, a large epidemiological study has established the extent of the problem in Egypt. Slow-release formulation of niclosamide, health education material for use on TV, dipstick diagnostic tests, and evaluation of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool have also been achieved. As the project closes, Egypt is left with an effective strategy for the control of schistosomiasis and several back-up tools for use in the event of development of resistance to praziquantel. The Ministry of Health and Population has the basis of a Geographical Information System (GIS) unit and the country has a trained and equipped scientific community capable of biomedical research, and almost 100 scientific papers published on their work. PMID:17040713

  14. Design of schistosomiasis ontology (IDOSCHISTO) extending the infectious disease ontology.

    PubMed

    Camara, Gaoussou; Despres, Sylvie; Djedidi, Rim; Lo, Moussa

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological monitoring of the schistosomiasis' spreading brings together many practitioners working at different levels of granularity (biology, host individual, host population), who have different perspectives (biology, clinic and epidemiology) on the same phenomenon. Biological perspective deals with pathogens (e.g. life cycle) or physiopathology while clinical perspective deals with hosts (e.g. healthy or infected host, diagnosis, treatment, etc.). In an epidemiological perspective corresponding to the host population level of granularity, the schistosomiasis disease is characterized according to the way (causes, risk factors, etc.) it spreads in this population over space and time. In this paper we provide an ontological analysis and design for the Schistosomiasis domain knowledge and spreading dynamics. IDOSCHISTO - the schistosomiasis ontology - is designed as an extension of the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO). This ontology aims at supporting the schistosomiasis monitoring process during a spreading crisis by enabling data integration, semantic interoperability, for collaborative work on one hand and for risk analysis and decision making on the other hand. PMID:23920598

  15. [Parasitological characteristics, epidemiological and clinical features, and current control approaches for three major kinds of human schistosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2013-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease, which could do serious damage to the people's health, and it hinders the development of the social economy but may be neglected. After a positive control, some countries and regions have blocked the spread of schistosomiasis. However, in the past few years, with the development of social economy, due to the global movement of people, schistosomiasis not only poses a threat to control areas, but also may cause new endemic areas. This article reviews the parasitological characteristics, clinical manifestations, epidemiological situation, and control approaches of three major kinds of human schistosomiasis, schistosomiasis japonica, schistosomiasis haematobia, and schistosomiasis mansoni. PMID:24024456

  16. Studies on heterologous immunity in schistosomiasis*

    PubMed Central

    Amin, M. A.; Nelson, G. S.; Saoud, M. F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Previous studies on heterologous immunity in mice have indicated that Schistosoma bovis and S. mattheei could be used to limit the severity of infection resulting from subsequent challenge by S. mansoni. These observations have now been extended to study the immunizing effect in rhesus monkeys of both S. mattheei and S. bovis. The bovine schistosomes were shown to be relatively non-pathogenic in rhesus monkeys. Immunization with 1000-2000 cercariae resulted in a marked reduction in the pathogenic effect of subsequent challenge with S. mansoni. This effect was demonstrated by a decrease in the worm load and tissue egg densities in 10 immunized monkeys as compared with 5 control animals. There was no correlation between fluorescent antibody titres and the intensity of infection or the degree of acquired immunity. There was a cross-reaction between S. mansoni and the bovine schistosomes. It is suggested that natural heterologous immunity (zooprophylaxis) may be of considerable epidemiological importance in determining the severity of schistosomiasis in man. PMID:4970323

  17. Experimental schistosomiasis in primates in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; von Lichtenberg, F.; Goatly, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory infection of animals with Schistosoma haematobium is generally unsatisfactory as adult worms invariably inhabit the portal venous system rather than the vesical plexus as in man. However, it was thought that certain primates might prove more valuable for experimental studies of schistosomiasis than the usual laboratory animals. Baboons, Papio anubis, were therefore exposed to cercariae of S. haematobium and the pattern of egg excretion in stools and urine was followed quantitatively. Histological studies of various organs were made and it was found that although eggs were excreted in the faeces, they were also passed in the urine and that tissue changes in the bladder were similar to those found in human infections. It is suggested that the sequelae of S. haematobium infection found in man might develop in baboons and that the animal may be useful for studying their development in the laboratory. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 8FIG. 11FIG. 4FIG. 10FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 5 PMID:4968348

  18. Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas. However, for many years, there have been no sustainable control programmes and systematic data from observational and control studies are very limited in the public domain. To cover that gap, the present article reviews the epidemiology, malacology, morbidity, and the milestones the country has made in efforts to control schistosomiasis and discusses future control approaches. The available evidence indicates that, both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are still highly endemic in Tanzania and cause significant morbidity.Mass drug administration using praziquantel, currently used as a key intervention measure, has not been successful in decreasing prevalence of infection. There is therefore an urgent need to revise the current approach for the successful control of the disease. Clearly, these need to be integrated control measures. PMID:23192005

  19. Nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Song, Lan-Gui; Xie, Hui; Liang, Jin-Yi; Yuan, Dong-Ya; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lv, Zhi-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease that causes serious harms to humans and animals. Surveillance and diagnosis play key roles in schistosomiasis control, however, current techniques for surveillance and diagnosis of the disease have limitations. As genome data for parasites are increasing, novel techniques for detection incorporating nucleotide sequences are receiving widespread attention. These sensitive, specific, and rapid detection methods are particularly important in the diagnosis of low-grade and early infections, and may prove to have clinical significance. This paper reviews the progress of nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis, including such aspects as the selection of target genes, and development and application of nucleic acid detection methods. PMID:27025210

  20. The Establishment and Function of Schistosomiasis Surveillance System Towards Elimination in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L-J; Li, S-Z; Wen, L-Y; Lin, D-D; Abe, E M; Zhu, R; Du, Y; Lv, S; Xu, J; Webster, B L; Rollinson, D; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is the main schistosome species in The People's Republic of China, causing intestinal schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of public health importance. The People's Republic of China used to be heavily endemic with schistosomiasis, but great progress has been made through the vigorous efforts of the national control programmes in the last six decades. Presently, efforts are geared towards eliminating schistosomiasis from The People's Republic of China by the end of 2025 through effective schistosomiasis surveillance, an important component in the drive towards schistosomiasis elimination. Therefore, this article explicitly outlines the development and progress made in schistosomiasis surveillance since 1990 with a special focus on the new surveillance system in use. Although the surveillance system has steadily improved over the years, it is faced with many challenges. Hence, more efforts are needed to establish an effective and sensitive evaluation system for the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in The People's Republic of China. PMID:27137445

  1. An Unusual Case of Hepatosplenic αβ T-Cell Lymphoma Presenting with Coombs’-Negative Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Feryal A.; Shanmugam, Vignesh; Amer, Aliaa; El-Omri, Halima; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Taha, Ruba Y.; Soliman, Dina S.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal T-cell lymphoma that comprises <5% of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. The majority of cases harbor the γδ T-cell receptor (TCR), but recently, a few cases have been shown to express the αβ TCR. Comparison of these two subtypes (αβ and γδ) shows similar clinicopathologic and cytogenetic features; however, due to the paucity of reported cases, it is not clear whether they are prognostically distinct entities. We report a case of αβ HSTCL with a rather unusual presentation of Coombs’-negative hemolytic anemia. Diagnosis proved challenging due to an unusual blastoid morphology with the absence of typical intrasinusoidal distribution of tumor cells in the bone marrow. This unique case adds to the growing list of this rare subtype of T-cell lymphomas, which warrant urgent attention due to the lack of effective treatment options and dismal prognosis. PMID:26688667

  2. Global Health: Urogenital Schistosomiasis in the Adolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sharise T; Franklin, Ashley L; Rome, Ellen S; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2016-08-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis affects millions of women in sub-Saharan Africa. Infection by the causative organism, Schistosoma hematobium, commonly occurs during childhood and adolescence and can lead to anemia from hematuria, inflammation on the cervix which can increase risk of HIV transmission, and pelvic infection leading to infertility. Fortunately treatment is not costly, but early diagnosis is important to reduce long-term morbidity. Our objective is to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis as well as treatment to improve the reproductive health of girls where this infection is endemic. PMID:26173381

  3. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC), at the second administrative level or lower. Methodology A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health). Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a ‘proxi-indicator’ of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted. Principal Findings One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%). Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult. Conclusions There is a need for

  4. Africa: Schistosomiasis in Africa and the Role of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    1985-01-01

    Illustrates problems involved in controlling a public health disease (schistosomiasis) which is interwoven into a country's religious, economic, political, educational, and social systems. The strong relationship between the disease and development of irrigation systems is pointed out. A successful education and integrative program is described.…

  5. How cost-effective would a vaccine be against schistosomiasis?

    PubMed

    1996-08-01

    An estimated 20 million people suffer severe disease or disability from schistosomiasis and about 50,000 die from the disease annually. While the inexpensive and effective drug praziquantel exists, there is a high risk of reinfection following treatment, necessitating long-term annual retreatment. Vaccine research has identified several antigens in Schistosoma mansoni, one of the worm species which causes human disease. However, tests of 6 of these antigens in animals for their protective potential as vaccines or vaccine components have yielded only inconsistent and largely disappointing results. The antigens are nonetheless capable of producing immune responses indicative of protection in people living in endemic areas and therefore have potential. A schistosomiasis vaccine administered to at least 80% of children in a schistosomiasis-endemic area of a low-income country, and providing protection for at least 90% of those receiving the full dose, would cost US$64-405 per healthy year of life saved. The vaccine, however, must provide protection for at least 10 years, cost no more than US$5 per completely vaccinated child, including delivery, and be delivered through the EPI system. Such a schistosomiasis vaccine would be relatively cost-effective compared with mass chemotherapy with praziquantel for children aged 6-15 years. PMID:12321483

  6. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Esposito, Douglas H.; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012–2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response. PMID:26401954

  7. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists. PMID:18670694

  8. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25636189

  9. Time to set the agenda for schistosomiasis elimination.

    PubMed

    Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie; Levitz, Sarah; Stothard, J Russell; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Garba, Amadou; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Schur, Nadine; Person, Bobbie; Colley, Daniel G; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-11-01

    It is time to raise global awareness to the possibility of schistosomiasis elimination and to support endemic countries in their quest to determine the most appropriate approaches to eliminate this persistent and debilitating disease. The main interventions for schistosomiasis control are reviewed, including preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel, snail control, sanitation, safe water supplies, and behaviour change strategies supported by information, education and communication (IEC) materials. Differences in the biology and transmission of the three main Schistosoma species (i.e. Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum), which impact on control interventions, are considered. Sensitive diagnostic procedures to ensure adequate surveillance in areas attaining low endemicity are required. The importance of capacity building is highlighted. To achieve elimination, an intersectoral approach is necessary, with advocacy and action from local communities and the health community to foster cooperative ventures with engineers, the private sector, governments and non-governmental organizations specialized in water supply and sanitation. Examples of successful schistosomiasis control programmes are reviewed to highlight what has been learnt in terms of strategy for control and elimination. These include St. Lucia and other Caribbean islands, Brazil and Venezuela for S. mansoni; Saudi Arabia and Egypt for both S. mansoni and S. haematobium; Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritius and the Islamic Republic of Iran for S. haematobium; Japan and the People's Republic of China for S. japonicum. Additional targets for elimination or even eradication could be the two minor human schistosome species S. guineenisis and S. intercalatum, which have a restricted distribution in West and Central Africa. The examples show that elimination of schistosomiasis is an achievable and desirable goal requiring full integration of preventive chemotherapy with the tools of transmission

  10. Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Better Method for Diagnosing Chronic Schistosoma mansoni Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Mohamed, Rabie M.; Belal, Usama S.; Abdel-Raheem, Ehab M.; Naoi, Koji; Norose, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    For more effective diagnosis of the acute and chronic stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection in humans, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was compared with the Kato-Katz method. A total of 150 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics at the Department of Tropical Medicine, Minia University Hospital, Egypt. Three groups of patients, 50 with acute intestinal schistosomiasis, 70 with chronic intestinal schistosomiasis and 30 normal healthy controls were studied. Stool samples were analyzed by PCR and the Kato-Katz method. The mean number of eggs per gram of feces was 4.6 when estimated by the Kato-Katz method in positive stool samples from acute schistosomiasis cases but only 1.7 in chronic cases. In acute intestinal schistosomiasis, 15 and 45 out of 50 cases were positive by Kato-Katz and PCR, respectively. In the chronic intestinal schistosomiasis cases, 6 and 68 out of 70 cases were positive by the Kato-Katz and PCR methods, respectively. We conclude that PCR appears to be an effective diagnostic technique for S. mansoni infection, especially where a low worm burden exists, such as in chronic cases. PMID:26865821

  11. Impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life and productivity of workers.

    PubMed

    Kamel, M I; Moustafa, Y A; Foda, N; Khashab, S; Moemen, M; Abo el-Naga, R M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of schistosomiasis on quality of life (QOL) and productivity of workers was examined. In a textile factory in Alexandria, Egypt, personal, occupational and sociodemographic data were collected from 172 workers with schistosomiasis and 172 workers without schistosomiasis. Several indicators of productivity and the World Health Organization QOL brief were used to determine the impact of schistosomiasis. The disease affected the general, physical and independence, psychological and spiritual, and social domains of QOL. Although the productivity score of workers with schistosomiasis did not differ significantly from the control group, they had significantly lower additional hours of work and lower total incentives/month. A significant relationship was found between severity of schistosomiasis and QOL domains and productivity indicators. PMID:15339125

  12. Evidence for a permanent presence of schistosomiasis in Corsica, France, 2015.

    PubMed

    Berry, Antoine; Fillaux, Judith; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Boissier, Jérôme; Iriart, Xavier; Marchou, Bruno; Magnaval, Jean François; Delobel, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of acute schistosomiasis acquired in Corsica after bathing in the Cavu River during the summer of 2015. The diagnosis was made following epidemiological, laboratory and serological assessments. After a previous outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis during the summer of 2013, when more than 120 infections were diagnosed, this further case indicates transmission was still effective in 2015, thus suggesting a permanent presence of schistosomiasis in Corsica. PMID:26767427

  13. [Epidemic characteristics and security implications of Africa schistosomiasis on people who go to Africa].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Yang, Ya; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2015-08-01

