Sample records for chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction

  1. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

  2. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Inoh, Yumi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction(CIPO) is a rare severe digestive disease in which clinical symptoms of intestinal obstruction appear without any mechanical cause. Pathophysiologically, CIPO shows ineffective intestinal propulsion due to an impairment of intestinal smooth muscle, enteric nervous system, and interstitial cells of Cajal(ICC). Sustained increased intra-bowel pressure often causes small intestinal malabsorption and bacterial translocation, and leads to malnutrition and blood stream infection (sepsis). Key points of the medical approach for CIPO are to improve nutritional status and reduce abdominal symptoms. Dietary cure and defecation control are the main options in mild cases, whereas home-parenteral-nutrition(HPN) and decompression therapy are often needed in severe cases. Stimulant laxatives, prokinetics and herbal medicine are usually used but often in fail. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy(PEG-J) tube may be burdenless compared to conventional ileus tube. Most important points in the management of this disease are to make a correct diagnosis as early as possible and avoid unnecessary surgery. However, no clear diagnostic criteria have been established so far. Manometry, scintigraphy, and full-thickness biopsy are the major examination for the CIPO diagnosis in the Western countries; however these specialized examinations are not popular in Japan. Therefore the Research Group(chief investigator, Atsushi Nakajima) proposed Japanese diagnostic criteria in 2009 to facilitate the diagnosis of this rare disease by the general physician. In 2013, we have reported that cine-MRI is a non-invasive diagnostic method for CIPO. Although further data are eagerly awaited, it can become a promising diagnostic tool in CIPO patients. Furthermore the Japanese criteria have been revised, and in 2014, the comprehensive criteria from a child to an adult have been devised. In 2015, CIPO is newly certified as Specified Rare and Intractable Disease which is subsidized from public expense, in Japan. In the future, the diagnostic criteria should be appropriately modified by consultation with additional researchers to make them more practical and internationally applicable. PMID:25985646

  3. [Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction due to visceral myopathy].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Márta; Veres, Gábor; Szônyi, László; Dezsôfi, Antal; Bodánszky, Hedvig; Illyés, György; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Arató, András

    2007-07-15

    A case is reported of a chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction with lethal outcome in a 6-year-old boy. The clinical symptoms and radiology examination showed ileus without mechanical obstruction. During the observation the patient developed left sided mydriasis and grand mal seizures with lactacidosis. He was treated conservatively which included total parenteral nutrition, fluid-sodium supplements, intravenous erythromycin and somatostatin, correction of acidosis. On the 48th day he died suddenly of cardiac failure at the intensive care unit. The gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms with lactacidosis suggested the possibility of mitochondrial myopathy. Postmortem histopathology showed visceral myopathy. Molecular genetic analysis could not confirm the presence of the mDNA mutation. PMID:17611183

  4. Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Caused by Chronic Lyme Neuroborreliosis. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Schefte, David F; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is often classified as idiopathic. The condition is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity, and treatment options are often unsatisfactory. A case of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in a 66-year-old woman, presenting with back and abdominal pain, urinary retention and severe constipation is described. The patient lived in an area in which Lyme disease is endemic and had been bitten by ixodes ticks. Intrathecal synthesis of anti-borrelia IgM and IgG and lymphocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was found, consistent with chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis since symptoms had lasted for more than six months. The patient’s gastrointestinal function recovered and the pain subsided significantly following treatment with antibiotics. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) often results in palsy, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Three patients have been described with intestinal pseudoobstruction due to acute LNB. However, this is the first described case of intestinal pseudoobstruction due to chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. LNB must be suspected in patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction, in particular in patients who have been bitten by an ixodes tick and in patients living in an endemic area. PMID:26130639

  5. Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Caused by Chronic Lyme Neuroborreliosis. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Schefte, David F; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-07-30

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is often classified as idiopathic. The condition is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity, and treatment options are often unsatisfactory. A case of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in a 66-year-old woman, presenting with back and abdominal pain, urinary retention and severe constipation is described. The patient lived in an area in which Lyme disease is endemic and had been bitten by ixodes ticks. Intrathecal synthesis of anti-borrelia IgM and IgG and lymphocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was found, consistent with chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis since symptoms had lasted for more than six months. The patient's gastrointestinal function recovered and the pain subsided significantly following treatment with antibiotics. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) often results in palsy, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Three patients have been described with intestinal pseudoobstruction due to acute LNB. However, this is the first described case of intestinal pseudoobstruction due to chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. LNB must be suspected in patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction, in particular in patients who have been bitten by an ixodes tick and in patients living in an endemic area. PMID:26130639

  6. Autonomic dysfunction in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh K. Khurana; Marvin M. Schuster

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen tests were used to assess adrenergic, non-vagal cholinergic, and cardiovagal functions in 11 patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP). The three aims of this study were: 1) to ascertain the presence of and spectrum of autonomic involvement; 2) to assess the level of autonomic dysfunction; and 3) to compare the results of autonomic function tests with gastrointestinal motility patterns.Gastrointestinal

  7. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction and ophthalmoplegia in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Cervera; J Bruix; A Bayes; R Blesa; I Illa; J Coll; A M Garcia-Puges

    1988-01-01

    A 38 year old woman having chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction associated with mitochondrial myopathy is reported. The clinical and radiographic features suggested the diagnosis of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Muscular atrophy and ophthalmoplegia led to muscle biopsy, which disclosed accumulation of normal and abnormal mitochondria ('ragged red fibres'), characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy.

  8. The striking effect of hyperbaric oxygenation therapy in the management of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Yokota; Takeshi Suda; Satoshi Tsukioka; Toru Takahashi; Terasu Honma; Keiichi Seki; Jun Matsuzawa; Mitsukuni Miura; Yutaka Aoyagi; Hitoshi Asakura

    2000-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is one of the disorders that is most refractory to medical and surgical treatment. Even when patients are given nutritional support, including total parenteral nutrition, obstructive symptoms seldom disappear. We report a case of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, due to myopathy, in which hyperbaric oxygenation therapy was strikingly effective. The presence of myopathy was histologically confirmed

  9. The great masquerader of malignancy: chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Josephine A; Babiker, Hani M; Yun, Seongseok; Bishop, Maria C; Lau-Braunhut, Sarah; Meyer, Paul N; Enzler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes can precede the initial manifestation and diagnosis of cancer. Paraneoplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by mechanisms other than the local presence of tumor cells. These phenomena are mediated by humoral factors secreted by tumor cells or by tumor mediated immune responses. Among paraneoplastic syndromes, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is rare and represents a particularly difficult clinical challenge. Paraneoplastic CIPO is a highly morbid syndrome characterized by impaired gastrointestinal propulsion with symptoms and signs of mechanical bowel obstruction. Clinical outcomes of paraneoplastic CIPO are often deleterious. The current standard of care for the management of CIPO includes supportive treatment with promotility and anti-secretory agents. However, the majority of patients with CIPO eventually require the resection of the non-functioning gut segment. Here, we present a 62-year-old patient with anti-Hu antibody associated paraneoplastic CIPO and underlying small cell lung cancer who underwent treatment with cisplatin and etoposide. Herein, we discuss diagnosis, prognosis, proposed mechanisms, treatment options, and future potential therapeutic strategies of paraneoplastic CIPO. PMID:25635225

  10. Clinical characteristics of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mann, S; Debinski, H; Kamm, M

    1997-01-01

    Background—Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, a syndrome of ineffectual motility due to a primary disorder of enteric nerve or muscle, is rare. ?Aims—To determine the clinical spectrum, underlying pathologies, response to treatments, and prognosis in a consecutive unselected group of patients. ?Methods—Cross sectional study of all patients with clinical and radiological features of intestinal obstruction in the absence of organic obstruction, associated with dilated small intestine (with or without dilated large intestine), being actively managed in one tertiary referral centre at one time. ?Results—Twenty patients (11 men and nine women, median age 43 years, range 22-67) fulfilled the diganostic criteria. Median age at onset of symptoms was 17 years (range two weeks to 59 years). Two patients had an autosomally dominant inherited visceral myopathy. Major presenting symptoms were pain (80%), vomiting (75%), constipation (40%), and diarrhoea (20%). Eighteen patients required abdominal surgery, and a further patient had a full thickness rectal biopsy. The mean time interval from symptom onset to first operation was 5.8 years. Histology showed visceral myopathy in 13, visceral neuropathy in three, and was indeterminate in three. In the one other patient small bowel motility studies were suggestive of neuropathy. Two patients died within two years of symptom onset, one from generalised thrombosis and the other from an inflammatory myopathy. Of the remaining 18 patients, eight were nutritionally independent of supplements, two had gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeds, and eight were receiving home parenteral nutrition. Five patients were opiate dependent, only one patient had benefited from prokinetic drug therapy, and five patients required formal psychological intervention and support. ?Conclusions—In a referral setting visceral myopathy is the most common diagnosis in this heterogeneous syndrome, the course of the illness is usually prolonged, and prokinetic drug therapies are not usually helpful. Ongoing management problems include pain relief and nutritional support. ?? Keywords: adult; intestinal; pseudo-obstruction; myopathy; neuropathy PMID:9414977

  11. DNA viruses in the pathogenesis of sporadic chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Debinski, H S; Kamm, M A; Talbot, I C; Khan, G; Kangro, H O; Jeffries, D J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary forms of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) are well described but the aetiology of most cases of sporadic CIIP is unknown. AIM: To determines whether herpes viruses can persist in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby implicating them in the pathogenesis of CIIP. METHODS: Twenty one specimens of small and large intestine from 13 patients with CIIP (eight visceral myopathy, three visceral neuropathy, two undifferentiated), and 12 patients operated on for colorectal cancer (controls) were examined for evidence of Herpesvirus DNA (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus type 1, and varicella zoster virus) by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ DNA hybridisation (ISH) to localise signal to the muscularis propria or myenteric plexus. RESULTS: Screening with nested PCR produced three patients with positive results. One patient with an inflammatory visceral neuropathy had EBV detected in the small intestine by PCR, and ISH demonstrated localisation to neurones in the myenteric plexus. A patient with a visceral myopathy had EBV DNA in both the small and large intestine; and one patient with a visceral neuropathy had small intestine positive for CMV DNA (both negative by ISH). No control tissue was positive for any virus. CONCLUSIONS: In individual patients there appears to be evidence linking a viral aetiology to sporadic CIIP. The role of neurotropic viruses in acute and chronic motility disturbances needs further study. Images PMID:9274480

  12. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria as a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Angkathunyakul, Napat; Treepongkaruna, Suporn; Molagool, Sani; Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral myopathy is one of the causes of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Most cases pathologically reveal degenerative changes of myocytes or muscularis propia atrophy and fibrosis. Abnormal layering of muscularis propria is extremely rare. We report a case of a 9-mo-old Thai male baby who presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologic findings showed abnormal layering of small intestinal muscularis propria with an additional oblique layer and aberrant muscularization in serosa. The patient also had a short small bowel without malrotation, brachydactyly, and absence of the 2nd to 4th middle phalanges of both hands. The patient was treated with cisapride and combined parenteral and enteral nutritional support. He had gradual clinical improvement and gained body weight. Subsequently, the parenteral nutrition was discontinued. The previously reported cases are reviewed and discussed. PMID:26078585

  13. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: systematic histopathological approach can clinch vital clues.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Prasenjit, Das; Prateek, Kinra; Shasanka, Panda S; Virender, Sekhon; Rajni, Yadav; Gaurav, Jindal; Vijay, Maneesh K; Arun, Kumar V; Mahajan, J K; Sandeep, Agarwala; Ranjan, Dash Nihar; Siddhartha, Datta Gupta

    2014-05-01

    The histopathological approach of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is critical, and the findings are often missed by the histopathologists for lack of awareness and nonavailability of standard criteria. We aimed to describe a detailed histopathological approach for working-up cases of CIP by citing our experience. Eight suspected cases of CIP were included in the study to determine and describe an approach for reaching the histopathological diagnosis collected over a period of the last 1.5 years. The Hirschsprung's disease was put apart from the scope of this study. A detailed light microscopic analysis was performed along with special and immunohistochemical stains. Transmission electron microscopy was carried out on tissue retrieved from paraffin embedded tissue blocks. Among the eight cases, three were neonates, one in the pediatric age group, two adolescent, and two adults. After following the described critical approach, we achieved the histological diagnoses in all the cases. The causes of CIP noted were primary intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) type B (in 4), mesenchymopathy (in 2), lymphocytic myenteric ganglionitis (in 1), and duplication of myenteric plexus with leiomyopathy (in 1). Desmosis was noted in all of them along with other primary pathologies. One of the IND patients also had visceral myopathy, type IV. Histopathologists need to follow a systematic approach comprising of diligent histological examination and use of immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy in CIP workup. Therapy and prognosis vary depending on lesions identified by pathologists. These lesions can be seen in isolation or in combinations. PMID:24663670

  14. Radiation-induced intestinal pseudoobstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Perino, L.E.; Schuffler, M.D.; Mehta, S.J.; Everson, G.T.

    1986-10-01

    A case of intestinal pseudoobstruction occurring 30 yr after radiation therapy is described. Mechanical causes of obstruction were excluded by laparotomy. Histology of full-thickness sections of the small bowel revealed vascular ectasia and sclerosis, serosal fibrosis, neuronal proliferation within the submucosa, and degeneration of the muscle fibers of the circular layer of the muscularis propria. On the basis of the clinical and histologic findings we conclude that, in this patient, intestinal pseudoobstruction was due to muscular and neuronal injury from abdominal irradiation.

  15. Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Schang, J.C.; Devroede, G.

    1985-06-01

    A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  16. Prokinetics in the treatment of acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Barbara, Giovanni; Guerrini, Stefani; Lioce, Andrea; Vasina, Valentina; Tonini, Marcello; Cola, Bruno; Corinaldesi, Roberto; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2004-02-01

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome) is characterized by an acute obstruction of the large bowel that is unrelated to mechanical causes. The evidence that cholinesterase inhibitors are effective in relieving acute colonic pseudo-obstruction raised interest in the pharmacological management of this condition. This review analyzes the pharmacological treatment of patients with Ogilvie's syndrome. Intravenous neostigmine is the best pharmacological treatment, leading to rapid colonic decompression. New colokinetic agents, including 5-HT(4) receptor agonists and motilides, may represent other useful therapeutic options for Ogilvie's syndrome. PMID:15057661

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Chronic atrial and intestinal dysrhythmia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intestines (peristalsis), causing a digestive condition called intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The heart and digestive issues develop at ... difficulty breathing, or excessive tiredness (fatigue). In intestinal pseudo-obstruction, impairment of peristalsis leads to a buildup ...

  18. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction as an Initial Manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong Jun; Yang, Jae Nam; Lim, Yun Jeong; Kang, Ji Hyuk; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mal Young

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) is an uncommon, severe complication that occurs in a small subgroup of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To our knowledge, approximately 30 cases of IPO in SLE have been reported in the literature. Moreover, IPO is rare as an initial manifestation of SLE. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with SLE who initially presented with IPO. PMID:26131004

  19. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction as an Initial Manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong Jun; Yang, Jae Nam; Kang, Ji Hyuk; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mal Young

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) is an uncommon, severe complication that occurs in a small subgroup of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To our knowledge, approximately 30 cases of IPO in SLE have been reported in the literature. Moreover, IPO is rare as an initial manifestation of SLE. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with SLE who initially presented with IPO. PMID:26131004

  20. [Clinical aspects and pathology of acute and chronic pseudoobstruction of the colon].

    PubMed

    Helpap, B; Holna, J

    1986-01-01

    The pseudoobstruction corresponds to the condition of an extreme colonic dilatation with possible wall perforation without concrete evidence of a real block. Acute, reversible and chronic types are distinguished. On two examples, clinic and pathology (through autopsy) are extensively described and discussed with literature. The highest risk in acute pseudoobstruction is a wall perforation with stercoral peritonitis. This is mostly fatal. When diagnosed in time, trials of decompression are indicated. The acute pseudoobstruction is mostly observed in traumatic and septic conditions, but also with extreme alcohol abuse and consuming tumorous diseases. Chronic courses of the diseases are often associated with Parkinsonism. In this form of pseudoobstruction, functional disorders of the smooth musculature appear to be present. Electrolyte disorders are to be regarded as consecutive conditions. The mean age is 61 years. There is a slight predominance of the male sex. The cases presented were combined with chronic-granulomatous necrotizing osteomyelitis and lung carcinomas in the acute form, with Parkinsonism in the chronic form, thus corresponding to literature. Altogether this is a rare disease with a frequency about 1 out of 10000 to 15000 patients admitted to surgical departments. PMID:3754201

  1. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-lin; Liu, Gang; Liu, Tong; Wei, Jiang-peng

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) is a rare but dangerous complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) when the patient has no other manifestations except gastrointestinal symptoms. We performed 1 patient with a 2-month history of recurrent vomiting and abdominal distension. She admitted past surgical histories of cesarean section and appendectomy. A physical examination revealed tenderness in the right lower abdominal on palpation and bowel sounds were weak, 2 to 3 bpm. An x-ray and CT of her abdomen showed intestinal obstruction. The initial diagnosis was adhesive intestinal obstruction. She received surgical treatment because her symptoms had gradually become more frequent and persistent. But she vomited again 2 weeks later after the surgery. Further immunology tests indicated that she had an IPO secondary to SLE. We treated the patient with methylprednisolone pulse for 3 days and followed by prednisone orally. The patient had a good response. Complete remission was achieved on 8 years follow-up. The importance of IPO secondary to SLE lies in an early diagnosis. After the diagnosis is established, immunosuppressive therapy should be the initial and first-line treatment, and surgical intervention is often disappointing and should be carefully avoided. It is necessary to enhance awareness of doctors to IPO secondary to SLE. PMID:25546663

  2. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction--review and update 2008].

    PubMed

    Seidl, H; Pehl, C; Schepp, W; Schmidt, T

    2008-07-01

    The term chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction describes a syndrome of severly altered gastrointestinal motility that clinically resembles mechanical intestinal obstruction. The syndrome comprises numerous underlying primary or secondary neuropathies of the intrinsic or entrinsic nervous system as well myopathies. Almost a third of the patients requires long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). However, emergency surgery and even small bowel transplantation as an ultimate option after failure of TPN may become necessary to evade a vital threat. Although our understanding of pathogenesis and therapeutical options is still evolving, current knowledge allows a differentiated diagnostic approach, classification of the primary and secondary causes and differentiated therapy. PMID:18618383

  3. Myotonic dystrophy as a cause of colonic pseudoobstruction: not just another constipated child

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Andrea M; Johnston, Jennifer H; Gleason, Wallace A; Rhoads, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Muscular dystrophy has been traditionally associated with common gastrointestinal symptoms such as reflux, constipation, and dysphasia. In myotonic dystrophy, there are rare reports of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPOS). We herein present a case of CIPOS requiring colectomy and with good results. PMID:26185641

  4. Retinoblastoma protein prevents enteric nervous system defects and intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ming; Landreville, Solange; Agapova, Olga A.; Wiley, Luke A.; Shoykhet, Michael; Harbour, J. William; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and development. To investigate the role of RB1 in neural crest–derived melanocytes, we bred mice with a floxed Rb1 allele with mice expressing Cre from the tyrosinase (Tyr) promoter. TyrCre+;Rb1fl/fl mice exhibited no melanocyte defects but died unexpectedly early with intestinal obstruction, striking defects in the enteric nervous system (ENS), and abnormal intestinal motility. Cre-induced DNA recombination occurred in all enteric glia and most small bowel myenteric neurons, yet phenotypic effects of Rb1 loss were cell-type specific. Enteric glia were twice as abundant in mutant mice compared with those in control animals, while myenteric neuron number was normal. Most myenteric neurons also appeared normal in size, but NO-producing myenteric neurons developed very large nuclei as a result of DNA replication without cell division (i.e., endoreplication). Parallel studies in vitro found that exogenous NO and Rb1 shRNA increased ENS precursor DNA replication and nuclear size. The large, irregularly shaped nuclei in NO-producing neurons were remarkably similar to those in progeria, an early-onset aging disorder that has been linked to RB1 dysfunction. These findings reveal a role for RB1 in the ENS. PMID:24177421

  5. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... imaging studies, and a biopsy; and perform blood tests. A health care provider may order other tests to confirm the ... prep instructions to follow at home before the test. The health care provider may ask the person to follow a ...

  6. Clinical analysis of 61 systemic lupus erythematosus patients with intestinal pseudo-obstruction and/or ureterohydronephrosis: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Na; Zhao, Jiuliang; Liu, Jinjing; Wu, Di; Zhao, Lidan; Wang, Qian; Hou, Yong; Li, Mengtao; Zhang, Wen; Zeng, Xuejun; Fang, Weigang; Huang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xuan; Tian, Xinping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the clinical features of intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) and/or ureterohydronephrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Sixty-one SLE patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 183 cases were randomly selected as controls from 3840 SLE inpatients without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis during the same period. Patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups (SLE with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis, SLE with IPO, and SLE with ureterohydronephrosis). The clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognosis were compared between the 3 groups. There were 57 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 32.0 years. IPO was the initial manifestation of SLE in 49.1% of the cases, whereas ureterohydronephrosis in 32.5%. All patients were initially treated with a high-dose steroid. Thirty-one of these patients (50.8%) also received intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Two patients died of bowel perforation and lupus encephalopathy, and the other 59 patients (96.7%) achieved remission after treatment. The incidences of fever, glomerulonephritis, nervous system involvement, serositis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation, hypoalbuminemia, hypocomplementemia, and anti-SSA antibody positivity were significantly higher in patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis than in the control group (without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis). Also, patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis had higher SLE Disease Activity Index scores than control patients. Compared with SLE patients with IPO, the patients with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis had a significantly higher incidence of gallbladder wall thickening, biliary tract dilatation, and serositis, whereas the patients with ureterohydronephrosis had less mucocutaneous involvement and serositis. Eight of the 47 IPO patients who initially responded well to immunotherapy relapsed; however, all responded well to retreatment with adequate immunotherapy. Of these 8 patients, 4 relapsed following poor compliance and self-discontinuation of steroid or immunosuppressant therapy. The rate of poor compliance with immunotherapy and the number of organ systems involved in patients in the recurrent IPO group were significantly higher than those in the nonrecurrent IPO group. IPO and ureterohydronephrosis are severe complications of SLE. As patients usually respond readily to early optimal steroid treatment, early diagnosis and timely initiation of glucocorticoid are important to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve prognosis. PMID:25634172

  7. Hypokalemia Associated with Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Sunnoqrot, Naseem; Reilly, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of hypokalemia resulting from colonic pseudo-obstruction or Ogilvie's syndrome. Colonic pseudo-obstruction is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea that has a low sodium and high potassium concentration. It is seen in a variety of medical and surgical conditions, but its exact cause remains unknown. It is thought to result from an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic input in the distal colon. The diarrhea is secretory and driven by potassium secretion rather than the inhibition of sodium reabsorption or chloride secretion, which are the most common pathophysiologic mechanisms of secretory diarrhea. Affected patients often lose >100 mmol of potassium daily. Colonic pseudo-obstruction is associated with a dramatic upregulation of the maxiK or BK potassium channel. This channel plays a prominent role in flow-mediated potassium secretion in the connecting tubule and collecting duct and is also upregulated in the distal colon in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In vitro studies show that the channel is regulated by catecholamine binding to the ? receptor and cyclic AMP upregulation, somatostatin and aldosterone, insights that can be used to help guide pharmacologic therapy. Nephrologists should be aware of colonic pseudo-obstruction as a cause of extrarenal potassium loss. PMID:26120577

  8. Hypokalemia Associated with Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Sunnoqrot, Naseem; Reilly, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of hypokalemia resulting from colonic pseudo-obstruction or Ogilvie's syndrome. Colonic pseudo-obstruction is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea that has a low sodium and high potassium concentration. It is seen in a variety of medical and surgical conditions, but its exact cause remains unknown. It is thought to result from an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic input in the distal colon. The diarrhea is secretory and driven by potassium secretion rather than the inhibition of sodium reabsorption or chloride secretion, which are the most common pathophysiologic mechanisms of secretory diarrhea. Affected patients often lose >100 mmol of potassium daily. Colonic pseudo-obstruction is associated with a dramatic upregulation of the maxiK or BK potassium channel. This channel plays a prominent role in flow-mediated potassium secretion in the connecting tubule and collecting duct and is also upregulated in the distal colon in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In vitro studies show that the channel is regulated by catecholamine binding to the ? receptor and cyclic AMP upregulation, somatostatin and aldosterone, insights that can be used to help guide pharmacologic therapy. Nephrologists should be aware of colonic pseudo-obstruction as a cause of extrarenal potassium loss.

  9. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Veekmans, P; Broos, P; Stuyck, J; Kerremans, R; Yap, P; Ponette, E

    1992-06-01

    We present two cases of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, one complicated with perforation. Orthopedic surgery was the pathogenetic factor in both cases. Recovery was successful in both patients after appropriate treatment. The importance of conventional X-ray techniques, and more specially the plain X-ray of the abdomen, is stressed regarding early diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:1400146

  10. Inducible nitric oxide regulates intestinal glutamine assimilation during chronic intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Subha; Sundaram, Uma

    2015-01-30

    To facilitate assimilation of glutamine, different Na-dependent glutamine absorptive pathways are present in the rabbit small intestine, specifically B0AT1 in villus and SN2 in crypt cell brush border membrane. Further, both are uniquely regulated in the chronically inflamed intestine. B0AT1 is inhibited secondary to reduced number of brush border membrane (BBM) co-transporters while SN2 is stimulated secondary to an increased affinity for glutamine. These unique changes are reversible by treatment with a broad spectrum immune modulator such as glucocorticoids. However, whether inducible nitric oxide (iNO), known to be elevated in the mucosa of the chronically inflamed intestine, may be responsible for these co-transporter alterations is not known. In the present study, treatment of chronically inflamed rabbits with L-NIL, a selective inhibitor of iNO synthase, reversed the inhibition of B0AT1 in villus and the stimulation of SN2 in crypt cells. At the level of the co-transporter in the brush border membrane, inhibition of iNO production reversed the inhibition of villus B0AT1 by restoring the co-transporter numbers while the stimulation of crypt SN2 was reversed back to normal by restoring its affinity for glutamine. Western blot analyses of BBM proteins also confirmed the kinetic studies. Thus, L-NIL treatment restores the uniquely altered Na-glutamine co-transporters in the enterocytes of chronically inflamed intestine. All these data indicate that iNO functions as an upstream immune modulator directly regulating glutamine assimilation during chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25524833

  11. Home parenteral nutrition in chronic intestinal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bisset, W M; Stapleford, P; Long, S; Chamberlain, A; Sokel, B; Milla, P J

    1992-01-01

    In children with severe failure of intestinal function, intravenous nutrition is at present the only treatment able to maintain adequate nutrition for prolonged periods of time. Over the last five years we have discharged 10 patients home on parenteral nutrition for a total of 25 patient years and here the outcome of these children is presented. Of the 10 patients, one has discontinued home parenteral nutrition (HPN), seven patients remain well, one patient has recently moved to the USA, and one patient has died after major abdominal surgery. All children had either normal or an accelerated rate of growth on HPN and developmentally all have progressed well. All the children over 5 years attend normal schools. The major complication of treatment was line sepsis with an overall rate of one episode in 476 days and a total of nine central lines (five patients) have required replacement giving an average line life of 680 days. For those children unfortunate enough to suffer from severe intestinal failure, HPN is preferable to prolonged hospital treatment and offers the chance of a good quality of life with prolonged survival. PMID:1739322

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weakness in the muscles that control eye movement (ophthalmoplegia), intellectual disability, seizures, unusual facial features, or recurrent ... Genetic Testing Registry: Visceral myopathy familial with external ophthalmoplegia Genetic Testing Registry: Visceral neuropathy, familial, autosomal dominant ...

  13. Intestinal parasitic infection among Egyptian children with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Lerine Bahy El-Dine; El-Faramawy, Amel Abdel Magid; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Ismail, Khadiga Ahmed; Fouad, Sally Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) are often highly susceptible to parasitic infection due to a depressed immune system. The objective of this study was to detect the most commonly intestinal parasites found among Egyptian children with CLD. The present study was conducted on 50 children with CLD of different etiology (25 were having different intestinal symptoms, 25 without intestinal symptoms) and 50 non-CLD children with gastrointestinal complaints served as controls. All cases were subjected to stool examination and investigated by liver function tests. Also, anthropometric measurements were taken for all children including weight and height. It was found that the most commonly intestinal protozoa identified in the patients with CLD in order of frequency were: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (16 %), Giardia lamblia (14 %), Blastocystis hominis (14 %), Cryptosporidium parvum (10 %), E. histolytica and G. lamblia (2 %), E. histolytica and B. hominis (2 %), G. lamblia and B. hominis (2 %), B. hominis and Entamoeba coli (2 %), Microsporidium (2 %) and no cases were found infected with Strongyloides stercoralis. As compared to the controls, the observed incidence of these organisms in CLD patients was significantly higher (p < 0.045) as regards stool examination by unstained techniques while, there was no significant difference between both groups as regards stool examination by stained techniques (p < 0.478). In addition, this study showed that the weight and height of studied patients were affected by parasitic infection while, there was no significant correlation between parasitic infection and liver function tests. In conclusion, chronic liver diseases affect the immunity of the patients as shown in significant increase in the incidence of intestinal parasites in cases compared to controls. PMID:25698851

  14. A case of delayed oxaliplatin-induced pseudo-obstruction: an atypical presentation of oxaliplatin neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, M; Pauwels, W; Bleecker, J De

    2015-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity is a serious complication of cancer treatment. Oxaliplatin, a third-generation platinum drug, has become one of the first-line therapies used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of platinum-based chemotherapy. Most commonly a sensory neuropathy occurs with cold-triggered symptoms in the acute phase and numbness and painful paresthesias as a late presentation. Autonomic neurotoxicity and late presentation, months after cessation of the therapy, has rarely been described. We report a patient who clinically presented with a pseudo-obstruction months after treatment with oxaliplatin for metastatic colorectal cancer. Intestinal adhesions and relapsing malignancy were carefully excluded. By exclusion the pseudo-obstruction was attributed to a toxic oxaliplatin-induced autonomic neuropathy which slowly improved during months of follow-up. PMID:25523317

  15. Exclusion of linkage between RET and Neuronal Intestinal Dysplasia type B

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, V.; Yin Luo; Brancolini, V.; Romeo, G. [Instituto G. Gaslini, Genova (Italy)] [Instituto G. Gaslini, Genova (Italy); Weber, D. [Children`s Hospital, Luzern (Switzerland)] [Children`s Hospital, Luzern (Switzerland); Brancolini, V.; Devoto, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-03-15

    Neuronal Intestinal Dysplasia type B (NID B) is a complex alteration of the enteric nervous system belonging to the group of intestinal dysganglionoses which may involve rectum, colon, and small intestine. Second only to Hirschsprung diseases (HSCR), NID B is one of the most frequent causes of chronic constipation and pseudo-obstructive intestinal dysmotility. Since NID B is often associated with HSCR and point mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have been identified in HSCR patients, we analyzed two NID B pedigrees to investigate if RET mutations might cause also the NID B phenotype. Linkage analysis demonstrated that the NID B locus is not linked to RET in the pedigrees analysed. Further genetic analyses will possibility improve the understanding of the cause and facilitate diagnostic procedures in NID B. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Transcapillary Water and Protein Flux in the Canine Intestine with Acute and Chronic Extrahepatic Portal Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Witte; John F. Myers; Marlys H. Witte; Murray A. Katz

    SUMMARY. Intestinal transcapillary water and total protein flux were determined in dogs with chronic extrahepatic portal hypertension after construction of an aortic-portal shunt combined with hilar portal vein constriction and compared to acute portal vein constriction. Measurements were made of thoracic duct lymph flow, portal venous pressure, and total protein concentration in plasma, thoracic duct lymph, intestinal and liver lymph.

  17. Modifications of Inflammatory Pathways in Rat Intestine Following Chronic Ingestion of Depleted Uranium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Dublineau; L. Grandcolas; S. Grison; C. Baudelin; F. Paquet; P. Voisin; J. Aigueperse; P. Gourmelon

    2007-01-01

    The environmental contamination by dispersion of depleted uranium (DU) might result in its chronic ingestion of DU by local populations. The aim of this study was to determine if chronic ingestion of DU at low doses induces inflammatory reactions in intestine, first biological system exposed to uranium after in- gestion. Experiments were performed with rats receiving uranium in drinking water

  18. [Motility disorders of the small intestine].

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Layer, P

    2015-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is the most severe form of intestinal motility disorder, which leads to chronic or intermittent symptoms and signs of (sub-)ileus despite the absence of an intestinal obstruction. Small bowel motility disturbances may occur as primary diseases or secondary to a large number of other diseases and disturbances including rheumatological diseases and neurotoxic drugs. Pathological alterations affect the nervous system, smooth muscles, and/or mesenchymal structures such as the interstitial cells of Cajal or glia cells. Clinical symptoms are unspecific so that the initially suspected diagnosis is almost always wrong. Thus, extensive and stepwise diagnostic procedures are required involving specialized centers in order to exclude intestinal obstruction, to search for complications and potential causes of the disease, to quantify the extension and severity of the motility disorder, and to clarify the pathomechanism if possible. General therapeutic goals include maintenance of adequate nutritional status, improvement of propulsive motility, amelioration of abdominal symptoms, and avoidance and/or therapy of complications. Some CIPO patients require permanent parenteral nutrition. If this causes intolerable complications, small bowel transplantation can be considered in suitable patients as ultima ratio. PMID:25854121

  19. Inhibition of intestinal biotin absorption by chronic alcohol feeding: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, Sandeep B; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Kumar, Jeyan S; Hoiness, Robert; Said, Hamid M

    2011-03-01

    The water-soluble vitamin biotin is essential for normal cellular functions and its deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities. Mammals obtain biotin from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption, a process mediated by the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic alcohol use in humans is associated with a significant reduction in plasma biotin levels, and animal studies have shown inhibition in intestinal biotin absorption by chronic alcohol feeding. Little, however, is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition in intestinal biotin transport by chronic alcohol use. These mechanisms were investigated in this study by using rats and transgenic mice carrying the human full-length SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region chronically fed alcohol liquid diets; human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells chronically exposed to alcohol were also used as models. The results showed chronic alcohol feeding of rats to lead to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin transport events across jejunal brush border and basolateral membrane domains. This inhibition was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of the SMVT protein, mRNA, and heterogenous nuclear RNA. Chronic alcohol feeding also inhibited carrier-mediated biotin uptake in rat colon. Studies with transgenic mice confirmed the above findings and further showed chronic alcohol feeding significantly inhibited the activity of SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region. Finally, chronic exposure of Caco-2 cells to alcohol led to a significant decrease in the activity of both promoters P1 and P2 of the human SLC5A6 gene. These studies identify for the first time the cellular and molecular parameters of the intestinal biotin absorptive processes that are affected by chronic alcohol feeding. PMID:21148397

  20. The intestinal microbiota and chronic disorders of the gut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert L. DuPont; Andrew W. DuPont

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces of the gut are colonized by large numbers of heterogeneous bacteria that contribute to intestinal health and disease. In genetically susceptible individuals, a 'pathogenic community' may arise, whereby abnormal gut flora contributes to alterations in the mucosa and local immune system leading to gastrointestinal disease. These diseases include enteric infections, such as Clostridium difficile infection, small intestinal bacterial

  1. The Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter concisus Strains Associated with Chronic Intestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Deshpande, Nandan P.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Tan, Chew Gee; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Raftery, Mark J.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Hazel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus has garnered increasing attention due to its association with intestinal disease, thus, the pathogenic potential of strains isolated from different intestinal diseases was investigated. A method to isolate C. concisus was developed and the ability of eight strains from chronic and acute intestinal diseases to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Features associated with bacterial invasion were investigated using comparative genomic analyses and the effect of C. concisus on host protein expression was examined using proteomics. Our isolation method from intestinal biopsies resulted in the isolation of three C. concisus strains from children with Crohn's disease or chronic gastroenteritis. Four C. concisus strains from patients with chronic intestinal diseases can attach to and invade host cells using mechanisms such as chemoattraction to mucin, aggregation, flagellum-mediated attachment, “membrane ruffling”, cell penetration and damage. C. concisus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestinal diseases have significantly higher invasive potential than those from acute intestinal diseases. Investigation of the cause of this increased pathogenic potential revealed a plasmid to be responsible. 78 and 47 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in cells infected with C. concisus, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that C. concisus infection regulated processes related to interleukin-12 production, proteasome activation and NF-?B activation. Infection with all eight C. concisus strains resulted in host cells producing high levels of interleukin-12, however, only strains capable of invading host cells resulted in interferon-? production as confirmed by ELISA. These findings considerably support the emergence of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, but more significantly, provide novel insights into the host immune response and an explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the outcome of C. concisus infection. Moreover, response to infection with invasive strains has substantial similarities to that observed in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease patients. PMID:22194985

  2. Vasoactive intestinal peptide releasing tumor which caused to chronic watery diarrhea and hypokalemia

    PubMed Central

    Kan?k, Ali; Baran, Ma?allah; Çayan, Özlem; Eliaç?k, Kay?; Özdemir, Tunç; Helvac?, Mehmet; Çeçen, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria syndrome is a rare cause of chronic secretory diarrhea arising from a vasoactive intestinal peptide releasing tumor. In this article, a 15-month old female patient with watery diarrhea and abdominal distension which lasting four months is presented. In different centers no diagnosis could be made although investigations. The patient was diagnosed with vasoactive intestinal peptide releasing ganglioneuroblastoma localized in the right surrenal gland.

  3. A chronic oral reference dose for hexavalent chromium-induced intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Kirman, Christopher R; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Suh, Mina; Hays, Sean M; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induce villous cytotoxicity and compensatory crypt hyperplasia in the small intestines of mice (but not rats). Lifetime exposure to such cytotoxic concentrations increases intestinal neoplasms in mice, suggesting that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors involves chronic wounding and compensatory cell proliferation of the intestine. Therefore, we developed a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) designed to be protective of intestinal damage and thus intestinal cancer. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chromium in mice was used to estimate the amount of Cr(VI) entering each intestinal tissue section (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) from the lumen per day (normalized to intestinal tissue weight). These internal dose metrics, together with corresponding incidences for diffuse hyperplasia, were used to derive points of departure using benchmark dose modeling and constrained nonlinear regression. Both modeling techniques resulted in similar points of departure, which were subsequently converted to human equivalent doses using a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Applying appropriate uncertainty factors, an RfD of 0.006 mg kg(-1) day(-1) was derived for diffuse hyperplasia-an effect that precedes tumor formation. This RfD is protective of both noncancer and cancer effects in the small intestine and corresponds to a safe drinking water equivalent level of 210 µg l(-1). This concentration is higher than the current federal maximum contaminant level for total Cr (100 µg l(-1)) and well above levels of Cr(VI) in US drinking water supplies (typically ? 5 µg l(-1)). PMID:23943231

  4. Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in severe small intestinal damage in chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Motoko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Sogawa, Mitsue; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Enteric bacteria play a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal damage. However, the association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and NSAID-induced small intestinal damage remains unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the association between SIBO and the presence of NSAID-induced severe small intestinal damage or its symptoms in chronic NSAID users. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty-three patients who had been using NSAIDs for over 3 months were enrolled. They were examined by capsule endoscopy and a lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). We defined severe small intestinal damage as the presence of more than four small erosions or large erosions/ulcers. The LHBT result was considered positive if there was an increase in the level of breath hydrogen gas of >20 ppm above baseline. RESULTS. Out of 43 patients, 22 (51%) had severe small intestinal damage. The LHBT was positive in 5 of 21 patients (24%) without severe small intestinal damage and in 13 of 21 patients (59%) with severe small intestinal damage. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an LHBT-positive result was significantly associated with increased odds ratio for severe small intestinal damage (OR, 6.54; 95% CI, 1.40-30.50). There was no significant difference in the presence of symptoms between the LHBT-positive and LHBT-negative patients with severe small intestinal damage. CONCLUSION. SIBO might have a role in the development of severe small intestinal damage in chronic NSAID users. PMID:24417613

  5. Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT00441623). Intestinal uptake of p-cresol, under steady state conditions, was estimated from 24 h urinary excretion of PCS. Primary endpoint was time to first cardiovascular event, i.e., cardiac death, myocardial infarction/ischemia, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiovascular surgery, ischemic stroke or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Statistical analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results In a cohort of 200 patients, median 24 h urinary excretion of PCS amounted to 457.47 ?mol (IQR 252.68 – 697.17). After a median follow-up of 52 months, 25 patients reached the primary endpoint (tertile 1/2/3: 5/6/14 events, log rank P 0.037). Higher urinary excretion of PCS was directly associated with cardiovascular events (univariate hazard ratio per 100 ?mol increase: 1.112, P 0.002). In multivariate analysis, urinary excretion of PCS remained a predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of eGFR (hazard ratio 1.120, P 0.002). Conclusions In patients with chronic kidney disease, intestinal uptake of p-cresol associates with cardiovascular disease independent of renal function. The intestinal generation and absorption of p-cresol may be therapeutic targets to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in patients with renal dysfunction. PMID:24912660

  6. Master regulator of intestinal disease: IL-6 in chronic inflammation and cancer development.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Maximilian J; Neurath, Markus F

    2014-02-01

    IL-6 signaling is of central importance for the maintenance of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IL-6 regulates T cell differentiation, activation and resistance against apoptosis and thereby controls the balance between pro-inflammatory T cell subsets such as Th1 or Th17 cells and immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. Furthermore, IL-6 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In fact, IL-6 directly promotes tumor cell proliferation and survival through STAT3 activation. Due to its role in both types of diseases, IL-6 has been proposed as a missing link between inflammation and tumor development. During recent years, several therapeutics targeting IL-6 dependent pathways have been developed. Although clinical data about anti-IL-6 treatment in intestinal diseases are currently scarce, targeting this pathway might be a promising strategy in IBD and CRC. PMID:24447345

  7. [The enterosorption treatment of patients with acute intestinal infections and chronic colitis with diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Andre?chyn, M A; Lutsuk, O S; Andre?chyn, S M; Kopcha, V S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 234 patients with acute intestinal infections (AII) and chronic colitis presenting with diarrhoea were examined. In an acute phase of AII induced by conditionally pathogenic flora, salmonellae and shigellae, as well as in exacerbation of chronic colitis, blood aggregability appears to be on the increase, with the ability of erythrocytes to deformation getting worse. In rectal mucosa hemodynamic disorders are common, manifested by decrease in pulse blood filling, rate of bloodflow predominantly in small and medium-size arteries as well as blood supply as a whole. Applying polysorb to rectal mucosa of such patients with the aid of an atomizer in speedier manner than it is usually done in conventional modes of treatment makes for regression of clinical symptoms of the illness, decreases the level of endotoxicosis, speeds up normalization of blood aggregability, red cell deformability, promoting quick restoration of rectal mucose bloodflow, the anal canal sphincter strength, with its rigidity returning to normal. PMID:9072235

  8. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  9. The surgical treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia: results of a recent series.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Papaspiropoulos, V; Mancini, P; Ceccanei, G

    2004-04-01

    Due to the rarity of the condition, large and prospective series defining the optimal method of digestive arteries revascularization, for the treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia, are lacking. The aim of this consecutive sample clinical study was to test the hypothesis that flexible application of different revascularization methods, according to individual cases, will yield the best results in the management of chronic intestinal ischemia. Eleven patients, of a mean age of 56 years, underwent revascularization of 11 digestive arteries for symptomatic chronic mesenteric occlusive disease. Eleven superior mesenteric arteries and one celiac axis were revascularized. The revascularization techniques included retrograde bypass grafting in 7 cases, antegrade bypass grafting in 2, percutaneous arterial angioplasty in 1, and arterial reimplantation in one case. The donor axis for either reimplantation or bypass grafting was the infrarenal aorta in 4 cases, an infrarenal Dacron graft in 4, and the celiac aorta in one case. Grafting materials included 5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 3 Dacron grafts. Concomitant procedures included 3 aorto-ilio-femoral grafts and one renal artery revascularization. Mean follow-up duration was 31 months. There was no operative mortality. Cumulative survival rate was 88.9% at 36 months (SE 12.1%). Primary patency rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). The symptom free rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). Direct reimplantation, antegrade and retrograde bypass grafting, all allow good mid-term results: the choice of the optimal method depends on the anatomic and general patient's status. Associated infrarenal and renal arterial lesions can be safely treated in the same time of digestive revascularization. Angioplasty alone yields poor results and should be limited to patients at poor risk for surgery. PMID:15154575

  10. Noninvasive monitoring of small intestinal oxygen in a rat model of chronic mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Elaine M.; Khan, Mahmood; Salisbury, Ronald; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2013-01-01

    We noninvasively monitored the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in rat small intestine using a model of chronic mesenteric ischemia by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry (EPR) over a 7-day period. The particulate probe lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) was embedded into the oxygen permeable material polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) by cast-molding and polymerization (Oxy-Chip). A one-time surgical procedure was performed to place the Oxy-Chip on the outer wall of the small intestine (SI). The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was banded to approximately 30% blood flow for experimental rats. Noninvasive measurement of pO2 was performed at baseline for control rats or immediate post-banding and on days 1, 3, and 7. The SI pO2 for control rats remained stable over the 7-day period. The pO2 on day 7 was 54.5 ± 0.9 mmHg (mean ± SE). SMA banded rats were significantly different from controls with a noted reduction in pO2 post banding with a progressive decline to a final pO2 of 20.9 ± 4.5 mmHg (mean ± SE; p = 0.02). All SMA-banded rats developed adhesions around the Oxy-Chip yet remained asymptomatic. The hypoxia marker Hypoxyprobe™ was used to validate low tissue pO2. Brown cytoplasmic staining was consistent with hypoxia. Mild brown staining was noted predominantly on the villus tips in control animals. SMA-banded rats had an extended region of hypoxic involvement in the villus with a higher intensity of cytoplasmic staining. Deep brown staining of the enteric nervous system neurons and connective tissue both within layers and in the mesentery were noted. SMA banded rats with lower pO2 values had a higher intensity of staining. Thus, monitoring SI pO2 using the probe Oxy-Chip provides a valid measure of tissue oxygenation. Tracking pO2 in conditions that produce chronic mesenteric ischemia will contribute to our understanding of intestinal tissue oxygenation and how changes impact symptom evolution and the trajectory of chronic disease. PMID:23636684

