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1

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) experience a constellation of symptoms including abdominal pain,\\u000a nausea, fullness, and malaise which fluctuates in severity and invariably result in a diminished quality of life. Though surgical\\u000a resection or transplantation may be an option for some, there currently is no cure for CIP. Thus, management strategies utilize\\u000a pharmacologic, intravenous, endoscopic, and surgical techniques

Greg Lyford; Amy Foxx-Orenstein

2004-01-01

2

Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) experience a constellation of symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea, fullness, and malaise which fluctuates in severity and invariably result in a diminished quality of life. Though surgical resection or transplantation may be an option for some, there currently is no cure for CIP. Thus, management strategies utilize pharmacologic, intravenous, endoscopic, and surgical techniques to promote transit, minimize painful bloating, reduce complications of stasis, and improve quality of life. Prokinetic agents such as erythromycin, metoclopramide, cisapride, neostigmine, and tegaserod may be effective for acute exacerbations. Octreotide may reduce symptoms of bacterial overgrowth and bloating by stimulating migrating motor complexes. Enteral tubes for venting and nutritional support may reduce hospitalizations. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), fraught with well-known complications, may be the only tolerated source for nutrients and fluid. Advanced disease may magnify nutritional problems, difficulties of long term intravenous and intestinal access, and poor symptom control. Because the initial process may manifest in other intestinal regions following surgery, resection of involved segments should be performed with caution. Small intestinal transplantation is a high-risk surgery performed in persons unable to tolerate intravenous (IV) nutrition. Optimal management for persons with CIP should not only provide nutritional and symptom focused care but should be part of a supportive network which links patients to their appropriate healthcare needs. PMID:15238207

Lyford, Greg; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy

2004-08-01

3

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

PubMed Central

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

2008-01-01

4

[Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome in adults].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to debate, based on medical literature review, the chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome in adults, from the surgical point of view. The beginning of the paper emphasizes the difficulties in pseudoobstruction syndrome definition and etiology, and then we discuss the importance of intestinal histological assessment (whenever it is possible) and intestinal structure modifications. A very important part of this paper is reserved to the diagnostic difficulties, especially to those between intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome and mechanical intestinal obstructive syndrome (similar etiologic circumstances, similar clinical and radiological manifestations). Finally, this paper debates the therapeutic difficulties, emphasizing the importance of surgical methods and techniques useful in treatment of the patient with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome. PMID:15455694

Vîlcea, D; Vasile, I

2004-01-01

5

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction: report of four pediatric patients.  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is a rare disorder of intestinal motility, characterized by recurrence of continuous symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction in the absence of true mechanical obstruction. Congenital or systemic disorders are the causes of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. The term idiopathic is applied when there is no congenital or secondary cause. Early diagnosis of intestinal pseudoobstruction is important to avoid repeated laparotomies. Treatment of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is usually supportive. Besides the supportive therapy, prokinetic agents such as erythromycin and octreotide are used in the therapy. In this article, four pediatric patients diagnosed as chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction are discussed with their clinical findings and laboratory abnormalities. The etiology of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction was visceral myopathy in one patient. Two had idiopathic chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction and the other patient developed chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction after cardiac surgery. Erythromycin was administered to all four patients, one of whom did not respond to this therapy. Octreotide was effective in this case. PMID:16252200

Dalgiç, Buket; Sari, Sinan; Do?an, Ibrahim; Unal, Selahattin

2005-06-01

6

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  For many patients, nutritional support and relief of symptoms remain the primary management goal of pseudo-obstruction. Specific\\u000a pharmacological agents for this disorder are, in general, lacking. Given that the efficacy of many of the individual available\\u000a agents is far from excellent, several centers have turned to combination therapy. Though there is at present no evidence from\\u000a controlled studies to

Eamonn M. M. Quigley

1999-01-01

7

[Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction due to visceral myopathy].  

PubMed

A case is reported of a chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction with lethal outcome in a 6-year-old boy. The clinical symptoms and radiology examination showed ileus without mechanical obstruction. During the observation the patient developed left sided mydriasis and grand mal seizures with lactacidosis. He was treated conservatively which included total parenteral nutrition, fluid-sodium supplements, intravenous erythromycin and somatostatin, correction of acidosis. On the 48th day he died suddenly of cardiac failure at the intensive care unit. The gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms with lactacidosis suggested the possibility of mitochondrial myopathy. Postmortem histopathology showed visceral myopathy. Molecular genetic analysis could not confirm the presence of the mDNA mutation. PMID:17611183

Kovács, Márta; Veres, Gábor; Szônyi, László; Dezsôfi, Antal; Bodánszky, Hedvig; Illyés, György; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Arató, András

2007-07-15

8

Isolated congenital megacystis without intestinal obstruction: a mild variant of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome?  

PubMed

Megacystis is frequently involved with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome; however, isolated megacystis without intestinal obstruction is extremely rare. We present the case of a female patient with isolated congenital megacystis without severe intestinal obstruction. In this case, barium enema did not reveal any significant findings; however, histologic evaluation of her rectum showed hypoganglionosis of the submucous and myenteric plexuses. These findings indicate that this case may be a mild variant of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome. The presence of megacystis should alert the physician to the possibility of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome. PMID:22075369

Shimizu, Masaki; Nishio, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sakai, Seisho; Nagaoki, Shuya; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Ohta, Kazuhide; Miyamoto, Masatoshi; Yachie, Akihiro

2011-11-01

9

Intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudoobstruction is an uncommon clinical condition of varied etiologies. Confusion in its characterization and diagnosis often results in delay in diagnosis as well as inappropriate treatment involving repeated surgery. The various aspects and characteristics of intestinal pseudoobstruction are described by representative case reports of three patients treated in our department with a review of the literature. Heightened awareness, understanding of the physiological dynamics and recognition of the spectrum of its clinical presentation and diagnostic modalities should result in more efficacious treatment. PMID:19069701

Rabau, O; Tulchinsky, H; Rabau, M

2008-01-01

10

Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol acts as a teratogen in the fetus,resulting in prenatal or postnatal growth failure,characteristic facial dysmorphic features, and centralnervous system dysfunction. The toxic effects of alcohol on the developing brain are well recognized,but gastrointestinal neuropathy has not been describedin fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Five children with FASpresented in infancy with signs and symptoms suggestive of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Theywere not

E. Vasiliauskas; D. A. Piccoli; A. F. Flores; C. Di Lorenzo; P. E. Hyman

1997-01-01

11

Quality of life outcomes in congenital chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to assess the quality of life for children with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. We used a retrospective chart review to identify children with congenital chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction, then a structured telephone interview with parents that included the Child Health Questionnaire to gather information about the current status and quality of life for each patient and family. Children with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction had less freedom from pain, depression, and anxiety than healthy children or children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (P < 0.05 for all three parameters). Parents of children with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction had poorer emotional status than parents of healthy children or children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The time required for parents to care for children with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was greater than the time required to care for healthy children or children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the quality of life for children with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction lags behind that of healthy children and children with another chronic illness. Appropriate treatment of chronic pain may improve the quality of life for children with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and their families. Moreover, attention to reducing each family's burden of time and emotional distress may help them cope better with their chronically ill child. PMID:12353838

Schwankovsky, Lenore; Mousa, Hayat; Rowhani, Anita; DI Lorenzo, Carlo; Hyman, Paul E

2002-09-01

12

Diagnosis and management of adult patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) is a motility syndrome that presents with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction and radiographic evidence of dilated bowels, but no anatomic obstruction can be found. It primarily is a disorder of small bowel motility, but it can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. This review will focus on the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with CIP. The clinical presentation of CIP is variable, and its incidence is rare. It is a disorder with a multitude of etiologies, many of which are poorly understood. To properly manage the patient, clinicians should be aware of the various symptoms, signs, and systemic diseases that are associated with CIP. Diagnostic studies are needed to confirm the diagnosis, identify the etiology, and search for coexisting motility dysfunction. The management goals of CIP are to restore proper nutrition and fluid balance, relieve symptoms, improve intestinal motility, and treat complications. PMID:16439766

Sutton, Dwight H; Harrell, Steven P; Wo, John M

2006-02-01

13

Visceral myopathy causing chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction and intestinal failure in a child with Sanjad-Sakati syndrome.  

PubMed

Sanjad-Sakati syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder mainly occurring in the Arab Peninsula. This condition is associated with metabolic and septic complications starting in the neonatal period. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction owing to visceral myopathy is a rare disabling condition. We report a rare concurrence of Sanjad-Sakati syndrome and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in a Saudi child complicated by intestinal failure, sepsis, and early mortality. PMID:20152369

Pal, Kamalesh; Moammar, Hissa; Mitra, Dilip K

2010-02-01

14

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a diagnosis to be considered.  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) is a rare entity characterized by recurrent clinical episodes of intestinal obstruction in which no mechanical cause is identified. There are multiple causes for this syndrome but two main groups can be distinguished: a) secondary to a systemic non-gastrointestinal disease; and b) primary or idiopathic originated from alterations in the components of the intestinal wall. The latter forms are the most uncommon and their diagnosis is generally difficult. In the present article, we describe nine patients with CIPO that were diagnosed in our center over the last six years. Four of them were diagnosed with primary or idiopathic form of CIPO and another four were clearly secondary to a systemic disease. The ninth case, which was initially diagnosed as secondary, is probably also a primary form of the disease. The number of patients diagnosed in our center, even thought small, makes us to hypothesize that the prevalence of CIPO is probably greater than is generally believed and that the reasons of its rarity are the incomplete understanding of its physiopathology and the difficulties to achieve a correct diagnosis. PMID:19527079

Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Solís-Muñoz, P; Salces, I; Ballestín, C; Colina, F; Ibarrola, C; López-Alonso, G; Carreira, P; Cruz Vigo, F; Solís Herruzo, J A

2009-05-01

15

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a horse: A case of myenteric ganglionitis  

PubMed Central

An 11-year-old Quarter horse mare was presented for recurrent episodes of colic. A chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed. Medical treatment and surgical resection of the colon were performed but the condition did not improve and the horse was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed a myenteric ganglionitis of the small intestine and ascending colon. PMID:21731098

Chénier, Sonia; Macieira, Susana M.; Sylvestre, Doris; Jean, Daniel

2011-01-01

16

Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... underlying illness, stop the medication, or do both. Nutritional Support People with intestinal pseudo-obstruction often need nutritional support to prevent malnutrition and weight loss. Enteral nutrition ...

17

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... the elderly. The cause of the problem is unknown. Therefore, it is also called idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Idiopathic means occurring without a known reason. Risk factors include: Cerebral palsy or other ...

18

Repetitive Colonoscopic Decompression as a Bridge Therapy before Surgery in a Pregnant Patient with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare clinical syndrome which is characterized by intestinal obstruction without occluding lesions in the intestinal lumen and pregnancy is one of the important aggravating factors. Here, we report a case of a woman with intractable intestinal pseudo-obstruction that was precipitated by pregnancy. She could not make any stool passage for more than 4 weeks until a fetal gestational age of 17 weeks was reached. However, the patient could be maintained by repetitive colonoscopic decompressions and finally total colectomy could be performed successfully at a fetal gestational age of 21 weeks. PMID:24143328

Kim, Joon Sung; Kim, Byung-Wook; Choi, Hwang; Lee, Yun-Seok; Maeng, Leeso

2013-01-01

19

Clinical characteristics of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in adults  

PubMed Central

Background—Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, a syndrome of ineffectual motility due to a primary disorder of enteric nerve or muscle, is rare. ?Aims—To determine the clinical spectrum, underlying pathologies, response to treatments, and prognosis in a consecutive unselected group of patients. ?Methods—Cross sectional study of all patients with clinical and radiological features of intestinal obstruction in the absence of organic obstruction, associated with dilated small intestine (with or without dilated large intestine), being actively managed in one tertiary referral centre at one time. ?Results—Twenty patients (11 men and nine women, median age 43 years, range 22-67) fulfilled the diganostic criteria. Median age at onset of symptoms was 17 years (range two weeks to 59 years). Two patients had an autosomally dominant inherited visceral myopathy. Major presenting symptoms were pain (80%), vomiting (75%), constipation (40%), and diarrhoea (20%). Eighteen patients required abdominal surgery, and a further patient had a full thickness rectal biopsy. The mean time interval from symptom onset to first operation was 5.8 years. Histology showed visceral myopathy in 13, visceral neuropathy in three, and was indeterminate in three. In the one other patient small bowel motility studies were suggestive of neuropathy. Two patients died within two years of symptom onset, one from generalised thrombosis and the other from an inflammatory myopathy. Of the remaining 18 patients, eight were nutritionally independent of supplements, two had gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeds, and eight were receiving home parenteral nutrition. Five patients were opiate dependent, only one patient had benefited from prokinetic drug therapy, and five patients required formal psychological intervention and support. ?Conclusions—In a referral setting visceral myopathy is the most common diagnosis in this heterogeneous syndrome, the course of the illness is usually prolonged, and prokinetic drug therapies are not usually helpful. Ongoing management problems include pain relief and nutritional support. ?? Keywords: adult; intestinal; pseudo-obstruction; myopathy; neuropathy PMID:9414977

Mann, S; Debinski, H; Kamm, M

1997-01-01

20

Intestinal pseudoobstruction in Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudoobstruction is an uncommon but important manifestation of Kawasaki disease. Its occurrence at the onset or during the course of the disease may confuse the clinical picture and cause delay in diagnosis and treatment. This delay may be responsible for the high rate of coronary artery abnormalities that have been reported in patients with this complication. We suggest that Kawasaki disease be considered in the differential diagnosis of any child presenting with intestinal pseudoobstruction and fever without definable cause. PMID:15121996

Akikusa, Jonathan D; Laxer, Ronald M; Friedman, Jeremy N

2004-05-01

21

Gastric electrical stimulation for intractable vomiting in patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is effective for medically refractory nausea and vomiting in patients with idiopathic or diabetic gastroparesis (DGP). We studied whether GES has similar effects in chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP). Patients referred for chronic small bowel (SB) motor dysfunction requiring parenteral nutrition and having a weekly vomiting frequency (WVF) >/=7 refractory to prokinetics and antiemetics were included. Patients were implanted for high-frequency GES 12 stimuli min(-1), laparoscopy being the first-line implantation procedure. Results were compared with those obtained in 11 DGP patients. Three patients with familial CIP and one patient with postsurgical CIP fulfilled the criteria. Gastric emptying was delayed in two and was normal in two patients. SB transit time was markedly delayed. Laparoscopy was used in three patients, one patient required laparotomy. During GES, WVF decreased from 24 (mean) before GES to 6.9 at 12 months and 7.5 at last visit. Vomiting reduction was 50-90% at last visit. For the DGP patients, WVF decreased from 23 before GES to 3.5 at 12 months and 3.5 (P < 0.01) at last visit. In patients with CIP and medically refractory vomiting, GES seems to have an anti-vomiting effect comparable to that seen in patients with severe DGP. GES should be considered as a therapeutic option for these patients. PMID:16918761

Andersson, S; Lönroth, H; Simrén, M; Ringström, G; Elfvin, A; Abrahamsson, H

2006-09-01

22

Epidemiology and Clinical Experience of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in Japan: A Nationwide Epidemiologic Survey  

PubMed Central

Background We estimated the prevalence and incidence of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) in Japan, investigated the patterns of hospital visits among those with CIPO, and examined present knowledge of CIPO among medical professionals. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was distributed to targeted hospitals throughout Japan, which were selected using stratified random sampling. The questionnaire asked about the number of patients receiving treatment for CIPO, the frequency of their hospital visits, and overall clinical knowledge of CIPO among medical professionals. Results CIPO prevalence was estimated to be 1.00 and 0.80 cases per 100 000 males and females, respectively. Incidence was 0.21 and 0.24 cases per 100 000 males and females, respectively. Prevalence and incidence did not significantly differ males and females. Mean age of patients was 63.1 years for males and 59.2 for females. Accurate diagnosis of CIPO sometimes required more than 3 months after initial presentation. Most medical professionals were unaware of or poorly understood CIPO. Conclusions We estimated the prevalence and incidence of CIPO in Japan, using data from a nationwide survey. The findings suggest that knowledge of CIPO should be further disseminated so that the disease is not overlooked and is diagnosed without delay. PMID:23831693

Iida, Hiroshi; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Sato, Hajime

2013-01-01

23

[A case of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum associated with idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction].  

PubMed

Pneumoperitoneum, free intra-abdominal air, usually results from the perforation of a hollow viscous. In approximately 10% of cases, however, pneumoperitoneum is not caused by gastrointestinal perforation. These cases of "spontaneous pneumoperitoneum" generally follow more benign course and may not require surgical intervention. Examples include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), malrotation, mechanical ventilator support, gynecologic manipulation, blunt abdominal trauma, and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in infancy (Sieber syndrome). But, it is extremely rare of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum secondary to idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction in adult. We herein report a patient with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction who developed a pneumoperitoneum. PMID:20026895

Kim, Hye Won; Chon, Nu Ri; Kim, Young Shin; Kim, Jie Hyun; Park, Hyojin

2009-12-01

24

Paraneoplastic chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction as a rare complication of bronchial carcinoid.  

PubMed Central

This report describes paraneoplastic visceral neuropathy including achalasia, gastroparesis, subileus and constipation in a 59 year old patient with metastasising atypical bronchial carcinoid. Achalasia was successfully treated by cardiomyotomy and fundoplication; additionally, extramucosal pylorectomy was undertaken to improve gastric emptying. Endoscopic papillotomy was necessary because of a functional stenosis of the sphincter of Oddi with development of obstructive jaundice. Symptoms of intestinal pseudoobstruction did not improve with cisapride or corticosteroid treatment. Histological examination of gastrointestinal specimens revealed a lymphocytic infiltration of the myenteric plexus associated with loss of neurones. The rheumatoid factor was positive, there was evidence of circulating immune complexes and antibodies to Sm-antigen were present, suggesting a possible autoimmune pathogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1644319

Gerl, A; Storck, M; Schalhorn, A; Müller-Höcker, J; Jauch, K W; Schildberg, F W; Wilmanns, W

1992-01-01

25

The familial syndromes of intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed Central

Ten reported families with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction were reviewed. Although clinical manifestations and gastrointestinal contrast roentgenograms are similar in these families, the pathology and inheritance are quite different. Five families have degeneration and fibrosis of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, three have normal intestinal morphology, and one has degeneration of the myenteric plexus throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Four families are consistent with dominant inheritance, three are consistent with X-linked dominant transmission, and three are compatible with recessive inheritance. Patients in these families have a wide spectrum and degree of chronic and/or intermittent gastrointestinal symptoms. As many as 20% of the family cases discovered are asymptomatic. Operative procedures to drain or resect short dilated intestinal segments may help to relieve symptoms. PMID:6894822

Anuras, S; Shaw, A; Christensen, J

1981-01-01

26

Detection of Anti-Conductive Tissue Autoantibodies in a Patient with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction and Sick Sinus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old patient was diagnosed as suffering from chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction with manometric and histopathologic features suggestive of a intestinal myopathy. Histology was characterized by smooth muscle degeneration without inflammatory or immune cells. The severe gut dysfunction required full parenteral nutritional support. Few months later, the patient developed symptomatic tachy-brady arrhythmia episodes with syncopes. A thorough diagnostic work-up led to a diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome which was managed by pacemaker implantation and ?-blockers administration. This led to a partial improvement of tachy-brady arrhythmia episodes. Nonetheless, the patient continued to experience sustained supraventricular tachyarrhythmia runs, poorly responsive to increasing ?-blocker doses. To investigate the origin of the cardiologic impairment, the patient was tested for anti-conductive tissue autoantibodies, which were positive, thus supporting a possible autoimmune origin of the dysrhythmia. Other autoantibodies tested for were negative. Based on these findings, the patient was treated with high dose steroids which were then tapered. The patient responded to the steroid treatment and did not experience further episodes of syncope and tachyarrhythmias. The severe gut dysfunction remained unchanged. This case highlights an association between severe gut dysfunction and cardiac conductive tissue abnormalities with autoantibodies to conductive tissue possibly causing the dysrhythmia. The severe gut and heart (likely autoimmune-mediated) dysfunction presented in this case provide a basis to assess further a link between intestinal and cardiac abnormal rhythmicity. PMID:24081107

Caio, Giacomo; Volta, Umberto; Cerrato, Enrico; Clavenzani, Paolo; Montali, Nicolò; Cogliandro, Rosanna; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Golzio, Pier Giorgio; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Farrugia, Gianrico; De Giorgio, Roberto

2014-01-01

27

Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with intestinal pseudoobstruction, successfully treated with octreotide.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudoobstruction has been reported as a paraneoplastic manifestation of several cancers, including those of gastrointestinal tract. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been used successfully in the treatment of idiopathic and scleroderma-associated intestinal pseudoobstruction. We report a 65-year-old man with carcinoma stomach presenting with intestinal pseudoobstruction, which responded to octreotide. PMID:17090868

Sharma, Sanjay; Ghoshal, Uday C; Bhat, Ganesh; Choudhuri, Gourdas

2006-11-01

28

Intestinal pseudoobstruction as a paraneoplastic syndrome in ganglioneuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudoobstruction may be part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report a teenage girl with ganglioneuroblastoma who presented with severe constipation. The intestinal pseudoobstruction was presumed to be due to inflammation of the myenteric plexus with destruction of the ganglion cells caused by antineuronal nuclear antibodies (ANNA or Anti-Hu). PMID:12548500

Wildhaber, B; Niggli, F; Stallmach, T; Willi, U; Stauffer, U G; Sacher, P

2002-12-01

29

Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases.  

PubMed

Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), composed of zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, dried ginger rhizome and malt sugar, is clinically effective for postoperative ileus and chronic constipation. MMIHS and CIIP are severe motility disorder associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DKT on functional intestinal obstruction. DKT was clinically effective for gastrointestinal motility in a case with MMIHS, but not effective in one with CIIP. MMIHS and CIIP are speculated to have different pathogenesis regarding gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction based upon the effect of this drug. PMID:21318994

Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Matuda, Hiromitu; Hinoki, Tomoya; Kato, Yuko

2009-04-01

30

Advancement in the clinical management of intestinal pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is more commonly known in its chronic form (CIPO), a cluster of rare diseases characterized by gastrointestinal muscle and nerve impairment, so severe to result in a markedly compromised peristalsis mimicking an intestinal occlusion. The management of CIPO requires the cooperation of a group of specialists: the disease has to be confirmed by a number of tests to avoid mistakes in the differential diagnosis. The treatment should be aimed at relieving symptoms arising from gut dysmotility (ideally using prokinetic agents), controlling abdominal pain (possibly with non-opioid antinociceptive drugs) and optimizing nutritional support. Furthermore, a thorough diagnostic work-up is mandatory to avoid unnecessary (potentially harmful) surgery and to select patients with clear indication to intestinal or multivisceral transplantation. PMID:25020006

Lauro, Augusto; De Giorgio, Roberto; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

2015-02-01

31

Fatal acute intestinal pseudoobstruction in mice.  

PubMed

Here we describe the epizootiology and pathology of spontaneous, fatal acute intestinal pseudoobstruction that occurred in a mouse colony of 1000 breeding pairs, mainly of the C57Bl/6 strain and free from known pathogenic agents. Most of the mice affected were dams in the second week of lactation. At necropsy, segments of the small intestines were distended with fluid contents. Widespread apoptosis of the villus epithelium of the small intestine and superficial epithelial cells of the large intestine, associated with strong expression of active caspase 3, was a distinctive feature. Necrotic enterocytes, mucosal erosions, and acute mucosal inflammation were prominent in some mice, and morphologic signs of toxemia were generally present. No light microscopic neuronal changes were apparent in the gut, and no etiologic agents were identified. These results indicate that sudden activation of apoptosis in the trophically stimulated gut epithelium during peak lactation was instrumental for the fatal outcome of the condition, but the primary cause of the motility dysfunction of the bowel was not established. PMID:18459715

Feinstein, Ricardo E; Morris, Winston E; Waldemarson, Anne Halldén; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Lindberg, Ronny

2008-05-01

32

Transgastric long tube placement following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for severe chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction related to systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Medical management of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated chronic intestinal pseudo- obstruction (CIPO) has often proved inadequate. Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) has been proposed as a method of treatment, but it is associated with a relatively high incidence of serious complications. We report herein a very severe case of SSc-associated CIPO in which complications were successfully controlled by long tube placement via a gastrostomy. Transgastric long tube placement may offer a relatively safe alternative to PEC in treating severe SSc-associated CIPO. PMID:24252025

Nunokawa, Takahiro; Yokogawa, Naoto; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Shimada, Kota; Sugii, Shoji

2013-11-01

33

Absence of the interstitial cells of Cajal in a child with chronic pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Absence or altered distribution of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) has been described in association with intestinal pseudoobstruction in adults. We report the first pediatric case with regional absence of ICCs in the distal small bowel and colon associated with intestinal pseudoobstruction. This report highlights that abnormalities of the ICCs in intestinal pseudoobstruction should be considered early in the diagnostic workup of children with intestinal pseudoobstruction. PMID:19040916

Struijs, Marie-Chantal; Diamond, Ivan R; Pencharz, Paul B; Chang, Kenneth T E; Viero, Sandra; Langer, Jacob C; Wales, Paul W

2008-12-01

34

Adhesive Ileus Complicating Recurrent Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis  

PubMed Central

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is considered to be one of the most frequent gastrointestinal manifestations of myasthenia gravis, accompanied by the presence of neoplasia of the thymus gland in the vast majority of the cases presented in the international literature. Despite the fact that myasthenia gravis has been implicated to be the cause of recurrent episodes of intestinal pseudo-obstruction, adhesive ileus has never been reported to complicate this – in any sense rare – condition. We present a unique case of a patient with myasthenia gravis, free of thymus neoplasia, who was submitted to emergency surgery due to the presence of extended adhesive ileus as a complication of chronic intestinal functional obstruction. PMID:23055952

Seretis, Charalampos; Seretis, Fotios; Gemenetzis, George; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pappas, Apostolos; Keramidaris, Dimitrios; Salemis, Nikolaos

2012-01-01

35

Idiopathic myenteric ganglionitis underlying acute 'dramatic' intestinal pseudoobstruction: report of an exceptional case.  

PubMed

Inflammation of the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal tract is a very rare pathological condition, with few reports in the medical literature. This pathological condition causes atonic gut motor dysfunction and is principally secondary to other diseases, being reported nearly solely as a paraneoplastic phenomenon in neuroendocrine lung tumors, including small cell carcinomas or neuroblastomas. In addition it can also be associated with disorders of the central nervous system, although it has rarely been described in Chagas disease. It has been named 'idiopathic myenteric ganglionitis' because no apparent causes can be demonstrated. We report the clinicopathologic findings of an exceptional case of a young woman affected by severe chronic constipation suddenly changing into acute intestinal pseudoobstruction with dramatic evolution. Relationships between ganglionitis, idiopathic constipation and acute intestinal pseudoobstruction as well as therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:21897800

Racalbuto, A; Magro, G; Lanteri, R; Aliotta, I; Santangelo, M; Di Cataldo, A

2008-09-01

36

Long-term outcome of congenital intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

We evaluated 85 children with congenital chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) over the past 10 years. Twelve (14%) were born prematurely. One had a family history of CIP. Six had systemic diseases. Thirty-five (41%) had urinary bladder involvement. Manometric features were consistent with myopathy in 32, neuropathy in 48, and mixed disease in 5. Of 48 patients with neuropathy, 6 had urinary bladder involvement (12.5%) (P < 0.0001 vs myopathy), and 10 had malrotation (21%) (P = NS vs myopathy). Upon referral, 53 (62%) were dependent on partial or total parenteral nutrition (PN). At the time of chart review (median 25 months after evaluation), 22 patients had died, 14 of whom were on total PN, 13 of them died because of PN-related complications and 1 died of sepsis. Three others died of sepsis while on partial PN (P = 0.007 vs mortality in patients fed enterally) and five died after small bowel transplantation. In conclusion, in children with congenital CIP, the risk for prematurity is increased twofold, the majority of cases are sporadic, abnormal bladder function is more common in myopathic CIP, and complications related to parenteral nutrition are the main cause of death in children with CIP. PMID:12395903

Mousa, Hayat; Hyman, Paul E; Cocjin, Jose; Flores, Alejandro F; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

2002-10-01

37

Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction  

SciTech Connect

A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction.

Schang, J.C.; Devroede, G.

1985-06-01

38

[Gastro-intestinal lymphocytic and sclerosing leiomyositis (pseudoobstruction) in a dog].  

PubMed

The clinical, ultrasonographic and radiologic aspects and the pathology of gastro-intestinal lymphocytic and sclerosing leiomyositis (pseudoobstruction) are described in a 14 month old, male American Staffordshire terrier. PMID:23101332

Beijer, H A; van den Ingh, T S G A M

2012-10-01

39

[From starving to life-threatening nutrition--the history of an intestinal pseudoobstruction].  

PubMed

It is the story of a 70-year-old lady, who suffered from chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction since her adolescence. In the early 90ies progressive cachexia developed. In 1994 parenteral nutrition was begun via a port-à-cath-system with good success in the first years. Later, various complications occurred: thrombotic events, several catheter-related infections with various bacterial strains, an endocarditis of the aortic valve, which was replaced by a bioprosthesis, and finally a relapsing endocarditis of this artificial valve with a life-threatening paravalvular abscess and regurgitation. She also survived this second heart surgery and is currently under parenteral nutrition again, with a more than uncertain future. PMID:17133296

Reinhart, W H

2006-12-01

40

Occurrence of Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction in a Brainstem Hemorrhage Patient  

PubMed Central

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a massive colonic dilation with signs and symptoms of colonic obstruction, but without a mechanical cause. A 49-year-old female patient complained of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distension 1 month after a massive brainstem hemorrhage. No improvement was seen with conservative treatments. An extended-length rectal tube was inserted to perform glycerin enema. In addition, bethanechol (35 mg per day) was administered to stimulate colonic motility. The patient's condition gradually improved over a 2-month period without any surgical intervention. Extended length rectal tube enema and bethanechol can be used to improve intestinal pseudo-obstruction in stroke patients. PMID:22639755

Lee, Sang-jee; Choi, Eun-seok; Jung, Sung-hee; Yoon, Jong-soo

2012-01-01

41

Intestinal transplantation for total/near-total aganglionosis and intestinal pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed

Whether from anatomical short gut (such as after resection of extensive intestinal aganglionosis) or from a functional cause (such as intestinal pseudoobstruction), intestinal failure is a devastating disease process with profound morbidity and mortality. These patients require total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and are at risk of developing complications such as liver failure, catheter-related sepsis and loss of venous access. Intestinal transplantation, which has advanced markedly over the last 14 years, is now the accepted standard of care for patients failing TPN. Survival outcomes have improved significantly, infectious complications are better controlled, and new immunosuppressive therapies offer great hope for the future. In particular, the results of intestinal transplantation achieved with the motility disorders are equivalent to those experienced with other causes of intestinal failure. In themselves, the motility disorders present their own set of complicating factors, including determining the extent of the disease process (which may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract), associated urological anomalies, and the type of organ transplantation required. Extensive workup and careful consideration is required before transplantation is undertaken. However, early referral is desirable once complications arise if these patients are to be offered optimal medical care before the chance of transplantation is lost. PMID:15660322

Bond, Geoffrey J; Reyes, Jorge D

2004-11-01

42

Deletion of Pten in the mouse enteric nervous system induces ganglioneuromatosis and mimics intestinal pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis is a benign proliferation of nerve ganglion cells, nerve fibers, and supporting cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that can result in abnormally large enteric neuronal cells (ENCs) in the myenteric plexus and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO). As phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a phosphatase that is critical for controlling cell growth, proliferation, and death, we investigated the role of PTEN in the ENS by generating mice with an embryonic, ENC-selective deletion within the Pten locus. Mutant mice died 2 to 3 weeks after birth, with clinical signs of CIPO and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of ENCs resulting from increased activity of the PI3K/PTEN-AKT-S6K signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that PTEN was only expressed in developing mouse embryonic ENCs from E15.5 and that the rate of ENC proliferation decreased once PTEN was expressed. Specific deletion of the Pten gene in ENCs therefore induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the later stages of embryogenesis. This phenotype was reversed by administration of a pharmacological inhibitor of AKT. In some human ganglioneuromatosis forms of CIPO, PTEN expression was found to be abnormally low and S6 phosphorylation increased. Our study thus reveals that loss of PTEN disrupts development of the ENS and identifies the PI3K/PTEN-AKT-S6K signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for ganglioneuromatosis forms of CIPO. PMID:19884655

Puig, Isabel; Champeval, Delphine; De Santa Barbara, Pascal; Jaubert, Francis; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Larue, Lionel

2009-12-01

43

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A real diagnostic challenge  

PubMed Central

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare syndrome described in recent decades. There are slightly over 30 published cases in the English language literature, primarily associated with renal and hematological disease activity. Its presentation and evolution are a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. We present four cases of intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to lupus in young Mexican females. One patient had a previous diagnosis of SLE and all presented with a urinary tract infection of varying degrees of severity during their evolution. We consider that recognition of the disease is of vital importance because it allows for establishing appropriate management, leading to a better prognosis and avoiding unnecessary surgery and complications. PMID:25170234

García López, Carlos Alberto; Laredo-Sánchez, Fernando; Malagón-Rangel, José; Flores-Padilla, Miguel G; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko

2014-01-01

44

Characteristics of intestinal pseudo-obstruction in patients with mitochondrial diseases  

PubMed Central

AIM: To reveal the frequency, characteristics and prog-nosis of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) in mitochondrial disease patients. METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2010, 31 patients (13 males and 18 females) were diagnosed with mitochondrial diseases at our hospital. We conducted a retrospective review of the patients’ sex, subclass of mitochondrial disease, age at onset of mitochondrial disease, frequency of CIP and the age at its onset, and the duration of survival. The age at onset or at the first diagnosis of the disorder that led to the clinical suspicion of mitochondrial disease was also examined. RESULTS: Twenty patients were sub-classified with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), 8 with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), and 3 with myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF). Nine patients were diagnosed with CIP, 8 of the 20 (40.0%) patients with MELAS, 0 of the 8 (0.0%) patients with CPEO, and 1 of the 3 (33.3%) patients with MERRF. The median age (range) at the diagnosis and the median age at onset of mitochondrial disease were 40 (17-69) and 25 (12-63) years in patients with CIP, and 49 (17-81) and 40 (11-71) years in patients without CIP. During the survey period, 5 patients (4 patients with MELAS and 1 with CPEO) died. The cause of death was cardiomyopathy in 2 patients with MELAS, cerebral infarction in 1 patient with MELAS, epilepsy and aspiration pneumonia in 1 patient with MELAS, and multiple metastases from gastric cancer and aspiration pneumonia in 1 patient with CPEO. CONCLUSION: Patients with CIP tend to have disorders that are suspected to be related to mitochondrial diseases at younger ages than are patients without CIP. PMID:22969229

Sekino, Yusuke; Inamori, Masahiko; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Higurashi, Takuma; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Nonaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Koide, Tomoko; Abe, Yasunobu; Gotoh, Eiji; Koyano, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

2012-01-01

45

[Marked efficacy of metronidazole for the intestinal pseudoobstruction associated with systemic sclerosis].  

PubMed

In May 2009, a 57-year-old woman who had rheumatoid arthritis since 9 years was admitted to our hospital for dyspnea due to interstitial pneumonia (IP). On admission, she exhibited proximal scleroderma, finger edema, Raynaud's phenomenon, digital pitting scars, ankyloglossia, and esophageal dysmotility. The patient was diagnosed as having systemic sclerosis (SSc), according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. After initiation of high-dose corticosteroid therapy, gradual amelioration of IP was observed. However, the patient complained of abdominal fullness. Computed tomography and intestine series findings revealed significant dilatation of the small intestine due to intra-abdominal free air and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis but no mechanical obstruction, leading to a diagnosis of SSc with pseudo-obstruction. The patient underwent decompression with a long intestinal tube, which led to improvement in her symptoms. Although erythromycin (EM) and some prokinetic agents were administered, abdominal involvement recurred several days after resumption of oral ingestion. Therefore, we changed the antibiotic from EM to metronidazole (750 mg/day). Her manifestations were promptly ameliorated by metronidazole therapy in 4 days and did not recur. Metronidazole is an antibiotic used to treat intra-abdominal anaerobic bacterial infections and is also commonly used in preoperative treatment for colorectal surgery. In conclusion, we report a case where SSc-associated pseudo-obstruction was successfully managed by metronidazole therapy. PMID:21372514

Azuma, Naoto; Nishioka, Aki; Iizuka, Masahiro; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Kazuyuki; Hino, Takuya; Okabe, Mika; Morimoto, Mai; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Kitano, Masayasu; Hashimoto, Naoaki; Sano, Hajime

2011-01-01

46

Favorable surgical treatment outcomes for chronic constipation with features of colonic pseudo-obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine long-term outcomes of surgical treatments for patients with constipation and features of colonic pseudo-obstruction. METHODS: Consecutive 42 patients who underwent surgery for chronic constipation within the last 13 years were prospectively collected. We identified a subgroup with colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) features, with dilatation of the colon proximal to the narrowed transitional zone, in contrast to typical slow-transit constipation (STC), without any dilated colonic segments. The outcomes of surgical treatments for chronic constipation with features of CPO were analyzed and compared with outcomes for STC. RESULTS: Of the 42 patients who underwent surgery for constipation, 33 patients had CPO with dilatation of the colon proximal to the narrowed transitional zone. There were 16 males and 17 females with a mean age of 51.2 ± 16.1 years. All had symptoms of chronic intestinal obstruction, including abdominal distension, pain, nausea, or vomiting, and the mean duration of symptoms was 67 mo (range: 6-252 mo). Preoperative defecation frequency was 1.5 ± 0.6 times/wk (range: 1-2 times/wk). Thirty-two patients underwent total colectomy, and one patient underwent diverting transverse colostomy. There was no surgery-related mortality. Postoperative histologic examination showed hypoganglionosis or agangliosis in 23 patients and hypoganglionosis combined with visceral neuropathy or myopathy in 10 patients. In contrast, histology of STC group revealed intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (n = 6) and visceral myopathy (n = 3). Early postoperative complications developed in six patients with CPO; wound infection (n = 3), paralytic ileus (n = 2), and intraabdominal abscess (n = 1). Defecation frequencies 3 mo after surgery improved to 4.2 ± 3.2 times/d (range: 1-15 times/d). Long-term follow-up (median: 39.7 mo) was available in 32 patients; all patients had improvements in constipation symptoms, but two patients needed intermittent medication for management of diarrhea. All 32 patients had distinct improvements in constipation symptoms (with a mean bowel frequency of 3.3 ± 1.3 times/d), social activities, and body mass index (20.5 kg/m2 to 22.1 kg/m2) and were satisfied with the results of their surgical treatment. In comparison with nine patients who underwent colectomy for STC without colon dilatation, those in the CPO group had a lower incidence of small bowel obstructions (0% vs 55.6%, P < 0.01) and less difficulty with long-distance travel (6.7% vs 66.7%, P = 0.007) on long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Chronic constipation patients with features of CPO caused by narrowed transitional zone in the left colon had favorable outcomes after total colectomy. PMID:22969211

Han, Eon Chul; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Park, Kyu Joo

2012-01-01

47

Deranged smooth muscle ?-actin as a biomarker of intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a controlled multinational case series  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) is a severe motility disorder associated with significant morbidity. Several histopathological (neuropathic and myopathic) phenotypes have been described but only a single adult with jejunal smooth (circular) muscle ?-actin deficiency. We present a prospective multinational case series investigating smooth muscle ?-actin deficiency as a biomarker of this disease. Methods: A total of 115 fully clinically and physiologically (including prolonged (24 hour) ambulatory jejunal manometry) characterised CIIP patients from three European centres were studied. Immunohistochemical localisation of actins and other cytoskeletal proteins were performed on laparoscopic full thickness jejunal biopsies and compared with adult controls. Distribution of ?-actin was also characterised in other gut regions and in the developing human alimentary tract. Results: Twenty eight of 115 (24%) CIIP patient biopsies had absent (n?=?22) or partial (n?=?6) jejunal smooth muscle ?-actin immunostaining in the circular muscle layer. In contrast, smooth muscle ?-actin staining was preserved in the longitudinal muscle and in adult jejunal controls (n?=?20). Comparative study of other adult alimentary tract regions and fetal small intestine, suggested significant spatial and temporal variations in smooth muscle ?-actin expression. Conclusions: The ability to modulate ?-smooth muscle actin expression, evident in development, is maintained in adult life and may be influenced by disease, rendering it a valuable biomarker even in the absence of other structural abnormalities. PMID:15479676

Knowles, C H; Silk, D B A; Darzi, A; Veress, B; Feakins, R; Raimundo, A H; Crompton, T; Browning, E C; Lindberg, G; Martin, J E

2004-01-01

48

Neostigmine for the treatment of acute hepatic encephalopathy with acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a cirrhotic patient.  