    With the economic globalization, and the economic and trade cooperation and cultural communication between China and African countries, more and more Chinese people go to Africa for work or travel. However, there is a quick increase of imported schistosomiasis patients who return from Africa. This paper analyzes the security implications of epidemic characteristics of Africa schistosomiasis on the people who go to Africa, and put forward several suggestions to help them to prevent from schistosomiasis. PMID:26767275

  14. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Schistosomiasis-Related Deaths, Brazil, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed spatiotemporal patterns of 8,756 schistosomiasis-related deaths in Brazil during 2000–2011 and identified high-risk clusters of deaths, mainly in highly schistosomiasis-endemic areas along the coast of Brazil’s Northeast Region. Schistosomiasis remains a neglected public health problem with a high number of deaths in disease-endemic and emerging focal areas. PMID:26401716

  15. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Lake and Marshland Areas in China: The Effect of Snail Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Gao, Jie; Chi, Meina; Luo, Can; Lynn, Henry; Sun, Liqian; Tao, Bo; Wang, Decheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    The progress of the integrated control policy for schistosomiasis implemented since 2005 in China, which is aiming at reducing the roles of bovines and humans as infection sources, may be challenged by persistent presence of infected snails in lake and marshland areas. Based on annual parasitologic data for schistosomiasis during 2004–2011 in Xingzi County, a spatio-temporal kriging model was used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that environmental factors related to snail habitats can explain the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps of schistosomiasis risk illustrated that clusters of the disease fluctuated during 2004–2008; there was an extensive outbreak in 2008 and attenuated disease occurrences afterwards. An area with an annually constant cluster of schistosomiasis was identified. Our study suggests that targeting snail habitats located within high-risk areas for schistosomiasis would be an economic and sustainable way of schistosomiasis control in the future. PMID:24980498

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns of schistosomiasis japonica in lake and marshland areas in China: the effect of snail habitats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Gao, Jie; Chi, Meina; Luo, Can; Lynn, Henry; Sun, Liqian; Tao, Bo; Wang, Decheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-09-01

    The progress of the integrated control policy for schistosomiasis implemented since 2005 in China, which is aiming at reducing the roles of bovines and humans as infection sources, may be challenged by persistent presence of infected snails in lake and marshland areas. Based on annual parasitologic data for schistosomiasis during 2004-2011 in Xingzi County, a spatio-temporal kriging model was used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that environmental factors related to snail habitats can explain the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps of schistosomiasis risk illustrated that clusters of the disease fluctuated during 2004-2008; there was an extensive outbreak in 2008 and attenuated disease occurrences afterwards. An area with an annually constant cluster of schistosomiasis was identified. Our study suggests that targeting snail habitats located within high-risk areas for schistosomiasis would be an economic and sustainable way of schistosomiasis control in the future. PMID:24980498

  17. Human schistosomiasis: Schistosoma mansoni antigen detection in renal glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Hoshino-Shimizu, S; De Brito, T; Kanamura, H Y; Canto, A L; Silva, A O; Campos, A R; Penna, D O; Da Silva, L C

    1976-01-01

    Twelve kidney, five biopsy and seven necropsy specimens, all from schistosomiasis mansoni patients were studied by light and immunoflurescent microscopy in an attempt to detect antigen in the glomerular walls. Deposits of IgM, IgG,I gA, IgE, complement C3 and fibrinogen were observered in most cases. Antigen was successfully detected in two cases(one biopsy and one necropsy specimen), both exhibiting proliferative glomerulonephritis. The only clinical manifestation was a slight proteinuria. IgG antibodies eluted from the sutopsy kidney homogenates showed specific binding mostly to Schistosoma mansoni gut, thus spggesting that the fixed antibodies (eluates) are, at least partially, consituted by antibodies similar to the anti-circulating antigen. These data reinfroce the hypothesis that renal injury in schistosomiasis is mediated through an immune complex disease. PMID:65811

  18. Integrative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis Identified Candidate Genes Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; Rouhigharabaei, Leila; Urbankova, Helena; van der Krogt, Jo-Anne; Michaux, Lucienne; Shetty, Shashirekha; Krenacs, Laszlo; Tousseyn, Thomas; De Paepe, Pascale; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Verhoef, Gregor; Taghon, Tom; Vandenberghe, Peter; Cools, Jan; Wlodarska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is an aggressive lymphoma cytogenetically characterized by isochromosome 7q [i(7)(q10)], of which the molecular consequences remain unknown. We report here results of an integrative genomic and transcriptomic (expression microarray and RNA-sequencing) study of six i(7)(q10)-positive HSTL cases, including HSTL-derived cell line (DERL-2), and three cases with ring 7 [r(7)], the recently identified rare variant aberration. Using high resolution array CGH, we profiled all cases and mapped the common deleted region (CDR) at 7p22.1p14.1 (34.88 Mb; 3506316-38406226 bp) and the common gained region (CGR) at 7q22.11q31.1 (38.77 Mb; 86259620–124892276 bp). Interestingly, CDR spans a smaller region of 13 Mb (86259620–99271246 bp) constantly amplified in cases with r(7). In addition, we found that TCRG (7p14.1) and TCRB (7q32) are involved in formation of r(7), which seems to be a byproduct of illegitimate somatic rearrangement of both loci. Further transcriptomic analysis has not identified any CDR-related candidate tumor suppressor gene. Instead, loss of 7p22.1p14.1 correlated with an enhanced expression of CHN2 (7p14.1) and the encoded β2-chimerin. Gain and amplification of 7q22.11q31.1 are associated with an increased expression of several genes postulated to be implicated in cancer, including RUNDC3B, PPP1R9A and ABCB1, a known multidrug resistance gene. RNA-sequencing did not identify any disease-defining mutation or gene fusion. Thus, chromosome 7 imbalances remain the only driver events detected in this tumor. We hypothesize that the Δ7p22.1p14.1-associated enhanced expression of CHN2/β2-chimerin leads to downmodulation of the NFAT pathway and a proliferative response, while upregulation of the CGR-related genes provides growth advantage for neoplastic δγT-cells and underlies their intrinsic chemoresistance. Finally, our study confirms the previously described gene expression profile of HSTL and identifies a set of 24 genes

  19. Schistosomiasis in Egypt: A never-ending story?

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmad A; Soliman, Rasha H

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis has plagued the Egyptian population since the antiquity. The disease is still a public health problem in Egypt, despite the tendency of being overlooked. In the first part of this review, the past and current trends of schistosomiasis in Egypt are reviewed, including history, epidemiology, morbidity, therapy, and control of the disease. Most of these aspects are more or less relevant to other schistosome-endemic regions all over the world. As only one drug is currently available for individual treatment and preventive mass chemotherapy, the quest for complementary measures is urgently warranted. Indeed, one promising approach is the discovery of a vaccine. Herein, we point out the efforts of the Egyptian scientists to develop an efficacious and affordable vaccine against schistosomiasis - a step forward in the battle of elimination of Schistosoma infection. Based on the candidate vaccine antigens, four types of vaccine formulations are discussed: purified antigen vaccines, DNA constructs, attenuated cercariae, and excretory-secretory antigen vaccines. Finally, this review provides insights into this ancient seemingly long-lasting parasitic disease. PMID:25959770

  20. Rural tourism: a risk factor for schistosomiasis transmission in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin Johannes; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Costa e Silva, Matheus Fernandes; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gazinnelli, Giovanni; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Massara, Cristiano Lara

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports an outbreak of acute schistosomiasis among 38 tourists who rented a country house in the district of Igarapé, the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, during a holiday period in 2006. A total number of 32 individuals were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Results of stool examinations revealed individual S. mansoni egg counts per gram of faeces (epg) ranging from 4-768 epg with a geometric mean egg count of 45. The most frequent clinical symptoms were abdominal pain (78.1%), headache (75%), fever (65.6%), dry cough (65.2%) and both diarrhoea and asthenia (59.4%). A malacological survey of the area, where 22 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were collected, revealed three (13.6%) specimens eliminating Schistosoma cercariae. This investigation re-confirms a recently described pattern of schistosomiasis infection, resulting in the acute form of the disease and connected to rural tourism, which contributes to the spread of the disease among the middle-class and into non-endemic areas. The lack of specific knowledge about acute schistosomiasis among health services causes an increased number of unnecessary diagnostic procedures and delays in accurate diagnosis and treatment, resulting in considerable discomfort for the patients. PMID:20721505

  1. Maternal schistosomiasis: a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most important tropical parasitic infections threatening millions of lives in endemic areas. Cases of infections due to Schistosoma spp, the diecious digenetic trematodes have been on the increase over the last decades. While considerable efforts have been made to reduce infections and morbidities in most endemic areas, these efforts seem to be tailored only towards a specific group (school-based resources). This bias towards school children in epidemiological studies has also been observed in various research efforts in sub-Saharan Africa, thus making it difficult to produce a reliable estimate of the extent of infection in other strata of the population at risk. In recent times, attention has been drawn to Schistosoma spp infections in infants and preschool children, while studies on epidemiology of maternal schistosomiasis still suffer neglect. Considering the potential morbidity of Schistosoma infections on the mothers, fetuses, and neonates, as evidenced in some animal models and human case studies, more attention is solicited in all areas of observational studies and clinical trials, for maternal schistosomiasis with the aim of providing relevant data and information for effective management of the disease during pregnancy. PMID:25223633

  2. New endemic foci of schistosomiasis infections in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Antonio Solon, Juan; Chigusa, Yuichi; Villacorte, Elena; Christoper Chua, James; Moendeg, Kharleezelle; Manalo, Daria; Crisostomo, Bobby; Sunico, Louie; Boldero, Nicasio; Payne, Lara; Hernandez, Leda; Velayudhan, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects 28 provinces in the Philippines found along the southeastern part where there is continuous rainfall throughout the year. In 2002 and 2005 respectively, two new endemic foci were reported in the northernmost (Gonzaga, Cagayan) and central (Calatrava, Negros Occidental) parts of the country. This study conducted in March 2008-March 2009 confirmed the presence of the disease by determining its prevalence using four diagnostic tests - Kato-Katz, circumoval precipitin test (COPT), ELISA and ultrasonography. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi was identified through snail surveys conducted in possible snail habitats in the seven new endemic villages. Animal surveys through stool examination confirmed the presence of schistosomiasis infection in animals in Gonzaga but not in Calatrava. Compared to Calatrava, Gonzaga demonstrated markedly higher prevalence of schistosomiasis using all four diagnostic methods. Proximity of snail habitats to human habitation including higher snail density and snail infection rate could be responsible for the high prevalence. Snail sites were more widespread in Gonzaga whereas those in Calatrava were confined only in areas not frequented by the general population except by farmers. GIS maps showing spatial distribution of snails in Gonzaga and Calatrava indicated differences in elevation among the snail sites. It is hypothesized that the snail intermediate host has been in these sites for sometime but discovered only lately. Migration of people from endemic provinces into Gonzaga and Calatrava brought in cases and in the presence of snail intermediate hosts, emergence of disease was just a matter of time. PMID:23583862

  3. Spatio-temporal Transmission and Environmental Determinants of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Sun, Liqian; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD), and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps showed that schistosomiasis prevalence remained at a low level and schistosomiasis risk mainly evolved along the Yangtze River. Schistosomiasis risk also followed a focal spatial pattern, fluctuating temporally with a peak (the largest spatial extent) in 2005 and then contracting gradually but with a scattered distribution until 2010. Conclusion The fitted spatio-temporal kriging model can capture variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time. Combined with techniques of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS), this approach facilitates and enriches risk modeling of schistosomiasis, which in turn helps to identify prior areas for effective and sustainable control of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province and perhaps elsewhere in China. PMID:25659112

  4. Long-Term Impact of the World Bank Loan Project for Schistosomiasis Control: A Comparison of the Spatial Distribution of Schistosomiasis Risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P.; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992–2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999–2001 and 2007–2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. Methodology/Principal Findings A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. Conclusion It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the

  5. Global assessment of schistosomiasis control over the past century shows targeting the snail intermediate host works best

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Swartz, Scott J.; Lopez, Melina; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Rickards, Chloe; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2016-01-01

    Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis.

  6. Spatial Analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: A GIS-Based Analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Huang, Xi-Bao; Xiao, Ying; Jiang, Yong; Shan, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Juan; Cai, Shun-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions. Methods In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran’s I and local Getis–Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time. Results The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran’s I > 0, P < 0.01), which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties. Conclusions The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial–temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be

  7. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control. PMID:23687826

  8. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetic adult out-patients in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mpondo, Bonaventura C T; Neilson, Eric; Ernest, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of patients with Diabetes Mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa, the magnitude of chronic kidney disease among diabetics has not been well established. A study done by Janmohamed et al. found chronic kidney disease in 83.7 % of diabetics which is relatively higher than the prevalence reported elsewhere. However this study was conducted in schistosoma endemic area along the shores of Lake Victoria. Schistosomiasis has been reported to cause a range of renal diseases. Interpretation of these findings should therefore take into account the possibility of schistosomiasis as a possible confounder. PMID:27391318

  9. Community Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Schistosomiasis in Western Kenya-The SCORE Project

    PubMed Central

    Musuva, Rosemary M.; Awiti, Alphonce; Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Secor, W. Evan; Montgomery, Susan P.; Alaii, Jane; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve intervention strategies, community knowledge, attitudes, and practices on schistosomiasis were evaluated using focus group discussions involving 237 participants, in eight Schistosoma mansoni high prevalence districts in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya. The majority of participants reported having heard about schistosomiasis through schools, posters, radio announcements, and community gatherings. Participants had a variety of beliefs about contracting schistosomiasis, including associating it with dirty drinking water and uncooked or contaminated food. Avenues for seeking treatment included health centers, spiritual intervention, herbal treatments, and medicine shops, with health centers receiving the most mention. Barriers to schistosomiasis control included attitudes of community members toward the infection, especially misconceptions that lead to stigma and the perception that diagnosis and treatment are expensive. Schools were the most common avenue for receiving information, suggesting that the existing education infrastructure can be used for health education and improved sensitization about schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:24534810

  10. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices on schistosomiasis in western Kenya--the SCORE Project.

