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1

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a se- vere digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a

Alexandra Antonucci; Fronzoni L; Cogliandro L; Cogliandro RF; Caputo C; Rosanna F Cogliandro; Roberto De Giorgio; Francesca Pallotti; Giovanni Barbara; Roberto Corinaldesi; Vincenzo Stanghellini

2008-01-01

2

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

PubMed Central

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

2008-01-01

3

Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol acts as a teratogen in the fetus,resulting in prenatal or postnatal growth failure,characteristic facial dysmorphic features, and centralnervous system dysfunction. The toxic effects of alcohol on the developing brain are well recognized,but gastrointestinal neuropathy has not been describedin fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Five children with FASpresented in infancy with signs and symptoms suggestive of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Theywere not

E. Vasiliauskas; D. A. Piccoli; A. F. Flores; C. Di Lorenzo; P. E. Hyman

1997-01-01

4

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction and ophthalmoplegia in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 38 year old woman having chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction associated with mitochondrial myopathy is reported. The clinical and radiographic features suggested the diagnosis of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Muscular atrophy and ophthalmoplegia led to muscle biopsy, which disclosed accumulation of normal and abnormal mitochondria ('ragged red fibres'), characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy.

R Cervera; J Bruix; A Bayes; R Blesa; I Illa; J Coll; A M Garcia-Puges

1988-01-01

5

Emergency surgery in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent clinical episodes of intestinal obstruction in the absence of any mechanical cause occluding the gut. There are multiple causes related to this rare syndrome. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is one of the causes related to primary CIPO. MNGIE is caused by mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase. These mutations

Pablo Granero Castro; Sebastián Fernández Arias; María Moreno Gijón; Paloma Álvarez Martínez; José Granero Trancón; Jose Antonio Álvarez Pérez; Eduardo Lamamie Clairac; Juan José González González

2010-01-01

6

DNA viruses in the pathogenesis of sporadic chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hereditary forms of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) are well described but the aetiology of most cases of sporadic CIIP is unknown. AIM: To determines whether herpes viruses can persist in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby implicating them in the pathogenesis of CIIP. METHODS: Twenty one specimens of small and large intestine from 13 patients with CIIP (eight visceral myopathy, three visceral neuropathy, two undifferentiated), and 12 patients operated on for colorectal cancer (controls) were examined for evidence of Herpesvirus DNA (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus type 1, and varicella zoster virus) by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ DNA hybridisation (ISH) to localise signal to the muscularis propria or myenteric plexus. RESULTS: Screening with nested PCR produced three patients with positive results. One patient with an inflammatory visceral neuropathy had EBV detected in the small intestine by PCR, and ISH demonstrated localisation to neurones in the myenteric plexus. A patient with a visceral myopathy had EBV DNA in both the small and large intestine; and one patient with a visceral neuropathy had small intestine positive for CMV DNA (both negative by ISH). No control tissue was positive for any virus. CONCLUSIONS: In individual patients there appears to be evidence linking a viral aetiology to sporadic CIIP. The role of neurotropic viruses in acute and chronic motility disturbances needs further study. Images PMID:9274480

Debinski, H S; Kamm, M A; Talbot, I C; Khan, G; Kangro, H O; Jeffries, D J

1997-01-01

7

Emergency surgery in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: case reports.  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent clinical episodes of intestinal obstruction in the absence of any mechanical cause occluding the gut. There are multiple causes related to this rare syndrome. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is one of the causes related to primary CIPO. MNGIE is caused by mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase. These mutations lead to an accumulation of thymidine and deoxyuridine in blood and tissues of these patients. Toxic levels of these nucleosides induce mitochondrial DNA abnormalities leading to an abnormal intestinal motility.Herein, we described two rare cases of MNGIE syndrome associated with CIPO, which needed surgical treatment for gastrointestinal complications. In one patient, intra-abdominal hypertension and compartment syndrome generated as a result of the colonic distension forced to perform emergency surgery. In the other patient, a perforated duodenal diverticulum was the cause that forced to perform surgery. There is not a definitive treatment for MNGIE syndrome and survival does not exceed 40 years of age. Surgery only should be considered in some selected patients. PMID:21143863

Granero Castro, Pablo; Fernández Arias, Sebastián; Moreno Gijón, María; Alvarez Martínez, Paloma; Granero Trancón, José; Álvarez Pérez, Jose Antonio; Lamamie Clairac, Eduardo; González González, Juan José

2010-01-01

8

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: treatment and long term follow up of 44 patients  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To document the long term course of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome (CIIPS) in children with defined enteric neuromuscular disease, and the place and type of surgery used in their management; in addition, to identify prognostic factors.?METHODS—Children with CIIPS were investigated and treated prospectively.?RESULTS—Twenty four children presented congenitally, eight during the 1st year of life, and 10 later. Twenty two had myopathy and 16 neuropathy (11 familial). Malrotation was present in 16 patients, 10 had short small intestine, six had non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, and 16 had urinary tract involvement. Thirty two patients needed long term parenteral nutrition (TPN): for less than six months in 19 and for more than six months in 13, 10 of whom are TPN dependent; 14 are now enteral feeding. Prokinetic treatment improved six of 22. Intestinal decompression stomas were used in 36, colostomy relieved symptoms in five of 11, and ileostomy in 16 of 31. A poor outcome (death (14) or TPN dependence (10)) was seen with malrotation (13 of 16), short small bowel (eight of nine), urinary tract involvement (12 of 16), and myopathic histology (15 of 22).?CONCLUSIONS—In CIIPS drugs are not helpful but decompression stomas are. Outcome was poor in 24 of 44 children (15 muscle disorder, 10nerve disease).?? PMID:10373127

Heneyke, S; Smith, V; Spitz, L; Milla, P

1999-01-01

9

[Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome in infants and associated anomalies].  

PubMed

The authors report 2 cases of functional intestinal pseudo-obstruction in infancy associated with intestinal and urologic anomalies. In the first case many intestinal obstructions occurred from the age of 3 weeks and the boy was operated on at 14 months of age. A short small bowel and an intestinal malrotation were found at surgery; the alimentary canal was completely aperistaltic, and an ileostomy was performed. Further operations were carried out, for obstruction due to adhesions, and lastly to perform another ileostomy. An antenatal diagnosis of megacystis had been made with ultrasonography. In the second case, the pseudo-obstruction syndrome occurred at the age of 1 month, due to a volvulus of the small bowel with malrotation. A second operation, one month later because of lack of intestinal transit showed an aperistaltic bowel and a colostomy was performed. The intestinal continuity was set up again at the age of 9 months and a fractional feeding was started. A megacystis was found during urologic investigations. Growth is correct for both children at 3 years of age. A review of the literature allowed to list the most frequent digestive or extradigestive anomalies associated with this syndrome. PMID:2048939

Destuynder, R; Menget, A; Destuynder, O; Lassauge, F; Amsallem, D; Aubert, D; Noir, A

1991-02-01

10

JC virus infects the enteric glia of patients with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) is characterised by severe impairment of intestinal propulsive motility that mimics bowel obstruction. JC virus (JCV) is a polyomavirus that can infect brain glial cells causing a fatal disease, but may also be found throughout the normal gastrointestinal tract. The hypothesis that JCV infects the myenteric plexuses of patients with CIIP was tested. Methods 10 patients with CIIP and 61 normal specimens (30 ascending colon and 31 ileum) from patients with uncomplicated colon cancer were studied. DNA was extracted from the myenteric plexuses, and JCV T antigen (TAg) DNA and the viral regulatory region were detected by PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect JCV viral protein expression, neuronal and glial markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was performed for cellular localisation of the JCV infection. Results Clinical studies demonstrated neurogenic impairment, and pathological analyses showed neuropathy in each patient with CIIP. JCV TAg DNA was found in the myenteric plexuses of 8/10 (80%) of the patients with CIIP and 3/31 (9.7%) of the control patients (p<0.001). All samples were JCV Mad-1 strains. Seven of the 10 CIIP specimens expressed both JCV TAg and the JCV viral protein VP1, while none of the controls expressed either. JCV infection co-localised with glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, a marker of enteric glial cells. Conclusion JCV infection occurs in the myenteric plexuses of patients with CIIP. The JCV localisation in enteroglial cells suggests a possible pathological role for this virus in enteric neuropathy. PMID:18593810

Selgrad, M; De Giorgio, R; Fini, L; Cogliandro, R F; Williams, S; Stanghellini, V; Barbara, G; Tonini, M; Corinaldesi, R; Genta, R M; Domiati-Saad, R; Meyer, R; Goel, A; Boland, C R; Ricciardiello, L

2010-01-01

11

Genetics Home Reference: Intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... common than the primary form. What are the genetic changes related to intestinal pseudo-obstruction? In some ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

12

Detection of Anti-Conductive Tissue Autoantibodies in a Patient with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction and Sick Sinus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old patient was diagnosed as suffering from chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction with manometric and histopathologic features suggestive of a intestinal myopathy. Histology was characterized by smooth muscle degeneration without inflammatory or immune cells. The severe gut dysfunction required full parenteral nutritional support. Few months later, the patient developed symptomatic tachy-brady arrhythmia episodes with syncopes. A thorough diagnostic work-up led to a diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome which was managed by pacemaker implantation and ?-blockers administration. This led to a partial improvement of tachy-brady arrhythmia episodes. Nonetheless, the patient continued to experience sustained supraventricular tachyarrhythmia runs, poorly responsive to increasing ?-blocker doses. To investigate the origin of the cardiologic impairment, the patient was tested for anti-conductive tissue autoantibodies, which were positive, thus supporting a possible autoimmune origin of the dysrhythmia. Other autoantibodies tested for were negative. Based on these findings, the patient was treated with high dose steroids which were then tapered. The patient responded to the steroid treatment and did not experience further episodes of syncope and tachyarrhythmias. The severe gut dysfunction remained unchanged. This case highlights an association between severe gut dysfunction and cardiac conductive tissue abnormalities with autoantibodies to conductive tissue possibly causing the dysrhythmia. The severe gut and heart (likely autoimmune-mediated) dysfunction presented in this case provide a basis to assess further a link between intestinal and cardiac abnormal rhythmicity. PMID:24081107

Caio, Giacomo; Volta, Umberto; Cerrato, Enrico; Clavenzani, Paolo; Montali, Nicolò; Cogliandro, Rosanna; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Golzio, Pier Giorgio; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Farrugia, Gianrico; De Giorgio, Roberto

2014-01-01

13

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and neurological manifestations in early adulthood: considering MNGIE syndrome in differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy syndrome (MNGIE) is a rare and life-threatening, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder, caused by the mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene. Herein, we report a case of a 21 year-old male with a long history of intestinal pseudo-obstruction who was diagnosed with MNGIE syndrome after an extensive examination. In this case, our objective was to bring the gastroenterologist's attention to this difficult to diagnose syndrome in the coexistence of intestinal pseudo-obstruction and neurologic manifestations. The patient was a member of a consanguineous family of six children, in whom two sisters had died due to this disorder and one sister was affected and is still alive. The patient presented with cachexia, abdominal pain, diarrhea and muscle weakness, and was previously considered to have gluten sensitive enteropathy and treated with dietary solutions. PMID:20593055

Oztas, Erkin; Ozin, Yasemin; Onder, Fatih; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Oguz, Dilek; Kocaefe, Cetin

2010-06-01

14

Filamin A Is Mutated in X-Linked Chronic Idiopathic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction with Central Nervous System Involvement  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that an X-linked recessive form of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIPX) maps to Xq28. To select candidate genes for the disease, we analyzed the expression in murine fetal brain and intestine of 56 genes from the critical region. We selected and sequenced seven genes and found that one affected male from a large CIIPX-affected kindred bears a 2-bp deletion in exon 2 of the FLNA gene that is present at the heterozygous state in the carrier females of the family. The frameshift mutation is located between two close methionines at the filamin N terminus and is predicted to produce a protein truncated shortly after the first predicted methionine. Loss-of-function FLNA mutations have been associated with X-linked dominant nodular ventricular heterotopia (PVNH), a central nervous system (CNS) migration defect that presents with seizures in females and lethality in males. Notably, the affected male bearing the FLNA deletion had signs of CNS involvement and potentially has PVNH. To understand how the severe frameshift mutation we found can explain the CIIPX phenotype and its X-linked recessive inheritance, we transiently expressed both the wild- type and mutant filamin in cell culture and found that filamin translation can start from either of the two initial methionines in these conditions. Therefore, translation of a normal shorter filamin can occur in vitro from the second methionine downstream of the 2-bp insertion we found. We confirmed this, demonstrating that the filamin protein is present in the patient’s lymphoblastoid cell line that shows abnormal cytoskeletal actin organization compared with normal lymphoblasts. We conclude that the filamin N terminal region between the initial two methionines is crucial for proper enteric neuron development. PMID:17357080

Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Auricchio, Renata; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Cotugno, Gabriella; Reardon, William; Milla, Peter J.; Ballabio, Andrea; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Auricchio, Alberto

2007-01-01

15

Visceral smooth muscle ?-actin deficiency associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Bengal cat (Felis catus x Prionailurus bengalensis).  

PubMed

An adult Bengal cat (Felis catus × Prionailurus bengalensis) with a prolonged history of partial anorexia, regurgitation, and weight loss and a clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic diagnosis of persistent megaesophagus and gastrointestinal ileus was submitted for necropsy. The intestinal tract was diffusely distended by gas and fluid with appreciable loss of muscle tone and an absence of luminal obstruction, consistent with the clinical history of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologically, the autonomic nervous system was intact, but the smooth muscle within the gastrointestinal wall exhibited a marked basophilia that was most pronounced in the jejunum. Immunohistochemistry for neurofilament, synaptophysin, CD117, and desmin demonstrated that the number of myenteric ganglia, number of interstitial cells, and leiomyocyte desmin content were similar when compared with the unaffected age- and species-matched control. Immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle ?-actin demonstrated a striking loss of immunoreactivity, predominantly in the circular layer of the jejunum, that corresponded with the tinctorial change in leiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of myofibrils, loss of organelle polarity, and significantly larger central mitochondria (megamitochondria) in affected leiomyocytes, as well as nonspecific degenerative changes. Although the presence of a primary leiomyopathy and a causal relationship could not be confirmed in this case, leiomyopathies are considered a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in human medicine, and loss of smooth muscle ?-actin immunoreactivity is one recognized marker for intestinal dysmotility. PMID:23774747

Imai, D M; Miller, J L; Leonard, B C; Bach, J; Drees, R; Steinberg, H; Teixeira, L B C

2014-05-01

16

Familial visceral myopathy diagnosed by exome sequencing of a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman with a history of bowel dysmotility presented with abdominal distension and peritonitis. Family history included premature deaths with intestinal symptomatology, suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance. Computed tomography showed a distended small bowel. Symptoms were alleviated by enterocutaneous stomas. Initial ileal biopsy suggested neuropathy; however, exome sequencing revealed an Arg148Ser mutation in the enteric smooth muscle actin gamma 2 (ACTG2) gene. Histological reassessment showed abnormal muscularis propria and smooth muscle actin, with the same findings in sibling, confirming familial visceral myopathy. Thus, noninvasive genomic analysis can provide early and specific diagnosis of familial visceral myopathy, which may help to avoid inappropriate surgery. PMID:24777424

Holla, Oystein L; Bock, Gunter; Busk, Oyvind L; Isfoss, Björn Logi

2014-06-01

17

[A rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction: Ogilvie's syndrome].  

PubMed

The authors report four cases of Ogilvie's syndrome, a rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. After having reviewed the pathogenetic hypotheses reported in the international literature, the authors describe the symptoms, diagnostic iter and conservative and surgical management. With regard to the latter, the authors report their own experience which differs from that reported in the literature since they advocate the use of intraoperative colonoscopy for both decompressive and diagnostic purposes, the use of the cecal fistula instead of mid-canal cecostomy, and the application of a multi-fenestrated endocolic probe inserted through the anus and as far as the left colic angle for further decompressive purposes. PMID:7991206

Mandarano, R; Ciccone, A; Rossi de Vermandois, S M; Doria, U

1994-09-01

18

Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction with Steatorrhoea *  

PubMed Central

A hitherto undescribed syndrome is recorded. Its features are gross overactivity of the small intestine with episodes of obstruction, but without any mechanical factor being found, and steatorrhoea. In one patient the inner circular coat showed gross hypertrophy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14425851

Naish, J. M.; Capper, W. M.; Brown, N. J.

1960-01-01

19

The locus for a novel syndromic form of neuronal intestinal pseudoobstruction maps of Xq28  

SciTech Connect

The neuronal type of primary chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIIP) results from the developmental failure of enteric neurons to migrate or differentiate correctly. This leads to intestinal motility disorders, which are characterized by symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical obstacle. Most of these conditions are congenital, and among them some are inherited. One syndromic condition characterized by intestinal pseudoobstruction with morphological abnormalities of the argyrophil neurons in the myenteric plexus, associated with short small bowel, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy, has been previously described. We have studied a family affected by this disorder, in which the disease appeared to segregate as an X-linked recessive trait. In order to map the CIIP locus in this family, we performed linkage analysis in 26 family members by use of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from the X chromosome. One of these markers, DXYS154, located in the distal part of Xq28, shows no recombination with a maximum lod score of 2.32. Multipoint analysis excluded linkage with markers spanning other regions of the X chromosome. Our results, integrated with the current genetic and physical map of Xq28, determine the order of loci as cen-DXS15-(CIIPX)-DXS1108/DXYS154-tel. This study establishes, for the first time, the mapping assignment of a neuropathic form of CIIP other than Hirschsprung disease. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Auricchio, A.; Casari, G.; Ballabio, A. [Telethon Inst. of Genetics and Medicine, Milan (Italy); Brancolini, V.; Devoto, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01

20

Generalized megaviscera of lupus: Refractory intestinal pseudo-obstruction, ureterohydronephrosis and megacholedochus  

PubMed Central

Dilated dysfunction involving multiple visceral organs has been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) resulting from intestinal smooth muscle damage has presented in conjunction with ureterohydronephrosis and, more rarely, biliary dilatation (megacholedochus). While the molecular pathogenesis is largely unknown, observed histopathologic features include widespread myositis, myocyte necrosis in the intestinal muscularis propria with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis, preserved myenteric innervations and little vasculitis. High dose immunosuppression usually results in resolution of symptoms with recovery of smooth muscle function, indicative of an autoimmune etiology. We report a patient with SLE who presented with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, ureterohydronephrosis and megacholedochus, and present images that illustrate megaviscera simultaneously involving all 3 visceral organs. Since the co-manifestation of all 3 is unusual and has been reported only once previously, we have termed this rare clinical syndrome generalized megaviscera of lupus (GML). Although the SLE disease-activity parameters responded to aggressive immunomodulative therapy in our patient, clinical evidence of peristaltic dysfunction persisted in all involved viscera. This is a variation from the favorable outcomes reported previously in SLE patients with GML and we attribute this poor clinical outcome to disease severity and, most importantly, delayed clinical presentation. Since inflammation followed by atrophy and fibrosis are key aspects in the pathogenesis and natural history of GML, the poor response in our patient who presented late in the clinical course may be the result of ‘burnt out’ inflammation with irreversible end-stage fibrosis. Thus, early recognition and timely initiation of treatment may be the key to recover visceral peristaltic function in patients with GML. PMID:19630114

Park, Frederick D; Lee, Jeffrey K; Madduri, Ganga D; Ghosh, Pradipta

2009-01-01

21

Occurrence of Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction in a Brainstem Hemorrhage Patient  

PubMed Central

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a massive colonic dilation with signs and symptoms of colonic obstruction, but without a mechanical cause. A 49-year-old female patient complained of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distension 1 month after a massive brainstem hemorrhage. No improvement was seen with conservative treatments. An extended-length rectal tube was inserted to perform glycerin enema. In addition, bethanechol (35 mg per day) was administered to stimulate colonic motility. The patient's condition gradually improved over a 2-month period without any surgical intervention. Extended length rectal tube enema and bethanechol can be used to improve intestinal pseudo-obstruction in stroke patients. PMID:22639755

Lee, Sang-jee; Choi, Eun-seok; Jung, Sung-hee; Yoon, Jong-soo

2012-01-01

22

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A real diagnostic challenge  

PubMed Central

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare syndrome described in recent decades. There are slightly over 30 published cases in the English language literature, primarily associated with renal and hematological disease activity. Its presentation and evolution are a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. We present four cases of intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to lupus in young Mexican females. One patient had a previous diagnosis of SLE and all presented with a urinary tract infection of varying degrees of severity during their evolution. We consider that recognition of the disease is of vital importance because it allows for establishing appropriate management, leading to a better prognosis and avoiding unnecessary surgery and complications. PMID:25170234

García López, Carlos Alberto; Laredo-Sánchez, Fernando; Malagón-Rangel, José; Flores-Padilla, Miguel G; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko

2014-01-01

23

Characteristics of intestinal pseudo-obstruction in patients with mitochondrial diseases  

PubMed Central

AIM: To reveal the frequency, characteristics and prog-nosis of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) in mitochondrial disease patients. METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2010, 31 patients (13 males and 18 females) were diagnosed with mitochondrial diseases at our hospital. We conducted a retrospective review of the patients’ sex, subclass of mitochondrial disease, age at onset of mitochondrial disease, frequency of CIP and the age at its onset, and the duration of survival. The age at onset or at the first diagnosis of the disorder that led to the clinical suspicion of mitochondrial disease was also examined. RESULTS: Twenty patients were sub-classified with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), 8 with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), and 3 with myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF). Nine patients were diagnosed with CIP, 8 of the 20 (40.0%) patients with MELAS, 0 of the 8 (0.0%) patients with CPEO, and 1 of the 3 (33.3%) patients with MERRF. The median age (range) at the diagnosis and the median age at onset of mitochondrial disease were 40 (17-69) and 25 (12-63) years in patients with CIP, and 49 (17-81) and 40 (11-71) years in patients without CIP. During the survey period, 5 patients (4 patients with MELAS and 1 with CPEO) died. The cause of death was cardiomyopathy in 2 patients with MELAS, cerebral infarction in 1 patient with MELAS, epilepsy and aspiration pneumonia in 1 patient with MELAS, and multiple metastases from gastric cancer and aspiration pneumonia in 1 patient with CPEO. CONCLUSION: Patients with CIP tend to have disorders that are suspected to be related to mitochondrial diseases at younger ages than are patients without CIP. PMID:22969229

Sekino, Yusuke; Inamori, Masahiko; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Higurashi, Takuma; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Nonaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Koide, Tomoko; Abe, Yasunobu; Gotoh, Eiji; Koyano, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

2012-01-01

24

Familial Mitochondrial Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction and Neurogenic Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal dysmotility and neurogenic bladder have been described as part of two autosomal-recessive mitochondrial disorders assumed to be due to a defect in communication between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes: myoneurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) and diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness (Wolfram syndrome). Partial cytochrome c oxidase deficiency has been described in both. We describe three Ashkenazi Jewish siblings

Lior T. Haftel; Dorit Lev; Varda Barash; Aliza Gutman; Yoram Bujanover; Tally Lerman-Sagie

2000-01-01

25

Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction Pediatric and Adolescent  

E-print Network

approximately 30 feet through the digestive system, starting from the esophagus through the stomach, small the digestive system. #12;What causes gastrointestinal motility disorders? When the nerves or muscles in any portion of the digestive system do not function in a strong or coordinated fashion, the child develops

26

Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical in- testinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure

M. T. Muñoz; J. A. Solís Herruzo

2007-01-01

27

Colonic pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed

Colonic pseudo-obstruction is often confused with mechanical intestinal obstruction. It occurs when there is an autonomic imbalance resulting in sympathetic over-activity affecting some part of the colon. The patient is often elderly with numerous comorbidities. Once mechanical obstruction is excluded by contrast enema, the patient should be treated conservatively with nasogastric and flatus tubes for at least 48 hours, and precipitating factors should be treated. When pseudo-obstruction does not settle with waitful watching, prokinetic agents and/or colonoscopic decompression can be tried. When there is a risk of impending perforation of the caecum from massive colonic dilatation and colonic ischaemia, it should be dealt with by caecostomy or hemicolectomy. In spite of available medical and surgical interventions, the outcome remains poor. PMID:19352564

Durai, R

2009-03-01

28

Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... Application success rates, funding priorities, and trends Funding Process Tips for applicants; human subjects research information; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity ...

29

Clinical Analysis of 61 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients With Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction and/or Ureterohydronephrosis: A Retrospective Observational Study.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to investigate the clinical features of intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) and/or ureterohydronephrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Sixty-one SLE patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 183 cases were randomly selected as controls from 3840 SLE inpatients without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis during the same period. Patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups (SLE with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis, SLE with IPO, and SLE with ureterohydronephrosis). The clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognosis were compared between the 3 groups.There were 57 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 32.0 years. IPO was the initial manifestation of SLE in 49.1% of the cases, whereas ureterohydronephrosis in 32.5%. All patients were initially treated with a high-dose steroid. Thirty-one of these patients (50.8%) also received intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Two patients died of bowel perforation and lupus encephalopathy, and the other 59 patients (96.7%) achieved remission after treatment. The incidences of fever, glomerulonephritis, nervous system involvement, serositis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation, hypoalbuminemia, hypocomplementemia, and anti-SSA antibody positivity were significantly higher in patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis than in the control group (without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis). Also, patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis had higher SLE Disease Activity Index scores than control patients. Compared with SLE patients with IPO, the patients with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis had a significantly higher incidence of gallbladder wall thickening, biliary tract dilatation, and serositis, whereas the patients with ureterohydronephrosis had less mucocutaneous involvement and serositis. Eight of the 47 IPO patients who initially responded well to immunotherapy relapsed; however, all responded well to retreatment with adequate immunotherapy. Of these 8 patients, 4 relapsed following poor compliance and self-discontinuation of steroid or immunosuppressant therapy. The rate of poor compliance with immunotherapy and the number of organ systems involved in patients in the recurrent IPO group were significantly higher than those in the nonrecurrent IPO group.IPO and ureterohydronephrosis are severe complications of SLE. As patients usually respond readily to early optimal steroid treatment, early diagnosis and timely initiation of glucocorticoid are important to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve prognosis. PMID:25634172

Xu, Na; Zhao, Jiuliang; Liu, Jinjing; Wu, Di; Zhao, Lidan; Wang, Qian; Hou, Yong; Li, Mengtao; Zhang, Wen; Zeng, Xuejun; Fang, Weigang; Huang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xuan; Tian, Xinping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

2015-01-01

30

Giant colonic volvulus due to colonic pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie's syndrome, is a clinical syndrome characterised by gross dilation of the caecum and right hemicolon, which sometimes extends to the sigmoid colon and rectum in the absence of an anatomic lesion in the intestinal lumen. It is characterised by impaired propulsion of contents of the gastrointestinal tract, which results in a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction. A careful examination of the markedly distended colon can exclude several colonic pathologies, including mechanical obstruction and other causes of toxic megacolon. ACPO can sometimes predispose or mimic colonic volvulus, especially in geriatric patients. PMID:25716038

Karaman, Kerem; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Beyazit, Yavuz; Han, Ismet

2015-01-01

31

Ileocolonic transfer of solid chyme in small intestinal neuropathies and myopathies  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study were to assess gastric emptying, small bowel transit and colonic filling in patients with motility disorders, with particular attention to the patterns of colonic filling. Gastrointestinal transit was assessed using a previously validated radiolabeled mixed meal. Fourteen patients with clinical and manometric features of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction classified as intestinal neuropathy and 6 as intestinal myopathy, were studied. The results were compared with those from 10 healthy controls studied similarly. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit of solids were significantly slower in both groups of patients than in healthy controls (P less than 0.05). In health, the ileocolonic transit of solid chyme was characterized by intermittent bolus transfers. The mean size of boluses transferred to the colon (expressed as a percentage of ingested radiolabel) was significantly less (P less than 0.05) in patients with intestinal myopathy (10% +/- 4% (SEM)) than in healthy controls (25% +/- 4%) or in patients with intestinal neuropathy (25% +/- 4%). The intervals between bolus transfer of solids (plateaus in the colonic filling curve) were longer (P less than 0.05) in myopathies (212 +/- 89 minutes) than in health (45 +/- 7 minutes) or neuropathies (53 +/- 11 minutes). Thus, gastric emptying and small bowel transit were delayed in small bowel neuropathies and myopathies. Bolus filling of the colon was less frequent and less effective in patients with myopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction, whereas bolus transfer was preserved in patients with neuropathic intestinal pseudoobstruction.

Greydanus, M.P.; Camilleri, M.; Colemont, L.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Brown, M.L.; Thomforde, G.M. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

1990-07-01

32

Intraluminal cecal hydatid cyst presented as chronic intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

A 70-year-old male presenting with abdominal pain was clinically diagnosed to have chronic intestinal obstruction due to lesion in ileo-cecal junction based on barium meal follow through. He underwent right hemicolectomy and the lesion was ascertained to be an intraluminal hydatid cyst in the caecum. Intraluminal cecal hydatid cysts can mimic malignancy on radiological investigations. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with intestinal obstruction in endemic regions for hydatid disease. PMID:24471004

Pawar, Smita B; Dravid, Nandkumar V; Newadkar, Dhananjay V; Ahire, Nilam D

2013-01-01

33

Acute and chronic presentation of intestinal nonrotation in adults.  

PubMed

Intestinal nonrotation has been recognized as a cause of obstruction in neonates and children and may be complicated by volvulus and intestinal necrosis. It is very rarely seen in the adult and may present acutely as a bowel obstruction and intestinal ischemia associated with midgut or ileocecal volvulus, or chronically as vague intermittent abdominal pain. The purpose of this communication is to reveal the pathogenesis and the surgical significance of intestinal nonrotation in adults and to review the English and German language literature since 1923 to establish the optimal therapeutic management. Between 1983 and 1992, we have managed and observed prospectively 10 adults with intestinal nonrotation. In four patients the nonrotation has been detected at emergency laparotomy owing to midgut or ileocecal volvulus. Four patients suffered from chronic symptoms of intermittent volvulus or small bowel obstruction and in two patients the nonrotation has been noted as an incidental finding at laparotomy for another condition. A survey of the literature from 1923 to 1992 revealed 40 adults with symptomatic intestinal nonrotation to which we contribute nine patients. We establish that in the acute symptomatic pattern, only emergency laparotomy can provide the correct diagnosis and decrease the risk of bowel disturbance. In the chronic situation, barium studies of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract reveal varying degrees of midgut malrotation and confirm the nonrotation in each case. Also, in these forms the explorative laparotomy with a consequent staging of the abdominal situs is to be recommended. All reported cases at our institutions are without complaints after surgery. Adult patients with intestinal nonrotation and acute or chronic obstructive symptoms or those detected incidentally at laparotomy for other conditions should undergo a Ladd procedure because of the risk of midgut volvulus. In this operation, the nonrotation is left in place and the ascending colon is sutured at the colon descendens and sigmoideum. After this procedure the mesenteric pedicle is fixed and the risk of midgut torsion remains minimal. PMID:8306846

von Flüe, M; Herzog, U; Ackermann, C; Tondelli, P; Harder, F

1994-02-01

34

Impaired Intestinal Digoxin Absorption in Experimental Chronic Uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a modified everted sac preparation, intestinal absorption of 3H-digoxin was studied in rats. Chronic renal failure decreased mucosa to serosa transport and net transport significantly (p < 0.01). There was a significant correlation between degree of uremic intoxication (serum urea) and decrease of 3H-digoxin absorption. Serosa to mucosa transport of digoxin was not influenced by chronic uremia.Copyright © 1981

V. Wizemann; H. W. Birk; G. Schütterle

1981-01-01

35

Mechanisms of acute and chronic intestinal inflammation induced by indomethacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of acute and chronic intestinal mucosal injury and inflammation induced by subcutaneously injected indomethacin (Indo). One injection of Indo (7.5 mg\\/kg) produced acute injury and inflammation in the distal jejunum and proximal ileum that were maximal at three days and completely resolved within one week. Two daily subcutaneous injections of

Tamaki Yamada; Edwin Deitch; Robert D. Specian; Michael A. Perry; R. Balfour Sartor; Matthew B. Grisham

1993-01-01

36

Unusual case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy and pseudo-obstruction in a patient with undiagnosed hypothyroidism: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is a relatively rare condition associated with an elevated concentration of circulating serum anti-thyroid antibodies, and is usually responsive to steroid therapy. However, hypothyroidism is a rare cause of pseudo-obstruction so here we present a case report of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy with gut pseudo-obstruction in an undiagnosed hypothyroid patient. Case presentation A diagnosis of unknown aetiology of encephalopathy with gut dysmotility in an undiagnosed profound hypothyroidism case associated with cognitive decline and behavioural disorder was made in a 60-year-old Indian man. The associated clinical and laboratory features led to the final diagnosis of overt hypothyroidism with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy with gut pseudo-obstruction. Conclusions Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is a rare disorder presenting with acute or sub acute encephalopathy of unknown aetiology so there are considerable chances of misdiagnosing it. The unusualness of this case is that since hypothyroidism is a rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and presented concomitant with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, that itself is a rare entity. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a potentially serious complication that must be recognized and treated promptly with adequate thyroid hormone therapy. PMID:25194644

2014-01-01

37

Alterations of intestinal barrier and microbiota in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies have highlighted the close relationship between the kidney and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract-frequently referred to as the kidney-gut axis-in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this regard, two important pathophysiological concepts have evolved: (i) production and accumulation of toxic end-products derived from increased bacterial fermentation of protein and other nitrogen-containing substances in the GI tract, (ii) translocation of endotoxins and live bacteria from gut lumen into the bloodstream, due to damage of the intestinal epithelial barrier and quantitative/qualitative alterations of the intestinal microbiota associated with the uraemic milieu. In both cases, these gut-centred alterations may have relevant systemic consequences in CKD patients, since they are able to trigger chronic inflammation, increase cardiovascular risk and worsen uraemic toxicity. The present review is thus focused on the kidney-gut axis in CKD, with special attention to the alterations of the intestinal barrier and the local microbiota (i.e. the collection of microorganisms living in a symbiotic coexistence with their host in the intestinal lumen) and their relationships to inflammation and uraemic toxicity in CKD. Moreover, we will summarize the most important clinical data suggesting the potential for nutritional modulation of gut-related inflammation and intestinal production of noxious by-products contributing to uraemic toxicity in CKD patients. PMID:25190600

Sabatino, Alice; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Brusasco, Irene; Cabassi, Aderville; Morabito, Santo; Fiaccadori, Enrico

2014-09-01

38

Inducible nitric oxide regulates intestinal glutamine assimilation during chronic intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

To facilitate assimilation of glutamine, different Na-dependent glutamine absorptive pathways are present in the rabbit small intestine, specifically B0AT1 in villus and SN2 in crypt cell brush border membrane. Further, both are uniquely regulated in the chronically inflamed intestine. B0AT1 is inhibited secondary to reduced number of brush border membrane (BBM) co-transporters while SN2 is stimulated secondary to an increased affinity for glutamine. These unique changes are reversible by treatment with a broad spectrum immune modulator such as glucocorticoids. However, whether inducible nitric oxide (iNO), known to be elevated in the mucosa of the chronically inflamed intestine, may be responsible for these co-transporter alterations is not known. In the present study, treatment of chronically inflamed rabbits with L-NIL, a selective inhibitor of iNO synthase, reversed the inhibition of B0AT1 in villus and the stimulation of SN2 in crypt cells. At the level of the co-transporter in the brush border membrane, inhibition of iNO production reversed the inhibition of villus B0AT1 by restoring the co-transporter numbers while the stimulation of crypt SN2 was reversed back to normal by restoring its affinity for glutamine. Western blot analyses of BBM proteins also confirmed the kinetic studies. Thus, L-NIL treatment restores the uniquely altered Na-glutamine co-transporters in the enterocytes of chronically inflamed intestine. All these data indicate that iNO functions as an upstream immune modulator directly regulating glutamine assimilation during chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25524833

Arthur, Subha; Sundaram, Uma

2015-01-30

39

Chronic cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition promotes myofibroblast-associated intestinal fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Anti-inflammatory drugs prevent intestinal tumor formation, an activity related to their ability to inhibit inflammatory pathway signaling in the target tissue. We previously showed that treatment of Min/+ mice with the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, celecoxib, induced rapid tumor regression, however, drug-resistant tumors appeared with long-term treatment. In this study, we investigated whole-tissue changes in inflammatory signaling by studying constituents of the tissue stroma and extracellular matrix (ECM). We found that celecoxib resistance was associated with changes in factors regulating autocrine TGF? signaling. Chronic drug treatment expanded the population of bone marrow-derived CD34+ vimentin+ ?SMA- myofibroblast precurors and ?SMA+ vimentin+ F4/80- myofibroblasts in the lamina propria and submucosa, providing a source of increased TGF? and COX-2 expression. Membrane constituents regulating TGF? availability, including syndecan-1 and heparinase-1 (HPA-1) were also modified by chronic treatment in a manner promoting increased TGF? signaling. Finally, long term celecoxib treatment induced tissue fibrosis, as indicated by increased expression of collagen, fibronectin, and laminin in the basement membrane. We conclude that chronic COX-2 inhibition alters TGF? signaling in the intestinal mucosa, producing conditions consistent with chronic inflammation. PMID:20179298

Davids, Jennifer S.; Carothers, Adelaide M.; Damas, Beatrice C.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.

2009-01-01

40

Chronic cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition promotes myofibroblast-associated intestinal fibrosis.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory drugs prevent intestinal tumor formation, an activity related to their ability to inhibit inflammatory pathway signaling in the target tissue. We previously showed that treatment of Min/(+) mice with the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib induced rapid tumor regression; however, drug-resistant tumors appeared with long-term treatment. In this study, we investigated whole-tissue changes in inflammatory signaling by studying constituents of the tissue stroma and extracellular matrix. We found that celecoxib resistance was associated with changes in factors regulating autocrine transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling. Chronic drug treatment expanded the population of bone marrow-derived CD34(+) vimentin(+) alphaSMA(-) myofibroblast precursors and alphaSMA(+) vimentin(+) F4/80(-) myofibroblasts in the lamina propria and submucosa, providing a source of increased TGFbeta and COX-2 expression. Membrane constituents regulating TGFbeta availability, including syndecan-1 and heparanase-1, were also modified by chronic treatment in a manner promoting increased TGFbeta signaling. Finally, long-term celecoxib treatment induced tissue fibrosis, as indicated by increased expression of collagen, fibronectin, and laminin in the basement membrane. We conclude that chronic COX-2 inhibition alters TGFbeta signaling in the intestinal mucosa, producing conditions consistent with chronic inflammation. PMID:20179298

Davids, Jennifer S; Carothers, Adelaide M; Damas, Beatrice C; Bertagnolli, Monica M

2010-03-01

41

Intestinal transport of hexoses in the rat following chronic heat exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study examines intestinal transport of sugars (D-glucose and D-galactose) in vitro and assesses organ maintenance in chronically heat-exposed rats. The results suggest that the response of intestinal absorption to heat exposure in the rat involves changes in intestinal weight and in glucose utilization. Despite the reduction in total intestinal weight, the ability of intestinal tissue to transport hexose per unit weight remains stable. Differences in intestinal weight and glucose utilization between pair-fed and heat-exposed animals suggest that the intestinal response to chronic heat exposure is not solely a function of the amount of food consumed. Alterations of hexose transport appear to be related to altered glucose metabolism and not altered transport capacity.

Carpenter, M.; Musacchia, X. J.