PubMed

We treated a 49-yr-old man with neostigmine, who had liver cirrhosis, acute hepatic encephalopathy, and acute intestinal pseudoobstruction. He was admitted in a state of hepatic confusion. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended; and bowel sound was absent. Plain abdomen film revealed multiple air-fluid levels and distention of bowel loops. Initially, we gave him lactulose enemas every 6 hr for one day without improvement in his mental state. Furthermore, he became to a state of coma. Therefore, we gave him 0.5 mg of neostigmine subcutaneously to improve his peristaltic movement, and 2 L of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution through a nasogastric tube for 4 hr to reduce the production and absorption of gut-derived toxins of nitrogenous compounds. After these treatments, the venous ammonia level decreased to the normal range within 12 hr, and the coma disappeared after 2 days. We suggest that neostigmine may be one of the most effective treatments to initiate peristaltic movement and bowel cleansing in cirrhotic patients with acute hepatic encephalopathy and acute intestinal pseudoobstruction. PMID:15716622

Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun; Kim, Sei Jong

2005-02-01

49

Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction Pediatric and Adolescent  

E-print Network

approximately 30 feet through the digestive system, starting from the esophagus through the stomach, small the digestive system. #12;What causes gastrointestinal motility disorders? When the nerves or muscles in any portion of the digestive system do not function in a strong or coordinated fashion, the child develops

50

[Clinical management of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in patients: a systematic review of the literature].  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudoobstruction is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of intestinal propulsion, which may resemble intestinal obstruction, in the absence of a mechanical cause. It usually affects the colon but the small intestine may also be involved, and may present in acute, subacute or chronic forms. We have performed a systematic review of the acute form of pseudoobstruction, also referred to as Ogilvie's syndrome. We discuss proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, manifestations and management of this clinical condition in post-surgery and critically ill patients. The hallmark of the syndrome is massive intestinal distension, which is detected on clinical inspection and plain abdominal radiography. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, treatment has focussed on preventing intestinal perforation, which is associated with a 21% mortality rate. PMID:14670240

Delgado-Aros, S; Camilleri, M

2003-12-01

51

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction--a rare condition with heterogeneous etiology and unpredictable outcome. A case report.  

PubMed

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO), either acute or chronic, is a condition including features of intestinal ileus in the absence of mechanical obstruction. We present such a rare case of idiopathic IPO in a 53-year old male patient in whom recurrent episodes of pseudo-obstruction were successfully resolved by anticholinesterase agents, motilin agonists or colonic decompression. However, subsequently total colectomy was required. Huge colonic dilatation was identified intraoperatively, while histology evidenced a neuropathic variant of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. IPO is a condition in which conservative treatment usually fails. Total colectomy with ileoanal pouch was the solution in our patient. PMID:18392249

Georgescu, Eugen Florin; Vasile, Ion; Georgescu, Ana Claudia

2008-03-01

52

Retinoblastoma protein prevents enteric nervous system defects and intestinal pseudo-obstruction  

PubMed Central

The retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and development. To investigate the role of RB1 in neural crest–derived melanocytes, we bred mice with a floxed Rb1 allele with mice expressing Cre from the tyrosinase (Tyr) promoter. TyrCre+;Rb1fl/fl mice exhibited no melanocyte defects but died unexpectedly early with intestinal obstruction, striking defects in the enteric nervous system (ENS), and abnormal intestinal motility. Cre-induced DNA recombination occurred in all enteric glia and most small bowel myenteric neurons, yet phenotypic effects of Rb1 loss were cell-type specific. Enteric glia were twice as abundant in mutant mice compared with those in control animals, while myenteric neuron number was normal. Most myenteric neurons also appeared normal in size, but NO-producing myenteric neurons developed very large nuclei as a result of DNA replication without cell division (i.e., endoreplication). Parallel studies in vitro found that exogenous NO and Rb1 shRNA increased ENS precursor DNA replication and nuclear size. The large, irregularly shaped nuclei in NO-producing neurons were remarkably similar to those in progeria, an early-onset aging disorder that has been linked to RB1 dysfunction. These findings reveal a role for RB1 in the ENS. PMID:24177421

Fu, Ming; Landreville, Solange; Agapova, Olga A.; Wiley, Luke A.; Shoykhet, Michael; Harbour, J. William; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

2013-01-01

53

Clinical Analysis of 61 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients With Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction and/or Ureterohydronephrosis: A Retrospective Observational Study.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to investigate the clinical features of intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) and/or ureterohydronephrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Sixty-one SLE patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 183 cases were randomly selected as controls from 3840 SLE inpatients without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis during the same period. Patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups (SLE with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis, SLE with IPO, and SLE with ureterohydronephrosis). The clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognosis were compared between the 3 groups.There were 57 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 32.0 years. IPO was the initial manifestation of SLE in 49.1% of the cases, whereas ureterohydronephrosis in 32.5%. All patients were initially treated with a high-dose steroid. Thirty-one of these patients (50.8%) also received intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Two patients died of bowel perforation and lupus encephalopathy, and the other 59 patients (96.7%) achieved remission after treatment. The incidences of fever, glomerulonephritis, nervous system involvement, serositis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation, hypoalbuminemia, hypocomplementemia, and anti-SSA antibody positivity were significantly higher in patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis than in the control group (without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis). Also, patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis had higher SLE Disease Activity Index scores than control patients. Compared with SLE patients with IPO, the patients with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis had a significantly higher incidence of gallbladder wall thickening, biliary tract dilatation, and serositis, whereas the patients with ureterohydronephrosis had less mucocutaneous involvement and serositis. Eight of the 47 IPO patients who initially responded well to immunotherapy relapsed; however, all responded well to retreatment with adequate immunotherapy. Of these 8 patients, 4 relapsed following poor compliance and self-discontinuation of steroid or immunosuppressant therapy. The rate of poor compliance with immunotherapy and the number of organ systems involved in patients in the recurrent IPO group were significantly higher than those in the nonrecurrent IPO group.IPO and ureterohydronephrosis are severe complications of SLE. As patients usually respond readily to early optimal steroid treatment, early diagnosis and timely initiation of glucocorticoid are important to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve prognosis. PMID:25634172

Xu, Na; Zhao, Jiuliang; Liu, Jinjing; Wu, Di; Zhao, Lidan; Wang, Qian; Hou, Yong; Li, Mengtao; Zhang, Wen; Zeng, Xuejun; Fang, Weigang; Huang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xuan; Tian, Xinping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

2015-01-01

54

[Chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases. Pathophysiology and therapy].  

PubMed

The pathogenesis and therapy of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases are characterized by an obvious discrepancy. There is extensive agreement that the pathogenesis is substantially based on a disruption of the barrier of the intestinal mucous membrane against luminal bacteria. This has been demonstrated in recent years by evidence from various disciplines, in particular from genetics, microbiology, morphology and innate immunology. However, there is also the evidence-based therapy which, as in the past, is aimed against the effectors of the adaptive immune system. In this case the therapy with biologicals is more aggressive and takes the risk of a series of undesired side-effects. This dichotomy of pathological knowledge and therapeutic innovation is not only medically unsatisfactory but also makes it difficult to present a consistent picture of these symptoms. Despite this an attempt will be made to bridge these inconsistencies and to demonstrate possible future developments which will lead to a final causal therapy. An extended version of this article appears in our newly published book "Colitis ulcerosa und Morbus Crohn". PMID:19777197

Herrlinger, K; Wittig, B; Stange, E F

2009-10-01

55

Chronic kidney disease alters intestinal microbial flora.  

PubMed

The population of microbes (microbiome) in the intestine is a symbiotic ecosystem conferring trophic and protective functions. Since the biochemical environment shapes the structure and function of the microbiome, we tested whether uremia and/or dietary and pharmacologic interventions in chronic kidney disease alters the microbiome. To identify different microbial populations, microbial DNA was isolated from the stools of 24 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 12 healthy persons, and analyzed by phylogenetic microarray. There were marked differences in the abundance of 190 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the ESRD and control groups. OTUs from Brachybacterium, Catenibacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae, Nesterenkonia, Polyangiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Thiothrix families were markedly increased in patients with ESRD. To isolate the effect of uremia from inter-individual variations, comorbid conditions, and dietary and medicinal interventions, rats were studied 8 weeks post 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. This showed a significant difference in the abundance of 175 bacterial OTUs between the uremic and control animals, most notably as decreases in the Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Thus, uremia profoundly alters the composition of the gut microbiome. The biological impact of this phenomenon is unknown and awaits further investigation. PMID:22992469

Vaziri, Nosratola D; Wong, Jakk; Pahl, Madeleine; Piceno, Yvette M; Yuan, Jun; DeSantis, Todd Z; Ni, Zhenmin; Nguyen, Tien-Hung; Andersen, Gary L

2013-02-01

56

Motility Disorders of the Small Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction Disorders ...

57

Fish Oil Enhances Recovery of Intestinal Microbiota and Epithelial Integrity in Chronic Rejection of Intestinal Transplant  

PubMed Central

Background The intestinal chronic rejection (CR) is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. Methods/Principal Findings The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. Conclusions/Significance Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation. PMID:21698145

Li, Qiurong; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Chenyang; Tang, Chun; Zhang, Yanmei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

2011-01-01

58

Inducible nitric oxide regulates intestinal glutamine assimilation during chronic intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

To facilitate assimilation of glutamine, different Na-dependent glutamine absorptive pathways are present in the rabbit small intestine, specifically B0AT1 in villus and SN2 in crypt cell brush border membrane. Further, both are uniquely regulated in the chronically inflamed intestine. B0AT1 is inhibited secondary to reduced number of brush border membrane (BBM) co-transporters while SN2 is stimulated secondary to an increased affinity for glutamine. These unique changes are reversible by treatment with a broad spectrum immune modulator such as glucocorticoids. However, whether inducible nitric oxide (iNO), known to be elevated in the mucosa of the chronically inflamed intestine, may be responsible for these co-transporter alterations is not known. In the present study, treatment of chronically inflamed rabbits with L-NIL, a selective inhibitor of iNO synthase, reversed the inhibition of B0AT1 in villus and the stimulation of SN2 in crypt cells. At the level of the co-transporter in the brush border membrane, inhibition of iNO production reversed the inhibition of villus B0AT1 by restoring the co-transporter numbers while the stimulation of crypt SN2 was reversed back to normal by restoring its affinity for glutamine. Western blot analyses of BBM proteins also confirmed the kinetic studies. Thus, L-NIL treatment restores the uniquely altered Na-glutamine co-transporters in the enterocytes of chronically inflamed intestine. All these data indicate that iNO functions as an upstream immune modulator directly regulating glutamine assimilation during chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25524833

Arthur, Subha; Sundaram, Uma

2015-01-30

59

[Pseudo-obstruction of the colon].  

PubMed

Pseudoobstruction of the colon is characterized by clinical and radiological findings suggesting a mechanical obstruction of the large intestine without any organic cause. 11 of our patients and 344 cases reported in the literature have been reviewed. 90% of the patients have an associated major system disorder, most of them (40%) are localized in the pelvis. An imbalance in sympathetic-parasympathetic innervation as an aetiological factor is discussed. Diagnosis is generally made on the basis of the plain roentgenogram of the abdomen and a barium enema of the colon. Surgical decompression is indicated when no improvement can be achieved by conservative treatment within 72 hours. Immediate surgical intervention becomes mandatory in case of the cecal diameter being greater than 12 cm or an evident perforation. Cecostomy is of crucial benefit. Extensive necrosis requires a colonic resection. PMID:6359773

Schippers, E; Raguse, T; Brenner, P; Dyballa, G

1983-01-01

60

[Acute colonic pseudoobstruction following fixation of a pertrochanteric fracture].  

PubMed

Acute colonic pseudoobstruction, following traumatic injuries, is a rare diagnosis. Nevertheless it is life threatening, if it is not recognized and treated promptly. We report one case of this so-called Ogilvie's syndrome, which followed fixation of a trochanteric fracture by intramedullary nailing within 2 days. Due to massive acute colonic distension, the patient suffered from respiratory failure. We excluded other intestinal diseases by CT scanning. After conservative colonic decompression, he recovered after 2 days in the intensive care unit. We describe a variable treatment depending on the severity of the colonic atony. Knowledge of Ogilvie's syndrome, or acute colonic pseudoobstruction, is a must for trauma surgeons, since it can occur within a few hours and can lead to dramatic situations. PMID:16555041

Weber, O; Burger, C; Fremerey, R; Vetter, P; Richter, A; Wippermann, B W

2006-05-01

61

Chronic intestinal ischaemia: measurement of the total splanchnic blood flow.  

PubMed

A redundant collateral network between the intestinal arteries is present at all times. In case of ischaemia in the gastrointestinal tract, the collateral blood supply can develop further, thus accommodating the demand for oxygen even in the presence of significant stenosis or occlusion of the intestinal arteries without clinical symptoms of intestinal ischaemia. Symptoms of ischemia develop when the genuine and collateral blood supply no longer can accommodate the need for oxygen. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of obliteration in the intestinal arteries. In chronic intestinal ischaemia (CII), the fasting splanchnic blood flow (SBF) is sufficient, but the postprandial increase in SBF is inadequate and abdominal pain will therefore develop in relation to food intake causing the patient to eat smaller meals at larger intervals with a resulting weight loss. Traditionally, the CII-diagnosis has exclusively been based upon morphology (angiography) of the intestinal arteries; however, substantial discrepancies between CII-symptoms and the presence of atherosclerosis/stenosis in the intestinal arteries have been described repeatedly in the literature impeding the diagnosis of CII. This PhD thesis explores a method to determine the total SBF and its potential use as a diagnostic tool in patients suspected to suffer from CII. The SBF can be measured using a continuous infusion of a tracer and catheterisation of a hepatic vein and an artery. By measuring the SBF before and after a standard meal it is possible to assess the ability or inability to enhance the SBF and thereby diagnosing CII. In Study I, measurement of SBF was tested against angiography in a group of patients suspected to suffer from CII due to pain and weight loss. A very good agreement between the postprandial increase in SBF and angiography was found. The method was validated against a well-established method independent of the hepatic extraction of tracer using pAH in a porcine model (study II). An excellent agreement was found between the two methods for the measurement of SBF. In the same set-up metabolism and recirculation in the intestines of the 99mTechnetium labelled tracer was rejected based on the consistency between the portal and arterial contents of tracer. Based on this study we concluded that an arterial blood sample can be used instead of a portal blood sample, making the method applicable to patients. In study III, 20 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with weight loss and abdominal pain but normal morphology of the intestinal arteries were investigated. A reference value for the meal induced SBF-increase and the relation to bodyweight was established designating that bodyweight should be taken into account when diagnosing CII based on measurement of SBF. The clinical method for measuring the SBF based on hepatic 99mTc-MBF extraction is a robust method. It allows determination of the postprandial increase in SBF providing knowledge about the circulatory physiology in intestines in patients with weight loss and abdominal pain with or without intestinal arterial stenosis. Future studies within this field could include measurement of the SBF before and after revascularisation in order to quantify the effect of revascularisation or investigate whether arterial blood sampling could be avoided or the amount of blood samples (and thus the time spend) could be reduced. The three studies were presented at eleven national and international congresses and Helle Damgaard Zacho has been awarded three prizes for the presentations. PMID:23651725

Zacho, Helle D

2013-04-01

62

[Nutritional management of intestinal failure and potential stimulation mechanisms].  

PubMed

Severe forms of intestinal failure represent one of the most complex pathologies to manage, in both children and adults. In adults, the most common causes are chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and severe short bowel syndrome following large intestinal resections, particularly due to massive mesenteric ischemic, within the context of cardiopathies occurring with atrial fibrillation. The essential management after stabilizing the patient consists in nutritional support, either by parenteral or enteral routes, with tolerance to oral diet being the final goal of intestinal adaptation in these pathologies. Surgery may be indicated in some cases to increase the absorptive surface area. Parenteral nutrition is an essential support measure that sometimes has to be maintained for long time, even forever, except for technique-related complications or unfavorable clinical course that would lead to extreme surgical alternatives such as intestinal transplantation. Hormonal therapy with trophism-stimulating factors opens new alternatives that are already being tried in humans. PMID:17679297

Pérez de la Cruz, A J; Moreno-Torres Herrera, R; Pérez Roca, C

2007-05-01

63

Intestinal transport of hexoses in the rat following chronic heat exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study examines intestinal transport of sugars (D-glucose and D-galactose) in vitro and assesses organ maintenance in chronically heat-exposed rats. The results suggest that the response of intestinal absorption to heat exposure in the rat involves changes in intestinal weight and in glucose utilization. Despite the reduction in total intestinal weight, the ability of intestinal tissue to transport hexose per unit weight remains stable. Differences in intestinal weight and glucose utilization between pair-fed and heat-exposed animals suggest that the intestinal response to chronic heat exposure is not solely a function of the amount of food consumed. Alterations of hexose transport appear to be related to altered glucose metabolism and not altered transport capacity.

Carpenter, M.; Musacchia, X. J.

1979-01-01

64

The intestinal microbiota and chronic disorders of the gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal surfaces of the gut are colonized by large numbers of heterogeneous bacteria that contribute to intestinal health and disease. In genetically susceptible individuals, a 'pathogenic community' may arise, whereby abnormal gut flora contributes to alterations in the mucosa and local immune system leading to gastrointestinal disease. These diseases include enteric infections, such as Clostridium difficile infection, small intestinal bacterial

Herbert L. DuPont; Andrew W. DuPont

2011-01-01

65

A chronic oral reference dose for hexavalent chromium-induced intestinal cancer.  

PubMed

High concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induce villous cytotoxicity and compensatory crypt hyperplasia in the small intestines of mice (but not rats). Lifetime exposure to such cytotoxic concentrations increases intestinal neoplasms in mice, suggesting that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors involves chronic wounding and compensatory cell proliferation of the intestine. Therefore, we developed a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) designed to be protective of intestinal damage and thus intestinal cancer. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chromium in mice was used to estimate the amount of Cr(VI) entering each intestinal tissue section (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) from the lumen per day (normalized to intestinal tissue weight). These internal dose metrics, together with corresponding incidences for diffuse hyperplasia, were used to derive points of departure using benchmark dose modeling and constrained nonlinear regression. Both modeling techniques resulted in similar points of departure, which were subsequently converted to human equivalent doses using a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Applying appropriate uncertainty factors, an RfD of 0.006 mg kg(-1) day(-1) was derived for diffuse hyperplasia-an effect that precedes tumor formation. This RfD is protective of both noncancer and cancer effects in the small intestine and corresponds to a safe drinking water equivalent level of 210 µg l(-1). This concentration is higher than the current federal maximum contaminant level for total Cr (100 µg l(-1)) and well above levels of Cr(VI) in US drinking water supplies (typically ? 5 µg l(-1)). PMID:23943231

Thompson, Chad M; Kirman, Christopher R; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Suh, Mina; Hays, Sean M; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

2014-05-01

66

A chronic oral reference dose for hexavalent chromium-induced intestinal cancer†  

PubMed Central

High concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induce villous cytotoxicity and compensatory crypt hyperplasia in the small intestines of mice (but not rats). Lifetime exposure to such cytotoxic concentrations increases intestinal neoplasms in mice, suggesting that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors involves chronic wounding and compensatory cell proliferation of the intestine. Therefore, we developed a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) designed to be protective of intestinal damage and thus intestinal cancer. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chromium in mice was used to estimate the amount of Cr(VI) entering each intestinal tissue section (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) from the lumen per day (normalized to intestinal tissue weight). These internal dose metrics, together with corresponding incidences for diffuse hyperplasia, were used to derive points of departure using benchmark dose modeling and constrained nonlinear regression. Both modeling techniques resulted in similar points of departure, which were subsequently converted to human equivalent doses using a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Applying appropriate uncertainty factors, an RfD of 0.006?mg?kg–1?day–1 was derived for diffuse hyperplasia—an effect that precedes tumor formation. This RfD is protective of both noncancer and cancer effects in the small intestine and corresponds to a safe drinking water equivalent level of 210 µg l–1. This concentration is higher than the current federal maximum contaminant level for total Cr (100 µg l–1) and well above levels of Cr(VI) in US drinking water supplies (typically???5 µg l–1). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23943231

Thompson, Chad M; Kirman, Christopher R; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Suh, Mina; Hays, Sean M; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

2014-01-01

67

Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in the airways of smokers with chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of airway mucus secretion. The biological functions of VIP are mediated through two receptors, the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and type 2 (VPAC2R). The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of both VPAC1R and VPAC2R in the central airways of smokers with chronic bronchitis. Surgical specimens were obtained from 33 smokers undergoing thoracotomy for localised pulmonary lesions: 23 smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis and 10 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. By using immunohistochemical and microscopic analysis, an increased expression of VPAC1R, but not VPAC2R, was found in bronchial epithelium, bronchial glands and vessels of smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with asymptomatic smokers. Smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis also had an increased number of mononuclear cells positive for both VPAC1R and VPAC2R in the bronchial submucosa. In conclusion, the expression of type 1 and type 2 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors is increased in the central airways of smokers with chronic bronchitis, suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis. PMID:15572539

Miotto, D; Boschetto, P; Bononi, I; Zeni, E; Cavallesco, G; Fabbri, L M; Mapp, C E

2004-12-01

68

GLP-2 TREATMENT DURING CHRONIC TPN IMPROVES INTESTINAL GLUCOSE UPTAKE AFTER RE-FEEDING IN PIGLETS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intestinal atrophy and lower nutrient absorption caused by chronic total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compromises the transition to enteral feeding. We examined whether providing glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) during TPN improved this transition by comparing neonatal piglets maintained for 7 d on ent...

69

Digestive smooth muscle mitochondrial myopathy in patients with mitochondrial-neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE).  

PubMed

We report 3 new cases of Mitochondrial-Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) (or Pseudo-Obstruction-Leukoencephalopathy-Intestinal-Pseudoobstruction Syndrome [POLIP]), a rare disease that associates chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) and neurological symptoms. A review of the 72 reported cases together with these 3 cases revealed that this condition was associated with (a) a specific cluster of neurological symptoms including leukoencephalopathy (96%), polyneuropathy (96%), ophthalmoplegia (91%) and hearing loss (55%); (b) a CIPO syndrome with the presence of small bowel diverticulae (53%); and (c) mitochondrial cytopathy in 36 of the 37 tested patients (2 of our 3 cases), and thymidine phosphorylase gene mutations in all the 37 tested patients (2 of our cases). The etiology of POLIP/MNGIE syndrome appears therefore to be due to a mitochondrial cytopathy secondary to thymidine phosphorylase gene mutation(s). In 3 cases, including 2 of our 3 patients, mitochondrial abnormalities were evidenced at the ultrastructural level in digestive smooth muscle demonstrating that the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal involvement was directly related to mitochondrial alterations in digestive smooth muscle cells. PMID:16294144

Blondon, Hugues; Polivka, Marc; Joly, Francisca; Flourie, Bernard; Mikol, Jacqueline; Messing, Bernard

2005-01-01

70

Intestinal inflammation in TNBS sensitized rats as a model of chronic inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

An enteritis, based on a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, was induced in TNBS (2,4,4-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid) sensitized rats by multiple intrajejunal challenge with TNBS via an implanted catheter. This treatment induced chronic inflammation of the distal small intestine characterized by intense hyperaemia, oedema and gut wall thickening as assessed by macroscopic scoring and weighing a defined part of the dissected intestine. Histologically, the inflammatory response included mucosal and submucosal cell infiltration by lymphocytes and histiocytes, transmural granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated cells and activated mesenteric lymph nodes. Ex vivo stimulated release of the inflammatory mediator LTB4 in the dissected part of the intestine was increased following TNBS treatment. Drug treatment with sulphasalazine or 5-aminosalicylic acid improved the enteritis score and attenuated TNBS induced oedema formation and LTB4 production. The applicability and relevance of this new model are discussed with respect to drug development and basic research of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:18475451

Wöhrmann, T.

1992-01-01

71

[Acute colonic pseudoobstruction: Ogilvie's syndrome].  

PubMed

Based on literature and own original clinical data authors conclude that Ogilvie's syndrome is the form of dynamic obstruction of colon due to lesion of retroperitoneal neural nodes, heart failure and intoxication. Ogilvie's syndrome complicates therapeutic and surgical diseases. This syndrome can be manifested with acute abdomen symptoms and at 22% cases may be the cause of surgical treatment. Ogilvie's syndrome is successfully treated with evacuation of intestinal contents, but the risk of recurrence after this treatment is high. Ethiotropic therapy, correction of water-electrolytic balance and tissues oxygenation, administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the more effective treatment of this syndrome. PMID:17690630

Trenin, S O; Shishkov, A V; Maslennikov, V A; Keropian, O K

2007-01-01

72

Chronic alcohol consumption and intestinal thiamin absorption: effects on physiological and molecular parameters of the uptake process.  

PubMed

Thiamin is essential for normal cellular functions, and its deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities. Humans and other mammals obtain the vitamin via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of thiamin, a dietary and a bacterial (i.e., normal microflora of the large intestine) source. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with thiamin deficiency, which is caused (in part) by inhibition in intestinal thiamin absorption. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular aspects of the intestinal thiamin uptake process that are affected by chronic alcohol use. To address these issues, we used rats fed an alcohol-liquid diet and human intestinal epithelial HuTu-80 cells chronically exposed to ethanol as model systems. The results showed that chronic alcohol feeding to rats led to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin transport across both the jejunal brush-border membrane and basolateral membrane domains. This was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of thiamin transporter-1 (THTR-1), but not THTR-2, at the protein and mRNA levels. Level of expression of the heterogenous nuclear RNA of THTR-1 in the intestine of alcohol-fed rats was also decreased compared with their pair-fed controls. Chronic alcohol feeding also caused a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake in rat colon. Studies with HuTu-80 cells chronically exposed to ethanol also showed a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake. This inhibition was associated with a reduction in level of expression of human THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA, and transcriptional (promoter activity) levels. These studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol feeding inhibits intestinal thiamin absorption via inhibition of the individual membrane transport event across the polarized absorptive epithelial cells. Furthermore, the inhibition is, at least in part, mediated via transcriptional mechanism(s). PMID:20448146

Subramanya, Sandeep B; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Said, Hamid M

2010-07-01

73

Chronic intestinal candidiasis as a possible etiological factor in the chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic candidiasis syndrome, also known as the Candida-related complex, putatively caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans in the gastrointestinal tract and secondarily in the genital organs, is briefly described. Patients with this disorder have many of the same symptoms as those with the chronic fatigue syndrome, except for the recurrent flu-like symptoms of the latter disorder. The positive

R. E. Cater

1995-01-01

74

Atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis resulting in large intestinal hypoperfusion: a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia.  

PubMed

Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia results from intestinal hypoperfusion and is classically thought to result from involvement of two or more mesenteric arteries. The celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery are most frequently implicated in this disease process, and their involvement usually results in symptoms of small intestinal ischemia. Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia resulting predominantly from inferior mesenteric artery involvement has largely been overlooked but does gives rise to its own, unique clinical presentation with symptoms resulting from large intestinal ischemia. We present four patients with atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis with symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia that have unique clinical presentations consistent with large intestinal ischemia that resolved following percutaneous endovascular treatment of the inferior mesenteric artery stenosis. These cases represent a novel approach to the diagnosis and management of this disease process and may warrant a further subclassification of chronic mesenteric ischemia into chronic small intestinal ischemia and chronic large intestinal ischemia. PMID:22407990

Lotun, Kapildeo; Shetty, Ranjith; Topaz, On

2012-11-01

75

Intestinal phosphate transport: a therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease and beyond?  

PubMed

Hyperphosphatemia is a serious complication of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributing to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in this patient group. Results from retrospective studies suggest that small increases in serum phosphate concentration, within the normal or near-normal range, also correlate with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and have led to the suggestion that detection and preventative treatment of positive phosphate balance is important in healthy individuals as well as in those with CKD. Phosphate homeostasis is maintained by the crosstalk between intestinal phosphate absorption and renal phosphate excretion; however, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of intestinal phosphate transport. Our current understanding is that the intestinal type II sodium phosphate cotransporter, NaPi-IIb, plays a significant role in absorption. It may also be involved in the sensing of dietary phosphate composition and the release of hormonal factors that modulate renal phosphate reabsorption to achieve phosphate balance. Interestingly, studies using NaPi-IIb knockout mice with adenine-induced CKD show only partial attenuation of hyperphosphatemia, suggesting that an additional sodium-independent pathway is involved in phosphate absorption. The aim of this review is to discuss our current knowledge of the processes and role of the intestine in phosphate homeostasis and to provide evidence that this organ could be targeted for the treatment of hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia. PMID:24496589

Lee, Grace J; Marks, Joanne

2015-03-01

76

Some food-associated mycotoxins as potential risk factors in humans predisposed to chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites able to affect the functions of numerous tissues and organs in animals and humans, including intestinal and immune systems. However, the potential link between exposure to some mycotoxins and human chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as celiac and Crohn's diseases or ulcerative colitis, has not been investigated. Instead, several theories based on bacterial, immunological or neurological events have been elaborated to explain the etiology of these pathologies. Here we reviewed the literature on mycotoxin-induced intestinal dysfunctions and compared these perturbations to the impairments of intestinal functions typically observed in human chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases. Converging evidence based on various cellular and animal studies show that several mycotoxins induce intestinal alterations that are similar to those observed at the onset and during the progression of inflammatory bowel diseases. Although epidemiologic evidence is still required, existing data are sufficient to suspect a role of some food-associated mycotoxins in the induction and/or persistence of human chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases in genetically predisposed patients. PMID:20466014

Maresca, Marc; Fantini, Jacques

2010-09-01

77

Molecular mechanism of regulation of villus cell Na-K-ATPase in the chronically inflamed mammalian small intestine.  

PubMed

Na-K-ATPase located on the basolateral membrane (BLM) of intestinal epithelial cells provides a favorable intracellular Na(+) gradient to promote all Na dependent co-transport processes across the brush border membrane (BBM). Down-regulation of Na-K-ATPase activity has been postulated to alter the absorption via Na-solute co-transporters in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Further, the altered activity of a variety of Na-solute co-transporters in intact villus cells has been reported in animal models of chronic enteritis. But the molecular mechanism of down-regulation of Na-K-ATPase is not known. In the present study, using a rabbit model of chronic intestinal inflammation, which resembles human IBD, Na-K-ATPase in villus cells was shown to decrease. The relative mRNA abundance of ?-1 and ?-1 subunits was not altered in villus cells during chronic intestinal inflammation. Similarly, the protein levels of these subunits were also not altered in villus cells during chronic enteritis. However, the BLM concentration of ?-1 and ?-1 subunits was diminished in the chronically inflamed intestinal villus cells. An ankyrin-spectrin skeleton is necessary for the proper trafficking of Na-K-ATPase to the BLM of the cell. In the present study, ankyrin expression was markedly diminished in villus cells from the chronically inflamed intestine resulting in depolarization of ankyrin-G protein. The decrease of Na-K-ATPase activity was comparable to that seen in ankyrin knockdown IEC-18 cells. Therefore, altered localization of Na-K-ATPase as a result of transcriptional down-regulation of ankyrin-G mediates the down-regulation of Na-K-ATPase activity during chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25462166

Saha, Prosenjit; Manoharan, Palanikumar; Arthur, Subha; Sundaram, Shanmuga; Kekuda, Ramesh; Sundaram, Uma

2015-02-01

78

Chronic colitis induces expression of ?-defensins in murine intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Anti-microbial peptides are important effectors in innate immunity. In the gut they defend against pathogens, shape the commensal microbiota and probably control intestinal homeostasis. Ulcerative colitis (UC), but not Crohn's disease, shows increased expression of inducible ?-defensins (hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4) in colonic epithelial cells. Does inducible defensin production precede the chronic intestinal inflammation characteristic of UC, or is it a consequence of the T cell-driven chronic inflammation? The aim was to analyse defensin mRNA and protein expression in colonic epithelial cells in two colitis mouse models resembling UC, the interleukin (IL)-2?/? mouse and the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse. Defensin mRNA was assayed by in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Defensin peptide was assayed by immunohistochemistry. Mouse ?-defensin 3 (mBD-3, orthologue to hBD-2) was up-regulated strongly in colonic epithelium of 15-week-old IL-2?/? mice and DSS-induced colitis mice with chronic bowel inflammation, but not in apparently healthy IL-2?/? 5-week-old mice, IL-2+/? 15-week-old mice or in acute stage DSS mice. Up-regulation was seen both at the mRNA- and at the protein level (only mBD-3 investigated). IL-17, but not several other cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-?, induced mBD-3 mRNA expression in mouse colon carcinoma cells. The mRNA expression level of the constitutively expressed ?-defensin, cryptdin-4, was up-regulated marginally in acute stage DSS-colitis mice and in IL-2?/? mice before signs of colitis. Inducible ?-defensin expression in colonic epithelium is the consequence of the chronic bowel inflammation caused by activated T cells releasing cytokines including IL-17. PMID:21039426

Rahman, A; Fahlgren, A; Sundstedt, C; Hammarström, S; Danielsson, Å; Hammarström, M-L

2011-01-01

79

Intestinal motility and transit following chronic ingestion of different forms of palm oil diets.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at finding the effect of palm oil diets on the small intestinal motor activity and transit in rats. Adult albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten rats each. The first group was fed on rat chow containing 15% (wt/wt) of fresh palm oil diets for fifteen weeks. The second was fed on rat chow containing 15% (wt/wt) thermally oxidized diet while the third group was the control and so was fed on rat chow only. Water and feed were allowed freely to all the groups. Intestinal motility and transit were measured after the feeding period. Results show that there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in basal tone of the ileum from rats fed on thermally oxidized palm oil diet when compared with fresh palm oil fed and control diets respectively. Contraction to acetylcholine (10(-11) - 10(-5)M) showed a biphasic tone with highest contraction at lower doses of acetylcholine and lowest tone at 10(-7)M in both fresh palm oil-fed and thermally oxidized oil-fed groups when compared with control. There was a significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inhibition of atropine effect in the oxidized oil fed group when compared with control while there was a significant (P < 0.01) increase in transit of food material in the intestine of oxidized oil-fed group when compared with control and fresh palm oil-fed groups. These results show that chronic ingestion of oxidized palm oil diet causes an increase in basal tone of ileum and enhances intestinal motility and transit in the rat. PMID:19434222

Obembe, A O; Okwari, O O; Owu, D U; Antai, A B; Osim, E E

2008-01-01

80

The surgical treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia: results of a recent series.  

PubMed

Due to the rarity of the condition, large and prospective series defining the optimal method of digestive arteries revascularization, for the treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia, are lacking. The aim of this consecutive sample clinical study was to test the hypothesis that flexible application of different revascularization methods, according to individual cases, will yield the best results in the management of chronic intestinal ischemia. Eleven patients, of a mean age of 56 years, underwent revascularization of 11 digestive arteries for symptomatic chronic mesenteric occlusive disease. Eleven superior mesenteric arteries and one celiac axis were revascularized. The revascularization techniques included retrograde bypass grafting in 7 cases, antegrade bypass grafting in 2, percutaneous arterial angioplasty in 1, and arterial reimplantation in one case. The donor axis for either reimplantation or bypass grafting was the infrarenal aorta in 4 cases, an infrarenal Dacron graft in 4, and the celiac aorta in one case. Grafting materials included 5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 3 Dacron grafts. Concomitant procedures included 3 aorto-ilio-femoral grafts and one renal artery revascularization. Mean follow-up duration was 31 months. There was no operative mortality. Cumulative survival rate was 88.9% at 36 months (SE 12.1%). Primary patency rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). The symptom free rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). Direct reimplantation, antegrade and retrograde bypass grafting, all allow good mid-term results: the choice of the optimal method depends on the anatomic and general patient's status. Associated infrarenal and renal arterial lesions can be safely treated in the same time of digestive revascularization. Angioplasty alone yields poor results and should be limited to patients at poor risk for surgery. PMID:15154575

Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Papaspiropoulos, V; Mancini, P; Ceccanei, G

2004-04-01

81

Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Has Beneficial Effects in Mouse Models of Chronic Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) functions as a gut mucosal defense factor and is protective against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute injury in rats. The present study evaluated the potential therapeutic role for orally administered calf IAP (cIAP) in two independent mouse models of chronic colitis: (1) DSS-induced chronic colitis, and (2) chronic spontaneous colitis in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) deficient (knockout) mice that is accelerated by irradiation. Methods The wild-type (WT) and IAP knockout (IAP-KO) mice received 4 cycles of 2% DSS ad libitum for 7 days. Each cycle was followed by a 7-day DSS-free interval during which mice received either cIAP or vehicle in the drinking water. The WASP-KO mice received either vehicle or cIAP for 6 weeks beginning on the day of irradiation. Results Microscopic colitis scores of DSS-treated IAP-KO mice were higher than DSS-treated WT mice (52 ± 3.8 vs. 28.8 ± 6.6, respectively, P < 0.0001). cIAP treatment attenuated the disease in both groups (KO = 30.7 ± 6.01, WT = 18.7 ± 5.0, P < 0.05). In irradiated WASP-KO mice cIAP also attenuated colitis compared to control groups (3.3 ± 0.52 vs. 6.2 ± 0.34, respectively, P < 0.001). Tissue myeloperoxidase activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased by cIAP treatment. Conclusions Endogenous IAP appears to play a role in protecting the host against chronic colitis. Orally administered cIAP exerts a protective effect in two independent mouse models of chronic colitis and may represent a novel therapy for human IBD. PMID:20645323

Ramasamy, Sundaram; Nguyen, Deanna D.; Eston, Michelle; Alam, Sayeda Nasrin; Moss, Angela K.; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Biswas, Brishti; Mostafa, Golam; Chen, Kathryn T.; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Yammine, Halim; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Warren, H. Shaw; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.; Mizoguchi, Emiko; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Bhan, Atul K.; Snapper, Scott B.; Malo, Madhu S.; Hodin, Richard A.

2011-01-01

82

The Dual Role of Nod-Like Receptors in Mucosal Innate Immunity and Chronic Intestinal Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are highly conserved cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that play, in combination with toll-like receptors, a critical role in innate immunity and inflammation. These proteins are characterized by a central oligomerization domain termed nucleotide-binding domain, and a protein interaction domain containing leucine-rich repeats. Some NLRs, including NOD1 and NOD2, sense the cytosolic presence of conserved bacterial molecular signatures and drive the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the transcription factor NF-?B. A different set of NLRs induces caspase-1 activation through the assembly of large protein complexes known as inflammasomes. Activation of NLR proteins results in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent inflammatory responses. The critical role of NLRs in innate immunity is underscored by the fact that polymorphisms within their genes are implicated in the development of several immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. Over the past few years, the role of NLRs in intestinal homeostasis has been highlighted, however the mechanism by which dysfunction in these proteins leads to aberrant inflammation is still the focus of much investigation. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the function of NLRs in mucosal innate immunity and understand how genetic or functional alterations in these components can lead to the disruption of intestinal homeostasis, and the subsequent development of chronic inflammation. PMID:25071778

Corridoni, Daniele; Arseneau, Kristen O.; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Cominelli, Fabio

2014-01-01

83

A case of colonic pseudoobstruction related to bacterial overgrowth due to a sigmoidocecal fistula.  

PubMed

Colocolic fistulas are usually a complication of an inflammatory or neoplastic process. Development of these abnormal bowel communications may lead to bacterial overgrowth. We report on a 71-year-old man with a one-year history of recurrent abdominal distension and irregular bowel habits. Abdominal X-rays and computed tomography showed multiple air-fluid levels and loops of distended bowel without evidence of mechanical obstruction or diverticulitis. Colonoscopy showed a fistulous tract between the sigmoid colon and cecum. Results of a lactulose breath test showed high fasting breath CH4 levels, which were thought to be the result of intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The patient was diagnosed with a colonic pseudo-obstruction associated with bacterial overgrowth due to a sigmoidocecal fistula. We recommended surgical correction of the sigmoidocecal fistula; however, the patient requested medical treatment. After antibiotic therapy, the patient still had mild symptoms but no acute exacerbations. PMID:24561700

Chung, Kyoung Myeun; Lim, Seong Uk; Hong, Hyoung Ju; Park, Seon Young; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

2014-02-01

84

Expression of XBP1 in lymphocytes of the small intestine in rats under chronic social stress and modulation of intestinal microflora composition.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate of the influence of chronic social stress and modulation of the composition of intestinal microflora on the distribution of Xbp(1+)-lymphocytes in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of ileum of the rats. Structure of population of Xbp(1+)-cells has been studied by the analysis of serial histological sections using the method of indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies to Xbp1 of rat. Chronic social stress development is accompanied with the reduction of total number of Xbp(1+)-lymphocytes in lymphoid structures of ileum (31% -3 fold reduction, p < 0.05), mostly expressed in lymphoidfollicles, and changes the concentration of Xbp1 protein in immunopositive cells. Modulation of the composition of intestinal microflora by antibiotics and probiotics under chronic social stress results in the increase of total number of Xbp1+ lymphocytes in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the degree of it depends on the kind ofstress. The discovered alterations of Xbp1 expression under stress may be one of the triggers for development of autoimmune and inflammatory bowel diseases. Thus, increased understanding of the molecular actions and transcriptional networks regulated by XBP1 in immune cells may aid in the development of potential therapeutics targeting immune disorders. PMID:25007519

Topol, I A; Kamyshny, A M; Abramov, A V; Kolesnik, Yu M

2014-01-01

85

Fluoride exposure and bone status in patients with chronic intestinal failure who are receiving home parenteral nutrition1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Metabolic bone disease is frequent in chronic intestinal failure. Because fluoride has a major effect on bones, the status of both fluoride and bone was studied in long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) patients. Design: We studied 31 adults aged (x SD) 56.3 15.1 y, mainly patients with short-bowel syndrome, who had been receiving HPN for 1 y.