    PubMed

    Musuva, Rosemary M; Awiti, Alphonce; Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Secor, W Evan; Montgomery, Susan P; Alaii, Jane; Mwinzi, Pauline N M

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to improve intervention strategies, community knowledge, attitudes, and practices on schistosomiasis were evaluated using focus group discussions involving 237 participants, in eight Schistosoma mansoni high prevalence districts in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya. The majority of participants reported having heard about schistosomiasis through schools, posters, radio announcements, and community gatherings. Participants had a variety of beliefs about contracting schistosomiasis, including associating it with dirty drinking water and uncooked or contaminated food. Avenues for seeking treatment included health centers, spiritual intervention, herbal treatments, and medicine shops, with health centers receiving the most mention. Barriers to schistosomiasis control included attitudes of community members toward the infection, especially misconceptions that lead to stigma and the perception that diagnosis and treatment are expensive. Schools were the most common avenue for receiving information, suggesting that the existing education infrastructure can be used for health education and improved sensitization about schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:24534810

  11. Persistent Transmission of Schistosomiasis in Southwest Nigeria: Contexts of Culture and Contact with Infected River Water.

    PubMed

    Olorunlana, Adetayo; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Morenikeji, Olajumoke; Hassan, Adesola A; Nwuba, Roseangela I; Anumudu, Chiaka I; Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of schistosomiasis is aided by human behaviour. Globally, about 800 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Data exist on biomedical understanding of the disease transmission; there is a dearth of information from the social science perspective. Hence, this study explored the social and cultural context of schistosomiasis transmission among Yewa People in Nigeria. Qualitative methods were employed with purposive sampling, using the key informant interviews and focus group discussions, among 57 participants aged 17 to 54 years. The data were content-analyzed. River water was the most reported source of water supply among others. Participants drew from the cultural milieu the use of river water for "drinking" and "swimming" as part of the continual transmission of schistosomiasis. Transmission of schistosomiasis may not be abated without behavioural change. PMID:27009769

  12. Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index in hepatitis C virus and Schistosomiasis coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Derbala, Moutaz; Elbadri, Mohammed Elshiekh; Amer, Aliaa Mohamed; AlKaabi, Saad; Sultan, Khaleel Hassan; Kamel, Yasser Medhat; Elsayed, Eman Hassan Satti; Avades, Tony Yervant; Chandra, Prem; Shebl, Fatma M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy, of aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) alone and with antischistosomal antibody (Ab) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomiasis coinfection. METHODS: This retrospective study included medical records of three hundred and eighty three Egyptian men patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy between January 2006 to April 2014 in tertiary care hospital in Qatar for diagnosis or monitoring purpose were selected. Data of patients > 18 years of age were included in the study. The values of HCV RNA titer and antischistosomal antibody titer were also taken into consideration. Patients were excluded from the study if they had any other concomitant chronic liver disease, including; history of previous antiviral or interferon therapy, immunosuppressive, therapy, chronic hepatitis B infection, human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, autoimmune hepatitis, decompensated liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, prior liver transplantation, and if no data about the liver biopsy present. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 46 years. About 7.1% had no fibrosis, whereas 30.4%, 37.5%, 20.4%, and 4.6% had fibrosis of stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. In bivariate analysis, APRI score, levels of AST, platelet count and age of patient showed statistically significant association with liver fibrosis (P < 0.0001); whereas antischistosomal antibody titer (P = 0.52) and HCV RNA titer (P = 0.79) failed to show a significant association. The respective AUC values for no fibrosis, significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis of APRI score were 63%, 73.2%, 81.1% and 88.9% respectively. This showed good sensitivity and specificity of APRI alone for grading of liver fibrosis. But the inclusion of anti-Schistosoma antibody did not improve the prediction of fibrosis stage. CONCLUSION: The study results suggest that noninvasive biochemical markers like APRI are sensitive and specific in diagnosing the

  13. Novel therapeutic and prevention approaches for schistosomiasis: review.

    PubMed

    El Ridi, Rashika A F; Tallima, Hatem A-M

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ) as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating eosinophils and basophils

  14. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Inobaya, Marianette T; Olveda, Remigio M; Chau, Thao NP; Olveda, David U; Ross, Allen GP

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that ranks second only to malaria in terms of human suffering in the tropics and subtropics. Five species are known to infect man and there are currently over 240 million people infected worldwide. The cornerstone of control to date has been mass drug administration with 40 mg/kg of praziquantel but there are problems with this approach. Human and bovine vaccines are in various stages of development. Integrated control, targeting the life cycle, is the only approach that will lead to sustainability and future elimination. PMID:25400499

  15. Progress in the national schistosomiasis control programme of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, J.; Arfaa, F.; Farahmandian, I.; Ardalan, A.; Mansoorian, A.

    1982-01-01

    A combination of chemotherapy and mollusciciding has been used in Khuzestan, south-west Iran, since 1966, to try to control urinary schistosomiasis. The total amount of molluscicide used each year varied between 702 and 3505 kg and between 287 and 1320 infected persons were detected and treated annually. The prevalence of infection has gradually declined from 8.3% in 1970 to 0.7% in 1979. Similarly, the incidence of infection among schoolchildren decreased from 3.5% in 1970 to 0.7% in 1979. The proportion of Bulinus-infested habitats also decreased from 10% in 1971 to 2.4% in 1979. PMID:6982780

  16. Shifts in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Schistosomiasis: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese national surveillance system showed that the risk of Schistosoma japonicum infection fluctuated temporally. This dynamical change might indicate periodicity of the disease, and its understanding could significantly improve targeted interventions to reduce the burden of schistosomiasis. The goal of this study was to investigate how the schistosomiasis risk varied temporally and spatially in recent years. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasitological data were obtained through repeated cross-sectional surveys that were carried out during 1997-2010 in Anhui Province, East China. A multivariate autoregressive model, combined with principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis, was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that the temporal changes of schistosomiasis risk in the study area could be decomposed into two sustained damped oscillatory modes with estimated period of approximately 2.5 years. The POPs associated with these oscillatory components showed that the pattern near the Yangtze River varied markedly and that the disease risk appeared to evolve in a Southwest/Northeast orientation. The POP coefficients showed decreasing tendency until 2001, then increasing during 2002-2005 and decaying afterwards. Conclusion The POP analysis characterized the variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time and demonstrated that the disease mainly varied temporally along the Yangtze River. The schistosomiasis risk declined periodically with a temporal fluctuation. Whether it resulted from previous national control strategies on schistosomiasis needs further investigations. PMID:25881189

  17. Have You Heard of Schistosomiasis? Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Nampula Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Rassi, Christian; Kajungu, Dan; Martin, Sandrine; Arroz, Jorge; Tallant, Jamie; Zegers de Beyl, Celine; Counihan, Helen; Newell, James N.; Phillips, Anna; Whitton, Jane; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Graham, Kirstie

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects almost 300 million people worldwide each year. It is highly endemic in Mozambique. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis relies mainly on mass drug administration (MDA), as well as adoption of basic sanitation practices. Individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis are likely to have a significant effect on prevention and control efforts. In order to establish a baseline to evaluate a community engagement intervention with a focus on schistosomiasis, a survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to the disease was conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings A representative cross-sectional household survey was carried out in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted in a total of 791 households, using a structured questionnaire. While awareness of schistosomiasis was high (91%), correct knowledge of how it is acquired (18%), transmitted (26%) and prevented (13%) was low among those who had heard of the disease. Misconceptions, such as the belief that schistosomiasis is transmitted through sexual contact (27%), were common. Only about a third of those who were aware of the disease stated that they practiced a protective behaviour and only a minority of those (39%) reported an effective behaviour. Despite several rounds of MDA for schistosomiasis in the recent past, only a small minority of households with children reported that at least one of them had received a drug to treat the disease (9%). Conclusion/Significance Poor knowledge of the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it, coupled with persisting misconceptions, continue to pose barriers to effective disease prevention and control. To achieve high levels of uptake of MDA and adoption of protective behaviours, it will be essential to engage individuals and communities, improving their understanding of the causes and symptoms of schistosomiasis, recommended prevention

  18. Antibody Signatures Reflect Different Disease Pathologies in Patients With Schistosomiasis Due to Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Driguez, Patrick; Li, Yuesheng; Gaze, Soraya; Pearson, Mark S; Nakajima, Rie; Trieu, Angela; Doolan, Denise L; Felgner, Philip L; Hou, Xunya; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Jasinskas, Algis; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Loukas, Alex; McManus, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Schistosoma japonicum causes high levels of pathology that is predominantly determined by the cellular and humoral response of the host. However, the specific antibody response that arises during the development of disease is largely undescribed in Asian schistosomiasis-endemic populations. A schistosome protein microarray was used to compare the antibody profiles of subjects with acute infection, with early or advanced disease associated with severe pathology, with chronic infection, and subjects exposed but stool negative for S. japonicum eggs to the antibody profiles of nonexposed controls. Twenty-five immunodominant antigens were identified, including vaccine candidates, tetraspanin-related proteins, transporter molecules, and unannotated proteins. Additionally, individuals with severe pathology had a limited specific antibody response, suggesting that individuals with mild disease may use a broad and strong antibody response, particularly against surface-exposed proteins, to control pathology and/or infection. Our study has identified specific antigens that can discriminate between S. japonicum-exposed groups with different pathologies and may also allow the host to control disease pathology and provide resistance to parasite infection. PMID:26150545

  19. Idiotypic sensitization in utero of children born to mothers with schistosomiasis or Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Eloi-Santos, S M; Novato-Silva, E; Maselli, V M; Gazzinelli, G; Colley, D G; Correa-Oliveira, R

    1989-01-01

    Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) of neonates born of mothers with Chagas' disease or schistosomiasis exhibited strong proliferative responses against idiotypes expressed on antibodies with specificity for Trypanosoma cruzi or Schistosoma mansoni antigens, respectively. These immunoaffinity-purified preparations were stimulatory if they were prepared from pools of patients' sera or from the mother's own serum, taken early during her pregnancy. These CBMC did not respond to normal immunoglobulin, and CBMC of neonates born of uninfected mothers did not respond to antibodies against either T. cruzi or S. mansoni, or normal immunoglobulin preparations. We propose that in utero exposure of a fetus to some idiotypes expressed on placentally transferred antibodies induces anti-Id T lymphocyte sensitization, which we detect as a proliferative response by CBMC exposed to immunoaffinity-purified antibodies expressing the relevant idiotypes. This is the first experimental evidence that children born of mothers with chronic infections undergo natural in utero idiotypic manipulations and are born possessing cellular anti-Id reactivity. PMID:2503542

  20. Leucocyte migration inhibitory factor assay in Nigerians with urinary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O G; Salimonu, L S

    1999-01-01

    Schistosome antigens (soluble egg antigen and adult worm antigen) and non-schistosome antigens (Bacille Calmette Guerin vaccine antigen and measles virus vaccine antigen) were used to assay for leucocyte migration inhibitory factors (LMIF) in Nigerian children with and without Schistosoma haematobium infection. The severity of S. haematobium infection was graded into light infection (1-49 eggs/ 10 ml urine) or heavy infection (more than or equal to 50 eggs/10 ml urine). The mean percentage migration indices were significantly reduced in heavily infected urinary schistosomiasis (USS) subjects compared with the controls or lightly infected subjects when non-antigens were used to stimulate LMIF production. When Schistosome antigens were used to stimulate LMIF production, there were no significant decreases in the % migration indices in heavily infected USS subjects compared with the light USS subjects. The mean percentage migration index was significantly increased when schistosome antigen was used to stimulate LMIF production in treated USS subjects compared with untreated USS subjects but the increase was not significant when non-schistosome antigen was used. The conclusion that could be drawn from this study is that LMIF assay using schistosome antigen(s) has epidemiological value in schistosomiasis. PMID:10504865

  1. Modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, M.; Poindexter, R. W.; Ruiz-Tiben, E.; Ottesen, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanisms for modulating the host's immune response in human Schistosomiasis mansoni have been described for delayed hypersensitivity responsiveness and antibody production. Since clinical symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (i.e. allergic reactivity) are rare in schistosomiasis despite the presence of parasite-specific immunoglobulin E, circulating parasite antigen, and normal numbers of basophils and mast cells in infected patients, it seemed likely that there was host modulation of immediate hypersensitivity responsiveness as well. Using an in vitro basophil histamine release assay we have shown that basophils from fifteen patients with S. mansoni infections are sensitized with schistosome-specific immunoglobulin E and will release histamine in an antigen-dose-dependent manner when challenged with a soluble adult worm antigen. This histamine release was suppressed by autologus, but not normal serum. Fractionation of the serum over staphylococcal protein A and antigen affinity columns identified an immunoglobulin G parasite-specific `blocking antibody', analogous to blocking antibodies elicited during immunotherapy of atopic patients, as being responsible for the modulation of this immediate hypersensitivity responsiveness in vitro. Blocking antibody specificity varied from patient to patient, an observation suggesting that different allergens were being recognized by different individuals. These studies demonstrate that in addition to the immunoregulatory mechanisms previously described in patients with schistosome infections, there is host modulation of immediate hypersensitivity responsiveness that appears to involve specific immunoglobulin G blocking antibodies. PMID:6179857

  2. Specific humoral response of hosts with variable schistosomiasis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Driguez, Patrick; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Gaze, Soraya; Piedrafita, David; Pearson, Mark S; Nakajima, Rie; Duke, Mary; Trieu, Angela; Doolan, Denise L; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Jasinskas, Algis; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Felgner, Philip L; Loukas, Alex; Meeusen, Els; McManus, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    The schistosome blood flukes are some of the largest global causes of parasitic morbidity. Further study of the specific antibody response during schistosomiasis may yield the vaccines and diagnostics needed to combat this disease. Therefore, for the purposes of antigen discovery, sera and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes from semi-permissive rats and sera from susceptible mice were used to screen a schistosome protein microarray. Following Schistosoma japonicum infection, rats had reduced pathology, increased antibody responses and broader antigen recognition profiles compared with mice. With successive infections, rat global serological reactivity and the number of recognized antigens increased. The local antibody response in rat skin and lung, measured with ASC probes, increased after parasite migration and contributed antigen-specific antibodies to the multivalent serological response. In addition, the temporal variation of anti-parasite serum antibodies after infection and reinfection followed patterns that appear related to the antigen driving the response. Among the 29 antigens differentially recognized by the infected hosts were numerous known vaccine candidates, drug targets and several S. japonicum homologs of human schistosomiasis resistance markers-the tegument allergen-like proteins. From this set, we prioritized eight proteins that may prove to be novel schistosome vaccine and diagnostic antigens. PMID:26044065

  3. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space. PMID:26054518

  4. [Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2014].