  11. Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Campanati, Anna; Gesuita, Rosaria; Giannoni, Melania; Piraccini, Francesca; Sandroni, Lucia; Martina, Emanuela; Conocchiari, Luca; Bendia, Emanuele; Di Sario, Antonio; Offidani, Annamaria

    2013-03-27

    The aim of this study is to assess the associations between chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), Helicobacter pylori infection and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Forty- eight patients with CSU were studied by scoring the urticaria activity and assesing the quality of life. Patients with H. pylori infection (n=11) or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (n=13) were specifically treated for one week and clinically evaluated both before and 4 weeks after the eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori infection led to a significant improvement in CSU (p<0.002). In contrast, eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was not associated with any clinical improvement in CSU, despite the fact that these patients had statistically significant more urticaria activity at baseline. Thus there is no evidence to support the eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in CSU, but eradication of H. pylori infection may result in an improvement of the disease. PMID:22858910

  12. Chronic tamoxifen use is associated with a decreased risk of intestinal metaplasia in human gastric epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Lee, Sang Kil; Hyeon, Jiyeon; Koo, Ja Seung; Lee, Sangheun; Wang, Jean S.; Huh, Won Jae; Khurana, Shradha S.; Mills, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal metaplasia (IM), a premalignant lesion, is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Although estrogen exposure, including tamoxifen, has been studied in correlation with gastric cancer, little has been investigated about its effects on IM. Aims Therefore, we investigated whether chronic tamoxifen use was associated with the risk of IM in human stomach. Methods We evaluated 512 gastric biopsies from 433 female breast cancer patients that underwent endoscopic gastroduodenoscopy (EGD) ? 6 months after breast surgery. Histopathological findings were scored according to the updated Sydney classification. Demographic and clinical characteristics were also included to identify predictive factors for IM. Results In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age at EGD (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; P=0.002), biopsies from antrum (OR, 2.08; P<0.001), and H. pylori positivity (OR, 1.68; P=0.016) were significantly associated with an increased risk of IM, whereas chronic tamoxifen use (?3 months) was associated with a decreased risk of IM (OR, 0.59; P=0.025). After stratifying by biopsy site, association between tamoxifen use and IM persisted for corpus (OR, 0.42; P=0.026) but not for antrum (OR, 0.74; P=0.327). In analysis limited to patients with follow-up EGD, chronic tamoxifen use also correlated with improved IM score compared to no tamoxifen use (improved, 77.8% vs. 22.2%; no change, 65.4% vs. 34.6%; worsened, 30.0% vs. 70.0%; P=0.019). Conclusions This study suggests that chronic tamoxifen use can decrease the risk of IM in human stomach. The effect of tamoxifen is predominantly observed in the corpus. PMID:24368421

  13. Acute colonic pseudoobstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome) in two patients receiving high dose clonidine for delirium tremens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Stieger; R. Cantieni; A. Frutiger

    1997-01-01

    We describe two cases of severe colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome) after high dose clonidine i. v. infusions\\u000a for delirium tremens. The first symptoms occurred 36 h and 5 days, respectively, after institution of therapy. The diagnosis\\u000a of colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) was confirmed during emergency laparotomy in both cases. While other known risk factors\\u000a may have been present, we propose that

  14. [Chronic intestinal ischemia after migration of larvae in ascaridiasis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gabbert, H; Wagner, R; Grönniger, J

    1981-06-01

    A case report is given of a 25 year old turkish patient, who had ascaridiasis and multiple stenoses of the small intestine. This syndrome was caused by extensive obliterating phlebitis of the small mesenterial veins and sclerosing lymphadenitis of the mesenterial lymph nodes. Granuloma containing epitheloid cells and giant cells could be found in the venous walls and in the lymph nodes, some of the granuloma being grouped around atrophic ascarides larvae; this demonstrates, that the intestinal stenoses represent an unusual complication of larvae migration in this worm disease. Perforation of the intestinal wall in one these stenotic areas possibly was caused by ascarides worms actively. PMID:7253790

  15. Effectiveness of a clinical pathway for inpatients undergoing ileal/ileocecal resection for chronic radiation enteritis with intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Gong, Jing-Feng; Dong, Jian-Ning; Zhu, Wei-Ming; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-03-01

    Surgery is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality in chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a fast-track clinical pathway (CP) on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing ileal/ileocecal resection for CRE with intestinal obstruction. There were 85 patients with CRE (January 2011 to March 2013) with intestinal obstruction admitted to our department for ileal/ileocecal resection. The patients were divided into a prepathway group and a pathway group. The clinical outcomes were then assessed and compared. The postoperative lengths of hospital stay were 8.52 days for the pathway group and 11.32 days for the prepathway group (P = 0.02). The pathway group had a lower stoma rate (21.6 vs 56%, P = 0.033) and fewer postoperative moderate to severe complications (8.1 vs 25%, P = 0.043) compared with the prepathway group. Implementation of the CP may reduce stoma rate, postoperative moderate to severe complications, and postoperative length of hospital stay for patients undergoing ileal/ileocecal resection for the treatment of CRE with intestinal obstruction. PMID:25760200

  16. Clinical and diagnostic aspects of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-infected patients with chronic diarrhea in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil, P; de Lima, D B; de Paiva, D D; Lobo, M S; Sodré, F C; Silva, S P; Villela, E V; Silva, E J; Peralta, J M; Morgado, M; Moura, H

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine both the prevalence of microsporidial intestinal infection and the clinical outcome of the disease in a cohort of 40 HIV-infected patients presenting with chronic diarrhea in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each patient, after clinical evaluation, had stools and intestinal fragments examined for viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Microsporidia were found in 11 patients (27.5%) either in stools or in duodenal or ileal biopsies. Microsporidial spores were found more frequently in stools than in biopsy fragments. Samples examined using transmission electron microscopy (n=3) or polymerase chain reaction (n=6) confirmed Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the causative agent. Microsporidia were the only potential enteric pathogens found in 5 of the 11 patients. Other pathogens were also detected in the intestinal tract of 21 patients, but diarrhea remained unexplained in 8. We concluded that microsporidial infection is frequently found in HIV infected persons in Rio de Janeiro, and it seems to be a marker of advanced stage of AIDS. PMID:11136515

  17. Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Chronic Cadmium Toxicity in Mice Indicate Routes of Protection besides Intestinal Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Yong Q.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study confirmed the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 to protect against acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in mice. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of CCFM8610 against chronic Cd toxicity in mice and to gain insights into the protection mode of this strain. Experimental mice were divided into two groups and exposed to Cd for 8 weeks via drinking water or intraperitoneal injection. Both groups were further divided into four subgroups, control, Cd only, CCFM8610 only, and Cd plus CCFM8610. Levels of Cd were measured in the feces, liver, and kidneys, and alterations of several biomarkers of Cd toxicity were noted. The results showed that when Cd was introduced orally, cotreatment with Cd and CCFM8610 effectively decreased intestinal Cd absorption, reduced Cd accumulation in tissue, alleviated tissue oxidative stress, reversed hepatic and renal damage, and ameliorated the corresponding histopathological changes. When Cd was introduced intraperitoneally, administration of CCFM8610 did not have an impact on tissue Cd accumulation or reverse the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, CCFM8610 still offered protection against oxidative stress and reversed the alterations of Cd toxicity biomarkers and tissue histopathology. These results suggest that CCFM8610 is effective against chronic cadmium toxicity in mice. Besides intestinal Cd sequestration, CCFM8610 treatment offers direct protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. We also provide evidence that the latter is unlikely to be mediated via protection against Cd-induced alteration of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:24771031

  18. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction after hysterectomy in a patient with Friedreich ataxia.

    PubMed

    Yasa, Cenk; Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Bastu, Ercan; Demir, Omer; Topuz, Samet

    2014-05-01

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction is a rare complication of gynecological surgery. Despite the complete description of this condition, diagnosis remains difficult and is often delayed. Due to delay in diagnosis and existence of serious comorbid illnesses, morbidity and mortality approaches higher levels. Early recognition of signs and symptoms of this condition and prompt accurate management are vital to prevent serious mortality. Here, we report a case of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction after total abdominal hysterectomy in a patient with known Friedreich ataxia. PMID:24346123

  19. Monocyte and M1 Macrophage-induced Barrier Defect Contributes to Chronic Intestinal Inflammation in IBD

    PubMed Central

    Lissner, Donata; Schumann, Michael; Batra, Arvind; Kredel, Lea-Isabel; Kühl, Anja A.; Erben, Ulrike; May, Claudia; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are key players in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study aimed to determine site-specific effects of defined macrophage subtypes on the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Methods: Macrophage subtypes in situ in intestinal specimens of patients with IBD were visualized by immunohistochemistry. In vitro polarization of human peripheral CD14+ cells yielded M1 or M2 macrophages. The influence of primary monocytes or macrophage subtypes on epithelial barrier integrity was analyzed by transepithelial resistance measurements, Western blot analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cytometric bead array in a coculture model of primary human macrophages and layers of intestinal epithelial cell lines. Results: The lamina propria of the inflamed intestine in patients with IBD, predominantly in Crohn's disease, is massively infiltrated by CD68+ cells also positive for inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?. The presence of M1 macrophage shifted the balance in the local macrophage compartment towards a proinflammatory state. In the coculture model, monocytes and M1 macrophages reduced transepithelial resistance as a marker for epithelial barrier integrity. The mechanisms for paracellular leakage included intracellular relocalization of tight junction proteins like claudin-2 and epithelial cell apoptosis. Determined by specific cytokine blockade, M1 macrophages exerted their deleterious effect mainly through TNF-?, whereas monocyte-mediated damage was driven by the inflammasome effector cytokines, interleukin-1? and interleukin-18. Conclusions: Lamina propria monocytes and M1 macrophages invading intestinal tissues directly contribute to disrupting the epithelial barrier through deregulation of tight junction proteins and induction of epithelial cell apoptosis, thus driving intestinal inflammation in IBD. PMID:25901973

  20. Chronic inflammation induces a novel epigenetic program that is conserved in intestinal adenomas and in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Bender, Sebastian; Raddatz, Günter; Ansari, Ihab; Cohen, Daphne; Gutekunst, Julian; Musch, Tanja; Linhart, Heinz; Breiling, Achim; Pikarsky, Eli; Bergman, Yehudit; Lyko, Frank

    2015-05-15

    Chronic inflammation represents a major risk factor for tumor formation, but the underlying mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms can record the effects of environmental challenges on the genome level and could therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated tumors. Using single-base methylation maps and transcriptome analyses of a colitis-induced mouse colon cancer model, we identified a novel epigenetic program that is characterized by hypermethylation of DNA methylation valleys that are characterized by low CpG density and active chromatin marks. This program is conserved and functional in mouse intestinal adenomas and results in silencing of active intestinal genes that are involved in gastrointestinal homeostasis and injury response. Further analyses reveal that the program represents a prominent feature of human colorectal cancer and can be used to correctly classify colorectal cancer samples with high accuracy. Together, our results show that inflammatory signals establish a novel epigenetic program that silences a specific set of genes that contribute to inflammation-induced cellular transformation. Cancer Res; 75(10); 2120-30. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25808873

  1. Chronic Administration of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Lawrance C.; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including ?9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of ?9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving ?9-THC (n = 3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n = 4) or THC (THC/SIV; n = 4). Chronic ?9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ?28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal inflammation. Whether similar miRNA modulation occurs in other tissues requires further investigation. IMPORTANCE Gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease/inflammation is a hallmark of HIV/SIV infection. Previously, we showed that chronic treatment of SIV-infected macaques with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) increased survival and decreased viral replication and infection-induced gastrointestinal inflammation. Here, we show that chronic THC administration to SIV-infected macaques induced an anti-inflammatory microRNA expression profile in the intestine at 60 days p.i. These included several miRNAs bioinformatically predicted to directly target CXCL12, a chemokine known to regulate lymphocyte and macrophage trafficking into the intestine. Specifically, miR-99b was significantly upregulated in THC-treated SIV-infected macaques and confirmed to directly target NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), a reactive oxygen species generator known to damage intestinal epithelial cells. Elevated miR-99b expression was associated with a significantly decreased number of NOX4+ epithelial cells in the intestines of THC-treated SIV-infected macaques. Overall, our results show that selective upregulation of anti-inflammatory miRNA expression contributes to THC-mediated suppression of gastrointestinal inflammation and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:25378491

  2. Persistent infection with Crohn’s disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli leads to chronic inflammation and intestinal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Small, Cherrie-Lee N.; Reid-Yu, Sarah A.; McPhee, Joseph B.; Coombes, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract in which alterations to the bacterial community contribute to disease. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) are associated with human Crohn’s disease, however their role in intestinal immunopathology is unclear due to the lack of an animal model compatible with chronic timescales. Here we establish chronic AIEC infection in streptomycin-treated conventional mice (CD-1, DBA/2, C3HeN, 129e, C57BL/6), enabling the study of host response and immunopathology. AIEC induces an active Th17 response, heightened levels of proinflammatory cytokines and fibrotic growth factors, with transmural inflammation and fibrosis. Depletion of CD8+ T cells increases cecal bacterial load, pathology and intestinal fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice suggesting a protective role. Our findings provide evidence that chronic AIEC infections result in immunopathology similar to that seen in Crohn’s disease. With this model, research into the host and bacterial genetics associated with AIEC-induced disease becomes more widely accessible. PMID:23748852

  3. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD) are generally classified as either local ... is chronic (of long duration) LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS PERFORATION (RUPTURE) OF THE BOWEL Intestinal perforation occurs ...

  4. [A case of chronic erosive polyarthritis which developed 14 years after an intestinal bypass operation with subsequent remission by intestinal revision].

    PubMed

    Kudo, H

    2001-10-01

    A 38-year-old female patient developed the symptoms and signs of arthritis in the right tarsal joint for the first time after 14 asymptomatic years following an ileo-colic intestinal bypass operation which had been performed as an emergency procedure for acute ileus due to intestinal adhesions caused by the previous abdominal surgery. Her arthritis took a progressively severe course thereafter, primarily involving the joints of both lower extremities, and 13 years after the onset of symptoms she still continued to have active polyarthritis. However, no concomitant skin lesions of any form had been recognized throughout the course of the arthritis. On the articular radiographs erosive changes were evident in the right tarsal joints and also in the MTP joints of both big toes. Laboratory examinations of the serum revealed negative results for rheumatoid factor, circulating immune-complexes, anti-nuclear antibodies, and anti-DNA antibodies, while the serum level of CRP as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. Other routine laboratory tests were all unremarkable, and neither HLA-B 27 nor HLA-DR 4 were positive. Therapeutic drug regimens consisting of NSAIDs, oral as well as intraarticular steroids, DMARDs, methotrexate, and combinations of these drugs were unsuccessful in controlling the severe symptoms of the arthritis. In view of this, a revision operation of intestinal bypass was performed 13 years after the onset of the arthritis. After the revision the severe pain of the arthritis began to subside gradually, and 1 year and 6 months later the patient achieved complete remission of the arthritis, and her CRP and ESR values returned to normal. PMID:11729668

  5. Effect of chronic, extrinsic denervation on functional NANC innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P in longitudinal muscle of rat jejunum1

    PubMed Central

    KASPAREK, M. S.; FATIMA, J.; IQBAL, C. W.; DUENES, J. A.; SARR, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal denervation contributes to enteric motor dysfunction after intestinal transplantation [small bowel transplantation (SBT)]. Our aim was to determine long-term effects of extrinsic denervation on functional non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P. Contractile activity of jejunal longitudinal muscle from six age-matched, naïve control rats (NC) and eight rats 1 year after syngeneic SBT were studied in tissue chambers. Spontaneous contractile activity did not differ between groups. Exogenous VIP inhibited contractile activity dose-dependently in both groups, greater in NC than in SBT. The VIP antagonist ([D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17]-VIP) and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitro arginine prevented inhibition by exogenous VIP and electrical field stimulation (EFS) in both groups. Exogenous substance P increased contractile activity dose-dependently, greater in NC than in SBT. The substance P antagonist ([D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-substance P) inhibited effects of exogenous substance P and increased the EFS-induced inhibitory response. Immunohistofluorescence showed staining for tyrosine hydroxylase in the jejunoileum 1 year after SBT suggesting sympathetic reinnervation. In rat jejunal longitudinal muscle after chronic denervation, response to exogenous VIP and substance P is decreased, while endogenous release of both neurotransmitters is preserved. These alterations in excitatory and inhibitory pathways occur despite extrinsic reinnervation and might contribute to enteric motor dysfunction after SBT. PMID:17971029

  6. Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Buda, Andrea; Facchin, Sonia; Dassie, Elisa; Casarin, Elisabetta; Jepson, Mark A; Neumann, Helmut; Hatem, Giorgia; Realdon, Stefano; D’Incà, Renata; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Morpurgo, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent- labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25609952

  7. Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Buda, Andrea; Facchin, Sonia; Dassie, Elisa; Casarin, Elisabetta; Jepson, Mark A; Neumann, Helmut; Hatem, Giorgia; Realdon, Stefano; D'Incà, Renata; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Morpurgo, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent- labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25609952

  8. Impaired stimulation of intestinal glucose absorption by portal insulin via hepatoenteral nerves in chronically ethanol-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Kucera, T; Jungermann, K; Stümpel, F

    2000-06-01

    In the isolated, jointly perfused small intestine and liver of rats insulin, infused into the portal vein, induced an increase in intestinal glucose absorption via hepatoenteral cholinergic nerves. The possible loss of function of these nerves due to ethanol-induced neuropathy was investigated with 6 weeks ethanol-fed rats. Portal insulin or arterial carbachol failed to increase intestinal glucose absorption but cAMP still did so. The intact stimulatory effect of cAMP indicated an undisturbed capacity of the enterocytes. The loss of action of portal insulin and of arterial carbachol can be explained by the impairment of the hepatoenteral nerves in line with an ethanol-induced neuropathy. PMID:10838089

  9. Neostigmine for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Raul Guillermo Lopez; Godoy, Francisco Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is an uncommon condition that occasionally develops in hospitalized patients with serious underlying ailments. Its early recognition is essential to reduce life-threatening complications. Few low-powered randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have confirmed the effectiveness of neostigmine for treatment. Aim To analyse the effectiveness and main side effects of neostigmine in the treatment of ACPO. Experimental A literature search was performed for all published RCTs, reporting on neostigmine as treatment for ACPO. Results Four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, evaluating 127 patients: treatment group = 65, control group = 62. Neostigmine effectiveness to resolve ACPO with only one dose was 89.2% versus 14.65% (P < 0.001, NNT = 1 [95% CI 1–2]). Conclusions Neostigmine is a safe and effective option for patients with ACPO who failed to respond to conservative management. PMID:25568788

  10. Deletion of Intestinal Epithelial Cell STAT3 Promotes T Lymphocyte STAT3 Activation and Chronic Colitis Following Acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Willson, Tara A.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Collins, Margaret; Denson, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) Stat3 is required for wound healing following acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) injury. We hypothesized that loss of IEC STAT3 would promote the development of chronic colitis following acute DSS injury. METHODS Colitis was induced in IEC-specific Stat3 deficient mice (Stat3?IEC) and littermate controls (Stat3Flx/Flx) with 4%DSS for 7 days, followed by water consumption for 21 days. Epithelial and immune mediators and severity of colitis were determined. RESULTS Survival, colon length, and histologic injury were significantly worse at day 28 in Stat3?IEC mice. IEC proliferation and apoptosis did not vary by genotype at day 14 or day 28. The colonic lamina propria frequency of pSTAT3+ cells was increased at day 28 and correlated with histologic injury in Stat3?IEC mice. The frequency of colonic F480+pSTAT3+ macrophages and CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes were increased in Stat3?IEC mice as compared to Stat3Flx/Flx controls. In Stat3?IEC mice, colonic expression of Stat3 target genes Reg3? and Reg3? which mediate epithelial restitution were significantly decreased, while expression of IL-17a, IFN?, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly increased and correlated with the increase in histologic severity at Day 28(p<.05). IL-17a expression also correlated with the increased lamina propria frequency of CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Loss of intestinal epithelial Stat3 leads to more severe chronic inflammation following acute injury which is not accounted for by a sustained defect in epithelial proliferation or apoptosis 7 or 21 days after one cycle of DSS but rather defective REG3 expression and expansion of pSTAT3+ lymphocytes and IL-17a expression. PMID:23429443

  11. Chronic exposure to high levels of dietary iron fortification increases lipid peroxidation in the mucosa of the rat large intestine.

    PubMed

    Lund, E K; Fairweather-Tait, S J; Wharf, S G; Johnson, I T

    2001-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that excess dietary iron may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, the majority of animal studies looking at possible mechanism have used unrealistically high concentrations of iron. The current study was designed to test whether chronic exposure to high levels of iron fortification affects the free radical generating capacity of the lumenal contents, mucosal lipid peroxidation and crypt cell proliferation. Rats were fed diets containing either 29 mg/kg or 102 mg/kg of elemental iron for 6 mo. The free radical generating capacity of lumenal contents was assessed using an in vitro assay. Crypt cell proliferation rate was measured in tissues taken from the cecum and colon, with the remaining tissue being used for the assessment of lipid peroxidation. Chronic feeding of iron did not increase crypt cell proliferation rate in either the colon or cecum, but it was associated with an increase in free radical generating capacity in the colon and increased lipid peroxidation, particularly in the cecum. These results may be relevant to epidemiological evidence showing that dietary iron is associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer in humans. PMID:11694620

  12. Intestinal permeability to chromium-51 ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid in children with chronic obstructive respiratory disease: relationship with clinical and duodenal biopsy findings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyoux, C.; Forget, P.P.; Borlee-Hermans, G.; Geubelle, F.

    1988-01-01

    Intestinal permeability (IP) to /sup 51/Cr ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was investigated in 47 children with chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD). Endoscopic duodenal biopsies were performed in 22 of these patients. IP was significantly increased in CORD patients when compared to either control children or adults (P less than 0.001). Mean +/- 1 SD were 4.3 +/- 1.71%, 2.5 +/- 0.78%, and 2.3 +/- 0.77% in the three groups, respectively. IP was not related to the presence of atopy. Significant differences in IP results were found between CORD children with abdominal pain (4.5 +/- 1.4%) and both control children and CORD patients without abdominal pain (2.5 +/- 0.78% and 3.2 +/- 1.49%, respectively). A significant correlation was found between small bowel injury on the one hand and IP on the other hand (P less than 0.02). Furthermore, small bowel injury was significantly related to the presence of abdominal pain (P less than 0.05). We speculate that in CORD patients with abdominal pain, a factor exists that causes small bowel injury responsible for both abdominal pain and increased small bowel permeability. Food intolerance could, presumably, play a role in the mucosal damage-linked IP increase found in the subset of CORD patients who complain of abdominal pain.

  13. Ulcerative Proctitis, Rectal Prolapse, and Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Hepatocyte Growth Factor\\/Scatter Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisashi Takayama; Hitoshi Takagi; William J LaRochelle; Raj P Kapur; Glenn Merlino

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor\\/scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) can stimulate growth of gastrointestinal epithelial cells in vitro; however, the physiological role of HGF\\/SF in the digestive tract is poorly understood. To elucidate this in vivo function, mice were analyzed in which an HGF\\/SF transgene was overexpressed throughout the digestive tract. Nearly a third of all HGF\\/SF transgenic mice in this study (28 of

  14. Heterozygous De Novo and Inherited Mutations in the Smooth Muscle Actin (ACTG2) Gene Underlie Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Michael F.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Gambin, Tomasz; Penney, Samantha; Moss, Timothy; Chopra, Atul; Probst, Frank J.; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Werlin, Steven; Eglite, Ieva; Kornejeva, Liene; Bacino, Carlos A.; Baldridge, Dustin; Neul, Jeff; Lehman, Efrat Lev; Larson, Austin; Beuten, Joke; Muzny, Donna M.; Jhangiani, Shalini; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Beaudet, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes ?2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease. PMID:24676022

  15. Cytokine profile, proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in circulating mononuclear cells from individuals during the chronic intestinal phase of Schistosomiasis mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The immune response to Schistosoma mansoni is characterized by a granulomatous reaction around the parasite eggs that are trapped in the host liver, and this reaction modulates the immune response during the chronic phase of the disease. The typical peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response of patients during the chronic intestinal phase of infection is characterized by a decreased response to an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen. To obtain a greater understanding of Schistosoma infections, this study investigated the effects of the soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP) of S. mansoni on cellular proliferation, cytokine production, and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in PBMCs from infected (XTO) and egg-negative (NI) individuals living in the same endemic area. Methods The activation status was evaluated by cell immunophenotypic staining (cytometry). The cell proliferation assay was by CFSE method. Cytokine detection assay (Th1 and Th2) was by Cytometric Bead and Array phosphorylation status was by ELISA. Results The XTO, NI and BD (blood donor) individuals from an area not endemic for schistosomiasis were compared. The CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation rate was lower in the XTO group, but not the NI group, after SEA stimulation compared to the BD group. The CD8+ T cell proliferation rate was lower in the XTO group in the unstimulated cultures and after both SEA and SWAP stimulation compared to the BD group. Cytokine analysis after either SEA or SWAP stimulation showed a balanced cytokine pattern in the XTO and NI groups. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were only marginally detected in all groups; however, a decrease in ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was observed in the SWAP-stimulated XTO group compared to both the NI and BD groups. Conclusions The data indicate that SEA-stimulated CD4+ T cells from infected patients have a lower proliferation rate than the same cells from the NI group. Furthermore, we observed that SWAP stimulation influences ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the XTO group. PMID:23270458

  16. Detection of chronic wasting disease prions in salivary, urinary, and intestinal tissues of deer: potential mechanisms of prion shedding and transmission.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Mathiason, Candace K; Carver, Scott; Zabel, Mark; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward A

    2011-07-01

    Efficient horizontal transmission is a signature trait of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Infectious prions shed into excreta appear to play a key role in this facile transmission, as has been demonstrated by bioassays of cervid and transgenic species and serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, the source(s) of infectious prions in these body fluids has yet to be identified. In the present study, we analyzed tissues proximate to saliva, urine, and fecal production by sPMCA in an attempt to elucidate this unique aspect of CWD pathogenesis. Oropharyngeal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tissues along with blood and obex from CWD-exposed cervids (comprising 27 animals and >350 individual samples) were analyzed and scored based on the apparent relative CWD burden. PrP(CWD)-generating activity was detected in a range of tissues and was highest in the salivary gland, urinary bladder, and distal intestinal tract. In the same assays, blood from the same animals and unseeded normal brain homogenate controls (n = 116 of 117) remained negative. The PrP-converting activity in peripheral tissues varied from 10(-11)- to 10(0)-fold of that found in brain of the same animal. Deer with highest levels of PrP(CWD) amplification in the brain had higher and more widely disseminated prion amplification in excretory tissues. Interestingly, PrP(CWD) was not demonstrable in these excretory tissues by conventional Western blotting, suggesting a low prion burden or the presence of protease-sensitive infectious prions destroyed by harsh proteolytic treatments. These findings offer unique insights into the transmission of CWD in particular and prion infection and trafficking overall. PMID:21525361

  17. Neostigmine to Relieve a Suspected Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction in a Burn Patient: A Case-Based Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gebre-Giorgis, Abel A.; Roderique, Ensign Joseph D.; Stewart, Dane; Feldman, Michael J.; Pozez, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neostigmine is one of the treatment options for colonic pseudo-obstruction in the medical patient. However, experience in using neostigmine for this indication in burn patients has not been reported in the literature. We will present a case of a woman who developed colonic pseudo-obstruction during her hospital stay. When conservative management failed, neostigmine was administered with no adverse effects and resolution of the pseudo-obstruction. We will review the literature regarding the pathophysiology and treatment options for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in burn patients. Methods: A 27-year-old woman with 35% total body surface area deep-partial and full-thickness flame burns. On hospital day 17, she developed a nonobstructive ileus. She failed conservative medical therapy. After consultation with colleagues in trauma surgery and a review of the literature (MeSH/PubMed/NLM), the decision was made to try neostigmine therapy rather than a surgical/procedural option such as colonoscopy. Results: The patient was moved to the intensive care unit and 2 mg of neostigmine was administered intravenously over 4 minutes. After 30 minutes, all abdominal examination findings had returned to baseline. No significant adverse effects were noted, and she did not redevelop abdominal distension afterward. Conclusion: This case report provides an alternative treatment modality in which neostigmine was used successfully in a burn patient after conservative medical treatment had failed. The authors believe that neostigmine may be a viable alternative to decompressive colonoscopy in burn patients for whom mechanical obstruction is properly excluded. PMID:23359843

  18. PROCEEDINGS Open Access Therapeutic management of intestinal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    pentoxifylline (PTX) or hyperbaric oxygen; (iii) antioxi- dant treatment including superoxide dismutasePROCEEDINGS Open Access Therapeutic management of intestinal fibrosis induced by radiation therapy biochemical analysis to targeted therapies Frauenchiemsee, Germany. 25-30 September 2010 Abstract Chronic

  19. Intestinal spirochaetosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, T. C.; Heading, R. C.; Gilmour, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of intestinal spirochaetosis are described. The first case improved with treatment while the second case improved spontaneously without any intervention. Controversy over treatment and pathogenicity of intestinal spirochaetosis is discussed with review of previous publications. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8170888

  20. Chronic acid exposure leads to activation of the cdx2 intestinal homeobox gene in a long-term culture of mouse esophageal keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Marchetti; Elise Caliot; Eric Pringault

    2003-01-01

    To explore mechanisms whereby Malpighian keratinocytes can transdifferentiate into an intestinal-like epithelium, as observed in the early steps of Barrett's esophagus (BE) development, long-standing cultures of esophageal keratinocytes derived from normal mouse esophageal explants were developed. These cells were able to form multilayers and to differentiate on filter support by the formation of differentiated layers of basal cells (cytokeratine 14

  1. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    Obstruction of the bowel may due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

  2. Nuclear Bile Acid Receptor FXR Protects against Intestinal Tumorigenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Modica; Stefania Murzilli; Lorena Salvatore; Daniel R. Schmidt; Antonio Moschetta

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids have been considered intestinal tumor promoters, and because they are natural ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR, we examined the role of FXR in intestinal tumorigenesis. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we found that FXR suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis in vivo. Loss of FXR in the ApcMin\\/+ and in the chronic colitis mouse models of intestinal tumorigenesis resulted in

  3. Intestinal obstruction and perforation--the role of the gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Díte, Petr; Lata, Jan; Novotný, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction belongs to highly severe conditions in gastroenterology, namely from the viewpoint of quick and correct diagnosis as well as at determining rational and effective therapy. Etiological multifactorial characteristics leading to processes resulting in mechanical or dynamic obstruction of the intestine, often referred to as paralytic ileus, are undoubtedly serious factors influencing the accuracy of diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Digestive endoscopy is a mandatory method in the diagnosis of intestinal obstructions. Diagnostic endoscopy, colonoscopy in the involvement of the large intestine or enteroscopy in the case of incomplete obstruction of the small intestine are the methods indicated in the majority of obstructive intestinal lesions. Besides their diagnostic importance, they also enable an effective therapeutic approach which may immediately follow the diagnostic intervention. Besides endoscopy that--due to the nature of performance--belongs to invasive methods, the diagnosis of obstructive intestinal processes is unthinkable without the use of non-invasive imaging methods. Abdominal ultrasound examination, a widely applied method, provides--under optimal examination conditions--information, e.g., about the width of the intestinal lumen or about the intestinal wall thickness; however, the specificity of investigation is not always sufficient. Both specificity and sensitivity of exploration are increased by a plain X-ray of the abdomen supplementing the ultrasound examination. Better results are achieved when the abdominal cavity is inspected by means of spiral CT examination that is nowadays not fashionable but highly effectively applied in the modification of the so-called CT enteroclysis or CT colonography. The usage of magnetic resonance (e.g. virtual colonography) is similar, but its efficacy is lower than that of CT examination. From a gastroenterologist's perspective, endoscopic examination is the fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic method. However, endoscopic examination is initially limited by the cardiopulmonary state of the patient--in a number of cases, first the cardiopulmonary condition must be stabilized, dysbalance of water and mineral state must be restored, and only then can endoscopic investigation be carried out. The application of enteroscopy in small intestine disorders is only suitable in cases where air must be aspirated from the region of the stomach and mainly small intestine as it happens, for example, in acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The success of complex conservative therapy in these states is reached in 80% of the cases. In acute and complete intestinal obstruction, a surgical treatment performed in time is the only method. In these cases, the importance of identification of obstruction and timing of the intervention performance from the viewpoint of the patient's survival is explicitly the principal and life-saving concern. In acute intestinal obstructions developing in patients with malignant affection of the intestine, it is necessary to choose--according to the obstruction location and general state of the patient--either urgently performed surgery or palliative endoscopic intervention which is the reduction of the intestinal lumen of the growing tumor mass and following insertion of a drain. This method also concerns lesions localized in the left half of the abdominal cavity, i.e. in the region of the rectosigmoid and descending part of the colon. Most patients in whom acute intestinal obstruction developed on the basis of malignant disease are risk and polymorbid subjects, and acute surgical intervention may be either impracticable or highly stressing. In such cases it is therefore helpful to insert a drain and to bridge the obstructed area after restoring the cardiopulmonary state including adjustment of the aqueous and mineral environment. Later, the performance of an elective surgical intervention is safer. Another alternative before inserting a drain is the dilatation of the stenotic site by means of a balloon, followed by stenting. Up until

  4. Intestinal ?-galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.

    1969-01-01

    Previous studies based on work in the rat and preliminary experiments with human intestine have suggested that two ?-galactosidases are present in small intestine, and it is believed that only one of these enzymes is a lactase important for the digestion of dietary lactose. The high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in man prompted more complete study of these enzymes. Human intestinal ?-galactosidases were studied by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Biogel P-300 as well as by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Gel filtration produced partial separation into three peaks of enzyme activity, but much activity against synthetic substrates was lost. Only the trailing peak with specificity for synthetic ?-galactosides was completely separated from the other enzymes. Thus gel filtration was not a suitable preparative procedure for biochemical characterization. Density gradients separated the enzymes more completely, and they were designated according to their sedimentation rates and further characterized. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 280,000, pH optimum of 6.0, and specificity for lactose of at least five times that for cellobiose or synthetic substrates. A second lactase, enzyme II, possesses slightly greater activity against lactose than for some synthetic substrates and is incapable of splitting cellobiose. Further, it has a lower pH optimum (4.5) and is present in two molecular species (molecular weights 156,000 and 660,000). Enzyme III shows specificity only for synthetic ?-galactosides but has a pH activity curve identical with enzyme I and a molecular weight of 80,000. Whereas human liver and kidney contain a ?-galactosidase with the same biochemical characteristics as intestinal enzyme II, enzymes I and III appear to be peculiar to intestine, and enzyme I most probably represents the lactase of importance in the mucosal digestion of dietary lactose. The following paper considers this further in terms of the biochemical change in intestinal lactase deficiency. PMID:5774109

  5. Intestinal ?-galactosidases

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.; Colver, Eugene H.; Genel, Myron

    1969-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in some racial groups and in patients with intestinal disease, the biochemical defect has not been characterized. In the preceding paper normal intestine was found to have two lactases with distinctly different pH optima. Therefore, pH activity curves of homogenates from lactase-deficient intestine were studied, and the pH optimum was found to be shifted from the normal of 5.8 to 4.8. Density gradient ultracentrifugation of intestinal material from five lactase-deficient patients demonstrated absence of a lactase with pH optimum 6.0 and molecular weight 280,000. A second lactase with pH optimum 4.5 and molecular weights of 156,000 and 660,000 remained at normal levels accounting for the shift in the pH optimum in whole intestinal homogenates. In addition, three of the five patients had absence of a smaller ?-galactosidase (molecular weight 80,000) that had specificity only for synthetic substrates. Although not a lactase, this enzyme had a pH optimum identical with the missing lactase, and its activity was inhibited by lactose in a partially competitive manner suggesting that it is capable of binding lactose. It is possible that this enzyme is a precursor or fragment of the missing lactase. The residual lactase activity provided by the lactase with low pH optimum represents 20-70% of the activity of the missing enzyme, and yet these patients are not able to digest dietary lactose. Thus it appears that the residual enzyme plays no significant role in the hydrolysis of ingested lactose. PMID:5774110

  6. Quadruple burden of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, chronic intestinal parasitoses, and multiple micronutrient deficiency in ethiopia: a summary of available findings.

    PubMed

    Amare, Bemnet; Moges, Beyene; Mulu, Andargachew; Yifru, Sisay; Kassu, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and helminthic infections are among the commonest public health problems in the sub-Saharan African countries like Ethiopia. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies also known as the "hidden hunger" are common in people living in these countries either playing a role in their pathogenesis or as consequences. This results in a vicious cycle of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and infection/disease progression. As infection is profoundly associated with nutritional status resulting from decreased nutrient intake, decreased nutrient absorption, and nutrient losses, micronutrient deficiencies affect immune system and impact infection and diseases progression. As a result, micronutrients, immunity, and infection are interrelated. The goal of this review is therefore to provide a summary of available findings regarding the "quadruple burden trouble" of HIV, TB, intestinal parasitic infections, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies to describe immune-modulating effects related to disorders. PMID:25767808

  7. Regulatory T Cells and Immune Tolerance in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Oliver J.; Powrie, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental role of the mammalian immune system is to eradicate pathogens while minimizing immunopathology. Instigating and maintaining immunological tolerance within the intestine represents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system. Regulatory T cells are critical for continued immune tolerance in the intestine through active control of innate and adaptive immune responses. Dynamic adaptation of regulatory T-cell populations to the intestinal tissue microenvironment is key in this process. Here, we discuss specialization of regulatory T-cell responses in the intestine, and how a breakdown in these processes can lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:23818502

  8. Natural compound methyl protodioscin protects against intestinal inflammation through modulation of intestinal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongli; Gilbert, Shila; Yao, Xinsheng; Vallance, Jefferson; Steinbrecher, Kris; Moriggl, Richard; Zhang, Dongsheng; Eluri, Madhu; Chen, Haifeng; Cao, Huiqing; Shroyer, Noah; Denson, Lee; Han, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    Dioscoreaceae, a kind of yam plant, has been recommended for treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms are poorly defined. Methyl protodioscin (MPD) is one of the main bioactive components in Dioscoreaceae. Here, we aim to determine the mechanisms by which MPD ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Surgical intestinal specimens were collected from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients to perform organ culture. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or Citrobacter rodentium, and was then treated with MPD. NF-?B activation, expression of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines, disease severity, and epithelial proliferation/apoptosis were determined. Mouse crypts and Caco-2 monolayers were cultured to observe the effect of MPD upon intestinal epithelial differentiation and barrier function. We found that MPD increased the percentage of survival from high-dose DSS-(4%) treated mice, and accelerated mucosal healing and epithelial proliferation in low-dose DSS-(2.5%) treated mice characterized by marked reduction in NF-?B activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and bacterial translocation. Consistently, MPD protected colonic mucosa from C. rodentium-induced colonic inflammation and bacterial colonization. In vitro studies showed that MPD significantly increased crypt formation and restored intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, MPD ameliorates the intestinal mucosal inflammation by modulating the intestinal immunity to enhance intestinal barrier differentiation. MPD could be an alternative for treating chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  9. Anti-mouse CD52 monoclonal antibody ameliorates intestinal epithelial barrier function in interleukin-10 knockout mice with spontaneous chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honggang; Dong, Jianning; Shi, Peiliang; Liu, Jianhui; Zuo, Lugen; Li, Yi; Gong, Jianfeng; Gu, Lili; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-01

    Intestinal inflammation causes tight junction changes and death of epithelial cells, and plays an important role in the development of Crohn's disease (CD). CD52 monoclonal antibody (CD52 mAb) directly targets the cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting mature lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo, leading to long-lasting changes in adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of CD52 mAb on epithelial barrier function in animal models of IBD. Interleukin-10 knockout mice (IL-10(-/-) ) of 16 weeks with established colitis were treated with CD52 mAb once a week for 2 weeks. Severity of colitis, CD4(+) lymphocytes and cytokines in the lamina propria, epithelial expression of tight junction proteins, morphology of tight junctions, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)/TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) mRNA expression, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression and activity, as well as epithelial apoptosis in proximal colon were measured at the end of the experiment. CD52 mAb treatment effectively attenuated colitis associated with decreased lamina propria CD4(+) lymphocytes and interferon-?/IL-17 responses in colonic mucosa in IL-10(-/-) mice. After CD52 mAb treatment, attenuation of colonic permeability, increased epithelial expression and correct localization of tight junction proteins (occludin and zona occludens protein-1), as well as ameliorated tight junction morphology were observed in IL-10(-/-) mice. CD52 mAb treatment also effectively suppressed the epithelial apoptosis, mucosa TNF-? mRNA expression, epithelial expression of long MLCK, TNFR2 and phosphorylation of MLC. Our results indicated that anti-CD52 therapy may inhibit TNF-?/TNFR2-mediated epithelial apoptosis and MLCK-dependent tight junction permeability by depleting activated T cells in the gut mucosa. PMID:25087772

  10. Treatment for Chronic Pain in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-07

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Gliadin-Induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosa: Study in Germ-Free Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Cinova; Giada de Palma; Renata Stepankova; Olga Kofronova; Miloslav Kverka; Yolanda Sanz; Ludmila Tuckova; François Leulier

    2011-01-01

    Background and AimsCeliac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity,

  12. Farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits inflammation and preserves the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaella M Gadaleta; Karel J van Erpecum; Bas Oldenburg; Ellen C L Willemsen; Willem Renooij; Stefania Murzilli; Leo W J Klomp; Peter D Siersema; Marguerite E I Schipper; Silvio Danese; Giuseppe Penna; Gilles Laverny; Luciano Adorini; Antonio Moschetta; Saskia W C van Mil

    2011-01-01

    Background & aimsInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterised by chronic intestinal inflammation, resulting from dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and compromised intestinal epithelial barrier function. The bile salt, nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), was recently implicated in intestinal antibacterial defence and barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of FXR agonists in the

  13. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  14. Pericryptal fibroblast sheath in intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, H; Sakurai, S; Satoh, K; Osawa, H; Tomiyama, T; Kita, H; Yoshida, T; Tamada, K; Yamamoto, H; Isoda, N; Ido, K; Sugano, K

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: In the progression of chronic gastritis, gastric mucosal cells deviate from the normal pathway of gastric differentiation to an intestinal phenotype which is closely related to gastric carcinoma. However, to date, it has not been elucidated whether the intestinal metaplasia is merely a change in the epithelium or whether the underlying mesenchyme also changes from gastric type to intestinal type. We have investigated the relationship between intestinal metaplasia and the pericryptal fibroblast sheath (PCFS) in the mesenchyme. In addition, we also examined PCFS in gastric carcinoma. Methods: We determined the existence of PCFS in the intestinal metaplastic mucosa and carcinoma of both human and Cdx2 transgenic mouse stomach. PCFS was determined using the antibody against ?-smooth muscle actin and electron microscopic observations. Results: PCFS formed an almost complete layer around the small and large intestinal crypts while it did not exist around the normal gastric glands in both mice and humans. PCFS was seen around the glands of intestinal metaplastic mucosa in both Cdx2 transgenic mouse and human stomachs. However, PCFS was virtually absent in the intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma area. Conclusion: We successfully demonstrated that the epithelium as well as the mesenchyme changed from the gastric type to the intestinal type in intestinal metaplasia and that PCFS disappeared in intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. PMID:15591501

  15. Mucin gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells in Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M-P Buisine; P Desreumaux; E Leteurtre; M-C Copin; J-F Colombel; N Porchet; J-P Aubert

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDCrohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. It is characterised by chronic mucosal ulcerations which affect any part of the intestine but most commonly are found in the ileum and proximal colon.AIMSStudies were undertaken to provide information regarding cell specific expression of mucin genes in the ileum of patients with CD.PATIENTS AND METHODSExpression of

  16. PTPN2 controls differentiation of CD4(+) T cells and limits intestinal inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Spalinger, M R; Kasper, S; Chassard, C; Raselli, T; Frey-Wagner, I; Gottier, C; Lang, S; Atrott, K; Vavricka, S R; Mair, F; Becher, B; Lacroix, C; Fried, M; Rogler, G; Scharl, M

    2015-07-01

    Loss-of-function variants within the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) are associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD). A disturbed regulation of T helper (Th) cell responses causing loss of tolerance against self- or commensal-derived antigens and an altered intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in CD pathogenesis. Loss of PTPN2 in the T-cell compartment causes enhanced induction of Th1 and Th17 cells, but impaired induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in several mouse colitis models, namely acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate colitis, and T-cell transfer colitis models. This results in increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis which is comparable with that observed in CD patients. We detected inflammatory infiltrates in liver, kidney, and skin and elevated autoantibody levels indicating systemic loss of tolerance in PTPN2-deficient animals. CD patients featuring a loss-of-function PTPN2 variant exhibit enhanced Th1 and Th17 cell, but reduced Treg markers when compared with PTPN2 wild-type patients in serum and intestinal tissue samples. Our data demonstrate that dysfunction of PTPN2 results in aberrant T-cell differentiation and intestinal dysbiosis similar to those observed in human CD. Our findings indicate a novel and crucial role for PTPN2 in chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25492475

  17. Effect of dietary fat on intestinal inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Hokari, Ryota; Matsunaga, Hisayuki; Miura, Soichiro

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fat has multiple roles on human health, and some dietary fat is used to treat organic diseases because of its anti-inflammatory effect. It is commonly accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is beneficial on ischemic heart disease or rheumatic arthritis. On the contrary, effect of omega-3-PUFA on Crohn's disease remained controversial. That effect of omega-3 PUFA differs according to the location of inflamed intestine was hypothesized. To elucidate this hypothesis, to investigate the role of dietary fat on disease activity in different kind of murine models of intestinal inflammatory diseases was planned. The effect of omega-3 PUFA on small intestinal Crohn's disease model and large intestinal Crohn's disease model of mice. Chronic colitis model C57BL/6 mice received two cycles of dextran sodium sulfate solution treatment to induce chronic colitis. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets exacerbated colitis with decrease in adiponectin expression. Chronic small intestinal inflammation model: SAMP1/Yit mice showed remarkable inflammation of the terminal ileum spontaneously. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets for 16 weeks significantly ameliorated the inflammation of the terminal ileum. Enhanced infiltration of leukocytes and expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in intestinal mucosa was significantly decreased by omega-3 fat-rich diets treatment. Omega-3 PUFA has dual role, pro-/anti-inflammatory, on intestinal inflammatory diseases. The role of omega-3 fat and the potential for immunonutrition in inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract will be discussed. PMID:24251701

  18. Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bacterial overgrowth is most easily detected by the hydrogen breath test: The patient drinks a sugar solution ... amounts in the small intestine, they give off hydrogen, some of which is absorbed into the blood, ...