Paul H Bouletreau; Muriel Bost; Elisabeth Fontanges; Madeleine Lauverjat; Christel Gutknecht; René Ecochard; Pierre D Delmas; Cécile Chambrier

86

A blood test for intestinal permeability and function: a new tool for the diagnosis of chronic intestinal disease in dogs.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose and lactulose may be quantified accurately in blood by HPLC and pulsed amperometric detection, thus enabling studies of intestinal permeability and function to be carried out using plasma samples. Prior to HPLC, the endogenous glucose was enzymatically modified to gluconic acid and the protein precipitated. The precision of the quantification of the sugars in plasma (CV: 2.2-5.7%; 8.7-10.6% at very low concentrations) compared well with the quantification in urine. The results for groups of 8 dogs with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease were shown to be significantly different from a group of 20 normal control dogs (P < 0.001), demonstrating the test's value as a diagnostic tool. The normal ranges in blood 2 h post oral administration were determined to be 0.05-0.17 for the lactulose/rhamnose ratio and 0.45-0.65 for the xylose/3-O-methylglucose ratio. This method may be employed advantageously when the collection of urine in intestinal permeability and function tests is difficult. PMID:9267707

Sørensen, S H; Proud, F J; Rutgers, H C; Markwell, P; Adam, A; Batt, R M

1997-08-01

87

Fecal lactoferrin and intestinal permeability are effective non-invasive markers in the diagnostic work-up of chronic diarrhea.  

PubMed

Non-invasive markers able to identify patients with chronic diarrhea at risk of organic disease are missing. Aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic ability of intestinal permeability (IP) test and fecal lactoferrin (FL) in distinguishing functional from organic disease in patients with chronic diarrhea. We retrospectively enrolled patients referring to the gastroenterology outpatient clinic for chronic diarrhea. Among the 103 patients included, 40 % had an organic disease, with IP and FL levels significantly higher compared to those with a functional disorder (p < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, area under ROC curves of FL were superior to those of IP in discriminating functional and organic disease (FL: 87.8 and 93.6 %, 13.61 and 0.13, 0.9375; IP: 61.0 and 90.3 %, 6.3 and 0.43, 0.7691). When combining the two tests, the diagnostic ability of FL did not improve. In subgroup analysis, IP confirmed its ability to detect small bowel alterations, while FL could identify both small bowel and colonic alterations. In conclusion, FL is valid to detect inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, while IP can effectively identify small bowel damage in chronic diarrhea patients. Together these tests could recognize both the presence of intestinal damage and its site. PMID:24831229

Caccaro, Roberta; D'Incà, Renata; Martinato, Matteo; Pont, Elisabetta Dal; Pathak, Surajit; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo

2014-10-01

88

Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Chronic Cadmium Toxicity in Mice Indicate Routes of Protection besides Intestinal Sequestration  

PubMed Central

Our previous study confirmed the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 to protect against acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in mice. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of CCFM8610 against chronic Cd toxicity in mice and to gain insights into the protection mode of this strain. Experimental mice were divided into two groups and exposed to Cd for 8 weeks via drinking water or intraperitoneal injection. Both groups were further divided into four subgroups, control, Cd only, CCFM8610 only, and Cd plus CCFM8610. Levels of Cd were measured in the feces, liver, and kidneys, and alterations of several biomarkers of Cd toxicity were noted. The results showed that when Cd was introduced orally, cotreatment with Cd and CCFM8610 effectively decreased intestinal Cd absorption, reduced Cd accumulation in tissue, alleviated tissue oxidative stress, reversed hepatic and renal damage, and ameliorated the corresponding histopathological changes. When Cd was introduced intraperitoneally, administration of CCFM8610 did not have an impact on tissue Cd accumulation or reverse the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, CCFM8610 still offered protection against oxidative stress and reversed the alterations of Cd toxicity biomarkers and tissue histopathology. These results suggest that CCFM8610 is effective against chronic cadmium toxicity in mice. Besides intestinal Cd sequestration, CCFM8610 treatment offers direct protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. We also provide evidence that the latter is unlikely to be mediated via protection against Cd-induced alteration of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:24771031

Zhai, Qixiao; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Yong Q.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

2014-01-01

89

Epidermal growth factor chronically upregulates Ca2+-dependent Cl? conductance and TMEM16A expression in intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Dysregulated epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport is a common feature of many intestinal disorders. However, molecular mechanisms that regulate epithelial transport processes are still poorly understood, thereby limiting development of new therapeutics. Previously, we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) chronically enhances intestinal epithelial secretory function. Here, we investigated a potential role for altered expression or activity of apical Cl? channels in mediating the effects of EGF. Cl? secretion across monolayers of T84 colonic epithelia was measured as changes in short-circuit current. Protein expression/phosphorylation was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Under conditions that specifically isolate apical Ca2+-activated Cl? channel (CaCC) currents, EGF pretreatment (100 ng ml?1 for 15 min) potentiated carbachol (CCh)-induced responses to 173 ± 25% of those in control cells, when measured 24 h later (n= 26; P < 0.01). EGF-induced increases in CaCC currents were abolished by the transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01 (10 ?m). Furthermore, TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression was increased by EGF to 256 ± 38% (n= 7; P < 0.01) and 297 ± 46% (n= 9, P < 0.001) of control levels, respectively. In contrast, EGF did not alter CFTR expression or activity. EGF-induced increases in Cl? secretion, CaCC currents and TMEM16A expression were attenuated by a PKC? inhibitor, rottlerin (20 ?m), and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY290042 (25 ?m). Finally, LY290042 inhibited EGF-induced phosphorylation of PKC?. We conclude that EGF chronically upregulates Ca2+-dependent Cl? conductances and TMEM16A expression in intestinal epithelia by a mechanism involving sequential activation of PI3K and PKC?. Therapeutic targeting of EGF receptor-dependent signalling pathways may provide new approaches for treatment of epithelial transport disorders. PMID:22351639

Mroz, Magdalena S; Keely, Stephen J

2012-01-01

90

Mechanistic insights of intestinal absorption and renal conservation of folate in chronic alcoholism.  

PubMed

Folate mediated one-carbon metabolism is of fundamental importance for various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and methylation of biological molecules. Due to the exogenous requirement of folate in mammals, there exists a well developed epithelial folate transport system for regulation of normal folate homeostasis. The intestinal and renal folate uptake is tightly and diversely regulated and disturbances in folate homeostasis like in alcoholism have pathological consequences. The study was sought to delineate the regulatory mechanism of folate uptake in intestine and reabsorption in renal tubular cells that could evaluate insights of malabsorption during alcoholism. The folate transporters PCFT and RFC were found to be associated with lipid rafts of membrane surfaces in intestine and kidney. Importantly, the observed lower intestinal and renal folate uptake was associated with decreased levels of folate transporter viz. PCFT and RFC in lipid rafts of intestinal and renal membrane surfaces. The decreased association of folate transporters in lipid rafts was associated with decreased protein and mRNA levels. In addition, immunohistochemical studies showed that alcoholic conditions deranged that localization of PCFT and RFC. These findings could explain the possible mechanistic insights that may result in folate malabsorption during alcoholism. PMID:23267781

Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Thakur, Shilpa; Najar, Rauf Ahmad; Nada, Ritambhara; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

2013-03-01

91

The medical management of intestinal failure: methods to reduce the severity.  

PubMed

A new definition of intestinal failure is of reduced intestinal absorption so that macronutrient and/or water and electrolyte supplements are needed to maintain health or growth. Severe intestinal failure is when parenteral nutrition and/or fluid are needed and mild intestinal failure is when oral supplements or dietary modification suffice. Treatment aims to reduce the severity of intestinal failure. In the peri-operative period avoiding the administration of excessive amounts of intravenous saline (9 g NaCl/l) may prevent a prolonged ileus. Patients with intermittent bowel obstruction may be managed with a liquid or low-residue diet. Patients with a distal bowel enterocutaneous fistula may be managed with an enteral feed absorbed by the proximal small bowel while no oral intake may be needed for a proximal bowel enterocutaneous fistula. Patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy can usually tolerate jejunal feeding. Rotating antibiotic courses may reduce small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Restricting oral hypotonic fluids, sipping a glucose-saline solution (Na concentration of 90-120 mmol/l) and taking anti-diarrhoeal or anti-secretory drugs, reduces the high output from a jejunostomy. This treatment allows most patients with a jejunostomy and > 1 m functioning jejunum remaining to manage without parenteral support. Patients with a short bowel and a colon should consume a diet high in polysaccharides, as these compounds are fermented in the colon, and low in oxalate, as 25% of the oxalate will develop as calcium oxalate renal stones. Growth factors normally produced by the colon (e.g. glucagon-like peptide-2) to induce structural jejunal adaptation have been given in high doses to patients with a jejunostomy and do marginally increase the daily energy absorption. PMID:14692605

Nightingale, Jeremy M D

2003-08-01

92

[Chronic pancreatitis: microbe-intestinal tissue complex and systemic inflammatory response].  

PubMed

Today in Russian Federation, we observe significant growth of the chronic pancreatitis incidence with the depression of its therapy efficiency (more than 20% of the patients) and complications rate growth. In many respects given tendency is associated with the inefficiency of traditional medications combination in the context of inflammation process reduction, gut dysbiosis correction and chronic inflammation reaction depression. Present-day studies indicates, that the grade and character of inflammation in the pancreas depends on the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance, which is associated with the elevation of the pathogenic microbiota concentration and permeability of the gut. We estimate clinical efficacy of complex treatment regimen (PPI, spasmolytic, multienzyme and prebiotic therapy) in the patients with chronic pancreatitis and its effect on chronic system inflammation. We established that efficacy of modern complex treatment regimen depends on its influence on chronic system inflammation and that prebiotics addition potentiates correction of dysbiotic changes in the gut microbial-tissular complex and reduces grade of system inflammation. PMID:22363993

Grinevich, V B; Sas, E I; Denisov, N L; Efimov, O I

2011-01-01

93

Chronic immune activation associated with intestinal helminth infections results in impaired signal transduction and anergy  

PubMed Central

Helminthic parasites cause widespread, persistent infections in humans. The immigration of Ethiopians to Israel (a group denoted here by “Eth.”), many of them infested with helminths and in a chronic immune-activation state, enabled us to investigate the effects of such immune activation on immune responses. We studied the immune profile and immune functions of 190 Eth. and Israeli non-Eth. (Isr.) highly, partially, or non–immune-activated individuals. Immune cells from highly immune-activated individuals were defective in several signaling responses, all of which were restored gradually following anti-helminthic treatment. These cells showed poor transmembrane signaling, as seen by the phosphorylation of various tyrosine kinases and of the MAPK kinases, ERK1/2 and p38; deficient degradation of phosphorylated I?B?; increased expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), which appears to block proliferative responses in these cells; decreased ?-chemokine secretion by CD8+ cells after stimulation; and reduced proliferation to recall antigen stimulation. Highly immune-activated individuals also showed decreased delayed-type skin hypersensitivity responses to recall antigen before deworming. These findings support the notion that chronic helminthic infections cause persistent immune activation that results in hyporesponsiveness and anergy. Such impaired immune functions may diminish the capacity of these individuals to cope with infections and to generate cellular protective immunity after vaccination. PMID:11032865

Borkow, Gadi; Leng, Qibin; Weisman, Ziva; Stein, Miguel; Galai, Noya; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Bentwich, Zvi

2000-01-01

94

Use of neostigmine to relieve a suspected colonic pseudoobstruction in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Neostigmine is a treatment option for colonic pseudoobstruction. However, experience in using neostigmine for this indication in pregnant women is limited. We present a case of a woman with an estimated fetal gestational age of 34 weeks presented with what was believed to be a pseudoobstruction and when conservative management failed, neostigmine was administered with no adverse side effects. Ultimately, the patient was found to have a mechanical obstruction and we discuss the challenges in making this diagnosis in pregnancy. Neostigmine may be a viable alternative to colonoscopy in pregnant women for whom mechanical obstruction is properly excluded. PMID:17377607

Rausch, M E; Troiano, N H; Rosen, T

2007-04-01

95

Frequency of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Non-Specific Diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Introduction Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs in varying frequency in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the frequency of SIBO in IBS and chronic non-specific diarrhea (CNSD). Methods 129 patients with IBS (Manning's criteria), 73 with CNSD (? 4 weeks diarrhea with two of these tests normal [urine D-xylose, fecal fat and duodenal biopsy]) and 51 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated for SIBO using glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT). Diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) was grouped into CNSD. Rise in breath hydrogen 12 ppm above basal following 100 g glucose was diagnostic of SIBO. Results Of 129 patients with IBS, 7 were constipation (C-IBS), and 122 were of indeterminate type (I-IBS). Patients with IBS were younger than HC and CNSD (IBS vs. HC: 36.6 yr ± 11.4 vs. 44.1 yr ± 13.6, p = 0.001; IBS vs. CNSD: 36.6 yr ± 11.4 vs. 42 yr ± 14.5, p = 0.003). Patients with CNSD were comparable to HC in age (42 yr ± 14.5 vs. 44.1 yr ± 13.6, p = ns). Patients with IBS were more often male than HC [108/129 (83.7%) vs. 34/51 (66.7%) p = 0.02]; gender of CNSD and HC was comparable [male 39/73 (53.4%) vs. 34/51 (66.7%) p = ns]. SIBO was commoner in CNSD than HC [16 (21.9%) vs. 1 (2%), p = 0.003], but was comparable in IBS and HC [11 (8.5%) vs. 1 (2%), p = 0.18]. Patients with CNSD more often had SIBO than IBS [16 (21.9%) vs. 11 (8.5%), p = 0.007]. Conclusions SIBO was more common in CNSD including D-IBS than other types of IBS and HC. PMID:20535325

Kumar, Sunil; Mehrotra, Mansi; Lakshmi, CP; Misra, Asha

2010-01-01

96

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

2010-01-01

97

Mortality after steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection and chronic rejection episodes in adult intestinal transplants: report from a single center in induction/preconditioning era.  

PubMed

Steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection (ACR) and chronic rejection (CR) are still major concerns after intestinal transplantation. We report our experience from a single center on 48 adults recipients using 49 grafts from 2001 to 2011, immunosuppressing them initially with daclizumab initially and later Alemtuzumab. Overall patient survival was 41.9% at 10 years while graft survival was 38.5%. The steroid-resistant ACR population of 14 recipients (28.5%) experienced 50% mortality mainly due to sepsis, while the five (8%) CR recipients, included two survivors. All but 1 graft was placed without a liver. CR was often preceded by ACR episodes. Mortality related to steroid-resistant ACR and CR still affects the intestinal transplant population despite induction/preconditioning, especially in the absence of a protective liver effect of the liver. New immunosuppressive strategies are needed. PMID:23769102

Lauro, A; Bagni, A; Zanfi, C; Pellegrini, S; Dazzi, A; Del Gaudio, M; Ravaioli, M; Di Simone, M; Ramacciato, G; Pironi, L; Pinna, A D

2013-06-01

98

Chronic administration of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces intestinal anti-inflammatory microRNA expression during acute SIV infection of rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Recreational and medical use of cannabis among HIV-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In SIV-infected macaques, chronic administration of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC), inhibited viral replication, intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation, systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including ?(9)-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of ?(9)-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30 and 60 days post-infection (DPI) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving ?(9)-THC (n=3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n=4) or THC (THC/SIV; n=4). Chronic ?(9)-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60DPI. At 60DPI, ?28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in VEH/SIV compared to none in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149 and miR-187 previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4(+) crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal inflammation. Whether similar miRNA modulation occurs in other tissues requires further investigation. PMID:25378491

Chandra, Lawrance C; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E; Mohan, Mahesh

2014-11-01

99

[Intestinal obstruction during pregnancy].  

PubMed

This is a review of literature concerning intestinal obstruction in pregnant women. Approximately 50-90% and 30% of pregnant women, respectively suffer from nausea and vomiting, mostly during the first trimester. There is also increased risk of constipation. During the perioperative period, the administration of tocolytics should be considered only in women showing symptoms of a threatening premature delivery. Intensive hydration should be ordered to sustain uterine blood flow. The incidence of intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is estimated at 1:1500-1:66431 pregnancies and is diagnosed in II and III trimester in most cases. However, it can also occur in the I trimester (6%) or puerperium. Symptoms of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy include: abdominal pains (98%), vomiting (82%), constipation (30%). Abdominal tenderness on palpation is found in 71% and abnormal peristalsis in 55% of cases. The most common imaging examination in the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction is the abdominal X-ray. However ionizing radiation may have a harmful effect on the fetus, especially during the first trimester. X-ray is positive for intestinal obstruction in 82% of pregnant women. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are considered safe and applicable during pregnancy. Intestinal obstruction in pregnant women is mostly caused by: adhesions (54.6%), intestinal torsion (25%), colorectal carcinoma (3.7%), hernia (1.4%), appendicitis (0.5%) and others (10%). Adhesive obstruction occurs more frequently in advanced pregnancy (6% - I trimester 28% - II trimester; 45% - III trimester 21% - puerperium). Treatment should begin with conservative procedures. Surgical treatment may be necessary in cases where the pain turns from recurrent into continuous, with tachycardia, pyrexia and a positive Blumberg sign. If symptoms of fetal anoxia are observed, a C-section should be carried out before surgical intervention. The extent of surgical intervention depends on the intraoperative evaluation. Intestinal torsion during pregnancy mostly occurs in the sigmoid colon and cecum. Small bowel torsion secondary to adhesions is diagnosed in 42% of pregnant women with intestinal obstruction. The risk of intestinal torsion is higher in the 16-20 and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy and during puerperium. Intestinal torsion results in vessel occlusion which induces more severe symptoms and makes urgent surgical intervention necessary. The overall prognosis is poor--during II and III trimester the fetal mortality rate reaches 36% and 64%, respectively while the risk of maternal death is 6%. Acute intestinal pseudoobstruction can be diagnosed during puerperium, especially following a C-section. Diagnosis is made on the basis of radiological confirmation of colon distension at the cecum as > 9cm, lack of air in the sigmoid colon and rectum, exclusion of mechanical obstruction. In most cases, the treatment is based on easing intestine gas evacuation and administering neostigmine. The authors point out the need for multi-specialty cooperation in the diagnostic-therapeutic process of pregnant women suspected with intestinal obstruction, since any delay in making a correct diagnosis increases the risk of severe complications, both for the woman and the fetus. PMID:23668061

Stukan, Maciej; Kruszewski Wies?aw, Janusz; Dudziak, Miros?aw; Kopiej?, Arkadiusz; Preis, Krzysztof

2013-02-01

100

Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent- labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25609952

Buda, Andrea; Facchin, Sonia; Dassie, Elisa; Casarin, Elisabetta; Jepson, Mark A; Neumann, Helmut; Hatem, Giorgia; Realdon, Stefano; D’Incà, Renata; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Morpurgo, Margherita

2015-01-01

101

Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent- labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25609952

Buda, Andrea; Facchin, Sonia; Dassie, Elisa; Casarin, Elisabetta; Jepson, Mark A; Neumann, Helmut; Hatem, Giorgia; Realdon, Stefano; D'Incà, Renata; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Morpurgo, Margherita

2015-01-01

102

Iodine Deficiency in a Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Adolescent With Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction.  

PubMed

Routine supplementation of iodine in parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions is not current practice in the United States. In this case study, we describe an incidental finding of goiter in a long-term PN-dependent adolescent. With increased iodine screening, we then identified additional patients with undetectable urinary iodine concentrations in our population of children with short bowel receiving long-term PN. We hypothesize that 2 practice changes are possibly reducing iodine provision to long-term PN-dependent patients: transition to alcohol-based skin preparations and lipid minimization. PMID:25261415

Mortensen, Melissa; Williamson, Nila; Davis, Cheryl; Kanyu Hsu, Evelyn; Javid, Patrick J; Horslen, Simon

2014-09-26

103

Intestinal non-rotation and pseudoobstruction in myotonic dystrophy: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myotonic dystrophy is an autosomal dominant inherited disease of the skeletal and cardiac musculature that involves the pharyngeal and gastrointestinal smooth and striated muscles, resulting in velopharyngeal insufficiency, swallowing difficulties, gastrointestinal motility disorders and anal incontinence. Gastrointestinal symptoms are found in a large proportion of patients suffering from this disease and may herald the onset of muscular disorders, in rare

C. Sartoretti; S. Sartoretti; D. DeLorenzi; P. Buchmann

1996-01-01

104

Intestinal non-rotation and pseudoobstruction in myotonic dystrophy: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myotonic dystrophy is an autosomal dominant inherited disease of the skeletal and cardiac musculature that involves the pharyngead and gastrointestinal smooth and striated muscles, resulting in velopharyngeal insufficiency, swallowing difficulties, gastrointestinal motility disorders and anal incontinence. Gastrointestinal symptoms are found in a large proportion of patients suffering from this disease and may herald the onset of muscular disorders, in rare

C. Sartoretti; S. Sartoretti; D. DeLorenzi; P. Buchmann

1996-01-01

105

Chronic Diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... as: Disorders of the pancreas (e.g. chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme deficiencies, cystic fibrosis) Intestinal disorders (e. ... Altered immune function (e.g. immunoglobulin deficiencies, AIDS, autoimmune disease) Hereditary disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, enzyme ...

106

Pseudo-obstruction with pitch black colon--a very rare presentation of melanosis coli.  

PubMed

Melanosis coli is associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumors but is not agreed to be a precancerous lesion. The condition has been associated with the ingestion of anthracene laxatives and is believed to be caused by increased epithelial apoptosis. Although melanosis coli is a frequent finding in colonic biopsies and resection specimens, to our knowledge severe jet black melanosis coli with pseudoobstruction has not been reported in literature. Such gross Melanosis is exceptional and particularly striking. PMID:18269120

Malik, Arshad H; Andrabi, Syed I H; Niayesh, Mohammad

2008-01-01

107

Deletion of Intestinal Epithelial Cell STAT3 Promotes T Lymphocyte STAT3 Activation and Chronic Colitis Following Acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) Stat3 is required for wound healing following acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) injury. We hypothesized that loss of IEC STAT3 would promote the development of chronic colitis following acute DSS injury. METHODS Colitis was induced in IEC-specific Stat3 deficient mice (Stat3?IEC) and littermate controls (Stat3Flx/Flx) with 4%DSS for 7 days, followed by water consumption for 21 days. Epithelial and immune mediators and severity of colitis were determined. RESULTS Survival, colon length, and histologic injury were significantly worse at day 28 in Stat3?IEC mice. IEC proliferation and apoptosis did not vary by genotype at day 14 or day 28. The colonic lamina propria frequency of pSTAT3+ cells was increased at day 28 and correlated with histologic injury in Stat3?IEC mice. The frequency of colonic F480+pSTAT3+ macrophages and CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes were increased in Stat3?IEC mice as compared to Stat3Flx/Flx controls. In Stat3?IEC mice, colonic expression of Stat3 target genes Reg3? and Reg3? which mediate epithelial restitution were significantly decreased, while expression of IL-17a, IFN?, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly increased and correlated with the increase in histologic severity at Day 28(p<.05). IL-17a expression also correlated with the increased lamina propria frequency of CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Loss of intestinal epithelial Stat3 leads to more severe chronic inflammation following acute injury which is not accounted for by a sustained defect in epithelial proliferation or apoptosis 7 or 21 days after one cycle of DSS but rather defective REG3 expression and expansion of pSTAT3+ lymphocytes and IL-17a expression. PMID:23429443

Willson, Tara A.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Collins, Margaret; Denson, Lee A.

2015-01-01

108

Chronic epithelial NF-?B activation accelerates APC loss and intestinal tumor initiation through iNOS up-regulation  

PubMed Central

The role of NF-?B activation in tumor initiation has not been thoroughly investigated. We generated Ikk?(EE)IEC transgenic mice expressing constitutively active I?B kinase ? (IKK?) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Despite absence of destructive colonic inflammation, Ikk?(EE)IEC mice developed intestinal tumors after a long latency. However, when crossed to mice with IEC-specific allelic deletion of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor locus, Ikk?(EE)IEC mice exhibited more ?-catenin+ early lesions and visible small intestinal and colonic tumors relative to Apc+/?IEC mice, and their survival was severely compromised. IEC of Ikk?(EE)IEC mice expressed high amounts of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and elevated DNA damage markers and contained more oxidative DNA lesions. Treatment of Ikk?(EE)IEC/Apc+/?IEC mice with an iNOS inhibitor decreased DNA damage markers and reduced early ?-catenin+ lesions and tumor load. The results suggest that persistent NF-?B activation in IEC may accelerate loss of heterozygocity by enhancing nitrosative DNA damage. PMID:22893683

Shaked, Helena; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Chumanevich, Alena; Chumanevich, Alexander A.; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yinsheng; Taniguchi, Koji; Guma, Monica; Shenouda, Steve; Clevers, Hans; Harris, Curtis C.; Karin, Michael

2012-01-01

109

Chronic epithelial NF-?B activation accelerates APC loss and intestinal tumor initiation through iNOS up-regulation.  

PubMed

The role of NF-?B activation in tumor initiation has not been thoroughly investigated. We generated Ikk?(EE)(IEC) transgenic mice expressing constitutively active I?B kinase ? (IKK?) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Despite absence of destructive colonic inflammation, Ikk?(EE)(IEC) mice developed intestinal tumors after a long latency. However, when crossed to mice with IEC-specific allelic deletion of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor locus, Ikk?(EE)(IEC) mice exhibited more ?-catenin(+) early lesions and visible small intestinal and colonic tumors relative to Apc(+/?IEC) mice, and their survival was severely compromised. IEC of Ikk?(EE)(IEC) mice expressed high amounts of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and elevated DNA damage markers and contained more oxidative DNA lesions. Treatment of Ikk?(EE)(IEC)/Apc(+/?IEC) mice with an iNOS inhibitor decreased DNA damage markers and reduced early ?-catenin(+) lesions and tumor load. The results suggest that persistent NF-?B activation in IEC may accelerate loss of heterozygocity by enhancing nitrosative DNA damage. PMID:22893683

Shaked, Helena; Hofseth, Lorne J; Chumanevich, Alena; Chumanevich, Alexander A; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yinsheng; Taniguchi, Koji; Guma, Monica; Shenouda, Steve; Clevers, Hans; Harris, Curtis C; Karin, Michael

2012-08-28

110

Intestine Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Intestine Transplant Although it is possible for a living donor to donate an intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ from a deceased donor. ...

111

GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-2 PROTECTS AGAINST TPN-INDUCED INTESTINAL HEXOSE MALABSORPTION IN ENTERALLY RE-FED PIGLETS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Premature infants receiving chronic total parenteral nutrition (TPN) due to feeding intolerance develop intestinal atrophy and reduced nutrient absorption. Although providing the intestinal trophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) during chronic TPN improves intestinal growth and morphology,...

112

Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

113

Intestinal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

114

Small intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Smaller food particles move from the stomach to the small intestine. The small intestine is a long tube (like a garden hose), located just below the stomach. Most absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine (see absorption illustration). Keep in mind that the intestines are coiled like a snake inside of our bodies and are many feet long.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2006-08-18

115

Fexofenadine Regulates Nuclear Factor-?B Signaling and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Ameliorates Acute and Chronic Colitis in Mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fexofenadine on intestinal inflammation. HCT116 and COLO205 cells were pretreated with fexofenadine and then stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Interleukin (IL)-8 expression was determined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-?B was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The molecular markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were evaluated by Western blot analysis and PCR. In the acute colitis model, mice were given 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days with or without fexofenadine. IL-10(-/-) mice were used to evaluate the effect of fexofenadine on chronic colitis. Fexofenadine significantly inhibited the upregulated expression of IL-8 in HCT116 and COLO205 cells stimulated with TNF-?. Fexofenadine suppressed nuclear factor-?B DNA-binding activity. C/EBP homologous protein mRNA expression was enhanced in the presence of TNF-?, and it was dampened by pretreatment of fexofenadine. In addition, the induction of ER stress markers caspase-12 and p-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-? was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of fexofenadine. Administration of fexofenadine significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced murine colitis, as assessed by the disease activity index, colon length, and histology. In addition, the DSS-induced phospho-I?B kinase activation was significantly decreased in fexofenadine-pretreated mice. Finally, fexofenadine significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the immunoreactivity of caspase-12 and p-eIF2-? in IL-10(-/-) mice as compared with controls. These results suggest that fexofenadine is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25538104

Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Chun, Jaeyoung; Kim, Joo Sung

2015-03-01

116

Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Salivary, Urinary, and Intestinal Tissues of Deer: Potential Mechanisms of Prion Shedding and Transmission?  

PubMed Central

Efficient horizontal transmission is a signature trait of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Infectious prions shed into excreta appear to play a key role in this facile transmission, as has been demonstrated by bioassays of cervid and transgenic species and serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, the source(s) of infectious prions in these body fluids has yet to be identified. In the present study, we analyzed tissues proximate to saliva, urine, and fecal production by sPMCA in an attempt to elucidate this unique aspect of CWD pathogenesis. Oropharyngeal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tissues along with blood and obex from CWD-exposed cervids (comprising 27 animals and >350 individual samples) were analyzed and scored based on the apparent relative CWD burden. PrPCWD-generating activity was detected in a range of tissues and was highest in the salivary gland, urinary bladder, and distal intestinal tract. In the same assays, blood from the same animals and unseeded normal brain homogenate controls (n = 116 of 117) remained negative. The PrP-converting activity in peripheral tissues varied from 10?11- to 100-fold of that found in brain of the same animal. Deer with highest levels of PrPCWD amplification in the brain had higher and more widely disseminated prion amplification in excretory tissues. Interestingly, PrPCWD was not demonstrable in these excretory tissues by conventional Western blotting, suggesting a low prion burden or the presence of protease-sensitive infectious prions destroyed by harsh proteolytic treatments. These findings offer unique insights into the transmission of CWD in particular and prion infection and trafficking overall. PMID:21525361

Haley, Nicholas J.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Carver, Scott; Zabel, Mark; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

2011-01-01

117

Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal homeostasis depends on complex interactions between the microbiota, the intestinal epithelium and the host immune system. Diverse regulatory mechanisms cooperate to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and a breakdown in these pathways may precipitate the chronic inflammatory pathology found in inflammatory bowel disease. It is now evident that immune effector modules that drive intestinal inflammation are conserved across innate and adaptive

Kevin J. Maloy; Fiona Powrie

2011-01-01

118

Neostigmine for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is an uncommon condition that occasionally develops in hospitalized patients with serious underlying ailments. Its early recognition is essential to reduce life-threatening complications. Few low-powered randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have confirmed the effectiveness of neostigmine for treatment. Aim To analyse the effectiveness and main side effects of neostigmine in the treatment of ACPO. Experimental A literature search was performed for all published RCTs, reporting on neostigmine as treatment for ACPO. Results Four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, evaluating 127 patients: treatment group = 65, control group = 62. Neostigmine effectiveness to resolve ACPO with only one dose was 89.2% versus 14.65% (P < 0.001, NNT = 1 [95% CI 1–2]). Conclusions Neostigmine is a safe and effective option for patients with ACPO who failed to respond to conservative management. PMID:25568788

Valle, Raul Guillermo Lopez; Godoy, Francisco Lopez

2014-01-01

119

Gastro-intestinal vascular emergencies.  

PubMed

Gastro-Intestinal Vascular Emergencies include all digestive ischaemic injuries related to acute or chronic vascular and/or haemodynamic diseases. Gastro-intestinal ischaemic injuries can be occlusive or non-occlusive, arterial or venous, localized or generalized, superficial or transmural and share the risks of infarction, organ failure and death. The diagnosis must be suspected, at the initial presentation of any sudden, continuous and unusual abdominal pain, contrasting with normal physical examination. Risk factors are often unknown at presentation and no biomarker is currently available. The diagnosis is confirmed by abdominal computed tomography angiography identifying intestinal ischaemic injury, either with vascular occlusion or in a context of low flow. Recent knowledge in the pathophysiology of acute mesenteric ischaemia, clinical experience and existing recommendations have generated a multimodal and multidisciplinary management strategy. Based on the gastro-intestinal viability around a simple algorithm, and coordinated by gastroenterologists, the dual aim is to avoid large intestinal resections and death. PMID:24160929

Corcos, Olivier; Nuzzo, Alexandre

2013-10-01

120

Heterozygous De Novo and Inherited Mutations in the Smooth Muscle Actin (ACTG2) Gene Underlie Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes ?2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease. PMID:24676022

Wangler, Michael F.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Gambin, Tomasz; Penney, Samantha; Moss, Timothy; Chopra, Atul; Probst, Frank J.; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Werlin, Steven; Eglite, Ieva; Kornejeva, Liene; Bacino, Carlos A.; Baldridge, Dustin; Neul, Jeff; Lehman, Efrat Lev; Larson, Austin; Beuten, Joke; Muzny, Donna M.; Jhangiani, Shalini; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Beaudet, Arthur

2014-01-01

121

Advances and Challenges in the Management of Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (Ogilvie Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Although acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a well-known clinical entity, in many respects it remains poorly understood and continues to challenge physicians and surgeons alike. Our understanding of ACPO continues to evolve and its epidemiology has changed as new conditions have been identified predisposing to ACPO with critical illness providing the common thread among them. A physician must keep ACPO high in the list of differential diagnoses when dealing with the patient experiencing abdominal distention, and one must be prepared to employ and interpret imaging studies to exclude mechanical obstruction. Rapid diagnosis is the key, and institution of conservative measures often will lead to resolution. Fortunately, when this fails pharmacologic intervention with neostigmine often proves effective. However, it is not a panacea: consensus on dosing does not exist, administration techniques vary and may impact efficacy, contraindications limit its use, and persistence and or recurrence of ACPO mandate continued search for additional medical therapies. When medical therapy fails or is contraindicated, endoscopy offers effective intervention with advanced techniques such as decompression tubes or percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy providing effective results. Operative intervention remains the treatment of last resort; surgical outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a surgeon should be aware of all options for decompression—conservative, pharmacologic, and endoscopic—and use them in best combination to the advantage of patients who often suffer from significant concurrent illnesses making them poor operative candidates. PMID:23449274

Jain, Arpana; Vargas, H. David

2012-01-01

122

Amelioration of chronic and spontaneous intestinal inflammation with an antisense oligonucleotide (ISIS 9125) to intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in the HLA-B27/beta2 microglobulin transgenic rat model.  

PubMed

Adhesion molecules are known to be an important part of leukocyte migration and extravasation in both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 or CD54) is constitutively expressed on endothelial cells and is up-regulated during acute and chronic inflammation. We investigated the efficacy and consequences of interfering with CD54 after administration of an antisense oligonucleotide to ICAM-1 (CD54) in the transgenic HLA-B27/beta2 microglobulin rat model. One hundred percent of the HLA-B27 transgene + animals will spontaneously develop chronic inflammation (some more severely than others) in the gastric mucosa, cecum, and colon. We carried out two studies, i.p. injection and rectal administration of antisense. Following i.p. and rectal treatment, there were significant decreases in colonic mucosal wall thickness, histologic inflammation, CD54 expression in the colon and peripheral blood, and the percentage of colon weight per end body weight. Furthermore, decreased expression of CD49d, CD18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was observed in antisense treated rats. Therefore, the HLA-B27 transgenic model of spontaneous and chronic inflammatory bowel disease, which has increased expression of adhesion molecules, responds to both routes of administration of ICAM-1 antisense oligonucleotides. These studies support the regulatory role of adhesion molecules in chronic intestinal inflammation, the need for an understanding of how the route of drug delivery can alter the dose and area affected, and finally the role of antisense oligonucleotides as a therapeutic modality in chronic spontaneous inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:12183646

Bowen-Yacyshyn, Mary Beth; Bennett, C F; Nation, N; Rayner, D; Yacyshyn, B R

2002-09-01

123

Intestinal Phosphate Transport  

PubMed Central

Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter Npt2b is highly regulated by a diverse set of hormones and dietary conditions. Furthermore, conditional knockout of Npt2b suggests that it plays an important role in maintenance of phosphate homeostasis by coordinating intestinal phosphate absorption with renal phosphate reabsorption. The knockout mouse also suggests that Npt2b is responsible for the majority of sodium-dependent phosphate uptake. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, Pit1 and Pit2 contribute a minor role in total phosphate uptake. Despite co-expression along the apical membrane, differential responses of Pit1 and Npt2b regulation to chronic versus dietary changes illustrates another layer of phosphate transport control. Finally, a major problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is management of hyperphosphatemia. The present evidence suggests that targeting key regulatory transporters of intestinal phosphate transport may provide novel therapeutic approaches for CKD patients. PMID:21406292

Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

2011-01-01

124

Intestinal Malrotation  

MedlinePLUS

... other associated conditions, including: other defects of the digestive system heart defects abnormalities of other organs, including the ... large intestines are the longest part of the digestive system. If stretched out to their full length, they ...

125

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction complicating chemotherapy in paediatric oncohaematological patients: clinical and imaging features  

PubMed Central

Objective Although acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) complicating chemotherapy is still a controversial entity, it is one with which radiologists should be familiar. We describe the imaging features of ACPO in children following chemotherapy for treatment of a haematological malignancy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the imaging features of eight children (age 3–14 years) with chemotherapy-related ACPO, all of whom had undergone plain radiography and CT examinations. The diagnosis of ACPO was based on both clinical features and imaging findings. Results Abnormalities noted on plain radiography included faecal gaseous distension of the transverse colon (4/8), faecal gaseous distension of the ascending colon (3/8), gaseous distended transverse colon (3/8) and gaseous small bowel loops (6/8). As seen on CT scans, findings of faecal fluid distended the ascending and transverse colon (5/8), faecal gas distended the transverse and ascending colon (3/8), and small bowel dilatation (5/8) and pneumatosis intestinalis (2/8) were noted. Seven of the eight patients had colonic dilatation from the caecum to the transverse colon with the transition zone near the splenic flexure. Conclusion In children presenting with abdominal pain and constipation following chemotherapy, imaging features of progressive colonic dilatation seen on radiography and dilatation from the caecum to the transverse colon with the transition zone near the splenic flexure, as noted on CT, are suggestive of ACPO. CT is more successful than plain radiography for evaluating this finding, particularly in colonic segments filled primarily with fluid, but CT should not be necessary for making the diagnosis as plain radiographs and clinical evaluation should be adequate. PMID:21828148

Lee, G E; Lim, G-Y; Lee, J-W; Cho, B

2012-01-01

126

Challenges to intestinal pO? measurement using EPR.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic intestinal ischemia has been linked to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bowel dysfunction and more seriously, the complications of sepsis, shock and death. Advances in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry have resulted in accurate and reliable in vivo measurement of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) in solid organs (e.g., muscle, heart) [1], but has yet to be tested in thin walled organs such as intestine. Our ultimate goal is to noninvasively monitor intestinal pO(2) during acute and chronic intestinal ischemia in a rat model. A series of experiments to deliver oxygen-sensitive indicator probes to the small/large intestine by intravenous, luminal and wall injection, as well as direct placement of a solid probe against the outer intestinal wall were attempted. Only the LiNc:BuO:PDMS chip sutured to the peritoneal wall and in direct contact with the intestine allowed for noninvasive pO(2) measurement by EPR. However, the validity of site-specific intestinal pO(2) measurement could not be confirmed and the obtained pO(2) value likely reflected peritoneal cavity oxygenation. Developing methods for probe placement on or inside the intestinal wall are needed for noninvasive, site-specific intestinal pO(2) measurement by EPR to track changes during acute and chronic intestinal ischemia. PMID:21445767

Fisher, Elaine; Khan, Mahmood; Steiner, Richard; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2011-01-01

127

Long-lasting remission after rituximab treatment in a case of anti-Hu-associated sensory neuronopathy and gastric pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndromes are usually associated with an underlying neoplasia, although a few patients who are anti-Hu-positive never develop cancer after long-term follow-up. Tumour therapy remains the mainstay of therapeutic options, and early immune therapy in parallel is advisable. When no tumour is found, immunologically-based therapies are nowadays the only options. Recent studies have shown rituximab associated with the tumour therapy to be effective for some patients with anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome. We report a case of a patient with anti-Hu antibodies-associated sensory neuronopathy and gastric pseudo-obstruction without an underlying neoplasia four years after the first manifestation who has achieved sustained improvement for two years after treatment with rituximab. This case report supports the effectiveness of rituximab in these syndromes, even for cases where no underlying neoplasia is demonstrated. Further studies are warranted in order to confirm these preliminary data. PMID:19139820

Coret, Francisco; Bosca, Isabel; Fratalia, Loren; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Pascual, Ana; Casanova, Bonaventura

2009-07-01

128

Intestinal Stomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intestinal stomas have long been used by surgeons for fecal diversion and remain an important tool for both the general and\\u000a colon and rectal surgeon. They are considered a vital ­element as either a permanent means for stool evacuation or as a temporary\\u000a bridge in order to treat complicated abdominal problems or to heal more distal anastomoses. The surgeon must

Laurence R. Sands; Floriano Marchetti

129

Cholinergic interactions between donepezil and prucalopride in human colon: potential to treat severe intestinal dysmotility  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine are used for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, but cardio-bronchial side-effects limit use. To minimize side-effects, lower doses could be combined with a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, which also facilitates intestinal cholinergic activity. However, safety concerns, especially in the elderly, require drugs with good selectivity of action. These include the AChE inhibitor donepezil (used for Alzheimer's disease, with reduced cardio-bronchial liability) and prucalopride, the first selective, clinically available 5-HT4 receptor agonist. This study examined their individual and potential synergistic activities in human colon. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Neuronally mediated muscle contractions and relaxations of human colon were evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and defined phenotypically as cholinergic, nitrergic or tachykinergic using pharmacological tools; the effects of drugs were determined as changes in ‘area under the curve’. KEY RESULTS Prucalopride increased cholinergically mediated contractions (EC50 855 nM; 33% maximum increase), consistent with its ability to stimulate intestinal motility; donepezil (477%) and neostigmine (2326%) had greater efficacy. Concentrations of donepezil (30–100 nM) found in venous plasma after therapeutic doses had minimal ability to enhance cholinergic activity. However, donepezil (30 nM) together with prucalopride (3, 10 ?M) markedly increased EFS-evoked contractions compared with prucalopride alone (P = 0.04). For example, the increases observed with donepezil and prucalopride 10 ?M together or alone were, respectively, 105 ± 35%, 4 ± 6% and 35 ± 21% (n = 3–7, each concentration). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Potential synergy between prucalopride and donepezil activity calls for exploration of this combination as a safer, more effective treatment of colonic pseudo-obstruction. PMID:24032987

Broad, J; Kung, V W S; Boundouki, G; Aziz, Q; De Maeyer, J H; Knowles, C H; Sanger, G J

2013-01-01

130

Pseudo-obstruction and a sprue-like syndrome from stronglyloidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic disease from Strongyloides stercoralis has been recognized for the first time in Trinidad. Five cases are reported, all showing clinical features suggestive of a sprue-like syndrome. Subtotal jejunal villous atrophy was seen in one case and partial villous atrophy in two. Three patients had laparotomies because of suspected partial intestinal obstruction. A sprue-like syndrome in certain Caribbean immigrants should arouse a suspicion of S. stercoralis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:859785

Bartholomew, C.; Butler, A. K.; Bhaskar, A. G.; Jankey, N.