1979-01-01

42

Intestinal epithelial cell signalling and chronic inflammation: From the proteome to specific molecular mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancing knowledge regarding the cellular mechanisms of intestinal inflammation has led to a better understanding of the disease pathology in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It has become clear from numerous studies that enteric bacteria are a critical component in the development and prevention\\/treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging new paradigm suggests

Tanja Werner; Dirk Haller

2007-01-01

43

A chronic oral reference dose for hexavalent chromium-induced intestinal cancer†  

PubMed Central

High concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induce villous cytotoxicity and compensatory crypt hyperplasia in the small intestines of mice (but not rats). Lifetime exposure to such cytotoxic concentrations increases intestinal neoplasms in mice, suggesting that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors involves chronic wounding and compensatory cell proliferation of the intestine. Therefore, we developed a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) designed to be protective of intestinal damage and thus intestinal cancer. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chromium in mice was used to estimate the amount of Cr(VI) entering each intestinal tissue section (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) from the lumen per day (normalized to intestinal tissue weight). These internal dose metrics, together with corresponding incidences for diffuse hyperplasia, were used to derive points of departure using benchmark dose modeling and constrained nonlinear regression. Both modeling techniques resulted in similar points of departure, which were subsequently converted to human equivalent doses using a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Applying appropriate uncertainty factors, an RfD of 0.006?mg?kg–1?day–1 was derived for diffuse hyperplasia—an effect that precedes tumor formation. This RfD is protective of both noncancer and cancer effects in the small intestine and corresponds to a safe drinking water equivalent level of 210 µg l–1. This concentration is higher than the current federal maximum contaminant level for total Cr (100 µg l–1) and well above levels of Cr(VI) in US drinking water supplies (typically???5 µg l–1). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23943231

Thompson, Chad M; Kirman, Christopher R; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Suh, Mina; Hays, Sean M; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

2014-01-01

44

A chronic oral reference dose for hexavalent chromium-induced intestinal cancer.  

PubMed

High concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induce villous cytotoxicity and compensatory crypt hyperplasia in the small intestines of mice (but not rats). Lifetime exposure to such cytotoxic concentrations increases intestinal neoplasms in mice, suggesting that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors involves chronic wounding and compensatory cell proliferation of the intestine. Therefore, we developed a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) designed to be protective of intestinal damage and thus intestinal cancer. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chromium in mice was used to estimate the amount of Cr(VI) entering each intestinal tissue section (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) from the lumen per day (normalized to intestinal tissue weight). These internal dose metrics, together with corresponding incidences for diffuse hyperplasia, were used to derive points of departure using benchmark dose modeling and constrained nonlinear regression. Both modeling techniques resulted in similar points of departure, which were subsequently converted to human equivalent doses using a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Applying appropriate uncertainty factors, an RfD of 0.006 mg kg(-1) day(-1) was derived for diffuse hyperplasia-an effect that precedes tumor formation. This RfD is protective of both noncancer and cancer effects in the small intestine and corresponds to a safe drinking water equivalent level of 210 µg l(-1). This concentration is higher than the current federal maximum contaminant level for total Cr (100 µg l(-1)) and well above levels of Cr(VI) in US drinking water supplies (typically ? 5 µg l(-1)). PMID:23943231

Thompson, Chad M; Kirman, Christopher R; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Suh, Mina; Hays, Sean M; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

2014-05-01

45

Chronic alcohol feeding inhibits physiological and molecular parameters of intestinal and renal riboflavin transport.  

PubMed

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) is essential for normal human health. Mammals obtain RF from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption and prevent its urinary loss by reabsorption in the kidneys. Both of these absorptive events are carrier-mediated and involve specific RF transporters (RFVTs). Chronic alcohol consumption in humans is associated with a high prevalence of RF deficiency and suboptimal levels, but little is known about the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on physiological and molecular parameters of the intestinal and renal RF transport events. We addressed these issues using rats chronically fed an alcohol liquid diet and pair-fed controls as a model. The results showed that chronic alcohol feeding significantly inhibits carrier-mediated RF transport across the intestinal brush-border and basolateral membrane domains of the polarized enterocytes. This inhibition was associated with a parallel reduction in the expression of the rat RFVT-1 and -3 at the protein, mRNA, and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) levels. Chronic alcohol feeding also caused a significant inhibition in RF uptake in the colon. Similarly, a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated RF transport across the renal brush-border and basolateral membrane domains was observed, which again was associated with a significant reduction in the level of expression of RFVT-1 and -3 at the protein, mRNA, and hnRNA levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic alcohol exposure impairs both intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption processes of RF and that these effects are, at least in part, mediated via transcriptional mechanism(s) involving the slc52a1 and slc52a3 genes. PMID:23804199

Subramanian, Veedamali S; Subramanya, Sandeep B; Ghosal, Abhisek; Said, Hamid M

2013-09-01

46

A case of colonic pseudoobstruction related to bacterial overgrowth due to a sigmoidocecal fistula.  

PubMed

Colocolic fistulas are usually a complication of an inflammatory or neoplastic process. Development of these abnormal bowel communications may lead to bacterial overgrowth. We report on a 71-year-old man with a one-year history of recurrent abdominal distension and irregular bowel habits. Abdominal X-rays and computed tomography showed multiple air-fluid levels and loops of distended bowel without evidence of mechanical obstruction or diverticulitis. Colonoscopy showed a fistulous tract between the sigmoid colon and cecum. Results of a lactulose breath test showed high fasting breath CH4 levels, which were thought to be the result of intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The patient was diagnosed with a colonic pseudo-obstruction associated with bacterial overgrowth due to a sigmoidocecal fistula. We recommended surgical correction of the sigmoidocecal fistula; however, the patient requested medical treatment. After antibiotic therapy, the patient still had mild symptoms but no acute exacerbations. PMID:24561700

Chung, Kyoung Myeun; Lim, Seong Uk; Hong, Hyoung Ju; Park, Seon Young; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

2014-02-01

47

Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in severe small intestinal damage in chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Enteric bacteria play a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal damage. However, the association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and NSAID-induced small intestinal damage remains unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the association between SIBO and the presence of NSAID-induced severe small intestinal damage or its symptoms in chronic NSAID users. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty-three patients who had been using NSAIDs for over 3 months were enrolled. They were examined by capsule endoscopy and a lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). We defined severe small intestinal damage as the presence of more than four small erosions or large erosions/ulcers. The LHBT result was considered positive if there was an increase in the level of breath hydrogen gas of >20 ppm above baseline. RESULTS. Out of 43 patients, 22 (51%) had severe small intestinal damage. The LHBT was positive in 5 of 21 patients (24%) without severe small intestinal damage and in 13 of 21 patients (59%) with severe small intestinal damage. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an LHBT-positive result was significantly associated with increased odds ratio for severe small intestinal damage (OR, 6.54; 95% CI, 1.40-30.50). There was no significant difference in the presence of symptoms between the LHBT-positive and LHBT-negative patients with severe small intestinal damage. CONCLUSION. SIBO might have a role in the development of severe small intestinal damage in chronic NSAID users. PMID:24417613

Muraki, Motoko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Sogawa, Mitsue; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

2014-03-01

48

Role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in regulating the immune system: implications for chronic intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

: Current hypothesis suggests that genetic, immunological, and bacterial factors contribute essentially to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Variations within the gene loci encoding protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have been associated with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease. PTPs modulate the activity of their substrates by dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues and are critical for the regulation of fundamental cellular signaling processes. Evidence emerges that expression levels of PTPN2, PTPN11, and PTPN22 are altered in actively inflamed intestinal tissue. PTPN2 seems to be critical for protecting intestinal epithelial barrier function, regulating innate and adaptive immune responses and finally for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. These observations have been confirmed in PTPN2 knockout mice in vivo. Those animals are clearly more susceptible to intestinal and systemic inflammation and feature alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses. PTPN22 controls inflammatory signaling in lymphocytes and mononuclear cells resulting in aberrant cytokine secretion pattern and autophagosome formation. PTPN22 deficiency in vivo results in more severe colitis demonstrating the relevance of PTPN22 for intestinal homeostasis in vivo. Of note, loss of PTPN22 promotes mitogen-activated protein kinase-induced cytokine secretion but limits secretion of nuclear factor ?B-associated cytokines and autophagy in mononuclear cells. Loss of PTPN11 is also associated with increased colitis severity in vivo. In summary, dysfunction of those PTPs results in aberrant and uncontrolled immune responses that result in chronic inflammatory conditions. This way, it becomes more and more evident that dysfunction of PTPs displays an important factor in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation, in particular inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25581833

Spalinger, Marianne R; McCole, Declan F; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

2015-03-01

49

Hyperaggregation of platelets in intestinal tuberculosis: role of platelets in chronic inflammation.  

PubMed

Eighty-eight percent (38/43) patients of intestinal tuberculosis showed significant hyperaggregation of platelets (P < 0.001). Serum and plasma from 15 patients when incubated with normal platelets caused hyperaggregation. Gel filtered platelets from 2 patients suspended in normal plasma showed hyperaggregation of platelets with arachidonic acid. Tubercular protein had no effect on platelet aggregation. A role of hyperactive platelets in chronic inflammatory response is discussed. PMID:7832193

Sarode, R; Bhasin, D; Marwaha, N; Roy, P; Singh, K; Panigrahi, D; Garewal, G; Mehta, S K

1995-01-01

50

Gastrointestinal phenotype of fabry disease in a patient with pseudoobstruction syndrome.  

PubMed

Fabry disease is a rare, X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme ?-galactosidase A. Progressive deposition of GL-3 starts early in life, presumably as early as in fetal life. Chronic burning or provoked attacks of excruciating pain in hands and feet in Fabry disease are common in most children as well as GI-symptoms.We describe a case of pediatric Fabry disease with gastrointestinal dysmotility symptoms as primary and most severe complaints. Colonic pseudoobstruction and necrosis developed by the age of 15 years. We hypothesize that this patient developed a gastrointestinal phenotype of pediatric Fabry disease that has not been described before. PMID:23430893

Buda, Piotr; Wieteska-Klimczak, Anna; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Gietka, Piotr; Smorczewska-Kiljan, Anna; Pronicki, Maciej; Czartoryska, Barbara; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna

2012-01-01

51

The effects of moderate exercise on chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and antimicrobial defense.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of moderate exercise on repeated restraint stress (RRS)-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and explore possible mechanisms in a mouse model. Male Balb/c mice (6weeks) were randomized into 7 groups: CON functioned as controls with no intervention; RRS was subjected to 6h per day RRS for 7 consecutive days; RRS+SWIM received 30min per day of swimming prior to RRS; CON+SWIM only received 30min per day of swimming; and the other groups received one session of 30min swimming prior to sacrifice at 1-, 3- and 6h recovery. Intestinal permeability was quantified with FITC-dextran. Bacterial translocation was determined by quantification of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) in cultured mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Antimicrobial related gene expression at baseline and 1h after one session of 30min swimming was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in small intestinal segments. Protein expression of 5 genes with statistically significant increase was measured at baseline, and 1-, 3- and 6h post-swimming using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thirty minutes per day of swimming before RRS attenuated bacterial translocations and maintained intestinal permeability. Gene expression and protein levels for four antimicrobial peptides (?-defensin 5, ?-defensin 1, RegIII? and RegIII?) were significantly increased after one 30min swimming session. In conclusion, moderate exercise attenuated chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in mice, possibly due to augmentation of antimicrobial responses in the small intestine. PMID:24291325

Luo, Beibei; Xiang, Dao; Nieman, David C; Chen, Peijie

2014-07-01

52

Atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis resulting in large intestinal hypoperfusion: a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia.  

PubMed

Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia results from intestinal hypoperfusion and is classically thought to result from involvement of two or more mesenteric arteries. The celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery are most frequently implicated in this disease process, and their involvement usually results in symptoms of small intestinal ischemia. Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia resulting predominantly from inferior mesenteric artery involvement has largely been overlooked but does gives rise to its own, unique clinical presentation with symptoms resulting from large intestinal ischemia. We present four patients with atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis with symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia that have unique clinical presentations consistent with large intestinal ischemia that resolved following percutaneous endovascular treatment of the inferior mesenteric artery stenosis. These cases represent a novel approach to the diagnosis and management of this disease process and may warrant a further subclassification of chronic mesenteric ischemia into chronic small intestinal ischemia and chronic large intestinal ischemia. PMID:22407990

Lotun, Kapildeo; Shetty, Ranjith; Topaz, On

2012-11-01

53

[Effect of bificol on the intestinal microflora of chronic colitis patients working in antiboitic prodiction].  

PubMed

Data on the use of bificol, a new Soviet preparation, and its effect on the intestine microflora of patients with chronic colitis occupied in production of penicillin are presented. It was shown that by the 28th day of the preparation use the level of the intestine bacteria in the patients' intestine reliably increased. The number of immobile strains decreased from 67.6 to 36.6 per cent. Bifidoflora normalized by the 14th day of the treatment. Some clinical inprovement, i.e. stool normalization, lessening of the stomach pain, increased appetite were observed by the 4th--5th day of the treatment with bificol. On the basis of the microbiological and clinical data it was shown that treatment of the patients with chronic colitis in antibiotic production should continue for at least 28 days and in individual cases for longer periods of time. It is recommended to use the preparation in 10 doses a day divided into 2 parts. PMID:324386

Vil'shanskaia, F L; Mazitova, O P; Shteinberg, G B; Pospelova, V V; Rakhimova, N G

1977-01-01

54

Curcumin and chronic kidney disease (CKD): major mode of action through stimulating endogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase.  

PubMed

Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides) from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD. PMID:25474287

Ghosh, Siddhartha S; Gehr, Todd W B; Ghosh, Shobha

2014-01-01

55

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, T cell trafficking, and chronic intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

The etiologies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis) have not been fully elucidated. However, there is very good evidence implicating T cell and T cell trafficking to the gut and its associated lymphoid tissue as important components in disease pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the mechanisms involved in naive and effector T cell trafficking to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT; Peyer’s patches, isolated lymphoid follicles), mesenteric lymph nodes and intestine in response to commensal enteric antigens under physiological conditions as well as during the induction of chronic gut inflammation. In addition, recent data suggests that the GALT may not be required for enteric antigen-driven intestinal inflammation in certain mouse models of IBD. These new data suggest a possible paradigm shift in our understanding of how and where naive T cells become activated to yield disease-producing effector cells. PMID:20961311

Koboziev, Iurii; Karlsson, Fridrik; Grisham, Matthew B.

2011-01-01

56

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, T cell trafficking, and chronic intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

The etiologies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) have not been fully elucidated. However, there is very good evidence implicating T cell and T cell trafficking to the gut and its associated lymphoid tissue as important components in disease pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the mechanisms involved in naive and effector T cell trafficking to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT; Peyer's patches, isolated lymphoid follicles), mesenteric lymph nodes and intestine in response to commensal enteric antigens under physiological conditions as well as during the induction of chronic gut inflammation. In addition, recent data suggests that the GALT may not be required for enteric antigen-driven intestinal inflammation in certain mouse models of IBD. These new data suggest a possible paradigm shift in our understanding of how and where naive T cells become activated to yield disease-producing effector cells. PMID:20961311

Koboziev, Iurii; Karlsson, Fridrik; Grisham, Matthew B

2010-10-01

57

Master regulator of intestinal disease: IL-6 in chronic inflammation and cancer development.  

PubMed

IL-6 signaling is of central importance for the maintenance of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IL-6 regulates T cell differentiation, activation and resistance against apoptosis and thereby controls the balance between pro-inflammatory T cell subsets such as Th1 or Th17 cells and immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. Furthermore, IL-6 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In fact, IL-6 directly promotes tumor cell proliferation and survival through STAT3 activation. Due to its role in both types of diseases, IL-6 has been proposed as a missing link between inflammation and tumor development. During recent years, several therapeutics targeting IL-6 dependent pathways have been developed. Although clinical data about anti-IL-6 treatment in intestinal diseases are currently scarce, targeting this pathway might be a promising strategy in IBD and CRC. PMID:24447345

Waldner, Maximilian J; Neurath, Markus F

2014-02-01

58

Chronic restraint stress induces intestinal inflammation and alters the expression of hexose and lipid transporters.  

PubMed

Psychosocial stress is reported to be one of the main causes of obesity. Based on observations in studies that relate stress and gut inflammation to obesity, the present study hypothesized that chronic stress, via inflammation, alters the expression of nutrient transporters and contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Rats were exposed to restraint stress for 4 h/day for 5 days/week for eight consecutive weeks. Different segments of rat intestine were then collected and analysed for signs of pathophysiological changes and the expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like-1 (NPC1L1), sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SLC5A1, previously known as SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter-2 (SLC2A2, previously known as GLUT2). In a separate experiment, the total anti-oxidant activity (TAA)-time profile of control isolated intestinal segments was measured. Stress decreased the expression of NPC1L1 in the ileum and upregulated SLC5A1 in both the jejunum and ileum and SLC2A2 in the duodenum. Inflammation and morphological changes were observed in the proximal region of the intestine of stressed animals. Compared with jejunal and ileal segments, the rate of increase in TAA was higher in the duodenum, indicating that the segment contained less anti-oxidants; anti-oxidants may function to protect the tissues. In conclusion, stress alters the expression of hexose and lipid transporters in the gut. The site-specific increase in the expression of SLC5A1 and SLC2A2 may be correlated with pathological changes in the intestine. The ileum may be protected, in part, by gut anti-oxidants. Collectively, the data suggest that apart from causing inflammation, chronic stress may promote sugar uptake and contribute to hyperglycaemia. PMID:23586523

Lee, Chooi Yeng

2013-06-01

59

Current Status of Intestinal Transplantation in Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose A clinical trial of intestinal transplantation (Itx) under tacrolimus and prednisone immunosuppression was initiated in June 1990 in children with irreversible intestinal failure and who were dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods Fifty-five patients (28 girls, 27 boys) with a median age of 3.2 years (range, 0.5 to 18 years) received 58 intestinal transplants that included isolated small bowel (SB) (n = 17), liver SB (LSB) (n = 33), and multivisceral (MV) (n = 8) allografts. Nine patients also received bone marrow infusion, and there were 20 colonic allografts. Azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or mycophenolate mofetil were used in different phases of the series. Indications for Itx included: gastroschisis(n = 14), volvulus (n = 13), necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 6), intestinal atresia (n = 8), chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (n = 5), Hirschsprung’s disease (n = 4), microvillus inclusion disease (n = 3), multiple polyposis (n = 1), and trauma (n = 1). Results Currently, 30 patients are alive (patient survival, 55%; graft survival, 52%). Twenty-nine children with functioning grafts are living at home and off TPN, with a mean follow-up of 962 (range, 75 to 2,424) days. Immunologic complications have included liver allograft rejection (n = 18), intestinal allograft rejection (n = 52), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (n = 16), cytomegalovirus (n = 16) and graft-versus-host disease (n = 4). A combination of associated complications included intestinal perforation (n = 4), biliary leak (n = 3), bile duct stenosis (n = 1), intestinal leak (n = 6), dehiscence with evisceration (n = 4), hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 3), bleeding (n = 9), portal vein stenosis (n = 1), intraabdominal abscess (n = 11), and chylous ascites (n = 4). Graft loss occurred as a result of rejection (n = 8), infection (n = 12), technical complications (n = 8), and complications of TPN after graft removal (n = 3). There were four retransplants (SB, n = 1; LSB n = 3). Conclusions Intestinal transplantation is a valid therapeutic option for patients with intestinal failure suffering complications of TPN. The complex clinical and immunologic course of these patients is reflected in a higher complication rate as well as patient and graft loss than seen after heart, liver, and kidney transplantation, although better than after lung transplantation. PMID:9498395

Reyes, Jorge; Bueno, Javier; Kocoshis, Samuel; Green, Mike; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Furukawa, Hiro; Barksdale, Edward M.; Strom, Sharon; Fung, John J.; Todo, Satoru; Irish, William; Starzl, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

60

Molecular mechanism of regulation of villus cell Na-K-ATPase in the chronically inflamed mammalian small intestine.  

PubMed

Na-K-ATPase located on the basolateral membrane (BLM) of intestinal epithelial cells provides a favorable intracellular Na(+) gradient to promote all Na dependent co-transport processes across the brush border membrane (BBM). Down-regulation of Na-K-ATPase activity has been postulated to alter the absorption via Na-solute co-transporters in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Further, the altered activity of a variety of Na-solute co-transporters in intact villus cells has been reported in animal models of chronic enteritis. But the molecular mechanism of down-regulation of Na-K-ATPase is not known. In the present study, using a rabbit model of chronic intestinal inflammation, which resembles human IBD, Na-K-ATPase in villus cells was shown to decrease. The relative mRNA abundance of ?-1 and ?-1 subunits was not altered in villus cells during chronic intestinal inflammation. Similarly, the protein levels of these subunits were also not altered in villus cells during chronic enteritis. However, the BLM concentration of ?-1 and ?-1 subunits was diminished in the chronically inflamed intestinal villus cells. An ankyrin-spectrin skeleton is necessary for the proper trafficking of Na-K-ATPase to the BLM of the cell. In the present study, ankyrin expression was markedly diminished in villus cells from the chronically inflamed intestine resulting in depolarization of ankyrin-G protein. The decrease of Na-K-ATPase activity was comparable to that seen in ankyrin knockdown IEC-18 cells. Therefore, altered localization of Na-K-ATPase as a result of transcriptional down-regulation of ankyrin-G mediates the down-regulation of Na-K-ATPase activity during chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25462166

Saha, Prosenjit; Manoharan, Palanikumar; Arthur, Subha; Sundaram, Shanmuga; Kekuda, Ramesh; Sundaram, Uma

2015-02-01

61

Intestinal spirochetosis as a cause of chronic diarrhoea in patients with HIV infection: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We describe a 77-year-old patient with HIV infection suffering from chronic diarrhoea whose colonoscopy findings showed normal appearance mucosa and tissue samples revealed the presence of a dense layer of spirochetes attached to the apical cell membrane. A literature search from 1996 to April 2009 identified 19 additional cases of intestinal spirochetosis in patients with HIV infection. Analysis of cases showed that intestinal spirochetosis causes chronic diarrhoea in men who have sex with men (92% of patients with reported HIV infection risk factors) who are not severely immunosuppressed (70% with CD4 lymphocyte cells >200/microL). Colonoscopy examination often revealed normal appearance mucosa. Haematoxylin and eosin stain of biopsy samples showed the presence of spirochetes, but Warthin-Starry silver staining makes organisms easier to detect. Patients promptly responded to metronidazole or penicillin therapy. In summary, invasive intestinal spirochetosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with HIV infection and chronic diarrhoea. PMID:19843615

Ena, J; Simón-Aylón, A; Pasquau, F

2009-11-01

62

Normal intestinal rotation with non-fixation: a cause of chronic abdominal pain.  

PubMed

The majority of clinically significant gastrointestinal rotational anomalies involve:(1) an arrest of rotation about the superior mesenteric vessels, (2) abnormal peritoneal bands, and (3) obstruction with or without volvulus. Between 1973 and 1978, six children had chronic intermittent volvulus secondary to a nonfixed but normally-rotated intestine; this is 10% of all infants and children treated for malrotation in our hospital during the same period. Barium studies showed normal duodenojejunal configuration and a colon that was normally situated on at least one study. All were labeled as functional complainers by their pediatricians. One died of a volvulus because her complaints were appreciated too late. At laparotomy, evidence of chronic intermittent volulus secondary to nonfixation from the ligament of Treitz to the transverse colon was found in all patients. A Ladd procedure with appendectomy was performed and immediate resolution of symptoms was noted in each surviving child. Children with a story of chronic abdominal pain deserve a carefully interpreted history and radiographic examination before being labeled as chronic complainers. PMID:551142

Janik, J S; Ein, S H

1979-12-01

63

Evaluation of the immunoregulatory activity of intraepithelial lymphocytes in a mouse model of chronic intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) represent the first line of lymphocyte defense against the intestinal bacteria. Although previous studies have demonstrated a protective role of IELs in the development of colitis, the data supporting a regulatory role for IELs are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the suppressive activity of IELs in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model of chronic small and large bowel inflammation. Adoptive transfer of CD8?(+) IELs isolated from small intestines of wild-type (WT) mice into TCR ?x?-deficient (TCR ?x?(-/-)) recipients did not prevent or delay the onset of the disease induced by WT CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. On the contrary, we observed a more rapid onset of wasting and clinical signs of intestinal inflammation when compared with animals injected with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells alone. Histopathological scores of small and large bowel did not differ significantly between the two groups. Transfer of IELs alone did not produce any pathological changes. Real-time PCR analysis of intestinal tissues showed up-regulation of message for T(h)1- and macrophage-derived cytokines in colon and small bowel. Using Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, we were unable to detect any Foxp3(+) cells within the CD8?(+) IELs but did find a small population of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) IELs in the small and large bowel. Using in vitro suppression assay, we found that neither TCR??(+)CD8??(+), TCR??(+)CD8??(+) nor TCR??(+)CD8??(+) IELs were capable of suppressing CD4(+) T-cell proliferation. Taken together, our data do not support an immunoregulatory role for CD8?(+) IELs in a mouse model of small and large bowel inflammation. PMID:21071622

Ostanin, D V; Brown, C M; Gray, L; Bharwani, S; Grisham, M B

2010-12-01

64

Evaluation of the immunoregulatory activity of intraepithelial lymphocytes in a mouse model of chronic intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) represent the first line of lymphocyte defense against the intestinal bacteria. Although previous studies have demonstrated a protective role of IELs in the development of colitis, the data supporting a regulatory role for IELs are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the suppressive activity of IELs in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model of chronic small and large bowel inflammation. Adoptive transfer of CD8?+ IELs isolated from small intestines of wild-type (WT) mice into TCR ?x?-deficient (TCR ?x??/?) recipients did not prevent or delay the onset of the disease induced by WT CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells. On the contrary, we observed a more rapid onset of wasting and clinical signs of intestinal inflammation when compared with animals injected with CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells alone. Histopathological scores of small and large bowel did not differ significantly between the two groups. Transfer of IELs alone did not produce any pathological changes. Real-time PCR analysis of intestinal tissues showed up-regulation of message for Th1- and macrophage-derived cytokines in colon and small bowel. Using Foxp3-GFP reporter mice, we were unable to detect any Foxp3+ cells within the CD8?+ IELs but did find a small population of Foxp3+CD4+ IELs in the small and large bowel. Using in vitro suppression assay, we found that neither TCR??+CD8??+, TCR??+CD8??+ nor TCR??+CD8??+ IELs were capable of suppressing CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Taken together, our data do not support an immunoregulatory role for CD8?+ IELs in a mouse model of small and large bowel inflammation. PMID:21071622

Brown, C. M.; Gray, L.; Bharwani, S.; Grisham, M. B.

2010-01-01

65

The surgical treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia: results of a recent series.  

PubMed

Due to the rarity of the condition, large and prospective series defining the optimal method of digestive arteries revascularization, for the treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia, are lacking. The aim of this consecutive sample clinical study was to test the hypothesis that flexible application of different revascularization methods, according to individual cases, will yield the best results in the management of chronic intestinal ischemia. Eleven patients, of a mean age of 56 years, underwent revascularization of 11 digestive arteries for symptomatic chronic mesenteric occlusive disease. Eleven superior mesenteric arteries and one celiac axis were revascularized. The revascularization techniques included retrograde bypass grafting in 7 cases, antegrade bypass grafting in 2, percutaneous arterial angioplasty in 1, and arterial reimplantation in one case. The donor axis for either reimplantation or bypass grafting was the infrarenal aorta in 4 cases, an infrarenal Dacron graft in 4, and the celiac aorta in one case. Grafting materials included 5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 3 Dacron grafts. Concomitant procedures included 3 aorto-ilio-femoral grafts and one renal artery revascularization. Mean follow-up duration was 31 months. There was no operative mortality. Cumulative survival rate was 88.9% at 36 months (SE 12.1%). Primary patency rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). The symptom free rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). Direct reimplantation, antegrade and retrograde bypass grafting, all allow good mid-term results: the choice of the optimal method depends on the anatomic and general patient's status. Associated infrarenal and renal arterial lesions can be safely treated in the same time of digestive revascularization. Angioplasty alone yields poor results and should be limited to patients at poor risk for surgery. PMID:15154575

Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Papaspiropoulos, V; Mancini, P; Ceccanei, G

2004-04-01

66

Ninety-five cases of intestinal transplantation at the University of Miami.  

PubMed

Intestinal failure requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Intestinal transplantation can be a lifesaving option for patients with intestinal failure who develop serious TPN-related complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate survival, surgical technique, and patient care in patients treated with intestinal transplantation. We reviewed data collected from 95 consecutive intestinal transplants performed between December 1994 and November 2000 at the University of Miami. Fifty-four of the patients undergoing intestinal transplantation were children and 41 were adults. The series includes 49 male and 46 female patients. The causes of intestinal failure included mesenteric venous thrombosis (n = 12), necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 11), gastroschisis (n = 11), midgut volvulus (n = 9), desmoid tumor (n = 8), intestinal atresia (n = 6), trauma (n = 5), Hirschsprung's disease (n = 5), Crohn's disease (n = 5), intestinal pseudoobstruction (n = 4), and others (n = 19). The procedures performed included 27 isolated intestine transplants, 28 combined liver and intestine transplants, and 40 multivisceral transplants. Since 1998, we have been using daclizumab (Zenepax) for induction of immunosuppression and zoom videoendoscopy for graft surveillance. We began to use intense cytomegalovirus prophylaxis and systemic drainage of the portal vein. The 1-year patient survival rates for isolated intestinal, liver and intestinal, and multivisceral transplantations were 75%, 40%, and 48%, respectively. Since 1998, the 1-year patient and graft survival rates for isolated intestinal transplants have been 84% and 72%, respectively. The causes of death were as follows: sepsis after rejection (n = 14), respiratory failure (n = 8), sepsis (n = 6), multiple organ failure (n = 4), arterial graft infection (n = 3), aspergillosis (n = 2), post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (n = 2), intracranial hemorrhage (n = 2), and fungemia, chronic rejection, graft vs. host disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, pancreatitis, pulmonary embolism, and viral encephalitis (n = 1 case of each). Intestinal transplantation can be a lifesaving alternative for patients with intestinal failure. The prognosis after intestinal transplantation is better when it is performed before the onset of liver failure. Rejection monitoring with zoom videoendoscopy and new immunosuppressive therapy with sirolimus, daclizumab, and campath-1H have contributed to the improvement in patient survival. PMID:11992809

Nishida, Seigo; Levi, David; Kato, Tomoaki; Nery, Jose R; Mittal, Naveen; Hadjis, Nicholas; Madariaga, Juan; Tzakis, Andreas G

2002-01-01

67

Noninvasive monitoring of small intestinal oxygen in a rat model of chronic mesenteric ischemia  

PubMed Central

We noninvasively monitored the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in rat small intestine using a model of chronic mesenteric ischemia by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry (EPR) over a 7-day period. The particulate probe lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) was embedded into the oxygen permeable material polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) by cast-molding and polymerization (Oxy-Chip). A one-time surgical procedure was performed to place the Oxy-Chip on the outer wall of the small intestine (SI). The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was banded to approximately 30% blood flow for experimental rats. Noninvasive measurement of pO2 was performed at baseline for control rats or immediate post-banding and on days 1, 3, and 7. The SI pO2 for control rats remained stable over the 7-day period. The pO2 on day 7 was 54.5 ± 0.9 mmHg (mean ± SE). SMA banded rats were significantly different from controls with a noted reduction in pO2 post banding with a progressive decline to a final pO2 of 20.9 ± 4.5 mmHg (mean ± SE; p = 0.02). All SMA-banded rats developed adhesions around the Oxy-Chip yet remained asymptomatic. The hypoxia marker Hypoxyprobe™ was used to validate low tissue pO2. Brown cytoplasmic staining was consistent with hypoxia. Mild brown staining was noted predominantly on the villus tips in control animals. SMA-banded rats had an extended region of hypoxic involvement in the villus with a higher intensity of cytoplasmic staining. Deep brown staining of the enteric nervous system neurons and connective tissue both within layers and in the mesentery were noted. SMA banded rats with lower pO2 values had a higher intensity of staining. Thus, monitoring SI pO2 using the probe Oxy-Chip provides a valid measure of tissue oxygenation. Tracking pO2 in conditions that produce chronic mesenteric ischemia will contribute to our understanding of intestinal tissue oxygenation and how changes impact symptom evolution and the trajectory of chronic disease. PMID:23636684

Fisher, Elaine M.; Khan, Mahmood; Salisbury, Ronald; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2013-01-01

68

Down modulation of MHC surface molecules on B cells by suppressive immune complexes obtained from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulomatous inflammation around parasite eggs is the prominent lesion in human schistosomiasis. Studies have suggested the involvement of a series of suppressive mechanisms in the control of this reaction, such as macrophages, cytokines, idiotipic interactions and immune complexes (IC). The studies examine the role of IC obtained from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients (ISP) in the reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear

Simone A Rezende; K. J Gollob; R Correa-Oliveira; A. M Goes

1998-01-01

69

The Dual Role of Nod-Like Receptors in Mucosal Innate Immunity and Chronic Intestinal Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are highly conserved cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that play, in combination with toll-like receptors, a critical role in innate immunity and inflammation. These proteins are characterized by a central oligomerization domain termed nucleotide-binding domain, and a protein interaction domain containing leucine-rich repeats. Some NLRs, including NOD1 and NOD2, sense the cytosolic presence of conserved bacterial molecular signatures and drive the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the transcription factor NF-?B. A different set of NLRs induces caspase-1 activation through the assembly of large protein complexes known as inflammasomes. Activation of NLR proteins results in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent inflammatory responses. The critical role of NLRs in innate immunity is underscored by the fact that polymorphisms within their genes are implicated in the development of several immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. Over the past few years, the role of NLRs in intestinal homeostasis has been highlighted, however the mechanism by which dysfunction in these proteins leads to aberrant inflammation is still the focus of much investigation. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the function of NLRs in mucosal innate immunity and understand how genetic or functional alterations in these components can lead to the disruption of intestinal homeostasis, and the subsequent development of chronic inflammation. PMID:25071778

Corridoni, Daniele; Arseneau, Kristen O.; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Cominelli, Fabio

2014-01-01

70

Chronic hernia repair in a rat model using small intestinal submucosa.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) body wall defect repair in preclinical studies results in host tissue that resembles original host tissue histologically and has adequate strength to maintain repair integrity. However, these studies have been performed using acute hernia models that may not represent healing in a naturally occurring hernia. METHODS. Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into nine groups (n = 6) and fascia/muscle/peritoneal abdominal wall defects were created. One control group had no surgery. Four surgery groups had defects repaired immediately by (1) fascia suture apposition, (2) polypropylene mesh (PPM) peritoneal onlay, (3) SIS inlay, or (4) SIS peritoneal onlay. After defect creation, chronic hernias matured for 28 days, and then were similarly repaired. Follow-up after hernia repair for all groups was 28 days. Gross evaluation for hernia recurrence, infection, and adhesions was followed by histopathology and tensile testing of the repair. RESULTS. There were no recurrent hernias or infection. Adhesions covered all implants. Histopathologic findings of inflammation and fibrosis were similar between all groups. There were no significant differences in tensile strength between SIS and PPM healing/incorporation or between acute and chronic hernia groups. Normal body wall was stronger than all repairs. Fascia closure in chronic hernias was stronger than acute fascia closure (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS. We found no significant differences between SIS and PPM healing/incorporation as determined by gross and histopathology and tensile strength testing. The study suggests that preclinical testing of abdominal body wall reconstruction in the rat may be adequately performed in acute studies. PMID:21867393

Steurer, Jeffrey A; Lantz, Gary C; Kazacos, Evelyn A; Saunders, Alan T; Altizer, Alicia M

2011-01-01

71

Acute colonic pseudoobstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome) in two patients receiving high dose clonidine for delirium tremens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two cases of severe colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome) after high dose clonidine i. v. infusions\\u000a for delirium tremens. The first symptoms occurred 36 h and 5 days, respectively, after institution of therapy. The diagnosis\\u000a of colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) was confirmed during emergency laparotomy in both cases. While other known risk factors\\u000a may have been present, we propose that

D. S. Stieger; R. Cantieni; A. Frutiger

1997-01-01

72

Massive acute colonic pseudo-obstruction successfully managed with conservative therapy in a patient with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a massive dilation of the colon in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Treatment measures may include anticholinergic agents such as neostigmine, colonoscopy, or fluoroscopic decompression, surgical decompression, and partial or complete colectomy. We reviewed the case of a 26-year-old male with cerebral palsy who had a history of chronic intermittent constipation who presented to the emergency department (ED) with signs of impaction despite recurrent fleet enemas and oral polyethylene glycol 3350. The patient was found to have a massive colonic distention of 26 cm likely because of bowel dysmotility, consistent with ACPO. This article includes a discussion of the literature and images that represent clinical examination, x-ray, and computed tomography (CT) findings of this patient, who successfully underwent conservative management only. Emergency department detection of this condition is important, and early intervention may prevent surgical intervention and associated complications. PMID:21559070

2011-01-01

73

Chronic intestinal giardiasis with isolated levothyroxine malabsorption as reason for severe hypothyroidism--implications for localization of thyroid hormone absorption in the gut.  

PubMed

We report a case of isolated levothyroxine malabsorption in the course of chronic intestinal giardiasis, leading to severe hypothyroidism. Infection with Giardia lamblia was proved histologically by jejunal biopsy. Treatment with metronidazole resulted in complete elimination of parasites and recovery of regular intestinal thyroid hormone absorption. Stable euthyroidism was accomplished with common replacement doses of orally administered levothyroxine. PMID:8740944

Seppel, T; Rose, F; Schlaghecke, R

1996-01-01

74

Fecal lactoferrin and intestinal permeability are effective non-invasive markers in the diagnostic work-up of chronic diarrhea.  

PubMed

Non-invasive markers able to identify patients with chronic diarrhea at risk of organic disease are missing. Aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic ability of intestinal permeability (IP) test and fecal lactoferrin (FL) in distinguishing functional from organic disease in patients with chronic diarrhea. We retrospectively enrolled patients referring to the gastroenterology outpatient clinic for chronic diarrhea. Among the 103 patients included, 40 % had an organic disease, with IP and FL levels significantly higher compared to those with a functional disorder (p < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, area under ROC curves of FL were superior to those of IP in discriminating functional and organic disease (FL: 87.8 and 93.6 %, 13.61 and 0.13, 0.9375; IP: 61.0 and 90.3 %, 6.3 and 0.43, 0.7691). When combining the two tests, the diagnostic ability of FL did not improve. In subgroup analysis, IP confirmed its ability to detect small bowel alterations, while FL could identify both small bowel and colonic alterations. In conclusion, FL is valid to detect inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, while IP can effectively identify small bowel damage in chronic diarrhea patients. Together these tests could recognize both the presence of intestinal damage and its site. PMID:24831229

Caccaro, Roberta; D'Incà, Renata; Martinato, Matteo; Pont, Elisabetta Dal; Pathak, Surajit; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo

2014-10-01

75

Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Chronic Cadmium Toxicity in Mice Indicate Routes of Protection besides Intestinal Sequestration  

PubMed Central

Our previous study confirmed the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 to protect against acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in mice. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of CCFM8610 against chronic Cd toxicity in mice and to gain insights into the protection mode of this strain. Experimental mice were divided into two groups and exposed to Cd for 8 weeks via drinking water or intraperitoneal injection. Both groups were further divided into four subgroups, control, Cd only, CCFM8610 only, and Cd plus CCFM8610. Levels of Cd were measured in the feces, liver, and kidneys, and alterations of several biomarkers of Cd toxicity were noted. The results showed that when Cd was introduced orally, cotreatment with Cd and CCFM8610 effectively decreased intestinal Cd absorption, reduced Cd accumulation in tissue, alleviated tissue oxidative stress, reversed hepatic and renal damage, and ameliorated the corresponding histopathological changes. When Cd was introduced intraperitoneally, administration of CCFM8610 did not have an impact on tissue Cd accumulation or reverse the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, CCFM8610 still offered protection against oxidative stress and reversed the alterations of Cd toxicity biomarkers and tissue histopathology. These results suggest that CCFM8610 is effective against chronic cadmium toxicity in mice. Besides intestinal Cd sequestration, CCFM8610 treatment offers direct protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. We also provide evidence that the latter is unlikely to be mediated via protection against Cd-induced alteration of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:24771031

Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Yong Q.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

2014-01-01

76

[Systemic immunological response in children with chronic gingivitis and gastro-intestinal pathology].  