  19. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the gut - A gastroenterologist’s point of view

    PubMed Central

    Negreanu, Lucian M; Assor, Philippe; Mateescu, Bogdan; Cirstoiu, Catalin

    2008-01-01

    Alterations of normal function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are reported in many intestinal disorders. Diagnosis of their involvement is rare (infrequent), but necessary to propose a specific treatment. This article reviews the place of ICC in the pathogenesis of achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and slow transit constipation. Moreover we discuss the role of the Cajal cells in the development of stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19009640

  20. Intestinal Epithelium and Autophagy: Partners in Gut Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Chieppa, Marcello; Eri, Rajaraman

    2013-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges of cell biology is to understand how each type of cell copes with its specific workload without suffering damage. Among the most intriguing questions concerns intestinal epithelial cells in mammals; these cells act as a barrier between the internally protected region and the external environment that is exposed constantly to food and microbes. A major process involved in the processing of microbes is autophagy. In the intestine, through multiple, complex signaling pathways, autophagy including macroautophagy and xenophagy is pivotal in mounting appropriate intestinal immune responses and anti-microbial protection. Dysfunctional autophagy mechanism leads to chronic intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies involving a number of in vitro and in vivo mouse models in addition to human clinical studies have revealed a detailed role for autophagy in the generation of chronic intestinal inflammation. A number of genome-wide association studies identified roles for numerous autophagy genes in IBD, especially in Crohn’s disease. In this review, we will explore in detail the latest research linking autophagy to intestinal homeostasis and how alterations in autophagy pathways lead to intestinal inflammation. PMID:24137160

  1. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumaresan Sandrasegaran; Chandana Lall; Raja Ramaswamy; Ryan Redelman; Stephan Hoff; Arumugam Rajesh; Rodrigo Vianna

    Intestinal transplantation is carried out in only a handful of centers in the world. However, patients with such transplantation\\u000a may be seen at almost any institution and radiologists should be familiar with the expected normal anatomy and complications\\u000a of intestinal transplantation and its variants. In this paper, we discuss the anatomy and complications following intestinal\\u000a and multivisceral transplantations. We review

  2. Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    LETTERS Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis Colby homeostasis by promoting mucosal immunity and lim- iting chronic inflammation. The mucosal surface of the GI

  3. Role of faecal calprotectin as non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Costa; M. G Mumolo; M Bellini; M. R Romano; L Ceccarelli; P Arpe; C Sterpi; S Marchi; G Maltinti

    2003-01-01

    Background\\/aim. Faecal calprotectin, a neutrophil granulocyte cytosol protein, is considered a promising marker of intestinal inflammation. We assessed and compared the faecal calprotectin concentration in patients with organic and functional chronic intestinal disorders.Patients and methods. The study was carried out, using a commercially available ELISA test, measuring calprotectin in stool samples collected from 131 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, 26

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Enterohepatic Helicobacter hepaticus on Innate Immune Responses of Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Sterzenbach; Sae Kyung Lee; Birgit Brenneke; Franz von Goetz; David B. Schauer; James G. Fox; Sebastian Suerbaum; Christine Josenhans

    2007-01-01

    Enterohepatic Helicobacter species infect the intestinal tracts and biliary trees of various mammals, including mice and humans, and are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine, gallstone formation, and malignant transformation. The recent analysis of the whole genome sequence of the mouse enterohepatic species Helicobacter hepaticus allowed us to perform a functional analysis of bacterial factors that may play

  5. Intestinal permeability and function in dogs with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C; Batt, R M; Proud, F J; Sørensen, S H; Elwood, C M; Petrie, G; Matthewman, L A; Forster-van Hijfte, M A; Boswood, A; Entwistle, M; Fensome, R H

    1996-09-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been reported to occur commonly in dogs with signs of chronic intestinal disease. There are usually few intestinal histological changes, and it is uncertain to what extent bacteria cause mucosal damage. The aim of this study was to apply a differential sugar absorption test for intestinal permeability and function to the objective assessment of intestinal damage in dogs with SIBO. Studies were performed on 63 dogs with signs of chronic small and, or, large bowel disease, in which SIBO (greater than 10(5) total or greater than 10(4) anaerobic colony forming units/ml) was diagnosed by quantitative culture of duodenal juice obtained endoscopically. None of the dogs had evidence of intestinal pathogens, parasites, systemic disease or pancreatic insufficiency. differential sugar absorption was performed by determining the ratios of urinary recoveries of lactulose/rhamnose (L/R ratio, which reflects permeability) and D-xylose/3-O-methylglucose (X/G ratio, which reflects intestinal absorptive function) following oral administration. Dogs with SIBO comprised 28 different breeds, including 13 German shepherd dogs. SIBO was aerobic in 18/63 dogs (29 per cent), and anaerobic in 45/63 (71 per cent). Histological examination of duodenal biopsies showed no abnormalities in 75 per cent, and mild to moderate lymphocytic infiltrates in 25 per cent of the dogs. The L/R ratio was increased (greater than 0.12) in 52 per cent, and the X/G ratio reduced (less than 0.60) in 33 per cent of the dogs. Differential sugar absorption was repeated in 11 dogs after their four weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. The L/R ratio declined in all 11 dogs (mean +/- SD pre: 0.24 +/- 0.14; post: 0.16 +/- 0.11; P < 0.05), but changes in the X/G ratio were more variable. These findings show that SIBO is commonly associated with mucosal damage not detected on histological examination of intestinal biopsies, and that changes in intestinal permeability following oral antibiotics may be used to monitor response to treatment. PMID:8887203

  6. Intestinal glucose metabolism revisited.

    PubMed

    Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine

    2014-09-01

    It is long known that the gut can contribute to the control of glucose homeostasis via its high glucose utilization capacity. Recently, a novel function in intestinal glucose metabolism (gluconeogenesis) was described. The intestine notably contributes to about 20-25% of total endogenous glucose production during fasting. More importantly, intestinal gluconeogenesis is capable of regulating energy homeostasis through a communication with the brain. The periportal neural system senses glucose (produced by intestinal gluconeogenesis) in the portal vein walls, which sends a signal to the brain to modulate hunger sensations and whole body glucose homeostasis. Relating to the mechanism of glucose sensing, the role of the glucose receptor SGLT3 has been strongly suggested. Moreover, dietary proteins mobilize intestinal gluconeogenesis as a mandatory link between their detection in the portal vein and their effect of satiety. In the same manner, dietary soluble fibers exert their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects via the induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis. FFAR3 is a key neural receptor involved in the specific sensing of propionate to activate a gut-brain reflex arc triggering the induction of the gut gluconeogenic function. Lastly, intestinal gluconeogenesis might also be involved in the rapid metabolic improvements induced by gastric bypass surgeries of obesity. PMID:24969963

  7. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  8. Major Signaling Pathways in Intestinal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Senger, Stefania; Fasano, Alessio; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2013-01-01

    Background The discovery of markers to identify the intestinal stem cell population and the generation of powerful transgenic mouse models to study stem cell physiology have led to seminal discoveries in stem cell biology. Scope of review In this review we give an overview of the current knowledge in the field of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) highlighting the most recent progress on markers defining the ISC population and pathways governing intestinal stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Furthermore we review their interaction with other stem cell related pathways. Finally we give an overview of alteration of these pathways in human inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Major conclusions We highlight the complex network of interactions occurring among different pathways and put in perspective the many layers of regulation that occur in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis. General significance Understanding the involvement of ISCs in inflammatory diseases can potentially lead to new therapeutic approaches to treat inflammatory GI pathologies such as IBD and celiac disease and could reveal the molecular mechanisms leading to the pathogenesis of dysplasia and cancer in inflammatory chronic conditions. PMID:22922290

  9. Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Mc I. Mowat

    2003-01-01

    The intestinal immune system has to discriminate between harmful and beneficial antigens. Although strong protective immunity is essential to prevent invasion by pathogens, equivalent responses against dietary proteins or commensal bacteria can lead to chronic disease. These responses are normally prevented by a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms. This article reviews the unique aspects of the local microenvironment of the

  10. PPAR?/? activation of CD300a controls intestinal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshiya; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Nabekura, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Kaori; Jiang, Shuying; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Inagaki, Takeshi; Magoori, Kenta; Higurashi, Takuma; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tachibana, Keisuke; Tsurutani, Yuya; Raza, Sana; Anai, Motonobu; Minami, Takashi; Wada, Youichiro; Yokote, Koutaro; Doi, Takefumi; Hamakubo, Takao; Auwerx, Johan; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Atsushi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Naito, Makoto; Shibuya, Akira; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Juro

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are important for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Here, we show that PPAR?/? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/?) directly regulates CD300a in macrophages that express the immunoreceptor tyrosine based-inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor. In mice lacking CD300a, high-fat diet (HFD) causes chronic intestinal inflammation with low numbers of intestinal lymph capillaries and dramatically expanded mesenteric lymph nodes. As a result, these mice exhibit triglyceride malabsorption and reduced body weight gain on HFD. Peritoneal macrophages from Cd300a?/? mice on HFD are classically M1 activated. Activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MyD88 signaling by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in prolonged IL-6 secretion in Cd300a?/? macrophages. Bone marrow transplantation confirmed that the phenotype originates from CD300a deficiency in leucocytes. These results identify CD300a-mediated inhibitory signaling in macrophages as a critical regulator of intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:24958459

  11. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePLUS

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide test ... or drink anything for 4 hours before the test. ... This test is used to confirm the presence of a VIPoma , a tumor that releases VIP. VIPoma's are extremely ...

  12. Intestinal obstruction repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contents of the intestines cannot pass through and exit the body. A complete obstruction is a surgical ... your bowel will be repaired or removed. This procedure is called bowel resection . If a section is ...

  13. Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Que; Cao, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiao-Cang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:25574083

  14. Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng-Que; Cao, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiao-Cang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:25574083

  15. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm) of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal) and the bath (serosal) solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M) and indomethacin (10-5 M) were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 ?M lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 ?M lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 ?M prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in addition to chronic constipation, there is greater potential for the therapeutic applications of lubiprostone. PMID:23130661

  16. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The inflamed bronchi produce a lot of mucus. This leads to cough and difficulty getting air in and out of the ... cause chronic bronchitis. Treatment will help your symptoms, but chronic ...

  17. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  18. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... N Vitamin deficiencies as a result of poor absorption in the intestine NElectrolyte and mineral deficiencies due ... N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure ...

  19. Diffuse mesenterial sclerosis: a characteristic feature of chronic small-bowel allograft rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Klaus; Raimund Margreiter; Heinz Pernthaler; Günther Klima; Felix A. Offner

    2003-01-01

    Chronic rejection is the major cause of late intestinal allograft dysfunction. The aim of this study was to analyze in detail the histopathological features of chronic rejection in the ACI-to-Lewis rat model of intestinal transplantation. Chronic rejection was achieved in orthotopic small-bowel allografts (ACI-Lewis) by limited immunosuppression with cyclosporin A (CyA). Isogeneic transplants (ACI-ACI) as well as native bowels (ACI)

  20. Management of Chronic Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Grahame, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Effective treatment of chronic urticaria depends on identification of the etiologic factor, if possible, and its subsequent elimination, although symptoms may be suppressed by appropriate medication. The investigation of the patient who presents with chronic urticaria is discussed, with emphasis on the need for a detailed history, meticulous physical examination (including a search for occult infection) and full routine hematologic, biochemical and radiologic monitoring. The author discusses the use of intradermal skin tests, scratch tests for inhalants and the need for skin biopsy and gastro-intestinal tract screening. Dietary treatments reviewed include the elimination diet and the elemental diet, which is used in combination with gradual re-introduction of foods. Symptomatic treatments, including antihistamines, the newer H1-histamine receptor antagonists, used with tricyclic antidepressants and with combination therapy, and systemic corticosteroid therapy are also discussed. PMID:21263827

  1. Myogenesis during holothurian intestinal regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Murray; José E. García-Arrarás

    2004-01-01

    Echinoderms are well known as being able to regenerate body parts and thus provide excellent models for studying regenerative processes in adult organisms. We are interested in intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima, and focus here on the regeneration of intestinal muscle components. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to describe the formation of the intestinal muscle layers. Myoblasts

  2. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Speca, Silvia; Giusti, Ilaria; Rieder, Florian; Latella, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis is a chronic and progressive process characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to stiffening and/or scarring of the involved tissue. Intestinal fibrosis may develop in several different enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. It develops through complex cell, extracellular matrix, cytokine and growth factor interactions. Distinct cell types are involved in intestinal fibrosis, such as resident mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) but also ECM-producing cells derived from epithelial and endothelial cells (through a process termed epithelial- and endothelial-mesenchymal transition), stellate cells, pericytes, local or bone marrow-derived stem cells. The most important soluble factors that regulate the activation of these cells include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, components of the renin-angiotensin system, angiogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin, and products of oxidative stress. It soon becomes clear that although inflammation is responsible for triggering the onset of the fibrotic process, it only plays a minor role in the progression of this condition, as fibrosis may advance in a self-perpetuating fashion. Definition of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal fibrosis may provide the key to developing new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22851857

  3. Intestinal Necrosis Associated with Orally Administered Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate Without Sorbitol (February).

    PubMed

    Goutorbe, Philippe; Montcriol, Ambroise; Lacroix, Guillaume; Bordes, Julien; Meaudre, Eric; Souraud, Jean-Baptiste

    2011-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of extensive intestinal necrosis with oral intake of calcium polystyrene sulfonate without sorbitol. CASE SUMMARY: A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed widespread dilatation of the bowel. The diagnosis of acute colonic pseudoobstruction was made. On day 3, her serum potassium level rose to 5.6 mEq/L. It was treated with hydrocortisone 100 mg/day and calcium polystyrene sulfonate 15 g/day via jnasogastric tube from day 3 to day 6. On day 6, the severe abdominal pain recurred, with abdominal tenderness. CT scan showed pneumoperitoneum and peritoneal effusion. At surgery, 2 lenticular jejunal perforations and an ischemic cecum were found. Microscopic findings indicated that the transmural abscess contained massive inflammatory infiltrate and the cecal mucosa showed ulceration and inflammation with a fibrinous and purulent coating. Small gray-purple or blue angulated crystals were embedded in the cecal and most of the jejunal mucosal ulcers. On day 19, the patient died of multiple organ failure after her third laparotomy. DISCUSSION: Ion-exchanging resins are given orally or by retention enema for the treatment of hyperkalemia. The most commonly used and best-established resin is sodium polystyrene sulfonate. However, it is known to promote colonic necrosis when sorbitol is also given or especially in patients with renal failure or postoperative ileus. Calcium polystyrene sulfonate is another ion-exchange resin. There are few reports of adverse effects in the literature. Our case is interesting for 2 reasons: the resin given was calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol was not used. CONCLUSIONS: Like sodium polystyrene sulfonate, calcium polystyrene sulfonate is an ion-exchanging resin that can promote bowel necrosis. We believe that it should not be used with sorbitol or when bowel transit time is slowed. PMID:21304040

  4. Intestinal permeability: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingvar Bjarnason; Andrew Macpherson; Daniel Hollander

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans has a 20-year history. Because the tests are increasingly used in clinical practice and research and because there is much controversy, we reviewed the literature and outlined the potential and possible shortcomings of these procedures. Data was obtained from personal files and from a systemic search through MEDLINE and EMBASE. The principle

  5. Intestinal Secretion Induced by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Krejs, Guenter J.; Barkley, Ronald M.; Read, Nicholas W.; Fordtran, John S.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on intestinal water and electrolyte transport and transmucosal potential difference was investigated in the dog jejunum in vivo and compared to secretion induced by cholera toxin. Isolated jejunal loops were perfused with a plasma-like electrolyte solution. VIP (0.08 ?g/kg per min) was administered directly into the superior mesenteric artery by continuous infusion over 1 h. From a dye dilution method, it was estimated that a mean plasma VIP concentration of 12,460 pg/ml reached the loops. VIP caused secretion of water and electrolytes; for example, chloride: control, 8 ?eq/cm per h absorption; VIP, 92 ?eq/cm per h secretion. A marked increase in transmucosal potential difference (control, ?1.0 mV; VIP, ?5.9 mV, lumen negative) occurred within 1 min after starting VIP infusion. Analysis of unidirectional fluxes showed increased plasma-to-lumen flux of sodium and chloride and decreased lumen-to-plasma flux of sodium. Chloride and bicarbonate were actively secreted against an electrochemical gradient. Although sodium secretion occurred down an electrochemical gradient, flux ratio analysis suggested a component of active sodium secretion. VIP caused a slight increase in protein output into the loops; light microscopy revealed capillary dilatation and closed intercellular spaces. The effect of VIP was readily reversible. Except for the delayed onset of secretion, the effect of cholera toxin was qualitatively similar to VIP; however, capillary dilatation and increased protein output were not noted with cholera toxin. Images PMID:659596

  6. Heterogeneity across the murine small and large intestine

    PubMed Central

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Forman, Ruth; Glymenaki, Maria; Carding, Simon Richard; Else, Kathryn Jane; Cruickshank, Sheena Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The small and large intestine of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have evolved to have discrete functions with distinct anatomies and immune cell composition. The importance of these differences is underlined when considering that different pathogens have uniquely adapted to live in each region of the gut. Furthermore, different regions of the GIT are also associated with differences in susceptibility to diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. The large and small intestine, given their anatomical and functional differences, should be seen as two separate immunological sites. However, this distinction is often ignored with findings from one area of the GIT being inappropriately extrapolated to the other. Focussing largely on the murine small and large intestine, this review addresses the literature relating to the immunology and biology of the two sites, drawing comparisons between them and clarifying similarities and differences. We also highlight the gaps in our understanding and where further research is needed. PMID:25386070

  7. Surgical therapy of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Tobias; Paschold, Markus; Eckardt, Alexander J.; Lang, Hauke; Kneist, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder, especially in adults. It causes a local disruption of chylus transport and is part of the exudative gastroenteropathies. Conservative therapy includes dietary measures or somatostatin medication. Taking the differential diagnosis of PIL into consideration is a major challenge, since patients suffering from PIL may present with diarrhoea and lymphedema or chylous ascites. This can be explained by the chronic lymphedema of the bowel leading to dilation of the vessels (intraluminal loss) and sometimes even to a rupture (peritoneal loss). Push–pull enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy are the proper interventional diagnostic tools to discover PIL. Exploratory laparoscopy may be useful in unclear cases. Surgical resection of the altered intestine has been described with positive results. Exploratory laparoscopy may even be a diagnostic tool in unclear cases. Resection of the altered intestine is a treatment option in symptomatic and treatment-refractory cases. PMID:26169531

  8. The Gut Microbiome in Intestinal Fibrosis: Environmental Protector or Provocateur?

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian

    2013-01-01

    In individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases, intestinal fibrosis is a serious clinical complication with no specific therapies. Patients develop bowel fistulae and strictures that usually require surgery and often reoccur. The main driver of gut fibrogenesis is believed to be chronic inflammation, which leads to mesenchymal cell recruitment and activation. Recent findings suggest that the environment—in particular the microbiome—plays a critical role in this process. PMID:23785034

  9. Microbes, intestinal inflammation and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad W; Kale, Amod A; Bere, Praveen; Vajjala, Sriharsha; Gounaris, Elias; Pakanati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known for causing disturbed homeostatic balance among the intestinal immune compartment, epithelium and microbiota. Owing to the emergence of IBD as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, great efforts have been put into understanding the sequence of intestinal inflammatory events. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells act in a synergistic fashion with intestinal epithelial cells and microbiota to initiate the triad that governs the intestinal immune responses (whether inflammatory or regulatory). In this review, we will discuss the interplay of intestinal epithelial cells, bacteria and the innate immune component. Moreover, whether or not genetic intervention of probiotic bacteria is a valid approach for attenuating/mitigating exaggerated inflammation and IBD will also be discussed. PMID:22149584

  10. Mechanisms of initiation and progression of intestinal fibrosis in IBD.

    PubMed

    Latella, Giovanni; Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Flati, Vincenzo; Rieder, Florian; Lawrance, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). It becomes clinically apparent in >30% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and in about 5% with ulcerative colitis (UC). Fibrosis is a consequence of local chronic inflammation and is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition. ECM is produced by activated myofibroblasts, which are modulated by both, profibrotic and antifibrotic factors. Fibrosis depends on the balance between the production and degradation of ECM proteins. This equilibrium can be impacted by a complex and dynamic interaction between profibrotic and antifibrotic mediators. Despite the major therapeutic advances in the treatment of active inflammation in IBD over the past two decades, the incidence of intestinal strictures in CD has not significantly changed as the current anti-inflammatory therapies neither prevent nor reverse the established fibrosis and strictures. This implies that control of intestinal inflammation does not necessarily affect the associated fibrotic process. The conventional view that intestinal fibrosis is an inevitable and irreversible process in patients with IBD is also gradually changing in light of an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underline the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Comprehension of the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis is thus vital and may pave the way for the developments of antifibrotic agents and new therapeutic approaches in IBD. PMID:25523556

  11. Abnormal intestinal permeability and microbiota in patients with autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rui; Zhou, Lu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bangmao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, progressive, and immunologically mediated inflammatory liver disorder. The etiology of AIH still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation, and intestinal microbiome in patients with AIH and to evaluate the correlations of those changes with the stages of the disease. Methods: 24 patients with autoimmune hepatitis and 8 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. We assessed (1) the integrity of tight junctions within the gut by immunohistochemical analysis of zona occludens-1 and occludin expression in duodenal biopsy specimens; (2) changes in the enteric microbiome by 16S rDNA quantitative PCR; and (3) the presence of bacterial translocation by the level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using ELISA. Results: Increased intestinal permeability, derangement of the microbiome and bacterial translocation occurred in AIH, which correlated with the severity of the disease. Conclusions: Autoimmune hepatitis is associated with leaky gut and intestinal microbiome dysbiosis. The impaired intestinal barrier may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIH.

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that does not heal or improve, gets worse over time, and leads ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  13. Phasic study of intestinal homeostasis disruption in experimental intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Zou, Chang-Lin; Zhou, Zhen-Li; Shan, Tao; Li, Dong-Hua; Cui, Nai-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis in an experimental model of intestinal obstruction. METHODS: A rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established by transforming parts of an infusion set into an in vivo pulled-type locking clamp and creating a uniform controllable loop obstruction in the mesenteric non-avascular zone 8 cm from the distal end of the ileum. The phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis was studied after intestinal obstruction. The changes in goblet cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal epithelium were quantified from periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and serum citrulline levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Claudin 1 mRNA expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Intestinal microorganisms, wet/dry weight ratios, pH values, and endotoxin levels were determined at multiple points after intestinal obstruction. Furthermore, the number and ratio of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry, and secretory IgA levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A suitable controllable rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established. Intestinal obstruction induced goblet cell damage and reduced cell number. Further indicators of epithelial cell damage were observed as reduced serum citrulline levels and claudin 1 gene expression, and a transient increase in ODC activity. In addition, the wet/dry weight ratio and pH of the intestinal lumen were also dramatically altered. The ratio of Bacillus bifidus and enterobacteria was reversed following intestinal obstruction. The number and area of Peyer’s patches first increased then sharply decreased after the intestinal obstruction, along with an alteration in the ratio of CD4/CD8+ T cells, driven by an increase in CD3+ and CD8+ T cells and a decrease in CD4+ T cells. The number of lamina propria lymphocytes also gradually decreased with prolonged obstruction. CONCLUSION: Intestinal obstruction can induce disruption of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:25009385

  14. The chronic enteropathogenic disease schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Olveda, David U; Olveda, Remigio M; McManus, Donald P; Cai, Pengfei; Chau, Thao N P; Lam, Alfred K; Li, Yuesheng; Harn, Donald A; Vinluan, Marilyn L; Ross, Allen G P

    2014-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic enteropathogenic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. The disease afflicts approximately 240 million individuals globally, causing approximately 70 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Chronic infections with morbidity and mortality occur as a result of granuloma formation in the intestine, liver, or in the case of Schistosoma haematobium, the bladder. Various methods are utilized to diagnose and evaluate liver fibrosis due to schistosomiasis. Liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard, but it is invasive. Diagnostic imaging has proven to be an invaluable method in assessing hepatic morbidity in the hospital setting, but has practical limitations in the field. The potential of non-invasive biological markers, serum antibodies, cytokines, and circulating host microRNAs to diagnose hepatic fibrosis is presently undergoing evaluation. This review provides an update on the recent advances made with respect to gastrointestinal disease associated with chronic schistosomiasis. PMID:25250908

  15. Kinetic study of acamprosate absorption in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Más-Serrano, P; Granero, L; Martín-Algarra, R V; Guerri, C; Polache, A

    2000-01-01

    Acamprosate (calcium bis acetyl-homotaurine), a homotaurine derivative, a structural analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and an upper homologue of taurine, is a relatively new drug used to prevent relapse in weaned alcoholics. When administered orally as enteric-coated tablets at relatively high doses, this drug has a bioavailability of about 11%; however, the intestinal absorption mechanism has not been studied in depth. The present study was therefore planned to characterize the intestinal transport of acamprosate in the rat and the effect of chronic alcohol treatment on this process, quantifying its kinetic parameters and investigating possible inhibitors. Using an in vitro technique, acamprosate absorption was measured in the rat intestine from three different groups: alcohol group [fed a liquid diet containing 5% (w/v) ethanol for 4 weeks], isocaloric pair-fed control, and a solid diet group. Intestinal acamprosate absorption was found to occur mainly by passive diffusion with a diffusive permeability of 0.213+/-0.004 cm/h in control pair-fed animals, 0.206+/-0.001 cm/h in animals receiving chronic alcohol treatment, and 0.193+/-0.001 cm/h in the solid diet group. Inhibition studies showed that at a 10(-3) M acamprosate concentration, some compounds such as GABA, taurine, proline, and glycine at 40 mM each did not affect acamprosate transport. Nevertheless, when a lower concentration of the drug (10(-4) M) was assayed, a significant reduction of acamprosate transport in the presence of taurine or GABA 40 mM was found. These results suggest that acamprosate in the rat jejunum, could be transported, in part, by a carrier system. Further experiments using different concentrations of taurine (10, 20, and 80 mM) showed that the maximum inhibition (32%) is achieved at 20 mM of taurine. These latter results suggest that acamprosate and taurine share, at least, an intestinal carrier system in rat jejunum. From the above results, it can be concluded that there are probably two pathways involved in the intestinal absorption of acamprosate: passive diffusion and mediated transport, with the former being predominant. Moreover, neither chronic ethanol intake nor the type of diet seems to alter the intestinal absorption of the drug. PMID:10905995

  16. Synthetic Small Intestinal Scaffolds for Improved Studies of Intestinal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cait M.; Hongpeng, Jia; Shaffiey, Shahab; Yu, Jiajie; Jain, Nina K.; Hackam, David

    2014-01-01

    In vitro intestinal models can provide new insights into small intestinal function, including cellular growth and proliferation mechanisms, drug absorption capabilities, and host-microbial interactions. These models are typically formed with cells cultured on 2D scaffolds or transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue. Our focus was to develop a porous, synthetic 3D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the culture of epithelial cell types to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine. We demonstrated that our scaffold could support the co-culture of Caco-2 cells with a mucus-producing cell line, HT29-MTX, as well as small intestinal crypts from mice for extended periods. By recreating the surface topography with accurately sized intestinal villi, we enable cellular differentiation along the villous axis in a similar manner to native intestines. In addition, we show that the biochemical microenvironments of the intestine can be further simulated via a combination of apical and basolateral feeding of intestinal cell types cultured on the 3D models. PMID:24390638

  17. Intestinal flora and human health.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, T

    1996-03-01

    There is a growing interest in intestinal flora and human health and disease. The intestines of humans contain 100 trillion viable bacteria. These live bacteria, which make up 30% of the faecal mass, are known as the intestinal flora. There are two kinds of bacteria in the intestinal flora, beneficial and harmful. In healthy subjects, they are well balanced and beneficial bacteria dominate. Beneficial bacteria play useful roles in the aspects of nutrition and prevention of disease. They produce essential nutrients such as vitamins and organic acids, which are absorbed from the intestines and utilised by the gut epithelium and by vital organs such as the liver. Organic acids also suppress the growth of pathogens in the intestines.Other intestinal bacteria produce substances that are harmful to the host, such as putrefactive products, toxins and carcinogenic substances. When harmful bacteria dominate in the intestines, essential nutrients are not produced and the level of harmful substances rises. These substances may not have an immediate detrimental effect on the host but they are thought to be contributing factors to ageing, promoting cancer, liver and kidney disease, hypertension and arteriosclerosis, and reduced immunity. Little is known regarding which intestinal bacteria are responsible for these effects. A number of factors can change the balance of intestinal flora in favour of harmful bacteria. These include peristalsis disorders, surgical operations of stomach or small intestine, liver or kidney diseases, pernicious anaemia, cancer, radiation or antibiotic therapies, immune disorders, emotional stress, poor diet and ageing. However, more importantly, the normal balance of intestinal flora may be maintained, or restored to a normal from an unbalanced state, by oral bacterio-therapy or by a well balanced diet. Oral bacterio-therapy using intestinal strains of lactic acid bacteria, such as lactobacillus and bifidobacteria, can restore normal intestinal balance and produce beneficial effects. Benefits include suppression of intestinal putrification so as to reduce constipation and other geriatric diseases; prevention and treatment of diarrhoea including antibiotic-associated diarrhoea; stimulation of the immune system; and increased resistance to infection. PMID:24394457

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? increase PepT1 expression and activity in the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2\\/bbe and in mouse intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan R. Vavricka; Mark W. Musch; Mikihiro Fujiya; Keri Kles; Laura Chang; Jyrki J. Eloranta; Gerd A. Kullak-Ublick; Ken Drabik; Didier Merlin; Eugene B. Chang

    2006-01-01

    A major mechanism for apical peptide absorption by small intestine is via the proton-coupled transporter PepT1. PepT1 is expressed\\u000a at a high level in proximal small intestine, but it is not expressed in the healthy colon. However, in chronic states of intestinal\\u000a inflammation, such as in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, PepT1 expression in colonic epithelia is increased, serving\\u000a as

  19. Teleost intestinal immunology.

    PubMed

    Rombout, Jan H W M; Abelli, Luigi; Picchietti, Simona; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Kiron, Viswanath

    2011-11-01

    Teleosts clearly have a more diffuse gut associated lymphoid system, which is morphological and functional clearly different from the mammalian GALT. All immune cells necessary for a local immune response are abundantly present in the gut mucosa of the species studied and local immune responses can be monitored after intestinal immunization. Fish do not produce IgA, but a special mucosal IgM isotype seems to be secreted and may (partly) be the recently described IgZ/IgT. Fish produce a pIgR in their mucosal tissues but it is smaller (2 ILD) than the 4-5 ILD pIgR of higher vertebrates. Whether teleost pIgR is transcytosed and cleaved off in the same way needs further investigation, especially because a secretory component (SC) is only reported in one species. Teleosts also have high numbers of IEL, most of them are CD3-?+/CD8-?+ and have cytotoxic and/or regulatory function. Possibly many of these cells are TCR?? cells and they may be involved in the oral tolerance induction observed in fish. Innate immune cells can be observed in the teleost gut from first feeding onwards, but B cells appear much later in mucosal compartments compared to systemic sites. Conspicuous is the very early presence of putative T cells or their precursors in the fish gut, which together with the rag-1 expression of intestinal lymphoid cells may be an indication for an extra-thymic development of certain T cells. Teleosts can develop enteritis in their antigen transporting second gut segment and epithelial cells, IEL and eosinophils/basophils seem to play a crucial role in this intestinal inflammation model. Teleost intestine can be exploited for oral vaccination strategies and probiotic immune stimulation. A variety of encapsulation methods, to protect vaccines against degradation in the foregut, are reported with promising results but in most cases they appear not to be cost effective yet. Microbiota in fish are clearly different from terrestrial animals. In the past decade a fast increasing number of papers is dedicated to the oral administration of a variety of probiotics that can have a strong health beneficial effect, but much more attention has to be paid to the immune mechanisms behind these effects. The recent development of gnotobiotic fish models may be very helpful to study the immune effects of microbiota and probiotics in teleosts. PMID:20832474

  20. Chronic Cholangitides: Aetiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Sherlock, Sheila

    1968-01-01

    A number of different chronic diseases affect the intrahepatic bile radicles or cholangioles. They include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic cholestatic drug jaundice, atresia, and carcinoma. Aetiological factors include infection, immunological changes, hormones, and congenital defects. Patients with chronic cholestasis have decreased bile salts in the intestinal contents and suffer from a bile salt deficiency syndrome. Failure to absorb dietary fat is managed by a low-fat diet and by medium-chain trigly-cerides which are absorbed in the absence of intestinal bile salts. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are prevented by parenteral vitamins A, D, and K1. Calcium absorption is defective, and improvement may follow intramuscular vitamin D, medium-chain triglycerides, a low-fat diet, and oral calcium supplements. In partial intestinal bile salt deficiency the anionic bile-salt-chelating resin cholestyramine controls pruritus though steatorrhoea increases. Pruritus associated with total lack of intestinal bile salts is managed by methyl-testosterone or norethandrolone, though the jaundice increases. PMID:4971054

  1. Enteropatía congénita y trasplante intestinal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Goulet

    2006-01-01

    ExtractoLa insuficiencia intestinal (II) exige el uso de nutrición parenteral (NP). Entre las causas de II prolongada grave destacan el síndrome del intestino corto, trastornos de la motilidad grave (aganglionosis total o subtotal o síndrome de seudoobstrucción intestinal crónica) y enfermedades congénitas del desarrollo de los enterocitos. Puede aparecer insuficiencia hepática grave en pacientes con II como consecuencia de una

  2. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Vignes; Jérôme Bellanger

    2008-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb

  3. Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grzeskowiak, Lukasz Marcin; de Sales Teixeira, Tatiana Fiche; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten intake. To date, the only therapy for CD is the complete exclusion of dietary sources of grains and any food containing gluten. It has been hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota is somehow involved in CD. For this reason, probiotics are appearing as an interesting adjuvant in the dietetic management of CD. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the microbiota in CD subjects and the use of probiotics as a novel therapy for CD. Comparisons between children with CD and controls show that their microbiota profiles differ; the former have fewer lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Specific probiotics have been found to digest or alter gluten polypeptides. It has also been demonstrated that some bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium exert protective properties on epithelial cells from damage caused by gliadin. PMID:24982318

  4. Common intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-03-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E. vermicularis, or pinworm, causes irritation and sleep disturbances. Diagnosis can be made using the "cellophane tape test." Treatment includes mebendazole and household sanitation. Giardia causes nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Stool ova and parasite studies are diagnostic. Treatment includes metronidazole. Sewage treatment, proper handwashing, and consumption of bottled water can be preventive. A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica, and wasting. Finding eggs in the feces is diagnostic. Treatments include albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, iron supplementation, and blood transfusion. Preventive measures include wearing shoes and treating sewage. E. histolytica can cause intestinal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, gastrointestinal obstruction, and peritonitis. Amebas can cause abscesses in the liver that may rupture into the pleural space, peritoneum, or pericardium. Stool and serologic assays, biopsy, barium studies, and liver imaging have diagnostic merit. Therapy includes luminal and tissue amebicides to attack both life-cycle stages. Metronidazole, chloroquine, and aspiration are treatments for liver abscess. Careful sanitation and use of peeled foods and bottled water are preventive. PMID:15023017

  5. [Anal symptoms of gastro-intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Grosshans, E; Jenn, P; Baumann, R; Weill, J P; Basset, A

    1979-01-01

    In most cases the ano-cutaneous clinical symptoms correlated to diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract are not specific (erythema, itching, wounds or scarring). However in the following diseases occasional dermatological lesions may directly contribute to their diagnosis: in Crohn's disease, tuberculosis of bowel, chronic entamoebiasis and bilharziosis, the skin lesions of the anal area have the same histological structure as the gut lesions. Perianal fistulas and ulcers are frequent in Crohn's disease especially if there is a colonic and rectal spreading; they respond badly to steroid therapy and are often correlated with a worse prognosis. Perianal specific lesions occur often in oxyuriasis in children, in candidiasis of the digestive tract, in systemic aphthosis and in some malignancies. In other gastro-intestinal disturbances, the dermatological and features are less specific and can only be suggestive: iatrogenic and microbial diarrheas, side-effects of laxatives, proctological diseases. It has to be emphasized that pruritus ani is only induced by deeper lesions when they spread to the perianal skin. In proctological practice, contact dermatitis by sensitivity to anaesthetics or suppository balsams (Peruvian balsam), itching or burning atrophy by topical steroid abuse, non-diagnosed fungal (candidiasis), bacterial (erythrasma) or psoriatic intertrigos (flexural psoriasis) may sometimes explain the failure of therapy. PMID:485013

  6. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... usually affects both sides of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused ...

  7. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal tissue for direct translation to human therapy. PMID:23380001

  8. Epigenetic control of intestinal barrier function and inflammation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Marjoram, Lindsay; Alvers, Ashley; Deerhake, M Elizabeth; Bagwell, Jennifer; Mankiewicz, Jamie; Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Beerman, Rebecca W; Willer, Jason; Sumigray, Kaelyn D; Katsanis, Nicholas; Tobin, David M; Rawls, John F; Goll, Mary G; Bagnat, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a barrier protecting the organism from microbes and other proinflammatory stimuli. The integrity of this barrier and the proper response to infection requires precise regulation of powerful immune homing signals such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Dysregulation of TNF leads to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but the mechanism controlling the expression of this potent cytokine and the events that trigger the onset of chronic inflammation are unknown. Here, we show that loss of function of the epigenetic regulator ubiquitin-like protein containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (uhrf1) in zebrafish leads to a reduction in tnfa promoter methylation and the induction of tnfa expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The increase in IEC tnfa levels is microbe-dependent and results in IEC shedding and apoptosis, immune cell recruitment, and barrier dysfunction, consistent with chronic inflammation. Importantly, tnfa knockdown in uhrf1 mutants restores IEC morphology, reduces cell shedding, and improves barrier function. We propose that loss of epigenetic repression and TNF induction in the intestinal epithelium can lead to IBD onset. PMID:25730872

  9. Therapeutic approaches targeting intestinal microflora in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease, are chronic intestinal disorders of unknown etiology in which in genetically susceptible individuals, the mucosal immune system shows an aberrant response towards commensal bacteria. The gastrointestinal tract has developed ingenious mechanisms to coexist with its autologous microflora, but rapidly responds to invading pathogens and then returns to homeostasis with its commensal bacteria after the pathogenic infection is cleared. In case of disruption of this tightly-regulated homeostasis, chronic intestinal inflammation may be induced. Previous studies showed that some commensal bacteria are detrimental while others have either no influence or have a protective action. In addition, each host has a genetically determined response to detrimental and protective bacterial species. These suggest that therapeutic manipulation of imbalance of microflora can influence health and disease. This review focuses on new insights into the role of commensal bacteria in gut health and disease, and presents recent findings in innate and adaptive immune interactions. Therapeutic approaches to modulate balance of intestinal microflora and their potential mechanisms of action are also discussed. PMID:16874854

  10. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Ogawa; Masaya Hosokawa; Norio Harada; Shunsuke Yamane; Akihiro Hamasaki; Kentaro Toyoda; Shimpei Fujimoto; Yoshihito Fujita; Kazuhito Fukuda; Katsushi Tsukiyama; Yuichiro Yamada; Yutaka Seino; Nobuya Inagaki

    2011-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic ? cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal

  11. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  12. How to treat an extensive form of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia?