1977-01-01

131

Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)  

MedlinePLUS

... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ...

132

Farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits inflammation and preserves the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aimsInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterised by chronic intestinal inflammation, resulting from dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and compromised intestinal epithelial barrier function. The bile salt, nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), was recently implicated in intestinal antibacterial defence and barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of FXR agonists in the

Raffaella M Gadaleta; Karel J van Erpecum; Bas Oldenburg; Ellen C L Willemsen; Willem Renooij; Stefania Murzilli; Leo W J Klomp; Peter D Siersema; Marguerite E I Schipper; Silvio Danese; Giuseppe Penna; Gilles Laverny; Luciano Adorini; Antonio Moschetta; Saskia W C van Mil

2011-01-01

133

Effect of dietary fat on intestinal inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Dietary fat has multiple roles on human health, and some dietary fat is used to treat organic diseases because of its anti-inflammatory effect. It is commonly accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is beneficial on ischemic heart disease or rheumatic arthritis. On the contrary, effect of omega-3-PUFA on Crohn's disease remained controversial. That effect of omega-3 PUFA differs according to the location of inflamed intestine was hypothesized. To elucidate this hypothesis, to investigate the role of dietary fat on disease activity in different kind of murine models of intestinal inflammatory diseases was planned. The effect of omega-3 PUFA on small intestinal Crohn's disease model and large intestinal Crohn's disease model of mice. Chronic colitis model C57BL/6 mice received two cycles of dextran sodium sulfate solution treatment to induce chronic colitis. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets exacerbated colitis with decrease in adiponectin expression. Chronic small intestinal inflammation model: SAMP1/Yit mice showed remarkable inflammation of the terminal ileum spontaneously. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets for 16 weeks significantly ameliorated the inflammation of the terminal ileum. Enhanced infiltration of leukocytes and expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in intestinal mucosa was significantly decreased by omega-3 fat-rich diets treatment. Omega-3 PUFA has dual role, pro-/anti-inflammatory, on intestinal inflammatory diseases. The role of omega-3 fat and the potential for immunonutrition in inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract will be discussed. PMID:24251701

Hokari, Ryota; Matsunaga, Hisayuki; Miura, Soichiro

2013-12-01

134

Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology  

PubMed Central

Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

MITSUOKA, Tomotari

2014-01-01

135

Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions  

PubMed Central

Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

2014-01-01

136

Intestinal Epithelium and Autophagy: Partners in Gut Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

One of the most significant challenges of cell biology is to understand how each type of cell copes with its specific workload without suffering damage. Among the most intriguing questions concerns intestinal epithelial cells in mammals; these cells act as a barrier between the internally protected region and the external environment that is exposed constantly to food and microbes. A major process involved in the processing of microbes is autophagy. In the intestine, through multiple, complex signaling pathways, autophagy including macroautophagy and xenophagy is pivotal in mounting appropriate intestinal immune responses and anti-microbial protection. Dysfunctional autophagy mechanism leads to chronic intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies involving a number of in vitro and in vivo mouse models in addition to human clinical studies have revealed a detailed role for autophagy in the generation of chronic intestinal inflammation. A number of genome-wide association studies identified roles for numerous autophagy genes in IBD, especially in Crohn’s disease. In this review, we will explore in detail the latest research linking autophagy to intestinal homeostasis and how alterations in autophagy pathways lead to intestinal inflammation. PMID:24137160

Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Chieppa, Marcello; Eri, Rajaraman

2013-01-01

137

Hepatic and Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Review  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Egypt caused by the trematode Schistosoma which has different species. Hepatic schistosomiasis represents the best known form of chronic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is related to the host cellular immune response. This leads to granuloma formation and neo angiogenesis with subsequent periportal fibrosis manifested as portal hypertension, splenomegaly and esophageal varices. Intestinal schistosomiasis is another well identified form of chronic schistosomal affection. Egg deposition and granuloma formation eventually leads to acute then chronic schistosomal colitis and is commonly associated with polyp formation. It frequently presents as abdominal pain, diarrhea, tenesmus and anal pain. Definite diagnosis of schistosomiasis disease depends on microscopy and egg identification. Marked progress regarding serologic diagnosis occurred with development of recent PCR techniques that can confirm schistosomal affection at any stage. Many antischistosomal drugs have been described for treatment, praziquantel being the most safe and efficient drug. Still ongoing studies try to develop effective vaccines with identification of many target antigens. Preventive programs are highly needed to control the disease morbidity and to break the cycle of transmission.

Elbaz, Tamer; Esmat, Gamal

2013-01-01

138

Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis  

E-print Network

LETTERS Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis Colby homeostasis by promoting mucosal immunity and lim- iting chronic inflammation. The mucosal surface of the GI

Arnold, Jonathan

139

Intestinal Stricture in Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn's disease (CD) is a disease with chronic inflammation of unknown etiology involving any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence and prevalence of CD are increasing recently in Asia. Half of the CD patients will have intestinal complications, such as strictures or fistulas, within 20 years after diagnosis. Twenty-five percentage of CD patients have had at least one small bowel stricture and 10% have had at least one colonic stricture and lead to significant complications. Most of these patients will require at least one surgery during their lifetime. Early diagnosis and evaluation with adequate managements for the patients can prevent disability and mortality of these patient. Here, we reviewed the current incidence of CD with stricture, the etiology of stricture, and how to diagnose and manage the stricture.

Chang, Chen-Wang; Wong, Jau-Min; Tung, Chien-Chih; Shih, I-Lun; Wang, Horng-Yuan

2015-01-01

140

Laparoscopic intestinal stomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We report our early experiences with laparoscopic intestinal stomas, describing the indications, the surgical techniques, and the complications of this new procedure. METHODS: The medical records of the 17 patients who had successfully undergone laparoscopic intestinal diversion at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean follow-up of this group has been 24.3

George M. Fuhrman; David M. Ota

1994-01-01

141

Gallstones: an intestinal disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist

K J VAN ERPECUM; G P VAN BERGE-HENEGOUWEN

1999-01-01

142

Intestinal permeability in leukemic patients prior to chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intestinal barrier function in leukemia patients before the start of the chemotherapy with an intestinal permeability test using lactulose and mannitol as markers. Methods The study enrolled 20 patients diagnosed with leukemia (acute and chronic). Ten healthy volunteers were also submitted to the test as a control group. Results The median lactulose/mannitol ratio was 0.019 for the Leukemia Patient Group, whereas in healthy controls the median was 0.009 (p-value = 0.244). The median lactulose/mannitol ratio in acute leukemia patients was 0.034 giving a p-value of 0.069 when compared to healthy controls. This same comparison was made between acute myeloid leukemia patients and healthy controls with a p-value of 0.149. There was no significant difference in the intestinal permeability between acute and chronic leukemia patients (p-value = 0.098). Conclusion The intestinal barrier function measured using the intestinal permeability test was similar in leukemic patients overall and healthy controls, but a tendency toward a different pattern was found in the intestinal barrier function of acute leukemia patients. PMID:25453650

Leite, Juliana Brovini; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; da Gama Torres, Henrique Oswaldo; de Lourdes de Abreu Ferrari, Maria; da Cunha, Aloísio Sales

2014-01-01

143

Intestinal adaptation after massive intestinal resection  

PubMed Central

Patients with short bowel syndrome require long term parenteral nutrition support. However, after massive intestinal resection the intestine undergoes adaptation and nutritional autonomy may be obtained. Given that the complications of parenteral nutrition may be life threatening or result in treatment failure and the need for intestinal transplantation, a more attractive option is to wean patients off nutrition support by optimising the adaptive process. The article examines the evidence that after extensive small bowel resection adaptation occurs in humans and focuses on the factors that influence adaptation and the strategies that have been used to optimise this process. The review is based on an English language Medline search with secondary references obtained from key articles. There is evidence that adaptation occurs in humans. Adaptation is a complex process that results in response to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli. Successful and reproducible strategies to improve adaptation remain elusive despite an abundance of experimental data. Nevertheless given the low patient survival and quality of life associated with other treatments for irreversible intestinal failure it is imperative that clinical research continues into the optimisation of the adaptation. PMID:15749794

Weale, A; Edwards, A; Bailey, M; Lear, P

2005-01-01

144

Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal immune system has to discriminate between harmful and beneficial antigens. Although strong protective immunity is essential to prevent invasion by pathogens, equivalent responses against dietary proteins or commensal bacteria can lead to chronic disease. These responses are normally prevented by a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms. This article reviews the unique aspects of the local microenvironment of the

Allan Mc I. Mowat

2003-01-01

145

Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

Arslan, Nur

2014-01-01

146

Intestinal absorption of vitamins.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption processes of vitamins. The vitamins covered are the water-soluble vitamins folic acid, cobalamin (vitamin B12), biotin, pantothenic acid, and thiamine (vitamin B1) and the lipid-soluble vitamin A. For folate, significant advances have been made in regard to i) digestion of dietary folate polyglutamates to folate monoglutamates by the cloning of the responsible enzyme; ii) identification of the cDNA responsible for the intestinal folate transporter; iii) delineation of intracellular mechanisms that regulate small intestinal folate uptake; and iv) identification and characterization of a specific, pH-dependent, carrier-mediated system for folate uptake at the luminal (apical) membrane of human colonocytes. Studies on cobalamine have focused on cellular and molecular characterization of the intrinsic factor and its receptor. Studies on biotin transport in the small intestine have shown that the uptake process is shared by another water-soluble vitamin, pantothenic acid. Furthermore, a Na-dependent, carrier-mediated biotin uptake system that is also shared with pantothenic acid has been identified at the apical membrane of human colonocytes. This carrier is believed to be responsible for the absorption of the bacterially synthesized biotin and pantothenic acid in the large intestine. Also, preliminary studies have reported the cloning of a biotin transporter from the small intestine. As for thiamine intestinal transport, a study has shown thiamine uptake by small intestinal biopsy specimens to be via a carrier-mediated, Na-independent mechanism, which appears to be up-regulated in thiamine deficiency. Studies on vitamin A intestinal absorption have shown the existence of a receptor-mediated mechanism for the uptake of retinol bound to retinol-binding protein in the small intestine of suckling rats. Another study has shown that retinoic acid increases the mRNA level of the cellular retinol binding protein II and the rate of retinol uptake by Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. The study suggested that retinoids may play a role in the regulation of vitamin A intestinal absorption. PMID:17023940

Said, H M; Kumar, C

1999-03-01

147

PPAR?/? activation of CD300a controls intestinal immunity  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are important for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Here, we show that PPAR?/? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/?) directly regulates CD300a in macrophages that express the immunoreceptor tyrosine based-inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor. In mice lacking CD300a, high-fat diet (HFD) causes chronic intestinal inflammation with low numbers of intestinal lymph capillaries and dramatically expanded mesenteric lymph nodes. As a result, these mice exhibit triglyceride malabsorption and reduced body weight gain on HFD. Peritoneal macrophages from Cd300a?/? mice on HFD are classically M1 activated. Activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MyD88 signaling by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in prolonged IL-6 secretion in Cd300a?/? macrophages. Bone marrow transplantation confirmed that the phenotype originates from CD300a deficiency in leucocytes. These results identify CD300a-mediated inhibitory signaling in macrophages as a critical regulator of intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:24958459

Tanaka, Toshiya; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Nabekura, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Kaori; Jiang, Shuying; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Inagaki, Takeshi; Magoori, Kenta; Higurashi, Takuma; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tachibana, Keisuke; Tsurutani, Yuya; Raza, Sana; Anai, Motonobu; Minami, Takashi; Wada, Youichiro; Yokote, Koutaro; Doi, Takefumi; Hamakubo, Takao; Auwerx, Johan; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Atsushi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Naito, Makoto; Shibuya, Akira; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Juro

2014-01-01

148

[Zinc and chronic enteropathies].  

PubMed

In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself. PMID:6100131

Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

1984-01-01

149

Small & Large Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Anatomy & Physiology » Digestive System » Regions of the Digestive System » Small & Large Intestine Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

150

Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on FMT in metabolic syndrome by infusing microbiota from lean donors or from self-collected feces, with the resultant findings showing that the lean donor feces group displayed increased insulin sensitivity, along with increased levels of butyrate-producing intestinal microbiota. Case reports of FMT have also shown favorable outcomes in Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, myoclonus dystonia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. FMT is a promising approach in the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota and has potential applications in a variety of extra-intestinal conditions associated with intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:25574083

Xu, Meng-Que; Cao, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiao-Cang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

2015-01-01

151

Pathology of Intestinal Lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The advent of immunohistological and molecular techniques has enabled the comprehensive characterization of many lymphoma\\u000a entities. Furthermore, it has increased the consensus in lymphoma classification among pathologists. In this review we describe\\u000a the pathological features of primary intestinal lymphomas classified according to the revised European-American classification\\u000a of lymphoid neoplasms. The majority of primary intestinal lymphomas are of Bcell lineage and

H.-D. Foss; H. Stein

152

Claudins in intestines  

PubMed Central

Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

2013-01-01

153

Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor {beta} immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent.

Wang Junru [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zheng Huaien [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kulkarni, Ashwini [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Ou Xuemei [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States)]. E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

2006-04-01

154

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults  

PubMed Central

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and “secondary” changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple’s disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn’s disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

2011-01-01

155

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.  

PubMed

Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited. PMID:21364842

Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

2011-02-15

156

[Differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhoea].  

PubMed

Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent clinical presentation in our population. It may correspond to many gastrointestinal or systemic pathologies. Most frequent causes are irritable bowel syndrome, functional intestinal disorders or lactose intolerance, but organic diseases have also to be searched. Focused patient questioning and some specific aspects of clinical examination play a key-role in diagnosis orientation and the use of complementary explorations. The present paper proposes a structured diagnostic procedure aiming at an optimal use of complementary explorations. PMID:24640309

Louis, E

2014-01-01

157

Dai Huang Fu Zi Tang could ameliorate intestinal injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock by regulating intestinal blood flow and intestinal expression of p-VASP and ZO-1  

PubMed Central

Background Dai Huang Fu Zi Tang (DHFZT), an oriental herbal formula, has long been used clinically in treatment of intestinal obstruction, acute pancreatitis, cholecystalgia and chronic diarrhea for thousands of years. Recent studies have demonstrated that DHFZT can reduce intestinal pathological injury and the concentration of enterogenous endotoxin in an animal model. But the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Methods SD male rats in adult were used to model HS and treated with DHFZT. The serum concentration of endotoxin were analyzed by dynamic turbidimetric method. In addition, the blood flow of small intestine were measured using laser speckle technique. Phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP) and zonula occludens (ZO)-1 protein, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) were measured by Western Blotting, RT-PCR, ELISA respectively. Results Present study showed that DHFZT markedly elevated the blood flow of small intestine, protected the intestinal barrier function by up-regulating the expression of ZO-1 protein and down-regulating expression of p-VASP, and notely decreased serum concentration of IFABP and endotoxin in HS. Conclusions These results reveal that DHFZT improves intestinal blood flow, protects the intestinal barrier function, and ameliorates intestinal endotoxaemia in rats with HS. PMID:24580804

2014-01-01

158

Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... N Vitamin deficiencies as a result of poor absorption in the intestine NElectrolyte and mineral deficiencies due ... N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure ...

159

Small intestine contrast injection (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

160

Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol- or saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces chronic, often systemic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems worldwide. In vivo information regarding the local and direct inflammatory effect of these dietary components in the intestine and, in particular, on the intestinal epithelium is lacking. Here we report that both mice and zebrafish exposed to high-fat (HFDs) or high-cholesterol (HCDs) diets develop acute innate inflammatory responses within hours, reflected in the localized interleukin-1?-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the intestine. Acute HCD-induced intestinal inflammation is dependent on cholesterol uptake via Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and inflammasome activation involving apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, which leads to Caspase-1 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Extended exposure to HCD results in localized, inflammation-dependent, functional dysregulation as well as systemic pathologies. Our model suggests that dietary cholesterol initiates intestinal inflammation in epithelial cells. PMID:25536194

Progatzky, Fränze; Sangha, Navjyot J.; Yoshida, Nagisa; McBrien, Marie; Cheung, Jackie; Shia, Alice; Scott, James; Marchesi, Julian R.; Lamb, Jonathan R.; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J.

2014-01-01

161

Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol- or saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces chronic, often systemic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems worldwide. In vivo information regarding the local and direct inflammatory effect of these dietary components in the intestine and, in particular, on the intestinal epithelium is lacking. Here we report that both mice and zebrafish exposed to high-fat (HFDs) or high-cholesterol (HCDs) diets develop acute innate inflammatory responses within hours, reflected in the localized interleukin-1?-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the intestine. Acute HCD-induced intestinal inflammation is dependent on cholesterol uptake via Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and inflammasome activation involving apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, which leads to Caspase-1 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Extended exposure to HCD results in localized, inflammation-dependent, functional dysregulation as well as systemic pathologies. Our model suggests that dietary cholesterol initiates intestinal inflammation in epithelial cells. PMID:25536194

Progatzky, Fränze; Sangha, Navjyot J; Yoshida, Nagisa; McBrien, Marie; Cheung, Jackie; Shia, Alice; Scott, James; Marchesi, Julian R; Lamb, Jonathan R; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J

2014-01-01

162

Interplay between intestinal alkaline phosphatase, diet, gut microbes and immunity.  

PubMed

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis and health through interactions with the resident microbiota, diet and the gut. IAP's role in the intestine is to dephosphorylate toxic microbial ligands such as lipopolysaccharides, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides and flagellin as well as extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate. IAP's ability to detoxify these ligands is essential in protecting the host from sepsis during acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Also important in these complications is IAP's ability to regulate the microbial ecosystem by forming a complex relationship between microbiota, diet and the intestinal mucosal surface. Evidence reveals that diet alters IAP expression and activity and this in turn can influence the gut microbiota and homeostasis. IAP's ability to maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract has accelerated research on its potential use as a therapeutic agent against a multitude of diseases. Exogenous IAP has been shown to have beneficial effects when administered during ulcerative colitis, coronary bypass surgery and sepsis. There are currently a handful of human clinical trials underway investigating the effects of exogenous IAP during sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and heart surgery. In light of these findings IAP has been marked as a novel agent to help treat a variety of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. The purpose of this review is to highlight the essential characteristics of IAP in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis while addressing the intricate interplay between IAP, diet, microbiota and the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25400448

Estaki, Mehrbod; DeCoffe, Daniella; Gibson, Deanna L

2014-11-14

163

Recent Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intestinal Failure.  

PubMed

Intestinal failure is a chronic condition in which the intestinal tract has lost most of its function. Prognosis depends on the severity and underlying etiologies. Although many patients survive under parenteral nutrition support, they often suffer from fatal complications such as progressive cholestasis and frequent sepsis. In addition, to decide the proper time to refer selected patients to bowel transplantation remains difficult. A noninvasive biomarker developed to evaluate functional enterocyte mass and the extent of intestinal adaptation is plasma citrulline level. It is shown that serum citrulline correlates with small bowel length, oral tolerance, and parenteral nutrition dependency. Recent evidence has revealed that the use of fish oil containing lipid emulsions to substitute traditional soybean-based formula may reverse a patient's cholestasis and improve lipid profiles. A new method used to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infection is ethanol lock therapy. With both antimicrobial and fibrinolytic activities, studies have shown that ethanol locks can effectively decrease catheter infection and replacement rate with no known resistance reported. As part of intestinal rehabilitation, auxiliary surgeries such as longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring, serial transverse enteroplasty, and tapering enteroplasty can be beneficial for selected patients before bridging to bowel transplantation. With the introduction of these new medical and surgical modalities, patients with intestinal failure are having better outcomes than in the past. PMID:24594083

Chan, Chan-Fai; Wu, Tzee-Chung

2014-12-01

164

Histone Deacetylase 3 orchestrates commensal bacteria-dependent intestinal homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The development and severity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and other chronic inflammatory conditions can be influenced by host genetic and environmental factors, including signals derived from commensal bacteria1–6. However, the mechanisms that integrate these diverse cues remain undefined. Here we demonstrate that mice with an intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of the epigenome-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3?IEC mice) exhibited extensive dysregulation of IEC-intrinsic gene expression, including decreased basal expression of genes associated with antimicrobial defense. Critically, conventionally-housed HDAC3?IEC mice demonstrated loss of Paneth cells, impaired IEC function and alterations in the composition of intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, HDAC3?IEC mice exhibited significantly increased susceptibility to intestinal damage and inflammation, indicating that epithelial expression of HDAC3 plays a central role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Rederivation of HDAC3?IEC mice into germ-free conditions revealed that dysregulated IEC gene expression, Paneth cell homeostasis, and intestinal barrier function were largely restored in the absence of commensal bacteria. While the specific mechanisms through which IEC-intrinsic HDAC3 expression regulates these complex phenotypes remain to be elucidated, these data indicate that HDAC3 is a critical factor that integrates commensal bacteria-derived signals to calibrate epithelial cell responses required to establish normal host-commensal relationships and maintain intestinal homeostasis. PMID:24185009

Alenghat, Theresa; Osborne, Lisa C.; Saenz, Steven A.; Kobuley, Dmytro; Ziegler, Carly G. K.; Mullican, Shannon E.; Choi, Inchan; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Wynosky-Dolfi, Meghan; Snyder, Annelise; Giacomin, Paul R.; Joyce, Karen L.; Hoang, Tram B.; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brodsky, Igor E.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Artis, David

2014-01-01

165

The allometry of rodent intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon\\u000a and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects\\u000a associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents.

Barry G. Lovegrove

2010-01-01

166

Increased serum IgA and IgM against LPS of enterobacteria in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): indication for the involvement of gram-negative enterobacteria in the etiology of CFS and for the presence of an increased gut-intestinal permeability.  

PubMed

There is now evidence that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by immune disorders and by increased oxidative stress. The present study has been designed in order to examine the serum concentrations of IgA and IgM to LPS of gram-negative enterobacteria, i.e. Hafnia alvei; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas putida, Citrobacter koseri, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in CFS patients, patients with partial CFS and normal controls. We found that the prevalences and median values for serum IgA against the LPS of enterobacteria are significantly greater in patients with CFS than in normal volunteers and patients with partial CFS. Serum IgA levels were significantly correlated to the severity of illness, as measured by the FibroFatigue scale and to symptoms, such as irritable bowel, muscular tension, fatigue, concentration difficulties, and failing memory. The results show that enterobacteria are involved in the etiology of CFS and that an increased gut-intestinal permeability has caused an immune response to the LPS of gram-negative enterobacteria. It is suggested that all patients with CFS should be checked by means of the IgA panel used in the present study and accordingly should be treated for increased gut permeability. PMID:17007934

Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivana; Leunis, Jean-Claude

2007-04-01

167

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a chronic and progressive process characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to stiffening and/or scarring of the involved tissue. Intestinal fibrosis may develop in several different enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. It develops through complex cell, extracellular matrix, cytokine and growth factor interactions. Distinct cell types are involved in intestinal fibrosis, such as resident mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) but also ECM-producing cells derived from epithelial and endothelial cells (through a process termed epithelial- and endothelial-mesenchymal transition), stellate cells, pericytes, local or bone marrow-derived stem cells. The most important soluble factors that regulate the activation of these cells include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, components of the renin-angiotensin system, angiogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin, and products of oxidative stress. It soon becomes clear that although inflammation is responsible for triggering the onset of the fibrotic process, it only plays a minor role in the progression of this condition, as fibrosis may advance in a self-perpetuating fashion. Definition of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal fibrosis may provide the key to developing new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22851857

Speca, Silvia; Giusti, Ilaria; Rieder, Florian; Latella, Giovanni

2012-01-01

168

Small intestine aspirate and culture  

MedlinePLUS

Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine. ... A sample of fluid from the small intestine is needed. A procedure ... done to get the sample. The fluid is placed in a special dish in ...

169

Chronic Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Learn more. Doctors ...

170

Intestinal stem cells and celiac disease  

PubMed Central

Stem cells (SCs) are the key to tissue genesis and regeneration. Given their central role in homeostasis, dysfunctions of the SC compartment play a pivotal role in the development of cancers, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammatory pathologies and organ failure. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to harsh mechanical and chemical conditions and most of the epithelial cells are replaced every 3 to 5 d. According to the so-called Unitarian hypothesis, this renewal is driven by a common intestinal stem cell (ISC) residing within the crypt base at the origin of the crypt-to-villus hierarchical migratory pattern. Celiac disease (CD) can be defined as a chronic immune-mediated disease that is triggered and maintained by dietary proteins (gluten) in genetically predisposed individuals. Many advances have been achieved over the last years in understanding of the pathogenic interactions among genetic, immunological and environmental factors in CD, with a particular emphasis on intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Conversely, little is known about ISC modulation and deregulation in active celiac disease and upon a gluten-free diet. Nonetheless, bone marrow-derived SC transplantation has become an option for celiac patients with complicated or refractory disease. This manuscript summarizes the “state of the art” regarding CD and ISCs, their niche and potential role in the development and treatment of the disease. PMID:24772248

Piscaglia, Anna Chiara

2014-01-01

171

Intestinal transplantation: living related  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent

Stephen G Pollard

172

Mechanisms of intestinal adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of intestinal adaptation is complex and involves different mechanisms at different sites. The principal basic stimuli to adaptive growth are the presence of food in the gut lumen, endogenous secretions, and circulating hormones and peptides. Lesser factors include neural and vascular influences. Much effort has been devoted to the search for a systemic tropic factor responsible for the

James B. Bristol; Robin C. N. Williamson

1988-01-01

173

Intestinal permeability: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans has a 20-year history. Because the tests are increasingly used in clinical practice and research and because there is much controversy, we reviewed the literature and outlined the potential and possible shortcomings of these procedures. Data was obtained from personal files and from a systemic search through MEDLINE and EMBASE. The principle

Ingvar Bjarnason; Andrew Macpherson; Daniel Hollander

1995-01-01

174

Stomach and Intestinal Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal ulcers can be a painful and dangerous situation. Ulcers are associated not only with pain and discomfort, but may also be a source of significant blood loss. Ulcers are treatable but may require several medications and sometimes multiple rounds of these medications. It is important to know that there are several nutrimental factors that may help improve the success

Steve Windley

175

The chronic enteropathogenic disease schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a chronic enteropathogenic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. The disease afflicts approximately 240 million individuals globally, causing approximately 70 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Chronic infections with morbidity and mortality occur as a result of granuloma formation in the intestine, liver, or in the case of Schistosoma haematobium, the bladder. Various methods are utilized to diagnose and evaluate liver fibrosis due to schistosomiasis. Liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard, but it is invasive. Diagnostic imaging has proven to be an invaluable method in assessing hepatic morbidity in the hospital setting, but has practical limitations in the field. The potential of non-invasive biological markers, serum antibodies, cytokines, and circulating host microRNAs to diagnose hepatic fibrosis is presently undergoing evaluation. This review provides an update on the recent advances made with respect to gastrointestinal disease associated with chronic schistosomiasis. PMID:25250908

Olveda, David U; Olveda, Remigio M; McManus, Donald P; Cai, Pengfei; Chau, Thao N P; Lam, Alfred K; Li, Yuesheng; Harn, Donald A; Vinluan, Marilyn L; Ross, Allen G P

2014-11-01

176

The Effect of Caloric Load and Nutrient Composition On Induction of Small Intestinal Satiety in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoghegan, J. G., C. A. Cheng, D. C. Lawson and T. N. Pappas. The effect of caloric load and nutrient composition on induction of small intestinal satiety in dogs. Physiol Behav 62(1) 39–42, 1997.—The influence of caloric load and nutrient composition on small intestinal satiety was investigated in six dogs with chronic esophageal fistulas. Dogs received small bowel infusion of

Justin G Geoghegan; Christine A Cheng; Curtis Lawson; Theodore N Pappas

1997-01-01

177

Histopathological changes in small and large intestines during hymenolepidosis in rats.  

PubMed

The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a chronic parasite living in the small intestine of rats, mice and humans. The aim of this study was to determine histopathological changes in the rat intestine during experimental hymenolepidosis. Our results showed that in rats infected with H. diminuta slight changes occurred in the length of the villus and crypts in different parts of the digestive tract. The changes were most distinct in the duodenum and jejunum on the 16 days post H. diminuta infection. PMID:23342916

Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kolasa, Agnieszka

2012-01-01

178

Intestinal permeability in kwashiorkor  

PubMed Central

Accepted 16 September 1996? Intestinal permeability can be assessed non-invasively using the lactulose-rhamnose (L-R) test, which is a reliable measure of small intestinal integrity.?AIMS—To determine risk factors for abnormal intestinal permeability in kwashiorkor, and to measure changes in L-R ratios with inpatient rehabilitation.?DESIGN—A case-control study of 149 kwashiorkor cases and 45 hospital controls. The L-R test was adapted to study kwashiorkor in Malawi, with testing at weekly intervals during nutritional rehabilitation. Urine sugars were measured by thin layer chromatography in London.?RESULTS—The initial geometric mean L-R ratios (×100) (with 95% confidence interval) in kwashiorkor were 17.3 (15.0 to 19.8) compared with 7.0 (5.6 to 8.7) for controls. Normal ratios are <5, so the high ratios in controls indicate tropical enteropathy syndrome. Abnormal permeability in kwashiorkor was associated with death, oliguria, sepsis, diarrhoea, wasting and young age. Diarrhoea and death were associated with both decreased L-rhamnose absorption (diminished absorptive surface area) and increased lactulose permeation (impaired barrier function) whereas nutritional wasting affected only L-rhamnose absorption. Despite clinical recovery, mean L-R ratios improved little on treatment, with mean weekly ratios of 16.3 (14.0 to 19.0), 13.3 (11.1 to 15.9) and 14.4 (11.0 to 18.8).?CONCLUSION—Abnormal intestinal permeability in kwashiorkor correlates with disease severity, and improves only slowly with nutritional rehabilitation.?? PMID:9135265

Brewster, D; Manary, M; Menzies, I; O'Loughlin, E; Henry, R

1997-01-01

179

Intestinal Mesenchymal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non–white blood cell mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, pericytes,\\u000a stromal stem cells, muscularis mucosae, and the smooth muscle of the villus core associated with the lymphatic lacteal. We\\u000a review the functional anatomy of these mesenchymal cells, what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement\\u000a in adults, their putative role

I. V. Pinchuk; R. C. Mifflin; J. I. Saada; D. W. Powell

2010-01-01

180

Elenoside increases intestinal motility  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

2006-01-01

181

[Human intestinal spirochetosis].  

PubMed

A characteristic feature of human intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is the colonization of the mucosa of the large intestine with intestinal spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira. The joining of the brachyspirae with the apical cellular membrane of enterocytes resembles in histological slides a false brush border of the intestinal mucosa. Various symptoms related to the involvement of the large gut were found with invasive IS. From the cultures of these cases were isolated Brachyspira aalborgii and B. pilosicoli. The frequency of the incidence of brachyspirae depended on the socio-economic living conditions of people. Colonization of the mucosa of the large gut was found more often in human populations in the developing countries; it was fairly rare in countries with high hygienic standards. An exception were men of homosexual orienation and patients presenting with a HIV infection. Isolation of brachyspirae from the faeces and biopsy of the mucosa of the large gut are fairly demanding jobs, especially with B. aalborgii. Most documented IS cases of this aetiology were diagnosed using immunohistochemical methods and amplification of the genus-specific region of the gene 16S rRNA. Isolation of B. pilosicoli tends to be simpler, it requires anaerobic incubation on selective blood agars for a period of 3-6 days at 37 degrees C. When manual haemoculture systems were used, patients in a critical state presented a translocation of brachyspirae into blood circulation, while automatic systems don't necessarily diagnose spirochetaemia. In the management of described cases of invasive IS particularly successful proved metronidazole and beta-lactam antibiotics. In isolated B. pilosicoli, in vitro tests confirmed sensitivity to metronidazole, ceftriaxone, meropenem, tetracycline, moxifloxacine and chloramphenicol. A varying frequency of resistance was found with clindamycin and amoxicillin, which how ever was efficacious in combination with clavulanic acid. PMID:15146383

Cízek, Alois; Lobová, Dana

2004-04-01

182

Chronic kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... kidney disease. If it worsens to end-stage renal disease , and how ... Kidney failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. ...

183

Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine  

PubMed Central

Background. Premature infants are commonly subject to intestinal inflammation. Since the human small intestine does not reach maturity until term gestation, premature infants have a unique challenge, as either acute or chronic inflammation may alter the normal development of the intestinal tract. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been shown to acutely alter goblet cell numbers and villus length in adult mice. In this study we tested the effects of TNF on villus architecture and epithelial cells at different stages of development of the immature small intestine. Methods. To examine the effects of TNF-induced inflammation, we injected acute, brief, or chronic exposures of TNF in neonatal and juvenile mice. Results. TNF induced significant villus blunting through a TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) mediated mechanism, leading to loss of villus area. This response to TNFR1 signaling was altered during intestinal development, despite constant TNFR1 protein expression. Acute TNF-mediated signaling also significantly decreased Paneth cells. Conclusions. Taken together, the morphologic changes caused by TNF provide insight as to the effects of inflammation on the developing intestinal tract. Additionally, they suggest a mechanism which, coupled with an immature immune system, may help to explain the unique susceptibility of the immature intestine to inflammatory diseases such as NEC. PMID:25242872

Brown, Kathryn S.; Frey, Mark R.; Martin, Katerina; Obey, Mitchel; McElroy, Steven J.

2014-01-01

184

Mechanisms of initiation and progression of intestinal fibrosis in IBD.  

PubMed

Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). It becomes clinically apparent in >30% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and in about 5% with ulcerative colitis (UC). Fibrosis is a consequence of local chronic inflammation and is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition. ECM is produced by activated myofibroblasts, which are modulated by both, profibrotic and antifibrotic factors. Fibrosis depends on the balance between the production and degradation of ECM proteins. This equilibrium can be impacted by a complex and dynamic interaction between profibrotic and antifibrotic mediators. Despite the major therapeutic advances in the treatment of active inflammation in IBD over the past two decades, the incidence of intestinal strictures in CD has not significantly changed as the current anti-inflammatory therapies neither prevent nor reverse the established fibrosis and strictures. This implies that control of intestinal inflammation does not necessarily affect the associated fibrotic process. The conventional view that intestinal fibrosis is an inevitable and irreversible process in patients with IBD is also gradually changing in light of an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underline the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Comprehension of the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis is thus vital and may pave the way for the developments of antifibrotic agents and new therapeutic approaches in IBD. PMID:25523556

Latella, Giovanni; Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Flati, Vincenzo; Rieder, Florian; Lawrance, Ian C

2015-01-01

185

Cannabidiol Reduces Intestinal Inflammation through the Control of Neuroimmune Axis  

PubMed Central

Enteric glial cells (EGC) actively mediate acute and chronic inflammation in the gut; EGC proliferate and release neurotrophins, growth factors, and pro-inflammatory cytokines which, in turn, may amplify the immune response, representing a very important link between the nervous and immune systems in the intestine. Cannabidiol (CBD) is an interesting compound because of its ability to control reactive gliosis in the CNS, without any unwanted psychotropic effects. Therefore the rationale of our study was to investigate the effect of CBD on intestinal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and from intestinal segments of mice with LPS-induced intestinal inflammation. CBD markedly counteracted reactive enteric gliosis in LPS-mice trough the massive reduction of astroglial signalling neurotrophin S100B. Histological, biochemical and immunohistochemical data demonstrated that S100B decrease was associated with a considerable decrease in mast cell and macrophages in the intestine of LPS-treated mice after CBD treatment. Moreover the treatment of LPS-mice with CBD reduced TNF-? expression and the presence of cleaved caspase-3. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured human derived colonic biopsies. In biopsies of UC patients, both during active inflammation and in remission stimulated with LPS+INF-?, an increased glial cell activation and intestinal damage were evidenced. CBD reduced the expression of S100B and iNOS proteins in the human biopsies confirming its well documented effect in septic mice. The activity of CBD is, at least partly, mediated via the selective PPAR-gamma receptor pathway. CBD targets enteric reactive gliosis, counteracts the inflammatory environment induced by LPS in mice and in human colonic cultures derived from UC patients. These actions lead to a reduction of intestinal damage mediated by PPARgamma receptor pathway. Our results therefore indicate that CBD indeed unravels a new therapeutic strategy to treat inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:22163000

Cirillo, Carla; Cipriano, Mariateresa; De Winter, Benedicte Y.; Scuderi, Caterina; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Cuomo, Rosario; Steardo, Luca; De Man, Joris G.; Iuvone, Teresa

2011-01-01

186

Phasic study of intestinal homeostasis disruption in experimental intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis in an experimental model of intestinal obstruction. METHODS: A rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established by transforming parts of an infusion set into an in vivo pulled-type locking clamp and creating a uniform controllable loop obstruction in the mesenteric non-avascular zone 8 cm from the distal end of the ileum. The phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis was studied after intestinal obstruction. The changes in goblet cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal epithelium were quantified from periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and serum citrulline levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Claudin 1 mRNA expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Intestinal microorganisms, wet/dry weight ratios, pH values, and endotoxin levels were determined at multiple points after intestinal obstruction. Furthermore, the number and ratio of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry, and secretory IgA levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A suitable controllable rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established. Intestinal obstruction induced goblet cell damage and reduced cell number. Further indicators of epithelial cell damage were observed as reduced serum citrulline levels and claudin 1 gene expression, and a transient increase in ODC activity. In addition, the wet/dry weight ratio and pH of the intestinal lumen were also dramatically altered. The ratio of Bacillus bifidus and enterobacteria was reversed following intestinal obstruction. The number and area of Peyer’s patches first increased then sharply decreased after the intestinal obstruction, along with an alteration in the ratio of CD4/CD8+ T cells, driven by an increase in CD3+ and CD8+ T cells and a decrease in CD4+ T cells. The number of lamina propria lymphocytes also gradually decreased with prolonged obstruction. CONCLUSION: Intestinal obstruction can induce disruption of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:25009385

Yu, Xiang-Yang; Zou, Chang-Lin; Zhou, Zhen-Li; Shan, Tao; Li, Dong-Hua; Cui, Nai-Qiang

2014-01-01

187

Intestinal Necrosis Associated with Orally Administered Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate Without Sorbitol (February).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of extensive intestinal necrosis with oral intake of calcium polystyrene sulfonate without sorbitol. CASE SUMMARY: A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed widespread dilatation of the bowel. The diagnosis of acute colonic pseudoobstruction was made. On day 3, her serum potassium level rose to 5.6 mEq/L. It was treated with hydrocortisone 100 mg/day and calcium polystyrene sulfonate 15 g/day via jnasogastric tube from day 3 to day 6. On day 6, the severe abdominal pain recurred, with abdominal tenderness. CT scan showed pneumoperitoneum and peritoneal effusion. At surgery, 2 lenticular jejunal perforations and an ischemic cecum were found. Microscopic findings indicated that the transmural abscess contained massive inflammatory infiltrate and the cecal mucosa showed ulceration and inflammation with a fibrinous and purulent coating. Small gray-purple or blue angulated crystals were embedded in the cecal and most of the jejunal mucosal ulcers. On day 19, the patient died of multiple organ failure after her third laparotomy. DISCUSSION: Ion-exchanging resins are given orally or by retention enema for the treatment of hyperkalemia. The most commonly used and best-established resin is sodium polystyrene sulfonate. However, it is known to promote colonic necrosis when sorbitol is also given or especially in patients with renal failure or postoperative ileus. Calcium polystyrene sulfonate is another ion-exchange resin. There are few reports of adverse effects in the literature. Our case is interesting for 2 reasons: the resin given was calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol was not used. CONCLUSIONS: Like sodium polystyrene sulfonate, calcium polystyrene sulfonate is an ion-exchanging resin that can promote bowel necrosis. We believe that it should not be used with sorbitol or when bowel transit time is slowed. PMID:21304040

Goutorbe, Philippe; Montcriol, Ambroise; Lacroix, Guillaume; Bordes, Julien; Meaudre, Eric; Souraud, Jean-Baptiste

2011-02-01

188

Prom1 Function in Development, Intestinal Inflammation, and Intestinal Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Prom1/CD133 has been identified in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancer as a cancer stem cell marker and has been used as such to predict colon cancer recurrence in humans. Its potential molecular function as well as its role as a marker of intestinal regeneration is still not fully known. We evaluated the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), determined the function of Prom1, and characterized the effect of a lack of Prom1 on intestinal tumor formation in animal models. Our results suggest that Apc mutations lead to an increase in Prom1 expressing cells in the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment and in early intestinal adenomas. Also, Prom1 knockout mice are more susceptible to intestinal tumor formation. We conclude that Prom1 likely plays a role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and that these results clearly illustrate the role of Prom1 in intestinal regeneration. We further conclude that Prom1 may provide a novel therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal conditions such as IBD, short bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer. PMID:25452936

Karim, Baktiar O.; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Liu, Guosheng; Yun, Kyuson; Brant, Steven R.