PubMed

Study of the immune system mechanisms in chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with gastrointestinal pathology was performed in 102 children (49 with chronic gastritis and duodenitis and 53 with no signs of gastrointestinal pathology). Forty-eight children with healthy periodontium constituted control group. Generalized chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with gastroduodenal pathology is characterized by intense humoral response by simultaneous T-cell immunity suppression. Detection of high serum titers of circulating immune complexes in patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis suggests a role of immune response in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease increases with concomitant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25377574

Romanenko, E G

2014-01-01

77

Impact of chronic exposure to low doses of chlorpyrifos on the intestinal microbiota in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) and in the rat.  

PubMed

The impact of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on the mammalian digestive system has been poorly described. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of chronic, low-dose exposure to CPF on the composition of the gut microbiota in a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem: the SHIME and in rats. The SHIME comprises six reactor vessels (stomach to colon). The colonic segments were inoculated with feces from healthy humans. Then, the simulator was exposed to a daily dose of 1 mg of CPF for 30 days. The changes over time in the populations of bacteria were examined at different time points: prior to pesticide exposure (as a control) and after exposure. In parallel, pregnant rats were gavaged daily with 1 mg/kg of CPF (or vehicle) until the pups were weaned. Next, the rats were gavaged with same dose of CPF until 60 days of age (adulthood). Then, samples of different parts of the digestive tract were collected under sterile conditions for microbiological assessment. Chronic, low-dose exposure to CPF in the SHIME and in the rat was found to induce dysbiosis in the microbial community with, in particular, proliferation of subpopulations of some strains and a decrease in the numbers of others bacteria. In compliance with European guidelines, the use of the SHIME in vitro tool would help to (1) elucidate the final health effect of toxic agents and (2) minimize (though not fully replace) animal testing. Indeed, certain parameters would still have to be studied further in vivo. PMID:23135753

Joly, Claire; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme; Léké, André; Chardon, Karen; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida

2013-05-01

78

Central Role of the Gut Epithelial Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Intestinal Inflammation: Lessons Learned from Animal Models and Human Genetics  

PubMed Central

The gut mucosa is constantly challenged by a bombardment of foreign antigens and environmental microorganisms. As such, the precise regulation of the intestinal barrier allows the maintenance of mucosal immune homeostasis and prevents the onset of uncontrolled inflammation. In support of this concept, emerging evidence points to defects in components of the epithelial barrier as etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In fact, the integrity of the intestinal barrier relies on different elements, including robust innate immune responses, epithelial paracellular permeability, epithelial cell integrity, as well as the production of mucus. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate how alterations in the aforementioned epithelial components can lead to the disruption of intestinal immune homeostasis, and subsequent inflammation. In this regard, the wealth of data from mouse models of intestinal inflammation and human genetics are pivotal in understanding pathogenic pathways, for example, that are initiated from the specific loss of function of a single protein leading to the onset of intestinal disease. On the other hand, several recently proposed therapeutic approaches to treat human IBD are targeted at enhancing different elements of gut barrier function, further supporting a primary role of the epithelium in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation and emphasizing the importance of maintaining a healthy and effective intestinal barrier. PMID:24062746

Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Mercado, Joseph R.; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pizarro, Theresa T.

2013-01-01

79

Determinants of accelerated small intestinal transit in alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic pancreatitis may have abnormal gastrointestinal transit, but the factors underlying these abnormalities are poorly understood. Gastrointestinal transit was assessed, in 40 male outpatients with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis and 18 controls, by scintigraphy after a liquid meal labeled with (99m)technetium-phytate. Blood and urinary glucose, fecal fat excretion, nutritional status, and cardiovascular autonomic function were determined in all patients. The influence of diabetes mellitus, malabsorption, malnutrition, and autonomic neuropathy on abnormal gastrointestinal transit was assessed by univariate analysis and Bayesian multiple regression analysis. Accelerated gastrointestinal transit was found in 11 patients who showed abnormally rapid arrival of the meal marker to the cecum. Univariate and Bayesian analysis showed that diabetes mellitus and autonomic neuropathy had significant influences on rapid transit, which was not associated with either malabsorption or malnutrition. In conclusion, rapid gastrointestinal transit in patients with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis is related to diabetes mellitus and autonomic neuropathy. PMID:19390966

Rosa-E-Silva, Lucilene; Troncon, Luiz E A; Gallo, Lourenço; Foss, Milton C; Passos, Afonso D C; Perdoná, Gleici C; Achcar, Jorge A; Oliveira, Ricardo B

2010-04-01

80

Intestinal permeability to chromium-51 ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid in children with chronic obstructive respiratory disease: relationship with clinical and duodenal biopsy findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal permeability (IP) to ⁵¹Cr ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was investigated in 47 children with chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD). Endoscopic duodenal biopsies were performed in 22 of these patients. IP was significantly increased in CORD patients when compared to either control children or adults (P less than 0.001). Mean +\\/- 1 SD were 4.3 +\\/- 1.71%, 2.5 +\\/- 0.78%, and

C. I. Hoyoux; P. P. Forget; G. Borlee-Hermans; F. Geubelle

1988-01-01

81

Persistent infection with Crohn’s disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli leads to chronic inflammation and intestinal fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract in which alterations to the bacterial community contribute to disease. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) are associated with human Crohn’s disease, however their role in intestinal immunopathology is unclear due to the lack of an animal model compatible with chronic timescales. Here we establish chronic AIEC infection in streptomycin-treated conventional mice (CD-1, DBA/2, C3HeN, 129e, C57BL/6), enabling the study of host response and immunopathology. AIEC induces an active Th17 response, heightened levels of proinflammatory cytokines and fibrotic growth factors, with transmural inflammation and fibrosis. Depletion of CD8+ T cells increases cecal bacterial load, pathology and intestinal fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice suggesting a protective role. Our findings provide evidence that chronic AIEC infections result in immunopathology similar to that seen in Crohn’s disease. With this model, research into the host and bacterial genetics associated with AIEC-induced disease becomes more widely accessible. PMID:23748852

Small, Cherrie-Lee N.; Reid-Yu, Sarah A.; McPhee, Joseph B.; Coombes, Brian K.

2014-01-01

82

Intestinal Complications of IBD  

MedlinePLUS

... is chronic (of long duration) LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS PERFORATION (RUPTURE) OF THE BOWEL Intestinal perforation occurs ... CANCER About 5% to 8% of people with ulcerative colitis will develop colorectal cancer within 20 years after ...

83

Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent- labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25609952

Buda, Andrea; Facchin, Sonia; Dassie, Elisa; Casarin, Elisabetta; Jepson, Mark A; Neumann, Helmut; Hatem, Giorgia; Realdon, Stefano; D'Incà, Renata; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Morpurgo, Margherita

2015-01-01

84

Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent- labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25609952

Buda, Andrea; Facchin, Sonia; Dassie, Elisa; Casarin, Elisabetta; Jepson, Mark A; Neumann, Helmut; Hatem, Giorgia; Realdon, Stefano; D’Incà, Renata; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Morpurgo, Margherita

2015-01-01

85

High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals alterations of intestinal microbiota in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of host health by providing energy, nutrients, and immunological protection. Intestinal dysfunction is a frequent complaint in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients, and previous reports suggest that dysbiosis, i.e. the overgrowth of abnormal populations of bacteria in the gut, is linked to the pathogenesis of the disease. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the presence of specific alterations in the gut microbiota of ME/CFS patients from Belgium and Norway. 43 ME/CFS patients and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Bacterial DNA was extracted from stool samples, PCR amplification was performed on 16S rRNA gene regions, and PCR amplicons were sequenced using Roche FLX 454 sequencer. The composition of the gut microbiota was found to differ between Belgian controls and Norwegian controls: Norwegians showed higher percentages of specific Firmicutes populations (Roseburia, Holdemania) and lower proportions of most Bacteroidetes genera. A highly significant separation could be achieved between Norwegian controls and Norwegian patients: patients presented increased proportions of Lactonifactor and Alistipes, as well as a decrease in several Firmicutes populations. In Belgian subjects the patient/control separation was less pronounced, however some abnormalities observed in Norwegian patients were also found in Belgian patients. These results show that intestinal microbiota is altered in ME/CFS. High-throughput sequencing is a useful tool to diagnose dysbiosis in patients and could help designing treatments based on gut microbiota modulation (antibiotics, pre and probiotics supplementation). PMID:23791918

Frémont, Marc; Coomans, Danny; Massart, Sebastien; De Meirleir, Kenny

2013-08-01

86

Deletion of Intestinal Epithelial Cell STAT3 Promotes T Lymphocyte STAT3 Activation and Chronic Colitis Following Acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) Stat3 is required for wound healing following acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) injury. We hypothesized that loss of IEC STAT3 would promote the development of chronic colitis following acute DSS injury. METHODS Colitis was induced in IEC-specific Stat3 deficient mice (Stat3?IEC) and littermate controls (Stat3Flx/Flx) with 4%DSS for 7 days, followed by water consumption for 21 days. Epithelial and immune mediators and severity of colitis were determined. RESULTS Survival, colon length, and histologic injury were significantly worse at day 28 in Stat3?IEC mice. IEC proliferation and apoptosis did not vary by genotype at day 14 or day 28. The colonic lamina propria frequency of pSTAT3+ cells was increased at day 28 and correlated with histologic injury in Stat3?IEC mice. The frequency of colonic F480+pSTAT3+ macrophages and CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes were increased in Stat3?IEC mice as compared to Stat3Flx/Flx controls. In Stat3?IEC mice, colonic expression of Stat3 target genes Reg3? and Reg3? which mediate epithelial restitution were significantly decreased, while expression of IL-17a, IFN?, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly increased and correlated with the increase in histologic severity at Day 28(p<.05). IL-17a expression also correlated with the increased lamina propria frequency of CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Loss of intestinal epithelial Stat3 leads to more severe chronic inflammation following acute injury which is not accounted for by a sustained defect in epithelial proliferation or apoptosis 7 or 21 days after one cycle of DSS but rather defective REG3 expression and expansion of pSTAT3+ lymphocytes and IL-17a expression. PMID:23429443

Willson, Tara A.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Collins, Margaret; Denson, Lee A.

2015-01-01

87

Enzymatic alterations and RNA\\/DNA ratio in intestine of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss , induced by chronic exposure to carbamazepine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of long-term exposure to carbamazepine (CBZ) on the enzymatic alterations and RNA\\/DNA ratio in\\u000a intestine tissue of rainbow trout. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of CBZ (1.0 ?g\\/l, 0.2 or 2.0 mg\\/l) for 42 days.\\u000a Digestive enzymes (proteolytic enzymes and amylase) and energy metabolic enzyme (Na+-K+-ATPase) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and

Zhi-Hua Li; Vladimir Zlabek; Roman Grabic; Josef Velisek; Jana Machova; Tomas Randak

2010-01-01

88

Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

89

GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-2 PROTECTS AGAINST TPN-INDUCED INTESTINAL HEXOSE MALABSORPTION IN ENTERALLY RE-FED PIGLETS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Premature infants receiving chronic total parenteral nutrition (TPN) due to feeding intolerance develop intestinal atrophy and reduced nutrient absorption. Although providing the intestinal trophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) during chronic TPN improves intestinal growth and morphology,...

90

Advances and challenges in the management of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ogilvie syndrome).  

PubMed

Although acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a well-known clinical entity, in many respects it remains poorly understood and continues to challenge physicians and surgeons alike. Our understanding of ACPO continues to evolve and its epidemiology has changed as new conditions have been identified predisposing to ACPO with critical illness providing the common thread among them. A physician must keep ACPO high in the list of differential diagnoses when dealing with the patient experiencing abdominal distention, and one must be prepared to employ and interpret imaging studies to exclude mechanical obstruction. Rapid diagnosis is the key, and institution of conservative measures often will lead to resolution. Fortunately, when this fails pharmacologic intervention with neostigmine often proves effective. However, it is not a panacea: consensus on dosing does not exist, administration techniques vary and may impact efficacy, contraindications limit its use, and persistence and or recurrence of ACPO mandate continued search for additional medical therapies. When medical therapy fails or is contraindicated, endoscopy offers effective intervention with advanced techniques such as decompression tubes or percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy providing effective results. Operative intervention remains the treatment of last resort; surgical outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a surgeon should be aware of all options for decompression-conservative, pharmacologic, and endoscopic-and use them in best combination to the advantage of patients who often suffer from significant concurrent illnesses making them poor operative candidates. PMID:23449274

Jain, Arpana; Vargas, H David

2012-03-01

91

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction following allogeneic stem cell transplantation successfully treated by neostigmine  

PubMed Central

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie's syndrome, is a rare clinical syndrome of massive large bowel dilatation without mechanical obstruction, which may cause significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment focuses on decompressing a severely dilated colon. The proposed theory that this severe ileus results from an imbalance in the autonomous regulation of colonic movement supports the rationale for using neostigmine, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, in patients who failed conservative care. Although gastrointestinal complications are frequent following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), the incidence of ACPO in a transplant setting is unknown and, if not vigilant, this adynamic ileus can be underestimated. We describe the case of a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing non-myeloablative allogeneic SCT from a partially human leukocyte antigen-mismatched sibling donor, and whose clinical course was complicated by ACPO in the early post-engraftment period. The ileus was not associated with gut graft-versus-host disease or infectious colitis. After 3 days of conservative care, intravenous neostigmine (2 mg/day) was administered for 3 consecutive days. Symptoms and radiologic findings began to improve 72 hours after the initial injection of neostigmine, and complete response without any associated complications was achieved within a week. Thus, neostigmine can be a safe medical therapy with successful outcome for patients who develop ACPO following allogeneic SCT. PMID:23826585

Yahng, Seung-Ah; Yoon, Jae-Ho; Shin, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Eun; Eom, Ki-Seong

2013-01-01

92

Advances and Challenges in the Management of Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (Ogilvie Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Although acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a well-known clinical entity, in many respects it remains poorly understood and continues to challenge physicians and surgeons alike. Our understanding of ACPO continues to evolve and its epidemiology has changed as new conditions have been identified predisposing to ACPO with critical illness providing the common thread among them. A physician must keep ACPO high in the list of differential diagnoses when dealing with the patient experiencing abdominal distention, and one must be prepared to employ and interpret imaging studies to exclude mechanical obstruction. Rapid diagnosis is the key, and institution of conservative measures often will lead to resolution. Fortunately, when this fails pharmacologic intervention with neostigmine often proves effective. However, it is not a panacea: consensus on dosing does not exist, administration techniques vary and may impact efficacy, contraindications limit its use, and persistence and or recurrence of ACPO mandate continued search for additional medical therapies. When medical therapy fails or is contraindicated, endoscopy offers effective intervention with advanced techniques such as decompression tubes or percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy providing effective results. Operative intervention remains the treatment of last resort; surgical outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a surgeon should be aware of all options for decompression—conservative, pharmacologic, and endoscopic—and use them in best combination to the advantage of patients who often suffer from significant concurrent illnesses making them poor operative candidates. PMID:23449274

Jain, Arpana; Vargas, H. David

2012-01-01

93

Intestinal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

94

Small intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Smaller food particles move from the stomach to the small intestine. The small intestine is a long tube (like a garden hose), located just below the stomach. Most absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine (see absorption illustration). Keep in mind that the intestines are coiled like a snake inside of our bodies and are many feet long.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2006-08-18

95

Heterozygous De Novo and Inherited Mutations in the Smooth Muscle Actin (ACTG2) Gene Underlie Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes ?2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease. PMID:24676022

Wangler, Michael F.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Gambin, Tomasz; Penney, Samantha; Moss, Timothy; Chopra, Atul; Probst, Frank J.; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Werlin, Steven; Eglite, Ieva; Kornejeva, Liene; Bacino, Carlos A.; Baldridge, Dustin; Neul, Jeff; Lehman, Efrat Lev; Larson, Austin; Beuten, Joke; Muzny, Donna M.; Jhangiani, Shalini; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Beaudet, Arthur

2014-01-01

96

Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Salivary, Urinary, and Intestinal Tissues of Deer: Potential Mechanisms of Prion Shedding and Transmission?  

PubMed Central

Efficient horizontal transmission is a signature trait of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Infectious prions shed into excreta appear to play a key role in this facile transmission, as has been demonstrated by bioassays of cervid and transgenic species and serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, the source(s) of infectious prions in these body fluids has yet to be identified. In the present study, we analyzed tissues proximate to saliva, urine, and fecal production by sPMCA in an attempt to elucidate this unique aspect of CWD pathogenesis. Oropharyngeal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tissues along with blood and obex from CWD-exposed cervids (comprising 27 animals and >350 individual samples) were analyzed and scored based on the apparent relative CWD burden. PrPCWD-generating activity was detected in a range of tissues and was highest in the salivary gland, urinary bladder, and distal intestinal tract. In the same assays, blood from the same animals and unseeded normal brain homogenate controls (n = 116 of 117) remained negative. The PrP-converting activity in peripheral tissues varied from 10?11- to 100-fold of that found in brain of the same animal. Deer with highest levels of PrPCWD amplification in the brain had higher and more widely disseminated prion amplification in excretory tissues. Interestingly, PrPCWD was not demonstrable in these excretory tissues by conventional Western blotting, suggesting a low prion burden or the presence of protease-sensitive infectious prions destroyed by harsh proteolytic treatments. These findings offer unique insights into the transmission of CWD in particular and prion infection and trafficking overall. PMID:21525361

Haley, Nicholas J.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Carver, Scott; Zabel, Mark; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

2011-01-01

97

Neostigmine to Relieve a Suspected Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction in a Burn Patient: A Case-Based Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective: Neostigmine is one of the treatment options for colonic pseudo-obstruction in the medical patient. However, experience in using neostigmine for this indication in burn patients has not been reported in the literature. We will present a case of a woman who developed colonic pseudo-obstruction during her hospital stay. When conservative management failed, neostigmine was administered with no adverse effects and resolution of the pseudo-obstruction. We will review the literature regarding the pathophysiology and treatment options for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in burn patients. Methods: A 27-year-old woman with 35% total body surface area deep-partial and full-thickness flame burns. On hospital day 17, she developed a nonobstructive ileus. She failed conservative medical therapy. After consultation with colleagues in trauma surgery and a review of the literature (MeSH/PubMed/NLM), the decision was made to try neostigmine therapy rather than a surgical/procedural option such as colonoscopy. Results: The patient was moved to the intensive care unit and 2 mg of neostigmine was administered intravenously over 4 minutes. After 30 minutes, all abdominal examination findings had returned to baseline. No significant adverse effects were noted, and she did not redevelop abdominal distension afterward. Conclusion: This case report provides an alternative treatment modality in which neostigmine was used successfully in a burn patient after conservative medical treatment had failed. The authors believe that neostigmine may be a viable alternative to decompressive colonoscopy in burn patients for whom mechanical obstruction is properly excluded. PMID:23359843

Gebre-Giorgis, Abel A.; Roderique, Ensign Joseph D.; Stewart, Dane; Feldman, Michael J.; Pozez, Andrea L.

2013-01-01

98

Intestinal Parasitoses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

1994-01-01

99

Dendritic cells in intestinal immune regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakdown in intestinal homeostasis can result in chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut including inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease and allergy. Dendritic cells, through their ability to orchestrate protective immunity and immune tolerance in the host, have a key role in shaping the intestinal immune response. The mechanisms through which dendritic cells can respond to environmental cues in the

Janine L. Coombes; Fiona Powrie

2008-01-01

100

Intestinal permeability is decreased in anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition and absence of exogenous luminal nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract affect intestinal permeability (IP) leading to an increased penetration of substances that passively cross intestinal epithelium via intercellular pathways. We hypothesised that an increase in IP could occur in patients with anorexia nervosa because of their prolonged fasting and chronic malnutrition. Therefore, we assessed IP in 14 drug-free anorexic

P Monteleone; R Carratù; M Cartenì; M Generoso; M Lamberti; L De Magistris; F Brambilla; B Colurcio; M Secondulfo; M Maj

2004-01-01

101

Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.  

PubMed

Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition. PMID:23150643

Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

2013-07-01

102

Intestine Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Berverly Kosmach MSN, CRNP. "Intestinal Transplantation." Transplantation Nursing Secrets . Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus, 2003 This Web site ... of events Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant ...

103

Intestinal Malrotation  

MedlinePLUS

... other associated conditions, including: other defects of the digestive system heart defects abnormalities of other organs, including the ... large intestines are the longest part of the digestive system. If stretched out to their full length, they ...

104

Intestinal ?-galactosidases  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on work in the rat and preliminary experiments with human intestine have suggested that two ?-galactosidases are present in small intestine, and it is believed that only one of these enzymes is a lactase important for the digestion of dietary lactose. The high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in man prompted more complete study of these enzymes. Human intestinal ?-galactosidases were studied by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Biogel P-300 as well as by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Gel filtration produced partial separation into three peaks of enzyme activity, but much activity against synthetic substrates was lost. Only the trailing peak with specificity for synthetic ?-galactosides was completely separated from the other enzymes. Thus gel filtration was not a suitable preparative procedure for biochemical characterization. Density gradients separated the enzymes more completely, and they were designated according to their sedimentation rates and further characterized. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 280,000, pH optimum of 6.0, and specificity for lactose of at least five times that for cellobiose or synthetic substrates. A second lactase, enzyme II, possesses slightly greater activity against lactose than for some synthetic substrates and is incapable of splitting cellobiose. Further, it has a lower pH optimum (4.5) and is present in two molecular species (molecular weights 156,000 and 660,000). Enzyme III shows specificity only for synthetic ?-galactosides but has a pH activity curve identical with enzyme I and a molecular weight of 80,000. Whereas human liver and kidney contain a ?-galactosidase with the same biochemical characteristics as intestinal enzyme II, enzymes I and III appear to be peculiar to intestine, and enzyme I most probably represents the lactase of importance in the mucosal digestion of dietary lactose. The following paper considers this further in terms of the biochemical change in intestinal lactase deficiency. PMID:5774109

Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.

1969-01-01

105

Knockout of the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 aggravates the development of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium colitis independently of expression of intestinal cytokines TNF?, TGFB1, and IL-6  

PubMed Central

Introduction The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are involved in signal transduction of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the function of JNKs by using a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model in JNK1 knockout mice (Mapk8?/?), JNK2 knockout mice (Mapk9?/?), and wild-type controls (WT1, WT2). Methods The animals were evaluated daily using a disease activity index. After 30 days, the intestine was evaluated histologically with a crypt damage score. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were quantified using immunofluorescence. Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGFB1) expression was carried out using LightCycler® real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Cyclic administration of low-dose DSS (1%) was not able to induce features of chronic colitis in Mapk8?/? WT2 mice. By contrast, DSS administration significantly increased the disease activity index in WT1 and Mapk9?/? mice. In Mapk9?/? mice, the crypt damage score and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells as features of chronic colitis/inflammation were also significantly elevated. Expression of TNF?, IL-6, and TGFB1 was not altered by the JNK knockout. Conclusion Administering DSS at a defined low concentration that is unable to induce colitis in WT animals leads to clinically and histologically detectable chronic colitis in Mapk9?/? mice. The reason for this disease-inducing effect resulting from the loss of JNK2 remains to be elucidated. Expression of TNF?, IL-6, and TGFB1 does not appear to be involved; proapoptotic JNK2 may prolong the activity of proinflammatory immune cells, leading to perpetuation of the inflammation. PMID:23426157

Kersting, Sabine; Reinecke, Kirstin; Hilgert, Christoph; Janot, Monika S; Haarmann, Elisabeth; Albrecht, Martin; Müller, Annette M; Herdegen, Thomas; Mittelkötter, Ulrich; Uhl, Waldemar; Chromik, Ansgar M

2013-01-01

106

Quadruple Burden of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Chronic Intestinal Parasitoses, and Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency in Ethiopia: A Summary of Available Findings  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and helminthic infections are among the commonest public health problems in the sub-Saharan African countries like Ethiopia. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies also known as the “hidden hunger” are common in people living in these countries either playing a role in their pathogenesis or as consequences. This results in a vicious cycle of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and infection/disease progression. As infection is profoundly associated with nutritional status resulting from decreased nutrient intake, decreased nutrient absorption, and nutrient losses, micronutrient deficiencies affect immune system and impact infection and diseases progression. As a result, micronutrients, immunity, and infection are interrelated. The goal of this review is therefore to provide a summary of available findings regarding the “quadruple burden trouble” of HIV, TB, intestinal parasitic infections, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies to describe immune-modulating effects related to disorders.

Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Mulu, Andargachew; Yifru, Sisay; Kassu, Afework

2015-01-01

107

Study of expression of TLR2, TLR4 and transckription factor NF-kB structures of galt of rats in the conditions of the chronic social stress and modulation of structure of intestinal microflora.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate of the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) and modulation of the composition of intestinal microflora on the distribution of TLR2+-, TLR4+- and Nf-kB+-cells in the GALT of ileum of the rats. Researchers have been conducted on 84 rats (female) of Wistar line, which were divided on 7 experimental groups: control rats (group 1); rats, which were modeled CSS1 by means of three weeks social isolation and prolong psychoemotional influence (group2); rats, which having CSS 2 modeling by means of keeping animals in over populated cages with every day change of grouping (group 3); rats with CSS1 and CSS2, which were made the modeling of intestinal microflora by means of administrations of aminoglycosed antibiotic kanamycin (group 4 and 5, accordingly); rats with CSS1 and CSS2, which were made the modeling of intestinal microflora by means of everyday administrations of lactobacterine (groups 6 and 7, accordingly). Structure of population of TLR2+-, TLR4+- and Nf-kB+-cells has been studied by the analysis of serial histological sections using the method of direct and indirect immunofluorescense with monoclonal antibodies to TLR2, TLR4 and Nf-kB. CSS development is accompanied with increase in total lymphocytes expressing TLR2 and 4 type GALT rats with the most pronounced in LFV (TLR2+-lymphocytes) and PP LFs (TLR4+-cells) led to an increase in the number of Nf-kB+- cells: in LFV a 1.8-2 fold (p<0.05) in PP at the sub - 52-91% (p<0.05) in PP LFs - for 89-92% (p<0.05), and it is also influenced on the density of TLR2, TLR4, and the concentration of Nf-kB in immunopositive cells. AB and PB injections were accompanied by a decrease in the number of studied cells, so in the separate zone GALT is increased to their number, changing the density of immune system receptors. PMID:24423688

Topol, I; Kamyshny, A

2013-12-01

108

Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)  

MedlinePLUS

... Intestinal dysmotility Small bowel manometry (antroduodenal manometry) A test that is used to detect intestinal motility abnormalities is small bowel manometry (antroduodenal manometry). This involves placing a long tube with pressure sensors on it that passes through the stomach and ...

109

Unraveling the molecular genetic aspects of intestinal inflammatory disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is characterized by a chronic immune reaction in the small intestine to the gluten proteins that are present in the grains eaten in a Western diet. Its prevalence is around 1% although many patients are in fact never diagnosed. Celiac disease patients suffer from all kinds of symptoms related to a malfunctioning of the small intestine, but it

A. J. Wijmenga-Monsuur

2007-01-01

110

Intestinal fibrosis in IBD—a dynamic, multifactorial process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal fibrosis is a common and potentially serious complication of IBD that results from the reaction of intestinal tissue to the damage inflicted by chronic inflammation. The traditional view that fibrosis is inevitable or irreversible in patients with IBD is progressively changing in light of improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of fibrosis in

Florian Rieder; Claudio Fiocchi

2009-01-01

111

Treatment for Chronic Pain in Patients With Advanced Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2010-11-07

112

Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

2014-01-01

113

Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

2014-01-01

114

Important zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal protozoa are increasingly being studied because of their association with acute and chronic diarrhoea in immunocomprom ised as well as immunocompetent patients. Various community outbreaks due to contamination of water or food with these protozoa have further highlighted their importance in public health. Among these important pathogens are Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isospora belli, and

Mak JW; Bukit Jalil

115

The intestine in allergic diseases.  

PubMed

In this review I have described the pathophysiology of allergic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Situations where the intestine cannot be a complete barrier to foreign allergens and antigens were discussed and etiological factors of gastrointestinal allergy were detailed. Clinical features of gastrointestinal allergy include diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain and colic, intestinal hemorrhage and malabsorption as well as symptoms and signs outside the gastrointestinal tract such as chronic rhinitis and asthma in the respiratory system, urticaria, angioedema and eczema as dermatological signs, headache, insomnia, hyperkinesis as central nervous system manifestations, failure to thrive and anaphylaxis as constitutional reactions. Milk allergy was discussed as an example of food allergy. Immunology of the gastrointestinal tract was presented, with examples of four types of hypersensitivity reactions, and gastrointestinal disturbances of immunodeficiency disorders and syndromes were named. Lastly, the autoimmune mechanism and the gut were described, with particular discussion of ulcerative colitis as an example of an autoimmune disease. PMID:786084

Zanjanian, M H

1976-09-01

116

Laparoscopic correction of intestinal malrotation in adult  

PubMed Central

Intestinal malrotation is rare in adults. Patients may present with acute obstruction or chronic abdominal pain. These symptoms are caused by Ladd's bands and narrow mesentery resulting from incomplete gut rotation. Barium, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and sometimes explorative laparotomy are used for diagnosis. Ladd's procedure is the treatment of choice but data about laparoscopic approach in adult is scarce. We report three cases of laparoscopic correction of adult malrotation presenting with chronic abdominal pain. The diagnosis is made by CT/MRI. Laparoscopic Ladd's procedure (release of bands, broadening of mesentery and appendicectomy) was performed via three ports. Procedure time 25-45 min. All patients were discharged on postoperative day 2. At 6 month follow-up, all are symptom free. Laparoscopic Ladd's procedure is an acceptable alternative to the open technique in treating chronic symptoms of intestinal malrotation in adults. PMID:24761085

Panda, Nilanjan; Bansal, Nitin Kumar; Narasimhan, Mohan; Ardhanari, Ramesh

2014-01-01

117

[Acute intestinal ischaemia].  

PubMed

In spite of introduction modern diagnostics and therapeutics modalities in clinical practice diagnostics of acute intestinal ischaemia is very difficult. Acute intestinal ischaemia is rare cause of acute abdominal dissease but results of surgical treatment and prognosis of the patients with acute intestinal ischaemia is very poor. The aim of study is occurence, diagnostics and therapeutics possibilities of acute intestinal ischaemia, because tretament of acute intestinal ischaemia have high rate of mortality. Authors claiming on own small set of patients that in diagnostics of acute abdominal pain everything in once mind on acute intestinal ischaemia. PMID:17626460

Bakos, E; Osuský, M; Korcek, J; Bakos, M

2007-04-01

118

PTPN2 controls differentiation of CD4(+) T cells and limits intestinal inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function variants within the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) are associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD). A disturbed regulation of T helper (Th) cell responses causing loss of tolerance against self- or commensal-derived antigens and an altered intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in CD pathogenesis. Loss of PTPN2 in the T-cell compartment causes enhanced induction of Th1 and Th17 cells, but impaired induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in several mouse colitis models, namely acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate colitis, and T-cell transfer colitis models. This results in increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis which is comparable with that observed in CD patients. We detected inflammatory infiltrates in liver, kidney, and skin and elevated autoantibody levels indicating systemic loss of tolerance in PTPN2-deficient animals. CD patients featuring a loss-of-function PTPN2 variant exhibit enhanced Th1 and Th17 cell, but reduced Treg markers when compared with PTPN2 wild-type patients in serum and intestinal tissue samples. Our data demonstrate that dysfunction of PTPN2 results in aberrant T-cell differentiation and intestinal dysbiosis similar to those observed in human CD. Our findings indicate a novel and crucial role for PTPN2 in chronic intestinal inflammation.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.122. PMID:25492475

Spalinger, M R; Kasper, S; Chassard, C; Raselli, T; Frey-Wagner, I; Gottier, C; Lang, S; Atrott, K; Vavricka, S R; Mair, F; Becher, B; Lacroix, C; Fried, M; Rogler, G; Scharl, M

2014-12-10

119

Intestine and multivisceral transplantation: current status and future directions.  

PubMed

Intestinal failure and associated parenteral nutrition-induced liver failure cause significant morbidity, mortality, and health care burden. Intestine transplantation is now considered to be the standard of care in patients with intestinal failure who fail intestinal rehabilitation. Intestinal failure-associated liver disease is an important sequela of intestinal failure, caused by parenteral lipids, requiring simultaneous liver-intestine transplant. Lipid minimization and, in recent years, the emergence of fish oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to reverse parenteral nutrition-associated hyperbilirubinemia, but not fibrosis. Significant progress in surgical techniques and immunosuppression has led to improved outcomes after intestine transplantation. Intestine in varying combination with liver, stomach, and pancreas, also referred to as multivisceral transplantation, is performed for patients with intestinal failure along with liver disease, surgical abdominal catastrophes, neuroendocrine and slow-growing tumors, and complete portomesenteric thrombosis with cirrhosis of the liver. Although acute and chronic rejection are major problems, long-term survivors have excellent quality of life and remain free of parenteral nutrition. PMID:25613179

Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Mangus, Richard S; Tector, A Joseph

2015-01-01

120

Effect of dietary fat on intestinal inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Dietary fat has multiple roles on human health, and some dietary fat is used to treat organic diseases because of its anti-inflammatory effect. It is commonly accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is beneficial on ischemic heart disease or rheumatic arthritis. On the contrary, effect of omega-3-PUFA on Crohn's disease remained controversial. That effect of omega-3 PUFA differs according to the location of inflamed intestine was hypothesized. To elucidate this hypothesis, to investigate the role of dietary fat on disease activity in different kind of murine models of intestinal inflammatory diseases was planned. The effect of omega-3 PUFA on small intestinal Crohn's disease model and large intestinal Crohn's disease model of mice. Chronic colitis model C57BL/6 mice received two cycles of dextran sodium sulfate solution treatment to induce chronic colitis. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets exacerbated colitis with decrease in adiponectin expression. Chronic small intestinal inflammation model: SAMP1/Yit mice showed remarkable inflammation of the terminal ileum spontaneously. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets for 16 weeks significantly ameliorated the inflammation of the terminal ileum. Enhanced infiltration of leukocytes and expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in intestinal mucosa was significantly decreased by omega-3 fat-rich diets treatment. Omega-3 PUFA has dual role, pro-/anti-inflammatory, on intestinal inflammatory diseases. The role of omega-3 fat and the potential for immunonutrition in inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract will be discussed. PMID:24251701

Hokari, Ryota; Matsunaga, Hisayuki; Miura, Soichiro

2013-12-01

121

Vertebrate Intestinal Endoderm Development  

PubMed Central

The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. PMID:21246663

Spence, Jason R.; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F.

2010-01-01

122

Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology  

PubMed Central

Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

MITSUOKA, Tomotari

2014-01-01

123

Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions  

PubMed Central

Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

2014-01-01

124

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperproliferating intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. In addition, chronic inflammation and infection have been increasingly recognized for their roles in cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bacterial infections can initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis remain elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic bacterial pathogen, activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, a hallmark of the host stress response. This, in turn, causes apoptosis of enterocytes, the largest class of differentiated intestinal cells, and promotes a dramatic proliferation of SCs and progenitors that serves as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism to replenish the apoptotic enterocytes. However, we find that this homeostatic mechanism can lead to massive over-proliferation of intestinal cells when infection occurs in animals with a latent oncogenic form of the Ras1 oncogene. The affected intestines develop excess layers of cells with altered apicobasal polarity reminiscent of dysplasia, suggesting that infection can directly synergize with the genetic background in predisposed individuals to initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis. Our results provide a framework for the study of intestinal bacterial infections and their effects on undifferentiated and mature enteric epithelial cells in the initial stages of intestinal cancer. Assessment of progenitor cell responses to pathogenic intestinal bacteria could provide a measure of predisposition for apoptotic enterocyte-assisted intestinal dysplasias in humans. PMID:19934041

Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Perrimon, Norbert; Rahme, Laurence

2009-12-01

125

The role of mucosal T lymphocytes in regulating intestinal inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression of chronic intestinal inflammation by different subtypes of T cells has been described in recent years. In particular, naturally arising CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and IL-10-producing regulatory T cell type 1 CD4+ T lymphocytes have been implicated in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. Here we focus on the ability of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells to suppress innate and T-cell

Holm H. Uhlig; Fiona Powrie

2005-01-01

126

Small & Large Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System » Small & Large Intestine Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & ...

127

Chronic pancreatitis in African diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steatorrhea due to chronic pancreatitis was found in 23% of a consecutive series of 107 new African diabetics; 3 had pancreatic calcification. Of 16, 14 had definitely abnormal exocrine secretion on pancreatic function testing using secretin-pancreozymin stimulation. The morphology and function of the small intestine were normal by local standards. When compared with diabetics without steatorrhea they weighed less, their

A. C. B. Wicks; D. J. Clain

1975-01-01

128

Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis  

E-print Network

LETTERS Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis Colby homeostasis by promoting mucosal immunity and lim- iting chronic inflammation. The mucosal surface of the GI

Arnold, Jonathan

129

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the adult, the human intestine houses myriads of microorganisms, quantitatively up to 100 trillion and qualitatively over 500 species of bacteria, exceeding the number of host somatic cells by at least one order of magnitude. Actually, it remains a mystery as to how the intestine is able to contain such large quantities of bacteria without evident harm to the

A. Parodi; E. C. Lauritano; G. Nardone; L. Fontana; V. Savarino; A. Gasbarrini

2009-01-01

130

Intestinal Stricture in Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn's disease (CD) is a disease with chronic inflammation of unknown etiology involving any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence and prevalence of CD are increasing recently in Asia. Half of the CD patients will have intestinal complications, such as strictures or fistulas, within 20 years after diagnosis. Twenty-five percentage of CD patients have had at least one small bowel stricture and 10% have had at least one colonic stricture and lead to significant complications. Most of these patients will require at least one surgery during their lifetime. Early diagnosis and evaluation with adequate managements for the patients can prevent disability and mortality of these patient. Here, we reviewed the current incidence of CD with stricture, the etiology of stricture, and how to diagnose and manage the stricture. PMID:25691840

Chang, Chen-Wang; Wong, Jau-Min; Tung, Chien-Chih; Shih, I-Lun; Wang, Horng-Yuan

2015-01-01

131

Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

Arslan, Nur

2014-01-01

132

Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal immune system has to discriminate between harmful and beneficial antigens. Although strong protective immunity is essential to prevent invasion by pathogens, equivalent responses against dietary proteins or commensal bacteria can lead to chronic disease. These responses are normally prevented by a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms. This article reviews the unique aspects of the local microenvironment of the

Allan Mc I. Mowat

2003-01-01

133

PPAR?/? activation of CD300a controls intestinal immunity  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are important for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Here, we show that PPAR?/? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/?) directly regulates CD300a in macrophages that express the immunoreceptor tyrosine based-inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor. In mice lacking CD300a, high-fat diet (HFD) causes chronic intestinal inflammation with low numbers of intestinal lymph capillaries and dramatically expanded mesenteric lymph nodes. As a result, these mice exhibit triglyceride malabsorption and reduced body weight gain on HFD. Peritoneal macrophages from Cd300a?/? mice on HFD are classically M1 activated. Activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MyD88 signaling by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in prolonged IL-6 secretion in Cd300a?/? macrophages. Bone marrow transplantation confirmed that the phenotype originates from CD300a deficiency in leucocytes. These results identify CD300a-mediated inhibitory signaling in macrophages as a critical regulator of intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:24958459

Tanaka, Toshiya; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Nabekura, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Kaori; Jiang, Shuying; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Inagaki, Takeshi; Magoori, Kenta; Higurashi, Takuma; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tachibana, Keisuke; Tsurutani, Yuya; Raza, Sana; Anai, Motonobu; Minami, Takashi; Wada, Youichiro; Yokote, Koutaro; Doi, Takefumi; Hamakubo, Takao; Auwerx, Johan; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Atsushi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Naito, Makoto; Shibuya, Akira; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Juro

2014-01-01

134

Intestinal stem cells.  