    PubMed Central

    Troskot, Rosana; Jur?i?, Dragan; Bili?, Ante; Gomer?i? Pal?i?, Marija; Težak, Stanko; Brajkovi?, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 42-year-old man with a rare disorder known as primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, which is characterized by dilated intestinal lymphatics that lead to the development of protein-losing enteropathy. The patient presented with a grand mal seizure caused by malabsorption-derived electrolytes and a protein disorder. Signs of the disease, including chronic diarrhea and peripheral edema, manifested 10 years ago, but a diagnosis was never made. The diagnosis was suspected because of the clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, imaging and endoscopic findings. Hyperemic and edematous mucosa of the small intestine corresponded to scattered white spots with dilated intestinal lymphatics and whitish villi in the histological specimen of the biopsied jejunal mucosa. Although numerous therapeutic strategies are available, only octreotide therapy proved to be an effective means of therapeutic resolution in this patient. Although the patient had a partial remission following the use of a slow release formula of octreotide, his prognosis, clinical course, and future treatment challenges are yet to be determined. PMID:26109821

  13. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the prediction of the fibrosis degree of the gland, the evaluation of patients with asymptomatic hyperenzimemia, the medical and surgical treatment of abdominal pain and the knowledge of the natural history of the autoimmune pancreatitis. In patients with indetermined EUS findings of chronic pancreatitis, a new endoscopic ultrasound examination in the follow-up is of help to confirm or to exclude the disease. Smoking, number of relapses, results of pancreatic function tests and EUS findings allow predicting the degree of pancreatic fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidant therapy has shown to be effective in reducing pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, although the type and optimal dose of antioxidants remains to be elucidated. Development of intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frequent in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but its impact on symptoms is unknown and deserves further investigations. Finally, autoimmune pancreatitis relapses in about half of the patients with either type 1 or type 2 disease; relapses frequently occur within the first two years of follow-up. PMID:25294271

  14. Chronic Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence P. Riso; Michael E. Thase

    While once of limited interest to the field, chronic depression is now recognized as a major public health problem (Howland, 1993). Not only is chronic depression common, representing 19% of all depressed patients (Keller & Hanks, 1995) and 6% in the community (Kessler et al., 1994), but it is also associated with considerable psychosocial impairment (Howland, 1993), and is extremely

  15. [Chronic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Shibata, A; Narita, M

    1989-05-01

    As compared with advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, we have made little progress in chronic leukemia. Recently we have attempted some new treatments for chronic phase of CML, and confirmed those effectiveness. But for blastic crisis, we still grope in the dark. In this paper, we review the chemotherapy of CML and CLL including new treatments except bone marrow transplantation. PMID:2658837

  16. Radiation-induced granulocyte transmigration predicts development of delayed structural changes in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Richter, K K; Wang, J; Fagerhol, M K; Hauer-Jensen, M

    2001-04-01

    We examined whether early radiation-induced granulocyte transmigration (assessed by the fecal transferrin excretion ELISA assay) predicts subsequent development of (consequential) chronic radiation enteropathy. After accounting for the effect of radiation dose, transferrin excretion remained an independent predictor of overall tissue injury, intestinal fibrosis, and mucosal ulcers, but not TGF-beta immunoreactivity. PMID:11295210

  17. Rectal afferent function in patients with inflammatory and functional intestinal disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles N. Bernstein; Negar Niazi; Marie Robert; Howard Mertz; Anatoly Kodner; Julie Munakata; Bruce Naliboff; Emeran A. Mayer

    1996-01-01

    Chronic symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort are reported by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functional disorders of the gut, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). It has recently been suggested that transient inflammatory mucosal events may result in long-lasting sensitization of visceral afferent pathways. To determine the effect of recurring intestinal tissue irritation on lumbosacral afferent pathways,

  18. Intestinal dysbiosis and reduced immunoglobulin-coated bacteria associated with coeliac disease in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giada De Palma; Inmaculada Nadal; Marcela Medina; Ester Donat; Carmen Ribes-Koninckx; Miguel Calabuig; Yolanda Sanz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disorder due to an aberrant immune response to dietary gluten proteins in genetically predisposed individuals. Mucosal immune response through IgA secretion constitutes a first line of defence responsible for neutralizing noxious antigens and pathogens. The aim of this study was the characterization of the relationships between immunoglobulin-coated bacteria and bacterial composition of

  19. The intestine and the kidneys: a bad marriage can be hazardous

    PubMed Central

    Vanholder, Raymond; Glorieux, Griet

    2015-01-01

    The concept that the intestine and chronic kidney disease influence each other, emerged only recently. The problem is multifaceted and bidirectional. On one hand, the composition of the intestinal microbiota impacts uraemic retention solute production, resulting in the generation of essentially protein-bound uraemic toxins with strong biological impact such as vascular damage and progression of kidney failure. On the other hand, the uraemic status affects the composition of intestinal microbiota, the generation of uraemic retention solutes and their precursors and causes disturbances in the protective epithelial barrier of the intestine and the translocation of intestinal microbiota into the body. All these elements together contribute to the disruption of the metabolic equilibrium and homeostasis typical to uraemia. Several measures with putative impact on intestinal status have recently been tested for their influence on the generation or concentration of uraemic toxins. These include dietary measures, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and intestinal sorbents. Unfortunately, the quality and the evidence base of many of these studies are debatable, especially in uraemia, and often results within one study or among studies are contradictory. Nevertheless, intestinal uraemic metabolite generation remains an interesting target to obtain in the future as an alternative or additive to dialysis to decrease uraemic toxin generation. In the present review, we aim to summarize (i) the role of the intestine in uraemia by producing uraemic toxins and by generating pathophysiologically relevant changes, (ii) the role of uraemia in modifying intestinal physiology and (iii) the therapeutic options that could help to modify these effects and the studies that have assessed the impact of these therapies. PMID:25815173

  20. Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Do Trung; Van De, Nguyen; Waikagul, Jitra; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2007-01-01

    Although fishborne zoonotic trematodes that infect the liver are well documented in Vietnam, intestinal fishborne zoonotic trematodes are unreported. Recent discoveries of the metacercarial stage of these flukes in wild and farmed fish prompted an assessment of their risk to a community that eats raw fish. A fecal survey of 615 persons showed a trematode egg prevalence of 64.9%. Infected persons were treated to expel liver and intestinal parasites for specific identification. The liver trematode Clonorchis sinensis was recovered from 51.5%, but >1 of 4 intestinal species of the family Heterophyidae was recovered from 100%. The most numerous were Haplorchis spp. (90.4% of all worms recovered). These results demonstrate that fishborne intestinal parasites are an unrecognized food safety risk in a country whose people have a strong tradition of eating raw fish. PMID:18258031

  1. Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils; Subramanya, Sandeep B; Kapadia, Rubina; Said, Hamid M

    2013-01-01

    The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health. PMID:23104561

  2. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Responses through TLR Activation: Implications for Pro- and Prebiotics

    PubMed Central

    de Kivit, Sander; Tobin, Mary C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Landay, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is constantly facing a high load of antigens including bacterial antigens derived from the microbiota and food. Despite this, the immune cells present in the gastrointestinal tract do not initiate a pro-inflammatory immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors expressed by various cells in the gastrointestinal tract, including intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and resident immune cells in the lamina propria. Many diseases, including chronic intestinal inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), allergic gastroenteritis (e.g., eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS), and infections are nowadays associated with a deregulated microbiota. The microbiota may directly interact with TLR. In addition, differences in intestinal TLR expression in health and disease may suggest that TLRs play an essential role in disease pathogenesis and may be novel targets for therapy. TLR signaling in the gut is involved in either maintaining intestinal homeostasis or the induction of an inflammatory response. This mini review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of intestinal epithelial TLR signaling in both tolerance induction or promoting intestinal inflammation, with a focus on food allergy. We will also highlight a potential role of the microbiota in regulating gut immune responses, especially through TLR activation. PMID:24600450

  3. Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils; Subramanya, Sandeep B.; Kapadia, Rubina

    2013-01-01

    The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health. PMID:23104561

  4. Intestinal microflora and metabolic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Serino; E. Luche; C. Chabo; J. Amar; R. Burcelin

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular sequencing technology have allowed researchers to answer major questions regarding the relationship between a vast genomic diversity—such as found in the intestinal microflora—and host physiology. Over the past few years, it has been established that, in obesity, type 1 diabetes and Crohn's disease—to cite but a few—the intestinal microflora play a pathophysiological role and can induce,

  5. Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (tufting enteropathy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Goulet; Julie Salomon; Frank Ruemmele; Natacha Patey-Mariaud de Serres; Nicole Brousse

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED), also known as tufting enteropathy, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset severe intractable diarrhea causing sometimes irreversible intestinal failure. To date, no epidemiological data are available, however, the prevalence can be estimated at around 1\\/50,000–100,000 live births in Western Europe. The prevalence seems higher in areas with high degree of consanguinity and in patients of

  6. Intestinal Effector T Cells in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Craig L.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the human intestines collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though a complex set of autoinflammatory disorders that can be precipitated by diverse genetic and environmental factors, a feature that appears common to IBD pathogenesis is a dysregulated effector T cell response to the commensal microbiota. Due to the heightened effector T cell activity in IBD, developmental and functional pathways that give rise to these cells are potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of effector T cell biology in the context of intestinal immune regulation and speculate on their potential clinical significance. PMID:19766082

  7. Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

    2015-05-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol. PMID:25746479

  8. Non familial juvenile polyposis presenting as chronic intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Panchagnula, R; Kini, U

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile polyps are the commonest colonic polyps seen in children and present most often with rectal bleed. Intussusception is an extremely rare presentation in juvenile polyposis (JP) syndrome. This case highlights the rare association of ileo-colic intussusception with non-familial Juvenile Polyposis. PMID:11200904

  9. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-?-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555

  10. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-?-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555

  11. An unusual cause of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Deesomsak, M; Sawanyawisuth, K; Prachayakul, V

    2014-03-01

    We report a patient presenting with chronic diarrhoea of unidentified etiology. Laboratory results showed microcytic anemia, peripheral eosinophilia with negative results of stool sample smears and stool concentration technique. Ancylostoma duodenale was found in the caecum and terminal ileum during colonoscopy. The patient was treated with a 3-day course of 400 mg albendazole and iron supplement. The diarrhoea disappeared shortly after treatment. Physicians particularly in tropical areas should be aware of hookworms as causative agents of chronic diarrhoea and it may be found in the large intestine. PMID:24862060

  12. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More About Us Newsroom Departments & Divisions Locations & Directions Who We Are Connect With Us Contact Us More Chronic Bronchitis ... Information Pediatric Conditions Healthy Lifestyle More About Us Who We Are Newsroom Network of Locations More eNewsletters and More © ...

  13. Chronic Meningitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include sarcoidosis and certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

  14. The Treatment of Chronic Amoebic Infection with Metronidazole (Flagyl)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Steinitz

    1972-01-01

    After treatment with metronidazole (Flagyl) in daily doses of 1,500 or 2,250 mg for 5 or 10 days, the faeces of 57 from 87 patients (65.5%) with chronic amoebic infection became amoeba-negative and remained so upon repeated follow-up examinations for at least 2 months. Almost all patients with a clinical syndrome of chronic recurrent intestinal amoebiasis reported striking improvement of

  15. Ondansetron in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer and Chronic Nausea and Vomiting Not Caused by Cancer Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-19

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Nausea and Vomiting; Precancerous Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  16. Differential V  T-Cell Receptor Usage during Chronic Experimental Schistosomiasis Corresponds with Distinct Pathological Presentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. EVAN SECOR; GEORGE L. FREEMAN

    2001-01-01

    Chronic (20-week) infection of CBA\\/J male mice with Schis- tosoma mansoni results in development of two distinct pathol- ogies that closely parallel those of humans with chronic schis- tosomiasis (4). Moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS) is analogous to the less severe human intestinal form of the disease. Hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) in mice resem- bles the more severe human hepatosplenic disease form

  17. Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DE LERMA BARBARO, A.; PERLETTI, G.; BONAPACE, I.M.; MONTI, E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at ‘hijacking’ the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating neoplastic transformation in that site. PMID:24920319

  18. Management of pediatric intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, S S; Matsumoto, C S

    2015-08-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as the state of the intestinal tract where the function is below the minimum required for the absorption of macronutrients, water, and electrolytes. The etiology may be a multitude of causes, but short bowel syndrome (SBS) remains the most common. The successful management and prognosis of SBS in infants and children depends a multitude of variables such as length, quality, location, and anatomy of the remaining intestine. Prognosis, likewise, depends on these factors, but also is dependent on the clinical management of these patients. Strategies for a successful outcome and the success of therapeutic interventions are dependent upon understanding each individual's remaining intestinal function. Medical intervention success is defined by a graduated advancement of enteral nutrition (EN) and a reduction of parenteral nutrition (PN). Complications of IF and PN include progressive liver disease, bacterial overgrowth, dysmotility, renal disease, catheter related bloodstream infections, and loss of venous access. Surgical interventions such as bowel lengthening procedures show promise in carefully selected patients. Intestinal transplantation is reserved for those infants and children suffering from life-threatening complications of PN. PMID:25752806

  19. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  20. Intestinal absorption of organicmicropollutants S. Cavret et al. Original article

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intestinal absorption of organicmicropollutants S. Cavret et al. Original article Intestinal the transfer through the intestinal barrier of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo intestinal absorption for the studied molecules. Phenanthrene appeared to be the fastest and most uptaken

  1. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442

  2. G protein-coupled receptor 43 is essential for neutrophil recruitment during intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sina, Christian; Gavrilova, Olga; Förster, Matti; Till, Andreas; Derer, Stefanie; Hildebrand, Friederike; Raabe, Björn; Chalaris, Athena; Scheller, Jürgen; Rehmann, Ateequr; Franke, Andre; Ott, Stephan; Häsler, Robert; Nikolaus, Susanna; Fölsch, Ulrich R; Rose-John, Stefan; Jiang, Hui-Ping; Li, Jun; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Molecular danger signals attract neutrophilic granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)) to sites of infection. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 43 recognizes propionate and butyrate and is abundantly expressed on PMNs. The functional role of GPR43 activation for in vivo orchestration of immune response is unclear. We examined dextrane sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute and chronic intestinal inflammatory response in wild-type and Gpr43-deficient mice. The severity of colonic inflammation was assessed by clinical signs, histological scoring, and cytokine production. Chemotaxis of wild-type and Gpr43-deficient PMNs was assessed through transwell cell chemotactic assay. A reduced invasion of PMNs and increased mortality due to septic complications were observed in acute DSS colitis. In chronic DSS colitis, Gpr43(-/-) animals showed diminished PMN intestinal migration, but protection against inflammatory tissue destruction. No significant difference in PMN migration and cytokine secretion was detected in a sterile inflammatory model. Ex vivo experiments show that GPR43-induced migration is dependent on activation of the protein kinase p38alpha, and that this signal acts in cooperation with the chemotactic cytokine keratinocyte chemoattractant. Interestingly, shedding of L-selectin in response to propionate and butyrate was compromised in Gpr43(-/-) mice. These results indicate a critical role for GPR43-mediated recruitment of PMNs in containing intestinal bacterial translocation, yet also emphasize the bipotential role of PMNs in mediating tissue destruction in chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:19917676

  3. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajasree J; Lawler, Lanika; Miller, Mark R

    2007-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is the progressive and permanent destruction of the pancreas resulting in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and, often, chronic disabling pain. The etiology is multifactorial. Alcoholism plays a significant role in adults, whereas genetic and structural defects predominate in children. The average age at diagnosis is 35 to 55 years. Morbidity and mortality are secondary to chronic pain and complications (e.g., diabetes, pancreatic cancer). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the radiographic test of choice for diagnosis, with ductal calcifications being pathognomonic. Newer modalities, such as endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, provide diagnostic results similar to those of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Management begins with lifestyle modifications (e.g., cessation of alcohol and tobacco use) and dietary changes followed by analgesics and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Before proceeding with endoscopic or surgical interventions, physicians and patients should weigh the risks and benefits of each procedure. Therapeutic endoscopy is indicated for symptomatic or complicated pseudocyst, biliary obstruction, and decompression of pancreatic duct. Surgical procedures include decompression for large duct disease (pancreatic duct dilatation of 7 mm or more) and resection for small duct disease. Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is the most commonly performed surgery in patients with large duct disease. Pancreatoduodenectomy is indicated for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic head enlargement. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk of pancreatic neoplasm; regular surveillance is sometimes advocated, but formal guidelines and evidence of clinical benefit are lacking. PMID:18092710

  4. [Chronic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results. PMID:8520023

  5. Chronic urticaria.

    PubMed Central

    Leznoff, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the pathophysiology of chronic urticaria in light of recent evidence for it being an autoimmune disease, and to recommend appropriate management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An extensive literature review was supplemented with a MEDLINE search. Articles from easily available journals were preferred. These consisted of the most recent basic articles on autoimmunity in relation to chronic urticaria and a selection of previous articles on pathophysiology, which illustrate consistencies with recent evidence. The investigation and management protocol is supported by original and relevant literature. MAIN FINDINGS: The histopathology and immunohistology of chronic urticaria and certain clinical studies were a prelude to definitive evidence that most instances of chronic urticaria are autoimmune. Although allergic and other causes are uncommon, these must be sought because identification can lead to cure or specific treatment. Management of the much more common autoimmune urticaria is based on principles derived from the demonstrated pathogenesis and on results of published clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: In most instances, chronic urticaria is an autoimmune disease, but uncommon allergic or other causes must be considered. PMID:9805172

  6. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  7. The effects of continuous and intermittent reduced speed modes on renal and intestinal perfusion in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Tuzun, Egemen; Chorpenning, Katherine; Liu, Maxine Qun; Bonugli, Katherine; Tamez, Dan; Lenox, Mark; Miller, Matthew W; Fossum, Theresa W

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the continuous-flow output on renal and intestinal microcirculation have not been extensively studied. To address this, the Heartware HVAD pump loaded with continuous and intermittent reduced speed (IRS) modes was implanted in four sheep and then operated at low and high speeds to mimic partial and complete unloading of the left ventricle. Then microsphere and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies were used to assess renal and intestinal tissue perfusion at various pump speeds and flow modes as compared with baseline (pump off). Arterial and venous oxygen (T02) and carbon dioxide (TCO2) contents were measured to assess changes in intestinal metabolism. Renal and intestinal regional blood flows did not produce any significant changes compared with baseline values in either continuous or IRS modes and speeds. The venous TO2 and TCO2 significantly increased in continuous and IRS modes and speeds compared with baseline. Our data suggested that renal and intestinal tissue perfusions were not adversely affected by continuous and IRS modes either in partial or complete unloading. Intestinal venous hyperoxia and increased TCO2 may be the evidence of intestinal arteriovenous shunting along with increased intestinal tissue metabolism. Longer-term studies are warranted in chronic heart failure models. PMID:24299973

  8. Needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture improves rectal distension-induced impairment in intestinal motility and slow waves via vagal mechanisms in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to compare the effects and mechanisms of transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) on rectal distention (RD)-induced intestinal dysmotility with EA. Methods: six female dogs chronically implanted with a duodenal fistula, a proximal colon fistula and intestinal serosal electrodes were studied. EA and TEA were performed via needles and cutaneous electrodes placed at bilateral ST-36 (Zusanli) acupoints respectively; their effects on postprandial intestinal dysmotility (slow waves, contractions and transit) induced by RD, and autonomic functions were compared. Results: RD at a volume of 140 ml suppressed intestinal contractions; the motility index was reduced with RD (P = 0.001). Both EA and TEA ameliorated the suppressed contractions (P = 0.003 and 0.001) and their effects were comparable. RD reduced the percentage of normal intestinal slow waves (P = 0.002) that was increased with both EA and TEA (P = 0.005 and 0.035). No significant difference was noted between EA and TEA. EA and TEA reduced small bowel transit time (P = 0.001 and 0.007); these prokinetic effects were blocked by atropine. Both EA and TEA increased vagal activity assessed by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (both P = 0.03). Conclusion: RD inhibits postprandial intestinal motility. Both EA and TEA at ST-36 are able to improve the RD-induced impairment in intestinal contractions, transit and slow waves mediated via the vagal mechanism. Needleless TEA is as effective as EA in ameliorating the intestinal hypomotility.

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects against TPN-induced intestinal hexose malabsorption in enterally refed piglets.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, J J; Stoll, B; Buddington, R K; Stephens, J E; Cui, L; Chang, X; Burrin, D G

    2006-02-01

    Premature infants receiving chronic total parenteral nutrition (TPN) due to feeding intolerance develop intestinal atrophy and reduced nutrient absorption. Although providing the intestinal trophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) during chronic TPN improves intestinal growth and morphology, it is uncertain whether GLP-2 enhances absorptive function. We placed catheters in the carotid artery, jugular and portal veins, duodenum, and a portal vein flow probe in piglets before providing either enteral formula (ENT), TPN or a coinfusion of TPN plus GLP-2 for 6 days. On postoperative day 7, all piglets were fed enterally and digestive functions were evaluated in vivo using dual infusion of enteral ((13)C) and intravenous ((2)H) glucose, in vitro by measuring mucosal lactase activity and rates of apical glucose transport, and by assessing the abundances of sodium glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2). Both ENT and GLP-2 pigs had larger intestine weights, longer villi, and higher lactose digestive capacity and in vivo net glucose and galactose absorption compared with TPN alone. These endpoints were similar in ENT and GLP-2 pigs except for a lower intestinal weight and net glucose absorption in GLP-2 compared with ENT pigs. The enhanced hexose absorption in GLP-2 compared with TPN pigs corresponded with higher lactose digestive and apical glucose transport capacities, increased abundance of SGLT-1, but not GLUT-2, and lower intestinal metabolism of [(13)C]glucose to [(13)C]lactate. Our findings indicate that GLP-2 treatment during chronic TPN maintains intestinal structure and lactose digestive and hexose absorptive capacities, reduces intestinal hexose metabolism, and may facilitate the transition to enteral feeding in TPN-fed infants. PMID:16166344

  10. Pulmonary-intestinal cross-talk in mucosal inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Simon; Talley, Nicholas J.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory diseases of mucosal tissues that affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. They share many similarities in epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as inflammatory pathologies. Importantly, both conditions are accompanied by systemic co-morbidities that are largely overlooked in both basic and clinical research. Therefore, consideration of these complications may maximise the efficacy of prevention and treatment approaches. Here, we examine both the intestinal involvement in COPD and the pulmonary manifestations of IBD. We also review the evidence for inflammatory organ cross-talk that may drive these associations, and discuss the current frontiers of research into these issues. PMID:22089028

  11. Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the rat. A Bernard 1, C et al, 1991Although the intestine possesses a A6 desaturase activity (Garg et al, 1988), arach rats) was scraped and intestinal walls removed. The radioactivity of lipid extracts from bile samples

  12. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    MedlinePLUS

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  14. Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Aw, Tak Yee [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States)]. E-mail: taw@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-01

    The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little of the pathways of intestinal transport, metabolism, and luminal disposition of dietary peroxides in vivo or of the underlying mechanisms of lipid peroxide-induced genesis of intestinal disease processes. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the determinants of intestinal absorption and metabolism of peroxidized lipids. I will review experimental evidence from our laboratory and others (Table 1) supporting the pivotal role that glutathione (GSH) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) play in mucosal transport and metabolism of lipid hydroperoxides and how reductant availability can be compromised under chronic stress such as hypoxia, and the influence of GSH on oxidative susceptibility, and redox contribution to genesis of gut disorders. The discussion is pertinent to understanding dietary lipid peroxides and GSH redox balance in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the significance of luminal GSH in preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium.

  15. Intrinsic primary afferent neuronsof the intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. FURNESS; W. A. A. KUNZE; P. P. BERTRAND; N. CLERC; J. C. BORNSTEIN

    1998-01-01

    After a long period of inconclusive observations, the intrinsic primary afferent neurons of the intestine have been identified. The intestine is thus equipped with two groups of afferent neurons, those with cell bodies in cranial and dorsal root ganglia, and these recently identified afferent neurons with cell bodies in the wall of the intestine.The first, tentative, identification of intrinsic primary

  16. Subtypes of intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M E Craanen; P Blok; W Dekker; J Ferwerda; G N Tytgat

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between the presence of H pylori and the various subtypes of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric antrum, 2274 antral gastroscopic biopsies from 533 patients were examined. H pylori was found in 289 patients. Intestinal metaplasia in general was found in 135 patients. Type I intestinal metaplasia was found in 133 patients (98.5%), type

  17. IgE levels in intestinal juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Belut; D. A. Moneret-Vautrin; J. P. Nicolas; J. P. Grilliat

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was performed to determine the possible significance of the IgE levels in intestinal secretions for the recognition of type I food allergy (immediate hypersensitivity). Four groups of individuals were studied and compared with each other: (1) healthy controls and patients with gastrointestinal disorders not affecting the small intestine; (2) patients with small intestinal disease; (3) patients with various

  18. Original article Intestinal transfer of manganese

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Intestinal transfer of manganese: resemblance to and competition with calcium Y of calcium, phosphate and the sugars lactose and sorbitol on the intestinal absorption of manganese were by this high calcium concentration. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity was rapidly stimulated by Mn

  19. COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE AFTER PARTIAL ENTERECTOMY A NEURO HUMORAL National de la Recherche Agronomique 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Résumé HYPERTROPHIE COMPENSATRICE DE L'INTESTIN de l'hypertrophie compensatrice de l'intestin résiduel est libéré ou non après entérectomie partielle

  20. Mycobacterium avium interaction with macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sangari, F J; Parker, A; Bermudez, L E

    1999-07-15

    Mycobacterium avium is an environmental microorganism that is adapted to live both in the environment (mainly in water and soil) and in bird, fish and mammal hosts. In humans, M. avium infection is seen in patients with some sort of immunosuppression, such as patients with chronic lung disease, and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. More recently, other populations were shown to be at risk to develop M. avium disease. For the majority of time, humans acquire M. avium through the intestinal tract where the bacterium comes in contact with and translocates the intestinal mucosa. M. avium possesses a unique manner to interact with the intestinal mucosa, and, following invasion, can enter and survive within macrophages and monocytes. Although in vitro entry seems to be dependent on binding to the complement receptor, this finding has not been observed in vivo where the bacterium appears to enter macrophages by alternative mechanisms. The bacterium appears to trigger little inflammatory response, and is able to adapt itself to different environments in the host. PMID:10417376

  1. Campylobacter infection in chickens modulates the intestinal epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Molnár, Andor; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Ghareeb, Khaled; Khayal, Basel; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter; Dublecz, Károly; Hess, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of Campylobacter jejuni is highly prevalent in chicken flocks. Thus, we investigated whether chronic Campylobacter carriage affects chicken intestinal functions despite the absence of clinical symptoms. An experiment was carried out in which commercial chickens were orally infected with C. jejuni (1 × 10(8) CFU/bird) at 14 days of life. Changes in ion transport and barrier function were assessed by short-circuit current (I(sc)) and transepithelial ion conductance (G(t)) in Ussing chambers. G(t) increased in cecum and colon of Campylobacter-infected chicken 7 d post-infection (DPI), whereas G t initially decreased in the jejunum at 7 DPI and increased thereafter at 14 DPI. The net charge transfer across the epithelium was reduced or tended to be reduced in all segments, as evidenced by a decreased I sc. Furthermore, the infection induced intestinal histomorphological changes, most prominently including a decrease in villus height, crypt depth and villus surface area in the jejunum at 7 DPI. Furthermore, body mass gain was decreased by Campylobacter carriage. This study demonstrates, for the first time, changes in the intestinal barrier function in Campylobacter-infected chickens and these changes were associated with a decrease in growth performance in otherwise healthy-appearing birds. PMID:24553586

  2. Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in mucosal T cells or macrophages. Images PMID:9516879

  3. Intestinal graft versus host disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R L Bryan; G N Antonakopoulos; J Newman; D W Milligan

    1991-01-01

    An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be

  4. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

  5. Immunologic mechanisms in intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Targan, S R; Kagnoff, M F; Brogan, M D; Shanahan, F

    1987-06-01

    The intestine is a unique immunologic organ that comprises an afferent and efferent compartment and provides the host with the ability to respond through several different effector mechanisms against environmental factors. We discuss mechanisms in three intestinal diseases in this overview of the mucosal immune system. Genetic and immunologic factors are important in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, which is characterized by damage to the mucosa of the small intestine with resultant malabsorption. Pathogenic microbes are important environmental agents that interact with the intestinal mucosa and initiate local immune responses. Advances in the understanding of the mucosal immune response to these pathogenic microbes have produced a clear picture of the way in which this specialized immune system works in concert with systemic immunity. As to the autoimmune nature of inflammatory bowel disease, no specific antigen has been shown to incite the inflammatory reactions and neither the target cells nor the effector mechanism involved have been identified. Several factors exist, however, to suggest an autoimmune mechanism and the role of mucosal immunologic factors in this disease. PMID:3555203

  6. Bowel resection for intestinal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Urbach; Michael Reedijk; Carole S. Richard; Kay I. Lie; Theodore M. Ross

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study contained herein was undertaken to evaluate which factors predict a good outcome following intestinal resection for endometriosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing bowel resection for severe (American Fertility Society Stage IV) endometriosis at one institution between the years 1992 and 1996 was conducted using systematic chart review and follow-up by telephone interview. RESULTS: Twenty-nine

  7. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  8. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Kerschner JE. Otitis media. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

  9. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...

  10. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association - www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association - www.fmcpaware.org ...

  11. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  12. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) An estimated 31 million people in the United ... living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). What is CKD? The term “chronic kidney disease” (CKD) means lasting ...

  13. [Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected children].

    PubMed

    Barboni, Graciela; Candi, Marcela; Inés Villacé, María; Leonardelli, Araceli; Balbaryski, Jeanette; Gaddi, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Cryptosporydium parvum is an intracellular parasite that infects gastrointestinal epithelium and produces diarrhea that is self-limited in immunocompetent persons but potentially life-threatening in immunocompromised, especially those with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). C. parvum enteric infection's incidence in a pediatric HIV/AIDS cohort, during a 6 years period, was studied. Clinical and immunologic characteristics of the dual infection were also recorded. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was started or continued by all the patients during follow-up. Azithromicyn was used as antiparasitic drug. Cryptosporidiosis incidence was 13.7%; 33 out 240 children showed chronic diarrhea lasting 14 days at least, or recurrent, without dehydration and electrolytic disturbance. Peripheral blood T CD4+ percentage levels of the patients were variable and without relationship with C. parvum presence. Viral load levels in 31 out 33 patients were over cut-off at the enteric episode time. Mild or moderate eosinophilia were recorded in 23% of the patients and other intestinal parasites were present in 11 children. When the number of enteric episodes were compared with the clinical and immunological patient's status, not significant differences were recorded. HAART is the best treatment to improve immune function in HIV patients avoiding potentially fatal complications that accompany acute diarrhea during concomitant infection with C. parvum. PMID:18689152

  14. Distinguishing Intestinal Lymphoma From Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canine Duodenal Endoscopic Biopsy Samples.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, V; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Wise, A G; Maes, R; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma are intestinal disorders in dogs, both causing similar chronic digestive signs, although with a different prognosis and different treatment requirements. Differentiation between these 2 conditions is based on histopathologic evaluation of intestinal biopsies. However, an accurate diagnosis is often difficult based on histology alone, especially when only endoscopic biopsies are available to differentiate IBD from enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type 2, a small cell lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of histopathology; immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, and Ki-67; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangement (T-cell clonality) in the differential diagnosis of severe IBD vs intestinal lymphoma. Endoscopic biopsies from 32 dogs with severe IBD or intestinal lymphoma were evaluated. The original diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections alone followed by a second evaluation using morphology in association with IHC for CD3 and CD20 and a third evaluation using PCR for clonality. Our results show that, in contrast to feline intestinal lymphomas, 6 of 8 canine small intestinal lymphomas were EATL type 1 (large cell) lymphomas. EATL type 2 was uncommon. Regardless, in dogs, intraepithelial lymphocytes were not an important diagnostic feature to differentiate IBD from EATL as confirmed by PCR. EATL type 1 had a significantly higher Ki-67 index than did EATL type 2 or IBD cases. Based on the results of this study, a stepwise diagnostic approach using histology as the first step, followed by immunophenotyping and determining the Ki67 index and finally PCR for clonality, improves the accuracy of distinguishing intestinal lymphoma from IBD in dogs. PMID:25487412

  15. [Intestinal tuberculosis: Easier overlooked than diagnosed].

    PubMed

    Göke, M N; Leppert, A; Flemming, P; Soudah, B; Bange, F C; Bleck, J S; Widjaja, A; Högemann, B; Mellmann, J; Ockenga, J; Schedel, I; Gebel, M; Manns, M P

    2001-12-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis: Easier overlooked than diagnosed. The medical history of two Asian immigrants suffering from intestinal tuberculosis demonstrates the difficulties in finding the correct diagnosis. Intestinal tuberculosis resembles Crohn's disease with regard to clinical symptoms, macroscopic and microscopic intestinal findings. Sonographic, radiologic, endoscopic, and histological examinations facilitate distinguishing both entities. Diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis is made by identification of the causative microorganism in tissue specimens. As this may be difficult and time-consuming, a therapeutic trial with anti-tuberculous agents may be warranted. PMID:11753786

  16. Histopathology of intestinal inflammation related to reactive arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Cuvelier, C; Barbatis, C; Mielants, H; De Vos, M; Roels, H; Veys, E

    1987-01-01

    This study has identified a group of patients with inflammatory chronic, or relapsing acute arthritis who even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms have histological evidence of ileocolitis. At colonoscopy simultaneous biopsies of the terminal ileum and colon were taken from 108 patients with reactive arthritis (n = 55) or ankylosing spondylitis (n = 53), 47 patients with other rheumatic diseases and 19 control patients suffering from colonic polyps, adenocarcinoma, or chronic constipation. All control patients and all but one patient with rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, lumbar back ache, and psoriatic arthritis did not have histological evidence of acute or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. In contrast, in 30 of 35 (56.6%) patients with ankylosing spondylitis, and in 37 of 55 (67%) patients with reactive arthritis, regardless of HLA B27 phenotype, there was histological evidence of inflammatory bowel disease with features either of acute enterocolitis, or early Crohn's disease. Only 18 of 67 (27%) of the patients with histological gut inflammation, however, had intestinal symptoms. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 6 PMID:3495471

  17. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Na; Hu, Shaomin

    2015-07-01

    The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal sites such as the intestines to help maintain intestinal health by binding to and regulating commensal microbiota, pathogens and toxins. IgA antibodies are produced by intestinal IgA antibody-secreting plasma cells generated in gut-associated lymphoid tissues from naïve B cells in response to stimulations of the intestinal bacteria and components. Research on generation, migration, and maintenance of IgA-secreting cells is important in our effort to understand the biology of IgA responses and to help better design vaccines against intestinal infections. PMID:25837997

  18. Effect of codeine and loperamide on upper intestinal transit and absorption in normal subjects and patients with postvagotomy diarrhoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D OBrien; D G Thompson; A McIntyre; W R Burnham; E Walker

    1988-01-01

    Patients with chronic severe diarrhoea after truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty are often difficult to treat using conventional antidiarrhoeal drugs and remain severely disabled. We examined the effect of two drugs, codeine phosphate and loperamide, on upper intestinal transit and carbohydrate absorption, measured non-invasively by serial exhaled breath hydrogen monitoring, in patients with postvagotomy diarrhoea who had previously failed to gain

  19. Chronic urticaria.

    PubMed Central

    Burrall, B. A.; Halpern, G. M.; Huntley, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    Urticaria affects 15% to 20% of the population once or more during a lifetime. Chronic urticaria is a frequent recurrent eruption over a period greater than 6 weeks; the cause remains a mystery in more than 75% of cases. Urticaria and angioedema may be produced by immunologic or nonimmunologic means. Urticarial vasculitis, contact urticaria, mastocytosis, physical urticarias, dermatographism, cholinergic urticaria, localized heat urticaria, cold urticaria, aquagenic urticaria, and vibratory angioedema all require specific evaluation and treatment. Chronic idiopathic urticaria is usually controlled by antihistamines; depending on the circadian rhythm of the eruption, sedative or nonsedative antihistamines are prescribed. Some patients will require a combination of H1 and H2 antagonists, or even parenteral corticosteroids. PMID:1970697

  20. Chronic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. Schatz

    Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

  1. Chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Rai, S P

    2013-05-01

    Chronic cough is often viewed as a difficult clinical problem. It can be physically and psychologically debilitating, occasionally leading to serious complications. Although there are many etiologies, an organized approach including focused history and physical examination, directed testing in select cases, and treatment trials lead to accurate, safe, and cost-effective diagnoses in most patients. Additional symptomatic treatment is frequently beneficial. Occasionally, diagnostic dilemmas, treatment failures, or more serious causative disorders necessitate referral for further testing and management. PMID:24490448

  2. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. PMID:25913295

  3. Changes of Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Adult Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Xu; Baohong Wang; Yiqi Fu; Yanfei Chen; Fengling Yang; Haifeng Lu; Yunbo Chen; Jiali Xu; Lanjuan Li

    The beneficial effects of Bifidobacteria on health have been widely accepted. Patients with chronic liver disease have varying degrees of intestinal microflora imbalance\\u000a with a decrease of total Bifidobacterial counts. Since different properties have been attributed to different Bifidobacterium species and there is no information available for the detailed changes in the genus Bifidobacterium in patients with chronic liver disease

  4. Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Fatma, L Ben; Beji, S; Boubaker, K; Hedri, H; Hamida, F Ben; El Younsi, F; Abdallah, T Ben; Maiz, H Ben; Kheder, A

    2008-09-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a frequent and sometimes life-threatening complication of end-stage renal failure. Angiodysplasia (AD), vascular malformation, is the most common cause of recurrent lower-intestinal hemorrhage in patients with renal failure. We report four chronic hemodialysis patients with AD. All patients presented with severe anemia requiring transfusion. GI hemorrhage ceased spontaneously in three cases and after treatment with argon plasma coagulation in another. Diagnosis of AD is usually challenging, since its cause is still unknown, and its clinical presentation is variable. Lesions are multiple in 40-75% of cases, often located in the stomach and duodenum but can affect the colon and the jejunum. Diagnosis is improved by endoscopy which has a much higher sensitivity compared to angiography. Capsular endoscopy may reveal the hemorrhage site in the small intestine when regular endoscopy fails, and therapeutic intervention usually include argon plasma coagulation. PMID:18711303

  5. [Intestine microbiota and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, O V; Gervazieva, V B; Zverev, V V

    2014-01-01

    In industrialized countries an increased number of diseases due to immune system disorders including connected with allergy is noted. Allergic diseases generally proceed against the background of various common inflammatory diseases arising in childhood. The role of intestine microflora in its interaction with immune system and defining factors in allergization of children are actively studied. A decrease of risk of allergy development later in life for children who had grown up in the countryside was shown to be possibly related with microorganisms present in food. Thus the positive potential of farms is currently examined as a result of innate immunity activation by using microbial components. Acinetobacter lwoffii F78 isolated from cowsheds is able to protect mice from experimental allergy by activating Th1-polarization program of dendritic cells. Moreover, an important role in pathogenesis of allergic diseases belongs to mast cells. Probiotic lactobacilli may weaken activation of mast cells and release of inflammation mediators connected with allergic reactions. The ability of intestine microflora to influence immune response resulted in novel approaches in therapy that use these differences in microbiota for therapy and prophylaxis in allergy patients. And therefore on the basis of "hygiene hypothesis" of allergy emergence, a consideration is expressed that early manipulation with intestinal microbial communities may offer a new strategy of allergic sensibilization prevention. PMID:25286512

  6. Prospect of vasoactive intestinal peptide therapy for COPD\\/PAH and asthma: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongmei Wu; Dongwon Lee; Yong Kiel Sung

    2011-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)\\u000a share important pathological features, including inflammation, smooth muscle contraction and remodeling. No existing drug\\u000a provides the combined potential advantages of reducing vascular- and bronchial-constriction, and anti-inflammation. Vasoactive\\u000a intestinal peptide (VIP) is widely expressed throughout the cardiopulmonary system and exerts a variety of biological actions,

  7. Intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — Report of three more German cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Franzen; G. Fätkenheuer; B. Salzberger; A. Müller; V. Diehl; M. Schrappe; G. Mahrle

    1994-01-01

    Summary Intestinal microsporidiosis withEnterocytozoon bieneusi was diagnosed in three of 18 HIV-infected patients with chronic diarrhoea. In two cases all known stages of the life cycle ofE. bieneusi (merogonial plasmodia, sporogonial plasmodia, sporoblasts, spores) were found in duodenal biopsies by electron microscopical examination, whereas in the third case only merogonial and sporogonial stages were seen. Spores were also visible by

  8. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  9. Intestinal structure and function related to toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, R K

    1979-01-01

    The study of toxic effects on small intestinal function is complicated by the integration of the activity of the small intestine with the activities of other regions of the GI tract. Also, the barrier and portal functions of the intestine are not as clearly defined as sometimes assumed. The intestinal surface functions as a barrier to the ingress of large quantities of large water soluble molecules. Lipidic substances enter the body quite readily as do small water-soluble molecules. The small intestinal surface is more a portal than a barrier, with its portal functions divided between nonspecific diffusional entry, which depends on physical properties and electric charge, and entry by specific membrane transport, which depends upon chemical structure. The implications of these properties of the small intestine for toxicological studies are stressed. PMID:540622

  10. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  11. Intestinal Obstruction Due to Idiopathic Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ridvan; Akbulut, Sami; Babur, Mehmet; Demircan, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is characterized by partial or complete encasement of small intestine by a thick fibrocollagenous membrane. Depending on underlying causes, SEP is divided into primary and secondary forms. Idiopathic SEP is also called idiopathic or abdominal cocoon syndrome. Herein we presented a case of idiopathic SEP. Case Presentation: A 90-year-old male patient presented to our emergency department with signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction and dehydration. Physical examination findings, patient's age and plain abdominal radiography were consistent with tumoral obstruction or viscus perforation. Explorative laparotomy revealed a fibrous capsule encasing intestines as well as dense adhesions between intestinal loops. Since the overall condition of the patient was not well enough to allow a wide dissection and membrane excision, the operation was terminated after performing a limited loop ileostomy. Unfortunately, the patient was lost due to organ failure at the postoperative period. Conclusions: Despite advances in radiological techniques, the exact diagnosis in many cases is still made according to intraoperative findings and histopathological properties of the excised membrane. While some cases of SEP remain asymptomatic for years, most cases are characterized by recurrent bouts of acute, subacute or chronic intestinal obstruction. To our knowledge, the case presented here is the oldest patient with idiopathic SEP in the literature.

  12. Colonization and impact of disease and other factors on intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Chagoyán, Oscar C; Maldonado, José; Gil, Angel

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to review the process of microbial colonization and the environmental and host factors that influence colonization and microbial succession. The impact of some diseases on intestinal microbiota composition is also described. Microbial colonization of the gut by maternal vaginal and fecal bacteria begins during and after birth. During the first 2 years of life, specific microbes become established in a process designated microbial succession. Microbial succession in the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by numerous external and internal host-related factors, and by the second year of life, the intestinal microbiota composition is considered identical to that of adults. Nevertheless, intestinal microbiota in both infants and adults remain incompletely characterized and their diversity poorly defined. The main explanation is that many intestinal bacteria that live in an anaerobic environment are difficult or impossible to culture outside the intestine. However, recent advances in molecular biology techniques have initiated the description of new bacteria species. The composition of gut microbiota can be modulated by host, environmental, and bacterial factors, and strong evidence has emerged of substantial modifications during illness or exposure to threatening experiences. It has been postulated that improvements in hygienic measures have led to an increase in allergic diseases ("hygiene hypothesis"). Alterations in gut microbiota and their functions have been widely associated with many chronic and degenerative diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17420934

  13. New ways of thinking about (and teaching about) intestinal epithelial function (Summary)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-07-27

    The intestinal epithelium has important ion transport and barrier functions that contribute pivotally to normal physiological functioning of the intestine and other body systems. These functions are also frequently the target of dysfunction that, in turn, results in specific digestive disease states, such as diarrheal illnesses. Three emerging concepts are discussed with respect to ion transport: the complex interplay of intracellular signals that both activate and inhibit chloride secretion; the role of multiprotein complexes in the regulation of ion transport, taking sodium/hydrogen exchange as an example; and acute and chronic regulation of colonic sodium absorption, involving both sodium channel internalization and de novo synthesis of new channels. Similarly, recently obtained information about the molecular components of epithelial tight junctions and the ways in which tight junctions are regulated both in health and disease are discussed to exemplify ways to teach about intestinal barrier properties. Finally, both genetically determined intestinal diseases and those arising as a result of infections and/or inflammation are described, and these can be used as the means to enhance the basic and clinical relevance of teaching about intestinal epithelial physiology as well as the impact that the understanding of such physiology has had on associated therapeutics. The article also indicates, where relevant, how different approaches may be used effectively to teach related concepts to graduate versus medical/professional student audiences.

  14. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J. Mark; Krauss, Ronald M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705

  15. Identification of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 Activities within Intestinal Mucosa of Clinically Healthy Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    HANIFEH, Mohsen; RAJAMÄKI, Minna M; MÄKITALO, Laura; SYRJÄ, Pernilla; SANKARI, Satu; KILPINEN, Susanne; SPILLMANN, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that contribute to the control of breakdown and reconstitution of extracellular matrix under both normal and pathological conditions. The main objective of this study was to identify the presence of MMP-2 and -9 in the mucosa of the small and large intestines of clinically healthy beagle dogs using gelatin zymography technique. Intestinal mucosa samples from four different parts of the intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) were taken from 12 healthy laboratory beagle dogs and examined histologically. Based on WSAVA histology standards, recorded findings of all samples were considered insignificant. Pro-MMP-2 and -9 activities were found in 17/48 (35%) and 25/48 (52%) of the samples, respectively. Among four different parts of the intestine of 12 dogs, the ileum had the highest positivity rates of 7/12 (58.3%) and 8/12 (66.7%) for pro-MMP-2 and -9 activities, respectively. However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference of pro-MMP-2 and -9 activities between the separate parts of the intestine (P>0.05). None of the intestinal samples showed gelatinolytic activity corresponding to the control bands of active MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study showed that pro-MMP-2 and -9 could be detected in the intestinal mucosa of healthy dogs using zymography, which seems to be a useful tool to evaluate the role of MMP-2 and -9 in the pathogenesis of canine chronic enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24748420

  16. Microecology, intestinal epithelial barrier and necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renu SharmaJoseph; Joseph J. Tepas

    2010-01-01

    Soon after birth, the neonatal intestine is confronted with a massive antigenic challenge of microbial colonization. Microbial\\u000a signals are required for maturation of several physiological, anatomical, and biochemical functions of intestinal epithelial\\u000a barrier (IEB) after birth. Commensal bacteria regulate intestinal innate and adaptive immunity and provide stimuli for ongoing\\u000a repair and restitution of IEB. Colonization by pathogenic bacteria and\\/or dysmature

  17. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

  18. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather than through a GLP-1-mediated pathway.

  19. [Chronic rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Cuevas, M; Zahnert, T

    2015-06-01

    Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease with a major impact on quality of life. Its etiology is multifactorial and the causal pathology is an inflammation and not an infection. The affected region is the nasal mucosa as well as the mucosa of the sinuses. The symptoms are nasal obstruction, nasal discharge (anterior/post nasal drip), facial pain or pressure and/or olfactory disorder for more than 12 weeks. Beside association to hereditary or systemic diseases, CRS can be divided in chronic local findings (e.?g. dental origin, muco- or pyocele, local mycosis, choanal polyp) and general CRS. The latter appears as CRS with nasal polyps or without nasal polyps. According to this, nasal endoscopy combined with investigation for the above mentioned symptoms is essential to diagnose CRS. In order to indicate and plan surgical treatment, CT-scans are necessary. Furthermore, diagnostic tools such as allergy tests, olfactory assessment, laboratory and microbiologic examination, biopsies and tests for aspirin hypersensitivity complete the diagnostic pathway of CRS. The therapeutic approach is local and if necessary oral application of steroids, nasal saline douche and oral long term antibiotics. If this conservative therapy leads to no effect, surgical treatment in terms of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has to be considered. PMID:26039039

  20. Laparoscopic intestinal injury: a review and case presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrzenski, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of laparoscopic primary trocar small-intestine injury is unknown. The case presented here differed from a typical clinical course in that only excessive periumbilical fluid leak was present postoperatively. Neither classic symptoms nor signs were present to justify laparoscopic trocar small-bowel perforations. CASE: A 42-year-old woman (G2 P1011, height 5'4", weight 132 lb) underwent elective, diagnostic, and operative laparoscopy with a lysis of extensive abdominal-pelvic adhesions for chronic pelvic pain. Preoperatively, the patient was classified as being at increased risk for intestinal laceration or perforation at the time of Veress needle or primary trocar insertion due to her surgical history. For this reason, mechanical bowel preparation with GoLYTELY was carried out. No intraoperative complications were noticed. After surgery, external, excessive fluid leak from the periumbilical incision only was observed (the three 5-mm incisions, in the lower part of the abdomen, were dry). Initially, this event was interpreted as residual irrigation fluid leakage. The patient was closely monitored for bowel injury, and neither medical condition nor laboratory tests changed from base within the initial 48 h, although excessive fluid drainage from periumbilical area was persistent. Enough time elapsed from laparoscopic surgery for CO2 and irrigation-fluid absorption; therefore, additional studies were ordered (an abdominal upright x-ray was inconclusive for viscous perforation and gastrointestinal x-ray with a water-soluble contrast medium documented small-intestine perforation). Exploratory laparotomy with partial bowel resection was executed. Postoperative clinical course was uneventful, and no long-term sequel was observed. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Persistent excessive external fluid leak from the periumbilical area after laparoscopic surgery with no drainage from other incisional sides may suggest small-bowel injury. 2) latrogenic, internal-external canalization between the small intestine and the skin masked clinical symptoms and signs of small-intestinal injury. 3) Lack of classic symptoms, signs, or changes in pertinent laboratory data did not rule out small-bowel perforation. Images Figure 1 PMID:11730117

  1. Selenium-Enriched Broccoli Decreases Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy D. Davis; Huawei Zeng; John W. Finley

    Multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice are a good model for the investigation of the effects of dietary alterations in a genetic model for intestinal cancer. Previ- ous studies have shown that selenium-enriched broccoli is protective against chemically induced colon cancer sus- ceptibility. This study investigated whether selenium-en- riched broccoli would be protective against intestinal can- cer susceptibility in Min mice.

  2. Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia

    E-print Network

    Perrimon, Norbert

    Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

  3. Intestinal absorption of drugs. III. The influence of taurocholate on the disappearance kinetics of hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs from the small intestine of the rat.