    PubMed

    Lei, Zheng-long; Zhang, Li-juan; Xu, Zhi-min; Dang, Hui; Xu, Jing; Lv, Shan; Cao, Chun-li; Li, Shi-zhu; Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2015-12-01

    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2014, and analyzed the data captured from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi had achieved transmission interruption, 4 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Hubei had achieved transmission control, and Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces were still at infection control until 2014. There were 453 counties (city, district) endemic for schistosomiasis, with 251 million residents, and 30,048 villages endemic for schistosomiasis, with 68 million 507 thousand and 3 hundred residents. Among the 453 endemic counties (city, district), 69.09% (313/453) and 29.80% (135/ 453) endemic counties (city, district) reached the transmission interruption and transmission control respectively while the number of counties (city, district) at the stage of infection control reduced from 34 in 2013 to 5 in 2014 (accounted for 1.10% of the total number of endemic counties, 5/53). Till 2014, 115,614 people were estimated to have schistosomiasis and only 2 acute schistosomiasis cases were reported. In addition, there were 30,880 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2014. In 2014, a total of 9,461,348 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 8,270 persons were found stool positives with the reduction rate of 50.96% as compared to that (16,865 cases) in 2013. The Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 20 123 endemic villages in 2014, and the snails were detected in 5,653 villages, which accounted for 28.09% of total villages, with 13 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 576,506.37 hm² and snails were found in an area of 364 324

  5. Global Assessment of Schistosomiasis Control Over the Past Century Shows Targeting the Snail Intermediate Host Works Best

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lopez, Melina; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Rickards, Chloe; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control. Methodology We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during the 20th century, and (ii) schistosomiasis remains endemic, or (iii) schistosomiasis has been "eliminated," or is "no longer endemic," or transmission has been interrupted. Principal Findings Widespread snail control reduced prevalence by 92 ± 5% (N = 19) vs. 37 ± 7% (N = 29) for programs using little or no snail control. In addition, ecological, economic, and political factors contributed to schistosomiasis elimination. For instance, snail control was most common and widespread in wealthier countries and when control began earlier in the 20th century. Conclusions/Significance Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis. PMID:27441556

  6. Applications of Spatial Technology in Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-Y; He, J; Yang, K; Liang, S

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, as the important parasitic disease, has caused serious threats to human health globally. The People's Republic of China has acquired significant achievements based on large-scale interventions and innovational technology. The spatial technology was introduced in 1980s and widely used in the study and control of schistosomiasis in The People's Republic of China. This chapter reviews the progress and application of spatial technology in schistosomiasis control by analysing the spatiotemporal pattern of and the impact of ecological changes on schistosomiasis transmission, which have provided the information to design and select the control strategy, and assisted the establishment of the monitoring and early warning system in The People's Republic of China, especially in the marshland and mountainous regions. PMID:27137446

  7. Repurposing pharma assets: an accelerated mechanism for strengthening the schistosomiasis drug development pipeline.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Roopa; Graef, Katy M; Dent, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, one of 17 diseases deemed to be neglected by the World Health Organization, has received little attention from the biopharmaceutical industry. Due to this, only a handful of drugs have been developed to treat schistosomiasis, with only one, praziquantel, used in most endemic regions. Growing concern over resistance coupled with praziquantel's incomplete efficacy across all stages of the Schistosoma platyhelminth life cycle highlights the urgent need for new drugs. The WIPO Re:Search consortium is a platform whereupon biopharmaceutical company compounds are being repurposed to efficiently and cost-effectively develop new drugs for neglected diseases such as schistosomiasis. This article summarizes recent clinical-stage efforts to identify new antischistosomals and highlights biopharmaceutical company compounds with potential for repurposing to treat schistosomiasis. PMID:25996066

  8. [Identification of schistosomiasis risk areas using spatial analysis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cardim, Luciana Lobato; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Pacheco, Selma Turrioni Azevedo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Carneiro, Deborah Daniela M Trabuco; Bavia, Maria Emilia

    2011-05-01

    The spread of schistosomiasis mansoni defies efforts by Brazil's Unified National Health System, thus demonstrating the need to reassess endemic control programs in the country. The aim of this study was to demarcate geographic areas at risk of schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil, and to establish the epidemiological and socioeconomic profile of the disease in this municipality (county). Kernel density estimator exploratory analysis was used for visual identification of areas at risk. Kulldorff & Nagarwalla's spatial analysis was used to obtain statistically significant clusters and to measure risk. These technologies identified four risk areas for schistosomiasis. Clusters identified within the risk areas were characterized by lower socioeconomic conditions. Multiple correspondence analyses showed a distinct profile for positive patients in the primary cluster. The techniques employed here represent an important methodological acquisition for tracking and controlling schistosomiasis in Lauro de Freitas. PMID:21655841

  9. [Epidemic situation of schistosomiasis in a provincial surveillance site of Shengzhou City, 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Yao-Rong; Ying, Xi-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Chun

    2013-02-01

    According to "The Scheme of Schistosomiasis Surveillance in Zhejiang Province", the status of Oncomelania snails, and the schistosome infection of permanent residents, floating population, and livestock were surveyed in a provincial surveillance site of Shengzhou City, from 2008 to 2011. In 4 years, the area with residual snails was 3,060 m2, and no infected snails were found among 595 living snails. The positive rate of sero-tests for schistosomiasis of the permanent residents was 0.77%, and that of the floating population was 1.09%. No schistosomiasis cases were found. In conclusion, the area with residual snails is small and its distribution is scattered, and we still should strengthen the surveillance of snail status and imported schistosomiasis cases. PMID:23687831

  10. China-Africa and China-Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bergquist, R; Qian, Y-J; Wang, Q; Yu, Q; Peeling, R; Croft, S; Guo, J-G; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a trematode, parasitic worm, is a worldwide public health problem. In spite of great progress with regard to morbidity control, even elimination of this infection in recent decades, there are still challenges to overcome in sub-Saharan Africa and endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Regarded as one of the most successful countries with respect to schistosomiasis control, The People's Republic of China has accumulated considerable experience and learnt important lessons in various local settings that could benefit schistosomiasis control in other endemic countries. Based on an analysis of conceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of potential collaborative activities with regard to schistosomiasis in Africa and Asia, this article addresses the importance of collaborative efforts and explores the priorities that would be expected to facilitate the transfer of Chinese experience to low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. PMID:27137455

  11. From Incidentaloma to Suspicion of Malignancy: The Diverse Clinical Presentation of Gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Laiana do Carmo; de Oliveira, Marbele Guimarães; Castro Pereira, Fábio Meira; de Bessa Júnior, José

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most widespread parasitic disease in the world, second only to malaria. The usual places the Schistosoma mansoni can be found in are the rectal and sigmoidal venules, as well as other segments of the large intestine of men. It may also be present in other ectopic topographies. Gonadal schistosomiasis is an unusual presentation of Schistosomiasis mansoni and its different clinical signs and symptoms disrupt correct diagnosis and culminate in surgical treatment that is, in most cases, unnecessary. In this study, we report four cases of gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni, two in the ovary and two in the testicles. These cases were clinically investigated as a bacterial infection, a benign neoplasm, and a suspected cancer, whilst one of them was an incidentaloma. PMID:24392230

  12. Epidemiological Features and Control Progress of Schistosomiasis in Waterway-Network Region in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Li, W; Wu, F; Zhang, J-F; Yang, K; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis was one of the most serious parasitic diseases in The People's Republic of China, and the endemic region was classified into three types according to the epidemiological characteristics and living conditions of the intermediate host. After more than 60years of efforts, schistosomiasis control programme has made great strides in waterway-network regions. We analyse the epidemic changes of schistosomiasis and its control progress through the schistosomiasis regions' documents and investigation data to evaluate the efficacy of the schistosomiasis control strategies in the waterway-network-type endemic region, which provides the basis for refinement of efforts, as well as summary of the Chinese schistosomiasis control experience in the waterway-network areas. PMID:27137444

  13. [Epidemiological survey of suspected natural foci of schistosomiasis in Luxi City].

    PubMed

    Gong, Su-Ming; Liang, Wei; Luo, Qi-Song; Han, Ji-Zhou; Duan, Pei-Zhi; Li, Jia-Cai; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Li, Fa-You; Du, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2011-02-01

    Three schistosomiasis patients pathologically diagnosed were detected in Luxi City, Yunnan Province, a non-endemic area of schistosomiasis. All the cases were hospitalized for serious intestinal diseases, and Schistosoma japonicum eggs were detected under their colonic mucosa. The 3 patients all denied they had contacted with infested water outside their resident place, and it was suggested that they might be infected in the local area. PMID:22164393

  14. [Recent evolution of schistosomiasis in the water project of Sourou in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Poda, J N; Wango, S P; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D

    2004-02-01

    In order to help the hydro-agricultural projects in the management of water resources together with a schistosomiasis control programme, it is important to evaluate the extent of the problem. This is the reason why parasitological and clinical surveys were conducted in schools associated with malacological surveys in transmission sites of several water projects including the one from Sourou. The data-collecting for the research on molluscs was carried out in surface water and as for parasitologic investigations on school-aged children, urine filtration and Kato-Katz were used to evaluate the parasitic load. The levels of prevalence were respectively in Guiédougou, Niassan, Di and Toma-île, in 2000, 60.5%, 40%, 48.8% and 51.9% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 5.3%, 0%, 6.9% and 50.6% for the intestinal schistosomiasis and in 2002, 56%, 51.9%, 51.6% and 43.4% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 10.1%, 8.2%, 22.7% and 90.8% for the intestinal schistosomiasis. The molluscs species collected and identified were: Biomphalaria pfeifferi for the intestinal schistosomiasis and Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and B. senegalensis for the urinary schistosomiasis. B. senegalensis and B. truncatus were found naturally infested by S. haematobium. Water projects constitute amplifying factors of the proliferation of the species and parasitic exchange. All the actors (developers, populations, scientists) are questioning the means at their disposal to reduce the development of schistosomiasis which decrease the expected benefit of hydro-agricultural installations. PMID:15104151

  15. A Hybrid Model for Predicting the Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Humans of Qianjiang City, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Lu, Zhouqin; Tian, Lihong; Tan, Li; Shi, Yun; Nie, Shaofa; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds/Objective Schistosomiasis is still a major public health problem in China, despite the fact that the government has implemented a series of strategies to prevent and control the spread of the parasitic disease. Advanced warning and reliable forecasting can help policymakers to adjust and implement strategies more effectively, which will lead to the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Our aim is to explore the application of a hybrid forecasting model to track the trends of the prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans, which provides a methodological basis for predicting and detecting schistosomiasis infection in endemic areas. Methods A hybrid approach combining the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NARNN) model to forecast the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the future four years. Forecasting performance was compared between the hybrid ARIMA-NARNN model, and the single ARIMA or the single NARNN model. Results The modelling mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the ARIMA-NARNN model was 0.1869×10−4, 0.0029, 0.0419 with a corresponding testing error of 0.9375×10−4, 0.0081, 0.9064, respectively. These error values generated with the hybrid model were all lower than those obtained from the single ARIMA or NARNN model. The forecasting values were 0.75%, 0.80%, 0.76% and 0.77% in the future four years, which demonstrated a no-downward trend. Conclusion The hybrid model has high quality prediction accuracy in the prevalence of schistosomiasis, which provides a methodological basis for future schistosomiasis monitoring and control strategies in the study area. It is worth attempting to utilize the hybrid detection scheme in other schistosomiasis-endemic areas including other infectious diseases. PMID:25119882

  16. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Schistosomiasis and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Butrous, Ghazwan

    2014-07-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtze River in China, and some pockets in south East Asia. In the East Mediterranean regions, the Schistosoma have been reported in Iraq and Egypt as well as in Sudan. The latter has the highest infection rate nowadays, particularly in the Al Jazeera area, due to the poor Schistosoma control program. In the Arabian peninsula, schistosomiasis has been reported in southwest part of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the Asir province and Jizan province, which lay in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen. The efforts to control schistosomiasis have been very successful in Saudi Arabia due to the irrigation system control. However, the infection is prone in Yemen, where the schistosomiasis control is much less strict. Thus as a result, the problem still exists due to transmigration of the populations from both countries. As a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), schistosomiasis is still under diagnosed and undertreated. This article with give a highlight about the pathophysiology of the disease and both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25076995

  17. Monitoring schistosomiasis risk in East China over space and time using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Ward, Michael P; Xia, Congcong; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem and causes substantial economic impact in east China, particularly along the Yangtze River Basin. Disease forecasting and surveillance can assist in the development and implementation of more effective intervention measures to control disease. In this study, we applied a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model to describe trends in schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China, using annual parasitological and environmental data for the period 1997-2010. A computationally efficient approach-Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation-was used for model inference. A zero-inflated, negative binomial model best described the spatio-temporal dynamics of schistosomiasis risk. It predicted that the disease risk would generally be low and stable except for some specific, local areas during the period 2011-2014. High-risk counties were identified in the forecasting maps: three in which the risk remained high, and two in which risk would become high. The results indicated that schistosomiasis risk has been reduced to consistently low levels throughout much of this region of China; however, some counties were identified in which progress in schistosomiasis control was less than satisfactory. Whilst maintaining overall control, specific interventions in the future should focus on these refractive counties as part of a strategy to eliminate schistosomiasis from this region. PMID:27053447

  18. Urinary schistosomiasis in asylum seekers in Italy: an emergency currently undervalued.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Riccardo, Flavia; Ceccarelli, Carla; Chiaretti, Massimo; Picciarella, Alice; Pacifici, Laura Elena; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Despite schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent tropical diseases in developing countries and and large flows of migrants come from countries where the disease is endemic, imported urinary schistosomiasis is still not easily recognized in non-endemic areas, especially if not subjected to specific investigations. Moreover schistosomiasis is currently not reportable in any European public health system. The data presented in this report were collected were collected between asylum seekers by a simple screening method based on a prior or actual history of a macroscopic hematauria. In case of a history of gross hematuria, the patient underwent to specific exams standardized for the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis. Our data show that the prevalence of the disease has been largely underestimated by European Surveillance Systems; in fact in a small population of young asylum seekers coming from endemic areas for schistosomiasis, we found a significant number of individuals with symptomatic disease. Given that the disease typically has an insidious course, it is highly probable that a screening procedure is able to identify early asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic subjects and avoid the serious complications that are present in advanced stages of disease. Given the limits and the costs of a late diagnosis and that an effective treatment is available, subjects from endemic areas should be actively screened for urinary schistosomiasis. PMID:23135629