PubMed

Self-renewal in the intestinal epithelia is fueled by a population of undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that give rise to daughter or progenitor cells, which can subsequently differentiate into the mature cell types required for normal gut function. The cellular signals that regulate self-renewal are poorly understood and the factors that mediate the transition from a stem cell to a progenitor cell in the gut are unknown. Recent studies have suggested that ISCs are located either at the crypt base interspersed between the Paneth cells (eg, Lgr-5+ve cells) or at or near position 4 within the intestinal crypt (eg, DCAMKL-1 or Bmi-1+ve cells). This raises the possibility that distinct stem cell regions exist in the crypts and that ISC's state of activation will determine how the self-renewal is regulated in the intestinal tract. PMID:20683682

Umar, Shahid

2010-10-01

135

Role of the enteric microbiota in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation.  

PubMed

The mammalian intestine encounters many more microorganisms than any other tissue in the body thus making it the largest and most complex component of the immune system. Indeed, there are greater than 100 trillion (10(14)) microbes within the healthy human intestine, and the total number of genes derived from this diverse microbiome exceeds that of the entire human genome by at least 100-fold. Our coexistence with the gut microbiota represents a dynamic and mutually beneficial relationship that is thought to be a major determinant of health and disease. Because of the potential for intestinal microorganisms to induce local and/or systemic inflammation, the intestinal immune system has developed a number of immune mechanisms to protect the host from pathogenic infections while limiting the inflammatory tissue injury that accompanies these immune responses. Failure to properly regulate intestinal mucosal immunity is thought to be responsible for the inflammatory tissue injury observed in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis). An accumulating body of experimental and clinical evidence strongly suggests that IBD results from a dysregulated immune response to components of the normal gut flora in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this review is to present our current understanding of the role that enteric microbiota play in intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:24275541

Koboziev, Iurii; Reinoso Webb, Cynthia; Furr, Kathryn L; Grisham, Matthew B

2014-03-01

136

Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:25574083

Xu, Meng-Que; Cao, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiao-Cang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

2015-01-01

137

Role of the Enteric Microbiota in Intestinal Homeostasis and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestine encounters many more microorganisms than any other tissue in the body thus making it the largest and most complex component of the immune system. Indeed, there are greater than 100 trillion (1014) microbes within the healthy human intestine where the total number of genes derived from this diverse microbiome exceeds that of the entire human genome by at least 100-fold. Our coexistence with the gut microbiota represents a dynamic and mutually beneficial relationship that is thought to be a major determinant of health and disease. Because of the potential for intestinal microorganisms to induce local and/or systemic inflammation, the intestinal immune system has developed a number of immune mechanisms to protect the host from pathogenic infections while limiting the inflammatory tissue injury that accompanies these immune responses. Failure to properly regulate intestinal mucosal immunity is thought to be responsible for the inflammatory tissue injury observed in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis). An accumulating body of experimental and clinical evidence strongly suggest that IBD results from a dysregulated immune response to components of the normal gut flora in genetically-susceptible individuals. The objective of this review is to present our current understanding of the role that enteric microbiota play in intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:24275541

Koboziev, Iurii; Webb, Cynthia Reinoso; Furr, Kathryn L.; Grisham, Matthew B.

2014-01-01

138

Intestinal adaptation following resection.  

PubMed

Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation. PMID:24586019

Tappenden, Kelly A

2014-05-01

139

Claudins in intestines  

PubMed Central

Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

2013-01-01

140

Gastrointestinal dysmotility in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy is caused by mitochondrial DNA depletion.  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a life-threatening condition of unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be a feature of mitochondrial disorders, such as mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), a rare autosomal-recessive syndrome, resulting from mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene. MNGIE patients show elevated circulating levels of thymidine and deoxyuridine, and accumulate somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. The present study aimed to clarify the molecular basis of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in MNGIE. Using laser capture microdissection, we correlated the histopathological features with mtDNA defects in different tissues from the gastrointestinal wall of five MNGIE and ten control patients. We found mtDNA depletion, mitochondrial proliferation, and smooth cell atrophy in the external layer of the muscularis propria, in the stomach and in the small intestine of MNGIE patients. In controls, the lowest amounts of mtDNA were present at the same sites, as compared with other layers of the gastrointestinal wall. We also observed mitochondrial proliferation and mtDNA depletion in small vessel endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, visceral mitochondrial myopathy likely causes gastrointestinal dysmotility in MNGIE patients. The low baseline abundance of mtDNA molecules may predispose smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria external layer to the toxic effects of thymidine and deoxyuridine, and exposure to high circulating levels of nucleosides may account for the mtDNA depletion observed in the small vessel wall. PMID:18787099

Giordano, Carla; Sebastiani, Mariangela; De Giorgio, Roberto; Travaglini, Claudia; Tancredi, Andrea; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Bellan, Marzio; Cossarizza, Andrea; Hirano, Michio; d'Amati, Giulia; Carelli, Valerio

2008-10-01

141

Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor {beta} immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent.

Wang Junru [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zheng Huaien [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kulkarni, Ashwini [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Ou Xuemei [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States)]. E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

2006-04-01

142

Chronic Migraine  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Chronic Migraine Chronic Migraine Submitted by Admin on Thu, 2007-10-25 18:01 Chronic migraine (CM) best characterizes those patients with a history of migraine who experience headache more than half the time. ...

143

Small Intestinal Tumours  

PubMed Central

Objective. Balloon enteroscopy (BE) and capsule enteroscopy (CE) are enteroscopy methods that allow examination and treatment of the small bowel. Before the CE and BE era, the small intestine was difficult to access for investigation. Small intestinal tumours are infrequent conditions, but about half of them are malignant. Materials and Methods. A total of 303 BEs were performed in 179 patients. Oral insertion was performed in 240 and anal in 63 BEs. Indications for the procedure in our patients with small bowel tumours were anaemia and/or bleeding, obstruction, suspicion of carcinoid tumour, or suspicion of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Results. In 50 of our 179 patients (28%), we diagnosed some small intestinal tumours: hamartomas in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in 16 patients, adenocarcinoma in 7, lymphoma in 6, carcinoid tumour in 4, melanoma and stromal tumour in 3, adenoma, lipoma, and inflammatory polyps in 2, and granular cell tumour, cavernous lymphangioma, fibrolipoma, Cronkhite-Canada polyps, and metastatic involvement in individual cases. Conclusion. BE facilitates exploration and treatment of the small intestine. The procedure is generally safe and useful. BE and CE are essential modalities for the management of small intestinal diseases. PMID:24348540

Kopá?ová, Marcela; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja

2013-01-01

144

Intestinal Malrotation: A Rare Cause of Small Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Background. The diagnosis of intestinal malrotation is established by the age of 1 year in most cases, and the condition is seldom seen in adults. In this paper, a patient with small intestinal malrotation-type intraperitoneal hernia who underwent surgery at an older age because of intestinal obstruction is presented. Case. A 73-year-old patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction underwent surgery as treatment. Distended jejunum and ileum loops surrounded by a peritoneal sac and located between the stomach and transverse colon were determined. The terminal ileum had entered into the transverse mesocolon from the right lower part, resulting in kinking and subsequent segmentary obstruction. The obstruction was relieved, and the small intestines were placed into their normal position in the abdominal cavity. Conclusion. Small intestinal malrotations are rare causes of intestinal obstructions in adults. The appropriate treatment in these patients is placement of the intestines in their normal positions. PMID:25371842

Sipahi, Mesut; Caglayan, Kasim; Arslan, Ergin; Erkoc, Mustafa Fatih; Aytekin, Faruk Onder

2014-01-01

145

Intestinal Permeability of Lamivudine Using Single Pass Intestinal Perfusion  

PubMed Central

The intestinal transport of lamivudine, a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, was investigated using the single pass intestinal perfusion technique in male Wistar rats. Single pass intestinal perfusion was performed in small intestine at a flow rate of 0.20 ml/min. Lamivudine exhibits a high intestinal permeability over the length of the small intestine indicative of compounds that are well absorbed. The Peff of lamivudine is in the range of drugs with high intestinal permeability and high fraction of dose absorbed indicating that lamivudine readily crosses the intestine. This also suggests that lamivudine belongs to biopharmaceutics classification system class I and is a good candidate for biopharmaceutics classification system based biowaiver. The permeability values obtained from this study may be useful in models of exposure assessment. PMID:23716881

Patel, J. R.; Barve, Kalyani H.

2012-01-01

146

Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children  

PubMed Central

The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

Ambartsumyan, Lusine

2014-01-01

147

Treatment Options for Small Intestine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Small Intestine Cancer Small ... from the NCI Web site . Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer Treatment of recurrent small intestine cancer that has spread ...

148

The intestinal calcistat  

PubMed Central

The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population. PMID:24251176

Garg, M. K.

2013-01-01

149

Intestinal obstruction repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... abdominal wall, through which loops of intestine can slip and become trapped. Colon cancer is one of ... the intestine look unhealthy from lack of blood flow during the period of obstruction, they are removed ...

150

Small intestine contrast injection (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

151

Stages of Small Intestine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... The disease is metastatic small intestine cancer, not liver cancer . Small intestine cancer is grouped according to whether or not the tumor can be completely removed by surgery. Treatment depends on whether the tumor can be removed ...

152

The allometry of rodent intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon\\u000a and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects\\u000a associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents.

Barry G. Lovegrove

2010-01-01

153

A novel thymidine phosphorylase mutation in a Spanish MNGIE patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 29-year-old Spanish man presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, peripheral neuropathy, and diffuse leukoencephalopathy. This combination of clinical features is characteristic of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Genetic analysis revealed a novel 18-base pair (bp) duplication (5044-5061dup) in exon 8 of the thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene. The mutation is predicted to produce a 6 amino acid insertion in

Josep Gamez; Maria Carmen Lara; Fermin Mearin; Carlos Oliveras-Ley; Nuria Raguere; Montse Olivef; Andres T. Leistg; Antonia Perello; Monica Perona; Carlos Cervera; Ramon Marti; Michio Hiranoh

154

A novel thymidine phosphorylase mutation in a Spanish MNGIE patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 29-year-old Spanish man presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, peripheral neuropathy, and diffuse leukoencephalopathy. This combination of clinical features is characteristic of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Genetic analysis revealed a novel 18-base pair (bp) duplication (5044–5061dup) in exon 8 of the thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene. The mutation is predicted to produce a 6 amino acid insertion in

Josep Gamez; Maria Carmen Lara; Fermin Mearin; Carlos Oliveras-Ley; Nuria Raguer; Montse Olive; Andres T. Leist; Antonia Perello; Monica Perona; Carlos Cervera; Antonio Luis Andreu; Ramon Martí; Michio Hirano

2005-01-01

155

Recent advances in the management of pediatric intestinal failure.  

PubMed

Intestinal failure is a chronic condition in which the intestinal tract has lost most of its function. Prognosis depends on the severity and underlying etiologies. Although many patients survive under parenteral nutrition support, they often suffer from fatal complications such as progressive cholestasis and frequent sepsis. In addition, to decide the proper time to refer selected patients to bowel transplantation remains difficult. A noninvasive biomarker developed to evaluate functional enterocyte mass and the extent of intestinal adaptation is plasma citrulline level. It is shown that serum citrulline correlates with small bowel length, oral tolerance, and parenteral nutrition dependency. Recent evidence has revealed that the use of fish oil containing lipid emulsions to substitute traditional soybean-based formula may reverse a patient's cholestasis and improve lipid profiles. A new method used to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infection is ethanol lock therapy. With both antimicrobial and fibrinolytic activities, studies have shown that ethanol locks can effectively decrease catheter infection and replacement rate with no known resistance reported. As part of intestinal rehabilitation, auxiliary surgeries such as longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring, serial transverse enteroplasty, and tapering enteroplasty can be beneficial for selected patients before bridging to bowel transplantation. With the introduction of these new medical and surgical modalities, patients with intestinal failure are having better outcomes than in the past. PMID:24594083

Chan, Chan-Fai; Wu, Tzee-Chung

2014-12-01

156

Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol- or saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces chronic, often systemic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems worldwide. In vivo information regarding the local and direct inflammatory effect of these dietary components in the intestine and, in particular, on the intestinal epithelium is lacking. Here we report that both mice and zebrafish exposed to high-fat (HFDs) or high-cholesterol (HCDs) diets develop acute innate inflammatory responses within hours, reflected in the localized interleukin-1?-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the intestine. Acute HCD-induced intestinal inflammation is dependent on cholesterol uptake via Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and inflammasome activation involving apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, which leads to Caspase-1 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Extended exposure to HCD results in localized, inflammation-dependent, functional dysregulation as well as systemic pathologies. Our model suggests that dietary cholesterol initiates intestinal inflammation in epithelial cells. PMID:25536194

Progatzky, Fränze; Sangha, Navjyot J.; Yoshida, Nagisa; McBrien, Marie; Cheung, Jackie; Shia, Alice; Scott, James; Marchesi, Julian R.; Lamb, Jonathan R.; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J.

2014-01-01

157

Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol- or saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces chronic, often systemic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems worldwide. In vivo information regarding the local and direct inflammatory effect of these dietary components in the intestine and, in particular, on the intestinal epithelium is lacking. Here we report that both mice and zebrafish exposed to high-fat (HFDs) or high-cholesterol (HCDs) diets develop acute innate inflammatory responses within hours, reflected in the localized interleukin-1?-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the intestine. Acute HCD-induced intestinal inflammation is dependent on cholesterol uptake via Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and inflammasome activation involving apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, which leads to Caspase-1 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Extended exposure to HCD results in localized, inflammation-dependent, functional dysregulation as well as systemic pathologies. Our model suggests that dietary cholesterol initiates intestinal inflammation in epithelial cells. PMID:25536194

Progatzky, Fränze; Sangha, Navjyot J; Yoshida, Nagisa; McBrien, Marie; Cheung, Jackie; Shia, Alice; Scott, James; Marchesi, Julian R; Lamb, Jonathan R; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J

2014-01-01

158

Histone Deacetylase 3 orchestrates commensal bacteria-dependent intestinal homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The development and severity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and other chronic inflammatory conditions can be influenced by host genetic and environmental factors, including signals derived from commensal bacteria1–6. However, the mechanisms that integrate these diverse cues remain undefined. Here we demonstrate that mice with an intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of the epigenome-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3?IEC mice) exhibited extensive dysregulation of IEC-intrinsic gene expression, including decreased basal expression of genes associated with antimicrobial defense. Critically, conventionally-housed HDAC3?IEC mice demonstrated loss of Paneth cells, impaired IEC function and alterations in the composition of intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, HDAC3?IEC mice exhibited significantly increased susceptibility to intestinal damage and inflammation, indicating that epithelial expression of HDAC3 plays a central role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Rederivation of HDAC3?IEC mice into germ-free conditions revealed that dysregulated IEC gene expression, Paneth cell homeostasis, and intestinal barrier function were largely restored in the absence of commensal bacteria. While the specific mechanisms through which IEC-intrinsic HDAC3 expression regulates these complex phenotypes remain to be elucidated, these data indicate that HDAC3 is a critical factor that integrates commensal bacteria-derived signals to calibrate epithelial cell responses required to establish normal host-commensal relationships and maintain intestinal homeostasis. PMID:24185009

Alenghat, Theresa; Osborne, Lisa C.; Saenz, Steven A.; Kobuley, Dmytro; Ziegler, Carly G. K.; Mullican, Shannon E.; Choi, Inchan; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Wynosky-Dolfi, Meghan; Snyder, Annelise; Giacomin, Paul R.; Joyce, Karen L.; Hoang, Tram B.; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brodsky, Igor E.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Artis, David

2014-01-01

159

Histone deacetylase 3 coordinates commensal-bacteria-dependent intestinal homeostasis.  

PubMed

The development and severity of inflammatory bowel diseases and other chronic inflammatory conditions can be influenced by host genetic and environmental factors, including signals derived from commensal bacteria. However, the mechanisms that integrate these diverse cues remain undefined. Here we demonstrate that mice with an intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of the epigenome-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3(?IEC) mice) exhibited extensive dysregulation of IEC-intrinsic gene expression, including decreased basal expression of genes associated with antimicrobial defence. Critically, conventionally housed HDAC3(?IEC) mice demonstrated loss of Paneth cells, impaired IEC function and alterations in the composition of intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, HDAC3(?IEC) mice showed significantly increased susceptibility to intestinal damage and inflammation, indicating that epithelial expression of HDAC3 has a central role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Re-derivation of HDAC3(?IEC) mice into germ-free conditions revealed that dysregulated IEC gene expression, Paneth cell homeostasis and intestinal barrier function were largely restored in the absence of commensal bacteria. Although the specific mechanisms through which IEC-intrinsic HDAC3 expression regulates these complex phenotypes remain to be determined, these data indicate that HDAC3 is a critical factor that integrates commensal-bacteria-derived signals to calibrate epithelial cell responses required to establish normal host-commensal relationships and maintain intestinal homeostasis. PMID:24185009

Alenghat, Theresa; Osborne, Lisa C; Saenz, Steven A; Kobuley, Dmytro; Ziegler, Carly G K; Mullican, Shannon E; Choi, Inchan; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Wynosky-Dolfi, Meghan; Snyder, Annelise; Giacomin, Paul R; Joyce, Karen L; Hoang, Tram B; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brodsky, Igor E; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Bushman, Frederic D; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A; Artis, David

2013-12-01

160

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a chronic and progressive process characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to stiffening and/or scarring of the involved tissue. Intestinal fibrosis may develop in several different enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. It develops through complex cell, extracellular matrix, cytokine and growth factor interactions. Distinct cell types are involved in intestinal fibrosis, such as resident mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) but also ECM-producing cells derived from epithelial and endothelial cells (through a process termed epithelial- and endothelial-mesenchymal transition), stellate cells, pericytes, local or bone marrow-derived stem cells. The most important soluble factors that regulate the activation of these cells include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, components of the renin-angiotensin system, angiogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin, and products of oxidative stress. It soon becomes clear that although inflammation is responsible for triggering the onset of the fibrotic process, it only plays a minor role in the progression of this condition, as fibrosis may advance in a self-perpetuating fashion. Definition of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal fibrosis may provide the key to developing new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22851857

Speca, Silvia; Giusti, Ilaria; Rieder, Florian; Latella, Giovanni

2012-01-01

161

Intestinal permeability: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans has a 20-year history. Because the tests are increasingly used in clinical practice and research and because there is much controversy, we reviewed the literature and outlined the potential and possible shortcomings of these procedures. Data was obtained from personal files and from a systemic search through MEDLINE and EMBASE. The principle

Ingvar Bjarnason; Andrew Macpherson; Daniel Hollander

1995-01-01

162

Malrotation of the intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malrotation of the intestinal tract is a product of a well defined aberrant embryology. Because the consequences of malrotation associated with a midgut volvulus may be catastrophic, an understanding of the anatomy, diagnostic criteria, and appropriate therapy for this putative emergency illness is imperative. This report summarizes a recent 18-month experience with this diagnosis and contrasts this experience with that

A. Margarita Torres; Moritz M. Ziegler

1993-01-01

163

Small intestinal fungal overgrowth.  

PubMed

Small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO) is characterized by the presence of excessive number of fungal organisms in the small intestine associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Candidiasis is known to cause GI symptoms particularly in immunocompromised patients or those receiving steroids or antibiotics. However, only recently, there is emerging literature that an overgrowth of fungus in the small intestine of non-immunocompromised subjects may cause unexplained GI symptoms. Two recent studies showed that 26 % (24/94) and 25.3 % (38/150) of a series of patients with unexplained GI symptoms had SIFO. The most common symptoms observed in these patients were belching, bloating, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, and gas. The underlying mechanism(s) that predisposes to SIFO is unclear but small intestinal dysmotility and use of proton pump inhibitors has been implicated. However, further studies are needed; both to confirm these observations and to examine the clinical relevance of fungal overgrowth, both in healthy subjects and in patients with otherwise unexplained GI symptoms. Importantly, whether eradication or its treatment leads to resolution of symptoms remains unclear; at present, a 2-3-week course of antifungal therapy is recommended and may be effective in improving symptoms, but evidence for eradication is lacking. PMID:25786900

Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C

2015-04-01

164

Intestinal stem cells and celiac disease  

PubMed Central

Stem cells (SCs) are the key to tissue genesis and regeneration. Given their central role in homeostasis, dysfunctions of the SC compartment play a pivotal role in the development of cancers, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammatory pathologies and organ failure. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to harsh mechanical and chemical conditions and most of the epithelial cells are replaced every 3 to 5 d. According to the so-called Unitarian hypothesis, this renewal is driven by a common intestinal stem cell (ISC) residing within the crypt base at the origin of the crypt-to-villus hierarchical migratory pattern. Celiac disease (CD) can be defined as a chronic immune-mediated disease that is triggered and maintained by dietary proteins (gluten) in genetically predisposed individuals. Many advances have been achieved over the last years in understanding of the pathogenic interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors in CD, with a particular emphasis on intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Conversely, little is known about ISC modulation and deregulation in active celiac disease and upon a gluten-free diet. Nonetheless, bone marrow-derived SC transplantation has become an option for celiac patients with complicated or refractory disease. This manuscript summarizes the “state of the art” regarding CD and ISCs, their niche and potential role in the development and treatment of the disease. PMID:24772248

Piscaglia, Anna Chiara

2014-01-01

165

Presystemic metabolism and intestinal absorption of antipsoriatic fumaric acid esters.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Its treatment is based on the inhibition of proliferation of epidermal cells and interference in the inflammatory process. A new systemic antipsoriasis drug, which consists of dimethylfumarate and ethylhydrogenfumarate in the form of their calcium, magnesium and zinc salts has been introduced in Europe with successful results. In the present study, a homologous series of mono- and diesters of fumaric acid has been studied with respect to the sites and kinetics of presystemic ester degradation using pancreas extract, intestinal perfusate, intestinal homogenate and liver S9 fraction. In addition, intestinal permeability has been determined using isolated intestinal mucosa as well as Caco-2 cell monolayers, in order to obtain estimates of the fraction of the dose absorbed for these compounds. Relationships between the physicochemical properties of the fumaric acid esters and their biological responses were investigated. The uncharged diester dimethylfumarate displayed a high presystemic metabolic lability in all metabolism models. It also showed the highest permeability in the Caco-2 cell model. However, in permeation experiments with intestinal mucosa in Ussing-type chambers, no undegraded DMF was found on the receiver side, indicating complete metabolism in the intestinal tissue. The intestinal permeability of the monoesters methyl hydrogen fumarate, ethyl hydrogen fumarate, n-propylhydrogen fumarate and n-pentyl hydrogen fumarate increased with an increase in their lipophilicity, however, their presystemic metabolism rates likewise increased with increasing ester chain length. It is concluded that for fumarates, an increase in intestinal permeability of the more lipophilic derivatives is counterbalanced by an increase in first-pass extraction. PMID:12973823

Werdenberg, D; Joshi, R; Wolffram, S; Merkle, H P; Langguth, P

2003-09-01

166

Clinical Intestinal Transplantation: New Perspectives and Immunologic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Background Although tacrolimus-based immunosuppression has made intestinal transplantation feasible, the risk of the requisite chronic high-dose treatment has inhibited the widespread use of these procedures. We have examined our 1990–1997 experience to determine whether immunomodulatory strategies to improve outlook could be added to drug treatment. Study Design Ninety-eight consecutive patients (59 children, 39 adults) with a panoply of indications received 104 allografts under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression: intestine only (n = 37); liver and intestine (n = 50); or multivisceral (n = 17). Of the last 42 patients, 20 received unmodified adjunct donor bone marrow cells; the other 22 were contemporaneous control patients. Results With a mean followup of 32 ± 26 months (range, 1–86 months), 12 recipients (3 intestine only, 9 composite grafts) are alive with good nutrition beyond the 5-year milestone. Forty-seven (48%) of the total group survive bearing grafts that provide full (91%) or partial (9%) nutrition. Actuarial patient survival at 1 and 5 years (72% and 48%, respectively) was similar with isolated intestinal and composite graft recipients, but the loss rate of grafts from rejection was highest with intestine alone. The best results were in patients between 2 and 18 years of age (68% at 5 years). Adjunct bone marrow did not significantly affect the incidence of graft rejection, B-cell lymphoma, or the rate or severity of graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions These results demonstrate that longterm rehabilitation similar to that with the other kinds of organ allografts is achievable with all three kinds of intestinal transplant procedures, that the morbidity and mortality is still too high for their widespread application, and that the liver is significantly but marginally protective of concomitantly engrafted intestine. Although none of the endpoints were markedly altered by donor leukocyte augmentation (and chimerism) with bone marrow, establishment of the safety of this adjunct procedure opens the way to further immune modulation strategies that can be added to the augmentation protocol. PMID:9583691

Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Reyes, Jorge; Todo, Satoru; Rao, Abdul; Lee, Randall; Irish, William; Furukawa, Hiro; Bueno, Javier; McMichael, John; Fawzy, Ahmed T.; Murase, Noriko; Demetris, Jake; Rakela, Jorge; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

167

Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Gliadin-Induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosa: Study in Germ-Free Rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production. Methodology/Principal Findings Changes in gut mucosa were assessed in the intestinal loops of inbred Wistar-AVN rats that were reared under germ-free conditions in the presence of various intestinal bacteria (enterobacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from CD patients and healthy children, respectively) and CD-triggering agents (gliadin and IFN-?) by histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and a rat cytokine antibody array. Adhesion of the bacterial strains to the IEC-6 rat cell line was evaluated in vitro. Gliadin fragments alone or together with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-? significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the small intestine; this effect was more pronounced in the presence of Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8. Shigella CBD8 and IFN-? induced the highest mucin secretion and greatest impairment in tight junctions and, consequently, translocation of gliadin fragments into the lamina propria. Shigella CBD8 and E. coli CBL2 strongly adhered to IEC-6 epithelial cells. The number of goblet cells in small intestine increased by the simultaneous incubation of Bifidobacterium bifidum IATA-ES2 with gliadin, IFN-? and enterobacteria. B. bifidum IATA-ES2 also enhanced the production of chemotactic factors and inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which can contribute to gut mucosal protection. Conclusions Our results suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiota affects the permeability of the intestinal mucosa and, consequently, could be involved in the early stages of CD pathogenesis. PMID:21249146

Cinova, Jana; De Palma, Giada; Stepankova, Renata; Kofronova, Olga; Kverka, Miloslav; Sanz, Yolanda; Tuckova, Ludmila

2011-01-01

168

Amphiregulin Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration: Roles of Intestinal Subepithelial Myofibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Epidermal growth factor family plays critical roles in intestinal epithelial proliferation and differentiation. The precise function of amphiregulin (AREG), a member of the epidermal growth factor family, in intestinal biology is largely unknown. The present study attempted to address the functional roles of AREG in intestinal epithelial regeneration. Total body irradiation was performed, and intestinal regeneration was assessed in AREG knockout mice. Genetically disruption of AREG significantly impaired intestinal regeneration after radiation injury. It is known that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts radio-protective and growth-stimulatory effects on intestinal epithelium. We found that PGE2 radio-protective action did not involve AREG. However, PGE2 growth-stimulatory effects required functional AREG. Localization of AREG expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in regenerative intestine. The immunoreactivity of AREG was predominantly localized in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMF). Primary ISEMF cultures were established, and growth-stimulatory actions of ISEMF-generated AREG were demonstrated in cell coculture system. In addition, we found that the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway robustly induced AREG in cultured ISEMF. These studies suggest that AREG plays critical roles in intestinal epithelial growth. Modulation of levels of AREG by targeting ISEMF represents a novel strategy for treatment of certain intestinal disorders. PMID:20534719

Shao, Jinyi; Sheng, Hongmiao

2010-01-01

169

Heterogeneity across the murine small and large intestine  

PubMed Central

The small and large intestine of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have evolved to have discrete functions with distinct anatomies and immune cell composition. The importance of these differences is underlined when considering that different pathogens have uniquely adapted to live in each region of the gut. Furthermore, different regions of the GIT are also associated with differences in susceptibility to diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. The large and small intestine, given their anatomical and functional differences, should be seen as two separate immunological sites. However, this distinction is often ignored with findings from one area of the GIT being inappropriately extrapolated to the other. Focussing largely on the murine small and large intestine, this review addresses the literature relating to the immunology and biology of the two sites, drawing comparisons between them and clarifying similarities and differences. We also highlight the gaps in our understanding and where further research is needed. PMID:25386070

Bowcutt, Rowann; Forman, Ruth; Glymenaki, Maria; Carding, Simon Richard; Else, Kathryn Jane; Cruickshank, Sheena Margaret

2014-01-01

170

The small intestine.  

PubMed

Clinical investigation of the small bowel at The Mount Sinai Hospital began with David Adlersberg's arrival in 1931. His research interests were in bile acids, cholesterol, carotene, and vitamin A. In 1952, he was given a Nutrition Laboratory and later, a Nutrition Clinic. His vitamin A tolerance test and interest in malabsorption led him to a comprehensive study of sprue, the separation of the tropical and non-tropical forms, and their different etiologies and treatments. Adlersberg's work was complemented by (a) Marshak and Wolf's radiologic examination of the small bowel (especially in sprue and other malabsorption disorders); (b) Gerson s perfusion experiments; and (c) Friedman, Waye and Wolf's motility studies. Lieber and his colleagues explored the deleterious effects of alcohol on the function and structure of the small intestine. Gerson explored the nutrition of patients with Crohn's disease of the small intestine, especially after extensive resection or bypass leading to ascorbic and folic acid deficiencies and hypergastrinemia. PMID:10828909

Gerson, C D

2000-05-01

171

Histopathological changes in small and large intestines during hymenolepidosis in rats.  

PubMed

The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a chronic parasite living in the small intestine of rats, mice and humans. The aim of this study was to determine histopathological changes in the rat intestine during experimental hymenolepidosis. Our results showed that in rats infected with H. diminuta slight changes occurred in the length of the villus and crypts in different parts of the digestive tract. The changes were most distinct in the duodenum and jejunum on the 16 days post H. diminuta infection. PMID:23342916

Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kolasa, Agnieszka

2012-01-01

172

Isolation and Characterization of Intestinal Epithelial Cells from Normal and SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairment of intestinal epithelial barriers contributes to the progression of HIV\\/SIV infection and leads to generalized HIV-induced immune-cell activation during chronic infection. Rhesus macaques are the major animal model for studying HIV pathogenesis. However, detailed characterization of isolated rhesus epithelial cells (ECs) from intestinal tissues is not well defined. It is also not well documented whether isolated ECs had any

Diganta Pan; Arpita Das; David Liu; Ronald S. Veazey; Bapi Pahar

2012-01-01

173

Hydrogen sulfide induces serum-independent cell cycle entry in nontransformed rat intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by commensal sulfate-reducing bacteria, is an environmental insult that potentially contributes to chronic intestinal epithelial disorders. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of nontransformed intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) to the reducing agent sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) activates molecular pathways that underlie epithelial hyperplasia, a phenotype common to both ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer. Exposure of

Bart Deplancke; H. Rex Gaskins

2003-01-01

174

Plasma Cytokine Profiles in Females With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Extra-Intestinal CoMorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder that is associated with a number of extra-intestinal co-morbidities and a pro-inflammatory profile. This study was designed to examine the cytokine profile among a group of IBS patients with the extra-intestinal co-morbidities fibromyalgia, premenstrual dysmorphic disorder, and chronic fatigue syndrome.METHODS:In all, 100 female IBS patients with these co-morbidities, 21 IBS subjects without

Paul Scully; Declan P McKernan; John Keohane; David Groeger; Fergus Shanahan; Timothy G Dinan; Eamonn MM Quigley; Eamonn M. M. Quigley

2010-01-01

175

Farnesoid X Receptor activation protects against intestinal inflammation: potential mechanisms and therapeutic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disorder, characterized by dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and compromised intestinal epithelial barrier. In IBD the immunological balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators is severely impaired and shifted towards the pro-inflammatory side. The nuclear transcription factor kappa B is a key regulator in this shift. The bile salt nuclear Farnesoid

R. M. Gadaleta

2011-01-01

176

Intestinal Behçet’s disease appearing during treatment with adalimumab in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting multiple organ systems, such as the skin, joints, blood vessels, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal BD is characterized by intestinal ulcerations and gastrointestinal symptoms. The medical treatment of intestinal BD includes corticosteroids and immunosupressants. There have been several reports of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) blockers being successful in treatment of refractory intestinal BD. Here, we report on a patient who was diagnosed with intestinal BD despite treatment with the fully humanized TNF-? blocker (adalimumab) for underlying ankylosing spondylitis. This patient achieved clinical remission and complete mucosal healing through the addition of a steroid and azathioprine to the adalimumab regimen. PMID:23983446

Chung, Sook Hee; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho

2013-01-01

177

Trypanosoma cruzi infection: do distinct populations cause intestinal motility alteration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important public health problem in Latin America. Disturbances in gastrointestinal motility are observed in 15–20%\\u000a of patients at the chronic phase. We previously observed a decrease in intestinal motility in mice infected with Y strain\\u000a from T. cruzi. Thus, we decided to test if infection with other T. cruzi strains also caused

Monica de Melo Medeiros; Tania C. Araújo-Jorge; Wanderson S. Batista; Tshaca Mahatma Oara Alves da Silva; Andréa Pereira de Souza

2010-01-01

178

The Gut Microbiome in Intestinal Fibrosis: Environmental Protector or Provocateur?  

PubMed Central

In individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases, intestinal fibrosis is a serious clinical complication with no specific therapies. Patients develop bowel fistulae and strictures that usually require surgery and often reoccur. The main driver of gut fibrogenesis is believed to be chronic inflammation, which leads to mesenchymal cell recruitment and activation. Recent findings suggest that the environment—in particular the microbiome—plays a critical role in this process. PMID:23785034

Rieder, Florian

2013-01-01

179

Chronic sorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of chronic sorrow has been used to describe the reaction of parents to the ongoing losses associated with caring for a child with chronic illness or disability. A middle-range theory of chronic sorrow provides a framework for further understanding of this phenomenon. This theory is applied to a case of a family burdened with the unrelenting stress of

Jean M. Scornaienchi

2003-01-01

180

Rifaximin Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Prevents Stress-Induced Gut Inflammation and Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. Methods We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Results Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Conclusions Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. PMID:24161699

Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y.; Owyang, Chung

2014-01-01

181

How to make an intestine  

PubMed Central

With the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, there is great interest in establishing in vitro models of human intestinal disease and in developing drug-screening platforms that more accurately represent the complex physiology of the intestine. We will review how recent advances in developmental and stem cell biology have made it possible to generate complex, three-dimensional, human intestinal tissues in vitro through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. These are currently being used to study human development, genetic forms of disease, intestinal pathogens, metabolic disease and cancer. PMID:24496613

Wells, James M.; Spence, Jason R.

2014-01-01

182

General Information about Small Intestine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... that examine the small intestine are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage small intestine cancer. Procedures ... be removed by surgery . Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage small intestine cancer are usually ...

183

Prom1 Function in Development, Intestinal Inflammation, and Intestinal Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Prom1/CD133 has been identified in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancer as a cancer stem cell marker and has been used as such to predict colon cancer recurrence in humans. Its potential molecular function as well as its role as a marker of intestinal regeneration is still not fully known. We evaluated the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), determined the function of Prom1, and characterized the effect of a lack of Prom1 on intestinal tumor formation in animal models. Our results suggest that Apc mutations lead to an increase in Prom1 expressing cells in the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment and in early intestinal adenomas. Also, Prom1 knockout mice are more susceptible to intestinal tumor formation. We conclude that Prom1 likely plays a role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and that these results clearly illustrate the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration. We further conclude that Prom1 may provide a novel therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal conditions such as IBD, short bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer. PMID:25452936

Karim, Baktiar O.; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Liu, Guosheng; Yun, Kyuson; Brant, Steven R.

2014-01-01

184

Vitamin a deficiency phrynoderma associated with chronic giardiasis.  

PubMed

Phrynoderma is a rare form of follicular hyperkeratosis associated with deficiencies in vitamins A or C or essential fatty acids. We report a 6-year-old boy with an unusual presentation of phrynoderma, characterized by multiple minute digitate hyperkeratoses associated with hair casts and related to a severe deficiency in vitamins A and C complicating a chronic intestinal giardiasis. The lesions responded well to oral vitamins A and C combined with albendazole treatment. Vitamin A deficiency-related phrynoderma is rare in western countries and is usually caused by digestive malabsorption resulting from large intestine resection or pancreatic failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of phrynoderma related to a chronic intestinal parasitic infection by Giardia intestinalis with intestinal malabsorption as a likely consequence. PMID:16918630

Girard, Céline; Dereure, Olivier; Blatière, Véronique; Guillot, Bernard; Bessis, Didier

2006-01-01

185

Multiple smooth muscle tumours in neurofibromatosis presenting with chronic gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis is well recognised. We present an unusual manifestation of gastro-intestinal neurofibromatosis--chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from extensive smooth muscle tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3140227

Cox, J. G.; Royston, C. M.; Sutton, D. R.

1988-01-01

186

Enteropatía congénita y trasplante intestinal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoLa insuficiencia intestinal (II) exige el uso de nutrición parenteral (NP). Entre las causas de II prolongada grave destacan el síndrome del intestino corto, trastornos de la motilidad grave (aganglionosis total o subtotal o síndrome de seudoobstrucción intestinal crónica) y enfermedades congénitas del desarrollo de los enterocitos. Puede aparecer insuficiencia hepática grave en pacientes con II como consecuencia de una

Olivier Goulet

2006-01-01

187

Chronic kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. you may not notice any symptoms for some ...

188

Clinical Intestinal Transplantation: A Decade of Experience at a Single Center  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the long-term efficacy of intestinal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and the therapeutic benefit of newly developed adjunct immunosuppressants and management strategies. Summary Background Data With the advent of tacrolimus in 1990, transplantation of the intestine began to emerge as therapy for intestinal failure. However, a high risk of rejection, with the consequent need for acute and chronic high-dose immunosuppression, has inhibited its widespread application. Methods During an 11-year period, divided into two segments by a 1-year moratorium in 1994, 155 patients received 165 intestinal allografts under immunosuppression based on tacrolimus and prednisone: 65 intestine alone, 75 liver and intestine, and 25 multivisceral. For the transplantations since the moratorium (n = 99), an adjunct immunosuppressant (cyclophos-phamide or daclizumab) was used for 74 transplantations, adjunct donor bone marrow was given in 39, and the intestine of 11 allografts was irradiated with a single dose of 750 cGy. Results The actuarial survival rate for the total population was 75% at 1 year, 54% at 5 years, and 42% at 10 years. Recipients of liver plus intestine had the best long-term prognosis and the lowest risk of graft loss from rejection (P = .001). Since 1994, survival rates have improved. Techniques for early detection of Epstein-Barr and cytomegaloviral infections, bone marrow augmentation, the adjunct use of the interleukin-2 antagonist daclizumab, and most recently allograft irradiation may have contributed to the better results. Conclusion The survival rates after intestinal transplantation have cumulatively improved during the past decade. With the management strategies currently under evaluation, intestinal transplant procedures have the potential to become the standard of care for patients with end-stage intestinal failure. PMID:11524593

Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Reyes, Jorge; Bond, Geoffrey; Mazariegos, George; Wu, Tong; Murase, Noriko; Sindhi, Rakesh; Martin, Dolly; Colangelo, Joanne; Zak, Marsha; Janson, Douglas; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Dvorchik, Igor; Parizhskaya, Maria; Deutsch, Melvin; Demetris, Anthony; Fung, John; Starzl, Thomas E.