2014-01-01

189

[Digestive manifestations in systemic sclerosis].  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal involvement occurs in most patients with systemic sclerosis. Pathology is characterized by vasculopathy, resulting in tissue ischemia, progressive dysfunction and fibrosis. In its diffuse and visceral pattern, digestive manifestations may involve most of the intestinal tract and are the most frequent before renal, cardiac and pulmonary involvement. Whatever the visceral extension, about 80% of patients have digestive manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux, abnormalities of intestinal motility leading to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and small bowel bacterial overgrowth and malnutrition. Long-term treatment of reflux with high-dose proton pump inhibitors appears safe and effective for symptom relief and may prevent recurrence of esophagitis and stricture. Prokinetic agents effective in pseudoobstruction include metoclopramide, domperidone, octreotide, and erythromycin. PMID:12218892

Attar, Alain

2002-06-01

190

Intestinal parasitism in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two hundred cases have been studied from April, 1936 to November, 1937, to detect the infestation with intestinal parasites.\\u000a The age of the cases studied varies from 5 days to II years.\\u000a \\u000a The incidence of parasite was more common in the second half of the year. The youngest child harbouring the parasite was 7\\u000a months old.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The commonest parasite was

R. Dutta Chaudhuri; R. Chatterji

1938-01-01

191

Probiotics and prebiotics in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases  

PubMed Central

The prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells of the colon exist in a highly complex, but harmonious relationship. Disturbances in this remarkable symbiosis can result in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Although the etiology of IBD is not entirely understood, it is known that the chronic inflammation of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and chronic pouchitis are a result of an overly aggressive immune response to the commensal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible hosts. Recent studies have enhanced our ability to understand the interaction between the host and its intestinal microflora and the role the microflora plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. As we begin to understand the benefits conferred to the intestine by the microflora, the notion of modifying the composition of the bacterial load to improve human health has arisen. A significant body of research now exists investigating the role of probiotics and prebiotics in ameliorating chronic intestinal inflammation. This article will begin with an overview of the role of the commensal microflora in maintaining mucosal immune homeostasis, and how a dysregulated immune response to the intestinal microflora results in IBD. This will be followed by a summary of the use of probiotics and prebiotics in experimental and human IBD. PMID:17009391

Ewaschuk, Julia B; Dieleman, Levinus A

2006-01-01

192

Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children  

PubMed Central

The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

Ambartsumyan, Lusine

2014-01-01

193

[Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].  

PubMed

This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the prediction of the fibrosis degree of the gland, the evaluation of patients with asymptomatic hyperenzimemia, the medical and surgical treatment of abdominal pain and the knowledge of the natural history of the autoimmune pancreatitis. In patients with indetermined EUS findings of chronic pancreatitis, a new endoscopic ultrasound examination in the follow-up is of help to confirm or to exclude the disease. Smoking, number of relapses, results of pancreatic function tests and EUS findings allow predicting the degree of pancreatic fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidant therapy has shown to be effective in reducing pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, although the type and optimal dose of antioxidants remains to be elucidated. Development of intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frequent in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but its impact on symptoms is unknown and deserves further investigations. Finally, autoimmune pancreatitis relapses in about half of the patients with either type 1 or type 2 disease; relapses frequently occur within the first two years of follow-up. PMID:25294271

Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

2014-09-01

194

HDAC1 and HDAC2 Restrain the Intestinal Inflammatory Response by Regulating Intestinal Epithelial Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Acetylation and deacetylation of histones and other proteins depends on histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) activities, leading to either positive or negative gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have uncovered a role for HDACs in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, little is known of the roles of specific HDACs in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). We investigated the consequences of ablating both HDAC1 and HDAC2 in murine IECs. Floxed Hdac1 and Hdac2 homozygous mice were crossed with villin-Cre mice. Mice deficient in both IEC HDAC1 and HDAC2 weighed less and survived more than a year. Colon and small intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or with Alcian blue and Periodic Acid Schiff for goblet cell identification. Tissue sections from mice injected with BrdU for 2 h, 14 h and 48 h were stained with anti-BrdU. To determine intestinal permeability, 4-kDa FITC-labeled dextran was given by gavage for 3 h. Microarray analysis was performed on total colon RNAs. Inflammatory and IEC-specific gene expression was assessed by Western blot or semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qPCR with respectively total colon protein and total colon RNAs. HDAC1 and HDAC2-deficient mice displayed: 1) increased migration and proliferation, with elevated cyclin D1 expression and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream mTOR target; 2) tissue architecture defects with cell differentiation alterations, correlating with reduction of secretory Paneth and goblet cells in jejunum and goblet cells in colon, increased expression of enterocytic markers such as sucrase-isomaltase in the colon, increased expression of cleaved Notch1 and augmented intestinal permeability; 3) loss of tissue homeostasis, as evidenced by modifications of claudin 3 expression, caspase-3 cleavage and Stat3 phosphorylation; 4) chronic inflammation, as determined by inflammatory molecular expression signatures and altered inflammatory gene expression. Thus, epithelial HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response, by regulating intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24040068

Turgeon, Naomie; Blais, Mylène; Gagné, Julie-Moore; Tardif, Véronique; Boudreau, François; Perreault, Nathalie; Asselin, Claude

2013-01-01

195

Mucosal immune responses following intestinal nematode infection  

PubMed Central

In most natural environments, the large majority of mammals harbour parasitic helminths that often live as adults within the intestine for prolonged periods (1–2 years) 1. Although these organisms have been eradicated to a large extent within westernized human populations, those living within rural areas of developing countries continue to suffer from high infection rates. Indeed, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2·5 billion people worldwide, mainly children, currently suffer from infection with intestinal helminths (also known as geohelminths and soil-transmitted helminths) 2. Paradoxically, the eradication of helminths is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergy observed in developed countries. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of host–helminth interactions at the mucosal surface that result in parasite expulsion or permit the establishment of chronic infections with luminal dwelling adult worms. We will also provide insight into the adaptive immune mechanisms that provide immune protection against re-infection with helminth larvae, a process that is likely to be key to the future development of successful vaccination strategies. Lastly, the contribution of helminths to immune modulation and particularly to the treatment of allergy and inflammatory bowel disease will be discussed. PMID:25201407

Zaph, C; Cooper, P J; Harris, N L

2014-01-01

196

Deoxynivalenol: a trigger for intestinal integrity breakdown.  

PubMed

Disintegration of the colonic epithelial barrier is considered a key event in the initiation and progression of inflammatory bowel and celiac disease. As the primary etiology of these diseases remains unknown, we hypothesized that the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a fungal metabolite found in grain-based human diets, might be one of the triggers resulting in an impairment of the intestinal tight junction network preceding an inflammatory response. Using horizontal impedance measurements, we demonstrate that DON disintegrates a human Caco-2 cell monolayer within <1 h after exposure to concentrations as low as 1.39 ?M. This initial trigger is followed by a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an increased permeability of marker molecules, such as lucifer yellow and FITC-labeled dextran. In parallel, the increase in paracellular transport of FITC-dextran is demonstrated in vivo in B6C3F1 mice, challenged orally with DON. In vitro claudin protein levels are decreased and correlated with a displacement within the cells in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by a compensatory up-regulation of mRNA levels of claudins and their binding partner ZO-1. In treated mice, alterations in villus architecture in the entire intestinal tract resemble the disintegration of the epithelial barrier, a characteristic of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24568843

Akbari, Peyman; Braber, Saskia; Gremmels, Hendrik; Koelink, Pim J; Verheijden, Kim A T; Garssen, Johan; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

2014-06-01

197

Alimentary prion infections: Touchdown in the intestine.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are caused by proteinaceous aggregates, usually consisting of misfolded proteins which are often typified by a high proportion of ?-sheets, which accumulate in the Central Nervous System. These diseases, including Morbus Alzheimer, Parkinson disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs)--also termed prion disorders--afflict a substantial proportion of the human population and as such the etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases has been the focus of mounting research. Although many of these diseases arise from genetic mutations or are sporadic in nature, the possible horizontal transmissibility of neurodegenerative diseases poses a great threat to population health. In this article we discuss recent studies which suggest that the "non-transmissible" status bestowed upon Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases may need to be revised as these diseases have been successfully induced through tissue transplants. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of investigating the "natural" mechanism of prion transmission including peroral and perenteral transmission, proposed routes of gastrointestinal uptake and neuroinvasion of ingested infectious prion proteins. We examine the multitude of factors which may influence oral transmissibility and discuss the zoonotic threats which Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Scrapie may pose resulting in vCJD or related disorders. In addition, we suggest that the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor on the cell surface of enterocytes, a major cell population in the intestine, may play an important role in the intestinal pathophysiology of alimentary prion infections. PMID:21150306

Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Weiss, Stefan F T

2011-01-01

198

Intestinal Stomas and their Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal stomas are openings of the small or large bowel onto the anterior abdominal wall. Stomas may comprise a single intestinal lumen (end), or give access to both an afferent and an efferent lumen (loop). Furthermore, some are temporary, being subsequently reversed, whilst others are permanent. Complications (e.g. parastomal herniation, prolapse, retraction, stenosis) may occur with any of the commonly

NP Lees; J Hill

2003-01-01

199

Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate.  

PubMed

Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal epithelium, regulating both stem cell proliferation and differentiation along a specific secretory lineage. PMID:25534087

Le Bouteiller, Marie; Jensen, Kim B

2014-12-23

200

Interplay between intestinal alkaline phosphatase, diet, gut microbes and immunity  

PubMed Central

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis and health through interactions with the resident microbiota, diet and the gut. IAP’s role in the intestine is to dephosphorylate toxic microbial ligands such as lipopolysaccharides, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides and flagellin as well as extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate. IAP’s ability to detoxify these ligands is essential in protecting the host from sepsis during acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Also important in these complications is IAP’s ability to regulate the microbial ecosystem by forming a complex relationship between microbiota, diet and the intestinal mucosal surface. Evidence reveals that diet alters IAP expression and activity and this in turn can influence the gut microbiota and homeostasis. IAP’s ability to maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract has accelerated research on its potential use as a therapeutic agent against a multitude of diseases. Exogenous IAP has been shown to have beneficial effects when administered during ulcerative colitis, coronary bypass surgery and sepsis. There are currently a handful of human clinical trials underway investigating the effects of exogenous IAP during sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and heart surgery. In light of these findings IAP has been marked as a novel agent to help treat a variety of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. The purpose of this review is to highlight the essential characteristics of IAP in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis while addressing the intricate interplay between IAP, diet, microbiota and the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25400448

Estaki, Mehrbod; DeCoffe, Daniella; Gibson, Deanna L

2014-01-01

201

Low back pain - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... waist, leads to pain. Many people with chronic back pain have arthritis. Or they may have extra wear ...

202

Chronic Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include sarcoidosis and certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

203

[Chronic migraine].  

PubMed

The classification of the International Headache Society (IHS) generally differentiates episodic from chronic headache. Chronic migraine is defined as headache on 15 and more days a month over more than 3 months and headache on 8 days or more fulfils the criteria for migraine or were triptan/ergot-responsive when thought to be migrainous in early stages of the attack. The prevalence of chronic migraine is estimated at 2-4?%. The quality of life is highly compromised in this condition and comorbidities are much more frequent compared to episodic migraine. Data from prospective randomized studies are scarce as most patients with chronic migraine were excluded from previous trials and only few studies were conducted for this condition. The efficacy for prophylactic treatment compared with placebo is proven for topiramate and onabotulinum toxin A. PMID:24337617

Diener, H C; Holle, D; Müller, D; Nägel, S; Rabe, K

2013-12-01

204

Perturbations of mucosal homeostasis through interactions of intestinal microbes with myeloid cells.  

PubMed

Mucosal surfaces represent the largest areas of interactions of the host with its environment. Subsequently, the mucosal immune system has evolved complex strategies to maintain the integrity of the host by inducing protective immune responses against pathogenic and tolerance against dietary and commensal microbial antigens within the broad range of molecules the intestinal epithelium is exposed to. Among many other specialized cell subsets, myeloid cell populations - due to their strategic location in the subepithelial lamina propria - are the first ones to scavenge and process these intestinal antigens and to send consecutive signals to other immune and non-immune cell subsets. Thus, myeloid cell populations represent attractive targets for clinical intervention in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) as they initiate and modulate inflammatory or regulatory immune response and shape the intestinal T cell pool. Here, we discuss the interactions of the intestinal microbiota with dendritic cell and macrophage populations and review in this context the literature on four promising candidate molecules that are critical for the induction and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis on the one hand, but also for the initiation and propagation of chronic intestinal inflammation on the other. PMID:25466587

Schey, Regina; Danzer, Claudia; Mattner, Jochen

2015-02-01

205

Intestinal magnesium absorption.  

PubMed

Available data on the mechanism of Mg absorption is mainly descriptive in nature. There is data to support the existence of both gradient-driven and saturable Mg absorption. It is not clear, however, which process predominates under normal conditions. Evidence for a saturable process is based on a curvilinear relationship between dietary or luminal [Mg] and Mg uptake. Whether this is due to a carrier-mediated mechanism or due to alterations in absorption through the paracellular route remains to be determined. A careful review of the literature indicates that the predominate site of Mg absorption is the distal small intestine. Most of these studies, however, have been done in isolated segments which may not adequately reflect absorption in an undisturbed gastrointestinal tract. Future work will need to focus on identifying and characterizing Mg transport at the cellular and paracellular level as well as developing more sophisticated strategies for examining Mg absorption in the whole animal. PMID:8264506

Kayne, L H; Lee, D B

1993-01-01

206

Autophagy and Intestinal Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Nutrient absorption is the basic function that drives mammalian intestinal biology. To facilitate nutrient uptake, the host’s epithelial barrier is composed of a single layer of cells. This constraint is problematic, as a design of this type can be easily disrupted. The solution during the course of evolution was to add numerous host defense mechanisms that can help prevent local and systemic infection. These mechanisms include specialized epithelial cells that produce a physiochemical barrier overlying the cellular barrier, robust and organized adaptive and innate immune cells, and the ability to mount an inflammatory response that is commensurate with a specific threat level. The autophagy pathway is a critical cellular process that strongly influences all these functions. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the components of this pathway and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will facilitate our understanding of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23216414

Patel, Khushbu K.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

2013-01-01

207

Tissue engineering the small intestine.  

PubMed

Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal tissue for direct translation to human therapy. PMID:23380001

Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

2013-04-01

208

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.  

PubMed

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

2013-01-01

209

Mechanisms of intestinal inflammation and development of associated cancers: Lessons learned from mouse models  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with approximately 1/5th of all human cancers. Arising from combinations of factors such as environmental exposures, diet, inherited gene polymorphisms, infections, or from dysfunctions of the immune response, chronic inflammation begins as an attempt of the body to remove injurious stimuli; however, over time, this results in continuous tissue destruction and promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis. Here we focus on intestinal inflammation and its associated cancers, a group of diseases on the rise and affecting millions of people worldwide. Intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and celiac disease. Long-standing intestinal inflammation is associated with colorectal cancer and small-bowel adenocarcinoma, as well as extraintestinal manifestations, including lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. This article highlights potential mechanisms of pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease, as well as those involved in the progression to associated cancers, most of which have been identified from studies utilizing mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into chemically induced models; genetic models, which make up the bulk of the studied models; adoptive transfer models; and spontaneous models. Studies in these models have lead to the understanding that persistent antigen exposure in the intestinal lumen, in combination with loss of epithelial barrier function, and dysfunction and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Transcriptional changes in this environment leading to cell survival, hyperplasia, promotion of angiogenesis, persistent DNA damage, or insufficient repair of DNA damage due to an excess of proinflammatory mediators are then thought to lead to sustained malignant transformation. With regards to extraintestinal manifestations such as lymphoma, however, more suitable models are required to further investigate the complex and heterogeneous mechanisms that may be at play. PMID:20298806

Westbrook, Aya M.; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H.

2010-01-01

210

Innate Immunity Modulation by the IL-33/ST2 System in Intestinal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Innate immunity prevents pathogens from entering and spreading within the body. This function is especially important in the gastrointestinal tract and skin, as these organs have a large surface contact area with the outside environment. In the intestine, luminal commensal bacteria are necessary for adequate food digestion and play a crucial role in tolerance to benign antigens. Immune system damage can create an intestinal inflammatory response, leading to chronic disease including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an IBD of unknown etiology with increasing worldwide prevalence. In the intestinal mucosa of UC patients, there is an imbalance in the IL-33/ST2 axis, an important modulator of the innate immune response. This paper reviews the role of the IL-33/ST2 system in innate immunity of the intestinal mucosa and its importance in inflammatory bowel diseases, especially ulcerative colitis. PMID:23484079

García-Miguel, Marina; González, M. Julieta; Quera, Rodrigo; Hermoso, Marcela A.

2013-01-01

211

Chronic urticaria.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the pathophysiology of chronic urticaria in light of recent evidence for it being an autoimmune disease, and to recommend appropriate management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An extensive literature review was supplemented with a MEDLINE search. Articles from easily available journals were preferred. These consisted of the most recent basic articles on autoimmunity in relation to chronic urticaria and a selection of previous articles on pathophysiology, which illustrate consistencies with recent evidence. The investigation and management protocol is supported by original and relevant literature. MAIN FINDINGS: The histopathology and immunohistology of chronic urticaria and certain clinical studies were a prelude to definitive evidence that most instances of chronic urticaria are autoimmune. Although allergic and other causes are uncommon, these must be sought because identification can lead to cure or specific treatment. Management of the much more common autoimmune urticaria is based on principles derived from the demonstrated pathogenesis and on results of published clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: In most instances, chronic urticaria is an autoimmune disease, but uncommon allergic or other causes must be considered. PMID:9805172

Leznoff, A.

1998-01-01

212

Small intestinal ischemia and infarction  

MedlinePLUS

... tests include: Angiogram CT scan of the abdomen Doppler ultrasound of the abdomen These tests do not ... cases. People who have a large amount of tissue death in the intestine can have problems absorbing ...

213

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase prevents metabolic syndrome in mice.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we examined the role of the small intestinal brush-border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), in preventing a high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. We found that both endogenous and orally supplemented IAP inhibits absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides) that occurs with dietary fat, and oral IAP supplementation prevents as well as reverses metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, IAP supplementation improves the lipid profile in mice fed a standard, low-fat chow diet. These results point to a potentially unique therapy against metabolic syndrome in at-risk humans. PMID:23569246

Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Moaven, Omeed; Patel, Palak; Malo, Nondita S; Ray, Madhury; Abtahi, Seyed M; Muhammad, Nur; Raychowdhury, Atri; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Moss, Angela K; Ahmed, Rizwan; Hakimian, Shahrad; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Warren, H Shaw; Bhan, Atul K; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A

2013-04-23

214

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase prevents metabolic syndrome in mice  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we examined the role of the small intestinal brush-border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), in preventing a high-fat-diet–induced metabolic syndrome in mice. We found that both endogenous and orally supplemented IAP inhibits absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides) that occurs with dietary fat, and oral IAP supplementation prevents as well as reverses metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, IAP supplementation improves the lipid profile in mice fed a standard, low-fat chow diet. These results point to a potentially unique therapy against metabolic syndrome in at-risk humans. PMID:23569246

Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R.; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P.; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Moaven, Omeed; Patel, Palak; Malo, Nondita S.; Ray, Madhury; Abtahi, Seyed M.; Muhammad, Nur; Raychowdhury, Atri; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M. Rafat; Moss, Angela K.; Ahmed, Rizwan; Hakimian, Shahrad; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Warren, H. Shaw; Bhan, Atul K.; Malo, Madhu S.; Hodin, Richard A.

2013-01-01

215

Solitary Large Intestinal Diverticulitis in Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).  

PubMed

Leatherback sea turtles are globally distributed and endangered throughout their range. There are limited data available on disease in this species. Initial observations of solitary large intestinal diverticulitis in multiple leatherbacks led to a multi-institutional review of cases. Of 31 subadult and adult turtles for which complete records were available, all had a single exudate-filled diverticulum, as large as 9.0 cm in diameter, arising from the large intestine immediately distal to the ileocecal junction. All lesions were chronic and characterized by ongoing inflammation, numerous intralesional bacteria, marked attenuation of the muscularis, ulceration, and secondary mucosal changes. In three cases, Morganella morganii was isolated from lesions. Diverticulitis was unrelated to the cause of death in all cases, although risk of perforation and other complications are possible. PMID:25239052

Stacy, B A; Innis, C J; Daoust, P-Y; Wyneken, J; Miller, M; Harris, H; James, M C; Christiansen, E F; Foley, A

2014-09-19

216

[Importance of artificial nutrition in the resolution and etiologic diagnosis of severe chronic diarrhea: a propos of a case].  

PubMed

We present a case of severe chronic diarrhea requiring parenteral nutritional support to both cover the nutritional needs and allow for intestinal rest for later adaptation to enteral nutrition, altogether allowing for the etiologic diagnosis and disease healing. PMID:18604328

Arrieta, F J; Gómez, F J; Aragón, C; Rueda, A; Balsa, J A; Zamarrón, I; Carrero, C; Botella Carretero, J I; Montalbán, C; Vázquez, C

2008-01-01

217

Carbon monoxide ameliorates chronic murine colitis through a heme oxygenase 1- dependent pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and its metabolic product carbon monoxide (CO) play regulatory roles in acute inflammatory states. In this study, we demonstrate that CO administration is effective as a therapeutic modality in mice with established chronic colitis. CO administration ameliorates chronic intestinal inflammation in a T helper (Th)1-mediated model of murine colitis, interleukin (IL)-10-deficient ( IL-10 ? \\/ ? )

Refaat A. F. Hegazi; Kavitha N. Rao; Aqila Mayle; Antonia R. Sepulveda; Leo E. Otterbein; Scott E. Plevy

2005-01-01

218

[Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : Intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD. PMID:25566836

Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

2015-02-01

219

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Minireview  

PubMed Central

Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R

2014-01-01

220

Bacterial adhesion and disease activity in Helicobacter associated chronic gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural examination of biopsies showing Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis reveals close attachment between gastric surface epithelial cells and the organism. The finding of 'adhesion pedestals', which represents a cellular response to the presence of the organism, is analogous to the response of intestinal cells to enteropathogenic E coli. Thus the development of bacterial attachment sites in H pylori associated

S J Hessey; J Spencer; J I Wyatt; G Sobala; B J Rathbone; A T Axon; M F Dixon

1990-01-01

221

Chronic non-specific ulcerative duodenojejunoileitis: report of four cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients with chronic non-specific ulcerative duodenojejunoileitis (CNSUDJI) are reported. The clinical picture included abdominal pain, fever, and a malabsorption syndrome. Main rediological findings were diffuse narrowing of the jejunal loops with total effacement of the mucosal folds. Multiple peroral biopsies of the small intestine showed various degrees of mucosal abnormalities from total villous atrophy to normal villi, but ulcerations

R Modigliani; P Poitras; A Galian; B Messing; P Guyet-Rousset; M Libeskind; J L Piel-Desruisseaux; J C Rambaud

1979-01-01

222

Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purposes of acute pain and the reason it is noxious are to interrupt ongoing activity in order to warn the sufferer of tissue damage, to discourage movement that might exacerbate injury or prevent healing, and to teach the organism to avoid the pain-producing circumstances. Therefore, it is no wonder that when pain persists to become chronic, many sufferers

Malcolm H. Johnson

223

Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (Review)  

PubMed Central

The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at ‘hijacking’ the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating neoplastic transformation in that site. PMID:24920319

DE LERMA BARBARO, A.; PERLETTI, G.; BONAPACE, I.M.; MONTI, E.

2014-01-01

224

Chronic motor tic disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

225

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

MedlinePLUS

COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the ... develop COPD. But some people smoke for years and never get ...

226

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  

MedlinePLUS

... www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) An estimated 31 million people in the United States are living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). What is CKD? The term “chronic kidney ...

227

Chronic Pain Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Chronic Pain | Chronic Pain Medicines How is chronic pain treated? Treatment of chronic ... or she tells you how to use your pain medicine. If you have questions about side effects or ...

228

Liposomal vasoactive intestinal peptide.  

PubMed

Liposomes have been investigated as drug carriers since first discovered in the 1960s. However, the first-generation, so-called classic liposomes found relatively limited therapeutic utility. Nonetheless, the advent in the 1980s of the second-generation sterically stabilized liposomes (SSL) that evade uptake by the host's reticuloendothelial system greatly enhanced their utility as drug carriers because of their prolonged circulation half-life and passive targeting to injured and cancerous tissues. Over the past decade, our work focused on exploiting the bioactivity of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a ubiquitous 28-amino acid, amphipathic and pleiotropic mammalian neuropeptide, as a drug. To this end, the peptide expresses distinct and unique innate bioactivity that could be harnessed to treat several human diseases that represent unmet medical needs, such as pulmonary hypertension, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, sepsis, female sexual arousal dysfunction, acute lung injury, and arthritis. Unfortunately, the bioactive effects of VIP last only a few minutes due to its rapid degradation and inactivation by enzymes, catalytic antibodies, and spontaneous hydrolysis in biological fluids. Hence, our goal was to develop and test stable, long-acting formulations of VIP using both classic and SSL as platform technologies. We found that spontaneous association of VIP with phospholipid bilayers leads to a transition in the conformation of the peptide from random coil in an aqueous environment to alpha-helix, the preferred conformation for ligand-receptor interactions, in the presence of lipids. This process, in turn, protects VIP from degradation and inactivation and amplifies its bioactivity in vivo. Importantly, we discovered that the film rehydration and extrusion technique is the most suitable to passively load VIP onto SSL at room temperature and yields the most consistent results. Collectively, these attributes indicate that VIP on SSL represents a suitable formulation that could be tested in human disease. PMID:15721392

Sethi, Varun; Onyüksel, Hayat; Rubinstein, Israel

2005-01-01

229

Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of lentinan: influence on IL-8 and TNFR1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is unknown whether ?-1,3;1,6-glucan can induce immune suppressive effects. Here, we study intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Lentinula edodes-derived ?-1,3;1,6-glucan, which is known as lentinan. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice were used to elucidate effects of lentinan in vivo. In the cellular level assessment, lentinan was added into a co-culture model consisting of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Ligated intestinal loop assay was performed for assessing effects of lentinan on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo. Oral administration of lentinan (100 µg/mouse) significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in body weight loss, shortening of colon lengths, histological score, and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in inflamed tissues. Lentinan reduced interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression and nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in Caco-2 cells without decreasing of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production from RAW264.7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that surface levels of TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 were decreased by lentinan treatment. A clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine, canceled lentinan inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression. Moreover, lentinan inhibited TNFR1 expression in Caco-2 cells in both protein and mRNA level. Lentinan also inhibited TNFR1 mRNA expression in mouse IECs. These results suggest that lentinan exhibits intestinal anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression associated with the inhibition of NF-?B activation which is triggered by TNFR1 endocytosis and lowering of their expression in IECs. Lentinan may be effective for the treatment of gut inflammation including IBD. PMID:23630633

Nishitani, Yosuke; Zhang, Ling; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Masashi

2013-01-01

230

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)  

PubMed Central

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool ?1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective treatments have been proposed for PIL patients, such as antiplasmin, octreotide or corticosteroids. Surgical small-bowel resection is useful in the rare cases with segmental and localized intestinal lymphangiectasia. The need for dietary control appears to be permanent, because clinical and biochemical findings reappear after low-fat diet withdrawal. PIL outcome may be severe even life-threatening when malignant complications or serous effusion(s) occur. PMID:18294365

Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

2008-01-01

231

Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

1985-04-01

232

Lubiprostone: a novel treatment for chronic constipation  

PubMed Central

Chronic constipation is highly prevalent, reduces patients’ quality of life, and imposes a significant health care burden on society. Lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter agents improve symptoms of constipation in some patients, however many patients have persistent symptoms and require the use of prescription medications. Three prescription medications are currently Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and available for the treatment of chronic constipation in adults. This review will focus on lubiprostone, the newest medication available for the treatment of chronic constipation. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite analogue of prostaglandin E1. It activates specific chloride channels in the gastrointestinal tract to stimulate intestinal fluid secretion, increase gastrointestinal transit, and improve symptoms of constipation. This article will provide a brief overview on chloride channel function in the gastrointestinal tract, describe the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discuss the safety and efficacy of this new medication. PMID:18686757

Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

2008-01-01

233

The Intestinal Absorption of Folates  

PubMed Central

The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

2014-01-01

234

The effects of continuous and intermittent reduced speed modes on renal and intestinal perfusion in an ovine model.  

PubMed

The effects of the continuous-flow output on renal and intestinal microcirculation have not been extensively studied. To address this, the Heartware HVAD pump loaded with continuous and intermittent reduced speed (IRS) modes was implanted in four sheep and then operated at low and high speeds to mimic partial and complete unloading of the left ventricle. Then microsphere and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies were used to assess renal and intestinal tissue perfusion at various pump speeds and flow modes as compared with baseline (pump off). Arterial and venous oxygen (T02) and carbon dioxide (TCO2) contents were measured to assess changes in intestinal metabolism. Renal and intestinal regional blood flows did not produce any significant changes compared with baseline values in either continuous or IRS modes and speeds. The venous TO2 and TCO2 significantly increased in continuous and IRS modes and speeds compared with baseline. Our data suggested that renal and intestinal tissue perfusions were not adversely affected by continuous and IRS modes either in partial or complete unloading. Intestinal venous hyperoxia and increased TCO2 may be the evidence of intestinal arteriovenous shunting along with increased intestinal tissue metabolism. Longer-term studies are warranted in chronic heart failure models. PMID:24299973

Tuzun, Egemen; Chorpenning, Katherine; Liu, Maxine Qun; Bonugli, Katherine; Tamez, Dan; Lenox, Mark; Miller, Matthew W; Fossum, Theresa W

2014-01-01

235

Motility Disorders of the Large Intestine  

MedlinePLUS

... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ... Tract Disorders of the Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large ...

236

The intestine and anus of the Daphnia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The intestine and anus are part of the digestive system. In animals, the complete digestive system is made up of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, and the anus. The digestive system functions to process food and eliminate wastes.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

237

Intestinal parasites of the Pacific.  

PubMed

Information about intestinal parasites in Hawaii and the Pacific is not current. We reviewed reports on fecal samples obtained from two laboratories and found recovery rates of 9.3% in Hawaii, 14.2% in Saipan, 18% in Rota and 9.5% in Guam. The most frequently identified parasites were Blastocystis hominis (7.6%), Giardia lamblia (1.2%), and Entamoeba coli (0.7%). Although the incidence and types of organisms have changed with time, physicians in Hawaii should continue looking for intestinal parasites. PMID:14631593

Small, Ethan A; Tice, Alan D; Zheng, Xiaotian

2003-10-01

238

Intestinal involvement is not sufficient to explain hypertransaminasemia in celiac disease?  

PubMed

Chronic unexplained hypertransaminasemia is an isolated clinical manifestation of celiac disease (CD) and lacks of a clear physiopathological explanation. Since CD and tropical sprue (TS) have similar intestinal functional and histological pattern of injury and that an increased inflammatory response has been reported to occur in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), liver involvement might be expected to occur either in TS or IBS. However, according to author's prior observations, the frequency of hypertransaminasemia is significantly higher in CD than in TS and IBS-diarrhea predominant patients (IBS-D). Thus, based on current knowledge, intestinal mucosal damage, increased intestinal permeability and/or an active intestinal inflammatory response do not completely explain liver damage in CD. We hypothesize that other factors, unique to CD not present in TS or IBS-D, like gluten toxicity and the presence of tissular transglutaminase (tTG) an auto-antigen with pro-inflammatory and remodeling properties, act in addition to intestinal mucosal injury and account to hypertransaminasemia in CD. Further research focusing on the mechanisms of gluten and tTG hepatic toxicity, and/or the characterization of the expression, secretion and enteral-hepatic transport of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines is needed, to understand the possible links between intestinal and liver disorders seen in CD. PMID:16023789

Peláez-Luna, Mario; Schmulson, Max; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo

2005-01-01

239

Laser treatment of intestinal vascular abnormalities.  

PubMed

Mucosal vascular abnormalities, including haemangioma, angiodysplasia and telangiectasia, are thought to be responsible for one third of chronic lower gastrointestinal blood loss. One hundred and ninety-one patients were referred for endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of acute or chronic blood loss. In 24 (13%) of patients no bleeding source could be found, in 23 (12%) laser treatment was not indicated and in another 23 (12%) follow-up was insufficient. Of 121 evaluable patients, 107 had angiodysplasia with colonic localisation in 54, 9 had telangiectasia diffusely within the digestive tract, and 5 haemangioma with colonic location in 3. In angiodysplasia effective haemostasis was obtained in 78% with a recurrence rate of 34% at prolonged follow-up, which responded to treatment in 82%. In patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease the haemostasis rate was 56%, with recurrence occurring in 33% and a retreatment response in 21%. Colonic haemangioma responded in 67% of cases but there was a high recurrence rate of 67% and a low retreatment response (33%). There were five major complications and all occurred with colonic angiodysplasia (5/54, 9.3%). These included serosal irritation (2), CO2 distension (1) and posttreatment bleeding (2). Minor complications consisted of CO2 retention in one case treated for angiodysplasia, and fever (1) and posttreatment bleeding (2) in haemangioma. Effective and safe haemostasis can be obtained by Neodymium-YAG laser-photocoagulation in often difficult circumstances without perforation or mortality. The method has proven to be indispensible for elderly and inoperable patients with intestinal vascular abnormalities. PMID:2627207

Mathus-Vliegen, E M

1989-01-01

240

Campylobacter infection in chickens modulates the intestinal epithelial barrier function.  

PubMed

Asymptomatic carriage of Campylobacter jejuni is highly prevalent in chicken flocks. Thus, we investigated whether chronic Campylobacter carriage affects chicken intestinal functions despite the absence of clinical symptoms. An experiment was carried out in which commercial chickens were orally infected with C. jejuni (1?×?10(8) CFU/bird) at 14 days of life. Changes in ion transport and barrier function were assessed by short-circuit current (I sc) and transepithelial ion conductance (G t) in Ussing chambers. G t increased in cecum and colon of Campylobacter-infected chicken 7 d post-infection (DPI), whereas G t initially decreased in the jejunum at 7 DPI and increased thereafter at 14 DPI. The net charge transfer across the epithelium was reduced or tended to be reduced in all segments, as evidenced by a decreased I sc. Furthermore, the infection induced intestinal histomorphological changes, most prominently including a decrease in villus height, crypt depth and villus surface area in the jejunum at 7 DPI. Furthermore, body mass gain was decreased by Campylobacter carriage. This study demonstrates, for the first time, changes in the intestinal barrier function in Campylobacter-infected chickens and these changes were associated with a decrease in growth performance in otherwise healthy-appearing birds. PMID:24553586

Awad, Wageha A; Molnár, Andor; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Ghareeb, Khaled; Khayal, Basel; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter; Dublecz, Károly; Hess, Michael

2015-02-01

241

Chemical Carcinogenesis in Transposed Intestinal Segments1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A research model has been devised to assist in an assessment of the relative susceptibility of small bowel and colonie mucosa to potential intestinal carcinogens, and an application of this model to azoxymethane is reported. Intestinal transpositions were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats. In one group, segments of small intestine were transposed to the ascending and descending colon and, in

A. R. Gennaro; R. Villanueva; Y. Sukonthaman; V. Vathanophas; G. P. Rosemond

242

Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated

OsarumwenseDavid Osifo; JonathanChukwunalu Okolo

2009-01-01

243

COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE  

E-print Network

COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY OF THE RESIDUAL SMALL INTESTINE AFTER PARTIAL ENTERECTOMY A NEURO HUMORAL National de la Recherche Agronomique 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Résumé HYPERTROPHIE COMPENSATRICE DE L'INTESTIN de l'hypertrophie compensatrice de l'intestin résiduel est libéré ou non après entérectomie partielle

Boyer, Edmond

244

Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.

1979-01-01

245

Intestinal Malabsorption in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal malabsorption in the elderly is infrequent, and clinical features are muted so that the diagnosis is often missed. Physiologic changes with aging are restricted to altered absorption of calcium and perhaps zinc and magnesium; however, achlorhydria can lead to impaired absorption of vitamin B12, folic acid, and calcium. Methods and Results: Small bowel bacterial overgrowth occurs more commonly

Peter R. Holt

2007-01-01

246

Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

2013-01-01

247

Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography.  

PubMed

In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed. PMID:23942635

Akl, Tony J; Wilson, Mark A; Ericson, M Nance; Coté, Gerard L

2013-08-01

248

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Reactive T-cells from Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn's Disease Patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the intestine. The etiology is still unknown. One hypothesis is that CD is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in genetically predisposed individuals. MAP causes a similar disease in ruminants,...

249

Microbial Sensing by the Intestinal Epithelium in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent years have raised evidence that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowels diseases. This evidence comes from several observations. First, animals raised under germ-free conditions do not develop intestinal inflammation in several different model systems. Second, antibiotics are able to modulate the course of experimental colitis. Third, genetic polymorphisms in a variety of genes of the innate immune system have been associated with chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases. Dysfunction of these molecules results in an inappropriate response to bacterial and antigenic stimulation of the innate immune system in the gastrointestinal tract. Variants of pattern recognition receptors such as NOD2 or TLRs by which commensal and pathogenic bacteria can be detected have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. But not only pathways of microbial detection but also intracellular ways of bacterial processing such as autophagosome function are associated with the risk to develop Crohn's disease. Thus, the “environment concept” and the “genetic concept” of inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology are converging via the intestinal microbiota and the recognition mechanisms for an invasion of members of the microbiota into the mucosa. PMID:21188218

Scharl, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard

2010-01-01

250

[Familial gastro-intestinal adenomatosis].  