  19. Monitoring schistosomiasis risk in East China over space and time using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Ward, Michael P.; Xia, Congcong; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem and causes substantial economic impact in east China, particularly along the Yangtze River Basin. Disease forecasting and surveillance can assist in the development and implementation of more effective intervention measures to control disease. In this study, we applied a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model to describe trends in schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China, using annual parasitological and environmental data for the period 1997–2010. A computationally efficient approach–Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation–was used for model inference. A zero-inflated, negative binomial model best described the spatio-temporal dynamics of schistosomiasis risk. It predicted that the disease risk would generally be low and stable except for some specific, local areas during the period 2011–2014. High-risk counties were identified in the forecasting maps: three in which the risk remained high, and two in which risk would become high. The results indicated that schistosomiasis risk has been reduced to consistently low levels throughout much of this region of China; however, some counties were identified in which progress in schistosomiasis control was less than satisfactory. Whilst maintaining overall control, specific interventions in the future should focus on these refractive counties as part of a strategy to eliminate schistosomiasis from this region. PMID:27053447

  20. Distribution of Peripheral Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xian; Xu, Lei; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhou, Sha; Zhu, Jifeng; Jin, Xin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Gengxin; Su, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis. Conclusions/Significance Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis. PMID:26284362

  1. Assessing the influence of water level on schistosomiasis in Dongting Lake region before and after the construction of Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a severe public health problem in the Dongting Lake region, and its distribution, prevalence, and intensity of infection are particularly sensitive to environmental changes. In this study, the human and bovine schistosomiasis variations in the Dongting Lake region were studied from 1996 to 2010, and the relationships between schistosomiasis and water level were examined. Furthermore, based on these results, the potential effects of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis were investigated. Results showed an increase in human schistosomiasis and in the scope of seriously affected regions, along with a decrease in bovine schistosomiasis. Human schistosomiasis was negatively correlated with water level during wet season (from May to October), particularly the average water level in October. This finding indicated that the decreasing water level may be highly related to the increasing of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake region. Based on this result and the variation of schistosomiasis before and after the construction and operation of TGD, the impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir is believed to decrease the water level and increase the contact between people and schistosomiasis. Therefore, the TGD, which is operated by regulating water and scheduling water operations, is not good for the control of human schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake region. Although the extent of the influence of the TGD on schistosomiasis remains unclear, the influence of the TGD on preventing and controlling schistosomiasis should not be ignored. PMID:26661964

  2. Schistosome-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and osteopontin secretion correlate with fibrosis and portal hypertension in human and murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Thiago A.; Syn, Wing-Kin; Machado, Mariana V.; Vidigal, Paula V.; Resende, Vivian; Voieta, Izabela; Xie, Guanhua; Otoni, Alba; Souza, Márcia M.; Santos, Elisângela T.; Chan, Isaac S.; Trindade, Guilherme V.M.; Choi, Steve S.; Witek, Rafal P.; Pereira, Fausto E.; Secor, William E.; Andrade, Zilton A.; Lambertucci, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major cause of portal hypertension worldwide. It associates with portal fibrosis that develops during chronic infection. The mechanisms by which the pathogen evokes these host responses remain unclear. We evaluated the hypothesis that schistosome eggs release factors that directly stimulate liver cells to produce osteopontin (OPN), a pro-fibrogenic protein that stimulates hepatic stellate cells to become myofibroblasts. We also investigated the utility of OPN as a biomarker of fibrosis and/or severity of portal hypertension. Cultured cholangiocytes, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells were treated with soluble egg antigen (SEA); OPN production was quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) and ELISA; cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine). Mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 6 or 16 weeks to cause early or advanced fibrosis. Liver OPN was evaluated by qRTPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlated with liver fibrosis and serum OPN. Livers from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni (early fibrosis n=15; advanced fibrosis n=72) or healthy adults (n=22) were immunostained for OPN and fibrosis markers. Results were correlated with plasma OPN levels and splenic vein pressures. SEA-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion (P<0.001 compared with controls). Cholangiocytes were OPN (+) in Schistosoma-infected mice and humans. Liver and serum OPN levels correlated with fibrosis stage (mice: r=0.861; human r=0.672, P=0.0001) and myofibroblast accumulation (mice: r=0.800; human: r=0.761, P=0.0001). Numbers of OPN (+) bile ductules strongly correlated with splenic vein pressure (r=0.778; P=0.001). S. mansoni egg antigens stimulate cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion. OPN levels in liver and blood correlate with fibrosis stage and portal hypertension severity. PMID:26201095

  3. The impact of schistosomes and schistosomiasis on murine blood coagulation and fibrinolysis as determined by thromboelastography (TEG).

    PubMed

    Da'dara, Akram A; de Laforcade, Armelle M; Skelly, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that currently infect over 200 million people and cause the chronic debilitating disease schistosomiasis. While these large intravascular parasites can disturb blood flow, surprisingly they do not appear to provoke thrombus formation around them in vivo. In order to determine if the worms can alter their local environment to impede coagulation, we incubated adult worms (50 pairs) in murine blood (500 µl) for 1 h at 37 °C and, using thromboelastography (TEG), we compared the coagulation profile of the blood with control blood that never contained worms. Substantial differences were apparent between the two profiles. Blood that had been exposed to schistosomes clotted more slowly and yielded relatively poor, though stable, thrombi; all TEG measures of blood coagulation (R, K, α-angle, MA, G and TMA) differed significantly between conditions. No fibrinolysis (as determined by LY30 and LY60 values) was detected in either case. The observed TEG profile suggests that the worms are acting as local anti-coagulants. Blood recovered from schistosome-infected mice, however, does not behave in this way. At an early time point post infection (4-weeks), the TEG profile of infected murine blood is essentially the same as that of control blood. However at a later time point (7-weeks) infected murine blood clots significantly faster than control blood but these clots also break down faster. The R, K, α-angle, and TMA measures of coagulation are all significantly different between the control versus infected mice as are the LY30 and LY60 values. This profile is indicative of a hypercoagulable state with fibrinolysis and is akin to that seen in human patients with advanced schistosomiasis. PMID:26573180

  4. Schistosomiasis Breeding Environment Situation Analysis in Dongting Lake Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanrong; Jia, Yuanyuan; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoyan; Qian, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring environmental characteristics, such as vegetation, soil moisture et al., of Oncomelania hupensis (O. hupensis)’ spatial/temporal distribution is of vital importance to the schistosomiasis prevention and control. In this study, the relationship between environmental factors derived from remotely sensed data and the density of O. hupensis was analyzed by a multiple linear regression model. Secondly, spatial analysis of the regression residual was investigated by the semi-variogram method. Thirdly, spatial analysis of the regression residual and the multiple linear regression model were both employed to estimate the spatial variation of O. hupensis density. Finally, the approach was used to monitor and predict the spatial and temporal variations of oncomelania of Dongting Lake region, China. And the areas of potential O. hupensis habitats were predicted and the influence of Three Gorges Dam (TGB)project on the density of O. hupensis was analyzed.

  5. The Tao survivorship of schistosomes: implications for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Cai, Pengfei; Gobert, Geoffrey N; You, Hong; McManus, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is a major public health problem which contributes substantially to the economic and financial burdens of many nations in the developing world. An array of survival strategies, such as the unique structure of the tegument which acts as a major host-parasite interface, immune modulation mechanisms, gene regulation, and apoptosis and self-renewal have been adopted by schistosome parasites over the course of long-term evolution with their mammalian definitive hosts. Recent generation of complete schistosome genomes together with numerous biological, immunological, high-throughput "-omics" and gene function studies have revealed the Tao or strategies that schistosomes employ not only to promote long-term survival, but also to ensure effective life cycle transmission. New scenarios for the future control of this important neglected tropical disease will present themselves as our understanding of these Tao increases. PMID:26873753

  6. Parasitic procrastination: late-presenting ovale malaria and schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Davis, T M; Singh, B; Sheridan, G

    2001-08-01

    A 29-year-old woman with ovale malaria (most likely contracted, together with asymptomatic schistosomiasis, in East Africa two years previously) had fever, nausea and confusion, jaundice, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia. She was initially diagnosed with and treated for blood-smear-positive vivax malaria. Because of the unusual clinical presentation, blood was analysed by a malaria species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay which identified Plasmodium ovale as the only infecting species. This case illustrates (i) that a detailed travel history remains a vital part of clinical assessment, (ii) ovale malaria can have an exceptionally long incubation period and features of a moderately severe acute infection, and (iii) PCR assay may prove a valuable adjunct to blood film examination in the diagnosis and speciation of malaria. PMID:11548081

  7. Cysteine Peptidases as Schistosomiasis Vaccines with Inbuilt Adjuvanticity

    PubMed Central

    El Ridi, Rashika; Tallima, Hatem; Selim, Sahar; Donnelly, Sheila; Cotton, Sophie; Gonzales Santana, Bibiana; Dalton, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by several worm species of the genus Schistosoma and afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and sub-tropical countries in the developing world. Present disease control depends on treatment with the only available drug praziquantel. No vaccine exists despite the intense search for molecular candidates and adjuvant formulations over the last three decades. Cysteine peptidases such as papain and Der p 1 are well known environmental allergens that sensitize the immune system driving potent Th2-responses. Recently, we showed that the administration of active papain to mice induced significant protection (P<0.02, 50%) against an experimental challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Since schistosomes express and secrete papain-like cysteine peptidases we reasoned that these could be employed as vaccines with inbuilt adjuvanticity to protect against these parasites. Here we demonstrate that sub-cutaneous injection of functionally active S. mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1), or a cathepsin L from a related parasite Fasciola hepatica (FhCL1), elicits highly significant (P<0.0001) protection (up to 73%) against an experimental challenge worm infection. Protection and reduction in worm egg burden were further increased (up to 83%) when the cysteine peptidases were combined with other S. mansoni vaccine candidates, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (SG3PDH) and peroxiredoxin (PRX-MAP), without the need to add chemical adjuvants. These studies demonstrate the capacity of helminth cysteine peptidases to behave simultaneously as immunogens and adjuvants, and offer an innovative approach towards developing schistosomiasis vaccines PMID:24465551

  8. Schistosomiasis research in Africa: how the CONTRAST alliance made it happen.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2013-11-01

    In May 2012, the World Health Assembly passed resolution WHA 65.21, calling upon member states to intensify schistosomiasis control and, wherever possible, to attempt transmission interruption and initiate interventions towards local elimination. It is now clear that CONTRAST--a multidisciplinary alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa--was ahead of the game. Indeed, launched in October 2006, this 4-year project funded by the European Commission made important contributions for sustainable schistosomiasis control in the selected African countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial, social and cross-cutting issues pertaining to the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis. We summarize key achievements made by CONTRAST, many of which are featured in this special issue of Acta Tropica. Together with an independent view put forth by an eminent schistosomiasis researcher, the current piece provides an umbrella for the 25-article collection, including current gaps and remaining research needs. Finally, post-CONTRAST initiatives are discussed and a speculative viewpoint is given on how schistosomiasis control/elimination will have evolved over the next several years. PMID:23973364

  9. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-12-01

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  10. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  11. SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN RURAL EGYPT: A REPORT OF U.S.-EGYPTIAN RIVER NILE AND LAKE NASSER RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to provide current information on the prevalence of schistosomiasis throughout Egypt, to establish trends in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in order to shed light on the potential changes caused by the Aswan High Dam, and to determine correlat...

  12. Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: the Era of the Three Gorges Dam

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Gray, Darren J.; Li, Yuesheng; Feng, Zheng; Williams, Gail M.; Stewart, Donald; Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The potential impact of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis transmission in China has invoked considerable global concern. The TGD will result in changes in the water level and silt deposition downstream, favoring the reproduction of Oncomelania snails. Combined with blockages of the Yangtze River's tributaries, these changes will increase the schistosomiasis transmission season within the marshlands along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The changing schistosome transmission dynamics necessitate a comprehensive strategy to control schistosomiasis. This review discusses aspects of the epidemiology and transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China and considers the pathology, clinical outcomes, diagnosis, treatment, immunobiology, and genetics of schistosomiasis japonica together with an overview of current progress in vaccine development, all of which will have an impact on future control efforts. The use of synchronous praziquantel (PZQ) chemotherapy for humans and domestic animals is only temporarily effective, as schistosome reinfection occurs rapidly. Drug delivery requires a substantial infrastructure to regularly cover all parts of an area of endemicity. This makes chemotherapy expensive and, as compliance is often low, a less than satisfactory control option. There is increasing disquiet about the possibility that PZQ-resistant schistosomes will develop. Consequently, as mathematical modeling predicts, vaccine strategies represent an essential component in the future control of schistosomiasis in China. With the inclusion of focal mollusciciding, improvements in sanitation, and health education into the control scenario, China's target of reducing the level of schistosome infection to less than 1% by 2015 may be achievable. PMID:20375361

  13. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham Mahyoub; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif Mohammed; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib Mohammed; Al-Areeqi, Mona Abdullah; Elyana, Fatin Nur; Nasr, Nabil Ahmed; Surin, Johari

    2016-07-11

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  14. Critical analysis of molluscicide application in schistosomiasis control programs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Pmz; Caldeira, R L

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, and B. straminea are naturally infected by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis. Despite decades of governmental efforts through official control programs, schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the country: thousands of people are infected with the trematode each year and millions live in endemic areas. The World Health Organization recommends using a combination of molluscicide (niclosamide) and mass chemotherapy to control the transmission of schistosomiasis, with this treatment successfully reducing the morbidity of the disease. In the past, niclosamide has been used in official schistosomiasis control programs in Brazil. However, as B. glabrata recolonizes even after molluscicide application, the use of molluscicides has gradually decreased in the country until they were discontinued in 2002, mainly due to the rising global pressure to preserve the environment and the difficulties of obtaining licenses from the Brazilian Ministry of Environment to use toxic substances in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the discovery of new molluscicides, which could be more selective to Biomphalaria species and less harmful to the aquatic ecosystem, is necessary. In addition, political efforts to sensitize funders to provide grants for this field of research are required. In this context, this article aims to make a critical analysis of molluscicide application in schistosomiasis control programs in Brazil. PMID:27374126

  15. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. PMID:27430549

  16. The schistosomiasis problem in the world: results of a WHO questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Iarotski, L. S.; Davis, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the magnitude of the schistosomiasis problem throughout the world, and is based on information on schistosomiasis control programmes provided by 103 countries in reply to a questionnaire circulated by the World Health Organization in 1976. According to the data either given in these replies, published, or provided in internal reports to WHO, schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections of man. Some 500 million people are thought to be exposed to infection and four main species of schistosomes are prevalent, together with their various intermediate snail hosts, in 73 countries. Control programmes are operating in 41% of responding endemic countries although they are on a national scale only in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Morocco, Puerto Rico, St Lucia, Tunisia, and Venezuela. It appears that a maximum of only 1-2% of all cases have been treated, the most frequently used drugs being niridazole and hycanthone. A small number of efficient molluscicides are in regular use but their high cost precludes large-scale application. Installation of water supplies and health education are the most frequently used non-specific control measures. Nearly 50% of endemic countries use more than three different methods of control simultaneously. The national schistosomiasis control programmes in Brazil, Egypt, Iran, Japan, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela are examples of combined approaches that have resulted in a significant decline in the prevalence of schistosomiasis. Finally, some specific needs in research, control, and training of personnel are discussed. PMID:6973414

  17. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    DAWAKI, Salwa; AL-MEKHLAFI, Hesham Mahyoub; ITHOI, Init; IBRAHIM, Jamaiah; ABDULSALAM, Awatif Mohammed; AHMED, Abdulhamid; SADY, Hany; ATROOSH, Wahib Mohammed; AL-AREEQI, Mona Abdullah; ELYANA, Fatin Nur; NASR, Nabil Ahmed; SURIN, Johari

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  18. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS): from case reports to a call for concerted action against this neglected gynaecological disease.