2001-01-01

189

Mucosal immune responses following intestinal nematode infection.  

PubMed

In most natural environments, the large majority of mammals harbour parasitic helminths that often live as adults within the intestine for prolonged periods (1-2 years). Although these organisms have been eradicated to a large extent within westernized human populations, those living within rural areas of developing countries continue to suffer from high infection rates. Indeed, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2.5 billion people worldwide, mainly children, currently suffer from infection with intestinal helminths (also known as geohelminths and soil-transmitted helminths) . Paradoxically, the eradication of helminths is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergy observed in developed countries. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of host-helminth interactions at the mucosal surface that result in parasite expulsion or permit the establishment of chronic infections with luminal dwelling adult worms. We will also provide insight into the adaptive immune mechanisms that provide immune protection against re-infection with helminth larvae, a process that is likely to be key to the future development of successful vaccination strategies. Lastly, the contribution of helminths to immune modulation and particularly to the treatment of allergy and inflammatory bowel disease will be discussed. PMID:25201407

Zaph, C; Cooper, P J; Harris, N L

2014-09-01

190

[Anal symptoms of gastro-intestinal diseases].  

PubMed

In most cases the ano-cutaneous clinical symptoms correlated to diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract are not specific (erythema, itching, wounds or scarring). However in the following diseases occasional dermatological lesions may directly contribute to their diagnosis: in Crohn's disease, tuberculosis of bowel, chronic entamoebiasis and bilharziosis, the skin lesions of the anal area have the same histological structure as the gut lesions. Perianal fistulas and ulcers are frequent in Crohn's disease especially if there is a colonic and rectal spreading; they respond badly to steroid therapy and are often correlated with a worse prognosis. Perianal specific lesions occur often in oxyuriasis in children, in candidiasis of the digestive tract, in systemic aphthosis and in some malignancies. In other gastro-intestinal disturbances, the dermatological and features are less specific and can only be suggestive: iatrogenic and microbial diarrheas, side-effects of laxatives, proctological diseases. It has to be emphasized that pruritus ani is only induced by deeper lesions when they spread to the perianal skin. In proctological practice, contact dermatitis by sensitivity to anaesthetics or suppository balsams (Peruvian balsam), itching or burning atrophy by topical steroid abuse, non-diagnosed fungal (candidiasis), bacterial (erythrasma) or psoriatic intertrigos (flexural psoriasis) may sometimes explain the failure of therapy. PMID:485013

Grosshans, E; Jenn, P; Baumann, R; Weill, J P; Basset, A

1979-01-01

191

Neural networks in intestinal immunoregulation  

PubMed Central

Key physiological functions of the intestine are governed by nerves and neurotransmitters. This complex control relies on two neuronal systems: an extrinsic innervation supplied by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and an intrinsic innervation provided by the enteric nervous system. As a result of constant exposure to commensal and pathogenic microflora, the intestine developed a tightly regulated immune system. In this review, we cover the current knowledge on the interactions between the gut innervation and the intestinal immune system. The relations between extrinsic and intrinsic neuronal inputs are highlighted with regards to the intestinal immune response. Moreover, we discuss the latest findings on mechanisms underlying inflammatory neural reflexes and examine their relevance in the context of the intestinal inflammation. Finally, we discuss some of the recent data on the identification of the gut microbiota as an emerging player influencing the brain function. PMID:23867810

Costes, Léa MM; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; de Jonge, Wouter J; Cailotto, Cathy

2013-01-01

192

Interplay between intestinal alkaline phosphatase, diet, gut microbes and immunity  

PubMed Central

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis and health through interactions with the resident microbiota, diet and the gut. IAP’s role in the intestine is to dephosphorylate toxic microbial ligands such as lipopolysaccharides, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides and flagellin as well as extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate. IAP’s ability to detoxify these ligands is essential in protecting the host from sepsis during acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Also important in these complications is IAP’s ability to regulate the microbial ecosystem by forming a complex relationship between microbiota, diet and the intestinal mucosal surface. Evidence reveals that diet alters IAP expression and activity and this in turn can influence the gut microbiota and homeostasis. IAP’s ability to maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract has accelerated research on its potential use as a therapeutic agent against a multitude of diseases. Exogenous IAP has been shown to have beneficial effects when administered during ulcerative colitis, coronary bypass surgery and sepsis. There are currently a handful of human clinical trials underway investigating the effects of exogenous IAP during sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and heart surgery. In light of these findings IAP has been marked as a novel agent to help treat a variety of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. The purpose of this review is to highlight the essential characteristics of IAP in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis while addressing the intricate interplay between IAP, diet, microbiota and the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25400448

Estaki, Mehrbod; DeCoffe, Daniella; Gibson, Deanna L

2014-01-01

193

Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans  

PubMed Central

Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Kirman, Christopher R.; Harris, Mark A.

2013-01-01

194

Autophagy and Intestinal Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Nutrient absorption is the basic function that drives mammalian intestinal biology. To facilitate nutrient uptake, the host’s epithelial barrier is composed of a single layer of cells. This constraint is problematic, as a design of this type can be easily disrupted. The solution during the course of evolution was to add numerous host defense mechanisms that can help prevent local and systemic infection. These mechanisms include specialized epithelial cells that produce a physiochemical barrier overlying the cellular barrier, robust and organized adaptive and innate immune cells, and the ability to mount an inflammatory response that is commensurate with a specific threat level. The autophagy pathway is a critical cellular process that strongly influences all these functions. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the components of this pathway and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will facilitate our understanding of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23216414

Patel, Khushbu K.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

2013-01-01

195

Perturbations of mucosal homeostasis through interactions of intestinal microbes with myeloid cells.  

PubMed

Mucosal surfaces represent the largest areas of interactions of the host with its environment. Subsequently, the mucosal immune system has evolved complex strategies to maintain the integrity of the host by inducing protective immune responses against pathogenic and tolerance against dietary and commensal microbial antigens within the broad range of molecules the intestinal epithelium is exposed to. Among many other specialized cell subsets, myeloid cell populations - due to their strategic location in the subepithelial lamina propria - are the first ones to scavenge and process these intestinal antigens and to send consecutive signals to other immune and non-immune cell subsets. Thus, myeloid cell populations represent attractive targets for clinical intervention in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) as they initiate and modulate inflammatory or regulatory immune response and shape the intestinal T cell pool. Here, we discuss the interactions of the intestinal microbiota with dendritic cell and macrophage populations and review in this context the literature on four promising candidate molecules that are critical for the induction and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis on the one hand, but also for the initiation and propagation of chronic intestinal inflammation on the other. PMID:25466587

Schey, Regina; Danzer, Claudia; Mattner, Jochen

2015-02-01

196

Intestinal macrophages: differentiation and involvement in intestinal immunopathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal macrophages, preferentially located in the subepithelial lamina propria, represent the largest pool of tissue macrophages\\u000a in humans. As an adaptation to the local antigen- and bacteria-rich environment, intestinal macrophages exhibit several distinct\\u000a phenotypic and functional characteristics. Notably, microbe-associated molecular pattern receptors, including the lipopolysaccharide\\u000a (LPS) receptors CD14 and TLR4, and also the Fc receptors for IgA and IgG are

Benjamin Weber; Leslie Saurer; Christoph Mueller

2009-01-01

197

Management of gut inflammation through the manipulation of intestinal dendritic cells and macrophages?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis represent a major challenge to clinicians and immunologists trying to understand why in certain individuals the peaceful coexistence of the commensal microflora and its host breaks down and results in chronic inflammation. Here we summarize the recent progress in our understanding of the organization of the intestinal mononuclear phagocytes with

Liat Bar-On; Ehud Zigmond; Steffen Jung

2011-01-01

198

Rectal afferent function in patients with inflammatory and functional intestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort are reported by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functional disorders of the gut, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). It has recently been suggested that transient inflammatory mucosal events may result in long-lasting sensitization of visceral afferent pathways. To determine the effect of recurring intestinal tissue irritation on lumbosacral afferent pathways,

Charles N. Bernstein; Negar Niazi; Marie Robert; Howard Mertz; Anatoly Kodner; Julie Munakata; Bruce Naliboff; Emeran A. Mayer

1996-01-01

199

Intestinal microecology and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: It has been noticed that gastroenteritis or dysentery plays a role in pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and antibiotics can increase functional abdominal symptoms, both of which may be partly due to intestinal flora disorders. This study was to determine the change of gut flora of IBS, a cluster of abdominal symptoms. Because of the chronic course and

Jian-Min Si; Ying-Cong Yu; Yu-Jing Fan; Shu-Jie Chen

200

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is diagnosed in some cases of irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal tract disfunction characterized by abdominal pain (or discomfort) and alteration in bowel movements. The etiology of presented symptoms despite numerous studies is unclear. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is one of potential factors causing symptoms of some gastrointe- stinal functional disorders. The aim of the study was to check whether SIBO

Agnieszka Meder

201

Role of neutrophil-derived oxidants in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is a growing body of experimental data to suggest that the chronically inflamed intestine and\\/or colon may be subjected to considerable oxidative stress. The most probable sources of these oxidants are the phagocytic leukocytes since these cells are known to be present in large numbers in the inflamed mucosa and are known to produce significant amounts of reactive

T. Yamada; M. B. Grisham

1991-01-01

202

Atrophy and Intestinal Metaplasia One Year After Cure of H. pylori Infection: A Prospective, Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa evolves through stages of chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia (IM), glandular atrophy (GA), and dysplasia before carcinoma develops. We studied if H. pylori eradication would alter the course of premalignant histologic changes in the stomach. Methods: Volunteers from the Yantai County in China underwent upper endoscopy with biopsy specimens obtained from the antrum and corpus.

2000-01-01

203

The intestine and the kidneys: a bad marriage can be hazardous.  

PubMed

The concept that the intestine and chronic kidney disease influence each other, emerged only recently. The problem is multifaceted and bidirectional. On one hand, the composition of the intestinal microbiota impacts uraemic retention solute production, resulting in the generation of essentially protein-bound uraemic toxins with strong biological impact such as vascular damage and progression of kidney failure. On the other hand, the uraemic status affects the composition of intestinal microbiota, the generation of uraemic retention solutes and their precursors and causes disturbances in the protective epithelial barrier of the intestine and the translocation of intestinal microbiota into the body. All these elements together contribute to the disruption of the metabolic equilibrium and homeostasis typical to uraemia. Several measures with putative impact on intestinal status have recently been tested for their influence on the generation or concentration of uraemic toxins. These include dietary measures, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and intestinal sorbents. Unfortunately, the quality and the evidence base of many of these studies are debatable, especially in uraemia, and often results within one study or among studies are contradictory. Nevertheless, intestinal uraemic metabolite generation remains an interesting target to obtain in the future as an alternative or additive to dialysis to decrease uraemic toxin generation. In the present review, we aim to summarize (i) the role of the intestine in uraemia by producing uraemic toxins and by generating pathophysiologically relevant changes, (ii) the role of uraemia in modifying intestinal physiology and (iii) the therapeutic options that could help to modify these effects and the studies that have assessed the impact of these therapies. PMID:25815173

Vanholder, Raymond; Glorieux, Griet

2015-04-01

204

The intestine and the kidneys: a bad marriage can be hazardous  

PubMed Central

The concept that the intestine and chronic kidney disease influence each other, emerged only recently. The problem is multifaceted and bidirectional. On one hand, the composition of the intestinal microbiota impacts uraemic retention solute production, resulting in the generation of essentially protein-bound uraemic toxins with strong biological impact such as vascular damage and progression of kidney failure. On the other hand, the uraemic status affects the composition of intestinal microbiota, the generation of uraemic retention solutes and their precursors and causes disturbances in the protective epithelial barrier of the intestine and the translocation of intestinal microbiota into the body. All these elements together contribute to the disruption of the metabolic equilibrium and homeostasis typical to uraemia. Several measures with putative impact on intestinal status have recently been tested for their influence on the generation or concentration of uraemic toxins. These include dietary measures, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and intestinal sorbents. Unfortunately, the quality and the evidence base of many of these studies are debatable, especially in uraemia, and often results within one study or among studies are contradictory. Nevertheless, intestinal uraemic metabolite generation remains an interesting target to obtain in the future as an alternative or additive to dialysis to decrease uraemic toxin generation. In the present review, we aim to summarize (i) the role of the intestine in uraemia by producing uraemic toxins and by generating pathophysiologically relevant changes, (ii) the role of uraemia in modifying intestinal physiology and (iii) the therapeutic options that could help to modify these effects and the studies that have assessed the impact of these therapies.

Vanholder, Raymond; Glorieux, Griet

2015-01-01

205

Chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We review selected important clinical observations reported in 2012. Recent findings Celiac disease is a risk factor for pancreatitis. Patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis likely have chronic pancreatitis, do not benefit from pancreatic sphincterotomy, and may not benefit from biliary sphincterotomy. Analysis of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) images with an artificial neural network (ANN) program may improve chronic pancreatitis diagnosis compared with clinical interpretation of images. In a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of chronic pancreatitis patients, 90 000 USP U of pancreatin with meals decreased fat malabsorption compared with placebo. Detection of visceral pain in chronic pancreatitis predicts pain relief from various treatments, but nonvisceral pain due to altered central pain processing may respond to agents such as pregabalin. Predictors of surgical pain relief include onset of symptoms less than 3 years and preoperatively no opioid use and less than five endoscopic procedures. Total pancreatectomy for presumed painful chronic pancreatitis remains controversial. Summary Celiacs are at risk for pancreatitis. The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis may be enhanced by ANN analysis of EUS imaging. Treatment of fat malabsorption requires 90 000 USP U of lipase with meals. Relief of pain from organ directed treatment of chronic pancreatitis may depend upon timing of interventions and whether pain is visceral or nonvisceral. PMID:23852141

DiMagno, Matthew J.; DiMagno, Eugene P.

2015-01-01

206

Mechanisms of intestinal inflammation and development of associated cancers: Lessons learned from mouse models  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with approximately 1/5th of all human cancers. Arising from combinations of factors such as environmental exposures, diet, inherited gene polymorphisms, infections, or from dysfunctions of the immune response, chronic inflammation begins as an attempt of the body to remove injurious stimuli; however, over time, this results in continuous tissue destruction and promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis. Here we focus on intestinal inflammation and its associated cancers, a group of diseases on the rise and affecting millions of people worldwide. Intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and celiac disease. Long-standing intestinal inflammation is associated with colorectal cancer and small-bowel adenocarcinoma, as well as extraintestinal manifestations, including lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. This article highlights potential mechanisms of pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease, as well as those involved in the progression to associated cancers, most of which have been identified from studies utilizing mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into chemically induced models; genetic models, which make up the bulk of the studied models; adoptive transfer models; and spontaneous models. Studies in these models have lead to the understanding that persistent antigen exposure in the intestinal lumen, in combination with loss of epithelial barrier function, and dysfunction and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Transcriptional changes in this environment leading to cell survival, hyperplasia, promotion of angiogenesis, persistent DNA damage, or insufficient repair of DNA damage due to an excess of proinflammatory mediators are then thought to lead to sustained malignant transformation. With regards to extraintestinal manifestations such as lymphoma, however, more suitable models are required to further investigate the complex and heterogeneous mechanisms that may be at play. PMID:20298806

Westbrook, Aya M.; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H.

2010-01-01

207

Small intestinal ischemia and infarction  

MedlinePLUS

... the bowel are reconnected. In some cases, a colostomy or ileostomy is needed. The blockage of arteries ... Intestinal infarction may require a colostomy or ileostomy, which may be ... is common in these cases. People who have a large amount ...

208

Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... while increasing enteral nutrition. Pre-digested and hypoallergenic formulas improve intestinal absorption, and extra vitamins and minerals are often added. These formulas are usually given slowly by a feeding tube ...

209

Intestinal angioedema mimicking Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Angioedema usually presents as episodic attacks of swelling of the face, airway and extremities, but it may also involve visceral tissues. A 58-year-old woman with repeated episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting had two laparotomies and was treated for Crohn's disease for two years before a diagnosis of acquired intestinal angioedema was made. This case provides important insights into the presentation of intestinal angioedema. PMID:10590745

Malcolm, A; Prather, C M

1999-10-18

210

Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption  

PubMed Central

The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health. PMID:23104561

Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils; Subramanya, Sandeep B.; Kapadia, Rubina

2013-01-01

211

Regulation of Intestinal Immune Responses through TLR Activation: Implications for Pro- and Prebiotics  

PubMed Central

The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), allergic gastroenteritis (e.g., eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS), and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLRs play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation. PMID:24600450

de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L.

2014-01-01

212

Solitary Large Intestinal Diverticulitis in Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).  

PubMed

Leatherback sea turtles are globally distributed and endangered throughout their range. There are limited data available on disease in this species. Initial observations of solitary large intestinal diverticulitis in multiple leatherbacks led to a multi-institutional review of cases. Of 31 subadult and adult turtles for which complete records were available, all had a single exudate-filled diverticulum, as large as 9.0 cm in diameter, arising from the large intestine immediately distal to the ileocecal junction. All lesions were chronic and characterized by ongoing inflammation, numerous intralesional bacteria, marked attenuation of the muscularis, ulceration, and secondary mucosal changes. In three cases, Morganella morganii was isolated from lesions. Diverticulitis was unrelated to the cause of death in all cases, although risk of perforation and other complications are possible. PMID:25239052

Stacy, B A; Innis, C J; Daoust, P-Y; Wyneken, J; Miller, M; Harris, H; James, M C; Christiansen, E F; Foley, A

2014-09-19

213

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

MedlinePLUS

COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic lung disease) Pneumonia Pneumothorax Severe weight loss and malnutrition Thinning ...

214

Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol. PMID:25746479

Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

2015-05-01

215

[Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD. PMID:25566836

Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

2015-02-01

216

Chronic Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include sarcoidosis and certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

217

Chronic pain.  

PubMed

Essential facts Chronic pain is pain that persists or recurs for more than three months. It may be related to a condition, or may be pain from an injury or operation that continues after healing would usually take place. According to guidance from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), around 18 per cent of Europe's population are currently affected by moderate to severe chronic pain. It has a considerable effect on quality of life, and can cause significant suffering and disability. PMID:25783253

2015-03-18

218

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Minireview.  

PubMed

Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge Ingle, Chitra R

2014-10-16

219

Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Low–molecular-weight metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota play a direct role in health and disease. In this study, we analyzed the colonic luminal metabolome using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (CE-TOFMS) —a novel technique for analyzing and differentially displaying metabolic profiles— in order to clarify the metabolite profiles in the intestinal lumen. CE-TOFMS identified 179 metabolites from the colonic luminal metabolome and 48 metabolites were present in significantly higher concentrations and/or incidence in the germ-free (GF) mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p < 0.05), 77 metabolites were present in significantly lower concentrations and/or incidence in the GF mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p < 0.05), and 56 metabolites showed no differences in the concentration or incidence between GF and Ex-GF mice. These indicate that intestinal microbiota highly influenced the colonic luminal metabolome and a comprehensive understanding of intestinal luminal metabolome is critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:22724057

Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kibe, Ryoko; Ooga, Takushi; Aiba, Yuji; Kurihara, Shin; Sawaki, Emiko; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

2012-01-01

220

Olsalazine-related diarrhoea: does rat intestine adapt in vivo?  

PubMed

Diarrhoea may occur in up to 10% of patients with ulcerative colitis treated with olsalazine, the azolinked dimer of 5-aminosalicylic acid. However, this symptom often disappears despite continued drug medication. To examine reversibility of and adaptation to olsalazine effects on intestinal absorption, rats were fed olsalazine (4 mg/100 g body weight/day) for 0 (controls), 12, 24, and 32 days. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic loops were perfused in situ with buffer or olsalazine (11.6 mM) in a pendular perfusion system. Water and electrolyte absorption was inhibited in all intestinal segments (p less than 0.001). In the proximal small intestine, however, sodium absorption was inhibited by 61%, whereas chloride and potassium absorptions were turned into net secretion. In contrast, in ileal and colonic segments sodium, chloride, and potassium absorptions were turned into a net secretion. All inhibitory effects were reversible within a short time. Intestinal absorption remained inhibitable compared with controls (p = not significant) after chronic administration of olsalazine even for 1 month. Jejunal monosaccharide absorption was not altered by acute olsalazine perfusion. In the ileum, glucose absorption was significantly inhibited, but the inhibitory capacity of acute olsalazine application decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) depending on duration of olsalazine pretreatment (51% (controls) versus 38% (32 days)). These results point to a complex, acute, but fully reversible effect of olsalazine on intestinal passive and chloride-coupled absorptive processes. Since a mucosal adaptation to these diarrheogenic effects does not occur, the resulting increase in fluid load on the diseased colon may be important in the pathogenesis of olsalazine-related diarrhoea. PMID:1589709

Scheurlen, C; Wedel, S; Kruis, W; Zwiebel, F M; Allgayer, H; Scholz, R

1992-04-01

221

Ondansetron in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer and Chronic Nausea and Vomiting Not Caused by Cancer Treatment  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Nausea and Vomiting; Precancerous Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2012-02-19

222

Prevalence of essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic intestinal disorders causing malabsorption, nutritional losses through diarrhea, or catabolic illness would be expected to have essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency (EFAD), but such deficiency has not been demonstrated in patients treated in accordance with the prevailing standard of care. We studied plasma fatty acid patterns of 56 reference or control subjects and 47 patients with chronic

Edward N. Siguel; Robert H. Lerman

1996-01-01

223

Role of intestinal inflammation in predisposition of Edwardsiella tarda infection in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Edwardsiella tarda, an enteric opportunistic pathogen, is associated with acute to chronic edwardsiellosis in cultured fish, resulting in heavy losses in aquaculture. To date, the pathogenesis of E. tarda has been extensively studied and a great deal of vaccine candidates have been attempted. However, the research on the predisposition of E. tarda infection is poorly reported. In this study, the effects of intestinal inflammation on E. tarda infection were investigated using a zebrafish model that influenced by perturbation of intestinal microbiota. Featured symptoms of edwardsiellosis were observed in intestinal inflammatory zebrafish compared with healthy fish. Higher bacterial numbers were detected in both mucosal tissues (intestine, skin and gills) and lymphoid tissues (liver, spleen and kidney) of inflammatory zebrafish while the bacterial loads in healthy zebrafish appeared to be relatively lower by 10-100 folds. Moreover, significant up-regulation of IL-1?, TNF-? and iNOS was noticed in multiple tissues of zebrafish with intestinal inflammation between 6 and 72 h post infection. However, only moderate elevation was observed in the gills and liver of healthy fish. Furthermore, the expression of genes involved in neutrophil recruitment (mpx, IL-8 and LECT2) and antimicrobial response (?-defensin and hepcidin) showed notable up-regulation in the intestine of inflammatory zebrafish. These results demonstrate that fish with intestinal inflammation is more susceptible to E. tarda and the antimicrobial response during E. tarda infection might inhibit the growth of intestinal microbiota. Our results suggest that maintaining good management to avoid intestinal inflammation is a feasible prevention measure against edwardsiellosis. PMID:25224880

Liu, Xiaohong; Chang, Xinyue; Wu, Haizhen; Xiao, Jingfan; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2014-12-01

224

Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (Review)  

PubMed Central

The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at ‘hijacking’ the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating neoplastic transformation in that site. PMID:24920319

DE LERMA BARBARO, A.; PERLETTI, G.; BONAPACE, I.M.; MONTI, E.

2014-01-01

225

Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of lentinan: influence on IL-8 and TNFR1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is unknown whether ?-1,3;1,6-glucan can induce immune suppressive effects. Here, we study intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Lentinula edodes-derived ?-1,3;1,6-glucan, which is known as lentinan. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice were used to elucidate effects of lentinan in vivo. In the cellular level assessment, lentinan was added into a co-culture model consisting of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Ligated intestinal loop assay was performed for assessing effects of lentinan on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo. Oral administration of lentinan (100 µg/mouse) significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in body weight loss, shortening of colon lengths, histological score, and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in inflamed tissues. Lentinan reduced interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression and nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in Caco-2 cells without decreasing of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production from RAW264.7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that surface levels of TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 were decreased by lentinan treatment. A clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine, canceled lentinan inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression. Moreover, lentinan inhibited TNFR1 expression in Caco-2 cells in both protein and mRNA level. Lentinan also inhibited TNFR1 mRNA expression in mouse IECs. These results suggest that lentinan exhibits intestinal anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression associated with the inhibition of NF-?B activation which is triggered by TNFR1 endocytosis and lowering of their expression in IECs. Lentinan may be effective for the treatment of gut inflammation including IBD. PMID:23630633

Nishitani, Yosuke; Zhang, Ling; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Masashi

2013-01-01

226

Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

1985-04-01

227

Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

2008-01-01

228

Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine  

PubMed Central

There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442

Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

2009-01-01

229

Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (FGF-10) promotes healing of experimental small intestinal ulceration in rats.  

PubMed

Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2, repifermin) is a homolog of KGF-1 with epithelial mitogenic activities. We investigated the therapeutic role of KGF-2 in intestinal ulceration and its mechanisms of protection. KGF-2 (0.3-5 mg/kg) was administered before or after induction of small intestinal ulceration by indomethacin (Indo) in prevention and treatment protocols. In acute studies, KGF-2 was injected for up to 7 days before or daily for 5 days after Indo. In a 15-day chronic study, KGF-2 was injected intravenously daily beginning before or 7 days after Indo. Injury was evaluated by blinded macroscopic and microscopic inflammatory scores, epithelial BrdU staining, tissue IL-1beta, PGE(2), and hydroxyproline concentrations, and collagen type I RNA expression. In vitro effects of KGF-2 were evaluated by epithelial cellular proliferation, restitution of wounded monolayers, PGE(2) secretion, and expression of COX-2 and collagen mRNA. Intravenous KGF-2 significantly decreased acute intestinal injury by all parameters and significantly decreased chronic ulceration. Pretreatment, daily infusion, and delayed treatment were effective. KGF-2 promoted in vitro epithelial restitution with only modest effects on epithelial cell proliferation, stimulated COX-2 expression in cultured epithelial cells, and upregulated in vitro and in vivo PGE(2) production. KGF-2 did not affect in vivo fibrosis, although it induced collagen expression in cultured intestinal myofibroblasts. These results suggest that KGF-2 inhibits intestinal inflammation by stimulating epithelial restitution and protective PGs. PMID:11052999

Han, D S; Li, F; Holt, L; Connolly, K; Hubert, M; Miceli, R; Okoye, Z; Santiago, G; Windle, K; Wong, E; Sartor, R B

2000-11-01

230

Bacterial adhesion and disease activity in Helicobacter associated chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural examination of biopsies showing Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis reveals close attachment between gastric surface epithelial cells and the organism. The finding of 'adhesion pedestals', which represents a cellular response to the presence of the organism, is analogous to the response of intestinal cells to enteropathogenic E coli. Thus the development of bacterial attachment sites in H pylori associated

S J Hessey; J Spencer; J I Wyatt; G Sobala; B J Rathbone; A T Axon; M F Dixon

1990-01-01

231

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and life threatening chronic diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is not generally thought to cause severe diarrhoea after the neonatal period. Patients admitted to Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children over the three years (1984-7) with diarrhoea and EPEC infection were reviewed. Clinical details, features of small intestinal mucosa, and treatment were recorded in those who developed chronic diarrhoea with failure to thrive. Twenty six

S M Hill; A D Phillips; J A Walker-Smith

1991-01-01

232

What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma?  

MedlinePLUS

... small intestine adenocarcinoma? What should you ask your doctor about small intestine adenocarcinoma? It’s important to have ... Staging Treating Small Intestine Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Small Intestine Cancer ...

233

The Intestinal Absorption of Folates  

PubMed Central

The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

2014-01-01

234

[Chronic diarrhea].  

PubMed

Defined by lasting more than four weeks - is a common but often challenging clinical scenario. It is important to be aware that diarrhoea means different things to different patients. The evaluation of chronic diarrhoea depends on taking an excellent history and careful physical examination as well as planning investigations thoughtfully. Functional diarrhea ist the most common cause of chronic diarrhea in the developed countries and motility disorders are more common than inflammatory, osmotic or secretory causes. In some cases categorizing patients by their stool characteristics can be helpful in directing further evaluation. PMID:25154689

Stelzer, Teresa; Heuss, Ludwig Theodor

2014-09-01

235

The intestine and anus of the Daphnia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The intestine and anus are part of the digestive system. In animals, the complete digestive system is made up of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, and the anus. The digestive system functions to process food and eliminate wastes.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

236

Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs  

SciTech Connect

Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric /sup 2/Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit.

Ruwart, M.J.; Rush, B.D.

1984-08-01

237

INTESTINAL ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ADMINISTRATION DECREASES INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY AND BARRIER DYSFUNCTION THROUGH THE ALTERATION OF TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEINS  

E-print Network

INTESTINAL ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ADMINISTRATION DECREASES INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY AND BARRIER by regulating the paracellular movement of molecules between the intestinal lumen and subepithelial tissues preventing undesired intestinal permeability. · ZO-1 functions as an adaptor between the transmembrane

238

Studies of the small-intestinal bacterial flora and of intestinal absorption in pernicious anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE INTESTINAL bacterial flora in patients with pernicious anemia has long attracted the interest of investigators, but few recent studies have been reported. Tile present investigation was undertaken to reappraise the significance of the bacterial flora of the small intestine and to correlate bacterial growth with intestinal absorption in patients with pernicious anemia. The implication of intestinal bacteria in the

William C. Sherwood; Franz Goldstein; Farid I. Haurani; C. Wilmer Wirts

1964-01-01

239

Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the  

E-print Network

Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the rat. A Bernard 1, C et al, 1991Although the intestine possesses a A6 desaturase activity (Garg et al, 1988), arach rats) was scraped and intestinal walls removed. The radioactivity of lipid extracts from bile samples

Boyer, Edmond

240

Intestinal and cloacal strictures in free-ranging and aquarium-maintained green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).  

PubMed

Intestinal or cloacal strictures that resulted in intestinal obstruction were diagnosed in six green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from three rehabilitation facilities and two zoologic parks. The etiologies of the strictures were unknown in these cases. It is likely that anatomic adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract unique to the green sea turtle's herbivorous diet, paired with causes of reduced intestinal motility, may predispose the species to intestinal damage and subsequent obstructive intestinal disease. In aquarium-maintained green sea turtles, obesity, diet, reduced physical activity, chronic intestinal disease, and inappropriate or inadequate antibiotics might also be potential contributing factors. Clinical, radiographic, and hematologic abnormalities common among most of these sea turtles include the following: positive buoyancy; lethargy; inappetence; regurgitation; obstipation; dilated bowel and accumulation of oral contrast material; anemia; hypoglycemia; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and elevated creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen. Although these abnormalities are nonspecific with many possible contributing factors, intestinal disease, including strictures, should be considered a differential in green sea turtles that demonstrate all or a combination of these clinical findings. Although diagnostic imaging, including radiographs, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging, are important in determining a cause for suspected gastrointestinal disease and identifying an anatomic location of obstruction, intestinal strictures were not successfully identified when using these imaging modalities. Lower gastrointestinal contrast radiography, paired with the use of oral contrast, was useful in identifying the suspected site of intestinal obstruction in two cases. Colonoscopy was instrumental in visually diagnosing intestinal stricture in one case. Therefore, lower gastrointestinal contrast radiography and colonoscopy should be considered in green turtles when gastrointestinal obstructions are suspected. Although partial strictures of the cloacal opening may be identified on gross examination and might be managed with appropriate medical treatment, surgical intervention or humane euthanasia are likely the only options for sea turtles once small or large intestinal strictures have formed. PMID:23805560

Erlacher-Reid, Claire D; Norton, Terry M; Harms, Craig A; Thompson, Rachel; Reese, David J; Walsh, Michael T; Stamper, M Andrew

2013-06-01

241

Intestinal Resection Induces Angiogenesis within Adapting Intestinal Villi  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adaptive growth of the intestinal mucosa in response to massive gut loss is fundamental for autonomy from parenteral nutrition. While angiogenesis is essential for cellular proliferation in other tissues, its relevance to intestinal adaptation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that resection-induced adaptation is associated with new blood vessel growth. Methods Male C57B1/6 mice underwent either a 50% small bowel resection (SBR) or a sham (transection and reanastomosis) operation. After 1, 3, or 7 days, capillary density within the intestinal villi was measured using confocal microscopy. An mRNA RT-PCR array was used to determine angiogenic gene expression during adaptation. Results SBR mice had a significantly increased capillary density compared to sham operated mice at post operative day 7. This morphologic alteration was preceded by significant alterations in 5 candidate genes at post operative day 3. Conclusion New vessel blood growth is observed in the adapting intestine after massive small bowel loss. This response appears to follow, rather than initiate the adaptive alterations in mucosal morphology that are characteristic of adaptation. A better understanding of this progress and the signaling factors involved may improve therapeutic options for children with SGS. PMID:19524720

Martin, Colin A.; Perrone, Erin E.; Longshore, Shannon W.; Toste, Paul; Kathryn, MD; Nair, Rajalakshmi; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.

2009-01-01

242

Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purposes of acute pain and the reason it is noxious are to interrupt ongoing activity in order to warn the sufferer of tissue damage, to discourage movement that might exacerbate injury or prevent healing, and to teach the organism to avoid the pain-producing circumstances. Therefore, it is no wonder that when pain persists to become chronic, many sufferers

Malcolm H. Johnson

243

Increased oxidative stress and disrupted small intestinal tight junctions in cigarette smoke-exposed rats.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem, and cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor. The pathology is often observed in the lung, but COPD is also associated with intestinal barrier disruption, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this, a CS?exposed rat model was evaluated in the present study by analyzing small intestinal gene expression using reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CS exposure caused upregulation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate?oxidase subunits nox2 and p22phox in the small intestine, while the antioxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase was downregulated. CS exposure also increased bax expression and decreased bcl?2 expression. This was associated with an elevation of hypoxia?inducible factor (HIF)?1?. Claudin?1 was decreased and claudin?2 increased, indicating a loosening of small intestinal tight junctions (TJs). These data suggest that during the development of COPD, HIF?1? expression is altered in the small intestine, which may be associated with the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, eventually resulting in disruption of the intestinal TJs. PMID:25606848

Li, Hongwei; Wu, Qi; Xu, Long; Li, Xue; Duan, Jianmin; Zhan, Jingyan; Feng, Jing; Sun, Xin; Chen, Huaiyong

2015-06-01

244

Intestinal involvement is not sufficient to explain hypertransaminasemia in celiac disease?  

PubMed

Chronic unexplained hypertransaminasemia is an isolated clinical manifestation of celiac disease (CD) and lacks of a clear physiopathological explanation. Since CD and tropical sprue (TS) have similar intestinal functional and histological pattern of injury and that an increased inflammatory response has been reported to occur in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), liver involvement might be expected to occur either in TS or IBS. However, according to author's prior observations, the frequency of hypertransaminasemia is significantly higher in CD than in TS and IBS-diarrhea predominant patients (IBS-D). Thus, based on current knowledge, intestinal mucosal damage, increased intestinal permeability and/or an active intestinal inflammatory response do not completely explain liver damage in CD. We hypothesize that other factors, unique to CD not present in TS or IBS-D, like gluten toxicity and the presence of tissular transglutaminase (tTG) an auto-antigen with pro-inflammatory and remodeling properties, act in addition to intestinal mucosal injury and account to hypertransaminasemia in CD. Further research focusing on the mechanisms of gluten and tTG hepatic toxicity, and/or the characterization of the expression, secretion and enteral-hepatic transport of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines is needed, to understand the possible links between intestinal and liver disorders seen in CD. PMID:16023789

Peláez-Luna, Mario; Schmulson, Max; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo

2005-01-01

245

Original article Intestinal transfer of manganese  

E-print Network

Original article Intestinal transfer of manganese: resemblance to and competition with calcium Y of calcium, phosphate and the sugars lactose and sorbitol on the intestinal absorption of manganese were / Ca lglucides / phosphates #12;INTRODUCTION The intestinal transport of manganese seems very similar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Organogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans is an epithelial tube consisting of only 20 cells and is derived clonally from a single embryonic blastomere called E. We describe the cellular events that shape the intestine. These events include cytoplasmic polarization of cells in the intestinal primordium, the intercalation of specific sets of cells, the generation of an extracellular cavity within the

Ben Leung; Greg J Hermann; James R Priess

1999-01-01

247

The mucosal firewalls against commensal intestinal microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammals coexist with an extremely dense microbiota in the lower intestine. Despite the constant challenge of small numbers\\u000a of microbes penetrating the intestinal surface epithelium, it is very unusual for these organisms to cause disease. In this\\u000a review article, we present the different mucosal firewalls that contain and allow mutualism with the intestinal microbiota.

Andrew J. Macpherson; Emma Slack; Markus B. Geuking; Kathy D. McCoy

2009-01-01

248

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... she had chronic fatigue syndrome. What Is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complicated disease for doctors ... this and CFS. Continue Who Gets CFS? Chronic fatigue syndrome can affect people of all ages and ...

249

Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Español Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®) Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Key Points for This Section Chronic eosinophilic leukemia ... include fever and feeling very tired. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a disease in which too many white ...

250

Chronic pain - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association - www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association - www.fmcpaware.org ...

251

Ear infection - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Kerschner JE. Otitis media. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

252

Three cases of intestinal capillariasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

Capillaria philippinensis is a rare zoonotic intestinal parasite that emerged in the 1960s. The outcome of intestinal capillariasis may be fatal if untreated in due time. We report three cases of intestinal capillariasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The three patients were unrelated previously healthy young men (24, 26, and 27 years of age) with no underlying disease or immune depression. They had chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, edema, and severe weight loss. Two of them acquired the infection in Thailand; the other patient had no travel history outside Lao PDR. All patients were seen several times in different hospitals before the diagnosis was made. All had concurrent parasite infections: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and hookworm. The patients frequently consumed uncooked fish. After treatment with albendazole (400 mg/day for 21-30 days) all patients recovered. In Lao PDR, consumption of raw small freshwater fish is common. Therefore, the possibility of a capillariasis outbreak should be considered. PMID:18981514

Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong; Sayasone, Somphou; Harimanana, Aina Nirina; Akkhavong, Aphonethip; Thammasack, Sivilay; Phoumindr, Niranh; Choumlivong, Khamloun; Choumlivong, Khamla; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Phongmany, Simmaly; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Hatz, Christoph; Strobel, Michel; Odermatt, Peter

2008-11-01

253

Campylobacter infection in chickens modulates the intestinal epithelial barrier function.  

PubMed

Asymptomatic carriage of Campylobacter jejuni is highly prevalent in chicken flocks. Thus, we investigated whether chronic Campylobacter carriage affects chicken intestinal functions despite the absence of clinical symptoms. An experiment was carried out in which commercial chickens were orally infected with C. jejuni (1 × 10(8) CFU/bird) at 14 days of life. Changes in ion transport and barrier function were assessed by short-circuit current (I(sc)) and transepithelial ion conductance (G(t)) in Ussing chambers. G(t) increased in cecum and colon of Campylobacter-infected chicken 7 d post-infection (DPI), whereas G t initially decreased in the jejunum at 7 DPI and increased thereafter at 14 DPI. The net charge transfer across the epithelium was reduced or tended to be reduced in all segments, as evidenced by a decreased I sc. Furthermore, the infection induced intestinal histomorphological changes, most prominently including a decrease in villus height, crypt depth and villus surface area in the jejunum at 7 DPI. Furthermore, body mass gain was decreased by Campylobacter carriage. This study demonstrates, for the first time, changes in the intestinal barrier function in Campylobacter-infected chickens and these changes were associated with a decrease in growth performance in otherwise healthy-appearing birds. PMID:24553586

Awad, Wageha A; Molnár, Andor; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Ghareeb, Khaled; Khayal, Basel; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter; Dublecz, Károly; Hess, Michael

2015-02-01

254

Association between Celiac Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occur together. Here, we describe 4 cases of celiac disease associated with chronic hepatitis C. This small case series indicates that chronic HCV infection and celiac disease are not causally associated.