    PubMed

    Poelma, F G; Breäs, R; Tukker, J J

    1990-04-01

    The influence of sodium taurocholate (TC) on the intestinal absorption of drugs was studied in vivo in a chronically isolated internal loop in the rat. The hydrophilic drugs paracetamol (PA) and theophylline (TP) and the lipophilic drugs griseofulvin (GF) and ketoconazole (KE) were used as model drugs. The drug concentrations were kept below the saturation concentration. Absorption kinetics of the drugs were evaluated on the basis of disappearance rates of the drug from luminal solutions in the intestinal loop. Concentrations of TC above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) did not affect the absorption rate of the hydrophilic drugs PA and TP; the barrier function of the intestinal wall for PA and TP was not altered in the presence of taurocholate. The addition of concentrations of TC above the CMC in the perfusion solution resulted in a reduction of the absorption rate of GF and KE. The reduction in the absorption kinetics of GF in the presence of TC correlated well with the reduction of the drug-free fraction in solution due to micellar solubilization. For KE this relation was less clear. It was not possible to determine, on the basis of the phase-separation model, to what extent the fraction of the drug incorporated in TC micelles contributes to the overall diffusion of GF and KE across the preepithelial diffusion barrier. It was concluded that TC exhibits only a minor, if not negligible, effect on the barrier function of the aqueous diffusion barrier adjacent to the intestinal wall. PMID:2362914

  4. Intestinal graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Bryan, R L; Antonakopoulos, G N; Newman, J; Milligan, D W

    1991-10-01

    An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be less vulnerable to the effects of GvHD than epithelial cells, resulting in their being spared, which is not seen in other types of crypt destruction. PMID:1960223

  5. Intestinal graft versus host disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, R L; Antonakopoulos, G N; Newman, J; Milligan, D W

    1991-01-01

    An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be less vulnerable to the effects of GvHD than epithelial cells, resulting in their being spared, which is not seen in other types of crypt destruction. Images PMID:1960223

  6. Shaping the intestinal brush border

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Scott W.; Mooseker, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells from diverse tissues, including the enterocytes that line the intestinal tract, remodel their apical surface during differentiation to form a brush border: an array of actin-supported membrane protrusions known as microvilli that increases the functional capacity of the tissue. Although our understanding of how epithelial cells assemble, stabilize, and organize apical microvilli is still developing, investigations of the biochemical and physical underpinnings of these processes suggest that cells coordinate cytoskeletal remodeling, membrane-cytoskeleton cross-linking, and extracellular adhesion to shape the apical brush border domain. PMID:25422372

  7. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Braganza, Joan M; Lee, Stephen H; McCloy, Rory F; McMahon, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibroinflammatory disease that exists in large-duct (often with intraductal calculi) or small-duct form. In many patients this disease results from a complex mix of environmental (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and occupational chemicals) and genetic factors (eg, mutation in a trypsin-controlling gene or the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator); a few patients have hereditary or autoimmune disease. Pain in the form of recurrent attacks of pancreatitis (representing paralysis of apical exocytosis in acinar cells) or constant and disabling pain is usually the main symptom. Management of the pain is mainly empirical, involving potent analgesics, duct drainage by endoscopic or surgical means, and partial or total pancreatectomy. However, steroids rapidly reduce symptoms in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis, and micronutrient therapy to correct electrophilic stress is emerging as a promising treatment in the other patients. Steatorrhoea, diabetes, local complications, and psychosocial issues associated with the disease are additional therapeutic challenges. PMID:21397320

  8. Chronic Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Johannes; Modi, Pradip

    1990-01-01

    Paranasal sinuses, which communicate with the nasal passages through the sinus ostia, are essentially sterile structures, sterility being maintained by a healthy epithelium with normal actively beating cilia. Irritants, including viruses and bacteria, are trapped in mucus and cilia to allow the clearance of sinuses through the natural ostia into the nasal cavity. Interference with this normal physiological function results in inflammation and infection within the sinus cavities. All of the sinuses are subjected to the same environmental as well as physiological stimuli; thus it is uncommon for a single sinus to be infected and for the others to remain entirely normal. Allergic and non-allergic vasomotor rhinitis should be differentiated from chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis. The understanding of these diseases cannot be separated from the physiological function of the sinus mucosa. PMID:21234027

  9. Effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in plasma and small intestine in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Guang Cao; Wan-Chun Wu; Zhen Han; Meng-Ya Wang

    AIM: To investigate the effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma and small intestine, and to explore the relationship between small intestinal motor disorders and gastrointestinal hormones under psychological stress. METHODS: Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into psychological stress group and control group. A mouse model with

  10. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  11. Chronic metabolic acidosis destroys pancreas.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Peter; Melamed, Felix

    2014-11-01

    One primary reason for the current epidemic of digestive disorders might be chronic metabolic acidosis, which is extremely common in the modern population. Chronic metabolic acidosis primarily affects two alkaline digestive glands, the liver, and the pancreas, which produce alkaline bile and pancreatic juice with a large amount of bicarbonate. Even small acidic alterations in the bile and pancreatic juice pH can lead to serious biochemical/biomechanical changes. The pancreatic digestive enzymes require an alkaline milieu for proper function, and lowering the pH disables their activity. It can be the primary cause of indigestion. Acidification of the pancreatic juice decreases its antimicrobial activity, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis. Lowering the pH of the pancreatic juice can cause premature activation of the proteases inside the pancreas with the potential development of pancreatitis. The acidification of bile causes precipitation of the bile acids, which irritate the entire biliary system and create bile stone formation. Aggressive mixture of the acidic bile and the pancreatic juice can cause erratic contractions of the duodenum's walls and subsequent bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus. Normal exocrine pancreatic function is the core of proper digestion. Currently, there is no effective and safe treatment for enhancing the exocrine pancreatic function. Restoring normal acid-base homeostasis can be a useful tool for pathophysiological therapeutic approaches for various gastrointestinal disorders. There is strong research and practical evidence that restoring the HCO3(-) capacity in the blood can improve digestion. PMID:25435570

  12. Interleukin-9 Enhances Resistance to the Intestinal Nematode Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Helen; Renauld, J.-C.; Van Snick, J.; Grencis, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Upon infection with the cecum-dwelling nematode Trichuris muris, the majority of inbred strains of mice launch a Th2-type immune response and in doing so expel the parasite before patency. In contrast, there are a few mouse strains which develop a nonprotective Th1-type response resulting in a chronic infection and the presence of adult worms. Of the Th2 cytokines known to be associated with the resistant phenotype (interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13), comparatively little is known about the contribution that IL-9 makes towards the protective immune response. In this study we demonstrate that IL-9 is expressed early during the Th2-type response and that its elevation in vivo results in the enhancement of intestinal mastocytosis and the production of both the immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 isotypes. In addition, elevated IL-9 levels in vivo facilitated the loss of T. muris from the intestine. That IL-9 is important in promoting worm expulsion was also seen following infection of IL-9-transgenic mice, which constitutively overexpress the cytokine. These animals displayed an extremely rapid, but immune mediated, expulsion of the parasite. Also evident in these animals was a pronounced intestinal mastocytosis, which was previously shown by us to be responsible for the expulsion of the related nematode Trichinella spiralis from these animals. Taken together with observations of IL-9 production following infection with other helminths, the results imply that IL-9 contributes to the general mast cell and IgE response characteristic of these infections and, more specifically, enhances resistance to T. muris. PMID:9673269

  13. Involvement of nerves and calcium channels in the intestinal response to Clostridium difficile toxin A: an experimental study in rats in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sorensson, J; Jodal, M; Lundgren, O

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The involvement of nerves and calcium channels in the intestinal response to Clostridium difficile toxin A (luminal concentration 1 or 15 µg/ml) was studied in the small intestine of rats in vivo.?METHODS—Inflammation was quantified by estimating myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the intestinal lumen, extravascular accumulation of Evan's blue (EB) in the intestine, and number of red blood cells (RBCs) in veins in histological sections. Intestinal damage was estimated using a histological grading system. In some experiments net fluid transport was recorded using a gravimetric technique.?RESULTS—In acutely denervated intestines, toxin A caused marked destruction of the villi, increased luminal release of MPO activity, and augmentation of intestinal content of EB and venous RBCs. Denervating the intestine 3-4 weeks prior to the actual experiment prevented the development of villus damage and significantly decreased the number of RBCs in intestinal veins in experiments with a low toxin concentration, whereas no effect was demonstrated on luminal MPO activity. Using a high toxin concentration, chronic denervation decreased only the number of RBCs. Pretreatment with hexamethonium (low toxin concentration; acute denervation) attenuated the effect of toxin A on morphology, luminal MPO activity, and number of RBCs. Pretreatment with nifedipine (low toxin concentration; acute denervation) significantly decreased intestinal MPO activity and number of RBCs. Tissue accumulation of EB was not influenced by experimental manipulation. Net fluid transport was measured in experiments exposing the intestinal mucosa to a high toxin concentration. Fluid secretion caused by the toxin was significantly attenuated by intravenous hexamethonium whereas no effect was observed after administration of nifedipine or granisetron.?CONCLUSIONS—At a low toxin concentration, intramural reflexes are involved in the inflammatory response whereas axon reflexes contribute to tissue damage. At a high toxin concentration no nervous involvement in the toxin A response was demonstrated except for fluid secretion evoked by the toxin.???Keywords: cholera toxin; enteric nervous system; 5-hydroxytryptamine; myeloperoxidase; red blood cells PMID:11413111

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of intestinal villous structures

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    University, Manhattan, KS. 66506, U.S.A. Summary. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to examineScanning electron microscopy of intestinal villous structures and their putative relation electron microscope (SEM) at 5 K.V. accelerating voltage. Quantitation of the intestinal structures

  15. Intestinal barrier: Molecular pathways and modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is frequently challenged by pathogens/antigens contained in food and water and the intestinal epithelium must be capable of rapid regeneration in the event of tissue damage. Disruption of the intestinal barrier leads to a number of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, and celiac disease. The intestinal mucosa is composed of different types of epithelial cells in specific barrier functions. Epithelial cells control surface-associated bacterial populations without disrupting the intestinal microflora that is crucial for host health. They are also capable of modulating mucosal immune system, and are thus essential in maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Thus, the regulation of intestinal epithelial homeostasis is crucial for the maintenance of the structure of the mucosa and the defensive barrier functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple molecular pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell polarity. These include the Wnt, Notch, Hippo, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog pathways, most of which were identified in lower organisms where they play important roles during embryogenesis. These pathways are also used in adult organisms to regulate multiple self-renewing organs. Understanding the interactions between these molecular mechanisms and intestinal barrier function will therefore provide important insight into the pathogenesis of intestinal-based immune-mediated diseases. PMID:24244877

  16. Abnormal intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in refractory sprue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Cellier; Natacha Patey; Laurent Mauvieux; Bana Jabri; Eric Delabesse; Yoram Bouhnik; Robert Modigliani; Elisabeth Macintyre; Nicole Brousse

    1998-01-01

    Background & Aims: The etiology of refractory sprue is unclear. To gain insight into its pathogenesis, the phenotype and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement status of intestinal lymphocytes were analyzed in a group of patients with clinical or biological features of celiac disease but either initially or subsequently refractory to a gluten-free diet. Methods: Intestinal biopsy specimens were obtained from

  17. Intestinal barrier: Molecular pathways and modifiers.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-11-15

    The gastrointestinal tract is frequently challenged by pathogens/antigens contained in food and water and the intestinal epithelium must be capable of rapid regeneration in the event of tissue damage. Disruption of the intestinal barrier leads to a number of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, and celiac disease. The intestinal mucosa is composed of different types of epithelial cells in specific barrier functions. Epithelial cells control surface-associated bacterial populations without disrupting the intestinal microflora that is crucial for host health. They are also capable of modulating mucosal immune system, and are thus essential in maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Thus, the regulation of intestinal epithelial homeostasis is crucial for the maintenance of the structure of the mucosa and the defensive barrier functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple molecular pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell polarity. These include the Wnt, Notch, Hippo, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog pathways, most of which were identified in lower organisms where they play important roles during embryogenesis. These pathways are also used in adult organisms to regulate multiple self-renewing organs. Understanding the interactions between these molecular mechanisms and intestinal barrier function will therefore provide important insight into the pathogenesis of intestinal-based immune-mediated diseases. PMID:24244877

  18. Is intestinal metaplasia of the stomach reversible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M M Walker

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal metaplasia (IM) of the stomach is a risk factor in developing intestinal-type gastric cancer and hence the question of reversibility is vital. There is emerging epidemiological evidence that with long term follow up, IM may be reversible although a combination of antioxidant agents and eradication of H pylori may be necessary to achieve this. The pathogenesis of IM is

  19. Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W Laird; Laurie Jackson-Grusby; Amin Fazeli; Stephanie L Dickinson; W Edward Jung; En Li; Robert A Weinberg; Rudolf Jaenisch

    1995-01-01

    We have used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to assess the effects of reduced DNA methyltransferase activity on ApcMin-induced intestinal neoplasia in mice. A reduction in the DNA methyltransferase activity in Min mice due to heterozygosity of the DNA methyltransferase gene, in conjunction with a weekly dose of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azadeoxycytidine, reduced the average number of intestinal

  20. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Charu; Sandlas, Gursev; Jayaswal, Shalika; Shah, Hemanshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The term Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation (SIP) suggests a perforation in the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn with no demonstrable cause. Methods: Four neonates presenting with spontaneous bowel perforation were analyzed with respect to clinical presentation, management and outcome. Results: The mean age at presentation was 11.4 days. There were three males and one female. One of the neonates was preterm, very low birth weight and the other three were full term. Two neonates underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and two were initially managed by peritoneal drainage in view of poor general condition; one of them improved and did not require further operative intervention. The preterm very low birth weight neonate was stabilized and explored after 48 hours. Intra-operatively, two of them had two ileal perforations each which required ileostomy; one had single perforation in the transverse colon which was primarily repaired. All four had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: SIP is a distinct clinical entity and has better outcome than neonates with intestinal perforation secondary to Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC).

  1. Secondary syphilis with intestinal involvement: description of a case.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, V; D'Antuono, A; Misciali, C

    2008-02-01

    As it is well-known, during secondary syphilis, it is possible to observe a systemic involvement of the treponemal infection. The visceral localizations are rarely observed, and they usually present themselves as asymptomatic or with aspecific symptoms. This report concerns a case of a homosexual patient who referred to us in order to perform blood tests for the main sexually transmitted diseases (HIV, HBV, HCV, TPEIA). Moreover, he reported a history of palmo-plantar erythematous desquamative lesions, spontaneously resolved. For this reason all the serological tests for syphilis have then been performed. Once the diagnosis of recent syphilis was made, and the antibiotic therapy with penicillin begun, the patient reported to have fever, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. The gastroenterological consultation highlighted the presence of a chronic active granulomatous colitis, but excluded an inflammatory or autoimmune aetiology. Because of this findings, and also because of additional histopathological examinations of the colon, the diagnosis of recent syphilis with intestinal involvement was made. The present case report confirms, once again, how the nickname ''great imitator'' is appropriate for calling syphilis. It highlights moreover that, as the incidence of syphilis is arising, in the presence of intestinal symptoms of unknown origin in patients with a history of unprotected sexual intercourse, syphilis should always be comprised among the possible diagnoses. PMID:18833054

  2. Epithelial cell contributions to intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lora V

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the mammalian intestine interface directly with the external environment and thus continuously encounter pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. The intestinal epithelium is also closely associated with complex communities of symbiotic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells are thus faced with the unique challenge of directly interacting with enormous numbers of microbes that include both pathogens and symbionts. As a result, gut epithelia have evolved an array of strategies that contribute to host immunity. This chapter considers the various mechanisms used by epithelial cells to limit microbial invasion of host tissues, shape the composition of indigenous microbial communities, and coordinate the adaptive immune response to microorganisms. Study of intestinal epithelial cells has contributed fundamental insights into intestinal immune homeostasis and has revealed how impaired epithelial cell function can contribute to inflammatory disease. PMID:25727289

  3. Intestinal bile acid physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) have a long established role in fat digestion in the intestine by acting as tensioactives, due to their amphipathic characteristics. BAs are reabsorbed very efficiently by the intestinal epithelium and recycled back to the liver via transport mechanisms that have been largely elucidated. The transport and synthesis of BAs are tightly regulated in part by specific plasma membrane receptors and nuclear receptors. In addition to their primary effect, BAs have been claimed to play a role in gastrointestinal cancer, intestinal inflammation and intestinal ionic transport. BAs are not equivalent in any of these biological activities, and structural requirements have been generally identified. In particular, some BAs may be useful for cancer chemoprevention and perhaps in inflammatory bowel disease, although further research is necessary in this field. This review covers the most recent developments in these aspects of BA intestinal biology. PMID:18837078

  4. Potential role of chitinases and chitin-binding proteins in host-microbial interactions during the development of intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hoa T.; Barnich, Nicolas; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    Summary The small and large intestines contain an abundance of luminal antigens derived from food products and enteric microorganisms. The function of intestinal epithelial cells is tightly regulated by several factors produced by enteric bacteria and the epithelial cells themselves. Epithelial cells actively participate in regulating the homeostasis of intestine, and failure of this function leads to abnormal and host-microbial interactions resulting in the development of intestinal inflammation. Major determinants of host susceptibility against luminal commensal bacteria include genes regulating mucosal immune responses, intestinal barrier function and microbial defense. Of note, it has been postulated that commensal bacterial adhesion and invasion on/into host cells may be strongly involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). During the intestinal inflammation, the composition of the commensal flora is altered, with increased population of aggressive and detrimental bacteria and decreased populations of protective bacteria. In fact, some pathogenic bacteria, including Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio cholerae are likely to initiate their adhesion to the host cells by expressing accessory molecules such as chitinases and/or chitin-binding proteins on themselves. In addition, several inducible molecules (e.g., chitinase 3-like-1, CEACAM6) are also induced on the host cells (e.g. epithelial cells, lamina proprial macrophages) under inflammatory conditions, and are actively participated in the host-microbial interactions. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the potential roles of these important molecules during the development of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:21938682

  5. Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Christopher B.; Shaikh, Maliha; Cavanaugh, Kate; Tang, Yueming; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Song, Shiwen

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness) in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state. PMID:23825629

  6. How the Intricate Interaction among Toll-Like Receptors, Microbiota, and Intestinal Immunity Can Influence Gastrointestinal Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Frosali, Simona; Gambassi, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The gut is able to maintain tolerance to microbial and food antigens. The intestine minimizes the number of harmful bacteria by shaping the microbiota through a symbiotic relationship. In healthy human intestine, a constant homeostasis is maintained by the perfect regulation of microbial load and the immune response generated against it. Failure of this balance may result in various pathological conditions. Innate immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), may be considered an interface among intestinal epithelial barrier, microbiota, and immune system. TLRs pathway, activated by pathogens, is involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious and inflammatory diseases. The alteration of the homeostasis between physiologic and pathogenic bacteria of intestinal flora causes a condition called dysbiosis. The breakdown of homeostasis by dysbiosis may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases. It is evident that environment, genetics, and host immunity form a highly interactive regulatory triad that controls TLR function. Imbalanced relationships within this triad may promote aberrant TLR signaling, critically contributing to acute and chronic intestinal inflammatory processes, such as in IBD, colitis, and colorectal cancer. The study of interactions between different components of the immune systems and intestinal microbiota will open new horizons in the knowledge of gut inflammation. PMID:26090491

  7. How the Intricate Interaction among Toll-Like Receptors, Microbiota, and Intestinal Immunity Can Influence Gastrointestinal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Frosali, Simona; Pagliari, Danilo; Gambassi, Giovanni; Landolfi, Raffaele; Pandolfi, Franco; Cianci, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    The gut is able to maintain tolerance to microbial and food antigens. The intestine minimizes the number of harmful bacteria by shaping the microbiota through a symbiotic relationship. In healthy human intestine, a constant homeostasis is maintained by the perfect regulation of microbial load and the immune response generated against it. Failure of this balance may result in various pathological conditions. Innate immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), may be considered an interface among intestinal epithelial barrier, microbiota, and immune system. TLRs pathway, activated by pathogens, is involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious and inflammatory diseases. The alteration of the homeostasis between physiologic and pathogenic bacteria of intestinal flora causes a condition called dysbiosis. The breakdown of homeostasis by dysbiosis may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases. It is evident that environment, genetics, and host immunity form a highly interactive regulatory triad that controls TLR function. Imbalanced relationships within this triad may promote aberrant TLR signaling, critically contributing to acute and chronic intestinal inflammatory processes, such as in IBD, colitis, and colorectal cancer. The study of interactions between different components of the immune systems and intestinal microbiota will open new horizons in the knowledge of gut inflammation. PMID:26090491

  8. Zingerone regulates intestinal transit, attenuates behavioral and oxidative perturbations in irritable bowel disorder in rats.

    PubMed

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Pavani, Bandlapalli; Kranthi Kumar, Ch; Annamalai, A R

    2014-03-15

    Stress can lead to the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal disorders, the most prominent being irritable bowel disorder. The present study investigated the impact zingerone in ameliorating chronic water stress induced irritable bowel disorder, brain gut axis dysfunction and dysregulation of the intestinal barrier due to oxidative stress. Rats were randomly allocated to groups and subjected to chronic water stress for a period of 21 days for 1h and the fecal pellet output was measured. At the end of chronic stress, behavioral assessment for anxiety like behavior was recorded and plasma corticosterone levels were measured 60min after water stress. The colonic transit was determined, levels of oxidative and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the colon homogenate. Myeloperoxidase activity was determined as an indirect index of neutrophil infiltration. Chronic water stress increased the rate of colonic transit, fecal output, induced behavioral changes, and decreased antioxidant levels. An increase in lipid peroxide levels, catalase and corticosterone was observed. Mast cell infiltration was evident in the stressed group. Zingerone significantly reduced colonic transit, fecal output, neutrophil infiltration, and lipid peroxide formation. The levels of catalase were not altered; however, a marginal increase in the levels of glutathione peroxidase was observed. Zingerone significantly enhanced the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased the levels of corticosterone. Zingerone produced marked improvement in stress induced irritable bowel disorder which could be attributed to the powerful antioxidant nature, direct effect on the intestinal smooth muscle and adaptogenic nature. PMID:24262066

  9. [Intestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma: "immunoproliferative small intestinal disease"].

    PubMed

    Mrabti, Hind; Raiss, Ghizlane; Raissouni, Soundouss; Tazi, El Mehdi; Inghaouen, Hanane; El Ghissassi, Ibrahim; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID), also known as alpha chain disease, is a rare disease. In the recent WHO classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue, IPSID is considered as a variant of extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Campylobacter jejuni is a specific pathogen, found to be related to IPSID. Diagnosis is based on histology and immunochemistry (± fluorescent in situ hybridization), with presence of many variable levels of abnormal immunoglobulin in the serum, identified to be truncated alpha-heavy chains. Early-stage disease is treated by antibiotics (tetracyclines). Chemotherapy is recommended up front for patients with advanced disease at presentation or refractory to antibiotics. The chemotherapy schedule used is the CHOP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone) regimen. PMID:21458210

  10. CD36 deficiency impairs intestinal lipid secretion and clearance of chylomicrons from the blood

    PubMed Central

    Drover, Victor A.; Ajmal, Mohammad; Nassir, Fatiha; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Nauli, Andromeda M.; Sahoo, Daisy; Tso, Patrick; Abumrad, Nada A.

    2005-01-01

    CD36 mediates the transfer of fatty acids (FAs) across the plasma membranes of muscle and adipose cells, thus playing an important role in regulating peripheral FA metabolism in vivo. In the proximal intestine, CD36 is localized in abundant quantities on the apical surface of epithelial cells, a pattern similar to that of other proteins implicated in the uptake of dietary FAs. To define the role of CD36 in the intestine, we examined FA utilization and lipoprotein secretion by WT and CD36-null mice in response to acute and chronic fat feeding. CD36-null mice given a fat bolus by gavage or fed a high-fat diet accumulated neutral lipid in the proximal intestine, which indicated abnormal lipid processing. Using a model in which mice were equipped with lymph fistulae, we obtained evidence of defective lipoprotein secretion by directly measuring lipid output. The secretion defect appeared to reflect an impaired ability of CD36-null enterocytes to efficiently synthesize triacylglycerols from dietary FAs in the endoplasmic reticulum. In the plasma of intact mice, the reduced intestinal lipid secretion was masked by slow clearance of intestine-derived lipoproteins. The impaired clearance occurred despite normal lipoprotein lipase activity and likely reflected feedback inhibition of the lipase by FAs due to their defective removal from the plasma. We conclude that CD36 is important for both secretion and clearance of intestinal lipoproteins. CD36 deficiency results in hypertriglyceridemia both in the postprandial and fasting states and in humans may constitute a risk factor for diet-induced type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:15841205

  11. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hamid M.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins, their regulation, the cell biology of the carriers involved and the factors that negatively affect these absorptive events. PMID:21749321

  12. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M

    2011-08-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins, their regulation, the cell biology of the carriers involved and the factors that negatively affect these absorptive events. PMID:21749321

  13. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Rosendahl; Hans Bödeker; Joachim Mössner; Niels Teich

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic

  14. Effect of chronic Giardia lamblia infection on epithelial transport and barrier function in human duodenum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanno Troeger; Hans-Joerg Epple; Thomas Schneider; Ulrich Wahnschaffe; Reiner Ullrich; Gerd-Dieter Burchard; Tomas Jelinek; Martin Zeitz; Michael Fromm; Joerg-Dieter Schulzke

    2007-01-01

    Background:Giardia lamblia causes infection of the small intestine, which leads to malabsorption and chronic diarrhoea.Aim: To characterise the inherent pathomechanisms of G lamblia infection.Methods: Duodenal biopsy specimens from 13 patients with chronic giardiasis and from controls were obtained endoscopically. Short-circuit current (ISC) and mannitol fluxes were measured in miniaturised Ussing chambers. Epithelial and subepithelial resistances were determined by impedance spectroscopy.

  15. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPAR? signaling.

    PubMed

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G; Patankar, Jay V; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-02-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [(3)H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [(3)H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPAR? target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPAR?-dependent processes also in the small intestine. PMID:23220585

  16. Chemical exposure and intestinal function.

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, C M

    1979-01-01

    The particular substances that are ingested by individuals are the consequence of their environmental, residential, and occupational exposures. The possible effects of these exposures on intestinal functions can be examined by the evaluation of in vivo or in vitro exposure followed by an in vivo and/or in vitro monitoring of effects. Several examples of the in vivo exposure and in vitro monitoring approach are presented to demonstrate the consequences of oral exposure to either a heavy metal (arsenic), or a herbicide contaminant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) or a jet fuel propellant (hydrazine) and the subsequent measurement of either a particular metabolic pathway, or a cell-specific enzyme induction or the development of brush border enzymes are presented. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. a FIGURE 8. b FIGURE 9. PMID:120255

  17. ANTIBODIES TO INTESTINAL MICROVILLOUS MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, William L.; Trier, Jerry S.; Mackenzie, Iain L.; Donaldson, Robert M.

    1968-01-01

    Antibodies (AbMVM) were produced in rabbits to microvillous membranes isolated from hamster small bowel. Incubation of frozen sections of hamster small bowel with fluorescein-labeled AbMVM showed specific reaction with brush borders, but not with other intestinal cellular components. Electron microscopy with ferritin-conjugated AbMVM localized the antigens more precisely to the surface mucopolysaccharide coat of the brush borders. AbMVM also reacted with the brush border of colon and of proximal renal tubules of hamsters but not with those of hamster stomach or gall bladder. It also reacted with the brush borders of some rat and human tissues, but not with those of rabbits. In addition, fluorescent-labeled AbMVM combined specifically with cell walls of some yeasts, but not of several bacteria. AbMVM also contained a weak precipitin to a component of hamster serum, which migrated like prealbumin in immunoelectrophoresis. PMID:4969881

  18. [Sarcoidosis of the large intestine].

    PubMed

    Zissiadis, A; Papageorgiou, A; Meyer-Papageorgiou, S; Christoforidou, B; Aletras, H

    1994-07-01

    A 68-years old female patient suffering over a period of several weeks from fatigue, weight loss, recurrent diarrheas and mild fever was admitted in our clinic. A few months ago, sarcoidosis of a cervical lymph node had been diagnosed and had been treated with steroids. During the present admission, the extensive study of the gastrointestinal system revealed a tumor of the ascending colon, obstructing the lumen. The patient was subjected to laparotomy due to persistent symptomatology of intestinal obstruction. A right hemicolectomy was performed. The pathological findings were persistent with sarcoidosis of the large bowel. Post-operatively, the patient has been symptom-free over a period of more than one year. PMID:7924602

  19. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Enser, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 0·01–5·0mm showed a maximum at 0·1mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 0·5mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 0·01–5·0mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0·5–0·6mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 0·8mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 0·01–2·5mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 0·01–0·4mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 0·4 and 1·0mm most was in diglycerides, and between 2·5 and 5·0mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:5837779

  20. Outer membrane-associated serine protease of intestinal spirochetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagaraja Muniappa; Gerald E Duhamel

    1997-01-01

    Pathogenic intestinal spirochetes cause damage to the intestinal mucosa of humans and animals by an unknown mechanism. The purpose of this study was to assess the pathogenic intestinal spirochetes Serpulina hyodysenteriae, Serpulina pilosicoli, and Brachyspira aalborgi and the non-pathogenic commensal intestinal spirochetes Serpulina innocens and Treponema succinifaciens for protease activity. A partially heat stable, subtilisin-like, serine protease was identified in

  1. Intestinal nuclear receptors in HDL cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The intestine plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis by functioning as an absorptive and secretory organ in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Enterocytes control cholesterol absorption, apoAI synthesis, HDL biogenesis, and nonbiliary cholesterol fecal disposal. Thus, intestine-based therapeutic interventions may hold promise in the management of diseases driven by cholesterol overload. Lipid-sensing nuclear receptors (NRs) are highly expressed in the intestinal epithelium and regulate transcriptionally the handling of cholesterol by the enterocytes. Here, we discuss the NR regulation of cholesterol fluxes across the enterocytes with special emphasis on NR exploitation as a bona fide novel HDL-raising strategy. PMID:25070952

  2. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection. PMID:19681906

  3. ?4?7 independent pathway for CD8+ T cell–mediated intestinal immunity to rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Kuklin, Nelly A.; Rott, Lusijah; Darling, Jama; Campbell, James J.; Franco, Manuel; Feng, Ningguo; Müller, Werner; Wagner, Norbert; Altman, John; Butcher, Eugene C.; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2000-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV), which replicates exclusively in cells of the small intestine, is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Using a mouse model, we show that expression of the intestinal homing integrin ?4?7 is not essential for CD8+ T cells to migrate to the intestine or provide immunity to RV. Mice deficient in ?7 expression (?7–/–) and unable to express ?4?7 integrin were found to clear RV as quickly as wild-type (wt) animals. Depletion of CD8+ T cells in ?7–/– animals prolonged viral shedding, and transfer of immune ?7–/– CD8+ T cells into chronically infected Rag-2–deficient mice resolved RV infection as efficiently as wt CD8+ T cells. Paradoxically, ?4?7hi memory CD8+ T cells purified from wt mice that had been orally immunized cleared RV more efficiently than ?4?7low CD8+ T cells. We explained this apparent contradiction by demonstrating that expression of ?4?7 on effector CD8+ T cells depends upon the site of initial antigen exposure: oral immunization generates RV-specific CD8+ T cells primarily of an ?4?7hi phenotype, but subcutaneous immunization yields both ?4?7hi and ?4?7low immune CD8+ T cells with anti-RV effector capabilities. Thus, ?4?7 facilitates normal intestinal immune trafficking to the gut, but it is not required for effective CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:11120761

  4. Impaired stimulation of intestinal glucose absorption via hepatoenteral nerves in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Stümpel, F; Kucera, T; Jungermann, K

    1999-08-01

    In an ex situ organ perfusion system, that of the isolated nonrecirculating joint perfusion of rat small intestine and liver, insulin infused into the portal vein increased intestinal glucose absorption. This insulin action against the bloodstream can be blocked by TTX, indicating a propagation of the insulin signal via hepatoenteral nerves, which conforms with previous studies with atropine and carbachol. Insulin action could also be mimicked by dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) acting directly on the absorptive enterocytes. Because autonomic neuropathy is a common late complication of diabetes mellitus, the possible impairment of these nerves in the diabetic state was studied in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In the isolated joint intestine-liver perfusion, glucose was applied as a bolus into the lumen; its absorption was measured in the portal vein. In 5-day diabetic as well as in control rats, portal insulin, arterial carbachol, and arterial DBcAMP increased intestinal glucose absorption. In 3-mo diabetic rats portal insulin and arterial carbachol failed to stimulate glucose absorption, whereas arterial DBcAMP still did so, indicating an undisturbed function of the absorptive enterocytes. The lack of an effect of portal insulin and arterial carbachol and the unchanged action of DBcAMP in the chronically diabetic rats indicated that the signaling chain via the hepatoenteral nerves was impaired, which is in line with a diabetic neuropathy. PMID:10444442

  5. Intestinal absorptive capacity, intestinal permeability and jejunal histology in HIV and their relation to diarrhoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Keating; I Bjarnason; S Somasundaram; A Macpherson; N Francis; A B Price; D Sharpstone; J Smithson; I S Menzies; B G Gazzard

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal function is poorly defined in patients with HIV infection. Absorptive capacity and intestinal permeability were assessed using 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose in 88 HIV infected patients and the findings were correlated with the degree of immunosuppression (CD4 counts), diarrhoea, wasting, intestinal pathogen status, and histomorphometric analysis of jejunal biopsy samples. Malabsorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and D-xylose was prevalent in

  6. Chronic stimulation of Nod2 mediates tolerance to bacterial products

    PubMed Central

    Hedl, Matija; Li, Jing; Cho, Judy H.; Abraham, Clara

    2007-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod) families of proteins are critical for bacterial recognition, and, acutely, this frequently leads to proinflammatory responses. Polymorphisms in Nod2 (CARD 15) are associated with an increased likelihood of developing Crohn's disease. However, it is not yet clear how Nod2 dysfunctions lead to defects in human intestinal immune homeostasis. Studies to date have focused on functions after acute, rather than chronic, Nod2 stimulation. However, the intestine is an environment of chronic bacterial product exposure with tolerance to luminal flora. We therefore hypothesized that long-term Nod2 stimulation contributes to down-regulation of inflammatory responses from innate immune receptors. We found that pretreatment with muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a ligand for Nod2, significantly decreased production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-8, and IL-1? upon Nod2, TLR4, and TLR2 restimulation in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages from a large cohort of individuals. Importantly, TNF-?-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines remained intact in these same cells. MDP-stimulated macrophages from Crohn's disease-relevant Leu1007insC Nod2 homozygote individuals were deficient in their ability to cross-tolerize to subsequent treatment with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. We show that acute Nod2 stimulation induced IRAK-1 activation, and that chronic MDP treatment down-regulated IRAK-1 activation upon Nod2 or TLR4 restimulation. In a subset of individuals, chronic Nod2 stimulation induced expression of the IRAK-1 inhibitory protein IRAK-M. Significantly, intestinal macrophages exhibit tolerance to MDP per production of inflammatory cytokines. These results illustrate a role for chronic stimulation of Nod2 in mediating tolerance to bacterial products. PMID:18032608

  7. Immune response is required for the control of in vivo translocation and chronic toxicity of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiuli; Zhao, Yunli; Fang, Jianpeng; Wang, Dayong

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals.Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00699b

  8. Chronic Acid Water Feeding Protects Mice Against Lethal Gut-derived Sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Licheng Wu; Jonathan E. Kohler; Garg Akash; Mark W. Musch; Eugene B. Chang; John C. Alverdy

    Acidified feeding formulas have been proposed as a method of controlling gastrointestinal colonization and nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. We examined possible mechanisms by which chronic acid water feeding might protect the host against lethal gut derived sepsis by assessing its effect on both local intestinal epithelial barrier function to bacteria as well as on local and systemic heat

  9. [Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare case of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Malatesti, R; Coratti, F; Borgogni, V; Ricci, C; Cini, M; Lo Gatto, M; Marzocca, G; Testi, W; Tani, F; Coratti, A

    2010-01-01

    A bleeding pseudoaneurysm in patients with chronic pancreatitis is a rare and potentially lethal complication. This diagnosis may be very difficult and the optimal treatment remains controversial. We report the case of 80 years old female with calcific pancreatitis and severe intestinal bleeding due to a pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery treated with interventional radiographic embolization. PMID:20843445

  10. Location of tumour necrosis factor alpha by immunohistochemistry in chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S H Murch; C P Braegger; J A Walker-Smith; T T MacDonald

    1993-01-01

    This study determined the location and tissue density of cells immunoreactive for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in intestinal specimens from 24 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (15 with Crohn's disease, nine with ulcerative colitis) and 11 controls. There was significantly increased density of TNF alpha immunoreactive cells in the lamina propria of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's

  11. [Antioxidant therapy in combined treatment of postoperative intestinal paresis].

    PubMed

    Magomedov, M A

    2004-01-01

    Method of treatment of postoperative intestinal paresis with antioxidant emoxipin in experiment demonstrated that stabilization of redox processes and antioxidant systems in intestinal tissues leads to compensation of energy deficiency and recovery of intestinal peristalsis. Clinical use of this method in combined treatment of patients with postoperative intestinal paresis in acute generalized peritonitis reduces time of postoperative intestinal paresis and intoxication, lethality reduced 1,7-fold. PMID:14983163

  12. Ethanol-Induced Mast Cell-Mediated Inflammation Leads to Increased Susceptibility of Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the APC ?468 Min Mouse Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Andre L.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Khan, Mohammad Wasim; Pemberton, Alan; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic and frequent ethanol (EtOH) intake has been associated with an increased incidence of several types of cancers including breast, mouth, throat, esophageal, stomach and colorectal (CRC). The underlying mechanism of this deleterious carcinogenic effect of alcohol has not been clearly established but inflammation may be one unifying feature of these cancers. We have recently shown that intestinal mast cells play a central role in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that mast cell-mediated inflammation is one underlying mechanism by which chronic alcohol promotes intestinal tumorigenesis. Methods APC ?468 mice were fed either an alcohol containing Nanji liquid diet or isocaloric dextrose containing Nanji diet for 10 weeks and then sacrificed to collect small and large intestine samples. Assessments of tumor number and size as well as mast cell number and mast cell activity and histology score for invasion were compared between Control (dextrose fed) and Alcohol fed APC?468 mice. The effect of alcohol on mast cell mediated tumor migration was also assessed using an in vitro migration assay. Results Alcohol feeding increased both polyp number and size within both the small and large intestines of APC?468 mice. Only alcohol fed mice showed evidence of tumor invasion. Chronic alcohol feeding also resulted in an increased mast cell number and activity in tumor stroma and invading borders. In vitro migration assay showed that alcohol significantly increases mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Conclusions Our data show that chronic alcohol intake promotes: (1) intestinal tumorigenesis and tumor invasion in genetically susceptible mice; (2) increases in polyp associated mast cells; (3) mast cell mediated tumor migration in vitro. Both our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that mast cell mediated inflammation could be one mechanism by which alcohol promotes carcinogenesis. PMID:23320800

  13. Optimality in the Development of Intestinal Crypts

    E-print Network

    Itzkovitz, Shalev

    Intestinal crypts in mammals are comprised of long-lived stem cells and shorter-lived progenies. These two populations are maintained in specific proportions during adult life. Here, we investigate the design principles ...

  14. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  15. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiang; Shah, Yatrik M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:23812305

  16. Mesenchymal Cells of the Intestinal Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Powell, D.W.; Pinchuk, I.V.; Saada, J.I.; Chen, Xin; Mifflin, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria reviewed here are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, mural cells (pericytes) of the vasculature, bone marrow–derived stromal stem cells, smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and smooth muscle surrounding the lymphatic lacteals. These cells share similar marker molecules, origins, and coordinated biological functions previously ascribed solely to subepithelial myofibroblasts. We review the functional anatomy of intestinal mesenchymal cells and describe what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement in adults. As part of their putative role in intestinal mucosal morphogenesis, we consider the intestinal stem cell niche. Lastly, we review emerging information about myofibroblasts as nonprofessional immune cells that may be important as an alarm system for the gut and as a participant in peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:21054163

  17. Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaarala, Outi

    2013-10-01

    The role of intestinal microbiota in immune-mediated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, has deservedly received a lot of attention. Evidently, changes in the intestinal microbiota are associated with type 1 diabetes as demonstrated by recent studies. Children with beta-cell autoimmunity have shown low abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and increase in the abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum in fecal microbiota. These alterations could explain increased gut permeability, subclinical small intestinal inflammation, and dysregulation of oral tolerance in type 1 diabetes. However, these studies do not provide evidence of the causative role of the gut microbiota in the development of beta-cell autoimmunity, yet. In animal models, the composition of gut microbiota modulates the function of both innate and adaptive immunity, and intestinal bacteria are regulators of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, prevention of type 1 diabetes could, in the future, be based on the interventions targeted to the gut microbiota. PMID:23934614

  18. Motility Disorders of the Large Intestine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the large intestine (colon) are to store food residues and to absorb water. Between what we drink ... a consequence of this pattern of motility, food residues remain in the colon on average about 30 ...

  19. Human intestinal ion transport in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, C L; Isaacs, P E; Riley, A K; Turnberg, L A

    1977-01-01

    The transport of sodium and chloride across human jejunal and ileal mucosa was studied using an in vitro technique. Specimens of mucosa removed at operation were stripped of muscle coats, mounted in specially designed Perspex flux chambers and bathed in warmed oxygenated and stirred buffer solutions. Evidence was obtained for the active transport of sodium in both jejunum and ileum and of chloride in the ileum. Sodium absorption was enhanced by glucose in both regions of the gut but net chloride transport was unaffected. Glucose had a greater effect on sodium transport in the ileum than the jejunum. The electrical potential difference and resistance was greater and undirectional ion fluxes smaller in jejunal than ileal mucosa. Many of these results with human intestine are similar to results reported with in vitro animal intestine. Apparent discrepancies between the behavior in vivo of human intestine and in vitro of animal intestine are thus likely to be due predominantly to technical rather species differences. PMID:852747

  20. Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis –Inflammation and Intestinal Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Claud, Erika C.

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis is a devastating inflammatory bowel disease of premature infants. The pathogenesis remains incompletely understood and there is no specific treatment. Efforts are ongoing to understand aspects of intestinal immaturity which contribute to susceptibility to this disease. This review focuses on bacterial colonization patterns, intestinal barrier function, and inflammatory responses of immature enterocytes leading to a unique vulnerability of the preterm gut. In addition the possible therapeutic potential of factors in human milk and probiotic bacteria is discussed. PMID:20498729

  1. Microbial functionality in the human intestinal tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Salonen; A. Palva; Vos de W. M

    2009-01-01

    The extent of metabolic interactions between symbiotic intestinal microbes and the human host, and their system-wide effects on the host physiology are beginning to be understood. The metabolic capacity encoded by the intestinal microbiome significantly extends that of the host, making many of man's physiological characteristics an outcome of a human-microbe co-metabolism. A detailed characterization of the composition and function

  2. Mucosal control of the intestinal microbial community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Brugman; Edward E. S. Nieuwenhuis

    2010-01-01

    Although the knowledge of the effects of bacterial colonization on the immune system is rapidly expanding, surprisingly little\\u000a is known about the immunological mechanisms that shape the intestinal microbial community. Specifically, the complexity of\\u000a the intestinal microbiota and what constitutes a “healthy” microbial composition has only recently been addressed, facilitated\\u000a by large-scale metagenomic screens. Containment of such a vast number

  3. [Use of elemental diet in intestinal lesions].

    PubMed

    Costantino, A M; Bounous, G

    1989-01-01

    The recognition of potentially noxious physiological substances in the intestinal milieu, prompted the use of an "elemental" semi-hydrolysed formula diet in the prophylaxis of experimental acute ischemic enteropathy. An elemental diet protects the intestinal mucosa of rodents from radiation injury and facilitates mucosal healing. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of this form of treatment in the prevention of acute radiation enteritis and therapy of delayed enteropathy and Crohn's disease. PMID:2695859

  4. Expression and activity of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway in mouse intestine following administration of a short-term high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    WANG, NING; WANG, HUGUO; YAO, HUA; WEI, QIN; MAO, XIN-MIN; JIANG, TAO; XIANG, JING; DILA, NA

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance in obesity is associated with chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Although it has been shown that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue plays an important role in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, the effect of TLR4 activation in the intestine has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the activation of the mouse intestinal TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway following the administration of a short-term high-fat diet, as well as the function of the signaling pathway in the local enteric inflammatory response. The effect of the high-fat diet on TLR4 activation, NF-?B and phosphorylated I?B (PI?B) activity, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-6 expression in the intestinal tissues of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice was investigated. The results demonstrated that the high-fat diet induced TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in intestinal tissues. TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway activation gradually increased as the number of days of high-fat diet administration increased, and peaked on day 7. Additionally, activation of the signaling pathway reduced PI?B expression levels and increased TNF-? and IL-6 expression levels in intestinal tissues. Our results demonstrated that a short-term high-fat diet induces activation of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway in intestinal tissues, which causes local intestinal low-grade inflammation. These data improve our understanding of the molecular events involved in intestinal low-grade inflammation, which may be the triggering factor for chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24137239

  5. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type ...

  6. Potential role of the intestinal microbiota in programming health and disease.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    The composition of the microbiota varies according to prenatal events, delivery methods, infant feeding, infant care environment, and antibiotic use. Postnatal gut function and immune development are largely influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Emerging evidence has shown that early microbiota colonization may influence the occurrence of later diseases (microbial programming). The vast majority of microbial species (commensals) give rise to symbiotic host-bacterial interactions that are fundamental for human health. However, changes in the composition of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) may be associated with several clinical conditions, including obesity and metabolic diseases, autoimmune diseases and allergy, acute and chronic intestinal inflammation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), allergic gastroenteritis (e.g., eosinophilic gastroenteritis and allergic IBS), and necrotizing enterocolitis. Based on recent advances, modulation of gut microbiota with probiotics, prebiotics, or fermented dairy products has been suggested as a treatment of, or prevention for, different disorders such as IBS, infectious diarrhea, allergic disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:26175488

  7. [Pleiotropic effects of sevelamer: a model of intestinal tract chelating agent].