    PubMed

    Christinet, Vanessa; Lazdins-Helds, Janis K; Stothard, J Russell; Reinhard-Rupp, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, control of neglected tropical diseases has been increasingly gaining momentum and interventions against schistosomiasis are being progressively scaled-up through expansion of donated praziquantel and preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, the public health importance of female genital schistosomiasis is not fully recognised nor its control is adequately addressed. Taking a clinical and anatomopathological perspective, we evaluated the available literature to highlight the importance of female genital schistosomiasis and its connections with two sexually transmitted infections of global importance, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human Papilloma Virus. Outside the long list of clinical descriptive reports beginning in 1899, there is presently a shocking gap in epidemiological assessment and a significant underestimation of the burden of FGS remains. The scarcity of integrated approaches to address female genital schistosomiasis calls for more concerted action in its detection, treatment and prevention alongside other concomitant women's health issues, otherwise female genital schistosomiasis will remain a neglected gynaecological disease. PMID:27063073

  19. Epidemiological Features and Effectiveness of Schistosomiasis Control Programme in Lake and Marshland Region in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-Q; Sun, C-S; Wang, M; Lin, D-D; Zhou, X-N; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of neglected tropical diseases in the world. The People's Republic of China has made great achievements in schistosomiasis control through integrated interventions. Although the morbidity and mortality have been reduced to the lowest level in all three endemic regions, namely lake and marshland regions, hilly and mountainous regions and plains with waterway networks regions, the endemic status in lake and marshland region is still that of implementing the interventions in the higher endemicity areas towards elimination of schistosomiasis transmission. This review explores and analyses the endemic characteristics, control measures and its effectiveness in the course of schistosomiasis control programme, in order to provide more theoretical information and experiences for development of appropriate strategies leading to schistosomiasis elimination in the next stage in the country. PMID:27137442

  20. Dyspoietic changes associated with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma are not a manifestation of a myelodysplastic syndrome: analysis of 25 patients.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Mariko; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Tang, Guilin; Wang, Sa A; P Patel, Keyur; Routbort, Mark; Bhagat, Govind; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Chen, Weina; Muzzafar, Tariq; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Khoury, Joseph D; Daneshbod, Yahya; Davanlou, Masoud; Li, Shaoying; Young, Ken H; Miranda, Roberto N

    2016-04-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma commonly associated with cytopenias. The pathogenesis of cytopenias in patients with HSTCL is not well defined, although the presence of dyspoietic hematopoietic cells and the common association with trisomy 8 raise the possibility of an associated myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In 25 bone marrow specimens involved by HSTCL, we systematically assessed for morphologic features of dyspoiesis and correlated the findings with peripheral cytopenia(s), cytogenetic findings, and detection of chromosome 8 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The median patient age was 33 years. One patient had a history of MDS diagnosed 1 year prior to the diagnosis of HSTCL. Thirteen (54%) patients had anemia less than 100 g/L, 10 (53%) of 19 had neutropenia less than 1.8 × 10(9)/L, and 15 (60%) had thrombocytopenia less than 100 × 10(9)/L. Dyspoietic features were identified in 1 to 3 hematopoietic cell lineages in 20 (80%) of 25 patients. Cytogenetic analysis identified trisomy 8 in 7 cases. Patients with trisomy 8 had a lower platelet count, but trisomy 8 was not associated with cytopenias, dyspoietic features, or cytogenetic abnormalities. Combined morphologic and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that trisomy 8 was restricted to the lymphoma cells, except in the 1 patient with a history of MDS. In conclusion, dyspoietic changes are common in the bone marrow of patients with HSTCL. These changes are not associated with cytopenias or chromosomal abnormalities, suggesting that dyspoiesis in patients with HSTCL is not a manifestation of a MDS. PMID:26997444

  1. Protection Motivation Theory in Predicting Intention to Engage in Protective Behaviors against Schistosomiasis among Middle School Students in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. Methods The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Principal Findings Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. Conclusions The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against

  2. Epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China, 2004.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing-Wu; Zheng, Jiang; Dang, Hui; Wang, Xian-Hong; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Qing; Wu, Guan-Ling; Li, Yue-Sheng; Xu, Xing-Jian; Chen, Hong-Gen; Wang, Tian-Ping; Zhu, Yin-Chang; Qiu, Dong-Chuan; Dong, Xing-Qi; Zhao, Gen-Ming; Zhang, Shao-Ji; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Xia, Gang; Wang, Li-Ying; Zhang, Shi-Qing; Lin, Dan-Dan; Chen, Ming-Gang; Hao, Yang

    2007-10-01

    Results from the third nationwide cluster sampling survey on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China, conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2004, are presented. A stratified cluster random sampling technique was used, and 239 villages were selected in 7 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remains endemic. A total of 250,987 residents 6-65 years of age were included in the survey. Estimated prevalence rates in the provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Jiangsu were 4.2%, 3.8%, 3.1%, 2.2%, 1.7%, 0.9%, and 0.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in the lake and marshland region (3.8%) and the lowest rates were in the plain region with waterway networks (0.06%). Extrapolation to all residents in schistosome-endemic areas indicated 726,112 infections. This indicates a reduction of 16.1% compared with a nationwide survey conducted in 1995. However, human infection rates increased by 3.9% in settings where transmission is ongoing. PMID:18257989

  3. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  4. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  5. A historical perspective on the immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanling

    2002-05-01

    The investigation and application of immunodiagnosis in schistomiasis have had a history of about 50 years so far in China. The author, in this paper, briefly review the progress of the technology involved here in the country, putting the stress on the latest issues during last decade. Also showed some limits in the use for control program of the disease through summary of some collaborative studies with the attempt in identifying guidelines for the implementation of serology in schistosomiasis immunodiagnosis. In addition, it was pointed out that a seroepidemiological approach in the identification of target individuals for treatment or re-treatment may be realistic and practical, which emphasized that the immunodiagnostic approach for public health use could ignore individual identification of the real infections. In this way, it became possible to bypass the complexity of interpreting the seroreactivity of an individual in assigning him/her with qualitative testing to the normal or infected person. Instead, one needs only to divide individuals in a community into 'normal' or 'infected' groups according to the titer distribution, which leads to identifying target groups for treatment. PMID:12020892

  6. Some personal views on the control of schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Kloetzel, K

    1992-01-01

    Our views are based, among other, on a recent study of a district of União dos Palmares (Alagoas). Although being a very compact community (32 city blocks holding two thousand families), transmission is very uneven, the geometric mean egg counts in the various blocks ranging between extremes of 96 and 1920. (Results do not correlate with the availability of domestic water supply). We thus are led to conclude that: (a) transmission is primarily peridomestic, resulting from pollution of open ditches and other collections of water; (b) control of transmission can be done on a selective basis, requiring quite modest investments. Given the inefficacy of population-based chemotherapy, when used alone, the author insists that this alternative cannot any longer be overlooked. He also regrets the emphasis placed upon vaccine development; allegations that this would, at any rate, prevent severe morbidity can be dismissed, since-whatever the cause-morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been rapidly declining in Northeast Brazil. PMID:1343899

  7. National Serologic Survey of Haematobium Schistosomiasis in Morocco: Evidence for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Amarir, Fatima; El Mansouri, Bouchra; Fellah, Hajiba; Sebti, Faiza; Mohammed, Lakranbi; Handali, Sukwan; Wilkins, Patricia; El Idrissi, Abderrahman Laamrani; Sadak, Abderrahim; Rhajaoui, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The Moroccan Health Ministry launched a Process of Eliminating Schistosomiasis in 1994. During 2005–2009, the epidemiologic status showed a clear interruption of disease transmission at the national level; only a few residual cases were recorded. Our present study is the first systematic serologic survey to evaluate the transmission status in remaining disease-endemic foci. A study population of 2,382 children born after the date of the last autochthonous cases were selected from provinces with histories of high schistosomiasis transmission (Tata, Chtouka Ait Baha, Errachidia, El Kelaa Des Sraghna, and Beni Mellal). To identify the presence of disease, specific antibodies directed against Schistosoma haematobium adult worm microsomal antigens were detected by using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. The results showed an absence of antibodies in all serum samples. Consequently, our findings confirm either a low transmission status or an interruption of schistosomiasis transmission within the last disease endemic foci. PMID:21212195

  8. Influence of livestock husbandry on schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous regions of Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Zheng, Q S; Wang, X F; Hua, Z H

    1997-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in the highly endemic areas of schistosomiasis japonica in Weishan and Eryuan counties, Yunnan Province. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of domestic animals was increasing annually; 2) the proportion of animal husbandry gains in the total agriculture income had a yearly escalating tendency; 3) the infection rate of inhabitants was upgrading as a result of the development of and the prevalence in domestic animals in the recent decades. Owing to frequent migration of domestic animals, serious spread of infection sources and high prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica occurred. It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the control of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous endemic regions during the course of economic development, especially in the development of domestic animals. PMID:9444008

  9. Acute Schistosomiasis in Brazilian Traveler: The Importance of Tourism in The Epidemiology of Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simões, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Letícia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history. PMID:22844623

  10. Low avidity IgG antibodies in diagnosis of recent human schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Nahed E; Awad, Adel; Shalaby, Mohsen

    2002-12-01

    One hundred thirty school children from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Sharkia Governorate, were selected on parasitological findings. Seventy persons were negative on the first screen and turned positive after 3 months of the screening (recently infected). Stool examination, ELISA (IgG & IgM), low avid IgG, and circulating antigens were performed for all patients and controls. ELISA detected IgM in all cases. IgG and circulating antigens in 90% of schistosomiasis patients. Low avidity IgG were detected in 85.71% of recent cases. The specificity of ELISA appeared to be >99%. The IgM/IgG ratio was >1 in patients with recent infection. The percentage of fall of O.D. readings of IgG after addition of 6 molar urea was high among cases with recent infection. Low avid lgG appears to be good and valuable in diagnosis of recent schistosomiasis in man. PMID:12512829

  11. Schistosomiasis transmission and environmental change: a spatio-temporal analysis in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco - Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Brazil, schistosomiasis mansoni infection is an endemic disease that mainly affects the country’s rural populations who carry out domestic and social activities in rivers and water accumulations that provide shelter for the snails of the disease. The process of rural migration to urban centers and the disorderly occupation of natural environments by these populations from endemic areas have favored expansion of schistosomiasis to locations that had been considered to be disease-free. Based on environmental changes that have occurred in consequent to an occupation and urbanization process in the locality of Porto de Galinhas, the present study sought to identify the relationship between those chances, measure by remote-sensing techniques, and establish a new endemic area for schistosomiasis on the coast of Pernambuco State - Brazil. Methods To gather prevalence data, two parasitological census surveys were conducted (2000 and 2010) using the Kato-Katz technique. Two malacological surveys were also conducted in the same years in order to define the density and infection rate of the intermediate host. Based on these data, spatial analyses were done, resulting in maps of the risk of disease transmission. To ascertain the environmental changes that have occurred at the locality, images from the QuickBird satellite were analyzed, thus resulting in land use maps. Results Over this 10-year period, the foci of schistosomiasis became more concentrated in the Salinas district. This area was considered to be at the greatest risk of schistosomiasis transmission and had the highest prevalence rates over this period. The study illustrated that this was the area most affected by the environmental changes resulting from the disorderly urbanization process, which gave rise to unsanitary environments that favored the establishment and maintenance of foci of schistosomiasis transmission, thereby consolidating the process of expansion and endemization of this

  12. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; Poda, Jean-Noël; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health. Methodology We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI). The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d’Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children. Principal Findings Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d’Ivoire. Conclusions/Significance A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs

  13. Transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe: A mathematical and GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngarakana-Gwasira, E. T.; Bhunu, C. P.; Masocha, M.; Mashonjowa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature and presence of water bodies are known to influence the transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis. In this work, effects of water bodies (taken in context of rainfall patterns) and temperature from 1950 to 2000 are considered in the model. With the aid of Geographic Information System (GIS), the reproduction number is mapped on the Zimbabwean country. Results of the mapping show high reproduction numbers along the Lowveld and the Zambezi valley catchment area. High reproduction numbers suggest high levels of schistosomiasis. This result suggests more control efforts should be targeted in these areas with high reproduction numbers.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON IMMUNOBLOT VERSUS PCR IN DIAGNOSIS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mousa A M; Mousa, Wahed Mohammed Ali; Abu-Sarea, Enas Yahia; Basyouni, Maha M A; Mohammed, Samah Sayed

    2016-04-01

    This study compared PCR and Western blot techniques in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Forty Swiss albino mice were used, thirty two mice were infected with cercariae of S. mansoni and eight mice were kept uninfected which were used as a control. Blood was obtained from four infected mice weekly beginning from the 1st week to the 8th week post infection. The study found that PCR was positive from the first week post infection, while Western blot technique was positive from the second week post infection. Thus, PCR diagnosed schistosomiasis mansoni earlier than Western blot technique, but both were able to diagnose. PMID:27363045