Garg, Ashish; Reddy, Chandrasekhar; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh; Dhiman, Radha K

2011-01-01

255

Epicatechin Used in the Treatment of Intestinal Inflammatory Disease: An Analysis by Experimental Models  

PubMed Central

Background. This study was pathway of (?)-epicatechin (EC) in the prevention and treatment of intestine inflammation in acute and chronic rat models. Methods. Intestine inflammation was induced in rats using TNBS. The morphological, inflammatory, immunohistochemical, and immunoblotting characteristics of colon samples were examined. The effects of EC were evaluated in an acute model at doses of 5, 10, 25, and 50?mg/kg by gavage for 5 days. The chronic colitis model was induced 1st day, and treated for 21 days. For the colitis relapse model, the induction was repeated on 14th. Results. EC10 and EC50 effectively reduced the lesion size, as assessed macroscopically; and confirmed by microscopy for EC10. The glutathione levels were higher in EC10 group but decreased COX-2 expression and increased cell proliferation (PC) were observed, indicating an anti-inflammatory activity and a proliferation-stimulating effect. In the chronic colitis model, EC10 showed lower macroscopic and microscopic lesion scores and increase in glutathione levels. As in the acute model, a decrease in COX-2 expression and an increase in PC in EC10, the chronic model this increase maybe by the pathway EGF expression. Conclusion. These results confirm the activity of EC as an antioxidant that reduces of the lesion and that has the potential to stimulate tissue healing, indicating useful for preventing and treating intestine inflammation. PMID:23346204

Vasconcelos, Paulo César de Paula; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Di Stasi, Luiz Cláudio; Akiko Hiruma-Lima, Clélia; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

2012-01-01

256

Intestinal Malabsorption in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal malabsorption in the elderly is infrequent, and clinical features are muted so that the diagnosis is often missed. Physiologic changes with aging are restricted to altered absorption of calcium and perhaps zinc and magnesium; however, achlorhydria can lead to impaired absorption of vitamin B12, folic acid, and calcium. Methods and Results: Small bowel bacterial overgrowth occurs more commonly

Peter R. Holt

2007-01-01

257

Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

2013-08-01

258

Intestinal lymphoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Primary intestinal lymphoma is rare representing about 0.5% of all colonic malignancies. It can be classified into two principal categories: follicular B cell lymphomas and intestinal T cell lymphomas. Other intestinal diseases are very important such as immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID), a prelymphomatous process, and MALT lymphomas, caused by infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori). We present a 79-year-old male patient which presented with abdominal pain in the upper parts of abdomen of four months' duration, colic timpanists, tenderness, distention, weight loss. Sometimes the abdominal pain decreased expelling diarrheal dejections. Histological and immune-histochemical tests on bioptic piece helped to reach the diagnosis of lymphoma but only after histological investigation on operative piece was made the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. This case report shows that an accurate diagnosis, the evaluation of the extension and the presence of particular infections and/or co morbidities (H. Pylori positive, age, performance status) are fundamental to decide the therapeutic protocol. PMID:22195372

Malaguarnera, M; Giordano, M; Rando, A; Puzzo, L; Trainiti, M; Consoli, A S; Catania, V E

2011-11-01

259

Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g\\/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to

C M Kneepkens; R J Vonk; J Fernandes

1984-01-01

260

Canine intestinal histoplasmosis containing hyphal forms.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old intact male Miniature Schnauzer dog with chronic diarrhea that was unresponsive to empirical treatment was presented to a referring veterinarian. A laparotomy was performed, and formalin-fixed biopsies of duodenum, jejunum, and colon were sent to Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for evaluation. Histologic examination revealed a severe, diffuse, granulomatous enteritis and colitis with intralesional yeast and hyphal forms. Grocott methenamine silver stains revealed short, aseptate hyphae co-mingled with 2-8 µm, oval to round yeast organisms consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum. The atypical presentation of both yeast and hyphal forms prompted identification of the organism. Direct sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction product from paraffin-embedded intestinal samples confirmed the presence of Ajellomyces capsulatus with a homology over 99% to several sequences in GenBank. Ajellomyces capsulatus is the holomorphic name for H. capsulatum. Therefore, the mycelial form of a dimorphic fungus such as H. capsulatum can coexist with yeast cells within lesions of histoplasmosis. Following diagnosis, the dog was treated with itraconazole for 6 months and has improved. PMID:23512926

Schumacher, Loni L; Love, Brenda C; Ferrell, Mark; DeSilva, Udaya; Fernando, Ruchika; Ritchey, Jerry W

2013-03-01

261

Distinguishing Intestinal Lymphoma From Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canine Duodenal Endoscopic Biopsy Samples.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma are intestinal disorders in dogs, both causing similar chronic digestive signs, although with a different prognosis and different treatment requirements. Differentiation between these 2 conditions is based on histopathologic evaluation of intestinal biopsies. However, an accurate diagnosis is often difficult based on histology alone, especially when only endoscopic biopsies are available to differentiate IBD from enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type 2, a small cell lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of histopathology; immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, and Ki-67; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangement (T-cell clonality) in the differential diagnosis of severe IBD vs intestinal lymphoma. Endoscopic biopsies from 32 dogs with severe IBD or intestinal lymphoma were evaluated. The original diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections alone followed by a second evaluation using morphology in association with IHC for CD3 and CD20 and a third evaluation using PCR for clonality. Our results show that, in contrast to feline intestinal lymphomas, 6 of 8 canine small intestinal lymphomas were EATL type 1 (large cell) lymphomas. EATL type 2 was uncommon. Regardless, in dogs, intraepithelial lymphocytes were not an important diagnostic feature to differentiate IBD from EATL as confirmed by PCR. EATL type 1 had a significantly higher Ki-67 index than did EATL type 2 or IBD cases. Based on the results of this study, a stepwise diagnostic approach using histology as the first step, followed by immunophenotyping and determining the Ki67 index and finally PCR for clonality, improves the accuracy of distinguishing intestinal lymphoma from IBD in dogs. PMID:25487412

Carrasco, V; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Wise, A G; Maes, R; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M

2014-12-01

262

Differential stimulation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase by difluoromethylornithine in the rat colon and small intestine.  

PubMed Central

The effects of chronic inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by the specific inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in the rat colon and small intestine on mucosal contents of polyamines, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (decarboxylated AdoMet) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMet decarboxylase) activity were studied. Administration of 1% DFMO in the drinking water for 10 or 15 weeks resulted in inhibition of ODC and decreases in intracellular putrescine and spermidine contents in both proximal and distal segments of small intestine and colon. At both time points DFMO administration resulted in a dramatic stimulation of AdoMet decarboxylase activity and a rise in decarboxylated AdoMet content in the proximal and distal small-intestinal segments compared with controls, which was not seen in either colonic segment of DFMO-treated animals. This differential stimulation of AdoMet decarboxylase by DFMO in the small intestine and colon could not be entirely explained on the basis of differences in polyamine contents, which are known to regulate this enzyme activity. Kinetic and inhibition studies of AdoMet decarboxylase in control small and large intestine revealed that: (1) there was no difference in Vmax. values between the tissues; (2) the Km for AdoMet was higher in the small intestine than in the colon; and (3) the Ki for product inhibition by decarboxylated AdoMet was higher in the small intestine than in the colon. These results suggest that the differential stimulation of AdoMet decarboxylase by DFMO in the small intestine and colon may be due to different isoenzymes and could play a significant role in the regulation of polyamine contents throughout the gut. PMID:2497738

Halline, A G; Dudeja, P K; Brasitus, T A

1989-01-01

263

Chronic urticaria.  

PubMed Central

Urticaria affects 15% to 20% of the population once or more during a lifetime. Chronic urticaria is a frequent recurrent eruption over a period greater than 6 weeks; the cause remains a mystery in more than 75% of cases. Urticaria and angioedema may be produced by immunologic or nonimmunologic means. Urticarial vasculitis, contact urticaria, mastocytosis, physical urticarias, dermatographism, cholinergic urticaria, localized heat urticaria, cold urticaria, aquagenic urticaria, and vibratory angioedema all require specific evaluation and treatment. Chronic idiopathic urticaria is usually controlled by antihistamines; depending on the circadian rhythm of the eruption, sedative or nonsedative antihistamines are prescribed. Some patients will require a combination of H1 and H2 antagonists, or even parenteral corticosteroids. PMID:1970697

Burrall, B. A.; Halpern, G. M.; Huntley, A. C.

1990-01-01

264

Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

Sharon R. Schatz

265

Chronic berylliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The key cases in terms of which the concept chronic berylliosis originally was formulated have been reviewed.2.Of 58 cases there was acceptable proof of exposure to beryllium agents in only 40.3.Beryllium was found in the lungs in only 20 instances, but had previously been reported in 8 additional cases.4.New diagnoses have been suggested for the remaining 30 of the original

G. W. H. Schepers

1962-01-01

266

Manipulation of nitric oxide in an animal model of acute liver injury. The impact on liver and intestinal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nitric oxide may have a protective effect on the liver during endotoxemia and chronic inflammation. There is evidence that it maintains liver and intestinal tissue integrity during inflammatory processes. We evaluated the impact of altering nitric oxide release on acute liver injury, the associated gut injury and bacterial translocation, at different time intervals. Methods: An acute rat liver injury

Diya Adawi; F Behzad Kasravi; Göran Molin

267

Growth Faltering in Rural Gambian Infants Is Associated with Impaired Small Intestinal Barrier Function, Leading to Endotoxemia and Systemic Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth faltering of rural Gambian infants is associated with a chronic inflammatory enteropathy of the mucosa of the small intestine that may impair both digestive\\/absorptive and barrier functions. The aim of this study was to determine whether the enteropathy was associated with a compromised barrier function that allowed translocation of antigenic macromolecules from the gut lumen into the body, with

D. I. Campbell; M. Elia; P. G. Lunn

268

Branchial versus intestinal zinc uptake in wild yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ) from reference and metal-contaminated aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for freshwater fish but can be toxic to them at elevated concentrations. Therefore, the regulation of zinc uptake is important in maintaining homeostasis when fish are chronically exposed to elevated zinc in nature. This study examined the kinetics of in vivo branchial and in vitro intestinal zinc uptake in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from

Soumya Niyogi; Gregory G. Pyle; Chris M. Wood

2007-01-01

269

Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis with ganciclovir and cytomegalovirus immune globulin in liver and intestinal transplantation.  

PubMed

Liver and intestinal transplant recipients at the University of Miami receive an intensive regimen of cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylactic therapy consisting of a combination of CMV immune globulin intravenous (CMV-IGIV, CytoGam) and ganciclovir. The 5-year experience with this regimen in liver transplant patients showed effective CMV prophylaxis in this patient population. The importance of an effective prophylactic strategy was underscored by higher observed rates of chronic rejection and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in CMV-infected patients. The use of CMV-positive donors for intestinal transplants did not increase the incidence of CMV disease. Intestinal transplant recipients had improved survival rates, reflecting an aggressive policy of monitoring, immunosuppression, and CytoGam plus ganciclovir prophylaxis. PMID:11926748

Tzakis, A G

2001-01-01

270

[Injury of large intestine in urgent surgery].  

PubMed

The results of examination and surgical treatment of 108 patients (93 males, 15 females), aged from 19 to 73 years, with large intestine injuries of different origin are presented. Large intestine injuries as a result of stab-incised abdominal wounds was in 58 patients, gunshot wounds--in 29, blunt trauma--in 21. The diagnosis of large intestine injuries was based on clinico-laboratory, X-ray and instrumental examinations. The injury of blind intestine was revealed in 8 patients, ascending colon--in 11, transverse colon--in 39, descending colon--in 5, sigmoid colon--in 45. All the patients were operated. The method of choice in the surgical treatment of these injuries was suturing of damaged portion of large intestine, which was performed in 72 patients. In 14 patients the suturing was complemented by decompressive colostomy, in 3--by extraperitonisation of the damaged site, in 4--by extraperitonisation and decompressive colostomy, in 2--by terminal ileostomy. Resection of damaged intestinal segment with primary anastomosis was performed in 4 patients, right-side hemicolectomy--in 7, Hartmann's operation--in 17, resection of large intestine with bitrunk colostoma creation--in 3, transfer of damaged segment of large intestine--in 5. Repeated operations for intestine integrity repair and fistula closure were performed in 47 patients. 18 (16.7%) patients died after operation as a result of peritonitis (7), shock and acute hemorrhage (10), denutrition due to intestinal fistula (1). PMID:11070670

Aliev, S A

2000-01-01

271

Nonrotation of Intestine: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Nonrotation of intestine is a congenital abnormality of the midgut which is due to error in the process of rotation. Errors in the 2nd and 3rd stage of rotation can lead to series of abnormalities in the form of malrotation and reversed rotation. As a consequence, the relative position of other organs likes caecum, intestine, meckel’s diverticulum changes. This can lead to missing diagnosis of common clinical conditions such as appendicitis. The incidence of nonrotation is 1:500. The congenital abnormality appears to be rare as this could be an incidental abnormality. The symptoms of nonrotation of intestine could be biliary vomiting, recurrent abdominal pain. This could be due to midgut volvulus and intestinal obstruction which happens as a consequence of nonrotation of the intestine. The investigations used for detection and confirmation are CT Imaging. Other associations of nonrotation of the intestine are peritoneal bands. Here we report a case of nonrotation of intestines. In the cadaver of age around 70 years, the small intestinal loops was situated in the right side of the abdominal cavity and large intestine looped on the left side of the abdominal cavity. This was also associated with aberrant position of the caecum and appendix. There were associated peritoneal bands extending from the ascending colon to the left side the abdominal wall. The bands had been removed to visualize the large intestinal loops. PMID:24392405

Appaji, Ashwini Chamanahalli; Kulkarni, Roopa; Kadaba, Jayanthi S.

2013-01-01

272

Intestinal complications of Behçet's disease.  

PubMed

We report a case of a young female patient with long-standing oral and genital Behçet's disease (BD), who presented with progressive severe colonic inflammation and perforation, requiring multiple laparotomies. The case had ultimately a favourable outcome despite posing a number of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Intestinal complications, although rare, should be considered as important differential diagnoses in patients with BD presenting with abdominal pain, and is a difficult-to-prove differential diagnosis to Crohn's disease. PMID:23917369

Kovacs, D Botond; Ray, Dipak K; Dasgupta, Kaushik; Borowski, David W

2013-01-01

273

Contribution à l'étude quantitative de la flore bactérienne du gros intestin des porcs dysentériques  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flora and the pH of the large intestine of dysenteric swine during acute subacute and chronic phases have been submitted to quantitative and qualitative studies. The methods used are based on primary isolation and differentiation of the bacteria by the use of selective media and the subsequent differentiation using the replica plating technique. The most characteristic changes are the following: 1. A significant increase of the pH of the chyme in the large intestine during acute dysentery 2. A significant increase of Vibrio, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus in the colon and cecum during acute dysentery. 3. A significant increase of Shigella in the colon and cecum during subacute dysentery. 4. The almost total disappearance of Aeromonas and of the yeasts in the large intestine during acute, subacute and chronic dysentery. 5. A significant decrease of Klebsiella, in the cecum, during acute dysentery and of the fungi during subacute dysentery. 6. Decrease of Streptococcus in the colon during acute dysentery. 7. The total quantitative flora of the large intestine do not change very much. PMID:4270805

Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.; Lagacé, A.; Roy, R. S.

1973-01-01

274

Intestinal lipid absorption and transport.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to update the reader on our current knowledge of the digestion, uptake, and transport of dietary lipid. In particular, it discusses how intestinal lipid transporters may play a role in the uptake of lipids by the enterocytes, and how chylomicrons are formed in the enterocytes and packaged for export into the lymphatic system through exocytosis. The classification and properties of lipids is first described followed by a discussion of structured lipids and their role in human nutrition. Digestion of triacylglycerols takes place in the stomach aided by the enzyme gastric lipase. The origin and properties of lingual and gastric lipase are reviewed. Most digestion of triacylglycerols by pancreatic lipase occurs in the intestinal lumen. Similarly, digestion of cholesteryl ester and phospholipids also takes place in the intestinal lumen. This review describes in considerable detail the uptake of lipid digestion products by the enterocytes, particularly the role of recently identified lipid transporters. The intracellular trafficking and the resynthesis of complex lipids from the lipid digestion products are talked about, particularly within the context of the recently generated knockout mouse that lacks the key lipid reesterification enzymes. Finally, the mechanisms of the formation and secretion of chylomicrons is described and clinical disorders discussed. PMID:11229876

Phan, C T; Tso, P

2001-03-01

275

Titres of antibodies to gut-derived antigens in patients with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni.  

PubMed

Serum titres of antibodies against six intestinal, one ubiquitous and one non-intestinal bacteria were determined in patients with severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni, with light intestinal schistosomiasis and in normal subjects. No significant difference was observed among the three groups of subjects for levels of antibodies against two non-intestinal bacteria and four of the intestinal bacteria. Patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis had titres of antibodies against one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one strain of Escherichia coli lower than those observed in other groups of subjects. Despite the partial obliteration of the hepatic blood outflow and the elevated portal pressure, hepatic clearance of the portal blood is efficient in chronic human schistosomiasis, and unlike alcoholic liver cirrhosis, avoids excessive stimulation of the immune system by a gut-derived antigens. PMID:6819663

Borojevic, R; Tachon, P; Bina, J C

1982-01-01

276

Celiac disease: from oral tolerance to intestinal inflammation, autoimmunity and lymphomagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a multifactorial disorder and provides a privileged model to decipher how the interplay between environmental and genetic factors can alter mucosal tolerance to a food antigen, lead to chronic intestinal inflammation, and ultimately promote T-cell lymphomagenesis. Here we summarize how HLA-DQ2\\/8 molecules, the main genetic risk factor for this disease can orchestrate a CD4+ T-cell adaptive immune

B Meresse; J Ripoche; M Heyman; N Cerf-Bensussan

2009-01-01

277

Extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in the intestinal epithelium: more than a drop in the ocean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoids (GC) are lipophilic hormones commonly used as therapeutics in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders such\\u000a as inflammatory bowel disease due to their attributed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. Although the adrenal\\u000a glands are the major source of endogenous GC, there is increasing evidence for the production of extra-adrenal GC in the brain,\\u000a thymus, skin, vasculature, and the intestine. However, the

Mario Noti; Daniel Sidler; Thomas Brunner

2009-01-01

278

Removal of Circulating Gastrin and Cholecystokinin into the Lumen of the Small Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism by which the small intestine removes circulating gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). A 100-cm (acute study, 10 dogs) or a 50-cm (chronic study, 5 dogs) segment of midjejunum was excluded in all 15 dogs. The excluded loop was perfused with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), which was constantly recirculated by a peristaltic

Kazutomo Inoue; Amram Ayalon; Raul Yazigi; Larry C. Watson; Phillip L. Rayford; James C. Thompson

1982-01-01

279

Intestinal T-cell responses to high-molecular-weight glutenins in celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:The chronic, small intestinal inflammation that defines celiac disease is initiated by a HLA-DQ2 restricted T-cell response to ingested gluten peptides after their in vivo deamidation by tissue transglutaminase (TG2). To date, celiac disease can only be treated by a lifelong abstinence from foods that contain wheat, rye, or barley; better therapeutic options are hence needed. An attractive

ØYvind Molberg; Nina Solheim flÆte; Tore Jensen; Knut E. A Lundin; Helene Arentz-Hansen; Olin D Anderson; Anne Kjersti Uhlen; Ludvig M Sollid

2003-01-01

280

An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

2015-02-01

281

Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

282

[Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].  

PubMed

To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a significant difference between the minimal and maximal values (p < 0.01). Of 91 settlements examined, intestinal parasites were found in all but one. However, the prevalence rates in 90 settlements varied significantly (p = 0.0004), from a low of 5.9% to a high of 66.7%. Thus, according to the World Health Organization criteria [19], infections with the four clinically relevant species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) ranged from sporadic to endemic and hyperendemic (Figure 3). The results obtained provide the basic epidemiological data about intestinal parasite infections in Serbia, and indicate their significance in terms of both the number of species and their respective prevalence rates. Given the significant differences obtained in the frequency and distribution of particular parasite infections in different regions, a programme for the control of these infections in Serbia should obviously include a wide variety of measures. PMID:9525075

Nikoli?, A; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B

1998-01-01

283

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705

Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J. Mark; Krauss, Ronald M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

2013-01-01

284

New ways of thinking about (and teaching about) intestinal epithelial function (Summary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The intestinal epithelium has important ion transport and barrier functions that contribute pivotally to normal physiological functioning of the intestine and other body systems. These functions are also frequently the target of dysfunction that, in turn, results in specific digestive disease states, such as diarrheal illnesses. Three emerging concepts are discussed with respect to ion transport: the complex interplay of intracellular signals that both activate and inhibit chloride secretion; the role of multiprotein complexes in the regulation of ion transport, taking sodium/hydrogen exchange as an example; and acute and chronic regulation of colonic sodium absorption, involving both sodium channel internalization and de novo synthesis of new channels. Similarly, recently obtained information about the molecular components of epithelial tight junctions and the ways in which tight junctions are regulated both in health and disease are discussed to exemplify ways to teach about intestinal barrier properties. Finally, both genetically determined intestinal diseases and those arising as a result of infections and/or inflammation are described, and these can be used as the means to enhance the basic and clinical relevance of teaching about intestinal epithelial physiology as well as the impact that the understanding of such physiology has had on associated therapeutics. The article also indicates, where relevant, how different approaches may be used effectively to teach related concepts to graduate versus medical/professional student audiences.

2007-07-27

285

Effects of varying hematocrit on intestinal oxygen uptake in neonatal lambs  

SciTech Connect

The authors chronically catheterized 15 newborn lambs (9.5 +/- 2.8 days) and measured intestinal blood flow (Qi) by the radionuclide microsphere technique at hematocrit levels ranging from 10 to 55%. Seven animals were made progressively anemic and eight polycythemic by means of exchange transfusions. Using the Fick principle, they calculated intestinal oxygen delivery (Di O/sub 2/), oxygen consumption (Vi O/sub 2/), and oxygen extraction. Initial base-line values were Qi = 195.5 ml . min-1 . 100 g intestine-1, Di O/sub 2/ = 22.1 ml . min-1 . 100 g-1, Vi O/sub 2/ = 4.8 ml . min-1 . 100 g-1, and O/sub 2/ extraction = 22.5%. As the hematocrit was lowered, Di O/sub 2/ decreased and O2 extraction increased and vice versa when the hematocrit was raised. Vi O/sub 2/ remained constant, but Qi did not correlate with changes in hematocrit. However, intestinal blood flow, as a percent distribution of total blood flow, decreased with lower hematocrit levels. At no time was there any evidence of anaerobic metabolism as measured by excess lactate production. The data indicate that the intestines of neonatal lambs are capable of maintaining their metabolic needs over a wide range of oxygen availability induced by a changing hematocrit. The primary mechanism is through alteration of oxygen extraction. Within the range of the experiments, no critically low oxygen availability was attained at which anaerobic metabolism became significant.

Holzman, I.R.; Tabata, B.; Edelstone, D.I.

1985-04-01

286

Intestinal acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 overexpression enhances postprandial triglyceridemic response and exacerbates high fat diet-induced hepatic triacylglycerol storage  

PubMed Central

Intestinal acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) is important in the cellular and physiological responses to dietary fat. To determine the effect of increased intestinal DGAT2 on cellular and physiological responses to acute and chronic dietary fat challenges, we generated mice with intestine-specific overexpression of DGAT2 and compared them with intestine-specific overexpression of DGAT1 and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that when intestinal DGAT2 is present in excess, triacylglycerol (TG) secretion from enterocytes is enhanced compared to WT mice; however, TG storage within enterocytes is similar compared to WT mice. We found that when intestinal DGAT2 is present in excess, mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were reduced. This result suggests that reduced fatty acid oxidation may contribute to increased TG secretion by overexpression of DGAT2 in intestine. Furthermore, this enhanced supply of TG for secretion in Dgat2Int mice may be a significant contributing factor to the elevated fasting plasma TG and exacerbated hepatic TG storage in response to a chronic HFD. These results highlight that altering fatty acid and TG metabolism within enterocytes has the capacity to alter systemic delivery of dietary fat and may serve as an effective target for preventing and treating metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis. PMID:23643496

Uchida, Aki; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Buhman, Kimberly K.

2013-01-01

287

Carboxypeptidase E Modulates Intestinal Immune Homeostasis and Protects against Experimental Colitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) produce neuropeptides, which are crucially involved in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier. Hence, EEC dysfunction is suggested to be involved in the complex pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by decreased intestinal barrier function. However, the underlying mechanisms for EEC dysfunction are not clear and suitable models for a better understanding are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is specifically expressed in EEC of the murine colon and ileum and that its deficiency is associated with reduced intestinal levels of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Peptide YY (PYY), which are both produced by EEC. Moreover, cpe?/? mice exhibit an aggravated course of DSS-induced chronic colitis compared to wildtype littermates. In addition, we observed elevated mucosal IL-6 and KC transcript levels already at baseline conditions in cpe?/? mice. Moreover, supernatants obtained from isolated intestinal crypts of cpe?/? mice lead to increased IL-6 and KC expression in MODE-K cells in the presence of LPS. This effect was reversible by co-administration of recombinant NPY, suggesting a CPE mediated immunosuppressive effect in the intestines by influencing the processing of specific neuropeptides. In this context, the chemotaxis of bone marrow derived macrophages towards respective supernatants was enhanced. In conclusion, our data point to an anti-inflammatory role of CPE in the intestine by influencing local cytokine levels and thus regulating the migration of myeloid immune cells into the mucosa. These findings highlight the importance of EEC for intestinal homeostasis and propose EEC as potential therapeutic targets in IBD. PMID:25051500

Pagel, René; Schröder, Torsten; Schlichting, Heidi; Hirose, Misa; Lemcke, Susanne; Klinger, Antje; König, Peter; Karsten, Christian M.; Büning, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Fellermann, Klaus; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Sina, Christian

2014-01-01

288

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation  

PubMed Central

Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

2015-01-01

289

The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather than through a GLP-1-mediated pathway.

Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

2011-01-07

290

Segmental dilatation of intestine presenting as partial intestinal obstruction in a child.  

PubMed

Segmental dilatation of the intestine in pediatric age group is a rare entity. Patients usually present with partial intestinal obstruction which may delay surgical decision. Our case was an 18-month-old girl, who presented with partial intestinal obstruction, provisionally diagnosed as a case of Hirschsprung's disease. Diagnostic evaluation with contrast study gave a clue of small intestinal obstruction with a dilated segment. PMID:25057472

Khemakhem, Rachid; Riazulhaq, Muhammad; Elhassan, Elbager Othman

2014-05-01

291

Intraoperative scintigraphy for active small intestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Localizing active sites of bleeding within the small intestine remains a difficult task. Endoscopic, angiographic or scintigraphic studies may point to the small intestine as the site of blood loss, but at operation, without a palpable lesion, the exact site of bleeding remains elusive. Patients are managed at laparotomy with intraoperative endoscopy, angiography, multiple enterotomies, blind resections, or placement of an enterostomy. We describe two patients in whom intraoperative scintigraphy accurately identified active sites of bleeding in the small intestine when other modalities failed. Intraoperative scintigraphy is rapid, easy to perform and is an effective means of identifying active sites of bleeding within the small intestine.

Biener, A.; Palestro, C.; Lewis, B.S.; Katz, L.B. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

1990-11-01

292

A mathematical model of intestinal oedema formation.  

PubMed

Intestinal oedema is a medical condition referring to the build-up of excess fluid in the interstitial spaces of the intestinal wall tissue. Intestinal oedema is known to produce a decrease in intestinal transit caused by a decrease in smooth muscle contractility, which can lead to numerous medical problems for the patient. Interstitial volume regulation has thus far been modelled with ordinary differential equations, or with a partial differential equation system where volume changes depend only on the current pressure and not on updated tissue stress. In this work, we present a computational, partial differential equation model of intestinal oedema formation that overcomes the limitations of past work to present a comprehensive model of the phenomenon. This model includes mass and momentum balance equations which give a time evolution of the interstitial pressure, intestinal volume changes and stress. The model also accounts for the spatially varying mechanical properties of the intestinal tissue and the inhomogeneous distribution of fluid-leaking capillaries that create oedema. The intestinal wall is modelled as a multi-layered, deforming, poroelastic medium, and the system of equations is solved using a discontinuous Galerkin method. To validate the model, simulation results are compared with results from four experimental scenarios. A sensitivity analysis is also provided. The model is able to capture the final submucosal interstitial pressure and total fluid volume change for all four experimental cases, and provide further insight into the distribution of these quantities across the intestinal wall. PMID:23036806

Young, Jennifer; Rivière, Béatrice; Cox, Charles S; Uray, Karen

2014-03-01

293

Spontaneous abdominal esophageal perforation in a patient with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder caused by thymidine phosphorylase deficiency. Severe denutrition is almost constant during the course of the disease which leads to severe malnutrition and requires long-term parenteral nutrition in most cases. Patients with MNGIE syndrome and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction have a particularly poor prognosis and they usually die around 40 years of age. Gastrointestinal perforation associated with MNGIE is extremely rare. Herein we present our unique case with MNGIE associated abdominal esophageal perforation. PMID:25649531

Kalkan, I H; Köksal, A ?; Evcimen, S; Sapmaz, F; Özta?, E; Önder, F O; Güliter, S

2015-02-01

294

Inhibition of protease-activated receptor 1 ameliorates intestinal radiation mucositis in a preclinical rat model  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Direct inhibition of thrombin has a beneficial effect on intestinal radiation toxicity. A small molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), the most relevant receptor for thrombin, was administered to rats undergoing localized, fractionated irradiation of a segment of small intestine. Exogenous administration of the PAR1 inhibitor substantially ameliorated acute intestinal radiation mucositis, but did not interrupt the subsequent development of intestinal radiation fibrosis. Purpose Inhibition of thrombin ameliorates intestinal radiation injury. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), is the most relevant receptor for thrombin signaling and is not expressed on rat platelets. We used a specific small molecule inhibitor of PAR1 signaling to determine whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy x 9) of a 4-cm small bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 ?g/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 ?g/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results PAR1 blockade ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (p=0.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (p=0.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (p=0.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (p=0.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 appears to reduce early radiation mucositis, but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas, platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role for the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiological/nuclear emergencies. PMID:22580123

Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Chintala, Madhu; Fink, Louis M.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

2012-01-01

295

Chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibroinflammatory disease that exists in large-duct (often with intraductal calculi) or small-duct form. In many patients this disease results from a complex mix of environmental (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and occupational chemicals) and genetic factors (eg, mutation in a trypsin-controlling gene or the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator); a few patients have hereditary or autoimmune disease. Pain in the form of recurrent attacks of pancreatitis (representing paralysis of apical exocytosis in acinar cells) or constant and disabling pain is usually the main symptom. Management of the pain is mainly empirical, involving potent analgesics, duct drainage by endoscopic or surgical means, and partial or total pancreatectomy. However, steroids rapidly reduce symptoms in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis, and micronutrient therapy to correct electrophilic stress is emerging as a promising treatment in the other patients. Steatorrhoea, diabetes, local complications, and psychosocial issues associated with the disease are additional therapeutic challenges. PMID:21397320

Braganza, Joan M; Lee, Stephen H; McCloy, Rory F; McMahon, Michael J

2011-04-01

296

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia  

E-print Network

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

Perrimon, Norbert

297

Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences  

PubMed Central

This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, L-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram negative bacteria and preserving intestinal permeability to endotoxin may attenuate alcoholic liver and other organ injuries. PMID:18504085

Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J. Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y. James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R. Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R.

2008-01-01

298

[Intestinal candidiasis: modern therapeutic tactics].  

PubMed

Bowels candidiasis is an urgent problem not only for gastroenterology but also for other fields of medicine--gynecology, dentistry, phthisiology, surgery, etc. as this disease is directly related with the manifestations of systemic candidiasis in other organs. The diagnostics algorithm includes the detection of a filamentary form (pseudomyceliums) of micromycetes of the Candida genus in the morphological study of a tissue sampling of the bowels mucous coat. The drug of choice for the treatment of bowels candidiasis is Pimafucin (Natamycin) having a local action on the Candida fungi in the intestinal lumen in the absence of any systemic absorption of the drug or any side effects. PMID:17378380

Zlatkina, A R

2005-01-01

299

Intestinal CYP2E1: A mediator of alcohol-induced gut leakiness  

PubMed Central

Chronic alcohol use can result in many pathological effects including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). While alcohol is necessary for the development of ALD, only 20–30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) with progressive liver disease leading to cirrhosis and liver failure (ALD). This suggests that while chronic alcohol consumption is necessary it is not sufficient to induce clinically relevant liver damage in the absence of a secondary risk factor. Studies in rodent models and alcoholic patients show that increased intestinal permeability to microbial products like endotoxin play a critical role in promoting liver inflammation in ALD pathogenesis. Therefore identifying mechanisms of alcohol-induced intestinal permeability is important in identifying mechanisms of ALD and for designing new avenues for therapy. Cyp2e1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes alcohol has been shown to be upregulated by chronic alcohol use and to be a major source of oxidative stress and liver injury in alcoholics and in animal and in vitro models of chronic alcohol use. Because Cyp2e1 is also expressed in the intestine and is upregulated by chronic alcohol use, we hypothesized it could play a role in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability. Our in vitro studies with intestinal Caco-2 cells and in mice fed alcohol showed that circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 are required for alcohol-induced permeability. We also showed that alcohol increases Cyp2e1 protein and activity but not mRNA in Caco-2 cells and that an inhibitor of oxidative stress or siRNA knockdown of Cyp2e1 prevents the increase in CLOCK or PER2 proteins and prevents alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. With our collaborators we have also shown that Cyp2e1 knockout mice are resistant to alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver inflammation. Taken together our data support a novel Cyp2e1-circadian clock protein mechanism for alcohol-induced gut leakiness that could provide new avenues for therapy of ALD. PMID:25462064

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali.

2014-01-01

300

Cystic Fibrosis-Related Oxidative Stress and Intestinal Lipid Disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disorder in the Caucasian people. It is due to the mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene located on the long arm of the chromosome 7, which encodes for CFTR protein. The latter, an adenosine triphosphate binding cassette, is a transmembrane chloride channel that is also involved in glutathione transport. As glutathione/glutathione disulfide constitutes the most important pool of cellular redox systems, CFTR defects could thus disrupt the intracellular redox balance. Resulting multisystemic diseases are essentially characterized by a chronic respiratory failure, a pancreatic insufficiency, an essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), and inadequate levels of antioxidant vitamins. Recent Advances: The pathophysiology of CF is complex; however, several mechanisms are proposed, including oxidative stress (OxS) whose implication is recognized and has been clearly demonstrated in CF airways. Critical Issues: Little is known about OxS intrinsic triggers and its own involvement in intestinal lipid disorders. Despite the regular administration of pancreatic supplements, high-fat high-calorie diets, and antioxidant fat-soluble vitamins, there is a persistence of steatorrhea, EFAD, and harmful OxS. Intriguingly, several trials with elevated doses of antioxidant vitamins have not yielded significant improvements. Future Directions: The main sources and self-maintenance of OxS in CF should be clarified to improve treatment of patients. Therefore, this review will discuss the potential sources and study the mechanisms of OxS in the intestine, known to develop various complications, and its involvement in intestinal lipid disorders in CF patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 614–631. PMID:25611180

Kleme, Marie-Laure

2015-01-01

301

The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

2009-01-01

302

Abnormal intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in refractory sprue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The etiology of refractory sprue is unclear. To gain insight into its pathogenesis, the phenotype and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement status of intestinal lymphocytes were analyzed in a group of patients with clinical or biological features of celiac disease but either initially or subsequently refractory to a gluten-free diet. Methods: Intestinal biopsy specimens were obtained from

Christophe Cellier; Natacha Patey; Laurent Mauvieux; Bana Jabri; Eric Delabesse; Yoram Bouhnik; Robert Modigliani; Elisabeth Macintyre; Nicole Brousse

1998-01-01

303

Intestinal obstruction promotes gut translocation of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Translocation of enteric organisms has been implicated as a possible source of sepsis in susceptible patients. Animal studies have suggested that intestinal obstruction promotes bacterial translocation from the gut lumen. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of bacterial translocation in patients with and without intestinal obstruction. METHODS: Serosal scrapings, mesenteric lymph nodes, and peripheral blood

P. M. Sagar; J. MacFie; P. Sedman; J. May; B. Mancey-Jones; D. Johnstone

1995-01-01

304

COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE  

E-print Network

COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE AFTER PARTIAL ENTERECTOMY A NEURO HUMORAL National de la Recherche Agronomique 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Résumé HYPERTROPHIE COMPENSATRICE DE L de l'hypertrophie compensatrice de l'intestin résiduel est libéré ou non après entérectomie partielle

Boyer, Edmond

305

Abnormal vasculature in intestinal neuronal dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) is an intestinal motility disorder, which clinically resembles Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Adventitial fibromuscular dysplasia (AFMD) consists of proliferation of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in the adventitia of blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to investigate vascular abnormalities in large bowel biopsies from patients with isolated HD, IND associated with HD and isolated

Udo Rolle; Anna Piaseczna Piotrowska; Prem Puri

2003-01-01

306

Gastro-Intestinal Cell Loss in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of deoxyribonucleic acid loss (DNA) from the epithelial surface of human stomach, small intestine, large intestine and skin measures the rate of cell loss. From the data it is apparent that 287 g of cells are lost every 24 h from the mucosa of the entire human gastrointestinal tract. Evidence is presented to show that in the steady-state

D. N. Croft; P. B. Cotton

1973-01-01

307

Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) is a non-pathogenic biotherapeutic agent, widely prescribed in a lyophilized form in many countries over the world. S. boulardii acts as a shuttle liberating effective enzymes, proteins and trophic factors during its intestinal transit that improve host immune defenses, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. In addition, S. boulardii secretes during its intestinal transit polyamines, mainly spermine

Jean-Paul Buts; Nadine De Keyser

2006-01-01

308

Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to assess the effects of reduced DNA methyltransferase activity on ApcMin-induced intestinal neoplasia in mice. A reduction in the DNA methyltransferase activity in Min mice due to heterozygosity of the DNA methyltransferase gene, in conjunction with a weekly dose of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azadeoxycytidine, reduced the average number of intestinal

Peter W Laird; Laurie Jackson-Grusby; Amin Fazeli; Stephanie L Dickinson; W Edward Jung; En Li; Robert A Weinberg; Rudolf Jaenisch

1995-01-01

309

Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

Patil, Anant D.

2014-01-01

310

Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma. PMID:25257357

Yamamoto, Mitsuko L.; Schiestl, Robert H.

2014-01-01

311

Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn’s disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

2014-01-01

312

Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn's disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

2014-09-01

313

Mercury methylation by fish intestinal contents.  

PubMed Central

A new radiochemical method has been applied to the examination of mercury methylation in fish intestinal contents. Intestinal contents of six freshwater fish species were found capable of converting 203Hg2+ to CH3203Hg+. This activity was observed in fish from five of six lakes tested whether or not there was mercury pollution. Bacterial activity in the intestinal contents is most likely responsible for this methylation. Methylating activity of piscivors increased with decreasing quantity of intestinal contents. Generally, pike and walleye intestinal contents methylated a larger fraction of 203Hg2+ than those of whitefish and suckers. These data contradict the previous general conclusion that there is no mercury methylation in fish. PMID:7425625

Rudd, J W; Furutani, A; Turner, M A

1980-01-01

314

[Chronic trichinellosis and neuromuscular diseases: clinical, serological and therapeutic observations].  

PubMed

In six males with chronic neurological signs who, 14-41 years previously, had an episode of acute trichinellosis cardinal symptoms were chronic muscle pain and lower-neuron damage. Other findings, probably related to trichinellosis, were episodes of pyrexia, chronic gastro-intestinal and cardiac symptoms, and in one case symptomatic epilepsy with psychomotor attacks. Significant laboratory findings were a chronic leukocytosis in one case, repeated elevations of eosinophil count in three. Muscle biopsy in all patients revealed live trichinella and (or) focal myositis. The serological findings did not correlate with the biopsy ones. If the live trichinae are encapsulated, antibody titres may be negative, while they may be markedly elevated when the trichinellae are dead. Whether encapsulated larvae can be influenced by tiabendazol or mebendazol is not clear from these observations. PMID:7117159

Fröscher, W; Gullotta, F; Saathoff, M

1982-09-24

315

Chronic Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis (CP) reported in 2011. Recent findings Smoking increases the risk of non-gallstone acute pancreatitis (AP) and the progression of AP to CP. Binge drinking during Oktoberfest did not associate with increased hospital admissions for AP. The unfolded protein response is an adaptive mechanism to maintain pancreatic health in response to noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Onset of diabetes mellitus in CP is likely due to progressive disease rather than individual variables. Insufficient pancreatic enzyme dosing is common for treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea; 90,000 USP U of lipase should be given with meals. Surgical drainage provides sustained, superior pain relief compared to endoscopic treatment in patients advanced CP with a dilated main duct +/? pancreatic stones. The central acting gabapentoid pregabalin affords a modest 12% pain reduction in patients with CP but ~30% of patients have significant side effects. Summary Patients with non-gallstone related AP or CP of any etiology should cease smoking. Results of this year’s investigations further elucidated the pancreatic pathobiology due to alcohol, onset of diabetes mellitus in CP, and the mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain in CP. PMID:22782018

DiMagno, Matthew J.; DiMagno, Eugene P.

2012-01-01

316

CHRONIC URTICARIA  

PubMed Central

Chronic urticaria (CU) is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ‘idiopathic’ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented. PMID:22345759

Sachdeva, Sandeep; Gupta, Vibhanshu; Amin, Syed Suhail; Tahseen, Mohd

2011-01-01

317

Chitin-microparticles for the control of intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine with the ability to regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the detailed mechanisms of chitin-mediated regulation of intestinal inflammation are only partially known. In this study, Chitin-microparticles (CMPs) or PBS were orally administered to acute and chronic colitis models every three days for six consecutive weeks beginning at weaning age. The effects of this treatment were evaluated by histology, cytokine production, co-culture study and enteric bacterial analysis in DSS-induced colitis or TCR? knockout chronic colitis models. Histologically, chitin-treated mice showed significantly suppressed colitis as compared to PBS-treated mice in both animal models. The production of IFN? was upregulated in the mucosa of chitin-treated mice compared to control mice. The major source of IFN?-producing cells was CD4+ T cells. In mouse dendritic cells (DCs), we found that CMPs were efficiently internalized and processed within 48 hours. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) CD4+ T cells isolated from chitin-treated mice produced 7-fold higher amount of IFN? in the culture supernatant after being co-cultured with DCs and chitin as compared to the control. Proliferation of CFSElow CD4+ T cells in MLNs and enteric bacterial translocation rates were significantly reduced in chitin-treated mice when compared to the control. In addition, CMPs improved the imbalance of enteric bacterial compositions and significantly increased IL-10-producing cells in non-inflamed colon, indicating the immunoregulatory effects of CMPs in intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, CMPs significantly suppress the development of inflammation by modulating cytokine balance and microbial environment in colon. PMID:22241684

Nagatani, Katsuya; Wang, Sen; Llado, Victoria; Lau, Cindy W.; Li, Zongxi; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Shibata, Yoshimi; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Mora, J. Rodrigo; Mizoguchi, Emiko

2013-01-01

318

T cell transfer model of chronic colitis: concepts, considerations, and tricks of the trade  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis) are idiopathic chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. A major advancement in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases has been the development of mouse models of chronic gut inflammation. One model that has been instrumental in delineating the immunological mechanisms responsible for the induction as well as regulation of intestinal inflammation is the T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. This paper presents a detailed protocol describing the methods used to induce chronic colitis in mice. Special attention is given to the immunological concepts that explain disease pathogenesis in this model, considerations and potential pitfalls in using this model, and finally different “tricks” that we have learned over the past 12 years that have allowed us to develop a more simplified version of this model of experimental IBD. PMID:19033538

Ostanin, Dmitry V.; Bao, Jianxiong; Koboziev, Iurii; Gray, Laura; Robinson-Jackson, Sherry A.; Kosloski-Davidson, Melissa; Price, V. Hugh; Grisham, Matthew B.

2009-01-01

319

Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen

2013-01-01

320

[Endotoxinemia and systemic inflammation in pathogenesis of chronic heart failure].  

PubMed

Large intestine microbiocenosis, levels of endotoxinemia, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein, sE-selectin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-4 (TIMP) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients was studied. Association of dysbiosis and endotoxinemia levels increase, systemic inflammation activation and an imbalance of MMP-TIMP system with progression of CHF has been shown. It can be a reason of a myocardium extracellular matrix structure disturbance and heart remodeling at CHF. PMID:22359933

Egorova, E N; Kalinkin, M N; Mazur, E S

2011-01-01

321

Chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood and adolescence are crucial times for the development of a healthy skeletal and cardiovascular system. Disordered\\u000a mineral and bone metabolism accompany chronic kidney disease (CKD) and present significant obstacles to optimal bone strength,\\u000a final adult height, and cardiovascular health. Decreased activity of renal 1 alpha hydroxylase results in decreased intestinal\\u000a calcium absorption, increased serum parathyroid hormone levels, and high-turnover

Katherine Wesseling; Sevcan Bakkaloglu; Isidro Salusky

2008-01-01

322

Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. Methods A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Results Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR?=?4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. Conclusions The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy. PMID:24502423

2014-01-01

323

B-Cell monoclonality in Helicobacter pylori -associated chronic atrophic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-cell monoclonality has been reported not only in gastric lymphoma, but also in 1.3-21% of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis (Hp-CG) cases. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of B-cell monoclonality in Hp-CG. We examined 134 gastric biopsy specimens from 99 patients with Hp-CG. The density of Hp, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activity, chronic inflammation, glandular atrophy, and intestinal

Toru Hiyama; Ken Haruma; Yasuhiko Kitadai; Masaki Miyamoto; Sinji Tanaka; Masaharu Yoshihara; Koji Sumii; Fumio Shimamoto; Goro Kajiyama

2001-01-01

324

Targeting to intestinal M cells.  

PubMed

The specialised, antigen-transporting, epithelial M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying gut-associated lymphoid tissues constitute the primary target for oral delivery of vaccines. Our studies have shown that polystyrene microspheres selectively bind to, and are efficiently transcytosed by, rabbit Peyer's patch M cells in closed intestinal loops. Binding of biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres to rabbit Peyer's patch FAE is an order of magnitude lower than that of polystyrene microspheres. Although poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres are not selectively targeted to M cells, a high proportion of those which bind to M cells are transcytosed, supporting the potential of such microspheres as vehicles for oral vaccine delivery. Comparison of the binding of polystyrene microspheres by murine FAE revealed this to be markedly less extensive than by rabbit FAE. These data demonstrate that microsphere binding by M cells depends on the surface properties of both cells and microspheres and suggest that surface modification may enhance the efficacy of microsphere delivery vehicles. One such approach is the incorporation of molecules with inherent binding specificity for M cells. Lectin-binding studies have revealed that M cells exhibit pronounced regional and species variation in glycoconjugate expression. In murine intestine, certain lectins bind selectively to M cells either in Peyer's patches or caecum, or at both sites. Selective targeting to, and transcytosis of, lectin-conjugates by M cells in ligated segments of murine intestine have also been demonstrated. While several lectins display strong selectivity for rabbit caecal M cells, none to date have been identified with specificity for rabbit or rat Peyer's patch M cells. Knowledge of human M cells is limited and no lectin has yet been identified with specificity for these cells. However, at least one lectin exhibits binding specificity for FAE in the human ileum. In the future, knowledge of the regional patterns of M cell carbohydrate expression within a species may allow lectins to be utilised to target selectively antigenic material to the mucosal immune system at specific locations. PMID:8982824

Jepson, M A; Clark, M A; Foster, N; Mason, C M; Bennett, M K; Simmons, N L; Hirst, B H

1996-12-01

325

Investigation of coco-glucoside as a novel intestinal permeation enhancer in rat models.  

PubMed

Due to instability in the GI tract and low intestinal permeability, peptides invariably have oral bioavailabilities below 1% and this has prevented the development of oral formulations. A mild plant-derived naturalalkyl polyglycoside (APG), coco-glucoside (CG), was studied for its capacity to enable rat intestinal permeation of the paracellular sugar marker, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000 (FD4), across isolated rat jejunal and colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers, as well as the polypeptide, salmon calcitonin (sCT) following intra-intestinal instillations in rats. 0.1% (w/v) CG enabled a 2.9-fold increase in the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of FD4 over the basal Papp across colonic mucosae, but it was without effect in jejunal mucosae. In situ intestinal instillations revealed that although sCT was absorbed across rat colonic loops to a greater extent than jejunal, CG still improved sCT absolute bioavailability(F) from both segments. Histopathology of rat intestinal mucosae following exposure to CG indicated only minor perturbation with adequate maintenance of secretory function. High content analysis(HCA) on Caco-2 showed that acute and chronic exposure to a range of concentrations of CG did not cause sub-lethal damage at concentrations at which it was effective as an enhancer. Overall, CG increased bioavailability of sCT across rat jejunal and colonic loops without indication of tissue damage. Thus, CG has potential as a safe and effective intestinal enhancer for oral delivery of proteins and peptides. PMID:25445305

Aguirre, Tanira A S; Rosa, Mónica; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Coulter, Ivan; Brayden, David J

2014-11-01

326

Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881

Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

2012-01-01

327

Intestinal regulation of body iron.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of the world's population suffers from iron deficiency or iron overload. These disorders arise primarily from defects in the gastrointestinal absorption of iron. The intestinal mucosal cell plays a key role in this process because it lies at the interface between the gastrointestinal lumen which supplies its iron and body compartments which control its behaviour. The concentration of mucosal ferritin is closely linked to absorption, but it is still not clear whether it plays an active or a passive role. Transferrin also has been detected in the mucosal cell, but firm evidence that it participates in the absorptive process is lacking. Deficiencies in the luminal phase are responsible for the high global prevalence of iron deficiency which is predominantly dietary in origin. Much information has accumulated in recent years on dietary factors that enhance or impair iron absorption but their quantitative importance as determinants of iron status remains to be determined. PMID:3332111

Cook, J D; Skikne, B S

1987-12-01

328

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: experience at a teaching hospital in central Brazil.  

PubMed

In order to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, 100 HIV/AIDS patients (Group 1) and 85 clinically healthy individuals (Group 2) were submitted to coproparasitological examination. Intestinal parasites were detected in 27% of patients from Group 1 and in 17.6% from Group 2. In Group 1 the most frequent parasites were Strongyloides stercoralis (12%), with 2 cases of hyperinfection; Isospora belli, 7%; Cryptosporidium sp., 4%; with 1 asymptomatic case and hookworm, 4%. Of the infected patients from Group 1 who reported to be chronic alcoholics, 64.3% had strongyloidiasis. Only 6 of the 27 infected patients from Group 1 were on highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In Group 2 the most frequent parasites were S. stercoralis, 7.1%; hookworm, 7.1% and Giardia lamblia, 3.5%. In conclusion, diagnosing intestinal parasites in HIV/AIDS patients is necessary especially in those who report to be chronic alcoholics or are not on antiretroviral treatment. PMID:15849055

Silva, Claudio V da; Ferreira, Marcelo S; Borges, Aércio S; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2005-01-01

329

[An adult with mechanical ileus in association with non-rotation of the intestine].  

PubMed

A mechanical ileus was considered in the differential diagnosis of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Clinic with acute, severe, painful cramps in the lower abdomen of 2 hours' duration, without radiation and with an urge to move constantly. An emergency laparotomy was then performed, revealing non-rotation of the intestine; the last segment ofthe small intestine was pinched off by a strangulation. Several strangulations were cleaved, after which the symptoms disappeared. Non-rotation, a form of malrotation, is a congenital anomaly of intestinal rotation. In adults, non-rotation is a rare diagnosis with a variable presentation. Surgical intervention is necessary in both the acute and the more chronic presentation. The chronic presentation is usually discovered by chance in patients who have had aspecific recurrent abdominal complaints for a long time; if malrotation is suspected, additional investigation, for example by means of a gastrointestinal contrast study, is necessary before resorting to surgery. In the acute situation, immediate surgery is the only proper decision. Surgical intervention comprises reduction of the volvulus, inspection of the mesenteric bands (Ladd's bands) that run from the coecum to the lateral peritoneum and compress the duodenum, and an appendectomy: the Ladd procedure. PMID:15909395

Andriessen, M J G; Koop, K A; Consten, E C J

2005-05-01

330

Gut inflammation in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue and a combination of accompanying symptoms the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Many CFS patients complain of gut dysfunction. In fact, patients with CFS are more likely to report a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional disorder of the gut, and experience IBS-related symptoms. Recently, evidence for interactions between the intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier function, and the immune system have been shown to play a role in the disorder's pathogenesis. Studies examining the microecology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have identified specific microorganisms whose presence appears related to disease; in CFS, a role for altered intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease has recently been suggested. Mucosal barrier dysfunction promoting bacterial translocation has also been observed. Finally, an altered mucosal immune system has been associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss the interplay between these factors in CFS and how they could play a significant role in GI dysfunction by modulating the activity of the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the gut. If an altered intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier dysfunction, and aberrant intestinal immunity contribute to the pathogenesis of CFS, therapeutic efforts to modify gut microbiota could be a means to modulate the development and/or progression of this disorder. For example, the administration of probiotics could alter the gut microbiota, improve mucosal barrier function, decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines, and have the potential to positively influence mood in patients where both emotional symptoms and inflammatory immune signals are elevated. Probiotics also have the potential to improve gut motility, which is dysfunctional in many CFS patients. PMID:20939923

2010-01-01

331

An integrated model for intestinal development in the fetal sheep  

E-print Network

. The interrelationships between 22 parameters relating to small intestinal mor- phology and enterocyte cell kinetics were., 1986a). ii) Analysis of intestinal cell kinetics in normal development (115 days, n = 11) (136 days, n = 10) (Trahair et al., 1986c,d). iii) Morphometric analysis of intestinal growth and intestinal cell

Boyer, Edmond

332

Reversible intestinal mucosal abnormality in acrodermatitis enteropathica.  

PubMed Central

In 3 cases of acrodermatitis enteropathica duodenal biopsy performed at the outset of treatment showed a similar abnormality of the intestinal mucosa. Further biopsies taken during treatment showed progressive improvement of the intestinal mucosa with subsequent complete restoration of the normal cellular and villous pattern. The initial treatment was with expressed human breast milk and oral di-iodohydroxyquinoline. The latter was continued alone and later replaced by zinc sulphate. Changes in the intestinal epithelial cells and inflammatory cell infiltration of the lamina propria still detectable on di-iodohydroxyquinoline therapy reverted to normal with oral zinc. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:952555

Kelly, R; Davidson, G P; Townley, R R; Campbell, P E

1976-01-01

333

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha involvement in liver and intestinal inflammatory networks.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4-?) is a nuclear receptor regulating metabolism, cell junctions, differentiation and proliferation in liver and intestinal epithelial cells. Mutations within the HNF4A gene are associated with human diseases such as maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Recently, HNF4A has also been described as a susceptibility gene for ulcerative colitis in genome-wide association studies. In addition, specific HNF4A genetic variants have been identified in pediatric cohorts of Crohn's disease. Results obtained from knockout mice supported that HNF4-? can protect the intestinal mucosae against inflammation. However, the exact molecular links behind HNF4-? and inflammatory bowel diseases remains elusive. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about the role of HNF4-? and its isoforms in inflammation. Specific nature of HNF4-? P1 and P2 classes of isoforms will be summarized. HNF4-? role as a hepatocyte mediator for cytokines relays during liver inflammation will be integrated based on documented examples of the literature. Conclusions that can be made from these earlier liver studies will serve as a basis to extrapolate correlations and divergences applicable to intestinal inflammation. Finally, potential functional roles for HNF4-? isoforms in protecting the intestinal mucosae from chronic and pathological inflammation will be presented. PMID:24415854

Babeu, Jean-Philippe; Boudreau, François

2014-01-01

334

[Glucose absorption in the rat small intestine in vivo after various levels of local substrate load].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate relative roles of various mechanisms of glucose transport in the small intestine at high substrate loads in chronic experiments on rats, we investigated kinetics of glucose absorption in isolated part (-20 cm) of the intestine after its perfusion for 6 and 14 days during 1.5 h per day with 125 mM glucose solution (gr. 1--increased substrate load) or during 45-60 min per day with 25 mM glucose solution (gr. 2--reduced substrate load). The results of the experiments were analyzed by means of mathematical simulation. It was found that in the rats of gr. 1 the regular substrate load was more effective in maintaining a high level of glucose absorption in the isolated part of the intestine. Adaptation of glucose absorption to the increased local glucose load occurs due to enhancement of the secondary active transport via SGLT1. This component in many times exceeds the "unsaturated" component of glucose absorption, which is mainly determined by the facilitated diffusion via GLUT2, both at high and low glucose concentrations in the intestinal lumen. PMID:24459873

Gruzdkov, A A; Gromova, L V

2013-05-01

335

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inhibits experimental colitis by preventing early intestinal epithelial cell death.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by increased epithelial cell death and subsequent breakdown of the intestinal epithelial barrier, which perpetuates chronic intestinal inflammation. Since fecal bile acid dysmetabolism is associated with UC and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been shown to improve murine colitis, we evaluated the effect of TUDCA on intestinal epithelial cell death in a mouse model of UC-like barrier dysfunction elicited by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We identified the prevention of colonic caspase-3 induction, a key proapoptotic marker which was also over-activated in UC, as the earliest event resulting in a clear clinical benefit. Whereas vehicle-treated mice showed a cumulative mortality of 40%, all TUDCA-treated mice survived the DSS experiment during a 14-day follow-up period. In line with a barrier protective effect, TUDCA decreased bacterial translocation to the spleen and stimulated mucin production. Similarly, TUDCA inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal permeability and associated enterocyte apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effect was confirmed in vitro by a dose-dependent inhibition of both receptor-dependent (using tumor necrosis factor and Fas ligand) and receptor-independent (staurosporine) caspase-3 induction in HT29 colonic epithelial cells. These data imply that caspase-3 activation is an early marker of colitis that is prevented by TUDCA treatment. These data, together with the previously reported beneficial effect in colitis, suggest that TUDCA could be an add-on strategy to current immunosuppressive treatment of UC patients. PMID:25310532

Laukens, Debby; Devisscher, Lindsey; Van den Bossche, Lien; Hindryckx, Pieter; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Cuvelier, Claude; Brinkman, Brigitta M; Libert, Claude; Vandenabeele, Peter; De Vos, Martine

2014-12-01

336

Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

2014-01-01

337

Agar gel electrophoresis of proteolytic enzymes in gastric juice of patients with chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agar gel electrophoresis with proteolytic digestion of albumin substrate and subsequent Chromoscan analysis of the agar slide, were used to study the proteolytic enzymes of gastric juice in 28 patients with atrophic gastritis with or without intestinal metaplasia, 7 patients with chronic superficial gastritis and 6 with a normal gastric mucosa. Five proteolytic enzyme spots, designated I through V in

Mona Agunod; George B. Jerzy Glass

1972-01-01

338

Simotang enhances gastrointestinal motility, motilin and cholecystokinin expression in chronically stressed mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of Simotang (Decoction of Four Powered Drugs) on gastrointestinal motility, motilin and cholecystokinin expression in chronically stressed mice. METHODS: Forty mice were randomly divided into control group, stress group (model group), mosapride group and Simotang group, 10 in each group. A variety of unpredictable stimulations were used to induce chronic stress in mice. Then, the mice were treated with distilled water, mosapride or Simotang for 7 d. Gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion function were detected. Serum level of motilin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) in intestine, spinal cord and brain of mice was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS: Simotang improved the gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion in chronically stressed mice. Furthermore, the serum motilin level was significantly higher and the expression levels of CCK-positive cells and genes were significantly lower in intestine, spinal cord and brain of Simotang group than in those of model group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in serum motilin level and expression levels of CCK-positive cells and genes between the mosapride and Simotang groups. CONCLUSION: Simotang enhances the gastrointestinal motility in chronically stressed mice by regulating the serum motilin level and the expression of cholecystokinin. PMID:21472126

Cai, Guang-Xian; Liu, Bai-Yan; Yi, Jian; Chen, Xue-Mei; Liu, Fu-Ling

2011-01-01

339

People with an intellectual disability in the discourse of chronic and complex conditions: an invisible group?  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with an intellectual disability and their families experience poorer health care compared with the general population. Living with an intellec- tual disability is often challenged by coexisting complex and chronic conditions, such as gastro- intestinal and respiratory conditions. A literature review was undertaken to document the needs of this vulnerable population, and consultation was undertaken with mothers of children

Linda Goddard; Patricia M Davidson; John Daly; Sandra Mackey

2008-01-01

340

Location of tumour necrosis factor alpha by immunohistochemistry in chronic inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the location and tissue density of cells immunoreactive for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in intestinal specimens from 24 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (15 with Crohn's disease, nine with ulcerative colitis) and 11 controls. There was significantly increased density of TNF alpha immunoreactive cells in the lamina propria of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's

S H Murch; C P Braegger; J A Walker-Smith; T T MacDonald

1993-01-01

341

Modification of composition and spatial distribution of intestinal microbiota following antibiotic therapy in immunocompetent defined flora C3H/HeN mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Luminal bacteria and/or their products play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). While host responses to resident flora may initiate IBD, the subsets of bacteria responsible for mediating inflammation in ...

342

Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane  

PubMed Central

The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

Rosa, Bruce A.

2015-01-01

343

Biotransformation of 1-nitropyrene to 1-aminopyrene and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene by the human intestinal microbiota  

SciTech Connect

The nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) is an environmental pollutant, a potent bacterial and mammalian mutagen, and a carcinogen. The metabolism of 1-NP by the human intestinal microbiota was studied using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the colonic lumen. (/sup 3/H)-1-Nitropyrene was metabolized by the intestinal microbiota to 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene (FAP) as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Twenty-four hours after the addition of (/sup 3/H)-1-NP, the formylated compound and 1-AP accounted for 20 and 80% of the total metabolism respectively. This percentage increased to 66% for FAP after 24 h following 10 d of chronic exposure to unlabeled 1-NP, suggesting metabolic adaptation to 1-NP by the microbiota. Both 1-AP and FAP have been shown to be nonmutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium TA98, which indicates that the intestinal microflora may potentially detoxify 1-NP.

Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

1986-01-01

344

Immune response is required for the control of in vivo translocation and chronic toxicity of graphene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals.Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00699b

Wu, Qiuli; Zhao, Yunli; Fang, Jianpeng; Wang, Dayong

2014-05-01

345

Upper GI and small bowel series  

MedlinePLUS

... Ulcers In the stomach, abnormal results may mean: Gastric cancer Gastric ulcer - benign Gastritis Polyps (a tumor that is usually noncancerous and grows on the mucus membrane ) Pyloric stenosis ... ring Primary or idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

346

Constipation  

MedlinePLUS

... Lower GI Tract Diverticular Disease? Hirschsprung Disease?? Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction Irritable Bowel Syndrome Additional Languages This content ... Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees Health Communication Programs Research Areas Jobs at NIDDK FAQs Visit ...

347

Protrusion of the Valvular Intestine in Captive Smalltooth Sawfish and Comments on Pristid Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Intestinal Valve Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on three separate instances of protrusion of the valvular intestine in the smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinata, compare pristid gastrointestinal anatomy and intestinal valve structure with those of other elasmobranchs, and discuss the relevance of anatomy and valve structure to the husbandry of captive specimens. Protrusion of the valvular intestine, or intestinal eversion, has been documented in carcharhinid sharks

Alan D. Henningsen; Brent R. Whitaker; Ian D. Walker

2005-01-01

348

Management of intestinal failure in inflammatory bowel disease: Small intestinal transplantation or home parenteral nutrition?  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease in particular, is a common cause of intestinal failure. Current therapeutic options include home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. For most patients, home intravenous therapy including parenteral nutrition, with a good probability of long-term survival, is the favoured choice. However, in selected patients, with specific features that may shorten survival or complicate home parenteral nutrition, intestinal transplantation presents a viable alternative. We present survival, complications, quality of life and economic considerations that currently influence individualised decision-making between home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. PMID:24696601

Harrison, Elizabeth; Allan, Philip; Ramu, Amrutha; Vaidya, Anil; Travis, Simon; Lal, Simon

2014-01-01

349

Fighting Chronic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... and inflammation Heart/Blood Vessels: Heart attack, angina, leg pain from clogged arteries Stomach/Digestive: Gallstones, intestinal obstruction, diverticulitis, ulcers, severe indigestion, severe gas pain, inflammatory bowel disease, ...

350

Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:23812305

Xue, Xiang; Shah, Yatrik M.

2013-01-01

351

Motility Disorders of the Large Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... the large intestine (colon) are to store food residues and to absorb water. Between what we drink ... a consequence of this pattern of motility, food residues remain in the colon on average about 30 ...

352

Optimality in the Development of Intestinal Crypts  

E-print Network

Intestinal crypts in mammals are comprised of long-lived stem cells and shorter-lived progenies. These two populations are maintained in specific proportions during adult life. Here, we investigate the design principles ...

Itzkovitz, Shalev

353

Motility Disorders of the Small Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... to help the small intestine that remains after surgery adapt and function better. Adapted from IFFGD Publication #162 by William Whitehead, PhD, Co-Director, Center for Functional GI & Motility Disorders Center Professor of ...

354

Small intestine biopotentials in rats after hypokinesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effect of hypokinesia on rats small intestine (jejunum and ileum) biopotentials it was first necessary to characterize it. Biopotentials were recorded by intracellular placed microelectrodes from oral and caudal segments of the small intestine. The character of rats small intestine biopotentials differs from that of other species (man, cat, rabbit, dog, e.a.), the slow waves (SW) being smaller and the frequency of basal electrical rhythm higher (31.23 c/min orally and 24.50 caudally). Spike potentials are inscribed on the descending slope of SW but frequently delayed in each successive wave with a regular interval. Hypokinesia obtained by keeping rats in small cages for two weeks create only little changes in intestine biopotentials. The only clear difference was the increase of the slow waves amplitude. The other parameters were not specifically changed.

Groza, P.; Stanciu, C.

355

Antisecretory factor suppresses intestinal inflammation and hypersecretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Antisecretory factor (AF) is a recently identified regulatory protein which inhibits the intestinal fluid secretion induced by cholera toxin.Aims—To test the effect of AF on: (a) inflammation and hypersecretion induced by toxin A fromClostridium difficile; and (b) morphological changes and hypersecretion induced by okadaic acid (the blue mussel toxin) in rat intestinal mucosa.Methods—Morphological changes and fluid accumulation were observed in

E Johansson; E Jennische; S Lange; I Lönnroth

1997-01-01

356

Clinical intestinal transplantation: Experience in Miami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal transplantation can be a life-saving procedure for patients with intestinal failure and life-threatening complications of the underlying disease or total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The transplantation techniques at the University of Miami were based on our Pittsburgh experience and the organs were separated as needed following Starzl's cluster principle. According to the latter all intra-abdominal organs are like a grape

T. Karatzas; F. Khan; A. G. Tzakis

1997-01-01

357

Risk factors for small intestine cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small intestine cancer is relatively rare. Clinical reports have suggested that several medical conditions may predispose to increased occurrence of this cancer, but otherwise its etiology is unknown. In one of the first case-control studies of this cancer, we compared questionnaire responses provided by next-of-kin of 430 persons who died of small intestine cancer cf921 controls who died of other

Wong-Ho Chow; Martha S. Linet; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Ann W. Hsing; Harvey T. Co Chien; William J. Blot

1993-01-01

358

Intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Commensal bacteria in the lumen of the intestine exist in a mutually advantageous relationship with the mammalian host, providing\\u000a benefits such as increased metabolic\\/digestive capabilities and exclusion of harmful microbes, and in turn receiving a nutrient-rich\\u000a environment. However, in the context of a dysfunctional intestinal epithelial barrier, commensal bacteria may elicit an immune\\u000a inflammatory response similar to what occurs during

L. S. Collier-Hyams; A. S. Neish

2005-01-01

359

Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

A fusiform bacterium with 3 to 14 multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers wrapped around the cell was isolated from the liver, bile, and lower intestine of aged, inbred mice. The bacteria grew at 37 and 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions, rapidly hydrolyzed urea, were catalase and oxidase positive, reduced nitrate to nitrite, did not hydrolyze indoxyl acetate or hippurate, and were resistant to both cephalothin and nalidixic acid but sensitive to metronidazole. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was classified as a novel helicobacter, Helicobacter bilis. This new helicobacter, like Helicobacter hepaticus, colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice. Although the organism is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis, further studies are required to ascertain whether H. bilis is responsible for causing chronic hepatitis and/or hepatocellular tumors in mice. PMID:7536217

Fox, J G; Yan, L L; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Shames, B; Murphy, J C; Hayward, A; Belcher, J C; Mendes, E N

1995-01-01

360

Diarrhea associated with small-intestinal cryptosporidiosis in a budgerigar and in a cockatiel.  

PubMed

Small-intestinal cryptosporidiosis has not been described in budgerigars or cockatiels. Organisms of the genus Cryptosporidium were found during histologic examination of segments of small intestine from a budgerigar with chronic weight loss and from a cockatiel that died acutely. Parasitism was accompanied by non-purulent inflammation (lymphocytes and plasma cells predominated). Bacterial and viral pathogens were not isolated. The death of the budgerigar was attributed to malassimilation interpreted to have been caused by Cryptosporidium. The cause of death in the cockatiel was inhalation pneumonia. Because the index of suspicion for cryptosporidiosis was low, samples for isolation of Cryptosporidium were not collected. In the future, cryptosporidiosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for weight loss and death in pet birds, and isolation and speciation of Cryptosporidium sp. should be attempted and reported. PMID:2619673

Goodwin, M A; Krabill, V A

1989-01-01

361

Probiotic bacteria reduce salmonella typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for iron.  

PubMed

Host inflammation alters the availability of nutrients such as iron to limit microbial growth. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed gut by scavenging for iron with siderophores. By administering Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, which assimilates iron by similar mechanisms, we show that this nonpathogenic bacterium can outcompete and reduce S. Typhimurium colonization in mouse models of acute colitis and chronic persistent infection. This probiotic activity depends on E. coli Nissle iron acquisition, given that mutants deficient in iron uptake colonize the intestine but do not reduce S. Typhimurium colonization. Additionally, the ability of E. coli Nissle to overcome iron restriction by the host protein lipocalin 2, which counteracts some siderophores, is essential, given that S. Typhimurium is unaffected by E. coli Nissle in lipocalin 2-deficient mice. Thus, iron availability impacts S. Typhimurium growth, and E. coli Nissle reduces S. Typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for this limiting nutrient. PMID:23870311

Deriu, Elisa; Liu, Janet Z; Pezeshki, Milad; Edwards, Robert A; Ochoa, Roxanna J; Contreras, Heidi; Libby, Stephen J; Fang, Ferric C; Raffatellu, Manuela

2013-07-17

362

Probiotic Bacteria Reduce Salmonella Typhimurium Intestinal Colonization by Competing for Iron  

PubMed Central

Summary Host inflammation alters the availability of nutrients such as iron to limit microbial growth. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed gut by scavenging for iron with siderophores. By administering Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, which assimilates iron by similar mechanisms, we show that this non-pathogenic bacterium can outcompete and reduce S. Typhimurium colonization in mouse models of acute colitis and chronic persistent infection. This probiotic activity depends on E. coli Nissle iron acquisition as mutants deficient in iron uptake colonize the intestine but do not reduce S. Typhimurium colonization. Additionally, the ability of E. coli Nissle to overcome iron restriction by the host protein lipocalin-2, which counteracts some siderophores, is essential as S. Typhimurium is unaffected by E. coli Nissle in lipocalin-2-deficient mice. Thus, iron availability impacts S. Typhimurium growth and E. coli Nissle reduces S. Typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for this limiting nutrient. PMID:23870311

Deriu, Elisa; Liu, Janet Z.; Pezeshki, Milad; Edwards, Robert A.; Ochoa, Roxanna J.; Contreras, Heidi; Libby, Stephen J.; Fang, Ferric C.; Raffatellu, Manuela

2013-01-01

363

[Carcinoma of the small intestine localized in the ileum. Report of a case].  

PubMed

On the basis of a case of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine which brought to their attention, the authors analyse the etiopathogenetic and clinical aspect of these tumours in the light of the international literature. In particular, they focus on the difficulty of making an early diagnosis due to the fact that the initial symptoms are vague and aspecific and instrumental tests often do not allow a differential diagnosis to be made between adenocarcinoma and chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine, benign tumours and other neoplasias. Lastly, the authors underline the prime role of surgery in the treatment of this form of cancer despite the fact that the concept of oncological radicality is drastically reduced in relation to the lymphoglandular layout of the jejunum and ileum since it should include the sacrifice of the superior mesenteric artery with imaginable consequences. PMID:7675287

Mandarano, R; Doria, U; Ciccone, A; Secco, P; La Magra, C

1995-04-01

364

The intestinal microbiome of fish under starvation  

PubMed Central

Background Starvation not only affects the nutritional and health status of the animals, but also the microbial composition in the host’s intestine. Next-generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interactions with hosts. However, studies on gut microbiomes have been conducted predominantly in humans and land animals. Not much is known on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes under changing environmental conditions. To address this shortcoming, we determined the microbial gene catalogue, and investigated changes in the microbial composition and host-microbe interactions in the intestine of Asian seabass in response to starvation. Results We found 33 phyla, 66 classes, 130 orders and 278 families in the intestinal microbiome. Proteobacteria (48.8%), Firmicutes (15.3%) and Bacteroidetes (8.2%) were the three most abundant bacteria taxa. Comparative analyses of the microbiome revealed shifts in bacteria communities, with dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes, but significant depletion of Betaproteobacteria in starved intestines. In addition, significant differences in clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories and orthologous groups were observed. Genes related to antibiotic activity in the microbiome were significantly enriched in response to starvation, and host genes related to the immune response were generally up-regulated. Conclusions This study provides the first insights into the fish intestinal microbiome and its changes under starvation. Further detailed study on interactions between intestinal microbiomes and hosts under dynamic conditions will shed new light on how the hosts and microbes respond to the changing environment. PMID:24708260

2014-01-01

365

Circadian regulators of intestinal lipid absorption.  

PubMed

Among all the metabolites present in the plasma, lipids, mainly triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, show extensive circadian rhythms. These lipids are transported in the plasma as part of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are synthesized primarily in the liver and intestine and their production exhibits circadian rhythmicity. Studies have shown that various proteins involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein biosynthesis show circadian expression. Further, intestinal epithelial cells express circadian clock genes and these genes might control circadian expression of different proteins involved in intestinal lipid absorption. Intestinal circadian clock genes are synchronized by signals emanating from the suprachiasmatic nuclei that constitute a master clock and from signals coming from other environmental factors, such as food availability. Disruptions in central clock, as happens due to disruptions in the sleep/wake cycle, affect intestinal function. Similarly, irregularities in temporal food intake affect intestinal function. These changes predispose individuals to various metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Here, we summarize how circadian rhythms regulate microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, apoAIV, and nocturnin to affect diurnal regulation of lipid absorption. PMID:25057097

Hussain, M Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

2015-04-01

366

[Intestinal absorption kinetics of flurbiprofen in rats].  

PubMed

To study the in situ intestinal absorption kinetics of flrubiprofen in rats, the absorption of flurbiprofen in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats was investigated using in situ single-pass perfusion method and the drug content was measured by HPLC. The effects of drug concentration on the intestinal absorption were investigated. The K(a) and P(app) values of flurbiprofen in the small intestine and colon had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Drug concentration (4.0, 10.0 and 16.0 mg x L(-1)) had no significant influence on the K(a) values (P > 0.05). However, when concentration was 4.0 mg x L(-1) and 10.0 mg x L(-1), significant effect on the P(app) values (P < 0.05) was found, but significant effect on the P(app) values was not shown between 10.0 mg x L(-1) and 16.0 mg x L(-1) (P > 0.05). The K(a) and P(app) values of flurbiprofen on the perfusion flow rate had significant difference (P < 0.05). Flurbiprofen could be absorbed at all segments of the intestine in rats and had no special absorption window. The absorption of flurbiprofen complies with the facilitated diffusion in the general intestinal segments, and accompany with the cytopsistransport mechanism probably. The perfusion flow rate had significant effect on the K(a) and P(app). PMID:23724659

Peng, Jun-Jie; Lin, Cong-Cong; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Zhi-Hong; Yang, Xing-Gang; Pan, Wei-San

2013-03-01

367

Targeted Restoration of the Intestinal Microbiota with a Simple, Defined Bacteriotherapy Resolves Relapsing Clostridium difficile Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

Relapsing C. difficile disease in humans is linked to a pathological imbalance within the intestinal microbiota, termed dysbiosis, which remains poorly understood. We show that mice infected with epidemic C. difficile (genotype 027/BI) develop highly contagious, chronic intestinal disease and persistent dysbiosis characterized by a distinct, simplified microbiota containing opportunistic pathogens and altered metabolite production. Chronic C. difficile 027/BI infection was refractory to vancomycin treatment leading to relapsing disease. In contrast, treatment of C. difficile 027/BI infected mice with feces from healthy mice rapidly restored a diverse, healthy microbiota and resolved C. difficile disease and contagiousness. We used this model to identify a simple mixture of six phylogenetically diverse intestinal bacteria, including novel species, which can re-establish a health-associated microbiota and clear C. difficile 027/BI infection from mice. Thus, targeting a dysbiotic microbiota with a defined mixture of phylogenetically diverse bacteria can trigger major shifts in the microbial community structure that displaces C. difficile and, as a result, resolves disease and contagiousness. Further, we demonstrate a rational approach to harness the therapeutic potential of health-associated microbial communities to treat C. difficile disease and potentially other forms of intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:23133377

Lawley, Trevor D.; Stares, Mark D.; Connor, Thomas R.; Raisen, Claire; Goulding, David; Rad, Roland; Schreiber, Fernanda; Brandt, Cordelia; Deakin, Laura J.; Pickard, Derek J.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Flint, Harry J.; Clark, Taane G.; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

2012-01-01

368

Chronic Conditions and School  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Listen Chronic Conditions and School Article Body My child has a chronic health condition. What do ... the school right away when contact information has changed. Make a health plan . If your child takes ...

369

Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - chronic fatigue syndrome; CFS resources ... The following organizations provide information on chronic fatigue syndrome : CFIDS Association of America - www.cfids.org U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/cfs

370

Chronic fatigue syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

CFS; Fatigue - chronic; Immune dysfunction syndrome; Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) ... The exact cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unknown. Some theories suggest CFS may be due to: Epstein-Barr virus or human herpes virus-6 (HHV- ...

371

Understanding Chronic Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... news is that chronic bronchitis can be found early and there is much that can be done to treat and help manage the disease. What Causes Chronic Bronchitis? Cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of ...

372

Sleep and Chronic Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Sleep and Chronic Disease As chronic ... of depression be monitored among persons with a sleep disorder. 4, 5 References Knutson KL, Ryden AM, Mander ...

373

Chronic Urticaria (Hives)  

MedlinePLUS

... chronic hives may be diagnosed with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). Angioedema is a form of hives where ... hour after exposure. For example: people with pressure urticaria get hives on certain parts of the body ...

374

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)  

MedlinePLUS

... leukemia is grouped into several phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for months ... a swollen spleen . Untreated CML leads to the blast crisis phase. Bleeding and infection may occur due ...