    PubMed

    Massy, Ziad A; Maizel, Julien

    2014-11-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with its associated complications has increased dramatically worldwide in recent years. Therefore, many experimental and clinical studies have examined over the last decade the mechanisms involved, in order to explain the sharp increase in cardiovascular mortality. Hyperphosphatemia is a major problem in these patients especially at advanced stages of CKD, and it is associated with cardiovascular and mineral complications in these patients. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder that allows a better control of hyperphosphatemia, like other phosphate binder agents, but it has additional pleiotropic effects such as correcting certain abnormalities of lipid metabolism and clearance of several uremic toxins. These effects of sevelamer, restricted to the intestinal lumen, underline the importance of intestinal pathway in CKD and open the way to new therapeutic strategies for the management of the CKD and its complications. PMID:25070605

  8. Epithelial stem cells and tissue engineered intestine.

    PubMed

    Day, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa has an amazing regenerative capacity, enabling rapid restoration of its physiological functions following injury. The ability to do this resides with the epithelial stem cells located within glandular invaginations in the mucosal surface. Recent advances toward the isolation and characterization of epithelial stem cells has paved the way for exploring novel therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disease. Possible stem cell-based therapy of gastrointestinal disorders range from the repair of damaged mucosa through to tissue engineering of artificial intestinal constructs for patients with short bowel syndrome. Before these benefits are realized further information is required on the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells, their interactions with surrounding cells, and the environment in which they reside. This includes discovering markers to assist in the identification and purification of stem cell populations and techniques to manipulate the cells both in vivo and in vitro. Because intestinal transplantation for patients still represents a significant challenge, it is hoped that one day a tissue-engineered intestine will provide a feasible option for patients with short bowel syndrome. This review aims to introduce the reader to the main characteristics of epithelial stem cells and provide an overview of the current status of intestinal tissue engineering and the problems still being faced. PMID:18220860

  9. Circadian regulators of intestinal lipid absorption.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-04-01

    Among all the metabolites present in the plasma, lipids, mainly triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, show extensive circadian rhythms. These lipids are transported in the plasma as part of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are synthesized primarily in the liver and intestine and their production exhibits circadian rhythmicity. Studies have shown that various proteins involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein biosynthesis show circadian expression. Further, intestinal epithelial cells express circadian clock genes and these genes might control circadian expression of different proteins involved in intestinal lipid absorption. Intestinal circadian clock genes are synchronized by signals emanating from the suprachiasmatic nuclei that constitute a master clock and from signals coming from other environmental factors, such as food availability. Disruptions in central clock, as happens due to disruptions in the sleep/wake cycle, affect intestinal function. Similarly, irregularities in temporal food intake affect intestinal function. These changes predispose individuals to various metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Here, we summarize how circadian rhythms regulate microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, apoAIV, and nocturnin to affect diurnal regulation of lipid absorption. PMID:25057097

  10. Exercise, intestinal barrier dysfunction and probiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Frauwallner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The integrity of tight junctions depends on sophisticated interactions between the gut residents and their expressed substances, the intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and the activities of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Probiotic supplements are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals that could offer positive effects on athlete's gut and entire health. Some results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use on the athlete's immune system. There is also evidence that probiotic supplementation can beneficially influence intestinal barrier integrity in acute diseases. With regard to exercise-induced GI permeability problems, there is still a lack of studies with appropriate data and a gap to understand the underlying mechanisms to support such health beneficial statements implicitly. This article refers (i) to exercise-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, (ii) provides suggestions to estimate increased gut barrier permeability in athletes, and (iii) discusses the potential of probiotic supplementation to counteract an exercise-induced leaky gut. PMID:23075554

  11. Multiple giant diverticula of the jejunum causing intestinal obstruction: report of a case and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos Falidas; Konstantinos Vlachos; Stavros Mathioulakis; Fotis Archontovasilis; Constantinos Villias

    2011-01-01

    Multiple diverticulosis of jejunum represents an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The disease is usually asymptomatic\\u000a and must be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain or discomfort.\\u000a Related complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, bleeding or intestinal obstruction appear in 10-30% of the patients\\u000a increasing morbidity and mortality rates. We herein report a case

  12. Effect of Vitamin B6 and B1 Deficiencies on the Intestinal Uptake of Calcium, Zinc and Cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prasad; V. Lyall; R. Nath

    1982-01-01

    A chronic vitamin B6 deficiency in rats resulted in a non-specific increase (44–51 %) in the in vitro intestinal uptake of both essential (Ca and Zn) and non-essential toxic metal (Cd) ions, whereas an acute B6-deficient state only affected the Zn uptake rate. In vitamin B1 -deficient animals, a specific decrease (30–32%) was observed in Ca and Zn uptake with

  13. Quality of life in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and intestinal Behçet's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Kim; Y. S. Cho; H. M. Yoo; I. S. Park; E. C. Park; J. G. Lim

    1999-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome factor in chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease\\u000a (IBD). This study used the Korean translation of the disease-specific, self-administered Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire\\u000a (IBDQ) to compare HRQOL in ulcerative colitis (UC; n=98), Crohn's disease (CD; n = 49), and intestinal Behçet's disease (BD; n = 34). In addition to the

  14. Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Marie CM; Buret, André G

    2013-01-01

    Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations. PMID:24379622

  15. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)2D3 production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption could lead to the development of nutritional and medical strategies for optimizing the efficiency of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and preventing osteoporosis and other pathologies related to Ca(2+) metabolism. PMID:26109800

  16. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption

    PubMed Central

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal Ca2+ absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca2+ homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca2+ across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca2+ movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca2+ affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca2+ extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca2+ from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca2+ transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca2+ transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca2+ absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca2+ transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca2+ transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca2+ transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)2D3 production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca2+ absorption according to Ca2+ demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca2+ absorption could lead to the development of nutritional and medical strategies for optimizing the efficiency of intestinal Ca2+ absorption and preventing osteoporosis and other pathologies related to Ca2+ metabolism.

  17. Depression and Chronic Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... related to increased symptoms of depression. Examples of chronic illness include: • heart disease • Parkinson’s disease • multiple sclerosis • stroke • ... not be dismissed as a “normal” reaction to chronic illness, but it is common. Depression is a problem ...

  18. Understanding Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that 9.9 million Americans reported a physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. A person with chronic bronchitis also may develop emphysema. These two conditions together are commonly referred to ...

  19. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often seen in ...

  20. The anemia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, G R

    1983-04-01

    The anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is defined as a mild anemia associated with a chronic inflammatory, infectious or neoplastic illness and with a characteristic disturbance of iron metabolism. Many of the findings in ACD can be accounted for by release of a monokine called leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), endogenous pyrogen, or interleukin-1. This substance is released from "activated" monocytes. Bacterial endotoxins, certain lymphokines and phagocytic challenges are among the factors stimulating its biosynthesis. LEM induces fever, leukocytosis, biosynthesis. LEM induces fever, leukocytosis, and a variety of biochemical changes, including hypoferremia and alterations in plasma protein synthesis, collectively known as the "acute phase response." It is proposed that ACD results from the long-term elaboration of LEM and that release of this material is the common pathogenetic factor found in the illnesses that are associated with ACD. Some suggestions are made for testing the hypothesis. The hypoferremia associated with ACD is probably caused by defective release of iron from cells--particularly from macrophages, but also from hepatocytes and intestinal epithelium. Two possible mechanisms for this abnormality have been proposed: liberation of lactoferrin from neutrophilic leukocytes and induction of apoferritin synthesis. Neither mechanism has been established. Erythrokinetic studies in ACD have detected a modest reduction of erythrocyte survival without an adequate compensatory increase in the rate of red cell production. The reduced erythrocyte survival is probably related to an increase in phagocytic activity by activated macrophages. Impaired bone marrow response is partly related to the restricted iron supply, but there is substantial evidence for an additional defect in erythropoietin secretion. In some malignant diseases, there is evidence of an additional abnormality: impaired marrow response to a normal amount of erythropoietin. The nature of the erythropoietic defects and the relation of LEM to them remain to be established. PMID:6348957

  1. Intestinal Toxicity of Acrylonitrile: In Vitro Metabolism by Intestinal Cytochrome P450 2E1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Subramanian; A. E. Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (VCN) is known to cause extensive gastrointestinal damage and tumors in rats. In this study the metabolism of VCN to cyanide (CN?) was characterized in the small intestinal mucosa. The majority of the metabolic reactivity was localized in the microsomal fraction and required reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate for maximal activity. The intestinal metabolism of VCN to CN? was

  2. Exploring food effects on indinavir absorption with human intestinal fluids in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Holmstock, Nico; De Bruyn, Tom; Bevernage, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Mols, Raf; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2013-04-11

    Food can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs, as it may affect drug solubility as well as permeability. Since fed state conditions cannot easily be implemented in the presently available permeability tools, including the frequently used Caco-2 system, exploring food effects during drug development can be quite challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of fasted and fed state conditions on the intestinal absorption of the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir using simulated and human intestinal fluids in the in situ intestinal perfusion technique in mice. Although the solubility of indinavir was 6-fold higher in fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) as compared to fasted state HIF (FaHIF), the intestinal permeation of indinavir was 22-fold lower in FeHIF as compared to FaHIF. Dialysis experiments showed that only a small fraction of indinavir is accessible for absorption in FeHIF due to micellar entrapment, possibly explaining its low intestinal permeation. The presence of ritonavir, a known P-gp inhibitor, increased the intestinal permeation of indinavir by 2-fold in FaHIF, while there was no increase when using FeHIF. These data confirm that drug-food interactions form a complex interplay between solubility and permeability effects. The use of HIF in in situ intestinal perfusions holds great promise for biorelevant absorption evaluation as it allows to directly explore this complex solubility/permeability interplay on drug absorption. PMID:23402972

  3. Toll-like receptor signalling in the intestinal epithelium: how bacterial recognition shapes intestinal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria T. Abreu

    2010-01-01

    A single layer of epithelial cells lines the small and large intestines and functions as a barrier between commensal bacteria and the rest of the body. Ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on intestinal epithelial cells by bacterial products promotes epithelial cell proliferation, secretion of IgA into the gut lumen and expression of antimicrobial peptides. As described in this Review, this

  4. Small Intestinal Nematode Infection of Mice Is Associated with Increased Enterobacterial Loads alongside the Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Sebastian; Held, Josephin; Fischer, André; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Kühl, Anja A.; Bereswill, Stefan; Hartmann, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are potent modulators of immune reactivity in mice and men. Intestinal nematodes live in close contact with commensal gut bacteria, provoke biased Th2 immune responses upon infection, and subsequently lead to changes in gut physiology. We hypothesized that murine nematode infection is associated with distinct changes of the intestinal bacterial microbiota composition. We here studied intestinal inflammatory and immune responses in mice following infection with the hookworm Heligmosomoidespolygyrusbakeri and applied cultural and molecular techniques to quantitatively assess intestinal microbiota changes in the ileum, cecum and colon. At day 14 post nematode infection, mice harbored significantly higher numbers of ?-Proteobacteria/Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Bacteroides/Prevotella group in their cecum as compared to uninfected controls. Abundance of Gram-positive species such as Lactobacilli, Clostridia as well as the total bacterial load was not affected by worm infection. The altered microbiota composition was independent of the IL-4/-13 – STAT6 signaling axis, as infected IL-4R?-/- mice showed a similar increase in enterobacterial loads. In conclusion, infection with an enteric nematode is accompanied by distinct intestinal microbiota changes towards higher abundance of gram-negative commensal species at the small intestinal site of infection (and inflammation), but also in the parasite-free large intestinal tract. Further studies should unravel the impact of nematode-induced microbiota changes in inflammatory bowel disease to allow for a better understanding of how theses parasites interfere with intestinal inflammation and bacterial communities in men. PMID:24040152

  5. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about chronic myeloid leukemia? What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic ... is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in the ...

  6. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)] [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States)] [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)] [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States) [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  7. Sleep and chronic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanetta C Rains; Donald B Penzien

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The ?-EEG sleep anomaly has been associated with chronic benign pain syndromes. Although controversial, the anomaly is believed by some to be an important biologic correlate of certain otherwise poorly explained painful conditions (e.g., fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome). To shed further light on this phenomenon, this study compared the sleep and psychological characteristics of chronic pain patients who

  8. Chronic pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Ostler, Anneli

    2015-06-10

    Reading the CPD article helped improve my understanding of the importance of identifying chronic pain. Chronic pain may occur on its own or as a feature of other chronic conditions, and it may be nociceptive or neuropathic, or a combination of the two. PMID:26058654

  9. Protein synthesis of muscle fractions from the small intestine in alcohol fed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Preedy, V R; Peters, T J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on the amounts and synthesis rates of cytoplasmic, contractile, and stromal protein fractions were investigated in the small intestine of eight pairs of immature and seven pairs of mature rats. Treated rats were fed ethanol as 36% of total energy in a nutritionally adequate liquid diet. Paired controls were fed isovolumetric amounts of the same diet in which ethanol was substituted by isocaloric glucose. After six weeks the total cytoplasmic and contractile protein content in immature rats was reduced by 18% and 31%, respectively (p less than or equal to 0.007). The decline in the stromal protein content (26%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.130). In mature rats the protein contents were also reduced in the cytoplasmic (25%, p = 0.035) and contractile (27%, p = 0.005) protein fractions, though the stromal protein fraction was unaltered (p = 0.913). In immature rats fractional rates of protein synthesis in cytoplasmic and contractile protein fractions of the small intestine were unaltered by chronic ethanol feeding (p less than or equal to 0.853). In mature rats, the synthesis rates of corresponding fractions declined, by 18% and 31%, respectively, but were also not statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.369). Absolute rates of protein synthesis in immature rats fell by 6% (p = 0.549) in the cytoplasmic and 31% in the contractile protein fraction (p = 0.045). In mature rats, the corresponding reductions were 38% (p = 0.106) and 48% (p = 0.033), respectively. Virtually no radioactivity could be detected in the stromal fraction, signifying very low synthesis rates. Chronic ethanol feeding reduces the amount of protein in the small intestine of the immature and mature rat with the contractile protein fraction showing the greatest decrease. In the absence of statistically significant reductions in fractional synthesis rates a partial adaptation in turnover rates may have occurred. PMID:2323594

  10. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  11. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    PubMed Central

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos

    2012-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80%) followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450) cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status. PMID:23990816

  12. Health-related quality of life in pediatric intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Andres, A M; Alameda, A; Mayoral, O; Hernandez, F; Dominguez, E; Martinez Ojinaga, E; Ramos, E; Prieto, G; Lopez Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

    2014-11-01

    To determine HRQOL after pediatric intestinal transplantation. Thirty-four IT survivors from 1999 to 2012 were asked to complete age-specific HRQOL non-disease-specific questionnaires: TAPQOL (0-4 yr), KINDL-R (5-7 yr; 8-12 yr; 13-17 yr), and SF-36v2 (>18 yr), all validated with Spanish population. Primary caregiver completed a SF-36 questionnaire and CBI. Thirty-one participants were included. Median age was 10.2 yr (1-29) and time after transplant 4.4 yr (0-13). Overall patient scores were 78.2 ± 10.6 (n = 8), 83.3 ± 9.7 (n = 6), 72.2 ± 9.21 (n = 6), 80.5 ± 12.4 (n = 7), and 82.2 ± 12.4 (n = 4) for each age group. Highest scores were obtained for vitality (group I), self-esteem (group IV), and physical and social functioning and emotions (group V). Lowest scores were obtained in appetite and behavior (I), family and school (III), and chronic disease perception (III, IV). No significant differences were found between caregivers and their children. CBI showed stress in 52%. SF-36 for caregivers was lower than general population. No significant differences were found depending on relevant clinical and sociodemographic data. HRQOL was acceptable and improved with age and time since transplantation. Parents had a slighter own QOL and worse perception of health than their children. When successful, intestinal transplantation allows a normal life in most patients and can be offered as an attractive option. PMID:25180826

  13. TAM receptor-dependent regulation of SOCS3 and MAPKs contributes to proinflammatory cytokine downregulation following chronic NOD2 stimulation of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shasha; Hedl, Matija; Abraham, Clara

    2015-02-15

    Microbial-induced cytokine regulation is critical to intestinal immune homeostasis. Acute stimulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), the Crohn's disease-associated sensor of bacterial peptidoglycan, induces cytokines. However, cytokines are attenuated after chronic NOD2 and pattern recognition receptor stimulation of macrophages; similar attenuation is observed in intestinal macrophages. The role of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors in regulating chronic pattern recognition receptor stimulation and NOD2-induced outcomes has not been examined. Moreover, TAM receptors have been relatively less investigated in human macrophages. Whereas TAM receptors did not downregulate acute NOD2-induced cytokines in primary human macrophages, they were essential for downregulating signaling and proinflammatory cytokine secretion after chronic NOD2 and TLR4 stimulation. Axl and Mer were similarly required in mice for cytokine downregulation after chronic NOD2 stimulation in vivo and in intestinal tissues. Consistently, TAM expression was increased in human intestinal myeloid-derived cells. Chronic NOD2 stimulation led to IL-10- and TGF-?-dependent TAM upregulation in human macrophages, which, in turn, upregulated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression. Restoring suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression under TAM knockdown conditions restored chronic NOD2-mediated proinflammatory cytokine downregulation. In contrast to the upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, attenuated IL-10 secretion was maintained in TAM-deficient macrophages upon chronic NOD2 stimulation. The level of MAPK activation in TAM-deficient macrophages after chronic NOD2 stimulation was insufficient to upregulate IL-10 secretion; however, full restoration of MAPK activation under these conditions restored c-Fos, c-Jun, musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog K, and PU.1 binding to the IL-10 promoter and IL-10 secretion. Therefore, TAM receptors are critical for downregulating proinflammatory cytokines under the chronic NOD2 stimulation conditions observed in the intestinal environment. PMID:25567680

  14. Recycling metchnikoff: probiotics, the intestinal microbiome and the quest for long life.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    Over a century ago, Elie Metchnikoff theorized that health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with host-friendly bacteria found in yogurt. His theory flourished for a time, then drifted to the fringe of medical practice before re-emerging in the mid-1990s as a concept worthy of mainstream medical attention. Metchnikoff also predicted the existence of bacterial translocation and anticipated theories linking chronic inflammation with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other disorders of the aged. PMID:24350221

  15. Helicobacter pylori-Induced Signaling Pathways Contribute to Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sue, Soichiro; Shibata, Wataru; Maeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces chronic gastric inflammation, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and cancer. Although the risk of gastric cancer increases exponentially with the extent of atrophic gastritis, the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. H. pylori induces genetic and epigenetic changes in gastric epithelial cells through activating intracellular signaling pathways in a cagPAI-dependent manner. H. pylori eventually induces gastric cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN) or microsatellite instability (MSI), which are classified as two major subtypes of gastric cancer. Elucidation of the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis will also be important for cancer therapy.

  16. Pathological mimics of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, N A

    1991-01-01

    When all of the macroscopic and microscopic features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are present, the correct diagnosis is usually made without difficulty. When some of the changes are absent, the accuracy of diagnosis is reduced. This review has outlined those diseases which feature some of these pathological changes and may masquerade as idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Some of the pathological mimics are iatrogenic while other common diseases, such as bacterial infection, ischaemia, and diverticulosis may produce confusing histological appearances. The picture is complicated by the fact that many of these pathological imitators may themselves cause or predispose to chronic inflammatory bowel disease, or may complicate chronic inflammatory bowel disease. For example, drugs and infectious agents are recognisable causes of relapse in ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease may cause diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis; and lymphoma may complicate ulcerative colitis. It behooves all practising histopathologists to recognise these mimics of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease to ensure appropriate management for patients with inflammatory pathology of the intestines. Images PMID:1918397

  17. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  18. Intestinal absorption of gabapentin in rats.

    PubMed

    Maurer, H H; Rump, A F

    1991-02-01

    Gabapentin (1-aminomethyl-)cyclohexaneacetic acid, Gö 3450, CI-945; CAS 60142-96-3) is a new gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogous compound that has shown an anticonvulsive effect as well as low toxicity in preclinical and clinical studies. The substance is well absorbed after oral administration and penetrates the blood-brain barrier. The aim of experiments was to study the mechanism of intestinal absorption, the relationship between the absorption rate and the applied concentration and whether the absorption rate differs between different parts of the intestine. For this purpose, isolated intestinal segments of rats (everted sac preparations) were used. Due to the fact that gabapentin is not metabolized in the intestine, its concentration in the mucosal and serosal compartments could be determined by scintillation counting of 3H-gabapentin. The results showed that gabapentin was absorbed by simple diffusion because neither indications for an uphill nor for a carrier-mediated transport could be demonstrated. The absorption rate was linearly related in the concentration range from 0.001 to 100 mmol/l. There was no significant difference between the absorption rate in the three parts of the small intestine at 1 and 10 mmol/l, while the absorption rate was significantly (p less than 0.01) lower in the colon. PMID:2043169

  19. Intestinal microbiota: its role in digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Bustos Fernandez, Luis M; Lasa, Juan S; Man, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    It is now well known that intestinal microbiota exerts not only several physiological functions, but has also been implied in the mechanisms of many conditions, both intestinal and extraintestinal. These advances, to the best of our knowledge, have been made possible by the development of new ways of studying gut flora. Metagenomics, the study of genetic material taken directly from environmental samples, avoiding individual culture, has become an excellent tool to study the human microbiota. Therefore, it has demonstrated an association between an altered intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome, perhaps the most extensively studied conditions associated with this particular subject. However, microbiota has a potential role in the development of other diseases; their manifestations are not confined to the intestine only. In this article, an extensive updated review is conducted on the role intestinal microbiota has in health and in different diseases. Focus is made on the following conditions: inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, hepatic encephalopathy, and obesity. PMID:24921207

  20. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-07-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  1. Intestinal necrosis due to norovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiromi; Okita, Yoshiki; Imaoka, Yuhki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Koji; Shigemori, Tsunehiko; Kato, Toshio; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-02-01

    Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis in both children and adults. We report a rare case of intestinal necrosis due to norovirus gastroenteritis in a healthy adult. A 47-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal fullness. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension and diffuse tenderness. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed intestinal distention, pneumatosis, and portal venous gas, findings suggestive of intestinal necrosis. Norovirus genome was detected in his stools using the RT-PCR method. Upon laparotomy, a segment of necrotic bowel 170 cm from the ileocecal valve was identified, and the lesion was resected with an end ileostomy. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and he was transferred to another hospital on the 7th post-operative day. Ileostomy closure was performed one month after the first surgery at the transfer hospital. He had no recurrent episodes. PMID:25471340

  2. Sensing via Intestinal Sweet Taste Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Young, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterized in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterizing nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of GI motility. PMID:21519398

  3. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A

    2014-05-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. PMID:24440671

  4. Is there a role for living donor intestine transplants?

    PubMed

    Fryer, Jonathan; Angelos, Peter

    2004-12-01

    The use of living donors with intestinal transplantation is controversial because it may not significantly improve candidate access to organs when intestine-only grafts are needed, and may involve excessive donor risk when combined liver-intestine grafts are required. Although limited data are available for comparison at this time, graft and patient survival rates for intestinal transplantations using living donors are no different than for deceased donor transplantations. Potential benefits that may be provided to the intestine transplant recipient through the use of living donors include better HLA matching, shorter ischemia times, better bowel preparation, and better opportunities for introducing immunomodulatory strategies. Conversely, living intestine donors are at risk for mortality, significant morbidity, financial loss, and psychologic trauma. The long-term outcomes of living intestine donors have not yet been reported. Ultimately, these data are essential before the wider use of living donors can be advocated for intestinal transplantation. PMID:15663017

  5. Modulation of intestinal barrier properties by miltefosine.

    PubMed

    Menez, Cécile; Buyse, Marion; Chacun, Hélène; Farinotti, Robert; Barratt, Gillian

    2006-02-14

    Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine, HePC) is the first effective oral agent for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to determine whether this oral administration alters the integrity and transport capacities of the intestinal barrier. The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the cytotoxicity of HePC, (ii) to investigate the effects of HePC on paracellular and transcellular transport and (iii) to investigate the influence of HePC on three major transporters of the intestinal barrier, namely, P-glycoprotein, the human intestinal peptide transporter (PepT-1) and the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT-1) in Caco-2 cell monolayers, used as an in vitro model of the human intestinal barrier. We show that HePC reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance and increased D-[14C]mannitol permeability in a dose-dependent manner but had no effect on [3H]testosterone permeability, demonstrating that HePC treatment enhances paracellular permeability via an opening of the tight junction complex without affecting the transcellular route. Morphological studies using confocal fluorescence microscopy showed no perturbation of the normal distribution of ZO-1, occludin or E-cadherin but revealed a redistribution of the tight junction-associated protein claudin-1 and the perijunctional actin after incubation with HePC. Finally, HePC was found to inhibit the intestinal P-glycoprotein in the Caco-2 cell model after a single short exposure. These results suggest that HePC could modify the oral bioavailability of other therapeutic compounds absorbed via the paracellular route or which are substrates of the intestinal P-glycoprotein. PMID:16337152

  6. To make a new intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Stelzner, Matthias; Chen, David C

    2006-01-01

    A number of clinical conditions are caused by disorders affecting the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Some patients suffer from a loss of mucosal surface area due to congenital defects or due to surgical resections ("short bowel syndrome"). Other patients have inborn or acquired defects of certain mucosal functions (e.g., glucose-galactose malabsorption, bile acid malabsorption). Many patients with these mucosal disorders could be more effectively treated if healthy mucosa were available in larger quantities as a replacement or functional supplement. We therefore developed methods to transplant mucosal stem cells from one part of the intestine to another and to make bioengineered intestinal mucosa. We generated an animal model of bile acid malabsorption using rats that underwent resection of the distal 25% of their small intestine (ileum). This resulted in significant losses of bile acids with the fecal excretions in these animals. We subsequently harvested ileal stem cell clusters from neonatal donors, removed the mucosa from a segment of proximal intestine (jejunum), and implanted the stem cell clusters into the debrided segment of jejunum. After four weeks, the animals had developed a functional "neomucosa." We inserted the "neo-ileal" segment into continuity as a substitute ileum. Postoperative measurements of fecal bile acid excretion showed that we were able to reverse the malabsorption syndrome in this model. This was the first reported neo-mucosa-based treatment of a malabsorption syndrome in vivo. We subsequently studied different biodegradable PGA and PLLA scaffoldings to generate bioengineered intestinal mucosa. We implanted these materials into omentum of rats and were able to identify a PGA/PLLA hybrid material on which engraftment rates of 36% of the available surface area could be achieved. Most recently, we developed a novel technique that permits direct observation of cell-biomaterial interactions after implantation into omentum or intestine in vivo. This method will help to optimize engraftment conditions for stem cell clusters on biomaterials. PMID:16608391

  7. The Th17 Pathway and Inflammatory Diseases of the Intestines, Lungs and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Casey T.; Elson, Charles O.; Fouser, Lynette A.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of a new CD4+ T cell subset, Th17, has transformed our understanding of the pathogenetic basis of an increasing number of chronic immune-mediated diseases. Particularly in tissues that interface with the microbial environment — such as the intestinal and respiratory tracts, and skin — where most of the Th17 cells present in the body reside, dysregulated immunity to self, or the extended “self,” the diverse microbiota that normally colonize these tissues, can result in chronic inflammatory disease. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the biology of the Th17 pathway and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicating this immune pathway in human disease that are providing new insights into disease mechanisms in these and other tissues. PMID:23157335

  8. ?-Defensin-3 and -4 in intestinal epithelial cells display increased mRNA expression in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fahlgren, A; Hammarström, S; Danielsson, Å; Hammarströ;m, M-L

    2004-01-01

    mRNA expression of two recently described human ?-defensins (hBD-3 and hBD-4) in epithelial cells of normal small and large intestine and the impact of chronic intestinal inflammation on their expression levels was investigated. Intestinal specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and controls with no history of inflammatory bowel disease were studied. hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNAs were determined in freshly isolated epithelial cells by real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization. The effect of proinflammatory cytokines on hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA expression in colon carcinoma cells was also investigated. Purified epithelial cells of normal small and large intestine expressed both hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA, with higher expression levels of hBD-3 mRNA. In situ hybridization revealed higher levels of mRNA expression in the crypt- compared to the villus/luminal-compartment. Interferon (IFN)-?, but not tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? or IL-1?, augmented hBD-3 mRNA expression. None of these agents stimulated hBD-4 expression. Colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC displayed a significant increase in hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA compared to epithelial cells of controls. In contrast, small intestinal epithelial cells from CD patients did not show increased expression levels compared to the corresponding control cells. Moreover, Crohn's colitis did not show increased expression of hBD-4 mRNA, while the data are inconclusive for hBD-3 mRNA. We conclude that the chronic inflammatory reaction induced in the colon of UC patients enhances hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA expression in the epithelium, whereas in CD this is less evident. PMID:15270856

  9. Infections in intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Timpone, Joseph G; Girlanda, Raffaele; Rudolph, Lauren; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation has become an effective treatment option for patients with intestinal failure. More potent immunosuppressive therapy has resulted in a decreased incidence of acute rejection and has improved patient survival. However, infectious complications can cause significant morbidity both before and after transplantation. In comparison with other solid organ transplant recipients, these patients experience higher rates of acute allograft rejection, thus requiring higher levels of immunosuppression and escalating the risk of infection. This article reviews the most common infectious disease complications encountered, and proposes a potential temporal association for types of infections in this patient population. PMID:23714345

  10. Remifentanil ameliorates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can occur in clinical scenarios such as organ transplantation, trauma and cardio-pulmonary bypass, as well as in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis or persistent ductus arteriosus. Pharmacological protection by pretreating (“preconditioning”) with opioids attenuates IRI in a number of organs. Remifentanil appears particularly attractive for this purpose because of its ultra-short duration of action and favorable safety profile. To date, little is known about opioid preconditioning of the intestine. Methods Young adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to receive tail vein injections of 1 ?g/kg of remifentanil or normal saline and underwent either ischemia-reperfusion of the intestine or a sham laparotomy. Under isoflurane anesthesia, the mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by occlusion (clamping) of the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min, followed by unclamping and 60 min of reperfusion. After completion of this protocol, tissue injury and lipid peroxidation in jejunum and ileum were analyzed by histology and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Systemic interleukin (IL)-6 was determined in the plasma by ELISA. Results Pretreatment with remifentanil markedly reduced intestinal IRI (P < 0.001): In the ileum, we observed a more than 8-fold decrease in injured villi (4% vs 34% in saline-pretreated animals). In fact, the mucosa in the remifentanil group was as healthy as that of sham-operated animals. This protective effect was not as pronounced in the jejunum, but the percentage of damaged villi was still reduced considerably (18% vs 42%). There was up to 3-fold more tissue MDA after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion than after sham laparotomy, but this increase in lipid peroxidation was prevented by preconditioning with remifentanil (P < 0.05). The systemic inflammatory response triggered by intestinal IRI was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with remifentanil (159 vs 805 pg/ml of IL-6 after saline pretreatment, with 92 pg/ml in the sham groups). After sham operations, no difference was detected between the saline- and remifentanil-pretreatments in any of the parameters investigated. Conclusion Preconditioning with remifentanil attenuates intestinal IRI and the subsequent systemic inflammatory response in mice. We therefore suggest that prophylaxis with this ultra-short-acting opioid may be advantageous in various clinical scenarios of human IRI. PMID:23607370

  11. Public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections*

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are distributed virtually throughout the world, with high prevalence rates in many regions. Amoebiasis, ascariasis, hookworm infection and trichuriasis are among the ten most common infections in the world. Other parasitic infections such as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, intestinal capillariasis, and strongyloidiasis are of local or regional public health concern. The prevention and control of these infections are now more feasible than ever before owing to the discovery of safe and efficacious drugs, the improvement and simplification of some diagnostic procedures, and advances in parasite population biology. PMID:3501340

  12. Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Gobas, F.A.P.C. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

  13. Rat intestinal ceramidase: purification, properties and physiological relevance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Olsson; Rui-Dong Duan; Lena Ohlsson; Åke Nilsson

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A neutral ceramidase activity has earlier been identified in the intestinal mucosa,and gut lumen and postulated to be important in the digestion of sphingolipids.It is found throughout the intestine, but has never been fully characterized. We now purified rat intestinal neutral ceramidase from an eluate obtained by perfusing the intestinal lumen with 0.9 % NaCl and 3mM sodium taurodeoxycholate.

  14. Inflammation and Proliferation Act Together to Mediate Intestinal Cell Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paige S. Davies; Anne E. Powell; John R. Swain; Melissa H. Wong; Stefan Bereswill

    2009-01-01

    Cell fusion between circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and non-hematopoietic cells is well documented in various tissues and has recently been suggested to occur in response to injury. Here we illustrate that inflammation within the intestine enhanced the level of BMDC fusion with intestinal progenitors. To identify important microenvironmental factors mediating intestinal epithelial cell fusion, we performed bone marrow transplantation

  15. Microenvironmental regulation of stem cells in intestinal homeostasis and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Vermeulen; Jan Paul Medema

    2011-01-01

    The identification of intestinal stem cells as well as their malignant counterparts, colon cancer stem cells, has undergone rapid development in recent years. Under physiological conditions, intestinal homeostasis is a carefully balanced and efficient interplay between stem cells, their progeny and the microenvironment. These interactions regulate the astonishingly rapid renewal of the intestinal epithelial layer, which consequently puts us at

  16. Characterization of epithelial cell shedding from human small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim F Bullen; Sharon Forrest; Fiona Campbell; Andrew R Dodson; Michael J Hershman; D Mark Pritchard; Jerrold R Turner; Marshall H Montrose; Alastair J M Watson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells migrate from the base of the crypt to the villi where they are shed. However, little is known about the cell shedding process. We have studied the role of apoptosis and wound healing mechanisms in cell shedding from human small intestinal epithelium. A method preparing paraffin sections of human small intestine that preserves cell shedding was developed.

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of tannery fleshings using chicken intestine proteases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Annapurna Raju; C. Rose; N. Muralidhara Rao

    1997-01-01

    Chicken intestine and tannery fleshings, the major wastes from poultry and tannery industries posing wide disposal problems, are used in this study for the recovery of proteins through biodegradation. Chicken intestines have been investigated as a source of proteolytic and autolytic enzymes for the hydrolysis of tannery fleshings. A combination of tannery fleshings and chicken intestines at acidic pH, when

  18. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase preserves the normal homeostasis of gut microbiota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Malo; S Nasrin Alam; G Mostafa; S J Zeller; P V Johnson; N Mohammad; K T Chen; A K Moss; S Ramasamy; A Faruqui; S Hodin; P S Malo; F Ebrahimi; B Biswas; S Narisawa; J L Millán; H S Warren; J B Kaplan; C L Kitts; E L Hohmann; R A Hodin

    2010-01-01

    Background and aimsThe intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human health; however, the mechanisms governing the normal homeostatic number and composition of these microbes are largely unknown. Previously it was shown that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a small intestinal brush border enzyme, functions as a gut mucosal defence factor limiting the translocation of gut bacteria to mesenteric lymph

  19. Absorption of Zinc from Small and Large Intestine of Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hampton; W. J. Miller; M. W. Neathery; R. L. Kincaid; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry

    1976-01-01

    Calves fed a high-zinc diet were used to study zinc absorption from various sections of the small intestine. Absorp- tion was determined by measuring zinc- 65 in various tissues and plotting the tissue concentrations against dosing site, expressed as percentage of intestinal length. Zinc absorption, per unit of in- testinal length, was similar throughout the small intestine and was as

  20. Entericon, Inc. Suction Endoscope for the Small Intestine

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Entericon, Inc. Suction Endoscope for the Small Intestine Entericon is an early-stage startup, and access to, the small intestine. Technology The endoscope has been providing a look inside the human body, cancer and bleeding. Until recently, the small intestine has been inaccessible to these devices

  1. Motricit de l'intestin grle : organisation, rgulation et fonctions.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Motricité de l'intestin grêle : organisation, régulation et fonctions. — Quinze ans de-7835O Jouy-en-Josas, France. Summary. Small intestine motility : its organization, regulation and functions. Fifteen years of research on migrating complexes. The motility pattern of the small intestine has

  2. Metabolism of Corticosterone in Mammalian and Avian Intestine

    E-print Network

    Miksik, Ivan

    Metabolism of Corticosterone in Mammalian and Avian Intestine M. Vylitova´,* I. Miksi´k, and J. Pa in the intestine of herbivorous (guinea pig), omnivorous (rat), and granivo- rous (hen) animals, i.e., in animals the plasma levels of individual glucocorticoids are different. Slices of various intestinal segments were

  3. Emulation on Motion Tracking of Endoscopic Capsule inside Small Intestine

    E-print Network

    Pahlavan, Kaveh

    Emulation on Motion Tracking of Endoscopic Capsule inside Small Intestine Guanqun Bao, Liang Mi) provides a noninvasive way to examine the intestinal lumen as the capsule moves along the gastrointestinal, we created a virtual cylindrical tube that looks exactly the same as a small intestine and placed

  4. Original article Permeability of milk protein antigens across the intestinal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Permeability of milk protein antigens across the intestinal epithelium in vitro D by proteolytic enzymes and intestinal epithelial permeability represent two major drawbacks to the transfer-cas. These results suggest a selective intestinal permeability for milk protein antigens. This selectivity

  5. THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF F. TOOFANIAN F. W. G. HILL D. E intestinal mucosal enzymes are respon- sible for this hydrolysis. In the young pre-ruminant and non compartments of the stomach. Thus, the intestinal disaccharidases have a much smaller role. For this reason

  6. On polyclonality of intestinal tumors Michael A. Newton

    E-print Network

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    On polyclonality of intestinal tumors Michael A. Newton University of Wisconsin Chaos and Complex Systems April 2006 Newton On polyclonality of intestinal tumors #12;Thanks Linda Clipson W.F. Dove Rich Halberg Stephen Stanhope Ruth Sullivan Andrew Thliveris Newton On polyclonality of intestinal tumors #12

  7. INTRODUCTION During the last decade, intestinal HCO3

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    459 INTRODUCTION During the last decade, intestinal HCO3 ­ secretion via apical Cl­ /HCO3 by the marine teleost intestine (Grosell et al., 2005), counteracting diffusive water loss to the dehydrating of transepithelial HCO3 ­ secretion in the marine fish intestine has received relatively little attention. In most

  8. The effects of ethanol administration on brush border membrane glycolipids in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Ravneet K; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2010-09-01

    Ethanol ingestion is well known to induce morphological and biochemical changes in intestine and is responsible for intestinal dysfunctions. Luminal surface of enterocytes is rich in glycolipids, but the effects of ethanol ingestion on membrane glycolipids are not well characterized. In the present study, rats were given 1 mL of 30% ethanol daily for 15, 25, 35, and 56 days. Ethanol feeding for 15 days did not affect glycolipid pattern in microvillus membranes, but the levels of cerebrosides (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, globotriasyloceramide) were enhanced in rats fed with ethanol for 35 or 56 days compared with controls. In contrast, the content of fucolipids and gangliosides was reduced in rats on ethanol ingestion for 35 or 56 days. The observed changes in membrane glycolipids were substantiated using biotinylated lectins Jacalin (affinity for N-acetylgalactosamine) and Aleuria aurantia (affinity for ?-l-fucose). The incorporation of [(14)C]-mannose and [(14)C]-glucosamine revealed an increase (P<.01) in glucosamination and reduction (P<.01) in mannosylation of glycolipids from ethanol-fed rats for 45 days compared with controls. These findings were further characterized by autoradiography of the glycolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms. These findings indicate that ethanol ingestion modulates the glycolipids composition of brush borders, resulting in generalized aberration of intestinal glycosylation in chronic alcoholism in rats. PMID:20708369

  9. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kirsty; DeCoffe, Daniella; Molcan, Erin; Gibson, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed. PMID:23016134

  10. Subdural hematoma during therapy of gastro-intestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with Imatinib mesylate.

    PubMed

    Feki, J; Marrekchi, G; Boudawara, T; Rekik, N; Maatouq, S; Boudawara, Z; Frikha, M

    2015-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a widely used tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. Imatinib has contributed to complete and prolong cytogenetic responses so that it is now the standard treatment of CML. Recently, Imatinib mesylate has shown a significantly prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival in metastatic and locally advanced c-Kit positive gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and more recently a prolonged disease-free survival in operated high risk GIST. Imatinib is a welltolerated treatment with few side effects mainly gastro-intestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting and diarrhea), headaches, rash and periorbital edema. Hemorrhage incidents are rare in patients treated with Imatinib. They are more frequently seen in CML patients. Hemorrhage incidents in CML include in many cases upper gastro-intestinal (GI) tract bleeding and central nervous system bleeding in rare ones. In GIST patients treated with Imatinib, hemorrhage incidents are exclusively made of upper GI tract bleeding consecutive to tumor perforation or necrosis. In our observation, we present the case of a subdural hematoma occurring in a patient treated with adjuvant Imatinib for a high risk localized gastric GIST. No other case of subdural hematoma in GIST treated with Imatinib has been reported in literature. PMID:25682460

  11. The cell biology of the intestinal epithelium and its relation to inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Deuring, J Jasper; de Haar, Colin; Kuipers, Ernst J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Woude, C Janneke

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial layer of our intestines must meet two opposing requirements. On one hand it must allow for efficient uptake of nutrients and fluids, on the other hand it is a vital defence barrier between the milieu interior and the milieu exterior. In contrast to the lung that by virtue of cilia movement is kept virtually sterile, the gut epithelium is confronted by a stupendous microbiological load and a substantial xenobiotic challenge. The efficiency by which our intestinal epithelium manages to deal with the challenge of efficient nutrient absorption while simultaneously fulfilling its barrier function is testimony to what the forces of evolution can accomplish. Importantly, our understanding as to how our gut epithelial compartment manages this balancing act is now rapidly emerging, answering one of the oldest questions in cell biology. Importantly, when aberrations in this balance occur, for instance as a consequence genetic polymorphisms, increased propensity to develop chronic inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease is the result. Thus the knowledge on intestinal cell biology and biochemistry is not only of academic interest but may also aid design of novel avenues for the rational treatment of mucosal disease. PMID:23291352

  12. Late Enteral Feedings Are Associated with Intestinal Inflammation and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Konnikova, Yelizaveta; Zaman, Munir M.; Makda, Meher; D’Onofrio, Danila; Freedman, Steven D.; Martin, Camilia R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Morbidities of impaired immunity and dysregulated inflammation are common in preterm infants. Postnatal Intestinal development plays a critical role in the maturation of the immune system and is, in part, driven by exposure to an enteral diet. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the timing of the first enteral feeding on intestinal inflammation and risk of disease. Methods 130 infants <33 weeks’ gestation were studied. Maternal and infant data were abstracted from the medical record. Single and multiplex ELISA assays quantified cytokines from fecal and serum samples at two weeks postnatal age. Results A delay in enteral feedings after the third postnatal day is associated with a 4.5 (95% CI 1.8-11.5, p=0.002) fold increase in chronic lung disease, 2.9 (1.1-7.8, p=0.03) fold increase in retinopathy of prematurity, and 3.4 (1.2-9.8, p=0.02) fold increase in multiple comorbidities compared to infants fed on or before the third day. Additionally, a delay in the initiation of feedings is associated with increased fecal IL-8 levels and a decreased IL-10:IL-8 ratio. Conclusions A delay in enteral feeding is associated with intestinal inflammation and increased risks of morbidities. To improve neonatal outcomes, early nutritional practices need to be reevaluated. PMID:26172126

  13. Mucin gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Buisine, M; Desreumaux, P; Leteurtre, E; Copin, M; Colombel, J; Porchet, N; Aubert, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. It is characterised by chronic mucosal ulcerations which affect any part of the intestine but most commonly are found in the ileum and proximal colon.?AIMS—Studies were undertaken to provide information regarding cell specific expression of mucin genes in the ileum of patients with CD.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Expression of mucin genes was analysed in the ileal mucosa of patients with CD and controls by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry.?RESULTS—In healthy ileal mucosa, patients with CD showed a pattern identical to normal controls with main expression of MUC2 and MUC3, lesser expression of MUC1 and MUC4, and no expression of MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, or MUC7. In the involved mucosa, the pattern was somewhat comparable although heterogeneous to that observed in healthy ileal mucosa. Importantly, a particular mucin gene expression pattern was observed in ileal mucosa close to the ulcer margins in ulcer associated cell lineage, with the appearance of MUC5AC and MUC6 mRNAs and peptides, which are normally restricted to the stomach (MUC5AC and MUC6) and duodenum (MUC6), and disappearance of MUC2.?CONCLUSIONS—Our results suggest that gel forming mucins (more particularly MUC5AC and MUC6) may have a role in epithelial wound healing after mucosal injury in inflammatory bowel diseases in addition to mucosal protection.???Keywords: mucins; MUC genes; Crohn's disease; ulcer associated cell lineage PMID:11559653

  14. Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence R. Schiller

    \\u000a Chronic diarrhea is defined as passage of loose stools for more than 4 weeks. In most instances the cause of chronic diarrhea\\u000a can be discovered and treated effectively. A few less common causes also play a role: laxative abuse, small bowel bacterial\\u000a overgrowth, and even bile acid malabsorption. Rarer syndromes account for a much smaller percentage of chronic diarrheas but

  15. Increase of 5HT and VIP immunoreactivity within the hamster ( Mesocricetus auratus) SCN during chronic MAOI treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C Duncan; K. A Johnson; T. A Wehr

    1997-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), clorgyline (CLG; 2 mg\\/kg per day) on serotonin (5HT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactivity (IR) within the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were examined. Optical densities of 5HT IR and VIP IR were increased by MAOI treatment. VIP IR was increased in both the ventrolateral and dorsal regions of

  16. Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV protein expression in intestine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV protein expression in intestine Séverine Deforges1* , Alexey Evlashev1* , Magali Perret1 , Mireille RNA and core protein. These findings suggest that LVP synthesis could occur in liver and intestine

  17. Optimality in the Development of Intestinal Crypts

    E-print Network

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    , Netherlands *Correspondence: avano@mit.edu DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.025 SUMMARY Intestinal crypts in mammals are comprised of long- lived stem cells and shorter-lived progenies. These two populations are maintained consists of a surge of symmetric stem cell divisions, estab- lishing the entire stem cell pool first

  18. Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects absorption of calcium (FACa) was measured using radioactive cal- cium and 200 mg of calcium carrier provided the control period prior to yogurt consumption, mean calcium in- take was 819 mg per day in L(-) and 931 mg

  19. Flow and mixing by small intestine villi.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; de Loubens, C; Love, R J; Lentle, R G; Janssen, P W M

    2015-06-10

    Flow and mixing in the small intestine are multi-scale processes. Flows at the scale of the villi (finger-like structures of ?500 ?m length) are poorly understood. We developed a three-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann model to gain insight into the effects of villous movements and the rheology of digesta on flow, mixing and absorption of nutrients at the periphery of the intestinal lumen. Our model simulated the hydrodynamic consequences of villi movements that resulted from folding of the mucosa during longitudinal contractions. We found that cyclic approximation and separation of groups of villi generated laminar eddies at the edges of the group and augmented mass transfers in the radial direction between the inter-villous space and the intestinal lumen which improved the absorption of nutrients and mixing at the periphery of the lumen. This augmentation was greater with highly diffusible nutrients and with high levels of shear-thinning (pseudoplasticity) of the fluid. We compared our results with bulk flows simulations done by previous workers and concluded that villous movements during longitudinal contractions is a major radial mixing mechanism in the small intestine and increases mixing and absorption around the mucosa despite adverse rheology. PMID:25968481

  20. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  1. Current view: intestinal stem cells and signaling.