PubMed

Twenty-seven cases of familial gastro-intestinal adenomatosis are reported. There was no difference in pathology between 11 cases with familial involvement and 16 cases without. Juvenile, lymphoid as well as hyperplastic polyps coexisting with adenomas were found in a few cases. The risk of developing cancer in adenomas of 0.5 cm, 0.5-0.9 cm, 1.0-1.9 cm and 2.0 cm were 0%, 1.1%, 9% and 75%, respectively. Size seems to be the most critical and reliable indicator of malignant transformation. Proctectomy and colectomy of distal colon combined with removal of the adenomas equal to or larger than 1.0 cm through endoscope might be the better surgical intervention to avoid carcinomatous change. The term "familial polyposis coli" is suggested to be designated as "familial gastro-intestinal adenomatosis". PMID:2855057

Li, L

1988-11-01

251

Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: November 11, 2014 General Information About Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of ...

252

Prospect of vasoactive intestinal peptide therapy for COPD\\/PAH and asthma: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)\\u000a share important pathological features, including inflammation, smooth muscle contraction and remodeling. No existing drug\\u000a provides the combined potential advantages of reducing vascular- and bronchial-constriction, and anti-inflammation. Vasoactive\\u000a intestinal peptide (VIP) is widely expressed throughout the cardiopulmonary system and exerts a variety of biological actions,

Dongmei Wu; Dongwon Lee; Yong Kiel Sung

2011-01-01

253

Butyrate blocks interferon-?-inducible protein-10 release in human intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Interferon (IFN)-?-inducible protein (IP)10 is a chemoattractant for CXCR 3-expressing T lymphocytes and monocytes. IP-10 has been reported to mediate chronic inflammation such as that in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the local secretion of IP-10 in the intestine remains unclear. In this study, we investigated IP-10 secretion in human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts (SEMFs). Methods. IP-10 secretion was determined

Osamu Inatomi; Akira Andoh; Ken-ichi Kitamura; Hirofumi Yasui; Zhuobin Zhang; Yoshihide Fujiyama

2005-01-01

254

Sugar transport in the small intestine of obese hyperglycemic, fed and fasted mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. The in vitro transport of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose was measured in the small intestine of obese-hyperglycemic (ob\\/ob) mice and their lean littermates, fed or fasted for 48 hrs. 2. Transport was much increased in the jejunum of obese animals and, to a lesser extent, in obese mice on a chronic restricted diet. 3. Kinetic studies indicate that the Vmax of transport

I. Bihler; N. Freund

1975-01-01

255

Combinatorial chemoprevention of intestinal neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of two drugs afforded remarkable protection from intestinal neoplasia in APCMin\\/+ mice, a murine model of human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). One of the drugs was sulindac, a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with established chemopreventative activity. The second drug was EKI-569, a newly developed, irreversible inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase. Although 100% of the untreated

Christopher J. Torrance; Peta E. Jackson; Elizabeth Montgomery; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein; Allan Wissner; Maria Nunes; Carolyn M. Discafani; Philip Frost

2000-01-01

256

Parasites of the small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the most important parasites that inhabit the human small intestine. Beginning with the protozoa and\\u000a proceeding through the various species of cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes that inhabit the human small bowel, the most\\u000a important organisms are presented. Possible future developments are discussed along with pathophysiology and treatment in\\u000a this phylogenic approach. Zoonotic illnesses, those diseases that by

Theodore W. Schafer; Amer Skopic

2007-01-01

257

Surgical Aspects of Intestinal Ascariasis  

PubMed Central

At the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, a common differential diagnosis of acute abdomen is intestinal ascariasis. This condition mimics many causes of acute abdomen so that accurate pre-operative diagnosis depends mainly on a high index of suspicion. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to this condition which is prevalent in tropical countries, where preventive and social medicine have not reached their peak, and to review the pathological processes resulting from this disease. PMID:875064

Ajao, Oluwole G.; Solanke, Toriola F.

1977-01-01

258

Ischemic colitis in chronic intermittent peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

A 6-year and 8-month-old boy on chronic intermittent peritoneal dialysis for end stage kidney disease presented with severe diarrhea, abdominal distension, cramps, tenesmus and vomiting. Barium enema showed rigidity and irregularity of the mucosa of the sigmoid and distal descending colon, with 'thumb print like' appearance, findings compatible with ischemic colitis. The institution of hemodialysis and discontinuation of the peritoneal dialysis resulted in a marked clinical and radiological improvement. Kidney transplantation performed a month later was associated with a complete cure of his intestinal disease. PMID:6709119

Koren, G; Aladjem, M; Militiano, J; Seegal, B; Jonash, A; Boichis, H

1984-01-01

259

Microbial regulation of intestinal radiosensitivity  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for treating germ-free (GF) mice with ?-irradiation and transplanting them with normal or genetically manipulated bone marrow while maintaining their GF status. This approach revealed that GF mice are markedly resistant to lethal radiation enteritis. Furthermore, administering lethal doses of total body irradiation to GF mice produces markedly fewer apoptotic endothelial cells and lymphocytes in the mesenchymal cores of their small intestinal villi, compared with conventionally raised animals that have acquired a microbiota from birth. Analysis of GF and conventionally raised Rag1-/- mice disclosed that mature lymphocytes are not required for the development of lethal radiation enteritis or the microbiota-associated enhancement of endothelial radiosensitivity. Studies of gnotobiotic knockout mice that lack fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf), a fibrinogen/angiopoietin-like protein normally secreted from the small intestinal villus epithelium and suppressed by the microbiota, showed that Fiaf deficiency results in loss of resistance of villus endothelial and lymphocyte populations to radiation-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings provide insights about the cellular and molecular targets involved in microbial regulation of intestinal radiosensitivity. PMID:16129828

Crawford, Peter A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

2005-01-01

260

[Intestine microbiota and allergic diseases].  

PubMed

In industrialized countries an increased number of diseases due to immune system disorders including connected with allergy is noted. Allergic diseases generally proceed against the background of various common inflammatory diseases arising in childhood. The role of intestine microflora in its interaction with immune system and defining factors in allergization of children are actively studied. A decrease of risk of allergy development later in life for children who had grown up in the countryside was shown to be possibly related with microorganisms present in food. Thus the positive potential of farms is currently examined as a result of innate immunity activation by using microbial components. Acinetobacter lwoffii F78 isolated from cowsheds is able to protect mice from experimental allergy by activating Th1-polarization program of dendritic cells. Moreover, an important role in pathogenesis of allergic diseases belongs to mast cells. Probiotic lactobacilli may weaken activation of mast cells and release of inflammation mediators connected with allergic reactions. The ability of intestine microflora to influence immune response resulted in novel approaches in therapy that use these differences in microbiota for therapy and prophylaxis in allergy patients. And therefore on the basis of "hygiene hypothesis" of allergy emergence, a consideration is expressed that early manipulation with intestinal microbial communities may offer a new strategy of allergic sensibilization prevention. PMID:25286512

Maksimova, O V; Gervazieva, V B; Zverev, V V

2014-01-01

261

Chronic metabolic acidosis destroys pancreas.  

PubMed

One primary reason for the current epidemic of digestive disorders might be chronic metabolic acidosis, which is extremely common in the modern population. Chronic metabolic acidosis primarily affects two alkaline digestive glands, the liver, and the pancreas, which produce alkaline bile and pancreatic juice with a large amount of bicarbonate. Even small acidic alterations in the bile and pancreatic juice pH can lead to serious biochemical/biomechanical changes. The pancreatic digestive enzymes require an alkaline milieu for proper function, and lowering the pH disables their activity. It can be the primary cause of indigestion. Acidification of the pancreatic juice decreases its antimicrobial activity, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis. Lowering the pH of the pancreatic juice can cause premature activation of the proteases inside the pancreas with the potential development of pancreatitis. The acidification of bile causes precipitation of the bile acids, which irritate the entire biliary system and create bile stone formation. Aggressive mixture of the acidic bile and the pancreatic juice can cause erratic contractions of the duodenum's walls and subsequent bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus. Normal exocrine pancreatic function is the core of proper digestion. Currently, there is no effective and safe treatment for enhancing the exocrine pancreatic function. Restoring normal acid-base homeostasis can be a useful tool for pathophysiological therapeutic approaches for various gastrointestinal disorders. There is strong research and practical evidence that restoring the HCO3- capacity in the blood can improve digestion. PMID:25435570

Melamed, Peter; Melamed, Felix

2014-01-01

262

Intestinal acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 overexpression enhances postprandial triglyceridemic response and exacerbates high fat diet-induced hepatic triacylglycerol storage.  

PubMed

Intestinal acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) is important in the cellular and physiological responses to dietary fat. To determine the effect of increased intestinal DGAT2 on cellular and physiological responses to acute and chronic dietary fat challenges, we generated mice with intestine-specific overexpression of DGAT2 and compared them with intestine-specific overexpression of DGAT1 and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that when intestinal DGAT2 is present in excess, triacylglycerol (TG) secretion from enterocytes is enhanced compared to WT mice; however, TG storage within enterocytes is similar compared to WT mice. We found that when intestinal DGAT2 is present in excess, mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were reduced. This result suggests that reduced fatty acid oxidation may contribute to increased TG secretion by overexpression of DGAT2 in intestine. Furthermore, this enhanced supply of TG for secretion in Dgat2(Int) mice may be a significant contributing factor to the elevated fasting plasma TG and exacerbated hepatic TG storage in response to a chronic HFD. These results highlight that altering fatty acid and TG metabolism within enterocytes has the capacity to alter systemic delivery of dietary fat and may serve as an effective target for preventing and treating metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis. PMID:23643496

Uchida, Aki; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Buhman, Kimberly K

2013-08-01

263

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705

Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J. Mark; Krauss, Ronald M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

2013-01-01

264

The clinicopathological features of extensive small intestinal CD4 T cell infiltration  

PubMed Central

METHODS—Four patients with clinicopathological features suggesting a new distinct entity defining extensive small intestinal CD4 T cell infiltration were observed.?RESULTS—All four patients presented with chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption, and weight loss. Biopsy specimens of the small intestine disclosed extensive and diffuse infiltration of the lamina propria by pleomorphic small T lymphocytes, which were positive for CD3, CD4, CD5, and the ? chain of T cell receptor in all three cases studied and negative for CD103 in all three cases studied. It is notable that, in all invaded areas, the infiltrating cells showed no histological change throughout the whole evolution. In three patients, lymphocyte proliferation was monoclonal and there was extraintestinal involvement. In one patient, lymphoproliferation was oligoclonal and confined to the small intestine. In all four patients, there was no evidence of coeliac disease. Although none of the four patients responded to single or multiple drug chemotherapy, median survival was five years.?CONCLUSION—Extensive small intestinal CD4 T cell infiltration is a rare entity, distinct from coeliac disease and associated with prolonged survival.???Keywords: CD4; T cells; lymphocytes; small intestine PMID:10517900

Carbonnel, F; d'Almagne, H; Lavergne, A; Matuchansky, C; Brouet, J; Sigaux, F; Beaugerie, L; Nemeth, J; Coffin, B; Cosnes, J; Gendre, J; Rambaud, J

1999-01-01

265

Partial intestinal obstruction induces substantial mucosal proliferation in the pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral nutrition and improving supportive treatment have resulted in prolonged survival for patients with short bowel syndrome. However, definitive therapy for patients with short bowel syndrome must focus on increasing small intestinal mucosal mass. Intestinal lengthening procedures rely on intestinal dilation to accomplish this. The authors hypothesized that partial intestinal obstruction would result in consistent dilation of the intestine and

James Collins; Yvone Vicente; Keith Georgeson; David Kelly

1996-01-01

266

Intestinal Epithelium in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

Coskun, Mehmet

2014-01-01

267

Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system.  

PubMed

The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease in the intestine. PMID:25234148

Mowat, Allan M; Agace, William W

2014-10-01

268

Nitric oxide mediated intestinal injury is required for alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver damage  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) requires endotoxemia and is commonly associated with intestinal barrier leakiness. Using monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells as an in vitro barrier model, we showed that ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption is mediated by iNOS (inducible nitric-oxide synthase) upregulation, NO (nitric oxide) overproduction, and oxidation/nitration of cytoskeletal proteins. We hypothesized that iNOS inhibitors (L-NAME, L-NIL) in vivo will inhibit the above cascade and liver injury in an animal model of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged daily with alcohol (6 g/kg/day) or dextrose for 10 weeks ± L-NAME, L-NIL or vehicle. Systemic and intestinal NO levels were measured by nitrites and nitrates in urine and tissue samples, oxidative damage to the intestinal mucosa by protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine, intestinal permeability by urinary sugar tests, and liver injury by histological inflammation scores, liver fat, and myeloperoxidase activity. Results Alcohol caused tissue oxidation, gut leakiness, endotoxemia and ASH. L-NIL and L-NAME, but not the D-enantiomers, attenuated all steps in the alcohol-induced cascade including NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, gut leakiness, endotoxemia, hepatic inflammation and liver injury. Conclusions The mechanism we reported for alcohol-induced intestinal barrier disruption in vitro – NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, leaky gut, endotoxemia and liver injury – appears to be relevant in vivo in an animal model of alcohol-induced liver injury. That iNOS inhibitors attenuated all steps of this cascade suggests that prevention of this cascade in alcoholics will protect the liver against the injurious effects of chronic alcohol and that iNOS may be a useful target for prevention of ALD. PMID:19389191

Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Farhadi, Ashkan; Rangan, Jayanthi; Jakate, Shriram; Shaikh, Maliha; Banan, Ali; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Keshavarzian, Ali

2010-01-01

269

CHRONIC URTICARIA  

PubMed Central

Chronic urticaria (CU) is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ‘idiopathic’ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented. PMID:22345759

Sachdeva, Sandeep; Gupta, Vibhanshu; Amin, Syed Suhail; Tahseen, Mohd

2011-01-01

270

Microecology, intestinal epithelial barrier and necrotizing enterocolitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soon after birth, the neonatal intestine is confronted with a massive antigenic challenge of microbial colonization. Microbial\\u000a signals are required for maturation of several physiological, anatomical, and biochemical functions of intestinal epithelial\\u000a barrier (IEB) after birth. Commensal bacteria regulate intestinal innate and adaptive immunity and provide stimuli for ongoing\\u000a repair and restitution of IEB. Colonization by pathogenic bacteria and\\/or dysmature

Renu SharmaJoseph; Joseph J. Tepas

2010-01-01

271

The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather than through a GLP-1-mediated pathway.

Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan)] [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

2011-01-07

272

An analysis of intestinal calcium transport across the rat intestine.  

PubMed

Kinetic analysis of transmural calcium transport, as evaluated by in situ intestinal loops, has confirmed the existence of two transport processes, a saturable, transcellular one that is regulated by vitamin D and predominates in the proximal intestine and a nonsaturable process similar in intensity throughout the intestine. Transport data obtained from everted sac experiments are kinetically consistent with events in the in situ loop. Analysis of the three component steps making up the saturable process, i.e., entry across the brush-border membrane, intracellular diffusion, and extrusion across the basolateral membrane, indicates that intracellular diffusion is likely to be the limiting step. Active calcium transport varies directly and proportionately with the content of calcium-binding protein (CaBP), a specific molecular expression of the action of vitamin D. Since CaBP is a cytosolic protein, it may act to facilitate calcium diffusion, a proposition advanced by Kretsinger, Mann, and Simmons and supported here quantitatively. We calculate that the rate of intracellular calcium diffusion in the absence of CaBP is only approximately 1/70 of what is found in the vitamin D-replete cell. Similar considerations have led to the proposal that calcium moved by the nonsaturable process travels largely via the paracellular route. The kinetic parameters derived here, i.e., Vm = 22 mumol X h-1 X g (wt wt-1, Km = 3.9 mM, and a nonsaturable rate of 0.16/h, can be used to predict calcium absorption data as determined in previously published balance experiments. PMID:2939728

Bronner, F; Pansu, D; Stein, W D

1986-05-01

273

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive ophthalmoplegia, peripheral neuropathy, mitochondrial abnormalities and gastrointestinal involvement. We describe a 19-year-old male having chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction associated with ophthalmoplegia and proximal muscle weakness. The clinical and radiologic features suggested the diagnosis of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. Mitochondrial genetic defects should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained chronic gastrointestinal symptoms accompanied by neurological findings, especially in families where there is more than one individual with the same kind of symptoms. PMID:16245230

Co?kun, Ezgi; Ulusal, Gülay; Bulut, Nilüfer; Bekta?, Hesna; Oztekin, M Fevzi; Yildirim, I Safa

2005-09-01

274

Intestinal myofibroblasts: targets for stem cell therapy.  

PubMed

The subepithelial intestinal myofibroblast is an important cell orchestrating many diverse functions in the intestine and is involved in growth and repair, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis. The myofibroblast is but one of several ?-smooth muscle actin-positive (?-SMA(+)) mesenchymal cells present within the intestinal lamina propria, including vascular pericytes, bone marrow-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells or hematopoietic stem cells), muscularis mucosae, and the lymphatic pericytes (colon) and organized smooth muscle (small intestine) associated with the lymphatic lacteals. These other mesenchymal cells perform many of the functions previously attributed to subepithelial myofibroblasts. This review discusses the definition of a myofibroblast and reconsiders whether the ?-SMA(+) subepithelial cells in the intestine are myofibroblasts or other types of mesenchymal cells, i.e., pericytes. Current information about specific, or not so specific, molecular markers of lamina propria mesenchymal cells is reviewed, as well as the origins of intestinal myofibroblasts and pericytes in the intestinal lamina propria and their replenishment after injury. Current concepts and research on stem cell therapy for intestinal inflammation are summarized. Information about the stem cell origin of intestinal stromal cells may inform future stem cell therapies to treat human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:21252048

Mifflin, R C; Pinchuk, I V; Saada, J I; Powell, D W

2011-05-01

275

Intestinal myofibroblasts: targets for stem cell therapy  

PubMed Central

The subepithelial intestinal myofibroblast is an important cell orchestrating many diverse functions in the intestine and is involved in growth and repair, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis. The myofibroblast is but one of several ?-smooth muscle actin-positive (?-SMA+) mesenchymal cells present within the intestinal lamina propria, including vascular pericytes, bone marrow-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells or hematopoietic stem cells), muscularis mucosae, and the lymphatic pericytes (colon) and organized smooth muscle (small intestine) associated with the lymphatic lacteals. These other mesenchymal cells perform many of the functions previously attributed to subepithelial myofibroblasts. This review discusses the definition of a myofibroblast and reconsiders whether the ?-SMA+ subepithelial cells in the intestine are myofibroblasts or other types of mesenchymal cells, i.e., pericytes. Current information about specific, or not so specific, molecular markers of lamina propria mesenchymal cells is reviewed, as well as the origins of intestinal myofibroblasts and pericytes in the intestinal lamina propria and their replenishment after injury. Current concepts and research on stem cell therapy for intestinal inflammation are summarized. Information about the stem cell origin of intestinal stromal cells may inform future stem cell therapies to treat human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:21252048

Mifflin, R. C.; Pinchuk, I. V.; Saada, J. I.

2011-01-01

276

Wnt signaling in the mouse small intestine.  

E-print Network

??The Wnt signaling pathway is an essential regulator of the intestinal epithelium, during development and throughout adulthood. Inappropriate activation of this pathway leads to over-proliferation… (more)

Dismuke, Adria Decker

2009-01-01

277

Early alterations of rat intestinal diamine oxidase activity by azoxymethane, an intestinal carcinogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some mutagenic hydrazino compounds are also diamine oxidase inhibitors. Therefore, this interrelationship was studied for the intestinal carcinogen azoxymethane.In vitro, azoxymethane was a very weak inhibitor of rat intestinal diamine oxidase activity.In vivo, after subcutaneous injection of a single dose of azoxymethane, diamine oxidase activity was increased in the duodenum but was mainly inhibited in the colon. Intestinal diamine oxidase

J. Kusche; R. Mennigen; L. Leisten

1989-01-01

278

Role of an Intestinal Rehabilitation Program in the Treatment of Advanced Intestinal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze outcomes in children with intestinal failure treated by our Intestinal Rehabilitation Program (IRP) in a 4-year period. Patients and Methods: A total of 51 parenteral nutrition (PN)- dependent patients (20 male) were enrolled in the IRP. Median age was 1.7 years, with the primary diagnoses being gastroschisis, necrotizing enterocolitis, volvulus, and congenital atresia. Median small bowel intestinal

Clarivet Torres; Debra Sudan; Jon Vanderhoof; Wendy Grant; Jean Botha; Stephen Raynor; Alan Langnas

2007-01-01

279

Application of three-dimensional imaging to the intestinal crypt organoids and biopsied intestinal tissues.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D) imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor's intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the muscle layer, while the recipient's intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients. PMID:24348177

Chen, Yun; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Liu, Yuan-An; Lee, Shih-Hua; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

2013-01-01

280

Wine in the prevention of chronic bacterial urinary infection.  

PubMed

The observation of statistical public health data, together with lifestyle in a still native population following a strict Mediterranean diet, where local wine consumption of approximately 350 ml daily still has a primary role, demonstrates that this area, Pantelleria, also called the Black Pearl, has better regulation of common intestinal motor disorders. The incidence of chronic bacterial urinary infection is 30% lower than the national average. Further open laboratory studies should be performed to confirm our data and to elucidate whether protection against chronic bacterial urinary infection is congenital or acquired. PMID:15134378

Trapani, G S

2003-01-01

281

T cell transfer model of chronic colitis: concepts, considerations, and tricks of the trade  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis) are idiopathic chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. A major advancement in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases has been the development of mouse models of chronic gut inflammation. One model that has been instrumental in delineating the immunological mechanisms responsible for the induction as well as regulation of intestinal inflammation is the T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. This paper presents a detailed protocol describing the methods used to induce chronic colitis in mice. Special attention is given to the immunological concepts that explain disease pathogenesis in this model, considerations and potential pitfalls in using this model, and finally different “tricks” that we have learned over the past 12 years that have allowed us to develop a more simplified version of this model of experimental IBD. PMID:19033538

Ostanin, Dmitry V.; Bao, Jianxiong; Koboziev, Iurii; Gray, Laura; Robinson-Jackson, Sherry A.; Kosloski-Davidson, Melissa; Price, V. Hugh; Grisham, Matthew B.

2009-01-01

282

Chronic gastritis in China: a national multi-center survey  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. Methods A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Results Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR?=?4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. Conclusions The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy. PMID:24502423

2014-01-01

283

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia  

E-print Network

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

Perrimon, Norbert

284

Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences  

PubMed Central

This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, L-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram negative bacteria and preserving intestinal permeability to endotoxin may attenuate alcoholic liver and other organ injuries. PMID:18504085

Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J. Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y. James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R. Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R.

2008-01-01

285

Intestinal CYP2E1: A mediator of alcohol-induced gut leakiness  

PubMed Central

Chronic alcohol use can result in many pathological effects including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). While alcohol is necessary for the development of ALD, only 20–30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) with progressive liver disease leading to cirrhosis and liver failure (ALD). This suggests that while chronic alcohol consumption is necessary it is not sufficient to induce clinically relevant liver damage in the absence of a secondary risk factor. Studies in rodent models and alcoholic patients show that increased intestinal permeability to microbial products like endotoxin play a critical role in promoting liver inflammation in ALD pathogenesis. Therefore identifying mechanisms of alcohol-induced intestinal permeability is important in identifying mechanisms of ALD and for designing new avenues for therapy. Cyp2e1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes alcohol has been shown to be upregulated by chronic alcohol use and to be a major source of oxidative stress and liver injury in alcoholics and in animal and in vitro models of chronic alcohol use. Because Cyp2e1 is also expressed in the intestine and is upregulated by chronic alcohol use, we hypothesized it could play a role in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability. Our in vitro studies with intestinal Caco-2 cells and in mice fed alcohol showed that circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 are required for alcohol-induced permeability. We also showed that alcohol increases Cyp2e1 protein and activity but not mRNA in Caco-2 cells and that an inhibitor of oxidative stress or siRNA knockdown of Cyp2e1 prevents the increase in CLOCK or PER2 proteins and prevents alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. With our collaborators we have also shown that Cyp2e1 knockout mice are resistant to alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver inflammation. Taken together our data support a novel Cyp2e1-circadian clock protein mechanism for alcohol-induced gut leakiness that could provide new avenues for therapy of ALD. PMID:25462064

Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali.

2014-01-01

286

Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

Patil, Anant D.

2014-01-01

287

[Nonocclusive intestinal ischemia as a complication of hemodialysis treatment].  

PubMed

A 52-year-old man on haemodialysis treatment for chronic glomerulonephritis also had a nephrotic syndrome, hypercholesterolaemia, severe arterial hypertension and peripheral vascular disease in stage IIb. He also was a heavy smoker. Following a nonspecific diarrhoeal illness, which caused haemoconcentration, he developed abdominal pain and fever. WBC count (29,000/microliter) and serum lactate level (18.2 mmol/l) were elevated, and there were clinical signs of lower abdominal peritonitis. Laparotomy revealed multiple ischaemic segments. The arteries were not thrombosed but had severe atheromatous changes. There is an increasing incidence of such nonocclusive intestinal ischaemia because there are more elderly people and more patients with high-risk factors among those requiring dialysis. PMID:8334949

Zeier, M; Hupp, T; Wiesel, M; Rambausek, M; Ritz, E

1993-07-16

288

Primary intestinal and thoracic lymphangiectasia: a response to antiplasmin therapy.  

PubMed

Lymphangiectasia is a congenital or acquired disorder characterized by abnormal, dilated lymphatics with a variable age of presentation. We describe a case of lymphangiectasia with intestinal and pulmonary involvement in an adolescent female, who presented with many of the classic features including chylous pleural effusions, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobinemia, and a protein-losing enteropathy. She also presented with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding, which is infrequently described. The patient did not improve with bowel rest and a low-fat medium-chain triglyceride diet and had little improvement with octreotide acetate therapy. However, she had a clinical response to antiplasmin therapy, trans-4-aminothylcyclohexamine carboxylic acid (tranexamic acid) in terms of serum albumin and gastrointestinal bleeding. She continues to have exacerbations of her condition, as well as persistent lymphopenia and chronic pleural effusions. PMID:12042562

MacLean, Joanna E; Cohen, Eyal; Weinstein, Michael

2002-06-01

289

Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn's disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258

Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina

2014-09-01

290

Paneth Cells in Intestinal Homeostasis and Tissue Injury  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cell niches are often co-inhabited by cycling and quiescent stem cells. In the intestine, lineage tracing has identified Lgr5+ cells as frequently cycling stem cells, whereas Bmi1+, mTert+, Hopx+ and Lrig1+ cells appear to be more quiescent. Here, we have applied a non-mutagenic and cell cycle independent approach to isolate and characterize small intestinal label-retaining cells (LRCs) persisting in the lower third of the crypt of Lieberkühn for up to 100 days. LRCs do not express markers of proliferation and of enterocyte, goblet or enteroendocrine differentiation, but are positive for Paneth cell markers. While during homeostasis, LR/Paneth cells appear to play a supportive role for Lgr5+ stem cells as previously shown, upon tissue injury they switch to a proliferating state and in the process activate Bmi1 expression while silencing Paneth-specific genes. Hence, they are likely to contribute to the regenerative process following tissue insults such as chronic inflammation. PMID:22745693

Roth, Sabrina; Kremer, Andreas; Anderson, Kurt; Sansom, Owen; Fodde, Riccardo

2012-01-01

291

Immunological changes in the intestines and skin after senna administration.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: It has been reported that chronic sennoside use is associated with the development of melanosis coli, colonic adenoma, and/or carcinomas. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the immunological changes in the colon and skin after the administration of senna. Materials and methods: In this study, we investigated the colon and epidermis of C57/BL6j mice after a single administration of 10?mg/kg of senna [Cassia angustifolia (Caesalpiniaceae); 3, 6, 12, and 24?h after administration] and after repeated once per week administrations (on days 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 of administration). The LD50 and ED50 of senna used in this experiment were 165?mg/kg and 13?g/kg, respectively. Results: We demonstrated that the DOPA-positive cells in the colon increased at 12?h after single administration and were further increased from at 5-28?d after repeated administration. We also studied the physiological changes of the small intestine using the charcoal meal test. We found that there was a tendency for peristalsis to be inhibited after repeated senna administration. In the epidermis, we investigated the number of Langerhans cells, because they are important immune cells of the skin. The number of these cells decreased, especially after repeated administration. Discussion and conclusion: The present findings suggested that it is necessary to pay attention to not only the intestine but also the skin, during long-term senna treatment. PMID:25430604

Yamate, Yurika; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Ooi, Kazuya

2014-11-28

292

Histochemical studies on rectal mucosa in active intestinal schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Thirty patients suffering from active intestinal S. mansoni infection, were classified into 3 groups. The first group: 13 cases with early active intestinal schistosomiasis without hepatosplenomegaly. The second group: 11 cases with hepatosplenomegaly and the third group: 6 cases with splenomegaly and ascites. Also 10 normal individuals were included as a normal control group. Histopathological examination of rectal mucosa showed hyperaemia with extravasation of blood in early cases and granulomatous lesions in the second group with hepatosplenomegaly. The structural changes were severe in the late ascitic group. In this group the rectal mucosal glands showed distorted irregular tubular branching in addition to the granulomatous and the fibrous reactions. Histochemical studies including periodic acid schiff, alkaline phosphatase and acetyl cholinestrase reactions were done. Using the periodic acid shiff stain, the goblet cells showed strong reaction for neutral mucin in cases of group I (early cases) and group II (late hepatosplenomegalic cases). In group III (late ascitic cases) the goblet cells were faintly stained. A notable difference was observed between the lightly and heavily infected patients of this group. No alkaline phosphatase reactivity could be identified in rectal crypts of patients and controls. Alkaline phosphatase reactivity was sharply localised in S. mansoni egg shell. There was obvious decrease in the acetyl cholinesterase stained nerve fibres in the rectal mucosa of all studied patients. The decrease was more in chronic and heavily infected cases rather than in the acute and lightly infected ones. PMID:1908499

el-Din, S S; Massoud, M M; Hossny, S; el-Gindy, I M; Arafa, M A; Labib, H

1991-08-01

293

[Natural history of intestinal lesions in inflammatory bowel disease].  

PubMed

Crohn's disease may involve any part of the digestive tract from mouth to anus, but affects mainly the distal ileum and the,colon. At diagnosis, perianal lesions are observed in 20% of the cases. During the disease course, strictures develop in the majority of patients with ileal disease, while penetrating lesions (fistulas and abscesses) develop in half of the patients. Only one third of patients with colonic involvement will develop structuring or penetrating lesions. Intestinal lesions of ulcerative colitis involve constantly the rectum and may extend continuously throughout the colon. At diagnosis, lesions involve the rectum, the left colon and most of the colon in similar proportions. Subsequent extension of the lesions over 20 years is observed in half of the patients. In Crohn's disease, 40%-50% of the patients require intestinal resection at 10 years. The risk of colectomy in ulcerative colitis is about 1% per year Dysplasia and cancer may complicate longstanding extensive colonic lesions in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Malignant transformation of chronic inflammatory lesions may also occur in patients with longstanding lesions of the small bowel in Crohn's disease. PMID:25638859

Beaugerie, Laurent

2014-11-01

294

Oral Crohn’s disease without intestinal manifestations  

PubMed Central

Crohn?s disease is a granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease and was described in 1932 as a chronic granulomatous disorder of the terminal ileum and is now considered a distinct member of the inflammatory bowel disease family. It may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Oral Crohn?s disease has been reported frequently in the last three decades with or without intestinal manifestations. In the latter case, it is considered as one of the orofacial granulomatosis. There has been much doubt whether intestinal manifestations of Crohn?s disease will eventually develop in the orofacial granulomatosis. We present a female patient aged 22 years with prominent clinical findings such as persistent swelling of lower and upper lip with fissuring and angular cheilitis, granulomatous gingival enlargement, and cobblestone or corrugated appearance of labial mucosa, which are suggestive of Crohn?s disease, but with no evidence of other gastrointestinal involvement. The patient underwent surgical treatment with external gingivectomy procedure. A 6-month follow-up showed minimal recurrence. PMID:23066305

Harikishan, Gingisetty; Reddy, Nagate Raghavendra; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Anitha, Subappa

2012-01-01

295

Primary lymphoma of the upper small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven patients with primary lymphoma involving the upper small intestine and presenting with diarrhoea, non-specific abdominal pain, and clubbing are reported. The disease appears to be more prevalent in young women, and clinical and radiological findings can provide an excellent preliminary diagnosis which is usually confirmed by peroral biopsy of the small intestine. This type of lymphoma is found to

Khosrow Nasr; Parviz Haghighi; Kiumars Bakhshandeh; Mansour Haghshenas

1970-01-01

296

Scanning electron microscopy of intestinal villous structures  

E-print Network

University, Manhattan, KS. 66506, U.S.A. Summary. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to examineScanning electron microscopy of intestinal villous structures and their putative relation electron microscope (SEM) at 5 K.V. accelerating voltage. Quantitation of the intestinal structures

Boyer, Edmond

297

Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to assess the effects of reduced DNA methyltransferase activity on ApcMin-induced intestinal neoplasia in mice. A reduction in the DNA methyltransferase activity in Min mice due to heterozygosity of the DNA methyltransferase gene, in conjunction with a weekly dose of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azadeoxycytidine, reduced the average number of intestinal

Peter W Laird; Laurie Jackson-Grusby; Amin Fazeli; Stephanie L Dickinson; W Edward Jung; En Li; Robert A Weinberg; Rudolf Jaenisch

1995-01-01

298

Autolytic degradation of chicken intestinal proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the exhaustive degradation of chicken intestinal proteins by endogenous proteases, which could be utilized as a means to prepare protein hydrolysate, is reported in the present paper. Chicken intestine possesses proteolytic activities (cathepsin B, D, H, L, aminopeptidases and alkaline proteases) comparable to that in organ tissues like liver and spleen, which could degrade the tissue proteins extensively.

S. N. Jamdar; P. Harikumar

2005-01-01

299

Intestinal capillariasis in the 21 st century: clinical presentations and role of endoscopy and imaging.  

PubMed

BackgroundIntestinal capillariasis is one of the common causes of malabsorption in the East. Reports emphasizing the roles of clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings of intestinal capillariasis are limited.MethodsRetrospective review of medical records of 26 patients diagnosed with intestinal capillariasis at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand between 2001- 2013.ResultsClinical manifestations were chronic watery diarrhea (93%), chronic abdominal pain (70%), significant weight loss (92%), hypoalbuminemia (100%; 85% lower than 2.0 g/dL), and anemia (50%). The median duration of symptoms was 5.5 months (1-60 months). Parasites were found in stool in 15 patients (57%). In patients whose stool tests were initially negative, parasites were discovered in tissue biopsy from endoscopy in 1 from 10 esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGD), 0 from 7 colonoscopies, 3 from 5 push enteroscopies, and 3 from 5 balloon-assisted enteroscopies (BAE). Endoscopic findings included scalloping appearance, mucosal cracking, and redness of mucosa. These endoscopic findings affected mostly at jejunum and proximal ileum. They were similar to celiac disease except duodenal involvement which is uncommon in capillariasis. Three patients underwent video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and typical abnormal findings were observed in all patients. Small bowel barium study showed fold thickening, fold effacement, and increased luminal fluid in 80% of patients, mainly seen at distal jejunum and ileum. CT findings were long segment wall thickening, enhanced wall, and fold effacement. Treatment with either albendazole or ivermectin cured all patients with most responding within 2 months.ConclusionsIn endemic area, intestinal capillariasis should be considered if patients develop chronic watery diarrhea accompanied by significant weight loss and severe hypoalbuminemia. Stool examination had quite low sensitivities in making diagnosis in our study. Deep enteroscopy with biopsy guided by imaging or VCE may improve diagnostic yield. Empirical therapy may also be justifiable due to the very good response rate and less side effects. PMID:25492259

Limsrivilai, Julajak; Pongprasobchai, Supot; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Manatsathit, Sathaporn

2014-12-10

300

Epithelial barriers in intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal epithelium transports solutes and water between lumen and blood and at the same time forms a barrier between these compartments. This highly selective and regulated barrier permits ions, water, and nutrients to be absorbed, but normally restricts the passage of harmful molecules, bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. During inflammation, the intestinal barrier can be disrupted, indicated by a decrease in transcellular electrical resistance and an increase in paracellular permeability for tracers of different size. Such inflammatory processes are accompanied by increased oxidative stress, which in turn can impair the epithelial barrier. In this review, we discuss the role of inflammatory oxidative stress on barrier function with special attention on the epithelial tight junctions. Diseases discussed causing barrier changes include the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and microscopic colitis, the autoimmune disorder celiac disease, and gastrointestinal infections. In addition, the main cytokines responsible for these effects and their role during oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation will be discussed, as well as therapeutic approaches and their mode of action. PMID:21294654

John, Lena J; Fromm, Michael; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter

2011-09-01

301

Chitin-microparticles for the control of intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine with the ability to regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the detailed mechanisms of chitin-mediated regulation of intestinal inflammation are only partially known. In this study, Chitin-microparticles (CMPs) or PBS were orally administered to acute and chronic colitis models every three days for six consecutive weeks beginning at weaning age. The effects of this treatment were evaluated by histology, cytokine production, co-culture study and enteric bacterial analysis in DSS-induced colitis or TCR? knockout chronic colitis models. Histologically, chitin-treated mice showed significantly suppressed colitis as compared to PBS-treated mice in both animal models. The production of IFN? was upregulated in the mucosa of chitin-treated mice compared to control mice. The major source of IFN?-producing cells was CD4+ T cells. In mouse dendritic cells (DCs), we found that CMPs were efficiently internalized and processed within 48 hours. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) CD4+ T cells isolated from chitin-treated mice produced 7-fold higher amount of IFN? in the culture supernatant after being co-cultured with DCs and chitin as compared to the control. Proliferation of CFSElow CD4+ T cells in MLNs and enteric bacterial translocation rates were significantly reduced in chitin-treated mice when compared to the control. In addition, CMPs improved the imbalance of enteric bacterial compositions and significantly increased IL-10-producing cells in non-inflamed colon, indicating the immunoregulatory effects of CMPs in intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, CMPs significantly suppress the development of inflammation by modulating cytokine balance and microbial environment in colon. PMID:22241684

Nagatani, Katsuya; Wang, Sen; Llado, Victoria; Lau, Cindy W.; Li, Zongxi; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Shibata, Yoshimi; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Mora, J. Rodrigo; Mizoguchi, Emiko

2013-01-01

302

Bowel necrosis following endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Endovascular revascularization has recently been established as a less invasive treatment method for chronic mesenteric ischemia. However, intestinal necrosis caused by distal embolization following this procedure has not been emphasized. Case presentation The present report describes a 59-year-old man who was treated with endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. After the procedure, he was diagnosed with intestinal necrosis caused by distal embolization. Despite emergent bowel resection, he died on postoperative day 109. Conclusion Although endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia is less invasive and may be suitable for high-risk patients, attention should be paid to avoid embolic complications that can cause intestinal infarction possibly leading to a fatal condition. PMID:23865626

2013-01-01

303

Investigation of coco-glucoside as a novel intestinal permeation enhancer in rat models.  

PubMed

Due to instability in the GI tract and low intestinal permeability, peptides invariably have oral bioavailabilities below 1% and this has prevented the development of oral formulations. A mild plant-derived natural alkyl polyglycoside (APG), coco-glucoside (CG), was studied for its capacity to enable rat intestinal permeation of the paracellular sugar marker, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000 (FD4), across isolated rat jejunal and colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers, as well as the polypeptide, salmon calcitonin (sCT) following intra-intestinal instillations in rats. 0.1% (w/v) CG enabled a 2.9-fold increase in the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of FD4 over the basal Papp across colonic mucosae, but it was without effect in jejunal mucosae. In situ intestinal instillations revealed that although sCT was absorbed across rat colonic loops to a greater extent than jejunal, CG still improved sCT absolute bioavailability (F) from both segments. Histopathology of rat intestinal mucosae following exposure to CG indicated only minor perturbation with adequate maintenance of secretory function. High content analysis (HCA) on Caco-2 showed that acute and chronic exposure to a range of concentrations of CG did not cause sub-lethal damage at concentrations at which it was effective as an enhancer. Overall, CG increased bioavailability of sCT across rat jejunal and colonic loops without indication of tissue damage. Thus, CG has potential as a safe and effective intestinal enhancer for oral delivery of proteins and peptides. PMID:25445305

Aguirre, Tanira A S; Rosa, Mónica; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Coulter, Ivan; Brayden, David J

2014-10-31

304

Vitamin D receptor regulates intestinal proteins involved in cell proliferation, migration and stress response  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies found low plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms associated with a higher prevalence of pathological changes in the intestine such as chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods In this study, a proteomic approach was applied to understand the overall physiological importance of vitamin D in the small intestine, beyond its function in calcium and phosphate absorption. Results In total, 569 protein spots could be detected by two-dimensional-difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and 82 proteins were considered as differentially regulated in the intestinal mucosa of VDR-deficient mice compared to that of wildtype (WT) mice. Fourteen clearly detectable proteins were identified by MS/MS and further analyzed by western blot and/or real-time RT-PCR. The differentially expressed proteins are functionally involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell migration, stress response and lipid transport. Mice lacking VDR revealed higher levels of intestinal proteins associated with proliferation and migration such as the 37/67 kDa laminin receptor, collagen type VI (alpha 1 chain), keratin-19, tropomyosin-3, adseverin and higher levels of proteins involved in protein trafficking and stress response than WT mice. In contrast, proteins that are involved in transport of bile and fatty acids were down-regulated in small intestine of mice lacking VDR compared to WT mice. However, plasma and liver concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides were not different between the two groups of mice. Conclusion Collectively, these data imply VDR as an important factor for controlling cell proliferation, migration and stress response in the small intestine. PMID:24641763

2014-01-01

305

Immune response is required for the control of in vivo translocation and chronic toxicity of graphene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals.Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00699b

Wu, Qiuli; Zhao, Yunli; Fang, Jianpeng; Wang, Dayong

2014-05-01

306

Understanding Chronic Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Stop Smoking Get Involved Donate Lung Disease Asthma COPD Influenza Lung Cancer Disparities Reports Lung Disease Finder ... commonly referred to as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). How Serious is Chronic Bronchitis? People often ignore ...