375

Chronic Kidney Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... for a long time, doctors call it a chronic kidney disease. Children's kidney problems may be congenital (say: kun- ... Do Doctors Treat Kidney Problems? The treatment for chronic kidney ... bone disease. Sometimes unhealthy kidneys have problems producing a hormone ...

376

Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections  

PubMed Central

Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations. PMID:24379622

Halliez, Marie CM; Buret, André G

2013-01-01

377

What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... about chronic myeloid leukemia? What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic ... is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in the ...

378

Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells: impact on intestinal epithelial barrier functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently

Laurianne Van Landeghem; Maxime M Mahé; Raluca Teusan; Jean Léger; Isabelle Guisle; Rémi Houlgatte; Michel Neunlist

2009-01-01

379

Intestinal stem cells and stem cell-based therapy for intestinal diseases.  

PubMed

Currently, many gastrointestinal diseases are a major reason for the increased mortality rate of children and adults every year. Additionally, these patients may cope with the high cost of the parenteral nutrition (PN), which aids in the long-term survival of the patients. Other treatment options include surgical lengthening, which is not sufficient in many cases, and intestinal transplantation. However, intestinal transplantation is still accompanied by many challenges, including immune rejection and donor availability, which may limit the transplant's success. The development of more safe and promising alternative treatments for intestinal diseases is still ongoing. Stem cell-based therapy (SCT) and tissue engineering (TE) appear to be the next promising choices for the regeneration of the damaged intestine. However, suitable stem cell source is required for the SCT and TE process. Thus, in this review we discuss how intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are a promising cell source for small intestine diseases. We will also discuss the different markers were used to identify ISCs. Moreover, we discuss the dominant Wnt signaling pathway in the ISC niche and its involvement in some intestinal diseases. Additionally, we discuss ISC culture and expansion, which are critical to providing enough cells for SCT and TE. Finally, we conclude and recommend that ISC isolation, culture and expansion should be considered when SCT is a treatment option for intestinal disorders. Therefore, we believe that ISCs should be considered a cell source for SCT for many gastrointestinal diseases and should be highlighted in future clinical applications. PMID:24981313

Mohamed, Mahmoud Shaaban; Chen, Yun; Yao, Chao-Ling

2015-03-01

380

Intestinal Motility Assessment With Video Capsule Endoscopy: Automatic Annotation of Phasic Intestinal Contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal motility assessment with video capsule endoscopy arises as a novel and challenging clinical fieldwork. This technique is based on the analysis of the patterns of intestinal contractions shown in a video provided by an ingestible capsule with a wireless micro-camera. The manual labeling of all the motility events requires large amount of time for off- line screening in search

Fernando Vilariño; Panagiota Spyridonos; Fosca De Iorio; Jordi Vitrià; Fernando Azpiroz; Petia Radeva

2010-01-01

381

Intestinal Co-infection of Tuberculosis and CMV can Cause Massive Lower GI Bleeding in a Patient with HIV  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are considered pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). It has been reported that HIV infection is one of the major risk factors for the development of TB, increasing the incidence by up to 1,000 times, but it often has an atypical presentation. The incidence of extrapulmonary TB is increasing, largely among HIV patients. The diagnosis of intestinal TB is a challenge because of its chronic and nonspecific presentation which often mimics other diseases, and requires a high clinical suspicion to timely diagnose. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to intestinal TB was once an uncommon complication of TB, but recent reports indicate an increased incidence especially in developing countries. We suspect that co-infection with cytomegalovirus colitis contributes to the massive hemorrhage from intestinal TB. Surgical intervention is the recommended management for intestinal TB complicated by lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Accordingly, it is important for HIV patients to be screened and treated for TB to prevent this complication. Although the diagnosis is a challenge, it is important to consider intestinal TB as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in the HIV positive patients. PMID:25068146

Nagahashi, Masayuki; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Yamada, Akimitsu; Rashid, Omar M.; Adams, Barbara J; Takabe, Kazuaki

2014-01-01

382

Environmental Particulate Matter Induces Murine Intestinal Inflammatory Responses and Alters the Gut Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter (PM) is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. Methods Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93) for 7–14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days) on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10?/?) mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum. Results Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10?/? mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10?/? mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage. Conclusions Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine. PMID:23638009

Kish, Lisa; Hotte, Naomi; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Vincent, Renaud; Tso, Robert; Gänzle, Michael; Rioux, Kevin P.; Thiesen, Aducio; Barkema, Herman W.; Wine, Eytan; Madsen, Karen L.

2013-01-01

383

Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)] [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States)] [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)] [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States) [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

2013-01-01

384

Anti-VEGF therapy reduces intestinal inflammation in Endoglin heterozygous mice subjected to experimental colitis.  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal inflammation is associated with pathological angiogenesis that further amplifies the inflammatory response. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a major angiogenic cytokine that has been implicated in chronic colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Endoglin (CD105), a transforming growth factor-? superfamily co-receptor expressed on endothelial and some myeloid cells, is a modulator of angiogenesis involved in wound healing and potentially in resolution of inflammation. We showed previously that Endoglin heterozygous (Eng (+/-)) mice subjected to dextran sodium sulfate developed severe colitis, abnormal colonic vessels and high tissue VEGF. We therefore tested in the current study if treatment with a monoclonal antibody to VEGF could ameliorate chronic colitis in Eng (+/-) mice. Tissue inflammation and microvessel density (MVD) were quantified on histological slides. Colonic wall thickness, microvascular hemodynamics and targeted MAdCAM-1(+) inflamed vessels were assessed in vivo by ultrasound. Mediators of angiogenesis and inflammation were measured by Milliplex and ELISA assays. Colitic Eng (+/-) mice showed an increase in intestinal inflammation, MVD, colonic wall thickness, microvascular hemodynamics and the number of MAdCAM-1(+) microvessels relative to colitic Eng (+/+) mice; these parameters were all attenuated by anti-VEGF treatment. Of all factors up-regulated in the inflamed gut, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and amphiregulin were further increased in colitic Eng (+/-) versus Eng (+/+) mice. Anti-VEGF therapy decreased tissue VEGF and inflammation-induced endoglin, IL-1? and G-CSF in colitic Eng (+/-) mice. Our results suggest that endoglin modulates intestinal angiogenic and inflammatory responses in colitis. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound provides an excellent non-invasive imaging modality to monitor gut angiogenesis, inflammation and responses to anti-angiogenic treatment. PMID:24510304

Ardelean, Daniela S; Yin, Melissa; Jerkic, Mirjana; Peter, Madonna; Ngan, Bo; Kerbel, Robert S; Foster, F Stuart; Letarte, Michelle

2014-07-01

385

Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases intestinal motility leading to constipation.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) have been implicated in inflammation and remodeling in intestinal vasculature, and HHcy is also known to aggravate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Interestingly, colon is the pivotal site that regulates Hcy levels in the plasma. We hypothesize that HHcy decreases intestinal motility through matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-induced intestinal remodeling leading to constipation. To verify this hypothesis, we used C57BL/6J or wild-type (WT), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS(+/-)), MMP-9(-/-), and MMP-9(-/-) + Hcy mice. Intestinal motility was assessed by barium meal studies and daily feces output. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by HPLC. Expression of ICAM-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of MMPs was studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including super oxide were measured by the Invitrogen molecular probe method. Tissue nitric oxide levels were assessed by a commercially available kit. Plasma Hcy levels in the treated MMP-9 group mice were comparable to CBS(+/-) mice. Barium meal studies suggest that intestinal motility is significantly decreased in CBS(+/-) mice compared with other groups. Fecal output-to-body weight ratio was significantly reduced in CBS(+/-) mice compared with other groups. There was significant upregulation of MMP-9, iNOS, and ICAM-1 expression in the colon from CBS(+/-) mice compared with WT mice. Levels of ROS, superoxide, and inducible nitric oxide were elevated in the CBS(+/-) mice compared with other groups. Results suggest that HHcy decreases intestinal motility due to MMP-9-induced intestinal remodeling leading to constipation. PMID:22595990

Givvimani, S; Munjal, C; Narayanan, N; Aqil, F; Tyagi, G; Metreveli, N; Tyagi, S C

2012-08-01

386

Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.  

PubMed

The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption. PMID:25442537

Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

2015-04-01

387

Prevention and management of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal injury  

PubMed Central

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small bowel injury is a topic that deserves attention since the advent of capsule endoscopy and balloon enteroscopy. NSAID enteropathy is common and is mostly asymptomatic. However, massive bleeding, stricture, or perforation may occur. The pathogenesis of small intestine injury by NSAIDs is complex and different from that of the upper gastrointestinal tract. No drug has yet been developed that can completely prevent or treat NSAID enteropathy. Therefore, a long-term randomized study in chronic NSAID users is needed. PMID:22180706

Park, Sung Chul; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kang, Chang Don; Sul, Donggeun

2011-01-01

388

Recycling Metchnikoff: Probiotics, the Intestinal Microbiome and the Quest for Long Life  

PubMed Central

Over a century ago, Elie Metchnikoff theorized that health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with host-friendly bacteria found in yogurt. His theory flourished for a time, then drifted to the fringe of medical practice before re-emerging in the mid-1990s as a concept worthy of mainstream medical attention. Metchnikoff also predicted the existence of bacterial translocation and anticipated theories linking chronic inflammation with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other disorders of the aged. PMID:24350221

Mackowiak, Philip A.

2013-01-01

389

Oral Supplementation with Non-Absorbable Antibiotics or Curcumin Attenuates Western Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis and Glucose Intolerance in LDLR?/? Mice – Role of Intestinal Permeability and Macrophage Activation  

PubMed Central

Association between circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and metabolic diseases (such as Type 2 Diabetes and atherosclerosis) has shifted the focus from Western diet-induced changes in gut microbiota per se to release of gut bacteria-derived products into circulation as the possible mechanism for the chronic inflammatory state underlying the development of these diseases. Under physiological conditions, an intact intestinal barrier prevents this release of LPS underscoring the importance of examining and modulating the direct effects of Western diet on intestinal barrier function. In the present study we evaluated two strategies, namely selective gut decontamination and supplementation with oral curcumin, to modulate Western-diet (WD) induced changes in intestinal barrier function and subsequent development of glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. LDLR?/? mice were fed WD for 16 weeks and either received non-absorbable antibiotics (Neomycin and polymyxin) in drinking water for selective gut decontamination or gavaged daily with curcumin. WD significantly increased intestinal permeability as assessed by in vivo translocation of FITC-dextran and plasma LPS levels. Selective gut decontamination and supplementation with curcumin significantly attenuated the WD-induced increase in plasma LPS levels (3.32 vs 1.90 or 1.51 EU/ml, respectively) and improved intestinal barrier function at multiple levels (restoring intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and Claudin-1). Consequently, both these interventions significantly reduced WD-induced glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis in LDLR?/? mice. Activation of macrophages by low levels of LPS (50 ng/ml) and its exacerbation by fatty acids is likely the mechanism by which release of trace amounts of LPS into circulation due to disruption of intestinal barrier function induces the development of these diseases. These studies not only establish the important role of intestinal barrier function, but also identify oral supplementation with curcumin as a potential therapeutic strategy to improve intestinal barrier function and prevent the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:25251395

Ghosh, Siddhartha S.; Bie, Jinghua; Wang, Jing; Ghosh, Shobha

2014-01-01

390

THREE YEARS CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND After the successful evolution of hepatic transplantation during the last decade, small bowel and multivisceral transplantation remains the sole elusive achievement for the next era of transplant surgeons. Until recently, and for the last thirty years, the results of the sporadic attempts of intestinal transplantation worldwide were discouraging because of unsatisfactory graft and patient survival. The experimental and clinical demonstration of the superior therapeutic efficacy of FK 506, a new immunosuppressive drug, ushered in the current era of small bowel and multivisceral transplantation with initial promising results. STUDY DESIGN Forty-three consecutive patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal insufficiency, or malignant tumors with or without associated liver disease, were given intestinal (n=15), hepatic and intestinal (n=21), or multivisceral allografts that contained four or more organs (n=7). Treatment was with FK 506 based immunosuppression. The ascending and right transverse colon were included with the small intestine in 13 of the 43 grafts, almost evenly distributed between the three groups. RESULTS After six to 39 months, 30 of the 43 patients are alive, 29 bearing grafts. The most rapid convalescence and resumption of diet, as well as the highest three month patient survival (100 percent) and graft survival (88 percent) were with the isolated intestinal procedure. However, this advantage was slowly eroded during the first two postoperative years, in part because the isolated intestine was more prone to rejection. By the end of this time, the best survival rate (86 percent) was with the multivisceral procedure. With all three operations, most of the patients were able to resume diet and discontinue parenteral alimentation, and in the best instances, the quality of life approached normal. However, the surveillance and intensity of care required for these patients for the first year, and in most instances thereafter, was very high, being far more than required for patients having transplants of the liver, kidney or heart. CONCLUSIONS Although intestinal transplantation has gone through the feasibility phase, strategies will be required to increase its practicality. One possibility is to combine intestinal transplantation with contemporaneous autologous bone marrow transplantation. PMID:7522850

Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Todo, Satoru; Tzakis, Andreas; Reyes, Jorge; Nour, Bakr; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony; Starzl, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

391

Intestinal permeability is increased in bronchial asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: Increased intestinal permeability has been reported in one study of adult asthmatics. Aim: To determine whether children with asthma have altered intestinal permeability. Methods: Thirty two asthmatic children, and 32 sex and age matched controls were recruited. The dual sugar (lactulose and mannitol) test was used to evaluate intestinal permeability, and the percentage of ingested lactulose (L) and mannitol (M) in the urine, and the L:M ratio were determined. All patients were skin prick tested for common aeroallergens, and specific IgE to some food items was determined. Results: The median value of L in asthmatic children (2.29, IQR 0.91–4.07) was significantly higher than that in controls (0.69, IQR 0.45–1.08), and that of M was almost similar. The ratio L:M was significantly higher in asthmatic children (0.20, IQR 0.11–0.40) than in controls (0.06, IQR 0.04–0.09). Intestinal permeability did not correlate with eczema, inhaled steroids, positive skin prick test to aeroallergens, or severity of asthma. Conclusions: Intestinal permeability is increased in children with asthma, suggesting that the whole mucosal system may be affected. PMID:14977697

Hijazi, Z; Molla, A; Al-Habashi, H; Muawad, W; Molla, A; Sharma, P

2004-01-01

392

Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1989-08-01

393

Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi) ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST) was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:24455340

Takano, Yuichi; Gomi, Kuniyo; Endo, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Reika; Hayashi, Masashi; Nakanishi, Toru; Tateno, Ayumi; Asonuma, Kunio; Ino, Satoshi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Inoue, Kazuaki

2013-01-01

394

Small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis.  

PubMed

Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi) ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST) was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:24455340

Takano, Yuichi; Gomi, Kuniyo; Endo, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Reika; Hayashi, Masashi; Nakanishi, Toru; Tateno, Ayumi; Yamamura, Eiichi; Asonuma, Kunio; Ino, Satoshi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Inoue, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

395

Colon may provide new therapeutic targets for treatment of chronic kidney disease with Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a worldwide health and social problem. Retarding its progression to end-stage renal disease is beneficial both to the patients and the healthcare system. Plenty of clinical trials have indicated that enema with Chinese medicine could effectively prevent chronic renal failure, and was widely used in the clinical practice. However, studies on mechanism were still nearly blank, which may prevent further improvement of therapeutic efficacy. Recent studies had discovered that colon was an important organ where uremic toxins were generated. The uremic toxins involved could not only promote CKD progression, but also was closely correlated with CKD mortality. Reducing production and promoting excretion of toxins were confirmed to reduce renal tubule interstitial fibrosis and delay renal progression. On the basis of the theory of gut-kidney axis above, we had conducted pilot clinical researches to evaluate the effect of enema with Chinese medicine on the intestinal flora, gut barrier, enterogenous uremic toxins and renal protection. The preliminary results revealed that rheum enema through colon could accelerate intestinal dynamics, improve intestinal barrier function, regulate intestinal flora and reduce production and absorption of intestine-derived uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate, which may reduce renal fibrosis and delay renal progression. Further studies could provide more evidence for colon as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of CKD with Chinese medicine. PMID:23371456

Zou, Chuan; Lu, Zhao-Yu; Wu, Yu-Chi; Yang, Li-Hong; Su, Guo-Bin; Jie, Xi-Na; Liu, Xu-Sheng

2013-02-01

396

Critical role of endothelial P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 in chronic murine ileitis.  

PubMed

L-selectin ligands might be relevant for inflammatory cell trafficking into the small intestine in a spontaneous model of chronic ileitis (i.e., SAMP1/YitFc mice). Immunoblockade of peripheral node addressin or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 failed to ameliorate ileitis, whereas P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) neutralization attenuated both the adoptively transferred and spontaneous disease. PSGL-1 was detected in venules of mesenteric lymph node and small intestine by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. In addition, reconstitution of wild-type mice with PSGL-1(-/-) bone marrow demonstrated that PSGL-1 messenger RNA and PSGL-1 protein expression remained on endothelium, localized within mesenteric lymph node and small intestine. Endothelial PSGL-1 bound P-selectin-IgG and its blockade or genetic deletion altered the recruitment of lymphocytes to the small intestine, as revealed by intravital microscopy and homing studies. Endothelial expression of PSGL-1 adds a new dimension to the various cellular interactions involved in small intestinal recruitment. Thus, the multiple roles of PSGL-1 may explain why targeting this single adhesion molecule results in attenuation of chronic murine ileitis, a disease previously resistant to antiadhesion molecule strategies. PMID:16567389

Rivera-Nieves, Jesús; Burcin, Tracy L; Olson, Timothy S; Morris, Margaret A; McDuffie, Marcia; Cominelli, Fabio; Ley, Klaus

2006-04-17

397

Critical role of endothelial P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 in chronic murine ileitis  

PubMed Central

L-selectin ligands might be relevant for inflammatory cell trafficking into the small intestine in a spontaneous model of chronic ileitis (i.e., SAMP1/YitFc mice). Immunoblockade of peripheral node addressin or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 failed to ameliorate ileitis, whereas P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) neutralization attenuated both the adoptively transferred and spontaneous disease. PSGL-1 was detected in venules of mesenteric lymph node and small intestine by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. In addition, reconstitution of wild-type mice with PSGL-1?/? bone marrow demonstrated that PSGL-1 messenger RNA and PSGL-1 protein expression remained on endothelium, localized within mesenteric lymph node and small intestine. Endothelial PSGL-1 bound P-selectin–IgG and its blockade or genetic deletion altered the recruitment of lymphocytes to the small intestine, as revealed by intravital microscopy and homing studies. Endothelial expression of PSGL-1 adds a new dimension to the various cellular interactions involved in small intestinal recruitment. Thus, the multiple roles of PSGL-1 may explain why targeting this single adhesion molecule results in attenuation of chronic murine ileitis, a disease previously resistant to antiadhesion molecule strategies. PMID:16567389

Rivera-Nieves, Jesús; Burcin, Tracy L.; Olson, Timothy S.; Morris, Margaret A.; McDuffie, Marcia; Cominelli, Fabio; Ley, Klaus

2006-01-01

398

Collagen XVI induces formation of focal contacts on intestinal myofibroblasts isolated from the normal and inflamed intestinal tract.  

PubMed

In Crohn's disease (CD) the stress-shield of intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMF) provided by intact tissue is disturbed due to inflammation and thus, cells start with remodelling activities. This is characterized by increased numbers of collagen-producing ISEMF causing an uncontrolled, irreversible wound-healing response to the chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Reconstitution of the original ECM leads ISEMF to exit this cycle. In contrast, during fibrosis, ISEMF persist. It is known that ISEMF produce and deposit collagen types I, III, IV and V; however synthesis and the role of fibrillar peripheral molecules like collagen type XVI have not been addressed yet. Here, we have analyzed the distribution of collagen XVI in the normal and inflamed bowel wall, its gene and protein expression by ISEMF of different inflammation stages, the cell-matrix interactions in different phases of the inflammatory process and their effect on cell spreading, proliferation and migration. Collagen XVI is deposited in the submucosa of the intestinal wall where it co-localizes with fibrillin-1 and integrin alpha1. ISEMF reveal increasing gene and protein expression of collagen XVI concurrent to increasing inflammation. ISEMF reveal more mature focal adhesion contacts when seeded on collagen XVI resulting in an extensive cell spreading. This involves recruitment of alpha1beta1 integrin, which shows increased cell surface expression on ISEMF in late stages of inflammation. We assume that collagen XVI promotes persistence of ISEMF in the normal and, even stronger in the inflamed bowel wall by stabilizing focal adhesion contacts via cell-matrix interaction preferentially through recruitment of alpha1ss1 integrin into the tips of the focal adhesion contacts. PMID:19931388

Ratzinger, Sabine; Eble, Johannes A; Pasoldt, Anja; Opolka, Alfred; Rogler, Gerhard; Grifka, Joachim; Grässel, Susanne

2010-04-01

399

Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin and excretion of 111indium granulocytes in assessment of disease activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal protein loss in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases may be easily determined by measurement of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) stool concentration and alpha 1-AT clearance. Both parameters were significantly raised in 36 and 34 patients respectively with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, compared with eight patients with non-inflammatory bowel diseases, or 19 healthy volunteers. There was wide range of overlap between active

W Fischbach; W Becker; J Mössner; W Koch; C Reiners

1987-01-01

400

Gastrointestinal function in chronic radiation enteritis--effects of loperamide-N-oxide.  

PubMed Central

The effects of loperamide-N-oxide, a new peripheral opiate agonist precursor, on gastrointestinal function were evaluated in 18 patients with diarrhoea caused by chronic radiation enteritis. Each patient was given, in double-blind randomised order, loperamide-N-oxide (3 mg orally twice daily) and placebo for 14 days, separated by a washout period of 14 days. Gastrointestinal symptoms; absorption of bile acid, vitamin B12, lactose, and fat; gastric emptying; small intestinal and whole gut transit; and intestinal permeability were measured during placebo and loperamide-N-oxide phases. Data were compared with those obtained in 18 normal subjects. In the patients, in addition to an increased frequency of bowel actions (p < 0.001), there was reduced bile acid absorption, (p < 0.001) a higher prevalence of lactose malabsorption (p < 0.05) associated with a reduced dietary intake of dairy products (p < 0.02), and faster small intestinal (p < 0.001) and whole gut transit (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal subjects. There was no significant difference in gastric emptying between the two groups. Treatment with loperamide-N-oxide was associated with a reduced frequency of bowel actions (p < 0.001), slower small intestinal (p < 0.001), and total gut transit (p < 0.01), more rapid gastric emptying (p < 0.01), improved absorption of bile acid (p < 0.01), and increased permeability to 51Cr EDTA (p < 0.01). These observations indicate that: (1) diarrhoea caused by chronic radiation enteritis is associated with more rapid intestinal transit and a high prevalence of bile acid and lactose malabsorption, and (2) loperamide-N-oxide slows small intestinal transit, increases bile acid absorption, and is effective in the treatment of diarrhoea associated with chronic radiation enteritis. PMID:8491393

Yeoh, E K; Horowitz, M; Russo, A; Muecke, T; Robb, T; Chatterton, B E

1993-01-01

401

Autologous intestinal reconstruction surgery as part of comprehensive management of intestinal failure.  

PubMed

Pediatric intestinal failure (IF) remains to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, the most frequent underlying etiologies being short bowel syndrome (SBS), and primary motility disorders. Management aims to assure growth and development, while preventing complications and facilitating weaning off parenteral support (PS) by fully utilizing adaptation potential of the remaining gut. Probability of survival and weaning off PS is improved by coordinated multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation combining individualized physiological enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN), meticulous central line care and medical management with carefully planned surgical care. Increasing evidence suggests that autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) surgery is effective treatment for selected short bowel patients. Bowel lengthening procedures normalize pathological adaptation-associated short bowel dilatation with potential to support intestinal absorption and liver function by various mechanisms. Although reversed small intestinal segment, designed to prolong accelerated intestinal transit, improves absorption in adult SBS, its feasibility in children remains unclear. Controlled bowel obstruction to induce dilatation followed by bowel lengthening aims to gain extra length in patients with the shortest duodenojejunal remnant. Reduced PS requirement limits the extent of complications, improving prognosis and quality of life. The great majority of children with SBS can be weaned from PS while prognosis of intractable primary motility disorders remains poor without intestinal transplantation, which serves as a salvage therapy for life-threatening complications such as liver failure, central vein thrombosis or recurrent bloodstream infections. PMID:25820764

Pakarinen, Mikko P

2015-05-01

402

High Fat Diet Causes Depletion of Intestinal Eosinophils Associated with Intestinal Permeability  

PubMed Central

The development of intestinal permeability and the penetration of microbial products are key factors associated with the onset of metabolic disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. Here we show that, unlike liver or adipose tissue, high fat diet (HFD)/obesity in mice does not cause monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the intestine or pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression. Rather HFD causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with the onset of intestinal permeability. Intestinal eosinophil numbers were restored by returning HFD fed mice to normal chow and were unchanged in leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice, indicating that eosinophil depletion is caused specifically by a high fat diet and not obesity per se. Analysis of different aspects of intestinal permeability in HFD fed and Ob/Ob mice shows an association between eosinophil depletion and ileal paracelullar permeability, as well as leakage of albumin into the feces, but not overall permeability to FITC dextran. These findings provide the first evidence that a high fat diet causes intestinal eosinophil depletion, rather than inflammation, which may contribute to defective barrier integrity and the onset of metabolic disease. PMID:25837594

Johnson, Andrew M. F.; Costanzo, Anne; Gareau, Melanie G.; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Jameson, Julie M.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

2015-01-01

403

Viability of the vascularly perfused, recirculating rat intestine and intestine-liver preparations  

SciTech Connect

Function and stability of vascularly perfused, recirculating in situ rat intestine (I) and intestine-liver (IL) preparations were evaluated in fasted and nonfasted rats because these techniques may be readily applied in drug metabolism studies. The rat intestine was perfused with blood medium (7.5 ml/min) via the superior mesenteric artery, with the venous outflow draining into the portal vein, which, together with hepatic arterial flow (2.5 ml/min), constituted the total blood flow (10 ml/min) to the liver. Maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity was observed. Rapid ({sup 14}C)glucose absorption against a concentration gradient and a lack of ({sup 3}H)-polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000, less than 4%) and Evans blue absorption by the recirculating I and IL preparations resulted after bolus injections of these markers into the pyloric end of the duodenum. Other indexes that revealed stable intestinal and liver functions were the following: preservation of reservoir perfusate volume, constancy in perfusion pressure, bile flow, and hemoglobin concentrations, evidence of intestinal glucose utilization and liver glucose production, and a lack of significant leakage of serum glutamic oxalic transaminase. The intestine and liver consumed oxygen at relatively constant rates, but the consumption rates for the fasted tissues (I or L) were significantly higher than those for nonfasted tissues. These results indicate that the vascularly perfused I and IL preparations were maintained in a viable and stable state for a 2-h perfusion period.

Hirayama, H.; Xu, X.; Pang, K.S. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1989-08-01

404

L-Carnitine and intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

The intestinal barrier is one of the most dynamic surfaces of the body. It is here where a single layer of epithelial cells mediates the intricate encounters that occur between the host's immune system and a multitude of potential threats present in the intestinal lumen. Several key factors play an important role in the final outcome of this interaction, including the state of oxidative stress, the level of activation of the immune cells, and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. This chapter describes the main evidence demonstrating the impact that l-carnitine has on each of these factors. These findings, combined with the demonstrated safety profile of l-carnitine, underscore the potential therapeutic value of l-carnitine supplementation in humans suffering from intestinal inflammation and highlight the functional data supporting an association between Crohn's disease and mutations in the l-carnitine transporter genes. PMID:21419279

Fortin, Geneviève

2011-01-01

405

Life in the inflamed intestine, Salmonella style  

PubMed Central

The lower gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with resident microbial communities (microbiota), which do not elicit overt host responses but rather provide benefit to the host, including niche protection from pathogens. However, introduction of bacteria into the underlying tissue evokes acute inflammation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) elicit this stereotypic host response by actively penetrating the intestinal epithelium and surviving in tissue macrophages. Initial responses generated by bacterial host cell interaction are amplified in tissue through the interleukin (IL)-18/interferon (IFN)-? and the IL-23/IL-17 axes, resulting in the activation of mucosal barrier functions against NTS dissemination. However, the pathogen is adapted to survive antimicrobial defenses encountered in the lumen of the inflamed intestine. This strategy enables NTS to exploit inflammation to outcompete the intestinal microbiota, and promotes their transmission by the fecal/oral route. PMID:19819699

Santos, Renato L.; Raffatellu, Manuela; Bevins, Charles L.; Adams, L. Garry; Tükel, Çagla; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

2011-01-01

406

Intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

A complex mucosal barrier protects as the first line of defense the surface of the healthy intestinal tract from adhesion and invasion by luminal microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview about the major components of this protective system as for example an intact epithelium, the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and the formation of the mucus layer. We highlight the crucial importance of their correct functioning for the maintenance of a proper intestinal function and the prevention of dysbiosis and disease. Barrier disturbances including a defective production of AMPs, alterations in thickness or composition of the intestinal mucus layer, alterations of pattern-recognition receptors, defects in the process of autophagy as well as unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress result in an inadequate host protection and are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:24574793

Antoni, Lena; Nuding, Sabine; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F

2014-01-01

407

Alterations in bile following urinary intestinal diversion.  

PubMed

In order to determine whether alterations in bile occur which make it more lithogenic when intestinal segments are interposed in the urinary tract, 42 female Sprague-Dawley rats had intestinal and urointestinal manipulations followed by analysis of bile constituents. Timed collections were obtained from the common bile duct which were analyzed for bile acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, bilirubin, volume, osmolality, pH, calcium, chloride, sodium, and potassium. Changes in bile constituents were identified following urinary diversion which were specific for the type of diversion and the segment of bowel used, but they were not of sufficient degree to cause significant changes in the lithogenicity of bile. This correlates well with the lack of clinical findings of cholelithiasis in children with urinary intestinal diversion. PMID:1404662

Jones, J S; McDougal, W S

1992-10-01

408

Intestinal necrosis due to norovirus enteritis.  

PubMed

Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis in both children and adults. We report a rare case of intestinal necrosis due to norovirus gastroenteritis in a healthy adult. A 47-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal fullness. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension and diffuse tenderness. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed intestinal distention, pneumatosis, and portal venous gas, findings suggestive of intestinal necrosis. Norovirus genome was detected in his stools using the RT-PCR method. Upon laparotomy, a segment of necrotic bowel 170 cm from the ileocecal valve was identified, and the lesion was resected with an end ileostomy. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he was transferred to another hospital on the 7th post-operative day. Ileostomy closure was performed one month after the first surgery at the transfer hospital. He had no recurrent episodes. PMID:25471340

Yasuda, Hiromi; Okita, Yoshiki; Imaoka, Yuhki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Koji; Shigemori, Tsunehiko; Kato, Toshio; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

2015-02-01

409

The Biology of Intestinal Immunoglobulin A Responses  

PubMed Central

The gut mucosa is exposed to a large community of commensal bacteria that are required for the processing of nutrients and the education of the local immune system. Conversely, the gut immune system generates innate and adaptive responses that shape the composition of the local microbiota. One striking feature of intestinal adaptive immunity is its ability to generate massive amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies through multiple follicular and extrafollicular pathways that operate in the presence or absence of cognate T-B cell interactions. Here we discuss the role of intestinal IgA in host-commensal mutualism, immune protection, and tolerance and summarize recent advances on the role of innate immune cells in intestinal IgA production. PMID:18549797

Cerutti, Andrea; Rescigno, Maria

2011-01-01

410

Immune response is required for the control of in vivo translocation and chronic toxicity of graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals. PMID:24756229

Wu, Qiuli; Zhao, Yunli; Fang, Jianpeng; Wang, Dayong

2014-06-01

411

Public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections*  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasitic infections are distributed virtually throughout the world, with high prevalence rates in many regions. Amoebiasis, ascariasis, hookworm infection and trichuriasis are among the ten most common infections in the world. Other parasitic infections such as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, intestinal capillariasis, and strongyloidiasis are of local or regional public health concern. The prevention and control of these infections are now more feasible than ever before owing to the discovery of safe and efficacious drugs, the improvement and simplification of some diagnostic procedures, and advances in parasite population biology. PMID:3501340

1987-01-01

412

Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

Gobas, F.A.P.C. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01

413

Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility.

Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.

1987-08-01

414

Chronic Urticaria: Recent Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic urticaria is an umbrella term, which encompasses physical urticarias, chronic “idiopathic” urticaria and urticarial\\u000a vasculitis. It is important to recognize patients with physical urticarias as the investigation and treatment differs in important\\u000a ways from patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria or urticarial vasculitis. Although relatively uncommon, urticarial vasculitis\\u000a is an important diagnosis to make and requires histological confirmation by biopsy.

Malcolm W. Greaves; Kian Teo Tan

2007-01-01

415

The role of the gastrointestinal tract in phosphate homeostasis in health and chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review For a number of years, there has been increasing interest in the concept of directly targeting intestinal phosphate transport to control hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease. However, progress has been slow due to the paucity of information on the mechanisms involved in intestinal phosphate absorption. This editorial highlights the most recent developments in our understanding of this process and the role of the intestine in the maintenance of phosphate balance. Recent findings Recent studies in NaPi-IIb knockout mice have confirmed that this transport protein plays a significant role in intestinal phosphate absorption and is critical in the proposed feed-forward mechanism between the small intestine and kidney, which helps to maintain normal phosphate balance and steady-state plasma phosphate concentrations. In addition, renal failure-induced hyperphosphatemia is attenuated in NaPi-IIb knockout mice, confirming that NaPi-IIb is a suitable target in the prevention and treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Summary Recent findings suggest that consumption of processed foods containing phosphate preservatives may lead to excessive phosphate exposure (if not overload), toxicity, and cardiovascular disease in the general population, as well as in patients with declining renal function. Therefore, establishing more effective ways of targeting the intestine to limit dietary phosphate absorption could have wide-reaching health benefits. PMID:23666413

Marks, Joanne; Debnam, Edward S.; Unwin, Robert J.

2013-01-01

416

[Chronic wounds: differential diagnosis].  

PubMed

Wound is a disruption of anatomic and physiologic continuity of the skin. According to the healing process, wounds are classified as acute and chronic wounds. A wound is considered chronic if standard medical procedures do not lead to the expected healing, or if the wound does not heal within six weeks. Chronic wounds are classified as typical and atypical. Typical wounds include ischemic, neurotrophic and hypostatic wounds. Diabetic foot and decubitus ulcers stand out as a specific entity among typical wounds. About 80 percent of chronic wounds localized on lower leg are the result of chronic venous insufficiency, in 5-10 percent the cause is of arterial etiology, whereas the remainder are mostly neuropathic ulcers. About 95 percent of chronic wounds manifest as one of the above-mentioned entities. Other forms of chronic wounds are atypical chronic wounds, which can be caused by autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, vascular diseases and vasculopathies, metabolic and genetic diseases, neoplasm, external factors, psychiatric disorders, drug related reactions, etc. Numerous systemic diseases can present with atypical wounds. The primary cause of the wound can be either systemic disease itself (Crohn's disease) or aberrant immune response due to systemic disease (pyoderma gangrenosum, paraneoplastic syndrome). Although atypical wounds are a rare cause of chronic wounds, it should always be taken in consideration during diagnostic procedure. PMID:24371971

Situm, Mirna; Koli?, Maja

2013-10-01

417

Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)  

MedlinePLUS

Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... cases, the condition is called type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PGA II). Less commonly, Hashimoto disease occurs ...

418

Mapping of HNF4? target genes in intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of HNF4? has been extensively studied in hepatocytes and pancreatic ?-cells, and HNF4? is also regarded as a key regulator of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. The aim of the present work is to identify novel HNF4? target genes in the human intestinal epithelial cells in order to elucidate the role of HNF4? in the intestinal differentiation progress.

Mette Boyd; Simon Bressendorff; Jette Møller; Jørgen Olsen; Jesper T Troelsen

2009-01-01

419

Vibrio cholerae Requires rpoS for Efficient Intestinal Colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is a facultative intestinal pathogen that lives in aquatic environments, often in association with planktonic species. In the suckling mouse, oral inoculation with V. cholerae leads to intestinal colonization and symptoms of diarrheal disease. Results reported here indicate a role for the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, in intestinal colonization in this model of cholera. We constructed within rpoS

D. SCOTT MERRELL; ANNA D. TISCHLER; SANG HO LEE; ANDREW CAMILLI

2000-01-01

420

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows  

E-print Network

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows in sheep consuming pea seeds of pea protein were evalu- ated by in situ and in vivo measurements of rumen and intestine digestion the apparent digestion of OM in the rumen but increased it in the small intestine. Total tract OM digestibility

Boyer, Edmond

421

Adhesion of probiotic micro-organisms to intestinal mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many of the proposed health effects of probiotic micro-organisms it is desirable that the organism at least transiently colonises the gastro-intestinal tract. Interaction with the intestinal mucosa may enhance the possibility for colonisation. In this study, we investigated the adhesion to human intestinal mucus of a human faecal isolate, probiotic, dairy and type culture strains. A significant variation in

A. C. Ouwehand; P. V. Kirjavainen; M.-M. Grönlund; E. Isolauri; S. J. Salminen

1999-01-01

422

INTRODUCTION During the last decade, intestinal HCO3  

E-print Network

459 INTRODUCTION During the last decade, intestinal HCO3 ­ secretion via apical Cl­ /HCO3 by the marine teleost intestine (Grosell et al., 2005), counteracting diffusive water loss to the dehydrating of transepithelial HCO3 ­ secretion in the marine fish intestine has received relatively little attention. In most

Grosell, Martin

423

THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF  

E-print Network

THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF F. TOOFANIAN F. W. G. HILL D. E intestinal mucosal enzymes are respon- sible for this hydrolysis. In the young pre-ruminant and non compartments of the stomach. Thus, the intestinal disaccharidases have a much smaller role. For this reason

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Human small intestinal motor activity and postprandial glycemia after dietary  

E-print Network

Human small intestinal motor activity and postprandial glycemia after dietary fiber intake. C, DF may also change motility in the small intestine and im- provement of glucose tolerance may of the small intestine and glycemia after ingestion of 3 different DF. Electromyographic activity in the first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Article original Localisation immunohistochimique dans l'intestin  

E-print Network

Article original Localisation immunohistochimique dans l'intestin de porc des composantes- rales, ainsi que leurs localisations, ont été effectuées sur coupes d'intestin de porc, en utilisant des la muqueuse intestinale. porc1 lymphocyteI macrophageI intestin 1 immunoglobulines/ entérocytes

Boyer, Edmond

426

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase preserves the normal homeostasis of gut microbiota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThe intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human health; however, the mechanisms governing the normal homeostatic number and composition of these microbes are largely unknown. Previously it was shown that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a small intestinal brush border enzyme, functions as a gut mucosal defence factor limiting the translocation of gut bacteria to mesenteric lymph

M S Malo; S Nasrin Alam; G Mostafa; S J Zeller; P V Johnson; N Mohammad; K T Chen; A K Moss; S Ramasamy; A Faruqui; S Hodin; P S Malo; F Ebrahimi; B Biswas; S Narisawa; J L Millán; H S Warren; J B Kaplan; C L Kitts; E L Hohmann; R A Hodin

2010-01-01

427

The ultrastructural bases for coordination of intestinal motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical control activity (slow waves) of dog small intestine is characterized by phase locking of potential changes in a frequency plateau in the upper intestine. In the distal intestine, phase locking does not occur, though frequencies of each segment are pulled up (increased) by adjacent, more proximal segments. This suggests poorer coupling in the distal compared to the proximal

E. E. Daniel; G. Duchon; Ruth M. Henderson

1972-01-01

428

Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/