    PubMed

    Scoville, David H; Sato, Toshiro; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng

    2008-03-01

    Studies using mice have yielded significant amounts of information regarding signaling pathways, such as Wnt, bone morphogenic protein, PtdIns(3,4,5) kinase, and Notch, involved in intestinal development and homeostasis, including stem cell regulation and lineage specification and maturation. However, attempts to model signals definitively that control intestinal stem cells have been difficult because of a long-standing and recently reenergized debate surrounding their location. Although crypt-based columnar cells have been recently shown to display self-renewal and multipotential capacity, a large body of evidence supports long-term label-retaining cells, located on average at the +4 position just above the Paneth cells, as putative stem cells. Herein, we propose that both these cell types represent true intestinal stem cells maintained in different states (quiescent vs actively cycling), presumably via interactions with different microenvironments. Finally, we review current findings regarding the roles of Wnt, bone morphogenic protein, PtdIns(3,4,5) kinase, and Notch pathways within the intestine. PMID:18325394

  2. Mucosal Macrophages in Intestinal Homeostasis and Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan McI Mowat; Calum C. Bain

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal macrophages are essential for local homeostasis and in keeping a balance between commensal microbiota and the host. However, they also play essential roles in inflammation and protective immunity, when they change from peaceful regulators to powerful aggressors. As a result, activated macrophages are important targets for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease. Until recently, the complexity

  3. [A fatal case of intestinal balantidiasis].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M C; de Lima, M A

    1991-01-01

    A fatal case of a 63-year-old pig-raising country woman with an eight-day course of nausea, vomiting, dysentery with intestinal bleeding the latter being the direct cause of death. The autopsy showed ulcerative colitis due to B. coli, which was easily observed on histological examination of the large bowel. PMID:1842845

  4. IgG "detoxes" the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Eckmann, Lars; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2015-05-13

    Secretory IgA is important in mucosal defense, but other, incompletely understood effectors exist. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Kamada et al. (2015) show that IgG antibodies are produced against surface virulence factors of an intestinal attaching/effacing pathogen, bind to bacteria localized at the epithelium, and direct their destruction by mucosal and translocated neutrophils. PMID:25974292

  5. Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption and reduction of zinc/iron interaction of caseins, improves its absorption and could prevent inhibition by other nutrients such as iron (Fe). The absorption of Zn (100 Ilmol/L) bound to the 1-25 CN ((3-CN(1-25)) of (3-casein, or as ZnS04 was studied using

  6. Wnt signalling in the mouse intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A R Clarke

    2006-01-01

    The ApcMin\\/+ mouse has emerged as a powerful model of human intestinal tumour predisposition. As such, it has provided a platform for studying genetic and epigenetic modifiers of adenoma predisposition, and for assessing the chemotherapeutic potential of a plethora of different agents. The development of new conditional and hypomorphic Apc alleles, together with models carrying mutations in other Wnt pathway

  7. Intestinal transport and metabolism of acrylamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Zödl; Diethart Schmid; Georg Wassler; Claudia Gundacker; Valentin Leibetseder; Theresia Thalhammer; Cem Ekmekcioglu

    2007-01-01

    There has been an intensive debate whether dietary exposure to acrylamide could increase the risk of human cancer since the first description of the presence of acrylamide in food in 2002. As the intestinal mechanisms of acrylamide absorption are poorly investigated we studied the transport of acrylamide in differentiated Caco-2 cells and its effects on biotransformation enzymes (CYP2E1 and glutathione

  8. Analysis of the intestinal microflora: a renaissance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald W. Tannock

    1999-01-01

    The ability of microbial ecologists to analyse the composition of complex bacterial communities has been greatly enhanced by the application of molecular methodologies. The use of these techniques should enable an accurate record of the identity and population dynamics of the inhabitants of the intestinal tract to be obtained, and should promote an improved comprehension of the relationship between the

  9. Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman

    2005-01-01

    The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

  10. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Pacheco-Yépez, Judith; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Barbosa-Cabrera, Reyna Elizabeth; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA) or polymeric IgA (pIgA) and the secretory component (SC), a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models) on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation. PMID:24348350

  11. The intestinal microbiota, a leaky gut, and abnormal immunity in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim; Andersen, Kirstin; Stecher, Bärbel

    2013-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are associated with systemic inflammation and acquired immunodeficiency, which promote cardiovascular disease, body wasting, and infections as leading causes of death. This phenomenon persists despite dialysis-related triggers of immune deregulation having been largely eliminated. Here we propose a potential immunoregulatory role of the intestinal microbiota in CKD/ESRD. We discuss how the metabolic alterations of uremia favor pathogen overgrowth (dysbiosis) in the gut and an increased translocation of living bacteria and bacterial components. This process has the potential to activate innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Persistent innate immune activation involves the induction of immunoregulatory mediators that suppress innate and adaptive immunity, similar to the concept of 'endotoxin tolerance' or 'immune paralysis' in advanced sepsis or chronic infections. Renal science has largely neglected the gut as a source of triggers for CKD/ESRD-related immune derangements and complications and lags behind on the evolving microbiota research. Interdisciplinary research activities at all levels are needed to unravel the pathogenic role of the intestinal microbiota in kidney disease and to evaluate if therapeutic interventions that manipulate the microbiota, such as pre- or probiotics, have a therapeutic potential to correct CKD/ESRD-related immune deregulation and to prevent the associated complications. PMID:23325079

  12. Hydrolysate from eggshell membrane ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaning; Rupa, Prithy; Jiang, Bo; Mine, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprises of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Cohn's disease (CD) as two main idiopathic pathologies resulting in immunologically mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. Several bioactive peptides and hydro lysates from natural sources have now been tested in animal models of human diseases for potential anti-inflammatory effects. Eggshell membrane (ESM) is a well-known natural bioactive material. In this study, we aim to study the anti-inflammatory activity of ESM hydro lysate (AL-PS) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AL-PS was shown to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 secretion. In vivo treatment with AL-PS was shown to reduce dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced weight loss, clinical signs of colitis and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment with AL-PS also attenuated the severity of intestinal inflammation via down-regulation of IL-10 an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This validates potential benefits of AL-PS as a novel preventative target molecule for treatment of IBD. PMID:25501329

  13. Hydrolysate from Eggshell Membrane Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yaning; Rupa, Prithy; Jiang, Bo; Mine, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprises of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Cohn’s disease (CD) as two main idiopathic pathologies resulting in immunologically mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. Several bioactive peptides and hydro lysates from natural sources have now been tested in animal models of human diseases for potential anti-inflammatory effects. Eggshell membrane (ESM) is a well-known natural bioactive material. In this study, we aim to study the anti-inflammatory activity of ESM hydro lysate (AL-PS) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AL-PS was shown to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 secretion. In vivo treatment with AL-PS was shown to reduce dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced weight loss, clinical signs of colitis and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment with AL-PS also attenuated the severity of intestinal inflammation via down-regulation of IL-10 an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This validates potential benefits of AL-PS as a novel preventative target molecule for treatment of IBD. PMID:25501329

  14. [Intestinal absorption of digoxin in systemic sclerosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brachtel, R; Gilfrich, H J

    1977-05-01

    Gastro-intestinal absorption of digoxin was evaluated in 18 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. In 8 patients a single-dose crossover study was performed after oral and intravenous administration of 0.5 mg digoxin by comparing the aera under the eight-hour plasma concentration curve. The fraction of the dose absorbed was diminished in 4 patients to less than 55%. There was a significant positive correlation between the extent of digoxin absorption and xylose renal excretion. In addition, steady state digoxin plasma levels and 24-h urinary excretion of digoxin were determined during maintenance therapy in 12 patients. In 6 patients renal excretion of digoxin was clearly less than in normal subjects during chronic dosing of the same digoxin preparation. This finding corresponded well with digoxin plasma levels below the usual therapeutic range in most of the patients. The impaired absorption of digoxin failed to correlate with the extent of the skin manifestation or the time course of the disease while there was massive oesophageal dysfunction in most of these patients. The results suggest that an inadequate therapeutic response to cardiac glycosides in patients suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis is at least partially due to impaired digoxin absorption. Similar problems could occur in therapy of the disease itself due to insufficient enteral absorption of drugs used in treatment of systemic sclerosis. PMID:875317

  15. Activated STAT5 confers resistance to intestinal injury by increasing intestinal stem cell proliferation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Shila; Nivarthi, Harini; Mayhew, Christopher N; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Noah, Taeko K; Vallance, Jefferson; Rülicke, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Jegga, Anil G; Tang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Dongsheng; Helmrath, Michael; Shroyer, Noah; Moriggl, Richard; Han, Xiaonan

    2015-02-10

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) control the intestinal homeostatic response to inflammation and regeneration. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytokine-STAT5 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and responses to injury. We link STAT5 signaling to IESC replenishment upon injury by depletion or activation of Stat5 transcription factor. We found that depletion of Stat5 led to deregulation of IESC marker expression and decreased LGR5(+) IESC proliferation. STAT5-deficient mice exhibited worse intestinal histology and impaired crypt regeneration after ?-irradiation. We generated a transgenic mouse model with inducible expression of constitutively active Stat5. In contrast to Stat5 depletion, activation of STAT5 increased IESC proliferation, accelerated crypt regeneration, and conferred resistance to intestinal injury. Furthermore, ectopic activation of STAT5 in mouse or human stem cells promoted LGR5(+) IESC self-renewal. Accordingly, STAT5 promotes IESC proliferation and regeneration to mitigate intestinal inflammation. STAT5 is a functional therapeutic target to improve the IESC regenerative response to gut injury. PMID:25579133

  16. Activated STAT5 Confers Resistance to Intestinal Injury by Increasing Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Shila; Nivarthi, Harini; Mayhew, Christopher N.; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Noah, Taeko K.; Vallance, Jefferson; Rülicke, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Jegga, Anil G.; Tang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Dongsheng; Helmrath, Michael; Shroyer, Noah; Moriggl, Richard; Han, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) control the intestinal homeostatic response to inflammation and regeneration. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytokine-STAT5 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and responses to injury. We link STAT5 signaling to IESC replenishment upon injury by depletion or activation of Stat5 transcription factor. We found that depletion of Stat5 led to deregulation of IESC marker expression and decreased LGR5+ IESC proliferation. STAT5-deficient mice exhibited worse intestinal histology and impaired crypt regeneration after ?-irradiation. We generated a transgenic mouse model with inducible expression of constitutively active Stat5. In contrast to Stat5 depletion, activation of STAT5 increased IESC proliferation, accelerated crypt regeneration, and conferred resistance to intestinal injury. Furthermore, ectopic activation of STAT5 in mouse or human stem cells promoted LGR5+ IESC self-renewal. Accordingly, STAT5 promotes IESC proliferation and regeneration to mitigate intestinal inflammation. STAT5 is a functional therapeutic target to improve the IESC regenerative response to gut injury. PMID:25579133

  17. Intestinal epithelial-specific PTEN inactivation results in tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Do-Sun; Ahmed, Naseem; Nasser, Shannon; Shin, Joongho; Al-Obaidi, Sheren; Goel, Sanjay; Corner, Georgia A.; Wilson, Andrew J.; Flanagan, Dustin J.; Williams, David S.; Augenlicht, Leonard H.; Vincan, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling that is frequently inactivated in colorectal cancer through mutation, loss of heterozygosity, or epigenetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intestinal-specific PTEN inactivation on intestinal epithelial homeostasis and tumorigenesis. PTEN was deleted specifically in the intestinal epithelium, by crossing PTENLox/Lox mice with villinCre mice. PTEN was robustly expressed in the intestinal epithelium and maximally in the differentiated cell compartment. Targeted inactivation of PTEN in the intestinal epithelium of PTENLox/Lox/villinCre mice was confirmed by genotyping, immunohistochemistry, and qPCR. While intestinal-specific PTEN deletion did not have a major effect on cell fate determination or proliferation in the small intestine, it did increase phosphorylated (p) protein kinase B (AKT) expression in the intestinal epithelium, and 19% of animals developed small intestinal adenomas and adenocarcinomas at 12 mo of age. These tumors demonstrated pAKT and nuclear ?-catenin staining, indicating simultaneous activation of the PI3K/AKT and Wnt signaling pathways. These findings demonstrate that, while PTEN inactivation alone has a minimal effect on intestinal homeostasis, it can facilitate tumor promotion upon deregulation of ?-catenin/TCF signaling, further establishing PTEN as a bona fide tumor suppressor gene in intestinal cancer. PMID:21836055

  18. Intestinal Cgi-58 Deficiency Reduces Postprandial Lipid Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24618586

  19. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24618586

  20. An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, SM; Lee, EJ; Kotter, CV; Austin, GL; Dong, Z; Hecht, DK; Gianella, S; Siewe, B; Smith, DM; Landay, AL; Robertson, CE; Frank, DN; Wilson, CC

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T cell activation, inflammation and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1 infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared to uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1 infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation and blood T cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:24399150

  1. Decreased melatonin secretion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and marker of endotoxemia in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Forsyth, Christopher; Fogg, Louis; Burgess, Helen J; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-15

    Chronic heavy alcohol use is known to cause gut leakiness and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 30% of heavy drinkers develop increased intestinal permeability and ALD. The hypothesis of this study was that disruption of circadian rhythms is a potential risk factor in actively drinking alcoholics for gut leakiness and endotoxemia. We studied 20 subjects with alcohol use disorder (AD) and 17 healthy controls (HC, 6 day workers, 11 night workers). Subjects wore a wrist actiwatch for 7 days and underwent a 24-h dim light phase assessment and urine collection for intestinal permeability. The AD group had significantly less total sleep time and increased fragmentation of sleep (P < 0.05). AD also had significantly lower plasma melatonin levels compared with the HC [mean area under the curve (AUC) 322.78 ± 228.21 vs. 568.75 ± 304.26 pg/ml, P = 0.03]. In the AD group, AUC of melatonin was inversely correlated with small bowel and colonic intestinal permeability (lactulose-to-mannitol ratio, r = -0.39, P = 0.03; urinary sucralose, r = -0.47, P = 0.01). Cosinor analysis of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (marker of endotoxemia) and lipopolysaccharide every 4 h for 24 h in HC and AD subjects had a midline estimating statistic of rhythm of 5,026.15 ± 409.56 vs. 6,818.02 ± 628.78 ng/ml (P < 0.01) and 0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.19 EU/ml (P < 0.05), respectively. We found plasma melatonin was significantly lower in the AD group, and lower melatonin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability and a marker of endotoxemia. Our study suggests the suppression of melatonin in AD may promote gut leakiness and endotoxemia. PMID:25907689

  2. FELINE TRITRICHOMONAS FOETUS ADHERE TO INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM BY RECEPTOR-LIGAND-DEPENDENT MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Tolbert, M.K.; Stauffer, S.H.; Gookin, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus (TF) is a protozoan that infects the feline ileum and colon resulting in chronic diarrhea. Up to 30% of young purebred cats are infected with TF and the infection is recognized as pandemic. Only a single drug, characterized by a narrow margin of safety and emerging development of resistance, is effective for treatment. While the venereal pathogenicity of bovine TF is attributed to adherence to uterovaginal epithelium, the pathogenesis of diarrhea in feline TF infection is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro model of feline TF adhesion to intestinal epithelium. Confluent monolayers of porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were infected with axenic cultures of feline TF that were labeled with [3H] thymidine or CFSE and harvested at log-phase. The effect of multiplicity and duration of infection, viability of TF, binding competition, formalin fixation and cytoskeletal inhibitors on adherence of feline TF to IPEC-J2 monolayers was quantified by liquid scintillation counting and immunofluorescence. [3H] thymidine and CFSE-labeled TF reproducibly adhered to IPEC-J2 monolayers. Clinical isolates of feline TF adhered to the intestinal epithelium in significantly greater numbers than Pentatrichomonas hominis, the latter of which is a presumably nonpathogenic trichomonad. Adhesion of TF required viable trophozoites but was independent of cytoskeletal activity. Based on saturation and competition binding experiments, adherence of feline TF to the epithelium occurred via specific receptor-ligand interactions. The developed model provides a valuable resource for assessing pathogenic mechanisms of feline TF and developing novel pharmacologic therapies for blocking the adhesion of feline TF to the intestinal epithelium. PMID:23182300

  3. Feline Tritrichomonas foetus adhere to intestinal epithelium by receptor-ligand-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, M K; Stauffer, S H; Gookin, J L

    2013-02-18

    Tritrichomonas foetus (TF) is a protozoan that infects the feline ileum and colon resulting in chronic diarrhea. Up to 30% of young purebred cats are infected with TF and the infection is recognized as pandemic. Only a single drug, characterized by a narrow margin of safety and emerging development of resistance, is effective for treatment. While the venereal pathogenicity of bovine TF is attributed to adherence to uterovaginal epithelium, the pathogenesis of diarrhea in feline TF infection is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro model of feline TF adhesion to intestinal epithelium. Confluent monolayers of porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were infected with axenic cultures of feline TF that were labeled with [(3)H] thymidine or CFSE and harvested at log-phase. The effect of multiplicity and duration of infection, viability of TF, binding competition, formalin fixation and cytoskeletal inhibitors on adherence of feline TF to IPEC-J2 monolayers was quantified by liquid scintillation counting and immunofluorescence. [(3)H] thymidine and CFSE-labeled TF reproducibly adhered to IPEC-J2 monolayers. Clinical isolates of feline TF adhered to the intestinal epithelium in significantly greater numbers than Pentatrichomonas hominis, the latter of which is a presumably nonpathogenic trichomonad. Adhesion of TF required viable trophozoites but was independent of cytoskeletal activity. Based on saturation and competition binding experiments, adherence of feline TF to the epithelium occurred via specific receptor-ligand interactions. The developed model provides a valuable resource for assessing pathogenic mechanisms of feline TF and developing novel pharmacologic therapies for blocking the adhesion of feline TF to the intestinal epithelium. PMID:23182300

  4. Damaged Intestinal Epithelial Integrity Linked to Microbial Translocation in Pathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Jacob D.; Harris, Levelle D.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Tabb, Brian; Pittaluga, Stefania; Paiardini, Mirko; Barclay, G. Robin; Smedley, Jeremy; Pung, Rhonda; Oliveira, Kenneth M.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Silvestri, Guido; Douek, Daniel C.; Miller, Christopher J.; Haase, Ashley T.; Lifson, Jeffrey; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    The chronic phase of HIV infection is marked by pathological activation of the immune system, the extent of which better predicts disease progression than either plasma viral load or CD4+ T cell count. Recently, translocation of microbial products from the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed as an underlying cause of this immune activation, based on indirect evidence including the detection of microbial products and specific immune responses in the plasma of chronically HIV-infected humans or SIV-infected Asian macaques. We analyzed tissues from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs) to provide direct in situ evidence for translocation of microbial constituents from the lumen of the intestine into the lamina propria and to draining and peripheral lymph nodes and liver, accompanied by local immune responses in affected tissues. In chronically SIV-infected RMs this translocation is associated with breakdown of the integrity of the epithelial barrier of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and apparent inability of lamina propria macrophages to effectively phagocytose translocated microbial constituents. By contrast, in the chronic phase of SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, we found no evidence of epithelial barrier breakdown, no increased microbial translocation and no pathological immune activation. Because immune activation is characteristic of the chronic phase of progressive HIV/SIV infections, these findings suggest that increased microbial translocation from the GI tract, in excess of capacity to clear the translocated microbial constituents, helps drive pathological immune activation. Novel therapeutic approaches to inhibit microbial translocation and/or attenuate chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals may complement treatments aimed at direct suppression of viral replication. PMID:20808901

  5. Current management strategies and therapeutic targets in chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Constipated patients who are refractory to simple lifestyle interventions will usually resort to laxatives, whether prescribed or over the counter. Clinical trial evidence is scarce for older medications such as laxatives, especially with a condition as chronic and subjective as constipation. Newer polyethylene glycol-based laxatives have been investigated under rigorous clinical trial settings, but comparisons between different laxatives are not available. Newer prokinetic agents, targeting peristalsis, intestinal secretion and the colonic flora, have been developed for laxative refractory constipation. This review focuses on the evidence for each of these agents, and the relative indications for each of them. PMID:21317993

  6. [Cyclospora cayetanensis in patients with AIDS and chronic diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge Néstor; Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta; Kuo, Lien; Chertcoff, Agustín; Mariano, Marta; Bozzini, Juan Pablo; Etchart, Cristina; Argento, Rosana; di Risio, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Cyclospora spp. is a protozoan parasite responsible for significant gastrointestinal disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. We report the clinical features of two patients with chronic diarrhea and intestinal cyclosporosis caused by Cyclospora cayetanensis. The average value for CD4 count in these patients was lower than or equal to 100 cells/mm3. The oocysts were detected in smears from stool samples stained with modified acid-fast or safranin technique. Light microscopy revealed parasites in the enterocytes and these parasites were associated with villous atrophy. Cyclospora cayetanensis infection might be an important cause of diarrhea in patients with AIDS in Argentina. PMID:15742928

  7. Animal models of intestinal fibrosis: new tools for the understanding of pathogenesis and therapy of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Kessler, Sean; Sans, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis is a serious condition complicating chronic inflammatory processes affecting the intestinal tract. Advances in this field that rely on human studies have been slow and seriously restricted by practical and logistic reasons. As a consequence, well-characterized animal models of intestinal fibrosis have emerged as logical and essential systems to better define and understand the pathophysiology of fibrosis. In point of fact, animal models allow the execution of mechanistic studies as well as the implementation of clinical trials with novel, pathophysiology-based therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the currently available animal models of intestinal fibrosis, taking into consideration the methods of induction, key characteristics of each model, and underlying mechanisms. Currently available models will be classified into seven categories: spontaneous, gene-targeted, chemical-, immune-, bacteria-, and radiation-induced as well as postoperative fibrosis. Each model will be discussed in regard to its potential to create research opportunities to gain insights into the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis and stricture formation and assist in the development of effective and specific antifibrotic therapies. PMID:22878121

  8. Chronic Disease Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Disease Control

    The Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI) is a cross-cutting set of 97 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large metropolitan areas to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data that are important to public health practice and available for states, territories and large metropolitan areas. 

  9. Chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alexandria V; Mengden, Stephanie; Soter, Nicholas A; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with a six-year history of a pruritic, erythematous, blistering eruption of the face, chest, and arms. Clinical findings, histopathologic features, and phototests were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic actinic dermatitis. The patient also had contact allergy and photocontact allergy to multiple allergens. A discussion of chronic actinic dermatitis is presented. PMID:18627761

  10. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    PubMed

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies. PMID:25439069

  11. Relative roles of ABCG5/ABCG8 in liver and intestine[S

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mitsche, Matthew A.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Xie, Xiao-Song; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2015-01-01

    ABCG5 (G5) and ABCG8 (G8) form a sterol transporter that acts in liver and intestine to prevent accumulation of dietary sterols. Mutations in either G5 or G8 cause sitosterolemia, a recessive disorder characterized by sterol accumulation and premature coronary atherosclerosis. Hepatic G5G8 mediates cholesterol excretion into bile, but the function and relative importance of intestinal G5G8 has not been defined. To determine the role of intestinal G5G8, we developed liver-specific (L-G5G8?/?), intestine-specific (I-G5G8?/?), and total (G5G8?/?) KO mice. Tissue levels of sitosterol, the most abundant plant sterol, were >90-fold higher in G5G8?/? mice than in WT animals. Expression of G5G8 only in intestine or only in liver decreased tissue sterol levels by 90% when compared with G5G8?/? animals. Biliary sterol secretion was reduced in L-G5G8?/? and G5G8?/? mice, but not in I-G5G8?/? mice. Conversely, absorption of plant sterols was increased in I-G5G8?/? and G5G8?/? mice, but not in L-G5G8?/? mice. Reverse cholesterol transport, as assessed from the fraction of intravenously administered 3H-cholesterol that appeared in feces, was reduced in G5G8?/?, I-G5G8?/?, and L-G5G8?/? mice. Thus, G5G8 expression in both the liver and intestine protects animals from sterol accumulation, and intestinal G5G8 contributes to extrahepatic cholesterol efflux in mice. PMID:25378657

  12. Effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in plasma and small intestine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shu-Guang; Wu, Wan-Chun; Han, Zhen; Wang, Meng-Ya

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma and small intestine, and to explore the relationship between small intestinal motor disorders and gastrointestinal hormones under psychological stress. METHODS: Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into psychological stress group and control group. A mouse model with psychological stress was established by housing the mice with a hungry cat in separate layers of a two-layer cage. A semi-solid colored marker (carbon-ink) was used for monitoring small intestinal transit. CCK and VIP levels in plasma and small intestine in mice were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: Small intestinal transit was inhibited (52.18±19.15% vs 70.19±17.79%, P<0.01) in mice after psychological stress, compared to the controls. Small intestinal CCK levels in psychological stress mice were significantly lower than those in the control group (0.75±0.53 ?g/g vs 1.98±1.17 ?g/g, P<0.01), whereas plasma CCK concentrations were not different between the groups. VIP levels in small intestine were significantly higher in psychological stress mice than those in the control group (8.45±1.09 ?g/g vs 7.03±2.36 ?g/g, P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in plasma VIP levels between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Psychological stress inhibits the small intestinal transit, probably by down-regulating CCK and up-regulating VIP expression in small intestine. PMID:15655834

  13. Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Onal, Ozkan; Yetisir, Fahri; Sarer, A. Ebru Salman; Zeybek, N. Dilara; Onal, C. Oztug; Yurekli, Banu; Celik, H. Tugrul; Sirma, Ayse; K?l?c, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. Various beneficial effects of ozone have been shown. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of ozone in ischemia reperfusion model in intestine. Material and Method. Twenty eight Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with seven rats in each group. Control group was administered serum physiologic (SF) intraperitoneally (ip) for five days. Ozone group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days. Ischemia Reperfusion (IR) group underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for one hour and then reperfusion for two hours. Ozone + IR group was administered 1?mg/kg ozone ip for five days and at sixth day IR model was applied. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine?xyzlazine and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Intestinal tissue samples were examined under light microscope. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px), malondyaldehide (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PCO) were analyzed in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were analyzed in blood samples. Data were evaluated statistically by Kruskal Wallis test. Results. In the ozone administered group, degree of intestinal injury was not different from the control group. IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT values were high in ozone group and low in IR. TOS parameter was highest in the IR group and the TAC parameter was highest in the ozone group and lowest in the IR group. Conclusion. In the present study, IR model caused an increase in intestinal injury.In the present study, ozone administration had an effect improving IR associated tissue injury. In the present study, ozone therapy prevented intestine from ischemia reperfusion injury. It is thought that the therapeutic effect of ozone is associated with increase in antioxidant enzymes and protection of cells from oxidation and inflammation.

  14. Small intestinal bacteria overgrowth decreases small intestinal motility in the NASH rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wan-Chun; Zhao, Wei; Li, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between small intestinal motility and small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) in Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and to investigate the effect of SIBO on the pathogenesis of NASH in rats. The effect of cidomycin in alleviating severity of NASH is also studied. METHODS: Forty eight rats were randomly divided into NASH group (n = 16), cidomycin group (n = 16) and control group (n = 16). Then each group were subdivided into small intestinal motility group (n = 8), bacteria group (n = 8) respectively. A semi-solid colored marker was used for monitoring small intestinal transit. The proximal small intestine was harvested under sterile condition and processed for quantitation for aerobes (E. coli) and anaerobes (Lactobacilli). Liver pathologic score was calculated to qualify the severity of hepatitis. Serum ALT, AST levels were detected to evaluate the severity of hepatitis. RESULTS: Small intestinal transit was inhibited in NASH group (P < 0.01). Rats treated with cidomycin had higher small intestine transit rate than rats in NASH group (P < 0.01). High fat diet resulted in quantitative alterations in the aerobes (E. coli) but not in the anoerobics (Lactobacill). There was an increase in the number of E. coli in the proximal small intestinal flora in NASH group than in control group (1.70 ± 0.12 log10 (CFU/g) vs 1.28 ± 0.07 log10 (CFU/g), P < 0.01). TNF-? concentration was significantly higher in NASH group than in control group (1.13 ± 0.15 mmol/L vs 0.57 ± 0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01). TNF-?concentration was lower in cidomycin group than in NASH group (0.63 ± 0.09 mmol/L vs 1.13 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Treatment with cidomycin showed its effect by significantly lowering serum ALT, AST and TNF-? levels of NASH rats. CONCLUSION: SIBO may decrease small intestinal movement in NASH rats. SIBO may be an important pathogenesis of Nash. And treatment with cidomycin by mouth can alleviate the severity of NASH. PMID:18186574

  15. Evolutionary aspects of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in fish.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Experiments compared intestinal HCO3- secretion in the intestine of marine teleost Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, to representatives of early chondrostean and chondrichthyan fishes, the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, and white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, respectively. As seen in marine teleosts, luminal HCO3- concentrations were 10-fold plasma levels in all species when exposed to hyperosmotic conditions. While intestinal water absorption left Mg2+ and SO4(2-) concentrated in intestinal fluids up to four-fold ambient seawater concentrations, HCO3- was concentrated up to 50 times ambient levels as a result of intestinal HCO3- secretion. Reduced luminal Cl- concentrations in the intestine of all species suggest that HCO3- secretion also occurs via Cl-/HCO3- exchange in chondrostean and chondrichthyan fishes. Sturgeon began precipitating carbonates from the gut after only 3 days at 14 per thousand, a mechanism utilized by marine teleosts to reduce intestinal fluid osmolality and maintain calcium homeostasis. Analysis of published intestinal fluid composition in the cyclostome Lampetra fluviatilis reveals that this species likely also utilize intestinal HCO3- secretion for osmoregulation. Analysis of existing cyclostome data and our results indicate that intestinal Cl-/HCO3- exchange plays an integral role in maintaining hydromineral balance not only in teleosts, but in all fish (and perhaps other animals) with a need to drink seawater. PMID:16503178

  16. Intestinal permeability defects: is it time to treat?

    PubMed

    Odenwald, Matthew A; Turner, Jerrold R

    2013-09-01

    An essential role of the intestinal epithelium is to separate luminal contents from the interstitium, a function primarily determined by the integrity of the epithelium and the tight junction that seals the paracellular space. Intestinal tight junctions are selectively permeable, and intestinal permeability can be increased physiologically in response to luminal nutrients or pathologically by mucosal immune cells and cytokines, the enteric nervous system, and pathogens. Compromised intestinal barrier function is associated with an array of clinical conditions, both intestinal and systemic. Although most available data are correlative, some studies support a model where cycles of increased intestinal permeability, intestinal immune activation, and subsequent immune-mediated barrier loss contribute to disease progression. This model is applicable to intestinal and systemic diseases. However, it has not been proven, and both mechanistic and therapeutic studies are ongoing. Nevertheless, the correlation between increased intestinal permeability and disease has caught the attention of the public, leading to a rise in popularity of the diagnosis of "leaky gut syndrome," which encompasses a range of systemic disorders. Proponents claim that barrier restoration will cure underlying disease, but this has not been demonstrated in clinical trials. Moreover, human and mouse studies show that intestinal barrier loss alone is insufficient to initiate disease. It is therefore uncertain whether increased permeability in these patients is a cause or effect of the underlying disorder. Although drug targets that may mediate barrier restoration have been proposed, none have been proven effective. As such, current treatments for barrier dysfunction should target the underlying disease. PMID:23851019

  17. The intestinal microbiota and allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Finlay, Brett

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental changes are involved in the sharp increase in asthma incidence, as well as with other immune-mediated diseases. This increase matches the introduction of modern life advances such as antibiotics and caesarean sections. Several epidemiological studies provide convincing evidence that a lack of exposure to microbes early in life is associated with later development of allergic asthma. In addition, animal studies have shown that early life modulation of the intestinal microbiota with antibiotics has profound effects in the immune cellular mechanisms that lead to asthma. By describing some of the most relevant human and animal studies in this field, we explore the concept that significant perturbations of the intestinal and perhaps the lung microbiota are a cause of allergic asthma. PMID:25264162

  18. T-cell selection and intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Teresa L.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Hsieh, Chyi-Song

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although intestinal bacteria live deep within the body, they are topographically on the exterior surface and thus outside the host. According to the classic notion that the immune system targets non-self rather than self, these intestinal bacteria should be considered foreign and therefore attacked and eliminated. While this appears to be true for some commensal bacterial species, recent data suggests that the immune system actively becomes tolerant to many bacterial organisms. The induction or activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells that inhibit, rather than promote, inflammatory responses to commensal bacteria appears to be a central component of mucosal tolerance. Loss of this mechanism can lead to inappropriate immune reactivity toward commensal organisms, perhaps contributing to mucosal inflammation characteristic of disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24712459

  19. Understanding epithelial homeostasis in the intestine

    PubMed Central

    De Mey, Jan R.; Freund, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes the barrier between the gut lumen and the rest of the body and a very actively renewing cell population. The crypt/villus and crypt/cuff units of the mouse small intestine and colon are its basic functional units. The field is confronted with competing concepts with regard to the nature of the cells that are responsible for all the day-to day cell replacement and those that act to regenerate the tissue upon injury and with two diametrically opposed models for lineage specification. The review revisits groundbreaking pioneering studies to provide non expert readers and crypt watchers with a factual analysis of the origins of the current models deduced from the latest spectacular advances. It also discusses recent progress made by addressing these issues in the crypts of the colon, which need to be better understood, since they are the preferred sites of major pathologies. PMID:24665395

  20. Optimality in the Development of Intestinal Crypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal crypts in mammals are comprised of long-lived stem cells and shorter-lived progenies, maintained under tight proportions during adult life. Here we ask what are the design principles that govern the dynamics of these proportions during crypt morphogenesis. We use optimal control theory to show that a stem cell proliferation strategy known as a `bang-bang' control minimizes the time to obtain a mature crypt. This strategy consists of a surge of symmetric stem cell divisions, establishing the entire stem cell pool first, followed by a sharp transition to strictly asymmetric stem cell divisions, producing non-stem cells with a delay. We validate these predictions using lineage tracing and single molecule fluorescent in-situ hybridization of intestinal crypts in newborn mice and find that small crypts are entirely composed of Lgr5 stem cells, which become a minority as crypts further grow. Our approach can be used to uncover similar design principles in other developmental systems.

  1. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A; Karpen, Saul J

    2015-06-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  2. The pathophysiology of intestinal lipoprotein production

    PubMed Central

    Giammanco, Antonina; Cefalù, Angelo B.; Noto, Davide; Averna, Maurizio R.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal lipoprotein production is a multistep process, essential for the absorption of dietary fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Chylomicron assembly begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the formation of primordial, phospholipids-rich particles that are then transported to the Golgi for secretion. Several classes of transporters play a role in the selective uptake and/or export of lipids through the villus enterocytes. Once secreted in the lymph stream, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are metabolized by Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and chylomicrons, thereby delivering free fatty acids to various tissues. Genetic mutations in the genes codifying for these proteins are responsible of different inherited disorders affecting chylomicron metabolism. This review focuses on the molecular pathways that modulate the uptake and the transport of lipoproteins of intestinal origin and it will highlight recent findings on TRLs assembly. PMID:25852563

  3. Intestinal obstruction secondary to left paraduodenal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Gusz, John R.; Wright, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    An internal hernia—congenital or acquired—is a protrusion of bowel through an opening in the peritoneum or mesentery. Internal hernias are the etiology of <2% of intestinal obstructions, with paraduodenal hernias being the most common type of congenital internal hernia. We report a case of a left paraduodenal hernia (LPDH) combined with partial small bowel obstruction in a 69-year-old male with recurrent abdominal pain of 2 years duration and no previous abdominal surgeries. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed an agglomeration of small bowel loops in the left upper quadrant but failed to yield a clear diagnosis. Surgical intervention provided definitive diagnosis and treatment of the LPDH. We additionally review the literature regarding anatomy, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this uncommon hernia. Intestinal obstruction secondary to an internal hernia is a rare entity; however, delayed diagnosis and surgical intervention may result in significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:26188474

  4. [Physiopathology of intestinal anastomoses and dehiscences].

    PubMed

    De Santis, L; Ciardo, L; Martella, B; Militello, C; Nistri, R; Spirch, S; Terranova, O

    1997-01-01

    A lot of mechanisms of healing of intestinal anastomoses has been explained. A leading role in the intestinal wall is made by the submucosal tunica, where collagen synthesis and degradation process take place, but local and systemic factors are present by a definite causal action. Technique of suture, materials and surgeon's experience are of fundamental importance for the success of operation, even if in some cases it is important to take in consideration the clinical situation: emergency or not, the patient's state and age, concomitant diseases, pharmacological or radiotherapeutic treatments. Nowadays surgical research tends towards biochemical and molecular field to identify the factors, that speed up the healing process to use them in suturing materials getting a quick healing as soon as possible. PMID:10392176

  5. The Intestinal Microbiota in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Young, Vincent B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The indigenous gut microbiota has been shown to be a key player in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis. This review discusses some of the recent work that reveals how the gut microbiome helps establish and protect intestinal health and how disturbances in this microbial community can lead to disease states. Recent findings The use of culture-independent methods has greatly improved our ability to determine the structure and function of the gut microbiome. The gut microbiota has critical interactions with the host immune system and metabolism with bilateral influences shaping both the host and the microbiome. Alterations in the gut microbiome are associated with a variety of disease states but we are only now beginning to understand the mechanisms by which this occurs. Summary Understanding how the gut microbiome contributes to intestinal health should lead to novel preventative strategies and therapies for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:22080827

  6. Gut microbiota and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Denise; Fouque, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a multifactorial phenotype that in chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Recently, alterations in gut microbiota composition and intestinal barrier have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in CKD patients. Vanholder and Glorieux recently critically reviewed [Clin Kidney J (2015) 8 (2): 168-179] the current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in the production of uraemic toxins and the therapeutic implications. Where do we stand now? The basic mechanisms of the gut-kidney crosstalk must still be clarified. In addition, the efficacy and safety of therapeutic strategies to modulate the gut microbiota in order to decrease uraemic toxin production and inflammation in chronic kidney disease should be evaluated. Finally, an impact of such strategies on hard outcomes should be demonstrated before incorporation into routine clinical practice.

  7. Gut microbiota and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Denise; Fouque, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Inflammation is a multifactorial phenotype that in chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Recently, alterations in gut microbiota composition and intestinal barrier have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in CKD patients. Vanholder and Glorieux recently critically reviewed [Clin Kidney J (2015) 8 (2): 168-179] the current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in the production of uraemic toxins and the therapeutic implications. Where do we stand now? The basic mechanisms of the gut-kidney crosstalk must still be clarified. In addition, the efficacy and safety of therapeutic strategies to modulate the gut microbiota in order to decrease uraemic toxin production and inflammation in chronic kidney disease should be evaluated. Finally, an impact of such strategies on hard outcomes should be demonstrated before incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26034597

  8. Liver Disease Secondary to Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Wasel, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    IFALD is a common and potentially life-threatening condition for patients with SBS requiring long-term PN. There exists the potential for decreasing its incidence by optimizing the composition and the rate of infusion of parenteral solutions, by advocating a multidisciplinary approach, and by early referral for intestinal-liver transplantation to ensure long-term survival of patients with SBS. PMID:24551858

  9. Role of NKT cells in Intestinal Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Zeissig; Arthur Kaser; Stephanie K. Dougan; Edward E. S. Nieuwenhuis; Richard S. Blumberg

    2007-01-01

    Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a small subset of unconventional T cells which recognize lipid antigens presented by the non-classical MHC class I molecule CD1d. NKT cells are involved in the host response to a variety of microbial pathogens and likely commensals. In the intestine, invariant and non-invariant NKT cells can be found among intraepithelial lymphocytes and in the

  10. Modulation of intestinal barrier properties by miltefosine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Menez; Marion Buyse; Hélène Chacun; Robert Farinotti; Gillian Barratt

    2006-01-01

    Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine, HePC) is the first effective oral agent for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to determine whether this oral administration alters the integrity and transport capacities of the intestinal barrier. The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the cytotoxicity of HePC, (ii) to investigate the effects of HePC on paracellular and transcellular transport and

  11. Capsule enteroscopy of the small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Waterman; Rami Eliakim

    2009-01-01

    The advent of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in 2000 has dramatically changed the diagnosis and management of many diseases\\u000a of the small intestine. In this review we discuss the procedure, the various indications and contraindications, adverse effects,\\u000a and future prospects of VCE. VCE has a significant role in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal hemorrhage and Crohn’s\\u000a disease and has the

  12. Hypocalcaemic seizures: sign of intestinal disease?

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, S; Velde, S Vande; Robberecht, E; Van Winckel, M

    2007-01-01

    We describe a baby admitted with convulsions, fever, low protein level and coagulation abnormalities where congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia was confirmed by endoscopy and histology. Treatment with a low fat diet, supplemented with medium chain triglycerides (MCT), resulted in a disappearance of the symptoms and normal growth. When confronted with seizure-like attacks, electrolyte disturbances and hypo-albuminemia one should consider the possibility of protein losing enteropathy. PMID:17715644

  13. Ontogeny of Intestinal Epithelial Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hornef, Mathias W.; Fulde, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that processes during postnatal development might significantly influence the establishment of mucosal host-microbial homeostasis. Developmental and adaptive immunological processes but also environmental and microbial exposure early after birth might thus affect disease susceptibility and health during adult life. The present review aims at summarizing the current understanding of the intestinal epithelial innate immune system and its developmental and adaptive changes after birth. PMID:25346729

  14. Foodborne Intestinal Flukes in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with detection of further human cases, are required. PMID:19885337

  15. Intestinal redox biology and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Circu, Magdalena L.; Aw, Tak Yee

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium sits at the interface between an organism and its luminal environment, and as such is prone to oxidative damage induced by luminal oxidants. Mucosal integrity is maintained by the luminal redox status of the glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) couples which also support luminal nutrient absorption, mucus fluidity, and a diverse microbiota. The epithelial layer is uniquely organized for rapid self-renewal that is achieved by the well-regulated processes of crypt stem cell proliferation and crypt-to-villus cell differentiation. The GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS redox couples, known to modulate intestinal cell transition through proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis, could govern the regenerative potential of the mucosa. These two couples, together with that of the thioredoxin/thioredoxin disulfide (Trx/TrxSS) couple are the major intracellular redox systems, and it is proposed that they each function as distinctive redox control nodes or circuitry in the control of metabolic processes and networks of enzymatic reactions. Specificity of redox signaling is accomplished in part by subcellular compartmentation of the individual redox systems within the mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytosol wherein each defined redox environment is suited to the specific metabolic function within that compartment. Mucosal oxidative stress would result from the disruption of these unique redox control nodes, and the subsequent alteration in redox signaling can contribute to the development of degenerative pathologies of the intestine, such as inflammation and cancer. PMID:22484611

  16. Developing trends in the intestinal transplant waitlist.

    PubMed

    Khan, K M; Desai, C S; Mete, M; Desale, S; Girlanda, R; Hawksworth, J; Matsumoto, C; Kaufman, S; Fishbein, T

    2014-12-01

    The United Network for Organ Sharing database was examined for trends in the intestinal transplant (ITx) waitlist from 1993 to 2012, dividing into listings for isolated ITx versus liver-intestine transplant (L-ITx). Registrants added to the waitlist increased from 59/year in 1993 to 317/year in 2006, then declined to 124/year in 2012; Spline modeling showed a significant change in the trend in 2006, p?intestinal failure has led to reduced referrals for L-ITx. PMID:25395218

  17. Down-Regulation of Intestinal Lymphocyte Activation and Th1 Cytokine Production by Antibiotic Therapy in a Murine Model of Crohn's Disease1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgos Bamias; Marco Marini; Christopher A. Moskaluk; Masaru Odashima; William G. Ross; Jesus Rivera-Nieves; Fabio Cominelli

    2002-01-01

    Resident intestinal bacteria likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease through their interaction with the gut immune system. SAMP1\\/YitFc mice spontaneously develop chronic, discontinuous, transmural ileitis with many features similar to Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and elucidate the mechanisms of action of antibiotic treatment in the SAMP1\\/YitFc mouse

  18. Helicobacter pylori Infection is Associated with a High Incidence of Intestinal Metaplasia in the Gastric Mucosa of Patients at Inner-City Hospitals in New York

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schneller; R. Gupta; J. Mustafa; R. Villanueva; E. W. Straus; R. D. Raffaniello

    2006-01-01

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a multistep process progressing from chronic gastritis, through glandular atrophy (GA), intestinal\\u000a metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia. Infection of the stomach with H. pylori increases the risk of developing gastric cancer. Few studies have examined the degree to which Hp-induced changes occur in\\u000a specific populations. In the present study, we examined the association between Hp infection and histological

  19. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Arising in Chronic Perianal Fistula: Good Results with Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marisa D.; Nogueira, Carlos; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Chronic perianal fistulas are a common clinical condition. However, their evolution to adenocarcinoma is rare. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with perianal chronic fistulas, who developed two perianal ulcerated lesions near the external orifices of the fistulas, which extended proximally as a pararectal tumor. No intestinal lesion was seen at endoscopic examination. Histopathological biopsy indicated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Staging was performed by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and thoracoabdominal CT scan. The patient underwent a laparoscopic colostomy followed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and then laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant therapy. We have seen a favorable outcome with no recurrence at 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25506029

  20. Small bowel motility in functional chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Seidl, H; Gundling, F; Pehl, C; Pfeiffer, A; Schepp, W; Schmidt, T

    2009-12-01

    In functional constipation, three pathophysiological subgroups have been identified: slow-transit constipation (STC); normal-transit constipation (NTC) and outlet delay (OD). Extracolonic manifestations, especially disturbed small bowel motility, are well known to occur in STC, but have rarely been studied in NTC and OD. To perform 24-h-ambulatory jejunal manometry in a large prospective series of clinical patients with chronic constipation of all subtypes. A total of 61 consecutive patients, referred to our tertiary gastroenterologic centre for chronic constipation (48 female, 13 male; mean age 57 (range 20-87) years), underwent jejunal 24-h-ambulatory manometry (standardized meal) after a transit-time study (radio-opaque markers), anorectal manometry, defecography and colonoscopy. Computerized and visual analysis by two independent observers was compared with the normal range of manometric variables, defined by data previously obtained in 50 healthy subjects (Gut 1996;38:859). Five patients were excluded from the study because of coexistence of OD and STC. No patient with OD (n = 8), but all patients with STC (n = 32) and 94% of patients with NTC (n = 16) showed small bowel motor abnormalities; both in postprandial response and fasting motility. The abnormal findings ranged from severe disturbances with complete loss of MMC to subtle changes of contraction parameters that could only be assessed by computerized analysis. No significant differences between STC- and NTC-patients were found. Most findings pointed to an underlying enteric neuropathy. Intestinal prolonged-ambulatory manometry adds valuable information to the pathophysiologic understanding of functional chronic constipation of STC- and NTC-type, however there are no distinct manometric features to differentiate between both. PMID:19614887

  1. Diffuse mesenterial sclerosis: a characteristic feature of chronic small-bowel allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Alexander; Margreiter, Raimund; Pernthaler, Heinz; Klima, Günther; Offner, Felix A

    2003-01-01

    Chronic rejection is the major cause of late intestinal allograft dysfunction. The aim of this study was to analyze in detail the histopathological features of chronic rejection in the ACI-to-Lewis rat model of intestinal transplantation. Chronic rejection was achieved in orthotopic small-bowel allografts (ACI-Lewis) by limited immunosuppression with cyclosporin A (CyA). Isogeneic transplants (ACI-ACI) as well as native bowels (ACI) with and without immunosuppression served as controls. Bowels were removed together with the mesenteries 90 days postoperatively and analyzed using sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson's trichrome. The slides were coded, randomized and analyzed by grading of histological abnormalities. The most striking alterations of the allografts were noticed in the mesenteries exhibiting an extensive infiltration by mononuclear cells accompanied by a progressive diffuse fibrosis with shrinking of the mesenteries. These changes were most pronounced in the perivascular areas of the mesenteric arteriae and venae rectae. Three of five allografts showed vasculitis with myointimal proliferation of the arteriae rectae. Focally, there was spill-over of the inflammatory cells onto the intestinal muscularis propria. The mucosa of the allografts showed mild blunting, lymphocytic infiltration of the crypt epithelium and increased crypt cell apoptoses. The submucosa was unaffected, and there were no detectable abnormalities of the enteric ganglion cells. The present data support the view that chronic rejection of intestinal allografts is characterized by a diffuse sclerosing mesenteritis which may significantly contribute to late graft dysfunction. The present model may be useful to study the pathomechanisms of this inflammatory fibrosing process. PMID:12536314

  2. Effects of tumour necrosis factor-? synthesis inhibitors on rat trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced chronic colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Bobin-Dubigeon; Xavier Collin; Nicole Grimaud; Jean-Michel Robert; Guillaume Le Baut; Jean-Yves Petit

    2001-01-01

    The fact that tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is clearly involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal bowel disease, especially Crohn's disease, suggests that TNF-? synthesis inhibitors could be beneficial for treatment. The present study assessed the effect of chronic oral gavage of two in vitro TNF-? synthesis inhibitors, JM 34 maleate or [N-(4,6-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)-furane-2-carboxamide)] maleate and XC 21 or (N-?picolyl-tetrafluorophtalimide), on colonic

  3. Effects of ex-vivo and in-vivo treatment with probiotics on the inflammasome in dogs with chronic enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Silke; Werling, Dirk; Allenspach, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes coordinate the maturation of IL-1? and IL-18 in response to danger signals. They are vital for maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and have been linked to chronic intestinal inflammation in humans. Probiotics have been advocated as treatment in intestinal inflammation. So far, no study has investigated the role of the inflammasome in canine chronic enteropathy (CE). In this study the intestinal expression of inflammasome components was assessed in CE dogs compared to controls, when treated with probiotic Enterococcus faecium (EF) ex-vivo and in-vivo. RNA extraction from endoscopic biopsies and reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR was performed for NLRP3, casp-1, IL-1? and IL-18. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate protein expression in tissues. Gene expression of casp-1 and NLRP3 was lower in CE samples than controls. Ex-vivo treatment with EF reduced NLRP3 expression in control samples. Treatment of CE dogs with EF alongside dietary intervention had no effect on gene expression. In contrast, IL-1? protein expression in CE decreased with dietary treatment (but not with probiotics). The results of this study suggest that the inflammasome or its components may be partially involved in the inflammatory process seen in CE, but distinct from intestinal inflammation in humans. PMID:25799280

  4. Effects of Ex-Vivo and In-Vivo Treatment with Probiotics on the Inflammasome in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Silke; Werling, Dirk; Allenspach, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes coordinate the maturation of IL-1? and IL-18 in response to danger signals. They are vital for maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and have been linked to chronic intestinal inflammation in humans. Probiotics have been advocated as treatment in intestinal inflammation. So far, no study has investigated the role of the inflammasome in canine chronic enteropathy (CE). In this study the intestinal expression of inflammasome components was assessed in CE dogs compared to controls, when treated with probiotic Enterococcus faecium (EF) ex-vivo and in-vivo. RNA extraction from endoscopic biopsies and reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR was performed for NLRP3, casp-1, IL-1? and IL-18. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate protein expression in tissues. Gene expression of casp-1 and NLRP3 was lower in CE samples than controls. Ex-vivo treatment with EF reduced NLRP3 expression in control samples. Treatment of CE dogs with EF alongside dietary intervention had no effect on gene expression. In contrast, IL-1? protein expression in CE decreased with dietary treatment (but not with probiotics). The results of this study suggest that the inflammasome or its components may be partially involved in the inflammatory process seen in CE, but distinct from intestinal inflammation in humans. PMID:25799280

  5. The composition of intestinal ciliates in kulans and wild horses kept on common grazing

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The composition of intestinal ciliates in kulans and wild horses kept on common grazing O the large intestine of their hosts. The present study was aimed at the comparison of intestinal ciliate the large intestine from each animal postmortally. Each sample of digesta was strained and intestinal liquid

  6. Absorption of zinc from small and large intestine of calves.

    PubMed

    Hampton, D L; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Kincaid, R L; Blackmon, D M; Gentry, R P

    1976-11-01

    Calves fed a high-zinc diet were used to study zinc absorption from various sections of the small intestine. Absorption was determined by measuring zinc-65 in various tissues and plotting the tissue concentrations against dosing site, expressed as percentage of intestinal length. Zinc absorption, per unit of intestinal length, was similar throughout the small intestine and was as great in the distal as in the proximal end. Apparently, early researchers using isolated loops and everted sac techniques failed to recognize rate of digesta passage and tissue homeostasis as major factors associated with zinc uptake when they concluded that the duodenum was the primary site of zinc absorption. The data show that the duodenum is not the major site of zinc absorption in calves regardless of dietary zinc. In a separate experiment, zinc-65 was injected directly into the large intestine of calves fed a low zinc diet. Only about 2% of total zinc absorption was from the large intestine. PMID:993414

  7. American Chronic Pain Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources Glossary FAQs Surveys September is ...

  8. [Chronic lichenoid keratosis].

    PubMed

    Kalamkarian, A A; Parastaeva, S A; Zabanova, E V

    1989-01-01

    This is the first case of chronic lichenoid keratosis described in this country. The clinical picture and histologic findings suggest that this dermatosis be regarded as an atypical variety of lichen ruber planus. PMID:2718621

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well as they should. Normal, healthy kidneys remove waste from the blood. The waste then leaves your body in your urine. The ... have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys cannot remove waste from the blood as well as they should. ...

  10. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

  11. Chronic subdural hematoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the dura and surface of the brain (bridging veins) tear and leak blood. This is usually the result of a ... the brain. In a chronic subdural collection, blood leaks from the veins slowly over time, or a fast hemorrhage is ...

  12. Dietary therapy with Lactobacillus GG, bovine colostrum or bovine immune colostrum in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis: Evaluation of effect on gut defence mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Malin; P. Verronen; H. Korhonen; E.-L. Syväoja; S. Salminen; H. Mykkänen; H. Arvilommi; E. Eerola; E. Isolauri

    1997-01-01

    The effect of dietary therapy with a human Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103), bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum with specific antibodies against anaerobic intestinal\\u000a bacteria on gut defence mechanisms were studied in juvenile chronic arthritis. Thirty patients with juvenile chronic arthritis\\u000a were randomly allocated to receive a freeze-dried powder of Lactobacillus GG, or bovine colostrum, or bovine immune colostrum,

  13. Chronic hepatitis C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tram T. Tran; Paul Martin

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 40% of cases of chronic liver disease in the United States and is now\\u000a the most common indication for liver transplantation. Estimates suggest that 4 million people (1.8%) of the American population\\u000a are or have been infected with HCV. Currently, the treatment of choice for patients with chronic HCV infection is

  14. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Lee; Paul W. Brazis

    2002-01-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a descriptive term for a heterogenous group of disorders characterized\\u000a by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis. Significant pain, proptosis,\\u000a or pupil involvement are not features of CPEO and should prompt evaluation for alternative etiologies. Mitochondrial DNA mutations\\u000a are increasingly being recognized as the etiology for CPEO syndromes. Clinicians

  15. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara M. Wittine; William R. Auger

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  The pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart dysfunction that results from chronic thromboembolic involvement of the pulmonary\\u000a vascular bed is potentially curable with surgical endarterectomy. Over the past several decades, growing clinical experience\\u000a has brought about increased recognition of this treatable form of PH. Moreover, advances in cardiothoracic surgical techniques\\u000a have given an increasing number of patients with chronic

  16. Pathophysiology of Chronic Urticaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm W. Greaves

    2002-01-01

    Chronic urticaria includes several different subsets with distinct pathophysiologies, and with important implications for investigation and treatment. Chronic ‘idiopathic’ urticaria represents a special challenge, which, until recently, was not taken up by dermatological or immunological investigators. However, it has now emerged that at least 30% of patients possess histamine-releasing autoantibodies against FcεR1, or less commonly IgE itself. These autoantibodies are

  17. Chronic Pain Explained

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH J. SUFKA

    2000-01-01

    Pains that persist long after damaged tissue hasrecovered remain a perplexing phenomenon. Theseso-called chronic pains serve no useful function foran organism and, given its disabling effects, mighteven be considered maladaptive. However, a remarkablesimilarity exists between the neural bases thatunderlie the hallmark symptoms of chronic pain andthose that subserve learning and memory. Bothphenomena, wind-up in the pain literature andlong-term potentiation (LTP)

  18. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Satish V.; Deshmukh, Shrikant S.; Dhonde, Pramod D.

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy), sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy), exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy) and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy) constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc.) have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies. PMID:21808468

  19. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate Staphylococcus aureus interactions with intestinal epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donavon J. Hess; Michelle J. Henry-Stanley; Stanley L. Erlandsen; Carol L. Wells

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can be internalized by non-professional phagocytes, and may colonize the intestine in normal and antibiotic-treated individuals. Intestinal colonization may depend on the interactions of S. aureus with the intestinal epithelium. The best described mechanism of S. aureus binding to eukaryotic cells involves S. aureus fibronectin binding proteins (FnBPs), using fibronectin as a bridging molecule to ?1 integrins on

  20. Labetalol Prevents Intestinal Dysfunction Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dalong; Xi, Chenhui; Chen, Fengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Beta-adrenergic blockade has been hypothesized to have a protective effect on intestinal dysfunction and increased intestinal permeability associated with the epinephrine surge after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Wister rats were subjected to either a weight drop TBI, and intraperitoneally injected or not with labetalol, or a sham procedure (18 rats per group). After 3, 6, or 12h (6 rats per subgroup), intestinal permeability to 4.4 kDa FITC-Dextran and plasma epinephrine levels were measured as was intestinal tight junction protein ZO-1 expression at 12h. Terminal ileum was harvested to measure levels of intestinal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and to evaluate histopathology. Results In TBI group vs. sham group, intestinal permeability (P<0.01) was significantly higher at all time-points, and intestinal ZO-1 expression was lower at 12h. In TBI with vs. without labetalol group, 1) intestinal permeability was significantly lower at 6 and 12h (94.31±7.64 vs. 102.16±6.40 ?g/mL; 110.21±7.52 vs. 118.95±7.11 ?g/mL, respectively); 2) levels of plasma epinephrine and intestinal TNF-? were significantly lower at 3, 6 and 12h; and 3) intestinal ZO-1 expression was higher at 3, 6 and 12h (p=0.018). Histopathological evaluation showed that labetalol use preserved intestinal architecture throughout. Conclusion In a rat model of TBI, labetalol reduced TBI-induced sympathetic hyperactivity, and prevented histopathological intestinal injury accompanied by changes in gut permeability and gut TNF-? expression. PMID:26186619

  1. The Hormone Ghrelin Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Intestinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vishal; Ryu, Seok Yong; Blow, Chelsea; Costantini, Todd; Loomis, William; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew; Wolf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation, and inflammation. The hormone ghrelin may prevent intestinal injury and have anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that exogenous ghrelin prevents intestinal injury following TBI. A weight-drop model created severe TBI in three groups of anesthetized Balb/c mice. Group TBI: animals underwent TBI only; Group TBI/ghrelin: animals were given 10??g of ghrelin intraperitoneally prior and 1?h following TBI; Group sham: no TBI or ghrelin injection. Intestinal permeability was measured 6?h following TBI by detecting serum levels of FITC-Dextran after injection into the intact ileum. The terminal ileum was harvested for histology, expression of the tight junction protein MLCK and inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. Permeability increased in the TBI group compared to the sham group (109.7?±?21.8??g/mL vs. 32.2?±?10.1??g/mL; p?intestines of the TBI group showed blunting and necrosis of villi compared to the sham group, while ghrelin injection preserved intestinal architecture. Intestinal MLCK increased 73% compared to the sham group (p?Intestinal TNF-? increased following TBI compared to the sham group (46.2?±?7.1?pg/mL vs. 24.4?±?2.2?pg/mL p?intestinal permeability, histology, and intestinal levels of TNF-?. The mechanism for ghrelin mediating intestinal protection is likely multifactorial, and further studies are needed to delineate these possibilities. PMID:20858122

  2. True versus Pseudo-Intestinal Malrotation: Case Series and Review

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Shivangi T.; Gruss, Claudia B.; Langnas, Alan; Schafer, Daniel F.; McCashland, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that can present with symptoms after birth or in early childhood, but is rarely diagnosed in adults. Patients who have symptomatic presentations require surgery. Other entities may mimic intestinal malrotation and respond to non-surgical management. We present 2 adult cases with the radiological diagnosis of intestinal malrotation: one with true malrotation presenting as a duodenal mass, and another with “pseudo-malrotation” due to altered anatomy. These cases illustrate the importance of recognizing and differentiating these rare adult presentations of true malrotation from “pseudo-malrotation” in regards to their acute management.

  3. Inhibition of porcine small intestinal sucrase by valienamine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shentu, Xu-Ping; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2005-02-01

    Valienamine, an aminocyclitol, has been isolated from the enzymolysis broth of validamycins. The absolute configuration of valienamine is similar to that of alpha-D-glucose. The inhibitory effect of this amino-sugar analog of alpha-D-glucose, valienamine, on porcine small intestinal sucrase was examined. Valienamine was found to be potent, competitive reversible inhibitor of porcine small intestinal sucrase in vitro with an IC50 value of 1.17 x 10(-3)M. Valienamine also exhibited dose-dependent, instantaneous inhibition of porcine small intestinal sucrase. The inhibition of porcine small intestinal sucrase by valienamine was pH-independent. PMID:15895684

  4. Deoxynivalenol as a contaminant of broiler feed: intestinal development, absorptive functionality, and metabolism of the mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Yunus, A W; Blajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Khan, M Z; Rehman, H; Böhm, J

    2012-04-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has been recently documented to deteriorate intestinal morphology in chickens at dietary doses that are regarded as safe for this species. The present trial was conducted to explore the significance of these morphological changes in relation to intestinal absorptive functionality and DON metabolism. Ross broilers at 7 d of age were fed either a basal diet (0.265 ± 0.048 mg of DON/kg; 0.013 ± 0.001 mg of zearalenone/kg), a low DON diet (1.68 mg of DON/kg; 0.145 ± 0.007 mg of zearalenone/kg), or a high DON diet (12.209 ± 1.149 mg of DON/kg; 1.094 ± 0.244 mg of zearalenone/kg). The DON diets (to variable degrees) progressively decreased the relative density (weight:length) of the small intestine with increasing exposure length, which could be correlated with a decrease in villus height in the small intestine. Short circuit current of the jejunal epithelium, reflecting transport function of the epithelium per unit area, was reduced (P = 0.001) in the birds fed the high DON diet. The increasing dietary level of DON linearly (P = 0.035) increased the length of the jejunum in wk 4 of exposure, resulting in conservation of macronutrient retention. Upon challenging the birds with a fixed amount of DON after wk 5 of exposure, higher (P ? 0.033) amounts of DON and the detoxification metabolite (de-epoxy-DON) were found at 5 h postchallenge in the guts of birds raised on the DON diets. The increasing level of previous exposure to DON linearly (P = 0.040) decreased the plasma level of DON in the birds at 1 h postchallenge. The amounts of zearalenone and its analogs in the gut and plasma also followed a trend similar to that for DON. These data suggest that intestines in chickens may adapt to a chronic DON challenge by morphological and functional modifications. The birds having previous exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins showed moderate detoxification coupled with reduced transfer of the mycotoxins to systemic circulation. Some metabolites of zearalenone found in this study were previously unknown for chickens. PMID:22399724

  5. Oral supplementation with non-absorbable antibiotics or curcumin attenuates western diet-induced atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance in LDLR-/- mice--role of intestinal permeability and macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S; Bie, Jinghua; Wang, Jing; Ghosh, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Association between circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and metabolic diseases (such as Type 2 Diabetes and atherosclerosis) has shifted the focus from Western diet-induced changes in gut microbiota per se to release of gut bacteria-derived products into circulation as the possible mechanism for the chronic inflammatory state underlying the development of these diseases. Under physiological conditions, an intact intestinal barrier prevents this release of LPS underscoring the importance of examining and modulating the direct effects of Western diet on intestinal barrier function. In the present study we evaluated two strategies, namely selective gut decontamination and supplementation with oral curcumin, to modulate Western-diet (WD) induced changes in intestinal barrier function and subsequent development of glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. LDLR-/- mice were fed WD for 16 weeks and either received non-absorbable antibiotics (Neomycin and polymyxin) in drinking water for selective gut decontamination or gavaged daily with curcumin. WD significantly increased intestinal permeability as assessed by in vivo translocation of FITC-dextran and plasma LPS levels. Selective gut decontamination and supplementation with curcumin significantly attenuated the WD-induced increase in plasma LPS levels (3.32 vs 1.90 or 1.51 EU/ml, respectively) and improved intestinal barrier function at multiple levels (restoring intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and Claudin-1). Consequently, both these interventions significantly reduced WD-induced glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice. Activation of macrophages by low levels of LPS (50 ng/ml) and its exacerbation by fatty acids is likely the mechanism by which release of trace amounts of LPS into circulation due to disruption of intestinal barrier function induces the development of these diseases. These studies not only establish the important role of intestinal barrier function, but also identify oral supplementation with curcumin as a potential therapeutic strategy to improve intestinal barrier function and prevent the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:25251395

  6. Acute interactions between intestinal sugar and calcium transport in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Johnson, Richard J; Zuo, Jian; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2014-01-01

    Fructose consumption by Americans has increased markedly, whereas Ca(2+) intake has decreased below recommended levels. Because fructose metabolism decreases enterocyte ATP concentrations, we tested the hypothesis that luminal fructose acutely reduces active, diet-inducible Ca(2+) transport in the small intestine. We confirmed that the decrease in ATP concentrations was indeed greater in fructose- compared with glucose-incubated mucosal homogenates from wild-type and was prevented in fructose-incubated homogenates from ketohexokinase (KHK)(-/-) mice. We then induced active Ca(2+) transport by chronically feeding wild-type, fructose transporter glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5)(-/-), as well as KHK(-/-) mice a low Ca(2+) diet and measured transepithelial Ca(2+) transport in everted duodenal sacs incubated in solutions containing glucose, fructose, or their nonmetabolizable analogs. The diet-induced increase in active Ca(2+) transport was proportional to dramatic increases in expression of the Ca(2+)-selective channel transient receptor potential vanilloid family calcium channel 6 as well as of the Ca(2+)-binding protein 9k (CaBP9k) but not that of the voltage-dependent L-type channel Ca(v)1.3. Crypt-villus distribution of CaBP9k seems heterogeneous, but low Ca(2+) diets induce expression in more cells. In contrast, KHK distribution is homogeneous, suggesting that fructose metabolism can occur in all enterocytes. Diet-induced Ca(2+) transport was not enhanced by addition of the enterocyte fuel glutamine and was always greater in sacs of wild-type, GLUT5(-/-), and KHK(-/-) mice incubated with fructose or nonmetabolizable sugars than those incubated with glucose. Thus duodenal Ca(2+) transport is not affected by fructose and enterocyte ATP concentrations but instead may decrease with glucose metabolism, as Ca(2+) transport remains high with 3-O-methylglucose that is also transported by sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 but cannot be metabolized. PMID:24177030

  7. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain [Department of Nutrition, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Delvin, Edgard [Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., Canada J1H 5N4 (Canada); Menard, Daniel [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., J1H 5N4 (Canada)] (and others)

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  8. Dyslipidaemia of diabetes and the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Tomkin, Gerald H; Owens, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major complication of diabetes and has become a major issue in the provision of medical care. In particular the economic burden is growing at an alarming rate in parallel with the increasing world-wide prevalence of diabetes. The major disturbance of lipid metabolism in diabetes relates to the effect of insulin on fat metabolism. Raised triglycerides being the hallmark of uncontrolled diabetes, i.e., in the presence of hyperglycaemia. The explosion of type 2 diabetes has generated increasing interest on the aetiology of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. The importance of the atherogenic properties of triglyceride rich lipoproteins has only recently been recognised by the majority of diabetologists and cardiologists even though experimental evidence has been strong for many years. In the post-prandial phase 50% of triglyceride rich lipoproteins come from chylomicrons produced in the intestine. Recent evidence has secured the chylomicron as a major player in the atherogenic process. In diabetes chylomicron production is increased through disturbance in cholesterol absorption, in particular Neimann Pick C1-like1 activity is increased as is intestinal synthesis of cholesterol through 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl co enzyme A reductase. ATP binding cassette proteins G5 and G8 which regulate cholesterol in the intestine is reduced leading to chylomicronaemia. The chylomicron particle itself is atherogenic but the increase in the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins lead to an atherogenic low density lipoprotein and low high density lipoprotein. The various steps in the absorption process and the disturbance in chylomicron synthesis are discussed. PMID:26185604

  9. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

    2004-06-30

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

  10. Limits to starch digestion in the ruminant small intestine.

    PubMed

    Owens, F N; Zinn, R A; Kim, Y K

    1986-11-01

    Site and extent of starch digestion by ruminant animals varies with species, grain type and processing method. Based on a review of 40 different experiments with cattle, between 18 and 42% of the dietary starch from corn and sorghum grains fed to cattle reaches the small intestine for digestion. With more extensive grain processing, a smaller quantity of starch reaches the small intestine. In the small intestine, from 47 to 88% of the presented starch is digested, while in the large intestine, 33 to 62% of the presented starch is digested. Though limits to digestion in and absorption from the small intestine can be demonstrated by infusing starch and glucose into the duodenum, enzymatic capacity does not appear to limit intestinal starch digestion since no plateau in the amount of starch disappearing from the small intestine is detected with typical diets. Yet, extent of digestion is incomplete. Other factors, such as time and surface exposure may limit small intestinal digestion of starch. Processing methods to reduce particle size or alter the protein matrix, which cements starch granules together, will increase the extent of digestion both in the rumen and in the small intestine. Performance data from growing cattle fed processed corn and sorghum grains indicate that starch was used 42% more efficiently if it was digested in the small intestine rather than in the rumen. Though total tract starch digestibility is of primary concern, results support the concept that energetic efficiency of growing ruminants is greater if starch is digested in the small intestine rather than in the rumen. PMID:3539905

  11. Polypoid stromal lesions of the intestines.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of intestinal mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is almost always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are centred generally in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Knowledge of the favoured layer is also most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenchymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Herein we discuss several mesenchymal lesions and point out some diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:25283242

  12. Human Intestinal Nematodiasis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    1972-01-01

    Human intestinal nematodes, all of which can be acquired in the continental United States, can cause a variety of ills including iron deficiency anemia, surgical emergencies, eosinophilic pneumonia, malabsorption, dysentery, myositis, and death. The severity of illness is related to the number of parasites acquired exogenously or the ability of the parasite to multiply within the host. Diagnosis of clinically significant infection can usually be made by stool examination, and appropriate treatment requires an understanding of the life-span and pathogenic potential of the parasite. PMID:5039812

  13. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Kamili, Alvin; Wat, Elaine; Chung, Rosanna W. S.; Tandy, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22254012

  14. Biomagnetic Signals of the Large Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Cordova, T.; Sosa, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bradshaw, L. A. [Departments of Surgery and Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Adilton, A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Campus Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-08-11

    Large intestine is part of the gastrointestinal tract with an average length, in adults, of 1.5 m. The gold standard technique in clinical medicine is the colonoscopy. Nevertheless, other techniques are capable of presenting information on physiological processes which take place in this part of the gastrointestinal system. Three recent studies are discussed in this paper in order to make this information more widely available. The authors consider that the biomagnetic technique could be easily implemented in hospitals around the world. Options will be available for research and clinical medicine.

  15. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  16. Management of Chronic Paronychia

    PubMed Central

    Relhan, Vineet; Goel, Khushbu; Bansal, Shikha; Garg, Vijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:24470654

  17. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-04-01

    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion. PMID:24477233

  18. Wnt2 inhibits enteric bacterial-induced inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingyin; Lu, Rong; Wu, Shaoping; Zhang, Yong-guo; Xia, Yinglin; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Wnt signaling plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation. Most investigations have focused on developmental and immune responses. Bacterial infection can be chronic and increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. However, we lack studies on how bacteria regulate Wnt proteins and how Wnts modulate the host responses to enteric bacteria. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella and E. coli on Wnt2, one of the Wnt family members, in intestinal epithelia cells. Methodology/Findings Using cultured epithelial cells, a Salmonella-colitis mouse model, and a gnotobiotic mouse model, we found that Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated after bacterial infection. Enteric bacteria regulate Wnt2 location in the intestine. Furthermore, we found that elevation of Wnt2 was a strategy for host defense by inhibiting cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses to infection. Using Wnt2 siRNA analysis, we show enhanced inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in epithelial cells. Cells over-expressed Wnt2 had less bacterial-induced IL-8 secretion. AvrA is a bacterial protein that inhibits inflammation by stabilizing beta-catenin, the down-stream target of Wnt. We found that the stabilization of Wnt2 was regulated through ubiquitination. Moreover, the bacterial protein AvrA from Salmonella and E. coli stabilized Wnt2 protein expression in vivo. In an ex-germ-free system, E. coli F18 expressing AvrA increased Wnt2 expression and changed Wnt2 distribution in intestine. Conclusion Wnt2 contributes to host protection in response to enteric bacteria. Our findings thus reveal a previously undefined role of Wnt for host-pathogen interaction and inflammation. PMID:21674728

  19. Attenuation of Intestinal Inflammation in Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Infected with Citrobacter rodentium

    PubMed Central

    Dann, Sara M.; Le, Christine; Choudhury, Barun K.; Liu, Houpu; Saldarriaga, Omar; Hanson, Elaine M.; Cong, Yingzi

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) curtails immune responses to microbial infection and autoantigens and contributes to intestinal immune homeostasis, yet administration of IL-10 has not been effective at attenuating chronic intestinal inflammatory conditions, suggesting that its immune functions may be context dependent. To gain a broader understanding of the importance of IL-10 in controlling mucosal immune responses to infectious challenges, we employed the murine attaching and effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, which colonizes primarily the surfaces of the cecum and colon and causes transient mucosal inflammation driven by Th17 and Th1 T helper cells. Infection induced macrophage and dendritic cell production of IL-10, which diminished antibacterial host defenses, because IL-10-deficient mice cleared infection faster than wild-type controls. In parallel, the mice had less acute infection-associated colitis and resolved it more rapidly than controls. Importantly, transient C. rodentium infection protected IL-10-deficient mice against the later development of spontaneous colitis that normally occurs with aging in these mice. Genome-wide expression studies revealed that IL-10 deficiency was associated with downregulation of proinflammatory pathways but increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-27 in response to infection. IL-27 was found to suppress in vitro Th17 and, to a lesser degree, Th1 differentiation independent of IL-10. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-27 resulted in more severe colitis in infected IL-10-deficient mice. Together, these findings indicate that IL-10 is dispensable for resolving C. rodentium-associated colitis and further suggest that IL-27 may be a critical factor for controlling intestinal inflammation and Th17 and Th1 development by IL-10-independent mechanisms. PMID:24566625

  20. The Interplay Between Fiber and the Intestinal Microbiome in the Inflammatory Response12

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Shiu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fiber intake is critical for optimal health. This review covers the anti-inflammatory roles of fibers using results from human epidemiological observations, clinical trials, and animal studies. Fiber has body weight–related anti-inflammatory activity. With its lower energy density, a diet high in fiber has been linked to lower body weight, alleviating obesity-induced chronic inflammation evidenced by reduced amounts of inflammatory markers in human and animal studies. Body weight–unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fiber has also been extensively studied in animal models in which the type and amount of fiber intake can be closely monitored. Fermentable fructose-, glucose-, and galactose-based fibers as well as mixed fibers have shown systemic and local intestinal anti-inflammatory activities when plasma inflammatory markers and tissue inflammation were examined. Similar anti-inflammatory activities have also been demonstrated in some human studies that controlled total fiber intake. The anti-inflammatory activities of synbiotics (probiotics plus fiber) were reviewed as well, but there was no convincing evidence indicating higher efficacy of synbiotics compared with that of fiber alone. Adverse effects have not been observed with the amount of fiber intake or supplementation used in studies, although patients with Crohn’s disease may be more sensitive to inulin intake. Several possible mechanisms that may mediate the body weight–unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fibers are discussed based on the in vitro and in vivo evidence. Fermentable fibers are known to affect the intestinal microbiome. The immunomodulatory role of the intestinal microbiome and/or microbial metabolites could contribute to the systemic and local anti-inflammatory activities of fibers. PMID:23319119

  1. A genetic dissection of intestinal fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption.

    PubMed

    Widjaja-Adhi, M Airanthi K; Lobo, Glenn P; Golczak, Marcin; Von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are currently investigated regarding their potential to lower the risk of chronic disease and to combat vitamin A deficiency. Surprisingly, responses to dietary supplementation with these compounds are quite variable between individuals. Genome-wide studies have associated common genetic polymorphisms in the BCO1 gene with this variability. The BCO1 gene encodes an enzyme that is expressed in the intestine and converts provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A-aldehyde. However, it is not clear how this enzyme can impact the bioavailability and metabolism of other carotenoids such as xanthophyll. We here provide evidence that BCO1 is a key component of a regulatory network that controls the absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. In this process, conversion of ?-carotene to vitamin A by BCO1 induces via retinoid signaling the expression of the intestinal homeobox transcription factor ISX. Subsequently, ISX binds to conserved DNA-binding motifs upstream of the BCO1 and SCARB1 genes. SCARB1 encodes a membrane protein that facilitates absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. In keeping with its role as a transcriptional repressor, SCARB1 protein levels are significantly increased in the intestine of ISX-deficient mice. This increase results in augmented absorption and tissue accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids and tocopherols. Our study shows that fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption is controlled by a BCO1-dependent negative feedback regulation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular framework for the controversial relationship between genetics and fat-soluble vitamin status in the human population. PMID:25701869

  2. Dysregulated phosphatidylinositol signaling promotes endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated intestinal mucosal injury and inflammation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Prakash C; Davison, Jon M; Stuckenholz, Carsten; Lu, Lili; Bahary, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated phosphatidylinositol (PI) signaling has been implicated in human gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies and inflammatory states, underlining the need to study pathophysiological roles of PI in an in vivo genetic model. Here, we study the significance of PI in GI pathophysiology using the zebrafish mutant cdipt(hi559), which lacks PI synthesis, and unravel a crucial role of PI in intestinal mucosal integrity and inflammation. The cdipt(hi559) mutants exhibit abnormal villous architecture and disorganized proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), with pathologies reminiscent of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including apoptosis of goblet cells, abnormal mucosecretion, bacterial overgrowth and leukocyte infiltration. The mutant IECs exhibit vacuolation, microvillus atrophy and impaired proliferation. The cdipt(hi559) gene expression profile shows enrichment of acute phase response signaling, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors hspa5 and xbp1 are robustly activated in the mutant GI tissue. Temporal electron micrographic analyses reveal that PI-deficient IECs undergo sequential ER-Golgi disruption, mitochondrial depletion, macroautophagy and cell death, consistent with chronic ER-stress-mediated cytopathology. Furthermore, pharmacological induction of ER stress by inhibiting protein glycosylation or PI synthase inhibition in leukocyte-specific reporter lines replicates the cdipt(hi559) inflammatory phenotype, suggesting a fundamental role of PI metabolism and ER stress in mucosal inflammation. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs resolved the inflammation, but not the autophagic necroapoptosis of IECs, suggesting that bacterial overgrowth can exacerbate ER stress pathology, whereas persistent ER stress is sufficient to trigger inflammation. Interestingly, the intestinal phenotype was partially alleviated by chemical chaperones, suggesting their therapeutic potential. Using zebrafish genetic and pharmacological models, this study demonstrates a newly identified link between intracellular PI signaling and ER-stress-mediated mucosal inflammation. The zebrafish cdipt mutants provide a powerful tool for dissecting the fundamental mechanisms of ER-stress-mediated human GI diseases and a platform to develop molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24135483

  3. A simple method for assessing intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Tibble; K Teahon; B Thjodleifsson; A Roseth; G Sigthorsson; S Bridger; R Foster; R Sherwood; M Fagerhol; I Bjarnason

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMSAssessing the presence and degree of intestinal inflammation objectively, simply, and reliably is a significant problem in gastroenterology. We assessed faecal excretion of calprotectin, a stable neutrophil specific marker, as an index of intestinal inflammation and its potential use as a screening test to discriminate between patients with Crohn's disease and those with irritable bowel syndrome.METHODSThe validity of

  4. Reduction of Malachite Green to Leucomalachite Green by Intestinal Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLISON L. HENDERSON; THOMAS C. SCHMITT; THOMAS M. HEINZE; CARL E. CERNIGLIA

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal microfloras from human, rat, mouse, and monkey fecal samples and 14 pure cultures of anaerobic bacteria representative of those found in the human gastrointestinal tract metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green to leucomalachite green. The reduction of malachite green to the leuco derivative suggests that intestinal microflora could play an important role in the metabolic activation of the triphenylmethane

  5. Interactions Between the Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. PMID:24440671

  6. Iron Binding Substances in the Intestinal Mucosa of Neonatal Piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KOU FURUGOURI

    Fifty piglets from birth to 14 days of age were used to investigate iron binding substances of neonatal intestinal mucosa, and to evaluate the effects of these substances in neonatal iron absorption. 59Fe- labeled ferric citrate with a molecular weight of 1,500 was injected directly into the ligated duodenum. Approximately 65% of radioiron in the whole homogenate of scraped intestinal

  7. Antioxidative flavonoid quercetin: implication of its intestinal absorption and metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaeko Murota; Junji Terao

    2003-01-01

    Quercetin is a typical flavonoid ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, and its antioxidant effect is implied to be helpful for human health. The bioavailability of quercetin glycosides should be clarified, because dietary quercetin is mostly present as its glycoside form. Although quercetin glycosides are subject to deglycosidation by enterobacteria for the absorption at large intestine, small intestine acts as

  8. Evolution of symbiotic bacteria in the distal human intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Xu; Michael A. Mahowald; Ruth E. Ley; Catherine A. Lozupone; Micah Hamady; Eric C. Martens; Bernard Henrissat; Pedro M. Coutinho; Patrick Minx; Philippe Latreille; Holland Cordum; Andrew Van Brunt; Kyung Kim; Robert S. Fulton; Lucinda A. Fulton; Sandra W. Clifton; Richard K. Wilson; Robin D. Knight; Jeffrey I. Gordon

    2007-01-01

    The adult human intestine contains trillions of bacteria, representing hundreds of species and thousands of subspecies. Little is known about the selective pressures that have shaped and are shaping this community's component species, which are dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions. To examine how the intestinal environment affects microbial genome evolution, we have sequenced the genomes of

  9. Evolution of Symbiotic Bacteria in the Distal Human Intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Xu; Michael A Mahowald; Ruth E Ley; Catherine A Lozupone; Micah Hamady; Eric C Martens; Bernard Henrissat; Pedro M Coutinho; Patrick Minx; Philippe Latreille; Holland Cordum; Andrew Van Brunt; Kyung Kim; Robert S Fulton; Lucinda A Fulton; Sandra W Clifton; Richard K Wilson; Robin D Knight; Jeffrey I Gordon

    2007-01-01

    The adult human intestine contains trillions of bacteria, representing hundreds of species and thousands of subspecies. Little is known about the selective pressures that have shaped and are shaping this community's component species, which are dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions. To examine how the intestinal environment affects microbial genome evolution, we have sequenced the genomes of

  10. Distribution of Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes in Rat Small Intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas M. Stadelmann; Susan Walgenbach-Telford; Gordon L. Telford; Timothy R. Koch

    1998-01-01

    Despite its great promise, small intestinal transplantation in some patients is complicated by difficult postoperative management. The reasons for this are complex. In a rat model of small intestinal transplantation, frequencies of migrating myoelectric complexes during fasting are reduced in ileal isografts and muscarinic receptor density is decreased. We hypothesized that the distribution of muscarinic 1 receptors localized to enteric

  11. Intestinal obstruction due to sand in a dog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Papazoglou; M. N. Patsikas; P. Papadopoulou; I. Savas; T. Petanides; T. Rallis

    2004-01-01

    FOREIGN bodies constitute the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in small animal practice, and foreign- body-induced intestinal obstruction is a common indication for emergency laparotomy in small animals. A large variety of radiopaque and non-opaque foreign bodies may be seen in dogs (Clark 1968, Capak and others 2001). Radiopaque for- eign bodies can be easily recognised on plain radiographs,

  12. Intestinal spasmolytic effects of STW 5 (Iberogast ®) and its components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Heinle; D. Hagelauer; U. Pascht; O. Kelber; D. Weiser

    2006-01-01

    Functional gastro-intestinal diseases as the irritable bowel syndrome are very common in the population and are characterized by a broad spectrum of symptoms which mostly are related to spastic or paralytic intestinal function without defined histopathological changes of the tissue. Due to the multifactorial pathogenesis a multifactorial therapy with multi-target action seems to be reasonable. STW 5 (Iberogast®), its constituent

  13. INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A SPINNER DOLPHIN (STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed histologically in the small intestine of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Numerous intralesional coccidia were present in mucosal epithelial cells. Schizonts, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were seen. Schizonts were up to 30 x 20 m and contained ...

  14. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, E.; Margolis, J.; Heimer, E.; Felix, A.; Udenfriend, S.

    1985-09-01

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts.

  15. Developing vaccines to combat hookworm infection and intestinal schistosomiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Bethony; David J. Diemert; Mark Pearson; Alex Loukas; Peter J. Hotez

    2010-01-01

    Hookworm infection and schistosomiasis rank among the most important health problems in developing countries. Both cause anaemia and malnutrition, and schistosomiasis also results in substantial intestinal, liver and genitourinary pathology. In sub-Saharan Africa and Brazil, co-infections with the hookworm, Necator americanus, and the intestinal schistosome, Schistosoma mansoni, are common. The development of vaccines for these infections could substantially reduce the

  16. Paneth cells, antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Bevins; Nita H. Salzman

    2011-01-01

    Building and maintaining a homeostatic relationship between a host and its colonizing microbiota entails ongoing complex interactions between the host and the microorganisms. The mucosal immune system, including epithelial cells, plays an essential part in negotiating this equilibrium. Paneth cells (specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine) are an important source of antimicrobial peptides in the intestine. These

  17. Familial Abdominal and Intestinal Lipomatosis Presenting with Upper GI Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Altinsoy, Hasan Baki; Yildirim, Nezahat; Alatas, Ozkan; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Sahin, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Although lipomas are encapsulated benign tumors, systemic lipomatosis defines infiltrative nonencapsulated tumors resembling normal adipose tissue. Abdominal lipomatosis and intestinal lipomatosis are different clinicopathological entities with similar clinical symptoms. We describe here a case presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from eroded submucosal lipoma at duodenum secondary to intestinal lipomatosis and abdominal lipomatosis. PMID:26146574

  18. Influence of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function on intestinal brush border enaymatic activities.

    PubMed Central

    Caspary, W F; Winckler, K; Lankisch, P G; Creutzfeldt, W

    1975-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activities (disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase, peptide hydrolases) have been determined in the mucosa of 14 patients with chronic pancreatitis. All had an abnormal secretin-pancreozymin test. Four patients had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, four a pathological glucose tolerance test. Nine patients had steatorrhoea. Maltase, sucrase, and alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly elevated in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, whereas those of lactase, trehalase, and peptide hydrolase were normal. Patients with steatorrhoea had higher maltase and sucrase activity than those without steatorrhoea, whereas decreased glucose tolerance had no effect on brush border enzymatic activity. It is suggested thatdecreased exocrine rather than decreased endocrine pancreatic function is responsible for the increase in intestinal disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activity, possible by the influence of pacreatic enzymes on the turnover of brush border enzymes from the luminal side of the mucosal membranes or by direct hormonal stimulation though cholecystokinin. PMID:1092602

  19. Detection of clustered gastrointestinal contractions in partial intestinal obstruction by surface vibration analysis.

    PubMed

    Cullen, P T; Storey, B E; Cuschieri, A; Campbell, F C

    1989-08-01

    Gastrointestinal contraction "clusters" with alternating quiescence occur in partial intestinal obstruction and are conventionally detected by intraluminal manometry. Surface Vibration Analysis (SVA), which is a noninvasive test, was evaluated in this study in experimental and clinical situations. In the experimental situation, former SVA was assessed against simultaneous manometry in two volunteers, in whom partial obstruction had been induced by intrajejunal balloon distension. Manometry showed typical contraction "clusters" with alternating quiescence, each of two to four minutes duration, in obstructed jejunum proximal to the balloon. The distal jejunum was inhibited. SVA showed a pattern of hyperactivity and quiescence corresponding to proximal jejunal activity. In the clinical situation, SVA recordings taken after a standard meal in nine patients with suspected chronic obstruction adhesive obstruction, (subsequently proven in seven patients and disproved in two), and 36 volunteers were compared. All patients with proved obstruction showed an SVA pattern of alternating hyperactivity and quiescence. This pattern was not observed in volunteers or nonobstructed patients. PMID:2757425

  20. Early cytokine responses during intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, N; Goyal, P K; Mahida, Y R; Li, K F; Wakelin, D

    1998-01-01

    Infections with gastro-intestinal nematodes elicit immune and inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines released from T-helper type-2 (Th2) cells. In vitro assays of cells from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of experimentally infected rodents confirm that, after about 1 week, the dominant cytokine responses to mitogens and antigens are those associated with this Th-cell subset. Polarization of the Th response in this way implies an initial local cytokine environment that favours Th2 development. However, experimental infections with Trichinella spiralis and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis show that, within 2 days of worms reaching the intestine, MLN cells (MLNC) respond with a Th1 rather than a Th2 response [i.e. there is an increase in mRNA for the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and mitogen-stimulated MLNC release IFN-gamma rather than interleukin-5 (IL-5)]. Antigen stimulation at this time does not elicit IFN-gamma release and the MLNC cannot adoptively transfer immunity. Within a few days the MLNC phenotype changes. There is a Th2 response (IL-5 release) to both mitogen and antigen stimulation and MLNC can adoptively transfer immunity. Early release of IFN-gamma is T-cell dependent, with CD4+ T cells playing the major role. The data are discussed in relation to factors regulating the mucosal response to invasion by parasites. PMID:9616376