307

Chemical exposure and intestinal function.  

PubMed Central

The particular substances that are ingested by individuals are the consequence of their environmental, residential, and occupational exposures. The possible effects of these exposures on intestinal functions can be examined by the evaluation of in vivo or in vitro exposure followed by an in vivo and/or in vitro monitoring of effects. Several examples of the in vivo exposure and in vitro monitoring approach are presented to demonstrate the consequences of oral exposure to either a heavy metal (arsenic), or a herbicide contaminant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) or a jet fuel propellant (hydrazine) and the subsequent measurement of either a particular metabolic pathway, or a cell-specific enzyme induction or the development of brush border enzymes are presented. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. a FIGURE 8. b FIGURE 9. PMID:120255

Schiller, C M

1979-01-01

308

Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881

Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

2012-01-01

309

Intestinal lymphangiectasia and thymic hypoplasia.  

PubMed Central

We have evaluated the immunological abnormalities present in a 6 year old patient with primary intestinal and generalized lymphangiectasia confirmed by intestinal, lung and lymph node biopsies. Lymphocyte loss through the gut was confirmed by the detection of lymphocytes in her stool. An increased enteric protein loss was suggested by hypoproteinaemia, peripheral oedema, and a very short half-life for i.v. immune serum globulin (3 days). Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed a selective loss of T lymphocytes, with a proportionally increased loss of the OKT4 positive helper/inducer subpopulation. Functionally, there was a decrease in proliferative responses to some mitogens and to allogeneic cells, and a lack of T cell help for in vitro B lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting cells. Natural killer function was normal. In this patient, a concomitant thymic deficiency was documented by failure to identify thymic tissue on a thymus biopsy and by an absence or decrease of the serum thymic factor (thymulin) and thymosin alpha 1. No compensatory lymphopoiesis was detected in the bone marrow. In an attempt to increase T lymphocyte development, the patient was treated with thymosin fraction 5. Daily treatment with this preparation resulted in a transient clinical improvement which could not be sustained on a weekly thymosin treatment schedule. However, lymphocyte numbers did not increase during this treatment. The findings in this patient support the notion that T lymphocytes are needed to stimulate thymic epithelium. In situations of excessive loss of long lived T lymphocytes a secondary thymic atrophy may occur and further contribute to the development of a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3971596

Sorensen, R U; Halpin, T C; Abramowsky, C R; Hornick, D L; Miller, K M; Naylor, P; Incefy, G S

1985-01-01

310

Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a meaning for the term chronic poverty “in a nutshell” and explores the concepts of poverty, vulnerability and poverty dynamics that underpin this meaning. Subsequently, it reviews “who” is chronically poor, “why” they stay poor and what is known about policies to reduce chronic poverty. Despite the limited knowledge available it is clear that hundreds of millions

Andrew Shepherd

2003-01-01

311

Effects of trimebutine on intestinal motility after massive small bowel resection.  

PubMed

Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM) on intestinal motility in short bowel syndrome (SBS) were studied in conscious canines in both acute and chronic phases following 80% massive distal small bowel resection (MSBR). TM was administered orally to beagles with MSBR or as controls in the postprandial and fasting states, and given simultaneously with meals. Intestinal motility was measured using bipolar electrodes for approximately 1 month after the electrodes were implanted in each beagle and the data compared between treatment groups. When TM was given with meals, the postprandial period without duodenal migrating myoelectric (or motor) complexes (MMCs) was shorter than in those given meals only. When TM was given in the postprandial state in short bowel beagles, the initial duodenal MMCs occurred earlier, i.e. the postprandial period was shorter. Diarrhea did not occur in these beagles. When TM was given in the fasting state, duodenal MMCs occurred and propagated to the distal intestine. In conclusion, oral TM administration can produce a more appropriate intestinal condition for the next food intake and make enteral nutrition possible even in the acute phase after MSBR. Such feeding can be carried out without overloading gut function as a result of the modulation of gastrointestinal motility by TM. PMID:11286295

Uchiyama, M; Iwafuchi, M; Yagi, M; Iinuma, Y; Kanada, S; Ohtaki, M; Homma, S

2000-08-01

312

Intestinal HIF2? promotes tissue-iron accumulation in disorders of iron overload with anemia  

PubMed Central

Several distinct congenital disorders can lead to tissue-iron overload with anemia. Repeated blood transfusions are one of the major causes of iron overload in several of these disorders, including ?-thalassemia major, which is characterized by a defective ?-globin gene. In this state, hyperabsorption of iron is also observed and can significantly contribute to iron overload. In ?-thalassemia intermedia, which does not require blood transfusion for survival, hyperabsorption of iron is the leading cause of iron overload. The mechanism of increased iron absorption in ?-thalassemia is unclear. We definitively demonstrate, using genetic mouse models, that intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor-2? (HIF2?) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) are activated early in the pathogenesis of ?-thalassemia and are essential for excess iron accumulation in mouse models of ?-thalassemia. Moreover, thalassemic mice with established iron overload had significant improvement in tissue-iron levels and anemia following disruption of intestinal HIF2?. In addition to repeated blood transfusions and increased iron absorption, chronic hemolysis is the major cause of tissue-iron accumulation in anemic iron-overload disorders caused by hemolytic anemia. Mechanistic studies in a hemolytic anemia mouse model demonstrated that loss of intestinal HIF2?/DMT1 signaling led to decreased tissue-iron accumulation in the liver without worsening the anemia. These data demonstrate that dysregulation of intestinal hypoxia and HIF2? signaling is critical for progressive iron overload in ?-thalassemia and may be a novel therapeutic target in several anemic iron-overload disorders. PMID:24282296

Anderson, Erik R.; Taylor, Matthew; Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Martin, Angelical; Xie, Liwei; Bredell, Bryce X.; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Shah, Yatrik M.

2013-01-01

313

Intestinal HIF2? promotes tissue-iron accumulation in disorders of iron overload with anemia.  

PubMed

Several distinct congenital disorders can lead to tissue-iron overload with anemia. Repeated blood transfusions are one of the major causes of iron overload in several of these disorders, including ?-thalassemia major, which is characterized by a defective ?-globin gene. In this state, hyperabsorption of iron is also observed and can significantly contribute to iron overload. In ?-thalassemia intermedia, which does not require blood transfusion for survival, hyperabsorption of iron is the leading cause of iron overload. The mechanism of increased iron absorption in ?-thalassemia is unclear. We definitively demonstrate, using genetic mouse models, that intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor-2? (HIF2?) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) are activated early in the pathogenesis of ?-thalassemia and are essential for excess iron accumulation in mouse models of ?-thalassemia. Moreover, thalassemic mice with established iron overload had significant improvement in tissue-iron levels and anemia following disruption of intestinal HIF2?. In addition to repeated blood transfusions and increased iron absorption, chronic hemolysis is the major cause of tissue-iron accumulation in anemic iron-overload disorders caused by hemolytic anemia. Mechanistic studies in a hemolytic anemia mouse model demonstrated that loss of intestinal HIF2?/DMT1 signaling led to decreased tissue-iron accumulation in the liver without worsening the anemia. These data demonstrate that dysregulation of intestinal hypoxia and HIF2? signaling is critical for progressive iron overload in ?-thalassemia and may be a novel therapeutic target in several anemic iron-overload disorders. PMID:24282296

Anderson, Erik R; Taylor, Matthew; Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Martin, Angelical; Xie, Liwei; Bredell, Bryce X; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Shah, Yatrik M

2013-12-10

314

The blessings and curses of intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

The intestinal immune system has to strike a delicate balance between initiating inflammatory responses against invading bacterial pathogens and avoiding their induction against microbiota colonizing the lumen. Adequate inflammatory responses against bacterial invasion result in the lumenal secretion of antimicrobial peptides, as well as the release of cytokines in tissue that recruit and activate phagocytes. However, pathogens have evolved to utilize these environmental changes in the inflamed intestine to promote colonization. This review focuses on the costs and benefits of intestinal inflammation and the fine interplay between the host, its microbiota, and enteric pathogens. PMID:20638640

Winter, Sebastian E; Keestra, A Marijke; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J

2010-07-22

315

Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

2014-01-01

316

Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane.  

PubMed

The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

Jasmer, Douglas P; Rosa, Bruce A; Mitreva, Makedonka

2015-01-01

317

Intestinal permeability of chlorpyrifos using the single-pass intestinal perfusion method in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal transport of chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organothiophosphate pesticide, was investigated using the single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in male, Sprague–Dawley rats. SPIP was performed in each isolated region of the small intestine (i.e. duodenum, jejunum and ileum) with three concentrations of CPF (0.1, 2.0 and 10 ?M) at a flow rate of 0.25 ml\\/min. Preliminary binding and stability studies

Thomas J Cook; Smriti S Shenoy

2003-01-01

318

Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane  

PubMed Central

The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

Rosa, Bruce A.

2015-01-01

319

Protrusion of the Valvular Intestine in Captive Smalltooth Sawfish and Comments on Pristid Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Intestinal Valve Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on three separate instances of protrusion of the valvular intestine in the smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinata, compare pristid gastrointestinal anatomy and intestinal valve structure with those of other elasmobranchs, and discuss the relevance of anatomy and valve structure to the husbandry of captive specimens. Protrusion of the valvular intestine, or intestinal eversion, has been documented in carcharhinid sharks

Alan D. Henningsen; Brent R. Whitaker; Ian D. Walker

2005-01-01

320

Macroscopic intestinal colonies of mice as a tool for studying differentiation of multipotential intestinal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Macroscopic nodules composed of regenerating intestinal epithelium were developed within an area of the murine jejunum ulcerated by X-irradiation (1700 rads). The authors investigated whether such intestinal nodules were clonal and whether this method was useful as a tool for studying differentiation of intestinal stem cells. For examination of the clonality, intestinal nodules were produced in the jejunum of (C57BL/6 X DS)F1-Pgk-1b/Pgk-1a mice that carried X-chromosome inactivation mosaicism for the phosphoglycerate kinase gene. All intestinal nodules contained only 1 type of phosphoglycerate kinase, suggesting the monoclonal origin of nodules. Histochemical and electron microscopic studies showed the presence of absorptive epithelial, goblet, and entero-endocrine cells in most intestinal nodules, suggesting the multipotentiality of the nodule-forming stem cells. Moreover, villi developed on the top of some intestinal nodules, implicating the potential of the multipotential stem cell to construct the highly organized structure. The result indicates that the intestinal nodule method is useful for investigating differentiation potentials of multipotential intestinal stem cells.

Inoue, M.; Imada, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Matsuura, N.; Shiozaki, H.; Mori, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Fujita, H.

1988-07-01

321

The use of Resolor (prucalopride) for chronic constipation in women.  

PubMed

Chronic constipation is a common problem among women, is associated with anxiety and depression and can adversely affect quality of life (Mason et al, 2002). Chronic constipation is often unrelieved by simple laxatives, dietary manipulation or lifestyle modification, with other specialist treatment options being invasive and often not widely available. More recently attention has turned to newer prokinetic agents, such as prucalopride (Resolor®), which increase gut motility and intestinal transit, for the relief of chronic constipation. While these are not effective for everyone, there is evidence that prucalopride can increase bowel frequency, relieve bothersome symptoms associated with constipation and improve quality of life for women who have failed to achieve satisfactory relief from two other laxatives (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). PMID:23123655

Woodward, Sue

322

Chronic Microsporidial Enteritis in a Missionary from Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Microsporidiosis often occurs in immunocompromised persons but may also occur in those who are immunocompetent. Infection by Microsporidia involves a variety of organs and systems, most notably, intestine, lung, kidney, brain, sinuses, muscle, and eyes. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are associated with gastroenteritis, and Enterocytozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon cuniculi are associated with keratoconjunctivitis. We report a case of chronic microsporidiosis in a 28-year-old woman missionary from Mozambique who came to our diagnostic laboratory with nausea, lower abdominal pain, and frequent bowel movements. Over two years, the patient was clinically assessed and treated for malaria and giardiasis without laboratory diagnosis while in Mozambique. Identification of the causative agent of her condition was not attempted during the course of her illness in Mozambique. Furthermore, adverse effects of malaria and giardiasis medications may have exacerbated the chronic illness in this patient and mimicked chronic microsporidiosis. PMID:21036848

Palmieri, James R.; Elswaifi, Shaadi F.; Lindsay, David S.; Junko, Gretchen; Callahan, Cathy

2010-01-01

323

Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:23812305

Xue, Xiang; Shah, Yatrik M.

2013-01-01

324

How Is Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... found in 4 or more nearby lymph nodes M categories for small intestine adenocarcinoma M categories indicate whether or not the cancer has ... or tissues. Stage grouping The T, N, and M categories are combined (in a process called stage ...

325

Optimality in the Development of Intestinal Crypts  

E-print Network

Intestinal crypts in mammals are comprised of long-lived stem cells and shorter-lived progenies. These two populations are maintained in specific proportions during adult life. Here, we investigate the design principles ...

Itzkovitz, Shalev

326

Mesenchymal cells of the intestinal lamina propria.  

PubMed

The mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria reviewed here are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, mural cells (pericytes) of the vasculature, bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells, smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and smooth muscle surrounding the lymphatic lacteals. These cells share similar marker molecules, origins, and coordinated biological functions previously ascribed solely to subepithelial myofibroblasts. We review the functional anatomy of intestinal mesenchymal cells and describe what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement in adults. As part of their putative role in intestinal mucosal morphogenesis, we consider the intestinal stem cell niche. Lastly, we review emerging information about myofibroblasts as nonprofessional immune cells that may be important as an alarm system for the gut and as a participant in peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:21054163

Powell, D W; Pinchuk, I V; Saada, J I; Chen, Xin; Mifflin, R C

2011-01-01

327

Intestinal microbiota and blue baby syndrome  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common intestinal emergency among premature infants. Risk factors in premature infants include immature intestinal immunity and an intestinal microbiota dominated by hospital-acquired bacteria. Some probiotics have been shown to decrease the incidence of NEC in premature infants. Among term infants, NEC is rare. However, among term infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD), the incidence of NEC is similar to that of premature infants but with even greater mortality rates. Mechanisms by which NEC occurs in term infants with CCHD are unknown. Of central interest is the potential role of changes in the intestinal microbiota and whether these can be modified with probiotic bacteria; accordingly, we review the literature, propose hypotheses and present the rationale for future studies involving preliminary probiotic clinical trials. PMID:21468216

Ellis, Collin L; Rutledge, John C

2010-01-01

328

Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

Probiotic bacteria can potentially have beneficial effects on the clinical course of several intestinal disorders, but our understanding of probiotic action is limited. We have identified a probiotic bacteria-derived soluble protein, p40, from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), which prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which p40 regulates cellular responses in intestinal epithelial cells and p40's effects on experimental colitis using mouse models. We show that the recombinant p40 protein activated EGFR, leading to Akt activation. Activation of EGFR by p40 was required for inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, we developed a pectin/zein hydrogel bead system to specifically deliver p40 to the mouse colon, which activated EGFR in colon epithelial cells. Administration of p40-containing beads reduced intestinal epithelial apoptosis and disruption of barrier function in the colon epithelium in an EGFR-dependent manner, thereby preventing and treating DSS-induced intestinal injury and acute colitis. Furthermore, p40 activation of EGFR was required for ameliorating colon epithelial cell apoptosis and chronic inflammation in oxazolone-induced colitis. These data define what we believe to be a previously unrecognized mechanism of probiotic-derived soluble proteins in protecting the intestine from injury and inflammation. PMID:21606592

Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Cover, Timothy L; Washington, M Kay; Shi, Yan; Liu, LinShu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Peek, Richard M; Wilson, Keith T; Polk, D Brent

2011-06-01

329

Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Probiotic bacteria can potentially have beneficial effects on the clinical course of several intestinal disorders, but our understanding of probiotic action is limited. We have identified a probiotic bacteria–derived soluble protein, p40, from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), which prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which p40 regulates cellular responses in intestinal epithelial cells and p40’s effects on experimental colitis using mouse models. We show that the recombinant p40 protein activated EGFR, leading to Akt activation. Activation of EGFR by p40 was required for inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, we developed a pectin/zein hydrogel bead system to specifically deliver p40 to the mouse colon, which activated EGFR in colon epithelial cells. Administration of p40-containing beads reduced intestinal epithelial apoptosis and disruption of barrier function in the colon epithelium in an EGFR-dependent manner, thereby preventing and treating DSS-induced intestinal injury and acute colitis. Furthermore, p40 activation of EGFR was required for ameliorating colon epithelial cell apoptosis and chronic inflammation in oxazolone-induced colitis. These data define what we believe to be a previously unrecognized mechanism of probiotic-derived soluble proteins in protecting the intestine from injury and inflammation. PMID:21606592

Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Cover, Timothy L.; Washington, M. Kay; Shi, Yan; Liu, LinShu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

2011-01-01

330

Blood and small intestine cell kinetics under radiation exposures: Mathematical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biophysical models, which describe the dynamics of vital body systems (namely, hematopoiesis and small intestinal epithelium) in mammals exposed to acute and chronic radiation, are developed. These models, based on conventional biological theories, are realized as the systems of nonlinear differential equations. Their variables and constant parameters have real biological meaning, that provides successful identification and verification of the models in hand. The explanation of a number of radiobiological effects, including those of the low-level long-term exposures, is proposed proceeding from the modeling results. It is proved that the predictions the models agree with the respective experimental data at both qualitative and quantitative levels. All this testifies to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in investigation and prediction of radiation effects on the hematopoietic and small intestinal epithelium systems, that can be used for the radiation risk assessment in the long-term space missions such as lunar colony and Mars voyage.

Smirnova, Olga

331

[Pleiotropic effects of sevelamer: a model of intestinal tract chelating agent].  

PubMed

The number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with its associated complications has increased dramatically worldwide in recent years. Therefore, many experimental and clinical studies have examined over the last decade the mechanisms involved, in order to explain the sharp increase in cardiovascular mortality. Hyperphosphatemia is a major problem in these patients especially at advanced stages of CKD, and it is associated with cardiovascular and mineral complications in these patients. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder that allows a better control of hyperphosphatemia, like other phosphate binder agents, but it has additional pleiotropic effects such as correcting certain abnormalities of lipid metabolism and clearance of several uremic toxins. These effects of sevelamer, restricted to the intestinal lumen, underline the importance of intestinal pathway in CKD and open the way to new therapeutic strategies for the management of the CKD and its complications. PMID:25070605

Massy, Ziad A; Maizel, Julien

2014-11-01

332

Probiotic bacteria reduce salmonella typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for iron.  

PubMed

Host inflammation alters the availability of nutrients such as iron to limit microbial growth. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed gut by scavenging for iron with siderophores. By administering Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, which assimilates iron by similar mechanisms, we show that this nonpathogenic bacterium can outcompete and reduce S. Typhimurium colonization in mouse models of acute colitis and chronic persistent infection. This probiotic activity depends on E. coli Nissle iron acquisition, given that mutants deficient in iron uptake colonize the intestine but do not reduce S. Typhimurium colonization. Additionally, the ability of E. coli Nissle to overcome iron restriction by the host protein lipocalin 2, which counteracts some siderophores, is essential, given that S. Typhimurium is unaffected by E. coli Nissle in lipocalin 2-deficient mice. Thus, iron availability impacts S. Typhimurium growth, and E. coli Nissle reduces S. Typhimurium intestinal colonization by competing for this limiting nutrient. PMID:23870311

Deriu, Elisa; Liu, Janet Z; Pezeshki, Milad; Edwards, Robert A; Ochoa, Roxanna J; Contreras, Heidi; Libby, Stephen J; Fang, Ferric C; Raffatellu, Manuela

2013-07-17

333

Radiation persistently promoted oxidative stress, activated mTOR via PI3K/Akt, and downregulated autophagy pathway in mouse intestine.  

PubMed

While acute effects of toxic radiation doses on intestine are well established, we are yet to acquire a complete spectrum of sub-lethal radiation-induced chronic intestinal perturbations at the molecular level. We investigated persistent effects of a radiation dose (2Gy) commonly used as a daily fraction in radiotherapy on oxidants and anti-oxidants, and autophagy pathways, which are interlinked processes affecting intestinal homeostasis. Six to eight weeks old C57BL/6J mice (n=10) were exposed to 2Gy ?-ray. Mice were euthanized two or twelve months after radiation, intestine surgically removed, and flushed using sterile PBS. Parts of the intestine from jejunal-ilial region were fixed, frozen, or used for intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) isolation. While oxidant levels and mitochondrial status were assessed in isolated IEC, autophagy and oxidative stress related signaling pathways were probed in frozen and fixed samples using PCR-based expression arrays and immunoprobing. Radiation exposure caused significant alterations in the expression level of 26 autophagy and 17 oxidative stress related genes. Immunoblot results showed decreased Beclin1 and LC3-II and increased p62, PI3K/Akt, and mTOR. Flow cytometry data showed increased oxidant production and compromised mitochondrial integrity in irradiated samples. Immunoprobing of intestinal sections showed increased 8-oxo-dG and nuclear PCNA, and decreased autophagosome marker LC3-II in IEC after irradiation. We show that sub-lethal radiation could persistently downregulate anti-oxidants and autophagy signaling, and upregulate oxidant production and proliferative signaling. Radiation-induced promotion of oxidative stress and downregulation of autophagy could work in tandem to alter intestinal functions and have implications for post-radiation chronic gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25449263

Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Fornace, Albert J

2014-12-01

334

Expression and activity of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway in mouse intestine following administration of a short-term high-fat diet  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance in obesity is associated with chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Although it has been shown that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue plays an important role in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, the effect of TLR4 activation in the intestine has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the activation of the mouse intestinal TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway following the administration of a short-term high-fat diet, as well as the function of the signaling pathway in the local enteric inflammatory response. The effect of the high-fat diet on TLR4 activation, NF-?B and phosphorylated I?B (PI?B) activity, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-6 expression in the intestinal tissues of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice was investigated. The results demonstrated that the high-fat diet induced TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in intestinal tissues. TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway activation gradually increased as the number of days of high-fat diet administration increased, and peaked on day 7. Additionally, activation of the signaling pathway reduced PI?B expression levels and increased TNF-? and IL-6 expression levels in intestinal tissues. Our results demonstrated that a short-term high-fat diet induces activation of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway in intestinal tissues, which causes local intestinal low-grade inflammation. These data improve our understanding of the molecular events involved in intestinal low-grade inflammation, which may be the triggering factor for chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24137239

WANG, NING; WANG, HUGUO; YAO, HUA; WEI, QIN; MAO, XIN-MIN; JIANG, TAO; XIANG, JING; DILA, NA

2013-01-01

335

Pathological mimics of chronic inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed Central

When all of the macroscopic and microscopic features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are present, the correct diagnosis is usually made without difficulty. When some of the changes are absent, the accuracy of diagnosis is reduced. This review has outlined those diseases which feature some of these pathological changes and may masquerade as idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Some of the pathological mimics are iatrogenic while other common diseases, such as bacterial infection, ischaemia, and diverticulosis may produce confusing histological appearances. The picture is complicated by the fact that many of these pathological imitators may themselves cause or predispose to chronic inflammatory bowel disease, or may complicate chronic inflammatory bowel disease. For example, drugs and infectious agents are recognisable causes of relapse in ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease may cause diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis; and lymphoma may complicate ulcerative colitis. It behooves all practising histopathologists to recognise these mimics of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease to ensure appropriate management for patients with inflammatory pathology of the intestines. Images PMID:1918397

Shepherd, N A

1991-01-01

336

Quality of life in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and intestinal Behçet's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome factor in chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease\\u000a (IBD). This study used the Korean translation of the disease-specific, self-administered Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire\\u000a (IBDQ) to compare HRQOL in ulcerative colitis (UC; n=98), Crohn's disease (CD; n = 49), and intestinal Behçet's disease (BD; n = 34). In addition to the

W. H. Kim; Y. S. Cho; H. M. Yoo; I. S. Park; E. C. Park; J. G. Lim

1999-01-01

337

The intestinal microbiome of fish under starvation  

PubMed Central

Background Starvation not only affects the nutritional and health status of the animals, but also the microbial composition in the host’s intestine. Next-generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interactions with hosts. However, studies on gut microbiomes have been conducted predominantly in humans and land animals. Not much is known on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes under changing environmental conditions. To address this shortcoming, we determined the microbial gene catalogue, and investigated changes in the microbial composition and host-microbe interactions in the intestine of Asian seabass in response to starvation. Results We found 33 phyla, 66 classes, 130 orders and 278 families in the intestinal microbiome. Proteobacteria (48.8%), Firmicutes (15.3%) and Bacteroidetes (8.2%) were the three most abundant bacteria taxa. Comparative analyses of the microbiome revealed shifts in bacteria communities, with dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes, but significant depletion of Betaproteobacteria in starved intestines. In addition, significant differences in clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories and orthologous groups were observed. Genes related to antibiotic activity in the microbiome were significantly enriched in response to starvation, and host genes related to the immune response were generally up-regulated. Conclusions This study provides the first insights into the fish intestinal microbiome and its changes under starvation. Further detailed study on interactions between intestinal microbiomes and hosts under dynamic conditions will shed new light on how the hosts and microbes respond to the changing environment. PMID:24708260

2014-01-01

338

Exercise, intestinal barrier dysfunction and probiotic supplementation.  

PubMed

Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The integrity of tight junctions depends on sophisticated interactions between the gut residents and their expressed substances, the intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and the activities of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Probiotic supplements are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals that could offer positive effects on athlete's gut and entire health. Some results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use on the athlete's immune system. There is also evidence that probiotic supplementation can beneficially influence intestinal barrier integrity in acute diseases. With regard to exercise-induced GI permeability problems, there is still a lack of studies with appropriate data and a gap to understand the underlying mechanisms to support such health beneficial statements implicitly. This article refers (i) to exercise-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, (ii) provides suggestions to estimate increased gut barrier permeability in athletes, and (iii) discusses the potential of probiotic supplementation to counteract an exercise-induced leaky gut. PMID:23075554

Lamprecht, Manfred; Frauwallner, Anita

2012-01-01

339

Regulating intestinal function to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins  

PubMed Central

Significant knowledge regarding different molecules involved in the transport of dietary fat into the circulation has been garnered. Studies point to the possibility that accumulation of intestine-derived lipoproteins in the plasma could contribute to atherosclerosis. This article provides a brief overview of dietary lipid metabolism and studies in mice supporting the hypothesis that intestinal lipoproteins contribute to atherosclerosis. Deficiencies in lipoprotein lipase and Gpihbp1, and overexpression of heparanse in mice, are associated with increases in atherosclerosis, suggesting that defects in catabolism of larger lipoproteins in the plasma contribute to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, inositol-requiring enzyme 1?-deficient mice that produce more intestinal lipoproteins also develop more atherosclerosis. Thus, increases in plasma intestinal lipoproteins due to either overproduction or reduced catabolism result in augmented atherosclerosis. Intestinal lipoproteins tend to adhere strongly to subendothelial proteoglycans, elicit an inflammatory response by endothelial cells and activate macrophages, contributing to the initiation and progression of the disease. Thus, molecules that reduce intestinal lipid absorption can be useful in lowering atherosclerosis. PMID:24409204

Hussain, M Mahmood; Leung, Tung Ming; Zhou, Liye; Abu-Merhi, Sarah

2013-01-01

340

Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID).  

PubMed

This study describes the frequency, demographics, clinical presentation, endoscopic findings, histopathological features, treatment and outcome of 'Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease' (IPSID). Archives contained a total of 27 cases of IPSID diagnosed and treated over an 18-year period. A M: F ratio of 2.4:1 was seen with a mean and median ages of 28.7 and 25 years. Most patients (68.8%) presented with abdominal pain and diarrhoea. In the majority (62.5%), duodenum was the primary site of involvement. Endoscopy showed polypoidal, raised or flat lesions. Biopsy findings included blunting or flattening of villi with dense plasma cell infiltrate and lymphoepithelial lesions. Twenty-four cases were categorized as stage A and B (benign and intermediate) and three were categorized as stage C (malignant, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytoid features). Stage A and B patients responded well to antibiotic treatment (tetracycline) with regression of the lesions while for stage C patients standard CHOP chemotherapy was administered. PMID:21276391

Pervez, Shahid; Mumtaz, Khalid; Ullah, Syed Siddiq; Akhtar, Nake; Ali, Naureen; Aaqil, Hina

2011-01-01

341

Vectorial secretion of interleukin-8 mediates autocrine signalling in intestinal epithelial cells via apically located CXCR1  

PubMed Central

Background In the intestinal mucosa, several adaptations of TLR signalling have evolved to avoid chronic inflammatory responses to the presence of commensal microbes. Here we investigated whether polarized monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells might regulate inflammatory responses by secreting IL-8 in a vectorial fashion (i.e. apical versus basolateral) depending on the location of the TLR stimulus. Results In the Caco-2 BBE model of polarized villus-like epithelium, apical stimulation with TLR2 and TLR5 ligands resulted in the apical secretion of IL-8. The CXCR1 receptor for IL-8 was expressed only on the apical membrane of Caco-2 BBE cells and differentiated epithelial cells in the human small intestine and colon. Transcriptome analyses revealed that Caco-2 BBE cells respond to stimulation with IL-8 supporting the hypothesis that IL-8 induces G protein-coupled receptor signalling. Conclusions These results show that IL-8 induces autocrine signalling via an apical CXCR1 in Caco-2 BBE intestinal epithelial cells and that this receptor is also expressed on the apical surface of differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, suggesting an autocrine function for IL-8 secreted in the lumen. PMID:24164922

2013-01-01

342

Spontaneous abdominal esophageal perforation in a patient with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder caused by thymidine phosphorylase deficiency. Severe denutrition is almost constant during the course of the disease which leads to severe malnutrition and requires long-term parenteral nutrition in most cases. Patients with MNGIE syndrome and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction have a particularly poor prognosis and they usually die around 40 years of age. Gastrointestinal perforation associated with MNGIE is extremely rare. Herein we present our unique case with MNGIE associated abdominal esophageal perforation. PMID:25649531

Kalkan, I H; Köksal, A ?; Evcimen, S; Sapmaz, F; Özta?, E; Önder, F O; Güliter, S

2015-02-01

343

Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the  

E-print Network

Intestinal metabolism of lineoleic acid during its intestinal absorption in the rat. A Bernard 1, C Dijon, France) A desaturafion and elongation process of !4C linoleic acid into !4C arachidonic acid was de- tected at the peak of absorption of !4C linoleic acid infused intraduodenally in the rat (Bernard

Boyer, Edmond

344

Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells: impact on intestinal epithelial barrier functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently

Laurianne Van Landeghem; Maxime M Mahé; Raluca Teusan; Jean Léger; Isabelle Guisle; Rémi Houlgatte; Michel Neunlist

2009-01-01

345

Environmental Particulate Matter Induces Murine Intestinal Inflammatory Responses and Alters the Gut Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter (PM) is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. Methods Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93) for 7–14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days) on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10?/?) mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum. Results Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10?/? mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10?/? mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage. Conclusions Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine. PMID:23638009

Kish, Lisa; Hotte, Naomi; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Vincent, Renaud; Tso, Robert; Gänzle, Michael; Rioux, Kevin P.; Thiesen, Aducio; Barkema, Herman W.; Wine, Eytan; Madsen, Karen L.

2013-01-01

346

Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)] [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States)] [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)] [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States) [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

2013-01-01

347

A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices.  

PubMed

A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption, however, is often insufficient, especially when food-drug interactions are evaluated. Ideally, for this purpose healthy human intestinal tissue is used, but due to its limited availability there is a need for alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of healthy porcine intestinal tissue mounted in a newly developed InTESTine™ system to predict human intestinal absorption of compounds with different chemical characteristics, and within biorelevant matrices. To that end, first, a representative set of compounds was chosen of which the apparent permeability (Papp) data in both Caco-2 cells and human intestinal tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber system, and absolute human oral bioavailability were reported. Thereafter, Papp values of the subset were determined in both porcine jejunal tissue and our own Caco-2 cells. In addition, the feasibility of this new approach to study regional differences (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) in permeability of compounds and to study the effects of luminal factors on permeability was also investigated. For the latter, a comparison was made between the compatibility of porcine intestinal tissue, Caco-2 cells, and Caco-2 cells co-cultured with the mucin producing HT29-MTX cells with biorelevant samples as collected from an in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM). The results demonstrated that for the paracellularly transported compounds atenolol, cimetidine, mannitol and ranitidine porcine Papp values are within 3-fold difference of human Papp values, whereas the Caco-2 Papp values are beyond 3-fold difference. Overall, the porcine intestinal tissue Papp values are more comparable to human Papp values (9 out of 12 are within 3-fold difference), compared to Caco-2 Papp values (4 out of 12 are within 3-fold difference). In addition, for the selected hydrophilic compounds a significant increase in the permeability was observed from duodenum to ileum. Finally, this study indicated that porcine jejunal tissue segments can be used with undiluted luminal samples to predict human intestinal permeability and the effect of biorelevant matrices on this. In conclusion, viable porcine intestinal tissue mounted in the InTESTine™ system can be applied as a reliable tool for the assessment of intestinal permeability in the absence and presence of biorelevant samples. This would enable an accessible opportunity for a reliable prediction of human intestinal absorption, and the effect of luminal compounds such as digested foods, early in drug development. PMID:25046168

Westerhout, Joost; van de Steeg, Evita; Grossouw, Dimitri; Zeijdner, Evelijn E; Krul, Cyrille A M; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M

2014-10-15

348

Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.  

PubMed

We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant. PMID:3221717

Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

1988-06-01

349

Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: Absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.  

PubMed

The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption. PMID:25442537

Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

2015-04-01

350

Recycling Metchnikoff: Probiotics, the Intestinal Microbiome and the Quest for Long Life  

PubMed Central

Over a century ago, Elie Metchnikoff theorized that health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with host-friendly bacteria found in yogurt. His theory flourished for a time, then drifted to the fringe of medical practice before re-emerging in the mid-1990s as a concept worthy of mainstream medical attention. Metchnikoff also predicted the existence of bacterial translocation and anticipated theories linking chronic inflammation with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other disorders of the aged. PMID:24350221

Mackowiak, Philip A.

2013-01-01

351

Probiotics-induced increase of large intestinal luminal polyamine concentration may promote longevity.  

PubMed

Many mechanisms contribute to senescence, such as telomere shortening in replicative cells, cumulative damage to DNA leading to genomic instability, and oxidative damage to molecules by reactive oxygen species (ROS). These include chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammageing), a major risk factor for ageing and age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Furthermore, the prevention of inflammageing seems to be one of the most effective approaches to increase longevity. Here, I discuss the rationale and recent evidence for probiotic-induced upregulation of intestinal luminal polyamine (PA) production in the extension of lifespan by preventing inflammageing. PMID:21745717

Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kurihara, Shin

2011-10-01

352

Health-related quality of life in pediatric intestinal transplantation.  

PubMed

To determine HRQOL after pediatric intestinal transplantation. Thirty-four IT survivors from 1999 to 2012 were asked to complete age-specific HRQOL non-disease-specific questionnaires: TAPQOL (0-4 yr), KINDL-R (5-7 yr; 8-12 yr; 13-17 yr), and SF-36v2 (>18 yr), all validated with Spanish population. Primary caregiver completed a SF-36 questionnaire and CBI. Thirty-one participants were included. Median age was 10.2 yr (1-29) and time after transplant 4.4 yr (0-13). Overall patient scores were 78.2 ± 10.6 (n = 8), 83.3 ± 9.7 (n = 6), 72.2 ± 9.21 (n = 6), 80.5 ± 12.4 (n = 7), and 82.2 ± 12.4 (n = 4) for each age group. Highest scores were obtained for vitality (group I), self-esteem (group IV), and physical and social functioning and emotions (group V). Lowest scores were obtained in appetite and behavior (I), family and school (III), and chronic disease perception (III, IV). No significant differences were found between caregivers and their children. CBI showed stress in 52%. SF-36 for caregivers was lower than general population. No significant differences were found depending on relevant clinical and sociodemographic data. HRQOL was acceptable and improved with age and time since transplantation. Parents had a slighter own QOL and worse perception of health than their children. When successful, intestinal transplantation allows a normal life in most patients and can be offered as an attractive option. PMID:25180826

Andres, A M; Alameda, A; Mayoral, O; Hernandez, F; Dominguez, E; Martinez Ojinaga, E; Ramos, E; Prieto, G; Lopez Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

2014-11-01

353

Characterization of butyrate uptake by nontransformed intestinal epithelial cell lines.  

PubMed

Butyrate (BT) is one of the main end products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon. Among its recognized effects, BT inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize uptake of BT by two nontransformed intestinal epithelial cell lines: rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and fetal human colonic epithelial (FHC) cells. Uptake of ¹?C-BT by IEC-6 cells was (1) time- and concentration-dependent; (2) pH-dependent; (3) Na+-, Cl?- and energy-dependent; (4) inhibited by BT structural analogues; (5) sensitive to monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitors; and (6) insensitive to DIDS and amiloride. IEC-6 cells express both MCT1 and Na+-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1) mRNA. We conclude that ¹?C-BT uptake by IEC-6 cells mainly involves MCT1, with a small contribution of SMCT1. Acute exposure to ethanol, acetaldehyde, indomethacin, resveratrol and quercetin reduced ¹?C-BT uptake. Chronic exposure to resveratrol and quercetin reduced ¹?C-BT uptake but had no effect on either MCT1 or SMCT1 mRNA levels. Uptake of ¹?C-BT by FHC cells was time- and concentration-dependent but pH-, Na+-, Cl?- and energy-independent and insensitive to BT structural analogues and MCT1 inhibitors. Although MCT1 (but not SMCT1) mRNA expression was found in FHC cells, the characteristics of ¹?C-BT uptake by FHC cells did not support either MCT1 or SMCT1 involvement. In conclusion, uptake characteristics of ¹?C-BT differ between IEC-6 and FHC cells. IEC-6 cells demonstrate MCT1- and SMCT1-mediated transport, while FHC cells do not. PMID:21286694

Gonçalves, Pedro; Araújo, João R; Martel, Fátima

2011-03-01

354

Immune response is required for the control of in vivo translocation and chronic toxicity of graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) shows great promise as a nanomaterial for medical applications; however, the mechanism for its long-term adverse effects is still largely unclear. Here, we show that chronic GO exposure not only caused damage on the function of both primary and secondary targeted organs but also induced severe accumulation of pathogenic microbial food (OP50) in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-mammalian alternative toxicity assay system. GO accumulated in the intestine could be largely co-localized with OP50 and induced decreased immune response of animals. In contrast, feeding with UV-treated OP50 suppressed GO toxicity and accumulation in the intestine and maintained the relatively normal immune response of animals. The severe accumulation of OP50 in the intestine might be partially due to the damage by GO on the development and function of AVL and DVB neurons controlling defecation behavior. Reduction of chronic GO toxicity by PEG surface modification largely resulted from the inhibition of OP50 accumulation in the intestine and the maintenance of normal immune response. Our results highlight the key role of innate immunity in regulating in vivo chronic GO toxicity, which will be helpful for our understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems during the long-term development of animals. PMID:24756229

Wu, Qiuli; Zhao, Yunli; Fang, Jianpeng; Wang, Dayong

2014-06-01

355

Intestinal infarction: report of 98 cases.  