  15. A benzoic acid derivative and flavokawains from Piper species as schistosomiasis vector controls.

    PubMed

    Rapado, Ludmila N; Freitas, Giovana C; Polpo, Adriano; Rojas-Cardozo, Maritza; Rincón, Javier V; Scotti, Marcus T; Kato, Massuo J; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia F

    2014-01-01

    The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, "in silico" studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. PMID:24762961

  16. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  17. Pre- and post-intervention perceptions and water contact behaviour related to schistosomiasis in north-western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S

    2013-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread disease of public health importance in Tanzania requiring concerted efforts to control it. A study on schistosomiasis-related perceptions and water contact behaviour was undertaken in one community population of Hamuyebe village in Ukerewe district, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic before and 2 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted between 2008 and 2010 among 157 individuals aged 15 years and above. The surveys were further complemented by structured observations of human-water contact activities. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms and health consequences of schistosomiasis after the intervention. The reported treatment seeking and preventive practices were congruous with the actual (observed) behaviour. Frequency, duration and timing of water contacts also decreased significantly after the intervention and took into consideration the fact that those activities which need larger body surface exposure, for a long period and at an appropriate time when cercarial densities are high (i.e. around noon) are important for the transmission of schistosomiasis. We conclude that PHAST intervention has succeeded in effecting positive changes in peoples' perceptions and attitudes towards water. As a result, knowledge obtained from the said intervention was translated into actions to prevent schistosomiasis. Studies on knowledge, attitudes and practices coupled with structured observations should be part of the integrated approach for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:23058736

  18. Low Levels of Awareness Despite High Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among Communities in Nyalenda Informal Settlement, Kisumu City, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odhiambo, Gladys O.; Musuva, Rosemary M.; Atuncha, Vincent O.; Mutete, Elizabeth T.; Odiere, Maurice R.; Onyango, Rosebella O.; Alaii, Jane A.; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal schistosomiasis is widely distributed around Lake Victoria in Kenya where about 16 million people in 56 districts are at risk of the infection with over 9.1 million infected. Its existence in rural settings has been extensively studied compared to urban settings where there is limited information about the disease coupled with low level of awareness. This study therefore assessed community awareness on existence, signs and symptoms, causes, transmission, control and risk factors for contracting schistosomiasis as well as attitudes, health seeking behaviour and environmental antecedents that affect its control so as to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to strengthen schistosomiasis control interventions in informal urban settings. Methods The study was carried out in an informal urban settlement where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was previously reported to be the highest (36%) among the eight informal settlements of Kisumu city. The study adopted cross-sectional design and purposive sampling technique. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members and eight key informant interviews with opinion leaders. Data was audio recorded transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 6 software. Results Most respondents stated having heard about schistosomiasis but very few had the correct knowledge of signs and symptoms, causes, transmission and control of schistosomiasis. However, there was moderate knowledge of risk factors and at high risk groups. Their attitudes towards schistosomiasis and its control were generally indifferent with a general belief that they had no control over their environmental circumstances to reduce transmission. Discussion/Conclusion Although schistosomiasis was prevalent in the study area, majority of the people in the community had low awareness. This study, therefore, stresses the need for health education to raise community

  19. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling.

    PubMed

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Leutner, Benjamin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d'Ivoire using high- and moderate-resolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixel-based modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements. PMID:26618326

  20. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel to school-aged children and other high-risk groups), provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and snail control. However, control measures focus almost exclusively on preventive chemotherapy, while only few studies made an attempt to determine the impact of upgraded access to safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene on schistosome transmission. We recently completed a systematic review and meta-analysis pertaining to WASH and schistosomiasis and found that people with safe water and adequate sanitation have significantly lower odds of a Schistosoma infection. Importantly though, the transmission of schistosomiasis is deeply entrenched in social-ecological systems, and hence is governed by setting-specific cultural and environmental factors that determine human behaviour and snail populations. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, which explores the transmission routes of schistosomes, particularly focussing on how these might be disrupted with WASH-related technologies and human behaviour. Additionally, future research directions in this area are highlighted. PMID:25884172

  1. [Surveillance of schistosomiasis after its transmission being interrupted in Chuxiong City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xiang

    2011-04-01

    In Chuxiong City, schistosomiasis surveillance for 16 years showed that though there were no patients and livestock newly infected with schistosome, and no infected snails, the snail status rose again. It is suggested that the surveillance should still be strengthened. PMID:22164625

  2. [Schistosomiasis must be eradicated: a review of fighting schitosomiasis in Qingpu, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Yu, S Z

    2016-07-01

    Qingpu, in western suburban of Shanghai, was one of serious schistosomiasis endemic counties in China. In 1958, in response to Chairman Mao' s call " Schistosomiasis must be eradicated", Shanghai First Medical College organized a research group to carry out schitosomiasis control in Qingpu. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was about 39% in 390 000 people and 8.4% in cattle. Oncomelania was distributed in an area of 70 million meter(2). The fighting project could be divided into two steps, the first one was from 1958 to 1974, during this period, the epidemic survey and patient treatment were conducted, and oncomelania control was carried out by using different kind of molluscides. In 1975, up to 92% of patients were cured, and 98% of oncomelania were killed. The second step was from 1975 to 1985, the main tasks were the consolidation of control achievement and surveillance. During this period oral medicines were used instead of venous injections. After the improvement of oncomelania detection method, the oncomelania clustering were found under rock duck and brick shore. In 1985, it was confirmed that schistosomiasis had been eradicated in Qingpu and other suburb areas of Shanghai. PMID:27453121

  3. Schistosomiasis: The Social Challenge of Controlling a Man-Made Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemma, Aklilu

    1973-01-01

    There is an indication of a method for curbing or controlling schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. Modern technological advances in applied pharmacology have not provided a satisfactory remedy but a simple natural product, an endod berry, has been used to control the disease on a self-help basis. (EB)

  4. Eradication of schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China. Part 1: Setting, strategies, operations, and outcomes, 1953-92.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, A.; Li, X.; Jackson, S.; Huang, K.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of an analysis of a 40-year programme leading to eradication of schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China, a large, poor autonomous region of the country that had the heaviest global burden of the disease. We used historical county data and maps showing the initial distribution and density of Oncomelania snails and the initial prevalence of schistosomiasis to assess the correlation between snail occurrence and human infection. All annual county schistosomiasis reports were collected and analysed, including information on snail abundance and infection, human and animal infection control, stool examinations and patient treatments, clinical and serology examinations, skin test surveillance, patient follow-up, patient treatments, animal examinations, water supply and sanitation, and environmental modification. The findings bear witness to the laborious, systematic and scientific basis of the control programme and how it changed over the 40 years. Of note is the continual search for and treatment of cases, the killing of snails, and the permanent alteration of their habitats using mass community participation and methods adapted to local conditions. The programme has freed more than 10 million people from the risk of schistosomiasis and boosted rural economic development and health. The persistence, good record keeping, evolving and locally flexible strategies, and the clear focus of the control programme were crucial to its eventual success. PMID:9803587

  5. Central-Provincial Relations for Anti-Schistosomiasis Policy in China

    PubMed Central

    FAN, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses central-local relations for healthcare policy in China from a principal-agent perspective, based on schistosomiasis control. In order to control the disease, the central government produced the Outline of the Mid-Long-Term National Plan for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control (2004–2015) in 2004. By discussing the implementation of the National Outline at the provincial level, the author uses principal-agent theory to examine conflict and coordination between the central and provincial governments. The documents were collected from the Internet. Although the central and provincial governments all want to eliminate schistosomiasis, allocating funding among them creates conflict and forms an obstacle to achieving the goal. This paper extensively discusses the topics related to central-provincial relation and schistosomiasis control program. Further case study on a single province may be needed to intensify the discussion from a micro perspective. The conflict between central and provincial relations needs to be resolved in order to implement the national policy. PMID:23113188

  6. An outbreak of acute schistosomiasis following a church retreat to Mwanza, Tanzania, 2008.

    PubMed

    Chunge, Charles N; Chunge, Ruth N; Masinde, Michael S; Atinga, John N

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings are described from 77 persons from Nairobi, Kenya, of whom 66 were diagnosed with acute Schistosoma mansoni infection following a trip to Mwanza, Tanzania. Unusual ocular symptoms were observed as a rare manifestation of acute schistosomiasis. The outbreak highlights the risk of swimming in Lake Victoria. PMID:22017717

  7. Central-provincial relations for anti-schistosomiasis policy in china.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka-Wai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses central-local relations for healthcare policy in China from a principal-agent perspective, based on schistosomiasis control. In order to control the disease, the central government produced the Outline of the Mid-Long-Term National Plan for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control (2004-2015) in 2004. By discussing the implementation of the National Outline at the provincial level, the author uses principal-agent theory to examine conflict and coordination between the central and provincial governments. The documents were collected from the Internet. Although the central and provincial governments all want to eliminate schistosomiasis, allocating funding among them creates conflict and forms an obstacle to achieving the goal. This paper extensively discusses the topics related to central-provincial relation and schistosomiasis control program. Further case study on a single province may be needed to intensify the discussion from a micro perspective. The conflict between central and provincial relations needs to be resolved in order to implement the national policy. PMID:23113188

  8. Using a Hybrid Model to Forecast the Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lingling; Xia, Jing; Yu, Lijing; Wang, Ying; Shi, Yun; Cai, Shunxiang; Nie, Shaofa

    2016-01-01

    Background: We previously proposed a hybrid model combining both the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NARNN) models in forecasting schistosomiasis. Our purpose in the current study was to forecast the annual prevalence of human schistosomiasis in Yangxin County, using our ARIMA-NARNN model, thereby further certifying the reliability of our hybrid model. Methods: We used the ARIMA, NARNN and ARIMA-NARNN models to fit and forecast the annual prevalence of schistosomiasis. The modeling time range included was the annual prevalence from 1956 to 2008 while the testing time range included was from 2009 to 2012. The mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were used to measure the model performance. We reconstructed the hybrid model to forecast the annual prevalence from 2013 to 2016. Results: The modeling and testing errors generated by the ARIMA-NARNN model were lower than those obtained from either the single ARIMA or NARNN models. The predicted annual prevalence from 2013 to 2016 demonstrated an initial decreasing trend, followed by an increase. Conclusions: The ARIMA-NARNN model can be well applied to analyze surveillance data for early warning systems for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. PMID:27023573

  9. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.

    PubMed Central

    Esrey, S. A.; Potash, J. B.; Roberts, L.; Shiff, C.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. These diseases were selected because they are widespread and illustrate the variety of mechanisms through which improved water and sanitation can protect people. Disease-specific median reduction levels were calculated for all studies, and separately for the more methodologically rigorous ones. For the latter studies, the median reduction in morbidity for diarrhoea, trachoma, and ascariasis induced by water supplies and/or sanitation was 26%, 27%, and 29%, respectively; the median reduction for schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis was higher, at 77% and 78%, respectively. All studies of hookworm infection were flawed apart from one, which reported a 4% reduction in incidence. For hookworm infection, ascariasis, and schistosomiasis, the reduction in disease severity, as measured in egg counts, was greater than that in incidence or prevalence. Child mortality fell by 55%, which suggests that water and sanitation have a substantial impact on child survival. Water for personal and domestic hygiene was important in reducing the rates of ascariasis, diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Sanitation facilities decreased diarrhoea morbidity and mortality and the severity of hookworm infection. Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene. PMID:1835675

  10. Risk analysis for occurrences of schistosomiasis in the coastal area of Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Manson’s schistosomiasis continues to be a severe public health problem in Brazil, where thousands of people live under the risk of contracting this parasitosis. In the Northeast of Brazil, schistosomiasis has expanded from rural areas to the coast of Pernambuco State, where the intermediate host is Biomphalaria glabrata snails. This study aims at presenting situational analyses on schistosomiasis at the coastal locality of Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, by determining the risk factors relating to its occurrence from the epidemiological and spatial perspectives. Methods In order to gather prevalence data, a parasitological census surveys were conducted in 2010 in the light of the Kato-Katz technique. Furthermore, malacological surveys were also conducted in the same years so as to define the density and infection rates of the intermediate host. Lastly, socioeconomic-behavioral survey was also conducted to determine the odds ratio for infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Based on these data, spatial analyses were done, resulting in maps of the risk of disease transmission. To predict the risk of schistosomiasis occurrence, a multivariate logistic regression was performed using R 2.13 software. Results Based on prevalence, malacological and socioeconomic-behavioural surveys, it was identified a prevalence of 15.7% in the investigated population (2,757 individuals). Due to the malacological survey, 36 breeding sites were identified, of which 11 were classified as foci of schistosomiasis transmission since they pointed out snails which were infected by Schistosoma mansoni. Overall, 11,012 snails (Biomphalaria glabrata) were collected. The multivariate regression model identified six explanatory variables of environmental, socioeconomic and demographic nature. Spatial sweep analysis by means of the Bernoulli method identified one statistically significant cluster in Salinas (RR = 2.2; p-value < 0.000), the district with the highest occurrence

  11. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nalugwa, A; Olsen, A; Tukahebwa, M E; Nuwaha, F

    2015-02-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short interviews with a standardized pre-tested questionnaire prepared in the local language (Lusoga) were administered to each caregiver to identify risk factors associated with S. mansoni infection. An overall S. mansoni prevalence of 39.3% (95% CI: 38.0-41.1%) was estimated out of the 3058 stool samples examined. The geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni among the infected children was 273 (95% CI: 241-305) eggs per gram of faeces. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased linearly with age (P<0.0001) and were highest in the age group 49-60 months. Majority (61%) of the children, especially in the age group 12-24 months (84.2%; 95% CI: 75.6-90.1%), were lightly infected. Short interviews with caregivers revealed that preschool children, 1-5 years old, get exposed to S. mansoni infested waters through bathing, playing or swimming. It is important that the Uganda national control programme for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly

  12. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Control of Schistosomiasis at Niamey, Niger.

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Boulanger, D; Brémond, P; Campagne, G; Véra, C; Sellin, B

    1997-01-01

    The Centre de Recherche sur les Méningites et les Schistosomes (CERMES) is a research institute depending on the Organisation de Coordination et de Coopération pour la lutte contre les Grandes Endémies--a West African Organization for Public Health--devoted to the studies on schistosomiasis and meningitis. The staff includes 32 persons with 11 scientists and one financial officer. The activities of the CERMES involving schistosomiasis concern three research units: (a) ecology of human and animal schistosomiasis transmission; the CERMES defined the different patterns of schistosomiasis transmission in Niger (involving African dry savana); in this field, we have shown, (i) the existence of important variability in conditions of transmission of S. haematobium and, (ii) natural hybridization between parasitic species of the ruminants (S. bovis and S. curassoni) and genetic interaction between human and animal parasites; (b) definition of morbidity indicators usable for rapid assessment methods, for appraisal of the severity of the disease and for the evaluation of the efficiency of control methods; we have established the correlation between ultrasonographic data and some cheap and simple field indicators; (c) immune response and protective immunity induced by recombinant glutathion S-transferase (Sm28, Sb28 and Sh28) in homologous and heterologous animal models including goats, sheep and non human primates (Erythrocebus patas). In Niger, we participate in all control programs against schistosomiasis to define control strategies, to supervise operations and to participate in their evaluation with external experts. International collaborations constitute a frame including four laboratories in Africa and six laboratories in developed countries (Europe and USA). PMID:9566246

  13. A Pilot Study on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-4 Gene Polymorphisms in Urinary Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou

    2012-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma haematobium, characterized by accumulation of eggs in the genitourinary tract. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) can play an important role in parasitic infection due to its major role as a negative regulator of T-cell activation and proliferation. This study was performed in patients with schistosomiasis and healthy controls to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of four CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms. The CTLA-4 gene was amplified using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction, and allele and genotypes of 49 patients with schistosomiasis were analyzed using allelic discrimination analysis followed by subsequent direct sequencing. The results were compared with healthy control subjects. The frequencies of CTLA-4 rs733618 A allele at position −1722 (p=0.001), rs11571316 C allele at position −1577 (p<0.001), and rs231775 A allele at position +49 (p=0.002) in the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The rs733618 AA genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CC genotype (p<0.001), and rs231775 AA genotype (p=0.007) were also significantly overrepresented. Meanwhile, rs733618 AG genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CT genotype (p=0.02), and rs231775 GG genotype (p=0.029) were significantly decreased in the patients with schistosomiasis, as compared with the controls. No significant difference was observed in both allele and genotype of rs16841252. The results of this study suggest that the rs733618, rs11571316, and rs231775 polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene may influence susceptibility to schistosomiasis infection in the Gabonese children. PMID:22288822

  14. Integrated Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Control over Five Years on Kome Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Mwanga, Joseph R; Min, Duk-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Kullaya, Cyril M; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M; Eom, Keeseon S

    2015-10-01

    Integrated control strategies are important for sustainable control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, despite their challenges for their effective implementation. With the support of Good Neighbors International in collaboration with National Institute of Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania, integrated control applying mass drug administration (MDA), health education using PHAST, and improved safe water supply has been implemented on Kome Island over 5 years for controlling schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Baseline surveys for schistosomiasis and STHs was conducted before implementation of any integrated control strategies, followed by 4 cross-sectional follow-up surveys on randomly selected samples of schoolchildren and adults in 10 primary schools and 8 villages, respectively, on Kome islands. Those follow-up surveys were conducted for impact evaluation after introduction of control strategies interventions in the study area. Five rounds of MDA have been implemented from 2009 along with PHAST and improved water supply with pumped wells as other control strategies for complementing MDA. A remarkable steady decline of schistosomiasis and STHs was observed from 2009 to 2012 with significant trends in their prevalence decline, and thereafter infection rate has remained at a low sustainable control. By the third follow-up survey in 2012, Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was reduced by 90.5% and hookworm by 93.3% among schoolchildren while in adults the corresponding reduction was 83.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Integrated control strategies have successfully reduced S. mansoni and STH infection status to a lower level. This study further suggests that monitoring and evaluation is a crucial component of any large-scale STH and schistosomiasis intervention. PMID:26537032

  15. Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Iran: past history and the current situation.

    PubMed

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Salmanzadeh, Shokrollah; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Ghomeshi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, through a national programme for schistosomiasis control, this infection has been eliminated from Iran. The aim of this study was to report the process of significant decrease of urogenital schistosomiasis in southwestern Iran. During national programme surveillance for urogenital schistosomiasis control which was implemented by Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Khuzestan province from 1975 to 2013, more than 1·3 million urine samples were taken from inhabitants of high risk foci. All urine samples were gathered between 10:00 a.m and 02:00 p.m and, after centrifuging, specimens were tested under optical microscope in order to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software. In this retrospective study significant reduction was seen in number of infections between 1975 and 2013. During the years 1975-1980, 1981-1990 and 1991-2000 there were 1582, 761 and 79 cases of S. haematobium, respectively. In 2001 only one case was reported from Ahvaz and indeed this was the last case of urogenital schistosomiasis in Khuzestan and of course, in Iran. Prevalence from 1·064% between 1975 and 1980 slumped to 0% in 2012-2013. During several projects for surveillance of urogenital schistosomiasis, selective population chemotherapy, snail control, population education, environmental improvement, etc were carried out throughout the surveillance period. According to elimination of S. haematobium in Khuzestan province, the only endemic region of Iran, control of disease, especially the campaign with intermediate host snails should be continued. Iran can be a successful model for countries suffering from this disease. PMID:27279000

  16. Integrated Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Control over Five Years on Kome Island, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Min, Duk-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated control strategies are important for sustainable control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, despite their challenges for their effective implementation. With the support of Good Neighbors International in collaboration with National Institute of Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania, integrated control applying mass drug administration (MDA), health education using PHAST, and improved safe water supply has been implemented on Kome Island over 5 years for controlling schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Baseline surveys for schistosomiasis and STHs was conducted before implementation of any integrated control strategies, followed by 4 cross-sectional follow-up surveys on randomly selected samples of schoolchildren and adults in 10 primary schools and 8 villages, respectively, on Kome islands. Those follow-up surveys were conducted for impact evaluation after introduction of control strategies interventions in the study area. Five rounds of MDA have been implemented from 2009 along with PHAST and improved water supply with pumped wells as other control strategies for complementing MDA. A remarkable steady decline of schistosomiasis and STHs was observed from 2009 to 2012 with significant trends in their prevalence decline, and thereafter infection rate has remained at a low sustainable control. By the third follow-up survey in 2012, Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was reduced by 90.5% and hookworm by 93.3% among schoolchildren while in adults the corresponding reduction was 83.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Integrated control strategies have successfully reduced S. mansoni and STH infection status to a lower level. This study further suggests that monitoring and evaluation is a crucial component of any large-scale STH and schistosomiasis intervention. PMID:26537032

  17. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  18. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-08-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite's intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village's river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  19. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N’Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  20. Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high

  1. Sources and Distribution of Surface Water Fecal Contamination and Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in a Brazilian Village

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Koskey, Amber M.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Blanton, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between poor sanitation and the parasitic infection schistosomiasis is well-known, but still rarely investigated directly and quantitatively. In a Brazilian village we correlated the spatial concentration of human fecal contamination of its main river and the prevalence of schistosomiasis. Methods We validated three bacterial markers of contamination in this population by high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR of feces from local residents. The qPCR of genetic markers from the 16S rRNA gene of Bacteroides-Prevotella group, Bacteroides HF8 cluster, and Lachnospiraceae Lachno2 cluster as well as sequencing was performed on georeferenced samples of river water. Ninety-six percent of residents were examined for schistosomiasis. Findings Sequence of 16S rRNA DNA from stool samples validated the relative human specificity of the HF8 and Lachno 2 fecal indicators compared to animals. The concentration of fecal contamination increased markedly along the river as it passed an increasing proportion of the population on its way downstream as did the sequence reads from bacterial families associated with human feces. Lachnospiraceae provided the most robust signal of human fecal contamination. The prevalence of schistosomiasis likewise increased downstream. Using a linear regression model, a significant correlation was demonstrated between the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and local concentration of human fecal contamination based on the Lachnospiraceae Lachno2 cluster (r2 0.53) as compared to the correlation with the general fecal marker E. coli (r2 0.28). Interpretation Fecal contamination in rivers has a downstream cumulative effect. The transmission of schistosomiasis correlates with very local factors probably resulting from the distribution of human fecal contamination, the limited movement of snails, and the frequency of water contact near the home. In endemic regions, the combined use of human associated bacterial

  2. Characterising granuloma regression and liver recovery in a murine model of schistosomiasis japonica.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Candy; Jones, Malcolm K; McManus, Donald P; Nawaratna, Sujeevi K; Burke, Melissa L; Owen, Helen C; Ramm, Grant A; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-04-01

    For hepatic schistosomiasis the egg-induced granulomatous response and the development of extensive fibrosis are the main pathologies. We used a Schistosoma japonicum-infected mouse model to characterise the multi-cellular pathways associated with the recovery from hepatic fibrosis following clearance of the infection with the anti-schistosomal drug, praziquantel. In the recovering liver splenomegaly, granuloma density and liver fibrosis were all reduced. Inflammatory cell infiltration into the liver was evident, and the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages were significantly decreased. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of fatty acid metabolism genes and the identification of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha as the upstream regulator of liver recovery. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway which regulates xenobiotic metabolism was also differentially up-regulated. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms associated with the regression of hepatic schistosomiasis. PMID:26812024

  3. Spatial epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in Africa: risk models, transmission dynamics and control☆

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews recent studies on the spatial epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in Africa. The integrated use of geographical information systems, remote sensing and geostatistics has provided new insights into the ecology and epidemiology of schistosomiasis at a variety of spatial scales. Because large-scale patterns of transmission are influenced by climatic conditions, an increasing number of studies have used remotely sensed environmental data to predict spatial distributions, most recently using Bayesian methods of inference. Such data-driven approaches allow for a more rational implementation of intervention strategies across the continent. It is suggested that improved incorporation of transmission dynamics into spatial models and assessment of uncertainties inherent in data and modelling approaches represent important future research directions. PMID:17055547

  4. 'The worm that got away': parainfectious atypical optic neuritis associated with schistosomiasis infection.

    PubMed

    Osman, Chinar; Hannigan, Sally; Ditchfield, Adam; Harden, Stephen; Marshall, Ben; Pinto, Ashwin Arnold

    2016-06-01

    Although optic neuritis is commonly associated with multiple sclerosis, patients with atypical optic neuritis require further investigations to exclude other associated conditions. We report a woman presenting with cough, fatigue, atypical optic neuritis with chiasmitis. She responded partially to corticosteroids and we subsequently found she had a ground-glass lung nodule. Follow-up CT scan of thorax at 12 months showed new parenchymal lung lesions that suggested schistosomiasis. Further questioning by a respiratory physician identified, in retrospect, a previous exposure history; serological testing confirmed schistosoma infection. She was treated with praziquantel and slowly improved clinically, with radiological improvement in the optic chiasm, regression of the parenchymal lung lesions but with the ground glass nodule unchanged. We diagnosed parainfectious optic neuritis associated with schistosomiasis, based upon exposure history, serological confirmation and radiological features, together with the response to treatment, and having excluded other causes of an atypical optic neuritis. PMID:26888797

  5. Contraceptive steroid concentrations in women with early active schistosomiasis: lack of effect of antischistosomal drugs.

    PubMed

    el-Raghy, I; Back, D J; Osman, F; Orme, M L; Fathalla, M

    1986-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive steroids (OCS) ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and levonorgestrel (LNG) have been determined in women with early active schistosomiasis and compared to those obtained in healthy volunteers. Steroid concentrations following a single dose of Ovral (500 micrograms LNG, 50 micrograms EE2) or during a multiple dose regimen were unaffected by the disease. There was no significant effect of the antischistosomal drugs praziquantel (40 mg X kg-1) or metrifonate (10 mg X kg-1 X 3 at 2-week intervals) on plasma steroid concentrations. In regular users of OCS, significantly higher concentrations of LNG were observed than in women who received only a single dose. We conclude that there is no pharmacokinetic reason for withholding OCS from patients with early active schistosomiasis who are also receiving either praziquantel or metrifonate. PMID:3089682

  6. Re-emerging schistosomiasis in hilly and mountainous areas of Sichuan, China.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Yang, Changhong; Zhong, Bo; Qiu, Dongchuan

    2006-01-01

    Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had re-emerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with transmission interruption as reported in 2001 were confirmed to have local disease transmission. The average "return time" (from control to re-emergence) was about eight years. The onset of re-emergence was commonly signalled by the occurrence of acute infections. Our survey results suggest that environmental and sociopolitical factors play an important role in re-emergence. The main challenge would be to consolidate and maintain effective control in the longer term until "real" eradication is achieved. This would be possible only by the formulation of a sustainable surveillance and control system. PMID:16501732

  7. Schistosomiasis risk estimation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using environmental data and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2008-01-01

    The influence of climate and environmental variables to the distribution of schistosomiasis has been assessed in several previous studies. Also Geographical Information System (GIS), is a tool that has been recently tested for better understanding the spatial disease distribution. The objective of this paper is to further develop the GIS technology for modeling and control of schistosomiasis using meteorological and social variables and introducing new potential environmental-related variables, particularly those produced by recently launched orbital sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Three different scenarios have been analyzed, and despite of not quite large determination factor, the standard deviation of risk estimates was considered adequate for public health needs. The main variables selected as important for modeling purposes was topographic elevation, summer minimum temperature, the NDVI vegetation index, and the social index HDI91. PMID:18692017

  8. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2). PMID:26115938

  9. Diagnostic value of rectal biopsy and concentration methods in Schistosomiasis intercalatum: quantitative comparison of three techniques.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Zwingenberger, K; Steiner, A; Dietrich, M

    1981-12-01

    The diagnostic value of the rectal biopsy was compared to a quantitative stool filtration and the MIF concentration technique in schistosomiasis intercalatum in the Gabon. The rectal biopsy was significantly more sensitive in proving the presence of ova of Schistosoma intercalatum than the stool filtration (p less than 0.001). However, if the two techniques were compared on the basis of the capability to detect viable eggs in rectal mucosa or stool, no difference in sensitivity could be found. The MIF concentration technique was significantly less sensitive than the stool filtration (p less than 0.01) and seems only of minor diagnostic value in schistosomiasis intercalatum. It could be shown that the relative sensitivities of the three techniques in detecting S. intercalatum eggs depended on the age of the examined population, as presence of viable eggs in rectal mucosa and excretion of eggs in stool was inversely correlated to the age of the patients. PMID:7345690

  10. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656