PubMed

The Authors conducted a retrospective study on 98 patients with intestinal infarction observed from 1987 to 1999 in the Emergency Care Unit of the Loreto Hospital, Naples. In our hospital there are over 20,000 admissions, 3,900 of whom in the Emergency Care Unit. Intestinal infarction accounts for 0.049% of all admissions and 0.45% of emergency surgery admissions. About 500 laparotomies are performed annually, 1% of which for intestinal infarction. All patients in this series were operated on within 10 hours of admission. The following procedures were performed: 31 jejuno-ileal resections; 26 right hemicolectomies associated with small intestine resection; 5 upper mesenteric artery embolectomies plus wide gut resections (3 also underwent second-look operations within 36 hours of the initial surgery with further gut resection); 1 Hartmann's and 5 Volkmann's operations (all of these patients had colonic gangrene); 30 (30.5%) underwent exploratory laparotomy due to massive infarction. The prognosis of intestinal infarction is still ominous. Our mortality rate is 68%. Both clinical and laboratory data are non-specific and delayed diagnosis is the main cause of this mortality rate. Abdominal CT is an accurate and sensitive diagnostic tool. TPN enables us to achieve good nutritional support even for wider resections. PMID:11280829

Ammaturo, C; De Rosa, A; Salzano, A; Morra, C; Bassi, U; Cerrato, C; D'Eliso, E; Cacace, A

2001-01-01

356

Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation  

PubMed Central

The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

2014-01-01

357

Glycosphingolipids Are Essential for Intestinal Endocytic Function*  

PubMed Central

Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) constitute major components of enterocytes and were hypothesized to be potentially important for intestinal epithelial polarization. The enzyme UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (Ugcg) catalyzes the initial step of GSL biosynthesis. Newborn and adult mice with enterocyte-specific genetic deletion of the gene Ugcg were generated. In newborn mutants lacking GSLs at day P0, intestinal epithelia were indistinguishable from those in control littermates displaying an intact polarization with regular brush border. However, those mice were not consistently able to absorb nutritional lipids from milk. Between postnatal days 5 and 7, severe defects in intestinal epithelial differentiation occurred accompanied by impaired intestinal uptake of nutrients. Villi of mutant mice became stunted, and enterocytes lacked brush border. The defects observed in mutant mice caused diarrhea, malabsorption, and early death. In this study, we show that GSLs are essential for enterocyte resorptive function but are primarily not for polarization; GSLs are required for intracellular vesicular transport in resorption-active intestine. PMID:22851168

Jennemann, Richard; Kaden, Sylvia; Sandhoff, Roger; Nordström, Viola; Wang, Shijun; Volz, Martina; Robine, Sylvie; Amen, Nicole; Rothermel, Ulrike; Wiegandt, Herbert; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

2012-01-01

358

Visceral myopathy presenting as acute appendicitis and ogilvie syndrome.  

PubMed

Background. Visceral myopathy is rare pathological condition of gastrointestinal tract with uncertain clinical presentation and unknown etiology. It often presents with symptoms of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction of colon. We report a case of visceral myopathy which presented to us as acute appendicitis and Ogilvie syndrome, and we managed it surgically. Method and Result. A case report of 20-year female clinically presented as acute appendicitis and we performed laparoscopic exploration which revealed inflamed appendix with grossly dilated ascending colon. We performed laparoscopic appendectomy and postoperatively managed the patients with IV fluids, antibiotics, neostigmine, and extended length rectal tube for enema and decompression. During postoperative period, she developed abdomen distension and peritonitis, and we ordered abdomen CT which revealed colon pseudo- obstruction. We performed right hemicolectomy with permanent ileostomy, and the histopathology reports of resected colon were visceral myopathy. Conclusion. Visceral myopathy is very rare group of disease and poorly understood condition that may present with chronic or acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction and often mimic other more common gastrointestinal disease. VM should be considered as differential diagnosis whenever the patient presents with acute appendicitis, uncharacteristic abdominal symptoms, recurrent attacks of abdominal distention, and pain with no radiological evidence of intestinal obstruction. PMID:23738185

Kharbuja, Punyaram; Thakur, Raghvendra; Suo, Jian

2013-01-01

359

Visceral Myopathy Presenting as Acute Appendicitis and Ogilvie Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background. Visceral myopathy is rare pathological condition of gastrointestinal tract with uncertain clinical presentation and unknown etiology. It often presents with symptoms of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction of colon. We report a case of visceral myopathy which presented to us as acute appendicitis and Ogilvie syndrome, and we managed it surgically. Method and Result. A case report of 20-year female clinically presented as acute appendicitis and we performed laparoscopic exploration which revealed inflamed appendix with grossly dilated ascending colon. We performed laparoscopic appendectomy and postoperatively managed the patients with IV fluids, antibiotics, neostigmine, and extended length rectal tube for enema and decompression. During postoperative period, she developed abdomen distension and peritonitis, and we ordered abdomen CT which revealed colon pseudo- obstruction. We performed right hemicolectomy with permanent ileostomy, and the histopathology reports of resected colon were visceral myopathy. Conclusion. Visceral myopathy is very rare group of disease and poorly understood condition that may present with chronic or acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction and often mimic other more common gastrointestinal disease. VM should be considered as differential diagnosis whenever the patient presents with acute appendicitis, uncharacteristic abdominal symptoms, recurrent attacks of abdominal distention, and pain with no radiological evidence of intestinal obstruction. PMID:23738185

Kharbuja, Punyaram; Thakur, Raghvendra; Suo, Jian

2013-01-01

360

Chronic Pain and Fatigue  

E-print Network

Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center Department of Anesthesiology 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Dr, information regarding this condition The UMHS Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center (CPFRC) offers of other pain syndromes such as irritable bowel, pelvic pain, and headaches. The FM Workshop is conducted

Shyy, Wei

361

Chronic pelvic pain.  

PubMed

Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. PMID:24280400

Stein, Sharon L

2013-12-01

362

Intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

A complex mucosal barrier protects as the first line of defense the surface of the healthy intestinal tract from adhesion and invasion by luminal microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview about the major components of this protective system as for example an intact epithelium, the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and the formation of the mucus layer. We highlight the crucial importance of their correct functioning for the maintenance of a proper intestinal function and the prevention of dysbiosis and disease. Barrier disturbances including a defective production of AMPs, alterations in thickness or composition of the intestinal mucus layer, alterations of pattern-recognition receptors, defects in the process of autophagy as well as unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress result in an inadequate host protection and are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:24574793

Antoni, Lena; Nuding, Sabine; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F

2014-01-01

363

Life in the inflamed intestine, Salmonella style.  

PubMed

The lower gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with resident microbial communities (microbiota), which do not elicit overt host responses but rather provide benefit to the host, including niche protection from pathogens. However, introduction of bacteria into the underlying tissue evokes acute inflammation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) elicit this stereotypic host response by actively penetrating the intestinal epithelium and surviving in tissue macrophages. Initial responses generated by bacterial host cell interaction are amplified in tissue through the interleukin (IL)-18/interferon-gamma and IL-23/IL-17 axes, resulting in the activation of mucosal barrier functions against NTS dissemination. However, the pathogen is adapted to survive antimicrobial defenses encountered in the lumen of the inflamed intestine. This strategy enables NTS to exploit inflammation to outcompete the intestinal microbiota, and promotes the Salmonella transmission by the fecal/oral route. PMID:19819699

Santos, Renato L; Raffatellu, Manuela; Bevins, Charles L; Adams, L Garry; Tükel, Cagla; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J

2009-11-01

364

Sensing via Intestinal Sweet Taste Pathways  

PubMed Central

The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterized in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterizing nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of GI motility. PMID:21519398

Young, Richard L.

2010-01-01

365

In remembrance of commensal intestinal microbes  

PubMed Central

Mammals contain an enormous load of commensal microbes in the lower intestine, which induce adaptive responses in the host immune system that ensure mutual coexistence of the host and its microbial passengers. The main way of studying how the host responds to commensal colonization has been to compare animals kept in entirely germ-free conditions and their colonized counterparts. We present an overview of our development of a reversible colonization system, whereby germ free animals can be treated with live commensal bacteria that do not persist in the host, so it becomes germ free again. We describe how this system has been used to demonstrate that there is little or no immune memory for specific IgA induction in the intestinal mucosal immune system by commensal intestinal bacteria. PMID:21331242

Hapfelmeier, Siegfried

2010-01-01

366

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is complex illness of unknown etiology. Among the broad range of symptoms, many patients report disturbances in the emotional realm, the most frequent of which is anxiety. Research shows that patients with CFS and other so-called functional somatic disorders have alterations in the intestinal microbial flora. Emerging studies have suggested that pathogenic and non-pathogenic gut bacteria

A Venket Rao; Alison C Bested; Tracey M Beaulne; Martin A Katzman; Christina Iorio; John M Berardi; Alan C Logan

2009-01-01

367

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

368

Isolation and Characterization of Quiescent Intestinal Stem Cells  

E-print Network

from isolated crypts and single intestinal stem cells. To discriminate putative quiescent intestinal stem cells (ISCs) from rapidly cycling Lgr5+ ISCs a tetracycline inducible H2BGFP labeling strategy was employed. Distinct populations of label and non...

Scoville, David

2010-06-10

369

Mechanisms of lead transport in two intestinal epithelial cell lines  

E-print Network

through the intestinal epithelium. Using two established intestinal epithelial cell lines, IEC-6 and Caco-2, we studied the effects of temperature, metabolic inhibitors, sulfhydryl group modifiers, blocking of integrins with the tripeptide Arginine...

Dekaney, Christopher Matthew

1996-01-01

370

Infections in intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation has become an effective treatment option for patients with intestinal failure. More potent immunosuppressive therapy has resulted in a decreased incidence of acute rejection and has improved patient survival. However, infectious complications can cause significant morbidity both before and after transplantation. In comparison with other solid organ transplant recipients, these patients experience higher rates of acute allograft rejection, thus requiring higher levels of immunosuppression and escalating the risk of infection. This article reviews the most common infectious disease complications encountered, and proposes a potential temporal association for types of infections in this patient population. PMID:23714345

Timpone, Joseph G; Girlanda, Raffaele; Rudolph, Lauren; Fishbein, Thomas M

2013-06-01

371

Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility.

Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.

1987-08-01

372

Public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections*  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasitic infections are distributed virtually throughout the world, with high prevalence rates in many regions. Amoebiasis, ascariasis, hookworm infection and trichuriasis are among the ten most common infections in the world. Other parasitic infections such as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, intestinal capillariasis, and strongyloidiasis are of local or regional public health concern. The prevention and control of these infections are now more feasible than ever before owing to the discovery of safe and efficacious drugs, the improvement and simplification of some diagnostic procedures, and advances in parasite population biology. PMID:3501340

1987-01-01

373

Rat intestinal ceramidase: purification, properties and physiological relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A neutral ceramidase activity has earlier been identified in the intestinal mucosa,and gut lumen and postulated to be important in the digestion of sphingolipids.It is found throughout the intestine, but has never been fully characterized. We now purified rat intestinal neutral ceramidase from an eluate obtained by perfusing the intestinal lumen with 0.9 % NaCl and 3mM sodium taurodeoxycholate.

Maria Olsson; Rui-Dong Duan; Lena Ohlsson; Åke Nilsson

2004-01-01

374

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)? Is there any treatment? ...

375

Current management strategies and therapeutic targets in chronic constipation  

PubMed Central

Constipated patients who are refractory to simple lifestyle interventions will usually resort to laxatives, whether prescribed or over the counter. Clinical trial evidence is scarce for older medications such as laxatives, especially with a condition as chronic and subjective as constipation. Newer polyethylene glycol-based laxatives have been investigated under rigorous clinical trial settings, but comparisons between different laxatives are not available. Newer prokinetic agents, targeting peristalsis, intestinal secretion and the colonic flora, have been developed for laxative refractory constipation. This review focuses on the evidence for each of these agents, and the relative indications for each of them. PMID:21317993

Emmanuel, Anton

2011-01-01

376

Immunomodulatory effect of a wild blueberry anthocyanin-rich extract in human Caco-2 intestinal cells.  

PubMed

Intestinal inflammation is a natural process crucial for the maintenance of gut functioning. However, abnormal or prolonged inflammatory responses may lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases, typically treated by means of pharmacological interventions. Dietary strategies for the prevention of inflammation are a safer alternative to pharmacotherapy. Anthocyanins and other polyphenols have been documented to display anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, three bioactive fractions (anthocyanin, phenolic, and water-soluble fractions) were extracted from a wild blueberry powder. The Caco-2 intestinal model was used to test the immunomodulatory effect of the above fractions. Only the anthocyanin-rich fraction reduced the activation of NF-?B, induced by IL-1? in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Specifically, concentrations of 50 and 100 ?g mL(-1) decreased NF-?B activation by 68.9 and 85.2%, respectively (p ? 0.05). These preliminary results provide further support for the role of food bioactives as potential dietary anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25075866

Taverniti, Valentina; Fracassetti, Daniela; Del Bo', Cristian; Lanti, Claudia; Minuzzo, Mario; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia; Guglielmetti, Simone

2014-08-20

377

p40phox Expression Regulates Neutrophil Recruitment and Function During the Resolution Phase of Intestinal Inflammation  

PubMed Central

NADPH oxidase is a multi-subunit complex that assembles during phagocytosis to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several components of this complex have been implicated in chronic granulomatous disease and Crohn’s disease, highlighting the importance of ROS in regulating host immune response. In this study, we use genetically deficient mice to elucidate how p40phox, one subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, functions during intestinal inflammation. We show that p40phox deficiency enhances inflammation in both dextran sulfate sodium-induced and innate immune-mediated murine colitis models. This inflammation is characterized by severe colonic tissue injury, increased proinflammatory cytokines, and increased neutrophil recruitment. We demonstrate that neutrophils are essential during the recovery phase of intestinal inflammation and that p40phox expression is necessary for this restitution. Lastly, using an integrative bioinformatic approach, we show that p40phox deficiency leads to upregulation of chemokine receptor 1 and downregulation of enzymes involved in glycan modifications, including fucosyltransferases and sialyltransferases, during inflammation. We propose that p40phox deficiency enhances intestinal inflammation through the dysregulation of these two pathways in neutrophils. PMID:22914050

Conway, Kara L.; Goel, Gautam; Sokol, Harry; Manocha, Monika; Mizoguchi, Emiko; Terhorst, Cox; Bhan, Atul K.; Gardet, Agnès; Xavier, Ramnik J.

2013-01-01

378

Routine Habitat Change: A Source of Unrecognized Transient Alteration of Intestinal Microbiota in Laboratory Mice  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestine harbors a vast, complex and dynamic microbial population, which has profound effects on host nutrition, intestinal function and immune response, as well as influence on physiology outside of the alimentary tract. Imbalance in the composition of the dense colonizing bacterial population can increase susceptibility to various acute and chronic diseases. Valuable insights on the association of the microbiota with disease critically depend on investigation of mouse models. Like in humans, the microbial community in the mouse intestine is relatively stable and resilient, yet can be influenced by environmental factors. An often-overlooked variable in research is basic animal husbandry, which can potentially alter mouse physiology and experimental outcomes. This study examined the effects of common husbandry practices, including food and bedding alterations, as well as facility and cage changes, on the gut microbiota over a short time course of five days using three culture-independent techniques, quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and next generation sequencing (NGS). This study detected a substantial transient alteration in microbiota after the common practice of a short cross-campus facility transfer, but found no comparable alterations in microbiota within 5 days of switches in common laboratory food or bedding, or following an isolated cage change in mice acclimated to their housing facility. Our results highlight the importance of an acclimation period following even simple transfer of mice between campus facilities, and highlights that occult changes in microbiota should be considered when imposing husbandry variables on laboratory animals. PMID:23082164

Ma, Betty W.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Castillo, Patricia A.; Kananurak, Anchasa; Underwood, Mark A.; Mills, David A.; Bevins, Charles L.

2012-01-01

379

A functional role for Nlrp6 in intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family member, Nlrp6, has been implicated in inflammasome signaling to activate caspase-1, which is essential for the production of mature IL-1? and IL-18. However, a function for Nlrp6 in vivo has never been demonstrated. Due to the relative high expression of Nlrp6 in intestinal tissue, we hypothesized that Nlrp6 has a role in intestinal homeostasis. Indeed, Nlrp6-deficient mice are more susceptible to chemically induced colitis as well as colitis-induced tumorigenesis than wild-type (WT) mice. Nlrp6-deficient mice exhibited significantly more inflammation within the colon than WT mice after dextran sulfate sodium treatment. Their inability to resolve inflammation and repair damaged epithelium as efficiently as WT mice resulted in prolonged increases in epithelial proliferative activity that likely underlie the increased propensity for tumors in these mice during chronic inflammation. We further show that the activity of Nlrp6 in hematopoietic cells is critical for protection against inflammation-related colon tumorigenesis. This study highlights the importance of NLR function in maintaining intestinal homeostasis to prevent the development of aberrant inflammation and tumor development within the colon. PMID:21543645

Chen, Grace Y; Liu, Maochang; Wang, Fuyuan; Bertin, John; Núñez, Gabriel

2011-06-15

380

Constitutive intestinal NF-?B does not trigger destructive inflammation unless accompanied by MAPK activation.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor (NF)-?B, activated by I?B kinase (IKK), is a key regulator of inflammation, innate immunity, and tissue integrity. NF-?B and one of its main activators and transcriptional targets, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are up-regulated in many inflammatory diseases that are accompanied by tissue destruction. The etiology of many inflammatory diseases is poorly understood, but often depends on genetic factors and environmental triggers that affect NF-?B and related pathways. It is unknown, however, whether persistent NF-?B activation is sufficient for driving symptomatic chronic inflammation and tissue damage. To address this question, we generated IKK?(EE)(IEC) mice, which express a constitutively active form of IKK? in intestinal epithelial cell (IECs). IKK?(EE)(IEC) mice exhibit NF-?B activation in IECs and express copious amounts of inflammatory chemokines, but only small amounts of TNF. Although IKK?(EE)(IEC) mice exhibit inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria (LP) of their small intestine, they do not manifest tissue damage. Yet, upon challenge with relatively mild immune and microbial stimuli, IKK?(EE)(IEC) mice succumb to destructive acute inflammation accompanied by enterocyte apoptosis, intestinal barrier disruption, and bacterial translocation. Inflammation is driven by massive TNF production, which requires additional activation of p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). PMID:21825016

Guma, Monica; Stepniak, Dariusz; Shaked, Helena; Spehlmann, Martina E; Shenouda, Steve; Cheroutre, Hilde; Vicente-Suarez, Ildelfonso; Eckmann, Lars; Kagnoff, Martin F; Karin, Michael

2011-08-29

381

Constitutive intestinal NF-?B does not trigger destructive inflammation unless accompanied by MAPK activation  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor (NF)-?B, activated by I?B kinase (IKK), is a key regulator of inflammation, innate immunity, and tissue integrity. NF-?B and one of its main activators and transcriptional targets, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are up-regulated in many inflammatory diseases that are accompanied by tissue destruction. The etiology of many inflammatory diseases is poorly understood, but often depends on genetic factors and environmental triggers that affect NF-?B and related pathways. It is unknown, however, whether persistent NF-?B activation is sufficient for driving symptomatic chronic inflammation and tissue damage. To address this question, we generated IKK?(EE)IEC mice, which express a constitutively active form of IKK? in intestinal epithelial cell (IECs). IKK?(EE)IEC mice exhibit NF-?B activation in IECs and express copious amounts of inflammatory chemokines, but only small amounts of TNF. Although IKK?(EE)IEC mice exhibit inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria (LP) of their small intestine, they do not manifest tissue damage. Yet, upon challenge with relatively mild immune and microbial stimuli, IKK?(EE)IEC mice succumb to destructive acute inflammation accompanied by enterocyte apoptosis, intestinal barrier disruption, and bacterial translocation. Inflammation is driven by massive TNF production, which requires additional activation of p38 and extracellular-signal–regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). PMID:21825016

Guma, Monica; Stepniak, Dariusz; Shaked, Helena; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Shenouda, Steve; Cheroutre, Hilde; Vicente-Suarez, Ildelfonso; Eckmann, Lars; Kagnoff, Martin F.

2011-01-01

382

Nutrient regulation of human intestinal sugar transporter (SGLT1) expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The activity of most intestinal nutrient transporters is adaptively regulated by the type and amounts of nutrients entering the intestinal lumen. The concentration and activity of the intestinal Na+\\/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) are regulated by dietary sugars in most animal species. The activity and abundance of SGLT1 in biopsy specimens removed from human jejunal regions exposed to, and having limited

J Dyer; K B Hosie; S P Shirazi-Beechey

1997-01-01

383

Role of Intestinal Permeability in Monitoring Mucosal Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal barrier function is considered to play an important role in protecting the penetration of luminal antigens, associated with the development of secondary infection and sepsis and the initiation of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The intestinal mucosal barrier against luminal macromolecules and microorganisms consists of both non-immunological and immunological defence mechanisms. The main constituents of the intestinal barrier

Zhengwu Sun; Xiangdong Wang; Roland Andersson

1998-01-01

384

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows  

E-print Network

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows in sheep consuming pea seeds of pea protein were evalu- ated by in situ and in vivo measurements of rumen and intestine digestion the apparent digestion of OM in the rumen but increased it in the small intestine. Total tract OM digestibility

Boyer, Edmond

385

Adhesion of probiotic micro-organisms to intestinal mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many of the proposed health effects of probiotic micro-organisms it is desirable that the organism at least transiently colonises the gastro-intestinal tract. Interaction with the intestinal mucosa may enhance the possibility for colonisation. In this study, we investigated the adhesion to human intestinal mucus of a human faecal isolate, probiotic, dairy and type culture strains. A significant variation in

A. C. Ouwehand; P. V. Kirjavainen; M.-M. Grönlund; E. Isolauri; S. J. Salminen

1999-01-01

386

Entericon, Inc. Suction Endoscope for the Small Intestine  

E-print Network

Entericon, Inc. Suction Endoscope for the Small Intestine Entericon is an early-stage startup, and access to, the small intestine. Technology The endoscope has been providing a look inside the human body, cancer and bleeding. Until recently, the small intestine has been inaccessible to these devices

Jawitz, James W.

387

Article original Localisation immunohistochimique dans l'intestin  

E-print Network

Article original Localisation immunohistochimique dans l'intestin de porc des composantes- rales, ainsi que leurs localisations, ont été effectuées sur coupes d'intestin de porc, en utilisant des la muqueuse intestinale. porc1 lymphocyteI macrophageI intestin 1 immunoglobulines/ entérocytes

Boyer, Edmond

388

Human small intestinal motor activity and postprandial glycemia after dietary  

E-print Network

Human small intestinal motor activity and postprandial glycemia after dietary fiber intake. C, DF may also change motility in the small intestine and im- provement of glucose tolerance may of the small intestine and glycemia after ingestion of 3 different DF. Electromyographic activity in the first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine  

E-print Network

Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine Dong-Eun Chang*, Darren J. Smalley in the mammalian intestine. Most were nutritional genes corresponding to catabolic pathways for nutrients found of the mouse intestine in competition with their wild-type parent. We found that only mutations in sugar

Conway, Tyrrell

390

INTRODUCTION During the last decade, intestinal HCO3  

E-print Network

459 INTRODUCTION During the last decade, intestinal HCO3 ­ secretion via apical Cl­ /HCO3 by the marine teleost intestine (Grosell et al., 2005), counteracting diffusive water loss to the dehydrating of transepithelial HCO3 ­ secretion in the marine fish intestine has received relatively little attention. In most

Grosell, Martin

391

Motricit de l'intestin grle : organisation, rgulation et fonctions.  

E-print Network

Motricité de l'intestin grêle : organisation, régulation et fonctions. — Quinze ans de-7835O Jouy-en-Josas, France. Summary. Small intestine motility : its organization, regulation and functions. Fifteen years of research on migrating complexes. The motility pattern of the small intestine has

Boyer, Edmond

392

THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF  

E-print Network

THE MUCOSAL DISACCHARIDASES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE OF THE CALF F. TOOFANIAN F. W. G. HILL D. E intestinal mucosal enzymes are respon- sible for this hydrolysis. In the young pre-ruminant and non compartments of the stomach. Thus, the intestinal disaccharidases have a much smaller role. For this reason

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY RORt is dispensable for the development of intestinal  

E-print Network

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY RORt is dispensable for the development of intestinal mucosal T cells. Naito, T numbers of intestinal IELs were found in RORt-deficient mice. IMMUNOGENETICS Genetic determinants, such as the candidate gene ECM1, which is expressed in the intestine and known to activate nuclear-factor- B signalling

Cai, Long

394

The Intestinal Tract: Structure, Function, Disorders and Related Medication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide is intended for use within inservice or continuing education programs for people who work in long-term care facilities. This module includes an overview of the normal functions of the small and large intestines and discusses the structures of the intestines, absorption in the intestines, and commonly occurring conditions…

Wagner, Dianne M.

395

Original article Permeability of milk protein antigens across the intestinal  

E-print Network

Original article Permeability of milk protein antigens across the intestinal epithelium in vitro D by proteolytic enzymes and intestinal epithelial permeability represent two major drawbacks to the transfer-cas. These results suggest a selective intestinal permeability for milk protein antigens. This selectivity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

Characterization of epithelial cell shedding from human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal epithelial cells migrate from the base of the crypt to the villi where they are shed. However, little is known about the cell shedding process. We have studied the role of apoptosis and wound healing mechanisms in cell shedding from human small intestinal epithelium. A method preparing paraffin sections of human small intestine that preserves cell shedding was developed.

Tim F Bullen; Sharon Forrest; Fiona Campbell; Andrew R Dodson; Michael J Hershman; D Mark Pritchard; Jerrold R Turner; Marshall H Montrose; Alastair J M Watson

2006-01-01

397

IN VITRO INTESTINAL TRANSFER AND METABOLISM OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transfer through intestinal epithelium seems principally governed by transcellular diffusion, other mechanisms may interfere. Several studies suggest a PAH metabolism via CYP450, particularly in liver, but only few data are available regarding intestinal barrier. This in vitro work aimed at studying PAH metabolism and its consequences on the transfer in the intestinal epithelium according to

Séverine Cavret; Guido Rychen; Cyril Feidt

2004-01-01

398

[Intestinal bleeding and obstruction in the small intestine caused by metastatic thyroid angiosarcoma. Case report].  

PubMed

The authors present a case of a primary angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland with an intestinal metastasis. The 59-year-old female patient with tarry stool and anemia was referred to the outpatient hospital. Her past history included a thyroid "cold" nodule. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy failed to identify the origin of gastrointestinal bleeding, however, capsule endoscopy verified synchronous tumors in the small intestine. The distal tumor showed signs of bleeding and caused bowel obstruction. An urgent operation was performed and the tumorous part of the ileum was resected. Histology of the removed specimen indicated cleft-like spaces in the mucosa with CD31+ epithelial cells. Pathological report described metastatic epithelial angiosarcoma with an unknown origin. Before chemotherapy the patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histology confirmed malignancy similar to that found in the intestinal surgical specimens. This case seems particularly interesting, because bleeding from intestinal metastasis leaded to the diagnosis of the primary tumor located in the thyroid gland. PMID:24880971

Benis, Éva; Szilágyi, Anna; Izbéki, Ferenc; Varga, István; Altorjay, Áron

2014-06-01

399

Identification of Paneth cells in pyloric glands associated with gastric and intestinal mixed-type intestinal metaplasia of the human stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed that intestinal metaplasia (IM) of the human stomach be divided into two types on the basis of cell differentiation status: a gastric and intestinal (GI) mixed type and a solely intestinal (I) type. In the GI mixed type, gastric (foveolar epithelial and pyloric gland cells) and intestinal (goblet, intestinal absorptive, and Paneth cells) phenotype cells coexist in

Ken-ichi Inada; Harunari Tanaka; Hayao Nakanishi; Tetsuya Tsukamoto; Yuzuru Ikehara; Keiko Tatematsu; Shigeo Nakamura; Edith Martin Porter; Masae Tatematsu

2001-01-01

400

Stanniocalcin-1 protects bovine intestinal epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced damage.  

PubMed

Chronic enteritis can produce an excess of reactive oxygen species resulting in cellular damage. Stanniocalcin-1(STC-1) reportedly possesses anti-oxidative activity, the aim of this study was to define more clearly the direct contribution of STC-1 to anti-oxidative stress in cattle. In this study, primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for different time intervals to mimic chronic enteritis-induced cellular damage. Prior to treatment with 200 µM H2O2, the cells were transfected with a recombinant plasmid for 48 h to over-express STC-1. Acridine orange/ ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double staining and trypan blue exclusion assays were then performed to measure cell viability and apoptosis of the cells, respectively. The expression of STC-1 and apoptosis-related proteins in the cells was monitored by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The results indicated that both STC-1 mRNA and protein expression levels positively correlated with the duration of H2O2 treatment. H2O2 damaged the bovine IECs in a time-dependent manner, and this effect was attenuated by STC-1 over-expression. Furthermore, over- expression of STC-1 up-regulated Bcl-2 protein expression and slightly down-regulated caspase-3 production in the damaged cells. Findings from this study suggested that STC-1 plays a protective role in intestinal cells through an antioxidant mechanism. PMID:24962416

Wu, Li-Ming; Guo, Rui; Hui, Lin; Ye, Yong-Gang; Xiang, Jing-Mei; Wan, Chun-Yun; Zou, Miao; Ma, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Zhuan; Yang, Shi-Jin; Guo, Ding-Zong

2014-12-01

401

The intestinal microbiota, a leaky gut, and abnormal immunity in kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are associated with systemic inflammation and acquired immunodeficiency, which promote cardiovascular disease, body wasting, and infections as leading causes of death. This phenomenon persists despite dialysis-related triggers of immune deregulation having been largely eliminated. Here we propose a potential immunoregulatory role of the intestinal microbiota in CKD/ESRD. We discuss how the metabolic alterations of uremia favor pathogen overgrowth (dysbiosis) in the gut and an increased translocation of living bacteria and bacterial components. This process has the potential to activate innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Persistent innate immune activation involves the induction of immunoregulatory mediators that suppress innate and adaptive immunity, similar to the concept of 'endotoxin tolerance' or 'immune paralysis' in advanced sepsis or chronic infections. Renal science has largely neglected the gut as a source of triggers for CKD/ESRD-related immune derangements and complications and lags behind on the evolving microbiota research. Interdisciplinary research activities at all levels are needed to unravel the pathogenic role of the intestinal microbiota in kidney disease and to evaluate if therapeutic interventions that manipulate the microbiota, such as pre- or probiotics, have a therapeutic potential to correct CKD/ESRD-related immune deregulation and to prevent the associated complications. PMID:23325079

Anders, Hans-Joachim; Andersen, Kirstin; Stecher, Bärbel

2013-06-01

402

Stanniocalcin-1 protects bovine intestinal epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced damage  

PubMed Central

Chronic enteritis can produce an excess of reactive oxygen species resulting in cellular damage. Stanniocalcin-1(STC-1) reportedly possesses anti-oxidative activity, the aim of this study was to define more clearly the direct contribution of STC-1 to anti-oxidative stress in cattle. In this study, primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for different time intervals to mimic chronic enteritis-induced cellular damage. Prior to treatment with 200 µM H2O2, the cells were transfected with a recombinant plasmid for 48 h to over-express STC-1. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double staining and trypan blue exclusion assays were then performed to measure cell viability and apoptosis of the cells, respectively. The expression of STC-1 and apoptosis-related proteins in the cells was monitored by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The results indicated that both STC-1 mRNA and protein expression levels positively correlated with the duration of H2O2 treatment. H2O2 damaged the bovine IECs in a time-dependent manner, and this effect was attenuated by STC-1 over-expression. Furthermore, over-expression of STC-1 up-regulated Bcl-2 protein expression and slightly down-regulated caspase-3 production in the damaged cells. Findings from this study suggested that STC-1 plays a protective role in intestinal cells through an antioxidant mechanism. PMID:24962416

Wu, Li-ming; Guo, Rui; Hui, Lin; Ye, Yong-gang; Xiang, Jing-mei; Wan, Chun-yun; Zou, Miao; Ma, Rui; Sun, Xiao-zhuan; Yang, Shi-jin

2014-01-01

403

Chronic Arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Chronic Arsenic Toxicity may have varied clinical presentations ranging from non-cancerous manifestations to malignancy of skin and different internal organs. Dermal lesions such as hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis, predominantly over palms and soles are diagnostic of Chronic Arsenicosis. We report two cases from a family living in Sukkur who presented with classical skin lesions described in Chronic Arsenicosis. The urine, nail and hair samples of these patients contained markedly elevated levels of arsenic. Also the water samples from their household and the neighbouring households were found to have alarming levels of inorganic Arsenic. PMID:19260576

Ahsan, Tasnim; Zehra, Kaneez; Munshi, Alia; Ahsan, Samiah

2009-02-01

404

Hydrolysate from Eggshell Membrane Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprises of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Cohn’s disease (CD) as two main idiopathic pathologies resulting in immunologically mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. Several bioactive peptides and hydro lysates from natural sources have now been tested in animal models of human diseases for potential anti-inflammatory effects. Eggshell membrane (ESM) is a well-known natural bioactive material. In this study, we aim to study the anti-inflammatory activity of ESM hydro lysate (AL-PS) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AL-PS was shown to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 secretion. In vivo treatment with AL-PS was shown to reduce dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced weight loss, clinical signs of colitis and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment with AL-PS also attenuated the severity of intestinal inflammation via down-regulation of IL-10 an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This validates potential benefits of AL-PS as a novel preventative target molecule for treatment of IBD. PMID:25501329

Shi, Yaning; Rupa, Prithy; Jiang, Bo; Mine, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

405

Intestinal Microbiota and Health in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Western medicine has only recently discovered that the intestinal microbiota is a major determinant of the well-being of the host. Although it would be oversimplifying to limit the benefits of breastfeeding compared to cow milk based infant formula to differences in gastrointestinal flora, the impact of the latter has been demonstrated beyond doubt. As a consequence, gastro intestinal flora manipulation with pre- and probiotics added to infant formula or food (mainly milk based products) and/or with food supplements have become a priority area of high quality research. The composition of intestinal microbiota can be manipulated with “biotics”: antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics. Commercialised pre- and probiotic products differ in composition and dose. Major threats to the concept of developing a major role for intestinal microbiota manipulation on health are the commercialisation of products claiming health benefits that have not been validated. Legislation of food supplements and medication differs substantially and allows commercialisation of poor quality food supplements, what will result in negative experiences. Medicinal products can only be advertised for which there is scientific proof of benefit that has been demonstrated with “the same product with the same dose in the same indication”. Specificity of prebiotics and probiotics strains and product specificity are of importance, although high quality evidence for this assertion is missing. Dose-efficacy studies are urgently needed. Probiotics are “generally regarded as safe”, but side effects such as septicemia and fungemia have sometimes been reported in high-risk situations. PMID:25045316

VANDENPLAS, Yvan; VEEREMAN-WAUTERS, Genevieve; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; MAHLER, Tania; DEVREKER, Thierry; HAUSER, Bruno

2011-01-01

406

Mucin Dynamics in Intestinal Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17) in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05). Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon. Conclusion Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection. PMID:19088856

Lindén, Sara K.; Florin, Timothy H. J.; McGuckin, Michael A.

2008-01-01

407

Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

408

Intestinal failure: Pathophysiological elements and clinical diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two main functions of gastrointestinal tract, digestion and absorption, and barrier function. The latter has an important defensive effect, which keeps the body away from the invading and damaging of bacteria and endotoxin. It maintains the systemic homeostasis. Intestinal dysfunction would happen when body suffers from diseases or harmful stimulations. The lesser dysfunction of GI tract manifests only

Lian-An Ding; Jie-Shou Li

409

Intestinal Resection in Adults: Causes and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the records of 160 adult patients undergoing intestinal resection to determine the outcome of this surgical procedure. Twenty-three patients (14%) underwent massive ( > 50%) resection and 18 developed the short bowel syndrome. Mesenteric vascular disease was the indication for resection in 16 (70%) of these patients. The most frequent indications for resection in the 137 patients (86%)

Garnet J. Blatchford; Jon S. Thompson; Layton F. Rikkers

1989-01-01

410

Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman

2005-01-01

411

Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.  

PubMed

Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.160. PMID:25310762

Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

2014-10-13

412

Intestinal amino acid metabolism in neonates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The portal-drained viscera (stomach, intestine, pancreas, and spleen) have a much higher rate of both energy expenditure and protein synthesis than can be estimated on the basis of their weight. A high utilization rate of dietary nutrients by the portal-drained viscera might result in a low systemic...

413

Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium  

E-print Network

Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects absorption of calcium (FACa) was measured using radioactive cal- cium and 200 mg of calcium carrier provided the control period prior to yogurt consumption, mean calcium in- take was 819 mg per day in L(-) and 931 mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Epithelial Stem Cells and Tissue Engineered Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal mucosa has an amazing regenerative capacity, enabling rapid restoration of its physiological functions following injury. The ability to do this resides with the epithelial stem cells located within glandular invaginations in the mucosal surface. Recent advances toward the isolation and characterization of epithelial stem cells has paved the way for exploring novel therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disease. Possible

Richard M. Day

2006-01-01

415

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption  

E-print Network

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption and reduction of zinc/iron interaction of caseins, improves its absorption and could prevent inhibition by other nutrients such as iron (Fe). The absorption of Zn (100 Ilmol/L) bound to the 1-25 CN ((3-CN(1-25)) of (3-casein, or as ZnS04 was studied using

Boyer, Edmond

416

Intestinal parasitic infections in hosted Saharawi children.  

PubMed

Literatures on intestinal parasitic infections in Saharawi children were scarce and distributed in non parasitological journals. This was the first article that specifically highlighted on the prevalence of these infections in 270 Saharawi children aged from 6 to 12 years hosted in Spain. Six different intestinal parasites were identified in this study and 78, 46, 40, 24, 13 and 5 were positive for Giardia lamblia (29%), Entamoeba coli (17%), Blastocystis hominis (15%), Endolimax nana (9%), Hymenolepis nana (5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2%), respectively. Mixed intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 12 (4.4%) studied children. Six (2.2%) double infections for G. lamblia and B. hominis were seen in these children while in four (1.5%) had G. lamblia and H. nana. Triple intestinal parasitic infections of G. lamblia, B. hominis and H. nana were observed in two (0.7%) of the children studied. In the other hand, about 14.8% of the studied children had a mild anaemia and 15.5 and 16.6% had iron deficiency and eosinophilia, respectively. PMID:22433884

Soriano, J M; Domènech, G; Martínez, M C; Mañes, J; Soriano, F

2011-12-01

417

INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

418

Case study in canine intestinal lymphangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 9.52 kg, 9-year-old, spayed female beagle was presented with the chief complaint of abdominal distention of 1 week’s duration. A presumptive diagnosis of canine intestinal lymphangectasia was arrived at by exclusion of other causes for the patient’s ascites. The patient was successfully treated with dietary modification and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:16422069

2005-01-01

419

IRRADIATION OF THE INTESTINE BY RADIOISOTOPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LDââ for orally administered Y⁹¹ in the rat is about 17 ; mc\\/kg, and the average survival time is 8.4 days. The calculated radiation dose ; from this amount of yttrium to the various segments of the intestine was ; determined. Blood counts showed that lymphocytopenia, granulocytosis, and a mild ; anemia occurred after oral doses of Y⁹¹. Fluid

M. F. Sullivan; P. L. Hackett; L. A. George; R. C. Thompson

1960-01-01

420

INTRODUCTION Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION · Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome affects 5-10% of men pathophysiological correlates of CP/CPPS pain (prostate inflammation, endocrine abnormalities, pelvic floor muscle in Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome M. A. Farmer1, M. L. Chanda1, E. L. Parks1, M. N

Apkarian, A. Vania

421

Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites.  

PubMed

The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the present study, precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from the jejunum of 18 human donors were used as an ex vivo model to investigate whether DCF intestinal metabolites are responsible for its intestinal toxicity in man. PCIS were incubated with a concentration range of DCF (0-600 µM) up to 24 h. DCF (?400 µM) caused direct toxicity to the intestine as demonstrated by ATP depletion, morphological damage, caspase 3 activation, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Three main metabolites produced by PCIS (4'-hydroxy DCF, 5-hydroxy DCF, and DCF acyl glucuronide) were detected by HPLC. Protein adducts were detected by immunohistochemical staining and showed correlation with the intestinal metabolites. DCF induced similar toxicity to each of the samples regardless of the variation in metabolism among them. Less metabolites were produced by slices incubated with 400 µM DCF than with 100 µM DCF. The addition of the metabolic inhibitors such as ketoconazole, cimetidine, or borneol decreased the metabolite formation but increased the toxicity. The results suggest that DCF can induce intestinal toxicity in human PCIS directly at therapeutically relevant concentrations, independent of the reactive metabolites 4'-OH DCF, 5-OH DCF, or diclofenac acylglucuronide produced by the liver or formed in the intestine. PMID:24770551

Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M M

2014-04-26

422

Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV protein expression in intestine  

E-print Network

Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins in epithelial intestinal cells in vivo Short title: HCV protein expression in intestine Séverine Deforges1* , Alexey Evlashev1* , Magali Perret1 , Mireille RNA and core protein. These findings suggest that LVP synthesis could occur in liver and intestine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A.  

PubMed

Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA) or polymeric IgA (pIgA) and the secretory component (SC), a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models) on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation. PMID:24348350

Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Pacheco-Yépez, Judith; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Barbosa-Cabrera, Reyna Elizabeth; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa

2013-01-01

424

Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A  

PubMed Central

Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA) or polymeric IgA (pIgA) and the secretory component (SC), a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models) on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation. PMID:24348350

Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Pacheco-Yépez, Judith; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Barbosa-Cabrera, Reyna Elizabeth; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa