Ever since the application in 1980 of morphine for spinal analgesia in patients with refractory cancer pain, spinal infusion\\u000a therapy has become one of the cornerstones for the management of chronic, medically intractable pain. Initially, spinal infusion\\u000a therapy was indicated only for patients with cancer pain that could not be adequately controlled with systemic narcotics.\\u000a However, over the past decade,
Richard K. Osenbach; Susan Harvey
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation of suprascpaular nerve (SSN) in patients with chronic shoulder pain due to adhesive capsulitis and/or rotator cuff tear. Methods The study included 11 patients suffering from chronic shoulder pain for at least 6 months who were diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis (n=4), rotator cuff tear (n=5), or adhesive capsulitis+rotator cuff tear (n=2) using shoulder magnetic resonance imaging or extremity ultrasonography. After a favorable response to a diagnostic suprascapular nerve block twice a week (pain improvement >50%), PRF neuromodulation was performed. Shoulder pain and quality of life were assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) before the diagnostic block and every month after PRF neuromodulation over a 9-month period. Results The mean VAS score of 11 patients before PRF was 6.4±1.49, and the scores at 6-month and 9 month follow-up were 1.0±0.73 and 1.5±1.23, respectively. A significant pain reduction (p<0.001) was observed. The mean OSS score of 11 patients before PRF was 22.7±8.1, and the scores at 6-month and 9 month follow-up were 41.5±6.65 and 41.0±6.67, respectively. A significant OSS improvement (p<0.001) was observed. Conclusion PRF neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve is an effective treatment for chronic shoulder pain, and the effect was sustained over a relatively long period in patients with medically intractable shoulder pain.
Jang, Ji Su; Kang, Suk Hyung; Yang, Jin Seo; Lee, Jae Jun; Hwang, Sung Mi
This report describes the long term safety and efficacy of intrathecal therapy using Sufentanil for the management of chronic intractable neuropathic pain in 12 chronic pain patients. Standardized psychological screening was used to determine treatment suitability. Evaluation data included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Wong-Baker Faces Scale, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, and complications (granulomas, toxicity, withdrawal, or deaths). SPSS version 18 was used for data analysis. Pre- and post- treatment BPI measures and pain scale scores showed a statistically significant difference. There were no complications directly related to drug toxicity, nor drug withdrawals, granulomas, or deaths. Intrathecal therapy with Sufentanil therapy offers a good treatment alternative for those cases that have failed both surgery and standard pain treatment. Strict patient selection based on psychological screening, control of co-morbidities, a proper pain management may contribute to successful outcome.
Monsivais, Diane Burn
This report describes the long term safety and efficacy of intrathecal therapy using Sufentanil for the management of chronic intractable neuropathic pain in 12 chronic pain patients. Standardized psychological screening was used to determine treatment suitability. Evaluation data included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Wong-Baker Faces Scale, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, and complications (granulomas, toxicity, withdrawal, or deaths). SPSS version 18 was used for data analysis. Pre- and post- treatment BPI measures and pain scale scores showed a statistically significant difference. There were no complications directly related to drug toxicity, nor drug withdrawals, granulomas, or deaths. Intrathecal therapy with Sufentanil therapy offers a good treatment alternative for those cases that have failed both surgery and standard pain treatment. Strict patient selection based on psychological screening, control of co-morbidities, a proper pain management may contribute to successful outcome. PMID:25031819
Monsivais, Jose Jesus; Monsivais, Diane Burn
We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominal pain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominal pain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. PMID:23321890
Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R
Cryoanalgesia, the local application of extreme cold to nerves to produce analgesia, has been used to treat patients with intractable perineal pain. The cryoprobe was inserted percutaneously through the sacral hiatus into the sacral canal to produce anaesthesia of the lower sacral nerve roots. Forty patients received a total of 70 treatments: 31 patients (78%) were helped by the procedure and the median duration of improvement was 30 days. The treatment was more successful in relieving symptoms in patients suffering from pelvic cancer and coccydynia. The best results were obtained in those patients who received numerous freeze applications or prolonged freezing. Images Figure 1.
Evans, P J; Lloyd, J W; Jack, T M
The broad changes that have occurred in the treatment of intractable pain are considered. There is a new understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain pathways and pain appreciation. Thus gate control theory, the spinal laminae, and the descending inhibitory pain pathway through the raphe nuclei are discussed in relation to the recent discovery of the opioid (enkephalin) systems. Out of this arises the stimulation methods of pain relief--transcutaneous neural stimulation, periaqueductal stimulation, and acupuncture. These are valuable in patients with a normal expectation of life. For patients with a shortened expectation of life other methods, especially destructive ones, are valuable (though in all types of chronic pain drug therapy is still the most used method). Basic changes in techniques and the equipment used to bring this about are detailed broadly. In particular, the use of the image intensifier X-ray machine and the stimulation and destruction available from the modern lesion generator when used in combination provide accuracy and safety. Techniques and methods are constantly altering and examples of this are given. All this costs money in time, personnel, and equipment; the costings of the Liverpool Centre for Pain Relief are given. Finally, the Pain Relief Foundation is in being in Liverpool in the grounds of Walton Hospital. This has been made possible by a large 'seed' donation by the Wolfson Foundation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2
Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an effective treatment for bladder and bowel dysfunction, and also has a role in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. We report two cases of intractable pain associated with cauda equina syndrome (CES) that were treated successfully by SNS. The first patient suffered from intractable pelvic pain with urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence after surgery for a herniated lumbar disc. The second patient underwent surgery for treatment of a burst fracture and developed intractable pelvic area pain, right leg pain, excessive urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, voiding difficulty and constipation one year after surgery. A SNS trial was performed on both patients. Both patients' pain was significantly improved and urinary symptoms were much relieved. Neuromodulation of the sacral nerves is an effective treatment for idiopathic urinary frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence. Sacral neuromodulation has also been used to control various forms of pelvic pain. Although the mechanism of action of neuromodulation remains unexplained, numerous clinical success reports suggest that it is a therapy with efficacy and durability. From the results of our research, we believe that SNS can be a safe and effective option for the treatment of intractable pelvic pain with incomplete CES.
Kim, Jong-Hoon; Hong, Joo-Chul; Kim, Min-Su
Although the vast majority of patients with cancer pain receive effective analgesia from standard therapy, a few patients, particularly those with neuropathic pain, continue to experience severe pain despite large doses of systemic or intraspinal opioids. Animal studies suggest intraspinal ?2-adrenergic agonists may be effective in such cases. Eighty-five patients with severe cancer pain despite large doses of opioids or
James C. Eisenach; Stuart DuPen; Michel Dubois; Rafael Miguel; Douglas Allin
Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ?1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice.
Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H
The durable effectiveness of intrathecal morphine administration is well established for the management of intractable cancer pain, after failure of systemic opioids, secondary to the persistence of non-reversible undesirable side effects. Many patients are referred to late in the disease course. This conservative method to control pain of malignant origin must not be reserved for last resort treatment for terminal patients. Intra-cerebro-ventricular morphine administration is a very effective and generally safe method for controlling intractable cancer pain. Because of the chronic implantation of an intra-ventricular catheter this method is somewhat invasive. Its indications remain a simple and effective alternative when the topography of nociceptive pain is diffuse or cephalic. In clinical practice, intrathecal and/or intra-cerebro-ventricular administration of opioids is limited by cost, the need for specialized maintenance and mechanical malfunctions if implantable drug delivery systems, or by the risk of bacterial contamination and ambulatory constraints when repeated daily injections via an intrathecal access port are used. To answer these limitations, cell therapy using intrathecal chromaffin cell allograft is a promising approach for the management of cancer pain refractory to traditional drug therapy and pain lesion surgery. The basic rationale and preclinical studies on experimental pain models have enabled starting prospective clinical trials. Prior to transplantation, handling and preparation of the chromaffin tissue is critical for allograft viability. The initial results of clinical trials with human chromaffin cell grafts from intractable cancer pain have reported long-lasting pain relief, in correlation with met-enkephalin release into the CSF. Convincing evidence will require controlled studies. The limitations of this innovative cell therapy and especially the lack of human adrenal gland availability point to the need for new sources of cells. Perspectives include xenogenic or engineered cell lines. PMID:11084478
Lazorthes, Y; Sallerin, B; Verdie, J C; Sol, J C; Duplan, H; Tkaczuk, J; Tafani, M; Bastide, R; Bes, J C
Stereotactic cingulotomy constitutes a psychosurgical procedure nowadays advocated in the treatment of medically intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder, chronic pain and drug addiction. From its theoretical conception to the first cingulectomies performed and modern stereotactic-guided cingulotomies, various target localization methods, different surgical techniques, and numerous lesioning devices have been utilized. In the current article, the authors performed a literature review related to
Alexandros G. Brotis; Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki; Konstantinos Paterakis; Joseph R. Smith; Kostas N. Fountas
At Howard University Hospital, nine terminally ill cancer patients with chronic pain have been treated with continuous intrathecal infusion of morphine delivered by the implantable Infusaid pump. The case of a patient treated at Howard University Hospital with this method of pain management is presented. Following Infusaid pump insertion, the patient lived for 22 months and obtained substantial relief of his cancer pain with no adverse side effects.
Bryant, D'Orsay D.; DeWitty, Robert L.; Dennis, Gary C.
Background: Commissural myelotomy can be valuable for patients with intractable pain associated with malignancy in the abdominal or pelvic region. Methods: Between December 1992 and June 2009, 11 patients underwent commissural myelotomy at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for the treatment of intractable lower extremity, thoracic, pelvic or sacral pain associated with unresectable tumors. The various surgical
Ashwin Viswanathan; Allen W. Burton; Andy Rekito; Ian E. McCutcheon
Neuromodulation and Chronic Pain Theodosiadis P, Samoladas E, Grosomanidis V, Karakoulas K, Vasilakos D Chronic pain causes extreme suffering for millions of people worldwide. It is the leading cause for lost workdays and patients often undergo expensive courses of treatment. Because chronic pain is often difficult to relieve for sustained periods of time, it can have a significant impact on
Theodosiadis Panagiotis; Samoladas Efthimios; Grosomanidis Vasilis; Elliot S. Krames
Preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic pain is important because it may lead to multidisciplinary preoperative treatment of patients' pain and a multimodal analgesia plan for effective pain control. Preoperative multidisciplinary management of chronic pain and comorbid conditions, such as depression, anxiety, deconditioning, and opioid tolerance, can improve patient satisfaction and surgical recovery. Multimodal analgesia using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies shifts the burden of analgesia away from simply increasing opioid dosing. In more complicated chronic pain patients, multidisciplinary treatment, including pain psychology, physical therapy, judicious medication management, and minimally invasive interventions by pain specialists, can improve patients' satisfaction and surgical outcome. PMID:24182727
Salama-Hanna, Joseph; Chen, Grace
Background: Many children with constipation fail to respond with conventional medical therapy. Surgery can produce a good result in dysfunction of the colon secondary to aganglionosis. However, its role in treating idiopathic constipation is more controversial. Patients and Methods: A consecutive series of 44 patients with chronic idiopathic intractable constipation were included in this study. All children were investigated by barium enema and anorectal manometry. Due to inadequate response to medical therapy, all of these patients were selected for internal sphincter myomectomy. Patients were followed-up from 3 to 12 months. Results: Short-term (3 months) and long-term (6 months) follow-up was available for all patients. The histology examinations showed normal ganglion cells in 32, hypoganglionosis in eight and aganglionosis in four patients. In short-term, regular bowel habits, without the need for laxatives or low dose drugs were recorded in 35 patients (79.5%). Overall there was an improvement in 68.2% of the children after 6 months follow-up. There was not any correlation between histopathological findings, duration of symptoms, age and sex of operation and response to myectomy. Conclusion: anorectal myectomy is an effective procedure in patients with intractable idiopathic constipation. It relieves symptoms in 68.2% of patients with chronic refractory constipation. PMID:24841016
Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Karami, Hasan; Rajabpoor, Ahmad Ali
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to analyze whether intra-anal ultrasound examination, anorectal physiologic evaluation, and histopathologic examination in patients with chronic idiopathic anal pain presented any common features and whether the results of different treatment modalities correlated with these findings. METHODS: Eighteen patients who met the criteria for chronic idiopathic anal pain were studied. All had an intra-anal ultrasound examination
J. Christiansen; E. Bruun; B. Skjoldbye; K. Hagen
Background: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disorder and both clinical course and response to treatment vary widely. Because of the propensity for relapse, CIDP requires maintenance therapy after the initial response to treatment. There is no consensus regarding this in the published literature. Present report: A patient with CIDP was treated with oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy but required repeated plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Treatment with ciclosporin freed the patient from repeated IVIg administration. Therapeutic responses in 14 subsequent cases including three patients who showed improvement with ciclosporin are also presented along with an algorithm of the authors' suggested protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Ciclosporin should be considered for patients with intractable CIDP who require repeated IVIg.
Odaka, M; Tatsumoto, M; Susuki, K; Hirata, K; Yuki, N
Intractable chronic pelvic pain (CPP) despite a multidisciplinary approach is challenging to treat. Every structure in the\\u000a abdomen and\\/or pelvis could have a role in the etiology of CPP. Management of chronic pelvic pain may require a combination\\u000a of interventions, including pharmacological, physical and psychological therapy. Interventions suggested to date include nerve\\u000a blocks (ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral, hypogastric, presacral) and trigger
\\u000a Gene therapy shows great potential to assist numerous patients with inadequate relief of inflammatory or neuropathic pain,\\u000a or intractable pain associated with advanced cancer. A brief overview is provided of the methods of gene therapy and of preclinical\\u000a findings in animal models of prolonged inflammatory, neuropathic and cancer pain. Preclinical findings demonstrate no efficacy\\u000a of gene therapy on basal thermal
William R. Lariviere; Doris K. Cope
Objective To contrast differences in pain and treatment outcomes between neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Design Retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study. Setting Academic MS center. Patients Complete ascertainment of an academic MS center cohort of NMO and an MS comparison sample cohort. Main Outcome Measures Current pain was quantified by a 10-point scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Expanded Disability Status Scale score and number of involved spinal cord levels were collected in addition to testing for cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Number and types of pain medications were tabulated. Results Current pain was more common in subjects with NMO (n=29) vs MS (n=66) (86.2% vs 40.9%; P<.001) and more severe on a 10-point scale (5.38 vs 1.85; P <.001). Pain remained more common after controlling for disability and number of spinal cord segments (P=.03). Prescription pain medication was used more frequently in subjects with NMO compared with subjects with MS (75.9% vs 37.8%; P<.001), often requiring more than 1 medication (65.5% vs 15.2%; P<.001). No subject with NMO taking pain medication (22 of 29) rated their current pain as 0 of 10, whereas almost half of those taking pain medication with MS were currently free of pain (0% vs 48%; P=.006). Conclusions Neuromyelitis optica is frequently associated with severe pain that appears insufficiently controlled by pharmacologic interventions. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach to pain management.
Qian, Peiqing; Lancia, Samantha; Alvarez, Enrique; Klawiter, Eric C.; Cross, Anne H.; Naismith, Robert T.
The etiological diagnosis of chronic thoracic pain is wide, from benign mechanical disorders to tumors. Reaching the exact diagnosis in often time consuming. Despite the availability of new techniques of imagery, a meticulous clinical history and physical examination remain mandatory. They will lead the exploration. Idiopathic intercostal neuralgia does not exist. PMID:12143167
Malaise, M G; Kaye, O; Radermecker, M; Duysinx, B; Hustinx, R; Hermans, G; de Leval, L
Hitchcock's original method of hypothermic subarachnoid irrigation employed both temperature and osmolarity. Spinal cooling was then abandoned in favour of intrathecal injection of normothermic hypertonic salilne. Modifications of the procedure that followed have continued to accept hyperosmolarity as the factor causing pain relief. Fifty patients were treated by a technique evolved to enhance the effect of hypothermia while avoiding the complications associated with hyperosmolar solutions. For the cases of terminal carcinoma and others considered to be poor surgical risks, the results have been quite satisfactory. For non-neoplastic painful syndromes, rapid perfusion cooling of the subarachnoid space offers an alternative therapeutic approach.
Savitz, Martin H.; Malis, Leonard I.
Clinical symptoms of chronic widespread pain (CWP) conditions including fibromyalgia (FM), include pain, stiffness, subjective weakness, and muscle fatigue. Muscle pain in CWP is usually described as fluctuating and often associated with local or generalized tenderness (hyperalgesia and/or allodynia). This tenderness related to muscle pain depends on increased peripheral and/or central nervous system responsiveness to peripheral stimuli which can be either noxious (hyperalgesia) or non-noxious (allodynia). For example, patients with muscle hyperalgesia will rate painful muscle stimuli higher than normal controls, whereas patients with allodynia may perceive light touch as painful, something that a “normal” individual will never describe as painful. The pathogenesis of such peripheral and/or central nervous system changes in CWP is unclear, but peripheral soft tissue changes have been implicated. Indirect evidence from interventions that attenuate tonic peripheral nociceptive impulses in patients with CWP syndromes like FM suggest that overall FM pain is dependent on peripheral input. More importantly, allodynia and hyperalgesia can be improved or abolished by removal of peripheral impulse input. Another potential mechanism for CWP pain is central disinhibition. However, this pain mechanism also depends on tonic impulse input, even if only inadequately inhibited. Thus a promising approach to understanding CWP is to determine whether abnormal activity of receptors in deep tissues is fundamental to the development and maintenance of this chronic pain disorder. Conclusions Most CWP patients present with focal tissue abnormalities including myofascial trigger points, ligamentous trigger points, or osteoarthritis of the joints and spine. While not predictive for the development of CWP these changes nevertheless represent important pain generators that may initiate or perpetuate chronic pain. Local chemical mediators, including lactic acid, ATP, and cytokines seem to play an important role in sensitizing deep tissue nociceptors of CWP patients. Thus the combination of peripheral impulse input and increased central pain sensitivity may be responsible for wide-spread chronic pain disorders including FM.
Case study A woman aged 62 years presented with chronic throat pain on the right tonsillar area that had started approximately 2 years earlier. During the 2 years, she visited several local clinics, including internal medicine, family medicine and otolaryngology clinics, and underwent various tests, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy. However, there was no improvement in the symptom and the cause was not identified. She was referred by her family doctor to our hospital for further evaluation and proper management. The pain was characterised by an intermittent, needle-like, piercing pain on the right tonsillar area and could be worsened by swallowing and neck rotation. There was no history of any medical problems, trauma or surgery. Careful visual examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx revealed no particular abnormalities. During pharyngeal palpation, a hard mass was felt on the right tonsillar area and she complained of severe pain when turning her neck to the right. A radiographic study (reverse Towne's view) was performed (Figure 1). PMID:25006607
Kim, Kyung Soo; Lim, Su Jin; Yang, Hoon Shik
A multimodal stepped care approach has been successfully applied to a patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and severe intractable pain, not responding to regular neuropathic pain medication. The choice to administer drugs in creams was made because of the intolerable adverse effects to oral medication. With this method, peak-dose adverse effects did not occur. The multimodal stepped care approach resulted in considerable and clinically relevant decrease in pain after every step, using topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and dimethylsulphoxide.
Kopsky, David J.; Keppel Hesselink, Jan M.
Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies.
Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.
Introduction Over 70% of people in developed countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Many patients with chronic LBP who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? What are the effects of non-surgical and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-surgical interventional therapies (intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency denervation), spinal manipulative therapy, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment.
Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco
Regional cerebral blood flow changes were evaluated in different subcortical brain targets following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for chronic pain. Three patients with intractable neuropathic pain were assessed; one had stimulating electrodes in the ventroposterolateral thalamic nucleus (VPL), one in the periventricular grey (PVG) area, and one had electrodes in both targets. Pain relief was achieved in all patients. Cerebral
Erlick A. C. Pereira; Alexander L. Green; Kevin M. Bradley; Nigel Soper; Liz Moir; John F. Stein; Tipu Z. Aziz
Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)
Raithel, Kathryn Simmons
Phenytoin is an anti-convulsant and anti-arrhythmic medication. Manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies with various brand names, phenytoin (PHT) is also known as Dilantain, Hydantoin or Phenytek in the United States; Dilantain or Remytoine in Canada; Epamin, Hidantoina in Mexico; and Fenidatoin or Fenitron or other names elsewhere in the world. Phenytoin (PHT) is especially useful for patients suffering from intractable oral and facial pain especially those who exhibit anger, stress, depression and irrational emotions commonly seen in the patients with oral and facial pain. When used properly, Phenytoin is also an effective anxiolysis drug in addition to its theraputic effects on pain and can be used alone or, even better, if combined with other compatible sedatives. Phenytoin is particularly valuable when combined with acupuncture for patients with trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyneal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, and some other facial paralysis and pain. It also has an advantage of keeping the patient relatively lucid after treatment. Either PHT or acupuncture alone can benefit patients but the success of treatment outcome may be limited. We found by combining both acupuncture and PHT with Selective Drug Uptake Enhancement by stimulating middle finger at the first segment of ventral (palmar) and lateral surfaces, as well as prescribing PHT with the dosage predetermined for each patient by Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT), the treatment outcome was much better resulted with less recurrence and intensity of pain during episodes of attack. Patients with Bell's palsy were most benefited by acupuncture therapy that could completely get rid of the illness. PMID:21830351
Lu, Dominic P; Lu, Winston I; Lu, Gabriel P
In addition to its possible role as a replacement source in CNS degenerative diseases, neural transplantation may be used to augment the normal production of neuroactive substances. Our laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago has shown, in both acute and chronic pain models, that transplantation of adrenal medullary tissue or isolated chromaffin cells into CNS pain modulatory regions can reduce pain sensitivity in rodents. Chromaffin cells were chosen as the donor source since they produce high levels of both opioid peptides and catecholamines, substances which reduce pain sensitivity when injected locally into the spinal subarachnoid space. The analgesia produced by these transplants probably results from the release of both opioid peptides and catecholamines since it can be blocked or attenuated by both opiate and adrenergic antagonists. Studies indicate that even over long periods there is no apparent development of tolerance. Promising results have been obtained in preliminary clinical studies using allografts of adrenal medulla to relieve cancer pain. This clinical review encompasses results at two Medical Centers-University of Illinois at Chicago and University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France-in assessing efficacy of subarachnoid adrenal medullary transplantation for alleviating cancer pain. Our clinical and autopsy data strongly support our previous laboratory studies, i.e., that chromaffin cell transplants into the subarachnoid space represent a promising new approach to the alleviation of chronic pain. It is suggested that further clinical studies are now warranted. PMID:9090640
Pappas, G D; Lazorthes, Y; Bès, J C; Tafani, M; Winnie, A P
Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a non-invasive technique with high spatial resolution and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast, has been applied to localize and map cognitive functions in the clinical condition of chronic intractable epilepsy. Purpose: fMRI was used to map the language and memory network in patients of chronic intractable epilepsy pre- and post-surgery. Materials and Methods: After obtaining approval from the institutional ethics committee, six patients with intractable epilepsy with an equal number of age-matched controls were recruited in the study. A 1.5 T MR scanner with 12-channel head coil, integrated with audio-visual fMRI accessories was used. Echo planar imaging sequence was used for BOLD studies. There were two sessions in TLE (pre- and post-surgery). Results: In TLE patients, BOLD activation increased post-surgery in comparison of pre-surgery in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and superior temporal gyrus (STG), during semantic lexical, judgment, comprehension, and semantic memory tasks. Conclusion: Functional MRI is useful to study the basic concepts related to language and memory lateralization in TLE and guide surgeons for preservation of important brain areas during ATLR. This will help in understanding future directions for the diagnosis and treatment of such disease.
Chaudhary, Kapil; Kumaran, S Senthil; Chandra, Sarat P; Wadhawan, Ashima Nehra; Tripathi, Manjari
Chronic pain, an underestimated but complex medical and social phenomenon, is often resistant to currently used analgesic\\u000a drugs. The effect of these substances is frequently self-limiting, with increasing level of unwanted side effects caused by\\u000a increased doses. Moreover, most pharmacological therapies for pain are administered systemically, either via the enteral or\\u000a the parenteral route, and exert their effects on a
Nikolai G. Rainov; V. Heidecke
\\u000a Chronic and recurrent pelvic pain (CPP) in children and adolescents has been recognized for decades. However, data on the\\u000a etiology, natural history, treatment, and long-term consequences of painful pelvic conditions in these patients are lacking.\\u000a The problem’s prevalence remains uncertain, and the majority of therapies are extrapolated from research on adults. The normal\\u000a developmental changes and coping strategies of children
Opinion statement Painful chronic pancreatitis is difficult to manage. We believe a multidisciplinary approach is the best means of evaluating\\u000a this complex syndrome. In our opinion, the initial evaluation should aim at firmly establishing the diagnosis of chronic pan-creatitis:\\u000a calcifications on imaging; duct morphologic changes on pancreatography; parenchymal changes on ultrasound; or evidence of\\u000a pancreatic dysfunction on secre-tin\\/ cholecystokinin stimulation tests.
Darwin L. Conwell; Gregory Zuccaro
Chronic pain is among the most prevalent health problems in the United States today, affecting 10% of the population and costing the U.S. billions of dollars each year in health care expenses, lost income, and lost productivity. Genetic differences among ...
C. J. Bult
The patient with chronic pain presents a dilemma for physical as well as psychiatric health care. Usually coming to the attention of mental health professionals after limited or no successful treatment with medical specialties, these patients present with a variety of factors that disrupt occupational functioning. Occupational therapy is the health profession qualified to analyze occupational function and dysfunction for
Rebecca Liggan Gusich
Background: The surgical treatment of patients with chronic abdominal pain resulting from intraabdominal adhesions is controversial.\\u000a We report our experience with treatment of this challenging patient population using laparoscopic lysis of adhesions (LOA)\\u000a and placement of Seprafilm (Genzyme, Cambridge, MA, USA). Methods: The participants in this study were 19 consecutive patients\\u000a (2 men and 17 women) who underwent laparoscopic LOA
L. Khaitan; S. Scholz; H. L. Houston; W. O. Richards
Most patients with herpes simplex virus Type I encephalitis experience an acute, monophasic illness. Chronic encephalitis is much less common, and few late relapses are associated with intractable seizure disorders. A 10-year-old boy was admitted to our institution for intractable epilepsy as part of an evaluation for epilepsy surgery. His history was significant for herpes meningitis at age 4 months. At that time, he presented to an outside hospital with fever for three days, with acyclovir treatment beginning on day 4 of his 40-day hospital course. He later developed infantile spasms and ultimately a mixed seizure disorder. Video electroencephalogram showed a Lennox-Gastaut-type pattern with frequent right frontotemporal spikes. Imaging studies showed an abnormality in the right frontal operculum. Based on these findings, he underwent a right frontal lobectomy. Neuropathology demonstrated chronic granulomatous inflammation with focal necrosis and mineralizations. Scattered lymphocytes, microglial nodules and nonnecrotizing granulomas were present with multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry for herpes simplex virus showed focal immunoreactivity. After undergoing acyclovir therapy, he returned to baseline with decreased seizure frequency. This rare form of herpes encephalitis has only been reported in children, but the initial presentation of meningitis and the approximate 10-year-time interval in this case are unusual.
Hackney, James R.; Harrison, D. Keith; Rozzelle, Curtis; Kankirawatana, Suthida; Kankirawatana, Pongkiat; Palmer, Cheryl Ann
Chronic pain is an important clinical problem affecting significant numbers of children and their families. The severity and impact of chronic pain on everyday function is shaped by the complex interaction of biological, psychological and social factors that determine the experience of pain for each individual, rather than a straightforward reflection of the severity of disease or extent of tissue damage. In this article we present the research findings that strongly support a biopsychosocial concept of chronic pain, describe the current best evidence for management strategies and suggest a common general pathway for all types of chronic pain. The principles of management of some of the most important or frequently encountered chronic pain problems in paediatric practice; neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), musculoskeletal pain, abdominal pain and headache are also described. PMID:24554056
Rajapakse, Dilini; Liossi, Christina; Howard, Richard F
Relaxation techniques are an integral part of the psychological therapy of chronic pain and follow very different objectives. These techniques lead to muscular and vegetative stabilization, serve as distraction from pain, to build up the internal focus of control and thus to improve self-efficacy. Additional targets are improvement of body awareness and stress management, shielding from sensory stimuli and recurrence prevention of migraine as well a sleeping aid. The most commonly used and best studied method is progressive muscle relaxation which has a good compliance because it is easy to learn and has a high plausibility for patients. PMID:21818724
Nurses often encounter patients with chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis, which is a puzzling and problematic gynecologic condition that has continued to plague women and baffle doctors and researchers worldwide since it was first identified by Dr. J. Sampson in the 1920s (Sampson, 1940). Endometriosis is defined as the growth, adhesion and progression of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity, with cellular activity evident in lesions, nodules, cysts or endometriomas (Audebert et al., 1992). Although it typically appears benign on histopathology, endometriosis has been likened to a malignant tumor since the lesions grow, infiltrate and adhere to adjacent tissues and interfere with physiologic processes (Kitawaki et al., 2002; Noble, Simpson, Johns, & Bulun, 1996). Ectopic endometriotic growths respond to cyclic changes of estrogen and proliferate and shed in a manner similar to eutopic endometrium. This cyclic ectopic activity results in internal bleeding, formation of scar tissue, inflammation and sometimes debilitating chronic pain (Kitawaki et al.).
Bloski, Terri; Pierson, Roger
The transition from acute to chronic musculoskeletal pain is not well understood. To understand this transition, it is important to know how peripheral and central sensitization are manifested and how they can be assessed. A variety of human pain biomarkers have been developed to quantify localized and widespread musculoskeletal pain. In addition, human surrogate models may be used to induce sensitization in otherwise healthy volunteers. Pain can arise from different musculoskeletal structures (e.g. muscles, joints, ligaments, or tendons), and differentiating the origin of pain from those different structures is a challenge. Tissue specific pain biomarkers can be used to tease these different aspects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients in general show signs of local/central sensitization and spread of pain to degrees which correlate to pain intensity and duration. From a management perspective, it is therefore highly important to reduce pain intensity and try to minimize the duration of pain.
Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas
Chronic pelvic pain is a major public health problem for women throughout the developed world. The complex innervation of the pelvis and the anatomical proximity of pelvic viscera mean this symptom frequently overlaps traditional medical specialties, leading to diagnostic delay and frequently inadequate treatment. Careful history taking and examination can in itself be therapeutic and will likely identify a number of causal and perpetuating factors which should be managed within the context of a multidisciplinary clinic. PMID:19240284
A multidimensional model of chronic pain includes not only physiologic and psychological\\/emotional factors, but also the dimension\\u000a of subtle energy. In this chapter, the subtle energy dynamics of chronic pain are explored by first outlining the subtle anatomy\\u000a and energy physiology described in many healing traditions around the world. Then, specific pain conditions (myofascial pain,\\u000a fibromyalgia, phantom pain, and complex
The pain associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA) can be intense, persistent and disabling. It frequently has a multifactorial, simultaneously central and peripheral origin, and may be due to currently active inflammation, or joint damage and tissue destruction arising from a previous inflammatory condition. Inflammatory pain symptoms can be reduced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but many patients continue to experience moderate pain due to alterations in the mechanisms that regulate central pain, as in the case of the chronic widespread pain (CWP) that characterises fibromyalgia (FM). The importance of distinguishing SpA and FM is underlined by the fact that SpA is currently treated with costly drugs such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, and direct costs are higher in patients with concomitant CWP or FM than in those with FM or SpA alone. Optimal treatment needs to take into account symptoms such as fatigue, mood, sleep, and the overall quality of life, and is based on the use of tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, rather than adjustments in the dose of anti-TNF agents or disease-modifying drugs. PMID:24938193
Atzeni, F; Boccassini, L; Di Franco, M; Alciati, A; Marsico, A; Cazzola, M; Cassisi, G; Sarzi-Puttini, P
We report three cases of successful treatment of intractable delirium associated with cancer pain with continuous dexmedetomidine (DEX) infusion. Case 1 : An 83-year-old man receiving oral oxycodone for lung cancer pain developed delirium. He was resistant to haloperidol infusion, oral quetiapine, and opioid rotation. DEX infusion was administered at 0.4 microg kg-1 hr-1, and his delirium resolved. Case 2: A 50-year-old woman with cervical cancer of the uterus suffered from sepsis but could not take oral oxycodone. After continuous morphine infusion, she developed delirium. She was resistant to haloperidol infusion or injections of oxycodone for opioid rotation, but DEX infusion at 0.4 microg kg-1hr-1 led to disappearance of delirium symptoms. Case 3: A 71-year-old woman with advanced renal cancer was treated with epidural analgesia to alleviate cancer pain. She subsequently developed delirium but was resistant to haloperidol or chlorpromazine infusion. DEX infusion at 0.3 microg kg-1 hr-1 led to disappearance of delirium symptoms and orientation recovery. DEX infusion may be effective for the treatment of intractable delirium associated with cancer pain. PMID:24498781
Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Kimura, Yoshie; Hato, Akio; Ikegaki, Junichi
Chronic pain is a subjective experience and has not only physical, but also psychological and social dimensions. In the present study, we sought to determine whether an ef- fective pain reduction would improve mood, behavioral, and cognitive outcome measures in chronic pain patients. Four-hundred-seventy-seven patients entering pain ther- apy at our university pain center were prospectively stud- ied during the
Sabine M. Sator-Katzenschlager; Andreas W. Schiesser; Sibylle A. Kozek-Langenecker; Gerhard Benetka; Gudrun Langer; Hans-Georg Kress
Objective: To determine the nature of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with chronic pain, and to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and physical disability due to pain. Design, participants and setting: Cross-sectional study of 812 patients with complete datasets from a total of 2419 patients with pain who were referred to the Pain Management Research Institute at
Michael K Nicholas; Carissa M Coulston; Ali Asghari; Gin Singh Malhi
Hip pain is a common complaint with many causes. Pathology in the hip can present with pain referred to sites other than the hip and pain in the hip may result from pathology elsewhere. An accurate history and examination is paramount. Chronic painful conditions of the hip summarised in this paper can be classified into three main groups: intra-articular, extra-articular
Olivia Flannery; Connor Green; Dominic Harmon; Eric Masterson
Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem.
Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon
Summary Duloxetine hydrochloride (duloxetine) is used as a nonopioid analgesic for the treatment of certain chronic pain conditions. It is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and has been approved in the USA for the management of both diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. In addition, based on several studies demonstrating that duloxetine was efficacious in the management of chronic low back pain and chronic pain caused by osteoarthritis, duloxetine was approved for the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Effect sizes in studies of each of the aforementioned chronic pain conditions are comparable with other commonly used pain medications. Treatment-emergent adverse events are generally mild to moderate in severity, and tend to occur early and transiently. PMID:24646356
Mease, Philip J; Walker, Daniel J; Alaka, Karla
The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain has increased dramatically over the past decade. Whether these drugs provide considerable benefits in terms of pain reduction and improved function to balance the risks associated with their use, however, is unclear. Of particular importance to clinicians treating chronic musculoskeletal pain is opioid-induced hyperalgesia, the activation of pronociceptive pathways by
Leslie J. Crofford
The pharmacologic management of chronic orofacial pain involves the use of medications not used routinely in dental practice. Additionally, many drugs are used for long periods of time necessitating careful monitoring for adverse effects and potential drug interactions. This article will review commonly used medications for chronic orofacial pain and highlight important areas of concern.
We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ~ 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.
Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.
Chronic pain can be a frustrating condition for patient and clinician. The integrative medicine approach to pain can offer hope, adding safe complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies to mitigate pain and suffering. Such CAM therapies include nutrition, supplements and herbs, manual medicine, acupuncture, yoga, and mind-body approaches. The evidence is heterogeneous regarding these approaches, but some evidence suggests efficacy and confirms safety. The integrative medicine approach can be beneficial in a patient with chronic pain. PMID:20493343
Teets, Raymond Y; Dahmer, Stephen; Scott, Emilie
Chronic craniofacial pain afflicts more than one in every ten persons in the United States and Europe. Successful management of chronic craniofacial pain closely follows the thorough evaluation and understanding of the patient and the problem and, subsequently, a correct diagnosis or diagnoses. Evaluation of the patient includes a complete medical, dental, and personal history, physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic studies and consultations. Special consideration should be given the possibility of multiple diagnoses as well as complicating emotional, behavioral, or perceptual factors common in persons with chronic pain. Differential diagnosis is simplified by the use of a practical classification of chronic craniofacial pain. PMID:6961338
Fricton, J R; Kroening, R
Intense abdominal pain is a prominent feature of chronic pancreatitis and its treatment remains a major clinical challenge. Basic studies of pancreatic nerves and experimental human pain research have provided evidence that pain processing is abnormal in these patients and in many cases resembles that seen in neuropathic and chronic pain disorders. An important ultimate outcome of such aberrant pain processing is that once the disease has advanced and the pathophysiological processes are firmly established, the generation of pain can become self-perpetuating and independent of the initial peripheral nociceptive drive. Consequently, the management of pain by traditional methods based on nociceptive deafferentation (e.g., surgery and visceral nerve blockade) becomes difficult and often ineffective. This novel and improved understanding of pain aetiology requires a paradigm shift in pain management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern mechanism based pain treatments taking into account altered pain processing are likely to increasingly replace invasive therapies targeting the nociceptive source, which should be reserved for special and carefully selected cases. In this review, we offer an overview of the current available pharmacological options for pain management in chronic pancreatitis. In addition, future options for pain management are discussed with special emphasis on personalized pain medicine and multidisciplinarity.
Olesen, S?ren S; Juel, Jacob; Graversen, Carina; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG; Drewes, Asbj?rn M
Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.…
Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa
Stress has long been viewed as a contributor to the pain experienced by chronic pain patients. The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between anticipated and experienced stress and anticipated and experienced pain levels among three patient groups: chronic pain patients, patients about to receive molar extraction (acute pain group), and a no-pain comparison group. Results showed that chronic pain patients anticipated significantly more stress than did an acute pain or a non-pain comparison patient group but reported non-significant differences in the actual level of stress experienced. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine cognitive factors, such as perceived daily hassles, which may contribute to this increased anticipatory stress. Results showed that there was consistency among the chronic pain patients as to the types of anticipated stressors, which were similar to those previously reported by chronic headache sufferers. The chronic pain group had significantly higher scores than the two remaining groups on the stress they anticipated from hassles related both to practical considerations (F2.45 = 3.5, p < 0.05) and to health (F2.45 = 9.37, p < 0.001). Strategies the dentist can use in combination with dental therapy to reduce cognitive-based anticipatory stress as well as strategies for collaboration with the patient and a mental health therapist are discussed. PMID:9084327
Logan, H L; Risner, A; Muller, P
Nitrous oxide is an antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and may prevent the development of chronic postsurgical pain. We conducted a follow-up study in the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA) trial patients to evaluate the preventive analgesic efficacy of nitrous oxide after major surgery. The ENIGMA trial was a randomized controlled trial of nitrous oxide-based or nitrous oxide-free general anesthesia in patients presenting for noncardiac surgery lasting more than 2 hours. Using a structured telephone interview, we contacted all ENIGMA trial patients recruited in Hong Kong (n=640). We recorded the severity of postsurgical pain of at least 3 months' duration that was not due to disease recurrence or a pre-existing pain syndrome, using the modified Brief Pain Inventory. The impact of postsurgical pain on quality of life was also measured. Pain intensity, opioid and other analgesic requirements during the first week of surgery, were retrieved from the trial case report form and medical records. A total of 46 (10.9%) patients reported pain that persisted from the index surgery, and 39 (9.2%) patients had severe pain. In addition, patients with chronic pain rated poorly in all attributes of the quality-of-life measures compared with those who were pain free. In a multivariate analysis, nitrous oxide decreased the risk of chronic postsurgical pain. In addition, severe pain in the first postoperative week, wound complication, and abdominal incision increased the risk of chronic pain. In conclusion, chronic postsurgical pain was common after major surgery in the ENIGMA trial. Intraoperative nitrous oxide administration was associated with a reduced risk of chronic postsurgical pain. PMID:21889262
Chan, Matthew T V; Wan, Alex C M; Gin, Tony; Leslie, Kate; Myles, Paul S
Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for…
Burns, Stephanie T.
: Many ethical and policy analyses of the devastating undertreatment of chronic pain leave unaddressed the role played by stigma, even though the notion that such stigma exists is well documented. This article examines the social and cultural roots of the stigma of chronic pain in American society. I document the long history of illness stigma in Western societies as
Daniel S. Goldberg
Many ethical and policy analyses of the devastating undertreatment of chronic pain leave unaddressed the role played by stigma, even though the notion that such stigma exists is well documented. This article examines the social and cultural roots of the stigma of chronic pain in American society. I document the long history of illness stigma in Western societies as a
Daniel S. Goldberg
Subcutaneous application of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors mediating enkephalin transfer to the sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, were shown to induce analgesia and reduce hyperalgesic reactions. These results prompted to use these vectors in the treatment of chronic intractable pain and human clinical trials based on these approaches are expected in the near future. Since
Isabel Martins; Marta Pinto; Steven Wilson; Deolinda Lima; Isaura Tavares
Atypical facial pain is an unrecognised and unhelpful diagnosis but one which describes chronic pains that do not fit the present classification system. Due to the site of the pain, patients may seek and, indeed, receive treatment from dental practitioners and specialists, but the pain is often unresponsive and may have more in common with unexplained medical symptoms affecting other areas of the body, than with other dental symptoms. This review suggests a need for a diagnostic category of "chronic facial pain", which demands a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management.??
Madland, G; Feinmann, C
Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (?2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P < 0.001) in Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Modified Oswestry Disability Score (MODS) with standard management during three consecutive visits at six-month intervals. Conclusions MPS prevalence among chronic back pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome.
Nizar, Abd Jalil
Chronic pain may recur after initial response to strong opioids in both patients with cancer and patients without cancer or therapy may be complicated by intolerable side effects. When minimally invasive interventional pain management techniques also fail to provide satisfactory pain relief, continuous intrathecal analgesic administration may be considered. Only 3 products have been officially approved for long-term intrathecal administration: morphine, baclofen, and ziconotide. The efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide for the management of patients with severe chronic refractory noncancer pain was illustrated in 3 placebo-controlled trials. A randomized study showed this treatment option to be effective over a short follow-up period for patients with pain due to cancer or AIDS. The efficacy of intrathecal opioid administration for the management of chronic noncancer pain is mainly derived from prospective and retrospective noncontrolled trials. The effect of intrathecal morphine administration in patients with pain due to cancer was compared with oral or transdermal treatment in a randomized controlled trial, which found better pain control and fewer side effects with intrathecal opioids. Other evidence is derived from cohort studies. Side effects of chronic intrathecal therapy may either be technical (catheter or pump malfunction) or biological (infection). The most troublesome complication is, however, the possibility of granuloma formation at the catheter tip that may induce neurological damage. Given limited studies, the evidence for intrathecal drug administration in patients suffering from cancer-related pain is more compelling than that of chronic noncancer pain. PMID:24118774
Ver Donck, Ann; Vranken, Jan H; Puylaert, Martine; Hayek, Salim; Mekhail, Nagy; Van Zundert, Jan
Chronic pain is usually underestimated in children, due to lack of knowledge and its specific signs. In addition to suffering, chronic pain causes a physical, psychological, emotional, social, and financial burden for the child and his family. Practitioners may find themselves in a situation of failure with depletion of medical resources. Some types of chronic pain are refractory to conventional systemic treatment and may require the use of regional anesthesia. Cancer pain is common in children and its medical management is sometimes insufficient. It is accessible to neuroaxial or peripheral techniques of regional anesthesia if it is limited to an area accessible to one of these techniques and no contraindications (e.g., thrombopenia) are present. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 is not rare in children and adolescents, but it often goes undiagnosed. Regional anesthesia may contribute to the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome 1, mainly in case of recurrence, because it provides rapid effective analgesia and allows rapid implementation of intensive physiotherapy. These techniques have also shown interest in phantom limb pain after limb amputation, but they remain controversial for erythromelalgia pain or chronic abdominopelvic pain. Finally, the treatment of postdural puncture headache due to cerebrospinal fluid leak can be treated by performing an epidural injection of the patient's blood, called a blood-patch. Finally, the management of children with chronic pain should be multidisciplinary (pediatrician, physiotherapist, psychologist, surgeon, anesthesiologist) to support the child and her problem in its entirety. PMID:23953871
Dadure, C; Marec, P; Veyckemans, F; Beloeil, H
Chronic pain can be understood not only as an altered functional state, but also as a consequence of neuronal plasticity. Here we use in vivo structural MRI to compare global, local, and architectural changes in gray matter properties in patients suffering from chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and knee osteoarthritis (OA), relative to healthy controls. We find that different chronic pain types exhibit unique anatomical ‘brain signatures’. Only the CBP group showed altered whole-brain gray matter volume, while regional gray matter density was distinct for each group. Voxel-wise comparison of gray matter density showed that the impact on the extent of chronicity of pain was localized to a common set of regions across all conditions. When gray matter density was examined for large regions approximating Brodmann areas, it exhibited unique large-scale distributed networks for each group. We derived a barcode, summarized by a single index of within-subject co-variation of gray matter density, which enabled classification of individual brains to their conditions with high accuracy. This index also enabled calculating time constants and asymptotic amplitudes for an exponential increase in brain re-organization with pain chronicity, and showed that brain reorganization with pain chronicity was 6 times slower and twice as large in CBP in comparison to CRPS. The results show an exuberance of brain anatomical reorganization peculiar to each condition and as such reflecting the unique maladaptive physiology of different types of chronic pain.
Baliki, Marwan N.; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Bauer, William R.; Apkarian, A. Vania
BACKGROUND: The use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) remains very controversial. There are several randomized controlled trials, mostly in neuropathic pain, reporting efficacy and safety in the short term, but more long-term data are needed. Randomized controlled trials may be limited in providing data about the patients who benefit from often high-dose opioids over the long term. The present article provides details of these patients and adds to a previous case series. METHODS: The present article contains 17 case reports of 11 CNCP conditions (followed to 2011) selected to illustrate specific issues from a survey of 84 patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids and followed every three months for a median of 11 years. The previous published survey of this group reported outcomes of pain severity, adverse effects, pain relief, satisfaction, mood, problematic opioid use, tolerance, physical dependency, functional status, health-related quality of life (HRQL), immune status and sexual function. The outcome measures for that study included a numerical rating scale for pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory Interference Scale, the Pain Disability Index and, for HRQL, the Short-Form Health Survey 12 version 2. Most patients in the total sample reported 50% or greater relief and a moderate improvement in disability. Scores for functional status and HRQL were not severely affected. Problematic use, tolerance and serious adverse effects, including constipation, were not major issues. These selected patient reports were chosen, not to illustrate optimal results, but rather important aspects of the diagnoses, opioids and doses, the paucity of intolerable adverse effects, particular issues (concurrent addiction history, bipolar disorder and combination therapy), disease-specific and other outcomes and duration of follow-up with complex pain problems. RESULTS: Opioids were found to be safe and useful in the long term for these particular patients, as well as in the larger group from which they originated. INTERPRETATION: These 17 reports of patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids with some success over many years puts a face on more of the participants in the larger survey of 84 subjects, suggesting that this approach is effective and safe for some patients over many years.
Watson, C Peter N
Children with chronic pain meet numerous healthcare professionals during their search to understand their pain. Through semi-structured interviews, this qualitative study sought to understand the experiences of five children with chronic pain as they encountered healthcare professionals. In the majority of these interactions, children reported feeling misunderstood, disbelieved and abandoned. The findings of this study demonstrate that children's experiences with professionals influence their approach towards current and future healthcare encounters. All children discussed their guarded relationships with healthcare providers. Children also developed negative perceptions about their pain, in particular believing that their experience with chronic pain was life-threatening, and demanded major life adjustments. Interactions with healthcare professionals have a tremendous influence on children's perceptions and chronic pain experiences. In order to better understand and care for children with chronic pain, it is essential that healthcare professionals provide children with the opporunity to communicate their unique experiences with pain. PMID:18039730
Dell'Api, Melissa; Rennick, Janet E; Rosmus, Christina
Chronic pain is a widespread and significant clinical problem. It can result in major negative short- and long-term physical and emotional effects in multiple domains of children's and their families' lives as Pain Associated Disability Syndrome. Assessment of chronic pain is challenging but it is an essential clinical task. Management requires a multidimensional response focussing on the whole patient. Specialist pain management units and programmes use cognitive behavioural methods and promote adaptive coping and focus on the child re-engaging with normal activities. While chronic pain is not well understood, there is emerging evidence that young people and their parents can recover from chronic disability, dependency and distress, and return to a normal life. PMID:17193918
Eccleston, Christopher; Bruce, Elizabeth; Carter, Bernie
Chronic pelvic pain occurs commonly in the adolescent and can be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician, the adolescent, and her family. Defined as lower quadrant or lower abdominal pain lasting 3-6 months or longer, chronic pelvic pain can lead to missed school and activities, decreased functioning, and decreased quality of life in the adolescent. Both the primary care clinician and the pediatric gynecologist need to be aware of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain in the adolescent, including surgical and nonsurgical, gynecologic versus other pathology including the psychosomatic, and the role of the mind in control of somatic pain in the adolescent. Adding to this complexity is the standard adolescent sense of invulnerability; a knowledge of adolescent development remains essential to the delivery of appropriate gynecologic care for this age group. Education and communication with both the adolescent and her family requires sensitivity, especially in cultures where adolescent sexuality is taboo or discouraged. This chapter will discuss the developmental stages of adolescence and how that impacts care of the patient with chronic pelvic pain at the varying ages, the issue of confidentiality when obtaining a sexual history on the adolescent, and etiologies of chronic pelvic pain specific to the adolescent, including gynecologic and nongynecologic causes. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for chronic pelvic pain in the adolescent will also be addressed. PMID:22846533
Hicks, Caitlin W; Rome, Ellen S
Chronic pain conditions are associated with an elevated risk for suicide. Of particular importance is the question of why pain conditions might be linked to increased suicide risk. We discuss the association between chronic pain and psychological pain, particularly in the context of depression, and the use of suicide as an attempt to escape from what is perceived as unbearable suffering. We also consider the role that chronic pain may play in increasing the capacity for suicide. Bridging across research areas and drawing on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, we suggest that chronic pain may facilitate the development of a key risk factor for suicide: fearlessness about death. Given that chronic pain can lead to (and be exacerbated by) depression, engender hopelessness, facilitate a desire for escape through death, and erode the natural fear of dying, clinicians must be aware of psychological processes that can combine to create elevated suicide risk in patients with chronic pain, and they should also assess and treat suicide risk factors in these patients. PMID:24916035
Hooley, Jill M; Franklin, Joseph C; Nock, Matthew K
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a common problem, with up to a third of patients reporting persistent or intermittent pain 1 year after common operations. A proposed definition is pain that develops after a surgical procedure, which lasts at least 2 months, and where other causes and preexisting pain have been excluded. A variety of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of CPSP. Preventive strategies include effective postsurgical acute pain management, preoperative administration of gabapentin or pregabalin continued postoperatively, and considering the necessity of the surgical procedure itself and exploring alternatives. PMID:24552601
To communicate, understand, and prescribe treatment, it is essential that some consensually validated criteria be used to describe groups of patients who share a set of relevant attributes. Several classification systems have been developed to described relatively homogeneous subgroups of chronic pain patients. These systems have been based on theoretical perspectives of chronic pain syndromes tied to physical pathology. Alternative systems based on a priori psychological categories or empirically derived classifications also have been proposed. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of deductive and inductive approaches to classification are described, and the advantages of polydiagnostic and multiaxial approaches are described as alternatives to the traditional classification. Research on an empirically derived multiaxial classification for chronic pain is described and related to chronic orofacial pain.
Turk, Dennis C.
To study pathogenetic features of chronic joint pain, we examined 183 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 80 patients with osteoarthrosis (OA). The presence of mixed pain syndrome was found. A neuropathic component of pain (NCP) was observed in some patients with nociceptive pain (43 and 30% with RA and OA, respectively). Patients with RA had tunnel syndromes (14%), polyneuropathies (55%), mononeuropathies (19%) and sensitive specific disorders, characteristic of NCP, which were localized in anatomic zones corresponding to affected nerves. No signs of the damage of the somatosensory nervous system were found in patients with OA. Neuropathic pain was concomitant to secondary hyperalgesia which covered the zones localized far from the affected joint that allowed to suggest the involvement of dysfunctional mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic pain in OA. The study opens new possibilities for pharmacotherapy. PMID:24430034
Filatova, E S; Turovskaia, E F; Alekseeva, L I; Erdes, Sh F; Nasonov, E L
Objectives: To investigate similarities between patients who experience chronic tinnitus or pain and to formulate treatment strategies that are likely to be effective for patients who experience phantom auditory pain. Study design: A total of 160 patients rated the severity and loudness of their tinnitus and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and an abbreviated version of the Beck Depression
Robert L. Folmer; Susan E. Griest; William Hal Martin
Treatment for chronic low back pain (pain persisting for over 3 months) falls into three broad categories: monotherapies, mulitidisciplinary therapy, and reductionism. ? Most monotherapies either do not work or have limited efficacy (eg, analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, physiotherapy, manipulative therapy and surgery). ? Multidisciplinary therapy based on intensive exercises improves physical function and has modest effects
Chronic nonmalignant pain is a poorly understood subjective phenomenon that affects millions ofpeople. Numerous physiological and psychological hypotheses have been proposed to explain themechanisms by which it occurs and persists, yet treatment is not always successful in alleviating pain.Phenomenology is a research approach that attempts to provide an understanding of the meaning of livedexperience. Such an understanding enhances personal and
ANGELINE M. GLINIECKI
This study examined the relative contribution of two aspects of pain-related fear to functional disability among 133 persons with chronic pain, predominantly chronic back pain: 1) beliefs that pain represents damage or significant harm to the body and 2) beliefs that activities that cause pain should be avoided. Pain-related fear was assessed using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Version 2
Michael E. Geisser; Andrew J. Haig; Mary E. Theisen
We present the case of a 56-year-old man who developed chronic pain following the excision of a facial cancer that was poorly controlled despite multiple analgesic medications. Following the starting of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) his pain control was greatly improved and this had a huge impact on his quality of life. We also managed to significantly reduce his doses of opioid analgesia and ketamine. We review the current literature regarding the medicinal use of cannabinoids, with an emphasis on chronic pain, in an attempt to clarify their role and how to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. PMID:23893276
Reynolds, Timothy David; Osborn, Hannah Louise
Background Chronic pain is common, often widespread and has a substantial impact on health and quality of life. The relationship between chronic pain and mortality is unclear. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate evidence for a relationship between chronic pain and mortality. Methods A search of ten electronic databases including EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted in March 2012, and updated until March 2014. Observational studies investigating the association between chronic or widespread pain (including fibromyalgia) and mortality were included. Risk of bias was assessed and a meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify heterogeneity and pool results. A narrative review was undertaken to explore similarities and differences between the included studies. Results Ten studies were included in the review. Three reported significant associations between chronic or widespread pain and mortality in unadjusted results. In adjusted analyses, four studies reported a significant association. The remaining studies reported no statistically significant association. A meta-analysis showed statistically significant heterogeneity of results from studies using comparable outcome measures (n?=?7)(I2?=?78.8%) and a modest but non-significant pooled estimate (MRR1.14,95%CI 0.95–1.37) for the relationship between chronic pain and all-cause mortality. This association was stronger when analysis was restricted to studies of widespread pain (n?=?5,I2?=?82.3%) MRR1.22(95%CI 0.93–1.60). The same pattern was observed with deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity is likely to be due to differences in study populations, follow-up time, pain phenotype, methods of analysis and use of confounding factors. Conclusion This review showed a mildly increased risk of death in people with chronic pain, particularly from cancer. However, the small number of studies and methodological differences prevented clear conclusions from being drawn. Consistently applied definitions of chronic pain and further investigation of the role of health, lifestyle, social and psychological factors in future studies will improve understanding of the relationship between chronic pain and mortality.
Smith, Diane; Wilkie, Ross; Uthman, Olalekan; Jordan, Joanne L.; McBeth, John
Relationships between pain variables, emotional functioning, and cognitive inefficiency as assessed by the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) were investigated. In general, the tendency to make cognitive errors was found to be related to emotional difficulties but to be unrelated to pain variables. Four explanations were proposed: First, that increased reports of cognitive and affective difficulties may reflect a "complaining" response set; second, that the constructs of cognitive inefficiency and affective distress overlap while the constructs of the former and pain do not; third, cognitive and affective dysfunction exist in a circular relationship; and finally, that high rates of cognitive failure may predispose pain patients to have subsequent difficulties with low mood. PMID:2807747
Dufton, B D
The etiology of chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown. Whereas infection causes category I and II prostatitis,\\u000a the evidence for an ongoing infection in category III patients is lacking. Immunologic, neurologic, and psychologic factors\\u000a likely play a role in the development and maintenance of symptoms in these men. The traditional concept of pain as a simple\\u000a response to a
Michel A. Pontari
BACKGROUND: Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. METHODS: Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The
Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Mark V Boswell; Vijay Singh; Vidyasagar Pampati; Kim S Damron; Carla D Beyer
According to Amnesty International government-sanctioned torture is verified in one third of the countries in the world. The physical and psychological sequelae are numerous. This study focuses on pain diagnosis, characterising pain types as nociceptive, visceral or neuropathic. Torture victims from the Middle East, treated at the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) in Copenhagen, participated in the
Annemarie B Thomsen; Jørgen Eriksen; Knud Smidt-Nielsen
Introduction: Chronic post–thoracotomy pain (CPP) has very high incidence and therefore it needs attention. Usually, it is burning, dysaesthetic and aching in nature and it displays many features of neuropathic pain. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce the incidence of chronic post thoracotomy pain. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with chronic post–thoracotomy pain. Methods: This prospective, randomized study was conducted on 50 consenting patients who underwent posterolateral thoracotomy. 25 patients were given pregabalin for 21 days (Group A). Another 25 were given diclofenac sodium (Group B) on demand and they escaped treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring was performed on days 0, 1 and 7, then follow up was done at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The data was analyzed by using t-test and Chi- square test for various variables. Results: The pain VAS scores in Group A were significantly low at all observation points except on day 0, day 1 and day 7 post-operatively, when the difference in pain scores in both the groups were comparable. The overall pain scores of Group A were comparable at day 0, day 1 and at day 7 as compared to those of Group B (p>0.9). Pain was significantly low at three weeks (p<0.05). Pain scores of Group A were significantly low at 6 weeks,12 weeks and 24 weeks as compared to those of Group B (p<0.001) and the difference was statistically significant. No significant adverse reactions were observed during study period. Conclusion: Pregabalin is a safe and an effective adjuvant which is used for reducing the chronic post thoracotomy pain, which has no side effects and a high patient compliance. These results should be supported with multidisciplinary studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups.
Mishra, Atul; Nar, Amandeep Singh; Bawa, Ashvind; Kaur, Gurinder; Bawa, Sayesha; Mishra, Seema
Chronic pain, a common clinical symptom, is often treated inadequately or ineffectively in part due to the incomplete understanding of molecular mechanisms that initiate and maintain this disorder. Newly identified noncoding RNAs govern gene expression. Recent studies have shown that peripheral noxious stimuli drive expressional changes in noncoding RNAs and that these changes are associated with pain hypersensitivity under chronic pain conditions. This review first presents current evidence for the peripheral inflammation/nerve injury-induced change in the expression of two types of noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, and Kcna2 antisense RNA, in pain-related regions, particularly in the dorsal root ganglion. The authors then discuss how peripheral noxious stimuli induce such changes. The authors finally explore potential mechanisms of how expressional changes in dorsal root ganglion microRNAs and Kcna2 antisense RNA contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. An understanding of these mechanisms may propose novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating chronic pain. PMID:24739997
Lutz, Brianna Marie; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang
Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF), a technology related to continuous radiofrequency, is unique in that it provides pain relief\\u000a without causing significant damage to nervous tissue. The mechanism by which PRF controls pain is unclear, but it may involve\\u000a a temperature-independent pathway mediated by a rapidly changing electrical field. Although much anecdotal evidence exists\\u000a in favor of PRF, there are few quality
David Byrd; Sean Mackey
Optimal symptoms control in advanced cancer disease, with refractory to conventional pain treatment, needs an interventional procedure. This paper presents coadministration of local anesthetic (LA) via paravertebral blockade (PVB) as the alternative to an unsuccessful subcutaneous fentanyl pain control in a 71-year old cancer patient with pathological fracture of femoral neck, bone metastases, and contraindications to morphine. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (0.25%, 5 mL · hour?1) or in boluses (10 mL of 0.125%–0.5% solution), used for lumbar PVB, resulted in pain relief, decreased demand for opioids, and led to better social interactions. The factors contributing to an increased risk of systemic toxicity from LA in the patient were: renal impairment; heart failure; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and a complex therapy with possible drug-drug interactions. These factors were taken into consideration during treatment. Bupivacaine’s side effects were absent. Coadministered drugs could mask LA’s toxicity. Elevated plasma ?1-acid glycoprotein levels were a protective factor. To evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of the PVB treatment in boluses and in constant infusion, bupivacaine serum levels were determined and the drug plasma half-lives were calculated. Bupivacaine’s elimination was slower when administered in constant infusion than in boluses (t½ = 7.80 hours versus 2.64 hours). Total drug serum concentrations remained within the safe ranges during the whole treatment course (22.9–927.4 ng mL?1). In the case presented, lumbar PVB with bupivacaine in boluses (? 137.5 mg · 24 hours?1) was an easy to perform, safe, effective method for pain control. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (?150 mg · 12 hours?1) had an acceptable risk-benefits ratio, but was ineffective.
Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Hoffmann, Karolina; Glowka, Franciszek; Luczak, Jacek
Optimal symptoms control in advanced cancer disease, with refractory to conventional pain treatment, needs an interventional procedure. This paper presents coadministration of local anesthetic (LA) via paravertebral blockade (PVB) as the alternative to an unsuccessful subcutaneous fentanyl pain control in a 71-year old cancer patient with pathological fracture of femoral neck, bone metastases, and contraindications to morphine. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (0.25%, 5 mL · hour(-1)) or in boluses (10 mL of 0.125%-0.5% solution), used for lumbar PVB, resulted in pain relief, decreased demand for opioids, and led to better social interactions. The factors contributing to an increased risk of systemic toxicity from LA in the patient were: renal impairment; heart failure; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and a complex therapy with possible drug-drug interactions. These factors were taken into consideration during treatment. Bupivacaine's side effects were absent. Coadministered drugs could mask LA's toxicity. Elevated plasma ?1-acid glycoprotein levels were a protective factor. To evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of the PVB treatment in boluses and in constant infusion, bupivacaine serum levels were determined and the drug plasma half-lives were calculated. Bupivacaine's elimination was slower when administered in constant infusion than in boluses (t½ = 7.80 hours versus 2.64 hours). Total drug serum concentrations remained within the safe ranges during the whole treatment course (22.9-927.4 ng mL(-1)). In the case presented, lumbar PVB with bupivacaine in boluses (? 137.5 mg · 24 hours(-1)) was an easy to perform, safe, effective method for pain control. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (?150 mg · 12 hours(-1)) had an acceptable risk-benefits ratio, but was ineffective. PMID:24043944
Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Hoffmann, Karolina; G?ówka, Franciszek; Luczak, Jacek
Apart from local inflammation and defects in secretion, central mechanisms are important for pain etiology in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, centrally acting co-analgetic agents can be used in addition to classical pain medications. Endoscopic interventions are preferred in patients with obvious dilation of the pancreatic duct. Surgical interventions are generally more effective although they are usually reserved for patients with prior failure of conservative treatment. Diverse surgical options with different efficacies and morbidities are used in individual patients.One of the main problems in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases is abdominal pain. Primarily the underlying disease needs to be adequately treated. Symptomatic pain management will most likely include treatment with acetaminophen and tramadol as well as occasionally principles of a multimodal pain regimen. For the treatment of arthralgia as well as enteropathy-associated arthritis the same treatment options are available as for other spondyloarthritic disorders. PMID:24903043
Preiß, J C; Hoffmann, J C
Chronic pain represents a mixture of pathophysiologic mecha- nisms, a complex assortment of spontaneous and elicited pain states, and a somewhat unpredictable response to analgesics. Opioids remain the mainstay of treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain, although there is little systematic examination to guide drug selection. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors play primarily an adjunctive role in chronic pain treatment. Agents with
THOMAS J. MARTIN; JAMES C. EISENACH
Most pain treating physicians have a vague notion, that there may be a psychological component contributing to the severity of chronic pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain defined pain as \\
Adolescents with chronic pain report disability, distress and reduced social functioning. A clinical sample of 110 adolescents, with a mean four year history of pain, was investigated for the psychosocial impact of pain on social development. All participants completed a range of self-report measures of pain intensity, disability, distress, social and family functioning. Also completed was the Bath Adolescent Pain Questionnaire, including its development subscale. The development subscale measures the extent to which adolescents perceive themselves to be ahead or behind their peers on 11 aspects of social development. Three related analyses were undertaken. First, over 50% of adolescents reported themselves to be less developed than their peers on four or more aspects. The item with the highest endorsement of being ahead compared with peers was "dealing with problems". Second, factor analyses revealed three factors of adolescent social development labelled 'independence', 'emotional adjustment' and 'identity formation'. Third, regression analyses revealed that peer support had a positive effect on all three factors, disability and anxiety had a negative effect on perceptions of independence, greater family dysfunction had a negative effect on emotional adjustment, and depressive mood had a negative effect on identity formation. Pain intensity had a negative effect on all three factors. Findings suggest that adolescents with chronic pain judge themselves to be less developed than their peers. Pain intensity has a negative effect on this perception, but peer relations may play a protective role: strong peer relationships are associated with positive social comparisons of the level of social development. PMID:18248750
Eccleston, Christopher; Wastell, Sarah; Crombez, Geert; Jordan, Abbie
Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…
Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.
This article examines the use of lobotomy as a treatment for chronic intractable pain and reconstructs then-common perceptions of pain and of the patients who suffered from it. It delineates the social expectations and judgments implicit in physicians' descriptions of the patients, analyzing what was expected from such patients and how the medical establishment responded to non-normative expressions of suffering. I argue that the medicalized response to an expectation for normativity demonstrates the convergence between psychiatric and palliative interventions. Based on a historically informed perspective of psychiatric interventions in the field of pain medicine, I examine the use of psychiatric medications for pain syndromes today and evaluate the interface between depression, chronic pain, and terminal illness. While not detracting from the medical imperative to alleviate pain, I question the usage of social criteria and normative judgments in the clinical decision of how to treat pain. What normalizing social function does the use of psychiatric interventions in pain treatment fulfill? This approach leads to a reexamination of perceptions of dualism in pain medicine. PMID:19855124
The acute whiplash injury is a significant health burden for patients and the healthcare system. Traditional approaches to treatment fail to resolve this ever growing medicolegal and social problem. A new biopsychosocial model of whiplash disorder encourages new ways of treating and preventing of the chronic disability. This biopsychosocial model takes into account the mechanism by which acute pain becomes chronic pain, and how this can be prevented. Specific education and treatments encourage a behaviour after whiplash injury that is conducive to more rapid recovery, and provides the whiplash patient with insight into the mediators of chronic pain. The article describes in practical terms how to use education, reassurance, a more judicious use of therapy, and exercise to achieve this goal. Practical guidelines are provided on educating the patient about other symptoms that may cause concern.
\\u000a Chronic pain in children and adolescents can be diffi cult to treat. Many parents and children are turning to complementary\\u000a and alternative medicine (CAM) to gain relief for conditions as varied as migraines, juvenile arthritis, sickle cell disease,\\u000a and functional abdominal pain (FAP). This chapter highlights some of the more well-known, safe, and effi cacious CAM treatments\\u000a for children and
Subhadra Evans; Lonnie K. Zeltzer
\\u000a Chronic pain has a substantial adverse impact on the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents, resulting\\u000a in significantly worse physical functioning, psychological functioning, social functioning, lower satisfaction with life,\\u000a and poorer self-perceived health status (Merlijn et al. 2006; Palermo 2000; Palermo et al. 2008). The current Pediatric Initiative\\u000a on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (PedIMMPACT)
Thomas R. Vetter
\\u000a Low back pain is a common problem with an important socio-economical impact. It is defined as chronic after 7–12 weeks of\\u000a non-response to conservative therapies. Its estimated prevalence is 15% in adults, rising to 44% in the elderly (Jacobs et al. 2006). Unlike radicular pain where a cause of nerve root compression is often found, the precise etiology of back
Xavier Buy; Afshin Gangi; Ali Guermazi
... Other medications may cause the body to retain water, which can aggravate high blood pressure or lead to heart failure . But if taking those medications means a patient can keep moving, the risks can be outweighed by the health benefits of exercise, Dr. Bonow said. If pain medication ...
Given the pervasive effect of chronic pain, a comprehensive approach to nursing care is needed. Addressing the physical effects of persistent pain on multiple systems and bodily functions requires combining (drug and nondrug) interventions to reduce pain and improve functioning. Targeting anxiety, depression and anger effectively can halt or even reverse the escalation of pain attributed to emotions. Recognizing belief patterns associated with distress and disability, while challenging patients to rethink the truthfulness of their perceptions is an important step in helping patients think, feel, and do better. Eliciting self-reflective narratives about the context of pain in their lives taps into the spiritual domain and initiates processes of grieving, forgiveness, and acceptance that are needed to transcend perceived limits and find new meaning in their lives. By attending to social interactions, including therapeutic relationships, chronic pain patients can become more independent and involved in family or socially meaningful activities. Combined, nurses can help patients restore joy, functioning, and a sense of purpose despite the devastating toll persistent pain has taken. PMID:14567199
In the modern age of advanced surgical techniques and pharmacologic management, bacterial spinal infections (SIs) can be managed (either eradicated or suppressed) in many hosts. However, the optimal management of SIs may be limited by patient comorbidities, which do not allow for surgical management, or limited by antimicrobial options due to side effects, toxicities, or emerging drug resistance. In these settings, frank and honest discussion regarding risks and benefits of treatment should be pursued, including that the SI may be a terminal illness. In this case series, we present 3 patients who had bacterial SIs whose treatments were limited by the above-mentioned factors. Furthermore, each case presented challenges regarding optimal medical management of somatic and neuropathic pain associated with the SI.
Olsen, Molly L.; Havyer, Rachel D. A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Swetz, Keith M.
Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine commissioned a systematic review of the evidence on chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. Although evidence is limited, the expert panel concluded that
Roger Chou; Gilbert J. Fanciullo; Perry G. Fine; Jeremy A. Adler; Jane C. Ballantyne; Pamela Davies; Marilee I. Donovan; David A. Fishbain; Kathy M. Foley; Jeffrey Fudin; Aaron M. Gilson; Alexander Kelter; Alexander Mauskop; Patrick G. O'Connor; Steven D. Passik; Gavril W. Pasternak; Russell K. Portenoy; Ben A. Rich; Richard G. Roberts; Knox H. Todd; Christine Miaskowski
An 18-year-old Asian woman with a history of substance abuse presented to the Emergency Department with right-sided abdominal pain and hematuria of several months duration. Physical examination revealed right upper quadrant and suprapubic tenderness. Liver function tests were normal. Urinalysis showed: large blood, 30-50 red blood cells/high-powered field, and no bacteria. She underwent a CT of the abdomen and pelvis following oral and intravenous contrast. PMID:24580064
Connors, N J; Grino, A; Tunik, M G; Hoffman, R S
Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can be intractable to treat and patients sometimes suffer for many years. Therefore, new treatment strategies are needed to alleviate symptoms in CRPS patients. This case report describes a patient suffering from intractable CRPS type 1 for 13 years. Due to her swollen painful feet and left knee she is wheelchair-bound. The combination of palmitoylethanolamide and ketamine 10% cream reduced her pain by more than 50% after 1 month of treatment, and a marked reduction in swelling and skin discoloration was noticed. Furthermore, she could walk independently again and she experienced no side effects. Thus, palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine could be a combination therapy option for treating CRPS patients. PMID:23658493
Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J
Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can be intractable to treat and patients sometimes suffer for many years. Therefore, new treatment strategies are needed to alleviate symptoms in CRPS patients. This case report describes a patient suffering from intractable CRPS type 1 for 13 years. Due to her swollen painful feet and left knee she is wheelchair-bound. The combination of palmitoylethanolamide and ketamine 10% cream reduced her pain by more than 50% after 1 month of treatment, and a marked reduction in swelling and skin discoloration was noticed. Furthermore, she could walk independently again and she experienced no side effects. Thus, palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine could be a combination therapy option for treating CRPS patients.
Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J
Persistent and disabling pain is the hallmark of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, disease severity (as measured by objective indexes such as those that use radiography or serology) is only marginally related to patients' reports of pain severity, and pain-related presentation can differ widely among individuals with CP/CPPS. Increasing evidence in support of the biopsychosocial model of pain suggests that cognitive and emotional processes are crucial contributors to inter-individual differences in the perception and impact of pain. This review describes the growing body of literature relating depression and catastrophizing to the experience of pain and pain-related sequelae in CP/CPPS. Depression and catastrophizing are consistently associated with the reported severity of pain, sensitivity to pain, physical disability, poor treatment outcomes, and inflammatory disease activity and potentially with early mortality. A variety of pathways, from cognitive to behavioral to neurophysiological, seem to mediate these deleterious effects. Collectively, depression and catastrophizing are critically important variables in understanding the experience of pain in patients with CP/CPPS. Pain, depression, and catastrophizing might all be uniquely important therapeutic targets in the multimodal management of a range of such conditions.
Kwon, Jong Kyou
Most orofacial pain originates in the oral cavity and the surrounding structures. However, advances in the understanding of pain neurophysiology have shown that convergent afferent nociceptive transmissions from non-trigeminal, extraoral sources can enter the trigeminal system. This may confuse the diagnosis by presenting as (or contributing to) dental, sinus, temporomandibular and other head and neck pains. Incorrect diagnoses may lead to inappropriate and/or invasive procedures, creating further problems. Professor Richard Kroening (former Director of the UCLA Pain Management Center) repeatedly emphasised the maxim that "without correct diagnosis, there can be no prognosis". My own areas of special interest have included acute pain management (anaesthesia and conscious sedation) and chronic orofacial pain. I have seen many dental patients who have been referred to multidisciplinary pain management clinics, often after years of failed treatment attempts. More recent experience as a member of a hospital team evaluating long term ACC patients with many types of persistent pain problems again confirms the premise that accurate diagnosis is critical if management is to be successful. PMID:18672828
Foreman, Peter A
The nosological status of the putative clinical entity of compensation neurosis and the relationship of chronic pain complaints to compensation are explored. It is concluded that, using the traditional criteria of diagnostic validity, there is no support for the view that a specific type of psychiatric disorder related to compensation or litigation can be demonstrated. Although it has been generally
Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants. PMID:24879916
Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K
The authors report a retrospective study involving 25 feet in 21 patients who underwent percutaneous drilling for chronic heel pain. Patients with increased activity of the heel were considered for surgical treatment if there was increased uptake on the delayed bone scans. The average follow-up was 21 months (range, 6 to 30 months). All patients were treated in day surgery
Stefano Santini; Arturo Rebeccato; Roberto Schiavon; Livio Nogarin
Discusses a project developed to gain understanding of the experiences of people suffering from a chronic pain condition with no visible symptoms. Results suggest that narrative approaches helped participants find their own strengths and means of coping and helped them find identities other than as patients. (RJM)
Kelley, Patricia; Clifford, Patrick
Background: Abdominal epilepsy (AE) is an uncommon cause for chronic recurrent abdominal pain in children and adults. It is characterized by paroxysmal episode of abdominal pain, diverse abdominal complaints, definite electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and favorable response to the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We studied 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and after exclusion of more common etiologies for the presenting complaints; workup proceeded with an EEG. We found 111 (74%) children with an abnormal EEG and 39 (26%) children with normal EEG. All children were subjected to AED (Oxcarbazepine) and 139 (92%) children responded to AED out of which 111 (74%) children had an abnormal EEG and 27 (18%) had a normal EEG. On further follow-up the patients were symptom free, which helped us to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Context: Recurrent chronic abdominal pain is a common problem encountered by pediatricians. Variety of investigations are done to come to a diagnosis but a cause is rarely found. In such children diagnosis of AE should be considered and an EEG will confirm the diagnosis and treated with AED. Aims: To find the incidence of AE in children presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and to correlate EEG findings and their clinical response to empirical AEDs in both cases and control. Settings and Design: Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain were studied by investigations to rule out common causes of abdominal pain and an EEG. All children were then started with AED oxycarbamezepine and their response to the treatment was noted. Results: 111 (74%) of the total 150 children showed a positive EEG change suggestive of epileptogenic activity and of which 75 (67.56%) were females and 36 (32.43%) were male, majority of children were in the age of group of 9-12 years. Temporal wave discharges were 39 (35.13%) of the total abnormal EEG's. All the children were started on AEDs and those with abnormal EEG showed 100% response to treatment while 27 (18%) children with normal EEG also responded to treatment. Twelve (8%) children did not have any improvement in symptoms. Conclusions: A diagnosis of AE must be considered in children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain, especially in those with suggestive history, and an EEG can save a child from lot of unnecessary investigations and suffering.
Kshirsagar, V. Y.; Nagarsenkar, Suhel; Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Colaco, Sylvia; Wingkar, K. C.
The objectives of this study were to investigate whether continuous intravenous ketamine during the first 72 hours after thoracotomy could reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic postthoracotomy pain (CPTP) and to define the incidence and risk factors of CPTP. Seventy-eight patients receiving thoracotomy for lung tumor (benign or malignant) were randomly divided into two groups: ketamine group (n = 31) and control groups (n = 47). Patients in the ketamine group received intravenous ketamine 1 mg/kg before incision, followed by 2 ?g/kg/minute infusion for 72 hours plus sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after thoracotomy. Patients in the control group received intravenous a 0.9% normal saline and infusion plus sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. The solutions patients received were blinded. The numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores and the incidence and risk factors of CPTP were recorded during the first 6 months after surgery. Compared with control group, the incidence of chronic pain in the ketamine group did not decrease at 2 months (?(2) = 1.599, P = .206) and 6 months (?(2) = 0.368, P = .544) after surgery. Postoperative pain scores in the ketamine group were not significantly different from those of the control group patients at 2 months (U = 677.5, P = .593) and 6 months (U = 690.5, P = .680). The incidence of CPTP was 78.2% (61/78) at 2 months and 53.8% (42/78) at 6 months after surgery. Retractor used time (OR = 5.811, P = .002), inadequate acute pain control (NRS ? 5) (OR = 5.425, P = .048), and chemotherapy (OR = 3.784, P = .056) were independent risk factors for chronic postthoracotomy pain. The authors conclude that continuous intravenous ketamine (2 ?g/kg/min) during the first 72 hours after thoracotomy was not beneficial to prevent chronic postthoracotomy pain. The independent risk factors for chronic postthoracotomy pain were retractor used time, inadequate acute pain control, and chemotherapy. PMID:24799159
Hu, Jie; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Jianbin; Ouyang, Wen
Discusses certain factors that contribute to the development of chronic pain. Psychosocial factors are explored with a summary of their implications for treatment. Medical treatment for chronic pain is reviewed and holistic treatment is surveyed. (Author)
Sparks, Jayne A.; Clark, Donald W.
Chronic pain is acknowledged as a phenomenological experience resulting from biological, psychological, and social interactions. Consequently, treatment for this complex and debilitating health phenomenon is often approached from multidisciplinary and biopsychosocial perspectives. One approach to treating chronic pain involves implementing…
Angheluta, Anne-Marie; Lee, Bonnie K.
Chronic pain is a prevalent and challenging problem for most medical practitioners. Because of the complex pathologic mechanisms\\u000a involved in chronic pain, optimal treatment is still under development. The spinal cord is an important gateway for peripheral\\u000a pain signals transmitted to the brain. In chronic pain states, painful stimuli trigger afferent fibers in the dorsal horn\\u000a to release neuropeptides and
Hsinlin Thomas Cheng
\\u000a Pain is a common complaint in primary care, with chronic pain reported in 20% of visits to general practitioners (McCaffrey\\u000a et al., 2003). Twenty percent of adults suffer from chronic pain, rising to half of those of the older age population (Cousins\\u000a et al., 2004). Chronic pain, defined as “intermittent or continuous pain persisting longer than six months or beyond
Jacqueline Gardner-Nix; Jon Kabat-Zinn
This two year cohort study of 2,389 primary care back pain, headache and Temporomandibular Disorder pain patients: (1) developed and validated a brief method of grading chronic pain severity appropriate for primary care research and practice; (2) assessed...
M. R. Von Korff
Chronic stress, understood as a disturbance of the body homeostasis, is partially driven by many hormonal pathways. Prolactine, TSH (Thyrotropin), vasopresin, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone), and GH (Growth Hormone) have been involved in many stress reactions. In acute stress, there are many evidences for the increased both cathecolaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In chronic conditions, these hyperactivations are controversial and some cases may present a true hypoadrenalism. There is no evidence that treating such androgen/glucocorticoids deficiency may relief chronic pain processes such as fibromyalgia. However, treating somatotroph axis dysfunctions (somatostatin, GH/IGF1 [growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1]) with recombinant GH in carefully seleccioned subgroups of fibromyalgic syndrome, offers us an in-vivo model of the capacity of some hormones to modulate pain. PMID:21794652
Cuatrecasas Cambra, Guillem
Pain sensitivity varies substantially among humans. A significant part of the human population develops chronic pain conditions that are characterized by heightened pain sensitivity. We identified three genetic variants (haplotypes) of the gene encoding catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that we designated as low pain sensitivity (LPS), average pain sensitivity (APS) and high pain sensitivity (HPS). We show that these haplotypes encompass 96%
Luda Diatchenko; Gary D. Slade; Andrea G. Nackley; Konakporn Bhalang; Asgeir Sigurdsson; Inna Belfer; David Goldman; K e Xu; Svetlana A. Shabalina; Mitchell B. Max; Sergei S. Makarov; William Maixner
The pain of 16 patients with spasticity secondary to spinal cord injury was assessed prior to intrathecal baclofen pump implantation and again 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Chronic pain was delineated into neurogenic and musculoskeletal components, noting changes in nature, quality, and severity of pain (visual analogue scale) and use of analgesic medications. Twelve of 16 patients had chronic pain
Paul G. Loubser; Nafiz M. Akman
Patients with chronic orofacial pain must be treated with methods different from those used with patients with acute pain. If different methods are not used, the characteristics of chronic pain may become firmly entrenched. Dentists should be aware of the various methods of treatment for this separate pain entity. PMID:291656
Donaldson, D; Kroening, R
The realities of treating chronic pain do not reflect the attention that marginaliza- tion of patients taking opioids has received. Physicians continue the same preju- dices and biases that were present decades ago. One theory proposed to explain this poor treatment has been titled, the \\
John F. Peppin
Chronic pain represents a major public health problem. A major precursor of a chronic pain state is persistent acute postoperative pain. Risk factors of developing persistent acute postoperative pain are identified and preventative strategies for implementation are discussed. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic pain represents a major public health problem.1 The prevalence of chronic pain obtained ranges from 8%-80%
Both diagnosis and management of CPP may be greatly facilitated by a multidisciplinary approach integrating specific medical interventions with cognitive-behavioral pain strategies and concurrent treatment of psychological morbidity. Available data suggest that measured outcomes, including pain severity, global health status, and somatization, associated with this approach are significantly better than those observed after isolated medical interventions. Because of the chronicity of many of the psychological and social variables predisposing to recurrent symptom formation, care must be continuous and longitudinal if recurrent adverse sequelae, including disability, inappropriate health care utilization, and depression, are to be prevented. PMID:8115082
Milburn, A; Reiter, R C; Rhomberg, A T
Background: Chronic pain is a clinical challenge for the practicing physician. Lack of knowledge about opioids, negative attitudes toward prescribing opioids, and inadequate pain-assessment skills combine to create major barriers to pain relief. Patient-related barriers, such as lack of communication and un- warranted fears of addiction, further complicate pain assessment and treatment. The health care system itself can hinder pain
Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance), use of opioids, and premorbid alcohol abuse. The cognitive profiles of 16 patients with severe pain due to chronic pancreatitis were determined
Marijtje L. A. Jongsma; Simone A. E. Postma; Pierre Souren; Martijn Arns; Evian Gordon; Kris Vissers; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Clementina M. van Rijn; Harry van Goor
Abdominal pain is a principal and in many cases, the only observable symptom of chronic pancreatitis. Like all chronic pain conditions, managing abdominal pain in chronic pancreatitis remains an onerous task for health care providers. Different mechanisms have been postulated in trying to better understand the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis. This review seeks to take a broad look at the various options that are available to providers in trying to achieve pain relief and a better quality of life for chronic pancreatitis patients.
Enweluzo, Chijioke; Tlhabano, Letlhogonolo
To explore Ward and colleagues' 1982 hypothesis of a biochemical link between depression and pain mediated by the paleospinothalamic tract (PSTT), the author retrospectively examined a series of questionnaires completed by 113 chronic pain patients. The measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory, and a background questionnaire assessing demographic and pain variables that included portions of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Adjectives on the sensory scale of the MPQ were divided into two groups: those descriptive of pain mediated by the PSTT and those descriptive of pain mediated by the neospinothalamic tract (NSTT). To facilitate analysis of the data, two median splits were performed on the basis of PSTT and NSTT adjective scores to create four groups. Group differences were then examined by way of multivariate analysis of variance and chi-square. As hypothesized, psychologic distress was found to be related to the use of PSTT sensory adjectives but not to the use of NSTT sensory adjectives. The findings may be supportive of Ward et al. PMID:2347862
Dufton, B D
The case was presented here in order to point out that an immunocompetent child might have Strongyloidiosis infection that might be misdiagnosed. A 9 year old male patient who had chronic abdominal pain with a feeling of weakness was treated several times for urinary tract infection. He had never been tested for the presence of parasites. After the patient's complaints occurred again, he presented at our hospital. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were observed in his feces by microscopy. Albendazol (400 mg/day for three days) was prescribed. After 10 days, the feces of the patient was reexamined and no Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were detected. For this reason, it is important to investigate the possibility of intestinal parasitic infections in children with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:18645954
Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Dündar, Devrim
Introduction: We performed a prospective, randomized study to examine the efficacies of levofloxacin and doxazosin alone and as a combination therapy in patients with National Institutes of Health (NIH) category III chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Patients and Methods: Men with a NIH diagnosis of category III chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and who had experienced pelvic pain for more
Chang Wook Jeong; Dae Jung Lim; Hwancheol Son; Sang Eun Lee; Hyeon Jeong
The effectiveness of systemic lidocaine in relieving acute and chronic pain has been recognized for over 35 years. In particular, systemic lidocaine has been utilized both as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for intractable neuropathic pain during the last decade. The introduction of oral lidocaine congeners such as mexiletine has significantly extended the usage of lidocaine therapy in chronic pain
Jianren Mao; Lucy L. Chen
BACKGROUND: There is no standard method of measuring change in chronic pain severity. Clinical trials commonly use serial assessment scales, completed at two points in time, to estimate change in pain severity, while clinicians usually ask patients to make a retrospective assessment of change. How the two methods compare is not known. AIM: To assess different methods of measuring change in chronic pain severity, by comparing changes in scores on a serial measure of chronic pain severity using the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) questionnaire and responders' retrospective perception of change in pain severity. DESIGN OF STUDY: Postal self-completion questionnaires. SETTING: The Grampian region of Scotland. METHOD: Postal questionnaires were sent in March and September 1998 to a random sample of 535 adults with chronic pain, drawn from responders to a postal survey of the region conducted in 1996. RESULTS: Corrected response rates of 87.5% and 90.7% were obtained. Over a six-month period poor levels of agreement were found, with responders' retrospective perceptions mirroring recorded changes in 41.8% of individuals (kappa = 0.081). A low partial correlation coefficient between the two measures (-0.209) was also found. Over a two-year period there were again poor levels of agreement, with responders' retrospective perceptions mirronng recorded changes in 35.2% of individuals (kappa = 0.071). A low partial correlation coefficient (-0.401) was again found. CONCLUSION: There was poor agreement and low correlation between two commonly used methods for assessing change in pain severity over time. This finding has important implications for both service practitioners and researchers.
Elliott, Alison M; Smith, Blair H; Hannaford, Philip C; Smith, W Cairns; Chambers, W Alastair
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) could be considered nowadays a deep health problem that challenges physicians all over the world. This because its aetiology is still unclear, the course of the disease could vary a lot among different patients and through time in the same patient, and the response to treatments is not every time successful. Among women who underwent laparoscopy for CPP, endometriosis is found in about 1/3 of the cases, while only 25% of women with histological confirmed endometriosis are asymptomatic. A wide range of variables may exert their influence on the resulting pain syndrome in endometriosis; for example, score according to American society for reproductive medicine (rASRM), size of the sub-peritoneal and pelvic wall implants, Douglas obliteration, previous surgery. It is widely accepted nowadays that central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) seems to influence each other and this interconnection play a key role in pain modulation. Moreover, the phenomena induced by endometriosis in the pelvis, including the breakdown of peritoneal homeostasis and the induction of the production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines, are responsible of altered innervations and modulation of pain pathways in these patients. There are many proposed medical and surgical approach to treat this painful syndrome, although there is necessity of more efforts to create new non-invasive strategies that set a more accurate diagnosis of the causes of endometriotic-related CPP, and therefore facilitate its eradication.
Triolo, Onofrio; Lagana, Antonio Simone; Sturlese, Emanuele
Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind-body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states - important components of mind-body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569
Bushnell, M Catherine; Ceko, Marta; Low, Lucie A
Chronic pain is one of the clearest examples of the complex relationship between the mind, body, spirit, and environment. After decades of research, a growing body of evidence supports the importance of certain psychological factors in the chronic pain experience. This article reviews research related to evaluating the role of depression, personality factors, pain-related beliefs, trauma, and coping style in the chronic pain experience. Understanding and using the findings of this research can improve nursing care of persons with chronic pain. PMID:15199537
This study had two primary objectives: (1) characterize the content of presleep cognitions of chronic pain patients and (2) evaluate the association between presleep cognitions and sleep disturbance. Thirty-one outpatients with benign chronic pain completed the Beck Depression Inventory, pain and sleep diaries and participated in an in vivo, presleep thought sampling procedure for 1 week in their homes. The
M. T. Smith; M. L. Perlis; T. P. Carmody; M. S. Smith; D. E. Giles
The use of opioids for chronic pain poses multiple challenges for nurse practitioners. While most clients with chronic pain can safely use these medications, there is a subset of patients who may exhibit aberrant behaviors during opioid therapy. These behaviors can indicate the possibility of drug diversion, substance abuse, or undertreated pain. Screening tools, opioid contracts, and urine drug testing
Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged???14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12 months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Conclusion Chronic pain stages, but also disease load and societal inequalities contributed to societal burden. Pain measurements in epidemiology research of chronic pain should include chronic pain grades and disease load.
Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined. PMID:23276258
Becker, Karin L
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is among the most frequent painful complaints that healthcare providers address. The bulk of these complaints are chronic low back pain and chronic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the United States. It is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by a loss of cartilage, and occurs most often in older persons. The management of osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain may involve both nonpharmacologic (eg, weight loss, resistive and aerobic exercise, patient education, cognitive behavioral therapy) and pharmacologic approaches. Older adults with severe osteoarthritis pain are more likely to take analgesics than those with less severe pain. The pharmacologic approaches to painful osteoarthritis remain controversial, but may include topical as well as oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, duloxetine, and opioids. The role of duloxetine for musculoskeletal conditions is still evolving.
Smith, Howard S; Smith, Eric J; Smith, Benjamin R
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is among the most frequent painful complaints that healthcare providers address. The bulk of these complaints are chronic low back pain and chronic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the United States. It is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by a loss of cartilage, and occurs most often in older persons. The management of osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain may involve both nonpharmacologic (eg, weight loss, resistive and aerobic exercise, patient education, cognitive behavioral therapy) and pharmacologic approaches. Older adults with severe osteoarthritis pain are more likely to take analgesics than those with less severe pain. The pharmacologic approaches to painful osteoarthritis remain controversial, but may include topical as well as oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, duloxetine, and opioids. The role of duloxetine for musculoskeletal conditions is still evolving. PMID:22767991
Smith, Howard S; Smith, Eric J; Smith, Benjamin R
Chronic, nonmalignant pain is a substantial public health problem in the United States. Research over the past 2 decades has defined chronic pain by using a "biopsychosocial model" that considers a patient's biology and psychological makeup in the context of his or her social and cultural milieu. Whereas this model addresses the pathology of chronic pain, it also places many demands on the physician, who is expected to assess and manage chronic pain safely and successfully. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that opioids can be effective in the management of chronic pain, but there has also been a rise in opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Clinicians should be aware of assessment tools that may be used to evaluate the risk of opioid abuse. A basic understanding of chronic pain pathophysiology and a uniform approach to patient care can satisfy the needs of both patients and physicians. PMID:23918913
Debono, David J; Hoeksema, Laura J; Hobbs, Raymond D
Background: Chronic postoperative pain has been reported in as many as 62.9% of patients after inguinal herniorrhaphy. Moderate\\u000a to severe neuropathic pain requiring intervention develops in 2.2% to 11.9% of patients as a result of ileoinguinal and genitofemoral\\u000a nerve entrapment. Cryoanalgesic ablation has been successful in treating chronic pain from craniofacial neuralgia, facet joint\\u000a syndrome, and malignant pain syndromes. We
R. D. Fanelli; M. R. DiSiena; F. Y. Lui; K. S. Gersin
Calciphylaxis is a rare but potentially fatal condition occurring in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis. Due to interplay of various factors, disturbances occur in the metabolism of calcium and phosphate leading to calcification within the vessel walls. The net result is tissue ischemia and necrosis. Clinically this presents as painful non-healing skin ulcers, which contribute to significant morbidity and mortality due to septic progression of the lesion. In this case report, we highlight the rapidly progressive nature of this disease, its etiopathogenesis and the role of early diagnosis in preventing life-threatening complications.
Pujar, Thejeswi; Spinello, Irene M
\\u000a Chronic pain is clearly one of the most challenging problems of modern medicine. Chronic pain after trauma in general and\\u000a following combat trauma is not an uncommon component of the problem. Structural lesions affecting central and peripheral neural\\u000a structures, bone and joints, soft tissues and internal organs can all result in chronic pain. Psychological factors associated\\u000a with the trauma, especially
Elon Eisenberg; Simon Vulfsons
Acute pain is often accompanied by physiological changes, such as increased heart rate, unlike chronic pain, which in sharp contrast is often unaccompanied by any physiological changes other than the patients' self report of pain. Coupled with the lack of physiological changes, chronic pain will outlive the usual healing period if an injury has been sustained thereby leading to the unseen nature of the chronic pain phenomenon. This study (n?=?8) adopted a multi-method approach - a low-structured interview coupled with patients' diaries - and was analysed hermeneutically. 'Unseen pain' was identified as a category with subsequent themes of 'isolation', 'needing to prove the existence of chronic pain', 'in their head' and 'depression'. The unseen nature of the chronic pain phenomenon caused further distress to patients as they could feel disbelieved by society as well as by healthcare professionals. This has a profound effect on patients who then channel valuable psychological resources into appearing credible to society and healthcare professionals in particular. The lack of clear explanations and a definitive diagnosis or acceptable label also adds to the invisible nature of the chronic pain phenomenon and as healthcare professionals we need to confirm the validity of the expressed pain narrative through means that do not enforce illness behaviour, but empower the patient to accept their chronic pain and live with it rather than be ruled by it. PMID:18563008
Clarke, Kathryn A; Iphofen, Ron
Diverse mechanisms including activation of NMDA receptors, microglial activation, reactive astrogliosis, loss of descending inhibition, and spasticity are responsible for ?40% of cases of intractable neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because conventional treatments blocking individual mechanisms elicit only short-term effectiveness, a multimodal approach with simultaneous actions against major pain-related pathways may have value for clinical management of chronic pain. We hypothesize that [-]-huperzine A (HUP-A), an alkaloid isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata, that is a potent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and NMDA receptors, could mitigate pain without invoking drug tolerance or dependence by stimulating cholinergic interneurons to impede pain signaling, inhibiting inflammation via microglial cholinergic activation, and blocking NMDA-mediated central hypersensitization. We tested our hypothesis by administering HUP-A i.p. or intrathecally to female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-235 g body weight) after moderate static compression (35 g for 5 min) of T10 spinal cord. Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits. PMID:23386718
Yu, Dou; Thakor, Devang K; Han, Inbo; Ropper, Alexander E; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Sidman, Richard L; Zafonte, Ross; Schachter, Steven C; Teng, Yang D
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific
Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)
Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.
Background Chronicity of pain is one of the most interesting questions in chronic pain study. Clinical and experimental data suggest that supraspinal areas responsible for negative emotions such as depression and anxiety contribute to the chronicity of pain. The amygdala is suspected to be a potential structure for the pain chronicity due to its critical role in processing negative emotions and pain information. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether amygdala or its subregions, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the central medial amygdala (CeA), contributes to the pain chronicity in the spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced neuropathic pain model of rats. Methodology/Principal Findings (1) Before the establishment of the SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats, lesion of the amygdaloid complex with stereotaxic injection of ibotenic acid (IBO) alleviated mechanical allodynia significantly at days 7 and 14, even no mechanical allodynia at day 28 after SNI; Lesion of the BLA, but not the CeA had similar effects; (2) however, 7 days after SNI when the neuropathic pain model was established, lesion of the amygdala complex or the BLA or the CeA, mechanical allodynia was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that BLA activities in the early stage after nerve injury might be crucial to the development of pain chronicity, and amygdala-related negative emotions and pain-related memories could promote pain chronicity.
Chen, Lin; Zhang, Meng; Wan, You
The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children and adolescents with chronic pain. Sixty-nine participants (53 girls and 16 boys, 8-18 years old) were recruited, along with their caregivers, from an outpatient pain management clinic. Participants completed questionnaires regarding the child's pain intensity and HRQOL (physical, emotional, social, and school functioning). Findings indicated that children with chronic pain report significantly lower HRQOL scores compared to population-based normative data and data of children with other chronic illnesses. Lower levels of pain were associated with higher HRQOL scores. In addition to targeting pain management, interventions focused on emotional health are necessary to enhance health outcomes for children with chronic pain. PMID:19268235
Gold, Jeffrey Ira; Yetwin, Alexis Kant; Mahrer, Nicole Eva; Carson, Melissa Catherine; Griffin, Anya T; Palmer, Stephanie Naso; Joseph, Michael Henry
Chronic pain has long been considered an important risk factor for suicidal behavior. Less well understood are the factors associated with the increased risk for suicide death within chronic pain populations. The purpose of this review is to examine recent research with regard to rates of and risk factors for suicide mortality in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conclude that patients with a number of chronic pain states are at increased risk for suicide death, and that this risk appears to be due, at least in part, to other well-known correlates of pain such as depression and substance use disorders. However, in all likelihood, there are aspects of chronic pain itself that add uniquely to an individual's suicide risk profile. Lastly, we address a theoretical perspective and offer recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:24952608
Hassett, Afton L; Aquino, Jordan K; Ilgen, Mark A
This issue of the NCMJ addresses the problem of chronic pain in North Carolina; its diagnosis and management in primary and specialty care; and the need to balance efficacy and safety when prescribing opioid medications, as these drugs are associated with significant potential for misuse and abuse. The commentaries in this issue not only address the use of opioids for the management of chronic pain but also explore various alternatives, including medical marijuana, epidural and other injections, surgery, acupuncture, and other integrative therapies. Articles in this issue also describe the management of chronic pain in palliative care, the ways in which mental health affects pain, and the unintended consequences of chronic pain management. Finally, this issue describes several initiatives across the state that are addressing the epidemic of prescription drug abuse; these initiatives are effecting systematic changes in clinical practice to more effectively manage chronic pain, protect patients, and minimize the negative impact of prescription drug abuse on communities. PMID:23940886
Rowe, John; Caprio, Anthony J
Effective treatment for neuropathic pain is still lacking, because of poor understanding of pathological mechanisms at the molecular level. Chronic pain (inflammatory and neuropathic pain) is believed to be caused by aberrant neuronal responses along the pain transmission pathways. Both peripheral and central origins are likely to be involved in chronic pain, although their contribution may be different depending on the various forms of chronic pain. Glial cells have recently been implicated in neuropathic pain. These cells form close interactions with neurons and thus may modulate nociceptive transmission under pathological conditions. We will first examine the recent progress in the role of glia in neuropathic and inflammatory pain, with particular emphasis on microglia. Finally, we will discuss how the study of the interaction between neuronal and microglial mechanisms can open the door to new therapeutic opportunities, designed to act on the mechanisms underlying the disease (“disease-oriented”) using natural endogenous substances.
Palomba, Rosa; Bonaccia, Paola; Graffi, Marco; Costa, Francesca
Despite multiple theories on the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis, no uniform and consistently successful treatment strategy exists and abdominal pain still remains the dominating symptom for most patients and a major challenge for clinicians. Traditional theories focussed on a mechanical cause of pain related to anatomical changes and evidence of increased ductal and interstitial pressures. These observations form the basis for surgical and endoscopic drainage procedures, but the outcome is variable and often unsatisfactory. This underscores the fact that other factors must contribute to pathogenesis of pain, and has shifted the focus towards a more complex neurobiological understanding of pain generation. Amongst other explanations for pain, experimental and human studies have provided evidence that pain perception at the peripheral level and central pain processing of the nociceptive information is altered in patients with chronic pancreatitis, and resembles that seen in neuropathic and chronic pain disorders. However, pain due to e.g., complications to the disease and adverse effects to treatment must not be overlooked as an additional source of pain. This review outlines the current theories on pain generation in chronic pancreatitis which is crucial in order to understand the complexity and limitations of current therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, it may also serve as an inspiration for further research and development of methods that can evaluate the relative contribution and interplay of different pain mechanisms in the individual patients, before they are subjected to more or less empirical treatment.
Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Olesen, S?ren Schou; Malver, Lasse Paludan; Fr?kjaer, Jens Br?ndum; Drewes, Asbj?rn Mohr
Chronic noncancer pain is a significant and growing public health challenge in the United States. Lacking effective alternative interventions for effective chronic noncancer pain management, many physicians have turned to opioid pharmacotherapy. Increased opioid prescribing brings not only gains in therapeutic benefit but also a higher incidence of adverse drug events including increased medication misuse and opioid related mortality. Currently the United States must confront the dual problems of widespread undertreated chronic noncancer pain and a prescription opioid abuse crisis. Withholding pain relieving drugs from patients in need is unjustifiable, yet drug diversion, abuse and adverse drug events have become major social as well as medical problems. At the heart of this crisis is the lack of definitive evidence about the risk to benefit ratio of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain both on an individual case and on a population basis. This article describes the extent and severity of the American chronic noncancer pain problem and the history of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain in the United States. It then discusses the concept of evidence based practice and reviews current evidence supporting opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain as well as adverse drug events related to opioid pharmacotherapy including misuse and abuse. Finally, it considers the conflict of providing pain relief versus protecting society and reviews steps that governmental agencies, industry and others are taking to contain and ultimately resolve the problems of excessive prescribing and conflicting priorities.
Background People who suffer from psychiatric disorders are burdened with a high prevalence of chronic illnesses and pain, but evidence on pain prevalence among adolescents with psychiatric disorders is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and location of self-reported chronic pain and pain-related disability in adolescent psychiatric patients. Methods This study was part of the larger Health Survey administered at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) at St. Olav’s University Hospital, in Trondheim, Norway. All patients aged 13–18 years who visited the CAP clinic at least once between February 15, 2009 and February 15, 2011 were invited to participate. A total of 717 (43.5% of eligible/invited patients) participated; of these, 566 were diagnosed with one or more psychiatric disorders. The adolescents completed a questionnaire, which included questions about pain and pain-related disability. Clinical diagnoses were classified by a clinician according to International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision criteria. Results In adolescents with psychiatric disorders, 70.4% reported chronic pain, and 37.3% experienced chronic pain in three or more locations (multisite pain). Chronic musculoskeletal pain was the most prevalent type of pain (57.7%). Pain-related disability was found in 22.2% of the sample. The frequency of chronic pain and multisite pain increased with age, and girls reported a higher frequency of chronic pain, multisite pain and pain-related disability than boys did. There was an increased risk of chronic pain among adolescents with mood or anxiety disorders versus those with hyperkinetic disorders, yet this was not present after adjusting for sex. Comorbidity between hyperkinetic and mood or anxiety disorders involved an increased risk of pain-related disability. Conclusions In this study, seven out of 10 adolescents with psychiatric disorders reported chronic pain. These findings indicate the importance of early detection of chronic pain in adolescents with psychiatric disorders, to provide targeted treatment and reduce poor long-term outcomes.
Research on the role of acceptance in adjustment to persisting pain has been facilitated by the development of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). However, the CPAQ has not yet been validated amongst Iranian patients with chronic pain. To examine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the CPAQ (P-CPAQ), 245 Persian-speaking chronic pain patients completed a battery of questionnaires, including: the P-CPAQ, a Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, a slightly modified Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Catastrophizing Scale of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Depression and Anxiety Scales of the Depression Anxiety And Stress Scale-21 and the Pain-Related Interference and Pain Intensity Scales of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Furthermore, to evaluate the reliability of the P-CPAQ, the measure was completed by 24 chronic pain patients, on two occasions that are 2 weeks apart. The results of the principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution. Furthermore, the reliability and construct validity of the P-CPAQ were confirmed. In general, consistent with studies in other countries, the results of the present study indicate that pain acceptance plays an important role in adjustment to chronic pain regardless of cultural and language differences between countries. PMID:22281840
Mesgarian, Fatemeh; Asghari, Ali; Shaeiri, Mohammad Reza; Broumand, Akram
Chronic pain is treated in an individual suffering from chronic pain by administering to the individual an amount of a therapeutic containing a glycine receptor agonist such as D-cycloserine or a GlyT-1 glycine transporter antagonist such as sarcosine in ...
A. V. Apkarian
Objective: Prolotherapy, an injection-based treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain, has grown in popularity and has received sig- nificant recent attention. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of prolotherapy for treatment of chronic musculo- skeletal pain. Data Sources: We searched Medline, PreMedline, Embase, CINAHL, and Allied and Complementary Medicinewith search strat- egies using all current and historical
David Rabago; Thomas M. Best; Mark Beamsley; Jeffrey Patterson
OBJECTIVE: Prolotherapy, an injection-based treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain, has grown in popularity and has received significant recent attention. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of prolotherapy for treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, PreMedline, Embase, CINAHL, and Allied and Complementary Medicine with search strategies using all current and historical names for
BACKGROUND: Due to tolerance development and adverse side effects, chronic pain patients frequently need to be switched to alternative opioid therapy OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of an alternative transdermally applied (TDS) opioid in patients with chronic cancer pain receiving insufficient analgesia using their present treatment. METHODS: A total of 32 patients received alternative opioid therapy, 16 were
C Aurilio; MC Pace; V Pota; P Sansone; M Barbarisi; E Grella; MB Passavanti
The management of chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain, still has significant unmet needs. In addition to inadequate symptomatic relief, there are concerns about adverse effects and addiction associated with treatments. The transplantation of cells that secrete neuroactive substances with analgesic properties into the central nervous system has only become of practical interest in more recent years, but provides a novel strategy to challenge current approaches in treating chronic pain. This review covers pre-clinical and clinical studies from both allogeneic and xenogeneic sources for management of chronic refractory pain.
Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196
Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D
The objectives of this study were to describe (1) coital positions adopted by chronic back pain patients, (2) and to describe sexual function as assessed by Derogatis Inventory of Sexual Functioning (DISF). In addition, patients were asked questions regarding effects of sexual intercourse on severity of pain, influence of pain over sexual functioning, and perceived factors causing sexual problems. This
Trilok N. Monga; Uma Monga; Gabriel Tan; Martin Grabois
The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis in the UK largely rests on the combination of the clinical presentation which usually features pain which is often provoked by food and\\/or alcohol. There is usually a 30 to 40-min delay between the stimulus and the pain and, after exclusion of other causes of pain, an ERCP is performed. A minority of patients will
C. W. Imrie; N. Menezes; C. R. Carter
Multiple abnormalities in pain processing have been reported in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes. These changes include mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, decreased thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli (allodynia), and central sensitization, all of which are fundamental to the generation of clinical pain. Therefore, we hypothesized that quantitative sensory tests may provide useful predictors of clinical pain intensity of such patients. Our previous studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients have shown statistically significant correlations of quantitative sensory test results with clinical pain intensity, including mechanical spatial summation, number of pain areas, wind-up, and wind-up aftersensations. Although these tests predicted up to 59% of the variance in FM clinical pain intensity, their expense and technical complexities limited widespread use in clinical practice and trials. Thus, we developed practical tests of primary (mechanical) and secondary (heat) hyperalgesia that also strongly predict clinical pain intensity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. Thirty-six individuals with FM, 24 with local musculoskeletal pain, and 23 normal controls underwent testing of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia at the shoulders and hands. All subjects rated experimental pains using an electronic visual analog scale. Using either heat or pressure pain ratings as well as tender point counts and negative affect as predictors, up to 49.4% of the patients' variance of clinical pain intensity could be estimated. Results of this study emphasize the important contributions of peripheral and central factors to both local and widespread chronic pain. Overall, measures of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia in combination with tender point and negative affect provided powerful predictors of clinical pain intensity in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients that can be readily used in clinical practice and trials. Perspective Simple tests of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia can predict large proportions of the variance in clinical pain intensity of chronic musculoskeletal pain patients and thus are feasible to be included in clinical practice and clinical trials.
Staud, Roland; Weyl, Elizabeth E.; Price, Donald D.; Robinson, Michael E.
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Chronic zygapophyseal joint arthropathy is a cause of back and neck pain. One proposed method of treating facet joint pathology is ablation of medial branches and dorsal rami with pulsed radiofrequency (RF) waves.PURPOSE: Assessment of efficacy of pulsed RF application for treatment of chronic zygapophyseal joint pain.STUDY DESIGN\\/SETTING: Retrospective study of 114 patients at a pain management clinic.PATIENT
Georgi Mikeladze; Ramon Espinal; Robert Finnegan; James Routon; Dan Martin
Chronic postoperative pain may lead to physical disability and psychosocial distress. In this longitudinal observational study, for the first time we evaluated the relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media (COM) at two university hospitals. Patients were questioned about pain at the site of the surgical incision 3-6 months after the operation, and again 3 months after the first visit. Pain intensity was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS). T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for analyzing data and multivariate analysis. In 155 patients (42 male, 113 female, mean age: 38.57 ± 10.66 years), chronic postoperative pain was observed in 50 cases (32.3 %). A significant decrease in the average score of VAS was observed from 5.18 to 2.64 within 3 months (P = 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was observed between chronic postoperative pain and age, sex, acute postoperative pain and history of Irritable Bowel Syndrome or migraine, but after multivariate analysis, only the age group and severe acute post-operation pain were effective on incidence of chronic post-operative pain. In conclusion, surgery for COM is followed by chronic pain in about 32 % of patients, and some risk factors for the development of chronic postoperative pain after this surgery exist, including age and severe acute post-operation pain. PMID:24052248
Nemati, Shadman; Okhovvat, S Ahmadreza; Naghavi, S Ebrahim; Shakiba, Maryam; Mikaeeli, Saman
The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the efficacy of bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy (TS) for pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Pain is invariably a major debilitating factor in the course of chronic pancreatitis. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of bilateral TS on pain intensity, hospital admissions, and daily functions in patients with debilitating pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Twenty bilateral TS were performed in 20 patients. Follow-up was obtained in all patients and averaged 15 months (6 months to 3 years). To evaluate efficacy of the procedure, all 20 patients were personally interviewed after TS regarding impact of pain and change in lifestyle. Using the 0-10 numeric rating scale, patients ranked pre- and postoperative pain level and overall mood. A KASPER report was obtained for 17 of 20 patients from the Kentucky Drug Control and Professional Practices to obtain accurate information on all narcotic prescriptions filled for 1 year prior to surgery until today. Information from the KASPER report provided very objective information on pain medication use before and after TS. Thirteen patients (65%) had a decreased pain level, and 12 patients (55%) also developed an improved overall mood. The number of hospital admissions for chronic pancreatitis pain decreased in 19 patients (95%), and the days spent in the hospital decreased for 15 patients (75%). Overall, 12 patients (60%) indicated pain symptom relief during a mean duration of 14.8 months after the procedure. KASPER reports indicated a decrease in pain medication prescriptions filled for 9 patients (53%), 3 of which were able to discontinue completely use of opioids for pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. TS is a minimally invasive procedure that appears to offer pain relief, improve quality of life, and reduce narcotic dependence in patients with pain from chronic pancreatitis. The decrease in hospital admissions represents further quality of life improvement in this difficult to treat group of patients. PMID:15212413
Hammond, Bethanie; Vitale, Gary C; Rangnekar, Nick; Vitale, Emily A; Binford, John C
Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to treat postoperative and chronic pain. Animal studies suggest these drugs act in part by blocking prostaglandin production in the spinal cord. We tested intrathecal ketorolac in patients with chronic or postoperative pain. Methods Following Institutional Review Board and Food and Drug Administration approval, 3 clinical studies were performed. First, 15 patients receiving chronic intrathecal morphine received intrathecal ketorolac, 0.5 – 2.0 mg. Second, 12 patients receiving chronic intrathecal morphine received, in a double blinded, randomized, cross over design, intrathecal saline or ketorolac, 2.0 mg, with pain intensity as the primary outcome measure. Third, 30 patients undergoing total vaginal hysterectomy received, in a double blinded, randomized, controlled design, intrathecal saline or ketorolac, 2.0 mg with bupivacaine with time to first morphine dose after surgery as the primary outcome measure. Results Chronic pain patients had many symptoms prior to intrathecal injection, without worsening of these symptoms from ketorolac. Pain intensity was reduced by intrathecal ketorolac, but this did not differ from placebo. In the first study, pain was reduced by intrathecal ketorolac in patients with high cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations, but not in those with normal concentrations. Intrathecal ketorolac did not alter time to first morphine after surgery. Conclusions Intrathecal ketorolac did not relieve chronic pain or extend anesthesia or analgesia from intrathecal bupivacaine administered at the beginning of surgery. Under the conditions of these studies, spinal cylcooxygenase activity appears not contribute to chronic or postoperative pain.
Eisenach, James C.; Curry, Regina; Rauck, Richard; Pan, Peter; Yaksh, Tony L.
Mechanisms underlying chronic pain differ from those underlying acute pain. In chronic pain states, central nervous system (CNS) factors appear to play particularly prominent roles. In the absence of anatomical causes of persistent pain, medical sub-specialities have historically applied wide-ranging labels (e.g., fibromyalgia (FM), irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis and somatisation) for what now is emerging as a single common set of CNS processes. The hallmark of these 'centrally driven' pain conditions is a diffuse hyperalgesic state identifiable using experimental sensory testing, and corroborated by functional neuroimaging. The characteristic symptoms of these central pain conditions include multifocal pain, fatigue, insomnia, memory difficulties and a higher rate of co-morbid mood disorders. In contrast to acute and peripheral pain states that are responsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids, central pain conditions respond best to CNS neuromodulating agents, such as serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and anticonvulsants. PMID:22094191
Phillips, Kristine; Clauw, Daniel J
\\u000a The diagnosis of chronic pain in children and adolescents has often been overshadowed by the potential for malingering and\\u000a school phobia. Nevertheless, with greater stride in the field of pediatric acute pain, there is greater emphasis on the diagnosis\\u000a and management of pain due to the potential for significant bio-behavioral changes with untreated pain (Taddio et al. 1997).\\u000a The purpose
Acute postoperative pain is a still inevitable accompaniment of surgery. Up to 50% of the patients undergoing surgery--depending on its type--develop later on chronic postoperative pain. Psychological variables as minor depression, anxiety and pain-related catastrophizing as well as full-blown mental disorders are known risk factors. The relationship between such variables and postoperative pain is likely reciprocal. PMID:20665360
Dimova, Violeta; Lautenbacher, Stefan
Low back pain is associated with plasticity changes and central hypersensitivity in a subset of patients. We performed a case-control study to explore the discriminative ability of different quantitative sensory tests in distinguishing between 40 cases with chronic low back pain and 300 pain-free controls, and to rank these tests according to the extent of their association with chronic pain. Gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, and psychological measures were recorded as potential confounders. We used 26 quantitative sensory tests, including different modalities of pressure, heat, cold, and electrical stimulation. As measures of discrimination, we estimated receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and likelihood ratios. Six tests seemed useful (in order of their discriminative ability): (1) pressure pain detection threshold at the site of most severe pain (fitted area under the ROC, 0.87), (2) single electrical stimulation pain detection threshold (0.87), (3) single electrical stimulation reflex threshold (0.83), (4) pressure pain tolerance threshold at the site of most severe pain (0.81), (5) pressure pain detection threshold at suprascapular region (0.80), and (6) temporal summation pain threshold (0.80). Pressure and electrical pain modalities seemed most promising and may be used for diagnosis of pain hypersensitivity and potentially for identifying individuals at risk of developing chronic low back pain over time. PMID:22846347
Neziri, Alban Y; Curatolo, Michele; Limacher, Andreas; Nüesch, Eveline; Radanov, Bogdan; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Jüni, Peter
Description of the condition: Chronic pain is a common problem. When defined as pain of greater than three months duration, prevalence studies indicate that up to half the adult population suffer from chronic pain, and 10 to 20% experience clinically significant chronic pain (Smith 2008). In Europe 19% of adults experience chronic pain of moderate to severe intensity with serious
Neil E OConnell; Benedict M Wand; Louise Marston; Sally Spencer; Lorraine H De Souza
Background The management of opiate-dependent intractable abdominal pain caused by chronic pancreatitis remains challenging. The published\\u000a series on the role, safety, feasibility, and efficacy of thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy are reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PREMEDLINE databases were searched, and relevant English language publications were systematically\\u000a retrieved. Data were pooled by two independent reviewers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Between 1994 and 2006, 302 patients were featured in
Saleh Baghdadi; M. Hasan Abbas; Farah Albouz; Basil J. Ammori
Background Chronic pain is a prevalent and debilitating problem. Accurate and timely pain assessment is critical to pain management. In particular, pain needs to be consistently tracked over time in order to gauge the effectiveness of different treatments. In current clinical practice, paper-based questionnaires are the norm for pain assessment. However, these methods are not conducive to capturing or tracking the complex sensations of chronic pain. Pain-QuILT (previously called the Iconic Pain Assessment Tool) is a Web-based tool for the visual self-report and tracking of pain (quality, intensity, location, tracker) in the form of time-stamped records. It has been iteratively developed and evaluated in adolescents and adults with chronic pain, including usability testing and content validation. Clinical feasibility is an important stepping-stone toward widespread implementation of a new tool. Our group has demonstrated Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility in the context of a pediatric chronic pain clinic. We sought to extend these findings by evaluating Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility from the perspective of adults with chronic pain, in comparison with standard paper-based methods (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Objective The goal of our study was to assess Pain-QuILT for (1) ease of use, (2) time for completion, (3) patient preferences, and (4) to explore the patterns of self-reported pain across the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI. Methods Participants were recruited during a scheduled follow-up visit at a hospital-affiliated pain management and physical rehabilitation clinic in southwestern Ontario. Participants self-reported their current pain using the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI (randomized order). A semistructured interview format was used to capture participant preferences for pain self-report. Results The sample consisted of 50 adults (54% female, 27/50) with a mean age of 50 years. Pain-QuILT was rated as significantly easier to use than both the MPQ and BPI (P<.01) and was also associated with the fewest difficulties in completion. On average, the time to complete each tool was less than 5 minutes. A majority of participants (58%, 29/50) preferred Pain-QuILT for reporting their pain over alternate methods (16%, 8/50 for MPQ; 14%, 7/50 for BPI; 12%, 6/50 for “other”). The most commonly chosen pain descriptors on MPQ were matched with Pain-QuILT across 91% of categories. There was a moderate-to-high correlation between Pain-QuILT and BPI scores for pain intensity (r=.70, P<.01). Conclusions The results of this clinical feasibility study in adults with chronic pain are consistent with our previously published pediatric findings. Specifically, data indicate that Pain-QuILT is (1) easy to use, (2) quick to complete, (3) preferred by a majority of patients, and (4) correlated as expected with validated pain measures. As a digital, patient-friendly method of assessing and tracking pain, we conclude that Pain-QuILT has potential to add significant value as one standard component of chronic pain management.
Kumbhare, Dinesh; Stinson, Jennifer N; Henry, James L
Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D
The Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI) was developed to assess eight behavioral coping strategies hypothesized to be important for pain adaptation. But the predictive validity of the CPCI has yet to be tested in a longitudinal study. Here, 321 workers on sick leave after a work accident affecting the low back pain (LBP) region completed the CPCI during the subacute
Manon Truchon; Denis Côté
Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release,
Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.
The paper develops a new theory of chronic pain and pain relief by extracorporeal shock wave treatment. Chronic pain without\\u000a underlying anatomical disorder is looked at as a pathological control function of memory. Conditioned reflexes are considered\\u000a to be engraved memory traces linking sensory input of afferent signals with motor response of efferent signals. This feature\\u000a can be described by
Othmar J. Wess
Objective Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. Methods One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. Results The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Conclusion Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients.
Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija
Although previous studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus plays a role in pain processing, the role of hippocampal subfields is uncertain. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampal subfield volumes and chronic pain in nondemented older adults. The study sample included 86 community-residing adults age 70 or older who were free of dementia and recruited from the Einstein Aging Study. Chronic pain was defined as pain over the last 3 months, that was moderate or severe (minimum rating of 4 out of 10) most, or all of the time. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated using FreeSurfer software. We modeled the association between chronic pain and hippocampal and subfield volume using linear regression. The sample had a mean age of 80 and was 58% female. Chronic pain, present in 55% of the sample, was associated with smaller right and total hippocampal volumes, particularly in women, after adjusting for age, education, and intracranial volume (eTICV). In addition, in women, volume was significantly reduced in participants with chronic pain in right CA2-3 (?=-0.35, p=0.010), right CA4-DG (?=-0.35, p=0.011), left presubiculum (?=-0.29, p=0.030), and left fimbria (?=-0.30, p=0.023). In men, chronic pain was not associated with the volume of any of the hippocampal subfield volumes. Chronic pain in women is associated with a reduction in the volume of right hippocampus and also selected hippocampal subfields. Future studies should clarify the mechanisms underlying the association between regional hippocampal volumes and chronic pain, particularly in women. PMID:24878607
Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Sundermann, Erin E; Smith, Jeremy L; Lipton, Michael L; Lipton, Richard B
This study aimed to identify clinically meaningful profiles of pain coping strategies used by youth with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Participants (n = 699) were pediatric patients (ages 8–18 years) and their parents. Patients completed the Pain Response Inventory (PRI) and measures of somatic and depressive symptoms, disability, pain severity and pain efficacy, and perceived competence. Parents rated their children’s pain severity and coping efficacy. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the 13 PRI subscales identified pain coping profiles in Sample 1 (n = 311) that replicated in Sample 2 (n = 388). Evidence was found of external validity and distinctiveness of the profiles. The findings support a typology of pain coping that reflects the quality of patients’ pain mastery efforts and interpersonal relationships associated with pain coping. Results are discussed in relation to developmental processes, attachment styles, and treatment implications.
Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari Freeman; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A.
The urologic chronic pain conditions such as chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and interstitial cystitis are syndromes whose evaluation and management are controversial. Part of the difficulty in diagnosis and therapy is the heterogeneity of etiologies and symptoms. We propose a six-domain phenotype, which can classify these patients clinically and can direct the selection of therapy in the most evidence
D A Shoskes; J C Nickel; R R Rackley; M A Pontari; DA Shoskes
Although sleep problems are common in patients with chronic pain, it is unclear whether pain mediates (causes) impaired sleep. The relationship between pain and sleep has been difficult to investigate because of the potential confounds of depression and somnolence. This report used clinical trials data for duloxetine in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP) to investigate the direction
David A. Fishbain; Jerry Hall; Adam L. Meyers; Jill Gonzales; Craig Mallinckrodt
The purpose of the study was to examine what kind of effect a relative with chronic pain had on his or her partner and the other members of the family. The methodology used was grounded theory. The sample was a convenience group of 18 chronic pain sufferers, their partners, and one adult child taken from two pain clinics. The subjects were briefed on the purpose of the study, and how their confidentiality would be protected. Informed consent was then obtained. Data were collected through audio-taped interviews, which were conducted on an individual basis in the subject's home environment. Analysis was conducted through the constant comparative method. Findings revealed that two main variables emerged, that of social relationships and coping techniques. The aspects of social relationships affected were the marital partnership, sexual activity, contact with friends and relatives, and roles. This meant that chronic pain caused social isolation, role tension, marital conflict, reduced sexual activity and feelings of anger, anxiety, resentment and despondency in other family members. However, the results also suggested that the extent to which chronic pain negatively affected the chronic pain sufferer's respective partner and other family members was dependent to some extent on how effective the family was in coping with a relative with chronic pain. PMID:8014316
Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:24435355
Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E
A 73-year-old Japanese man developed chronic intractable itching due to prurigo nodularis. High-dose glucocorticoid ointment failed, and the treatment resulted in poor glycemic control. Repeated scratching caused hematogenous bacterial dissemination via cutaneous injuries, resulting in the formation of iliopsoas and spinal epidural abscesses that required long-term antibiotic treatment. Pregabalin was administered to treat the pruritus, and a considerable improvement was observed. A reduction in the dose and intensity of the topical corticosteroids improved the patient's glycemic control, resulting in the complete resolution of the abscesses. Pregabalin significantly improved the patient's pruritus and decreased the risk of infection. PMID:24292753
Imai, Kenjiro; Kishimoto, Miyako; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Ihana, Noriko; Ono, Kanako; Hachiya, Remi; Inoue, Kaori; Goto, Maki; Goto, Atsushi; Noto, Hiroshi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko
Objective. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a very common and costly health problem. Patients presenting to rheumatology clinics with chronic pain can be difficult to manage. We studied 354 patients referred to a rheumatology chronic pain clinic over 5 yrs to identify factors affecting their self-efficacy and intensity of pain. Methods. We collected data for each patient, covering demographic and psychosocial
A. Rahman; E. Reed; M. Underwood; M. E. Shipley; R. Z. Omar
Patients with low back pain (LBP; N = 102), fibromyalgia (FM; N = 100), and headache (HA; N = 100) were asked to describe their pain in their own words, and the words and phrases they used were then classified into 7 global domains (eg, Pain Quality, Pain Magnitude) and as many specific subdomains as needed to capture all of the ideas expressed (eg, under Pain Quality, subdomains such as sharp, achy, and throbbing). Fifteen pain quality subdomains were identified as most common. Nine of these demonstrated significant between-group differences in frequency. For example, patients with FM described their pain as achy more often than patients with LBP or HA; patients with HA described their pain as more throbbing than patients with LBP or FM; and patients with LBP described their pain as more shooting than patients with FM or HA. With the 15 pain quality subdomains representing the universe of most important pain qualities to assess, only 2 of 8 descriptive measures of pain quality were determined to have content validity. The findings are generally consistent with a study that used similar procedures in other patient samples to identify the most common words patients use to describe pain, supporting their generalizability. The findings also support the use of pain quality measures for discriminating between chronic pain conditions. Finally, the findings have important implications for evaluating and modifying pain quality measures as needed. PMID:23933183
Jensen, Mark P; Johnson, Linea E; Gertz, Kevin J; Galer, Bradley S; Gammaitoni, Arnold R
The absence of consistent end organ abnormalities in many chronic pain syndromes has led to a search for maladaptive CNS mechanisms that may explain their clinical presentations and course. Here, we addressed the role of brain regional ?-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission, one of the best recognized mechanisms of pain regulation, in chronic back pain in human subjects. We compared ?-opioid receptor availability in vivo at baseline, during pain expectation, and with moderate levels of sustained pain in 16 patients with chronic nonspecific back pain (CNBP) and in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, using the ?-opioid receptor-selective radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography. We found that CNBP patients showed baseline increases in thalamic ?-opioid receptor availability, contrary to a previously studied sample of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. During both pain expectation and sustained pain challenges, CNBP patients showed regional reductions in the capacity to activate this neurotransmitter system compared with their control sample, further associated with clinical pain and affective state ratings. Our results demonstrate heterogeneity in endogenous opioid system functional measures across pain conditions, and alterations in both receptor availability and endogenous opioid function in CNBP that are relevant to the clinical presentation of these patients and the effects of opioid analgesics on ?-opioid receptors. PMID:24027273
Martikainen, Ilkka K; Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany M; Nuechterlein, Emily B; Cummiford, Chelsea M; Green, Carmen R; Harris, Richard E; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar
Summary The results of Deep Brain Stimulation in deafferentation pain syndromes, in particular in thalamic pain, indicate that excellent long-term pain relief can hardly ever be achieved. We report 7 cases using Motor-Cortex-Stimulation for treating severe trigeminal neuropathic pain syndromes, i.e., dysaesthesia, anaesthesia dolorosa and postherpetic neuralgia. The first implantation of the stimulation device for precentral cerebral stimulation was performed
H. Ebel; D. Rust; V. Tronnier; D. Böker; S. Kunze
Chronic pain is a prevalent and challenging problem for most medical practitioners. Due to complex pathological mechanisms involved in chronic pain, optimal treatment is still under development. The spinal cord is an important gateway for peripheral pain signals transmitted to the brain. In chronic pain states, painful stimuli trigger afferent fibers in the dorsal horn to release neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. These events induce multiple inflammatory and neuropathic processes in the spinal cord dorsal horn and trigger modification and plasticity of local neural circuits. As a result, ongoing noxious signals to the brain are amplified and prolonged, a phenomenon known as central sensitization. In this review, the molecular events associated with central sensitization as well as their clinical implications are discussed.
Cheng, Hsinlin Thomas
A 15-year-old girl with combined immune deficiency syndrome, diagnosed with metastatic squamous cell cancer of the anus, had significant pain secondary to vulvar-perianal condyloma. Conventional treatment with oral and intravenous analgesics was limited by significant side effects of mental status changes and urinary retention leading to clinical deterioration that precluded attempts at chemotherapy. An intrathecal pump was implanted in the challenging setting of neutropenia. There was a drastic improvement in her quality of life and the ability to tolerate further chemotherapy. The option of an intrathecal pump for pain control extended our patient's ability to enjoy important quality time with family by several months. PMID:23652866
Bengali, Raheel; Huang, Mary S; Gulur, Padma
Treating chronic pain syndromes is always challenging. We describe an effective use of an intercostal nerve block using 5% tetracaine in three patients with postherpetic intercostal neuralgia or postoperative intercostal neuralgia. PMID:11880021
Doi, Katsushi; Nikai, Tetsuro; Sakura, Shinichi; Saito, Yoji
Treating chronic pain syndromes is always challenging. We describe an effective use of an intercostal nerve block using 5% tetracaine in three patients with postherpetic intercostal neuralgia or postoperative intercostal neuralgia.
Katsushi Doi; Tetsuro Nikai; Shinichi Sakura; Yoji Saito
Chronic nonmalignant pain is estimated to affect over 50 million Americans. It frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual problems for patients and their families. In spite of its prevalence and consequences, chronic pain is often misunderstood and inadequately managed by healthcare professionals. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I outlines the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacological treatment of chronic pain. Part II addresses a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems. PMID:10711057
Wells-Federman, C L
Respiratory muscle strength is one parameter that is currently proposed to be affected in patients with chronic neck pain. This study was aimed at examining whether patients with chronic neck pain have reduced respiratory strength and with which neck pain problems their respiratory strength is associated. In this controlled cross-sectional study, 45 patients with chronic neck pain and 45 healthy well-matched controls were recruited. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed through maximal mouth pressures. The subjects were additionally assessed for their pain intensity and disability, neck muscle strength, endurance of deep neck flexors, neck range of movement, forward head posture and psychological states. Paired t-tests showed that patients with chronic neck pain have reduced Maximal Inspiratory (MIP) (r = 0.35) and Maximal Expiratory Pressures (MEP) (r = 0.39) (P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength (r > 0.5), kinesiophobia (r < -0.3) and catastrophizing (r < -0.3) were significantly associated with maximal mouth pressures (P < 0.05), whereas MEP was additionally negatively correlated with neck pain and disability (r < -0.3, P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength was the only predictor that remained as significant into the prediction models of MIP and MEP. It can be concluded that patients with chronic neck pain present weakness of their respiratory muscles. This weakness seems to be a result of the impaired global and local muscle system of neck pain patients, and psychological states also appear to have an additional contribution. Clinicians are advised to consider the respiratory system of patients with chronic neck pain during their usual assessment and appropriately address their treatment. PMID:23199797
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
Background Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for four chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain where allocation concealment was determined unambiguously to be adequate. Individual patient data meta-analyses were conducted using data from 29 of 31 eligible trials, with a total of 17,922 patients analyzed. Results In the primary analysis including all eligible trials, acupuncture was superior to both sham and no acupuncture control for each pain condition (all p<0.001). After exclusion of an outlying set of trials that strongly favored acupuncture, the effect sizes were similar across pain conditions. Patients receiving acupuncture had less pain, with scores 0.23 (95% C.I. 0.13, 0.33), 0.16 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.25) and 0.15 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.24) standard deviations lower than sham controls for back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, and chronic headache respectively; the effect sizes in comparison to no acupuncture controls were 0.55 (95% C.I. 0.51, 0.58), 0.57 (95% C.I. 0.50, 0.64) and 0.42 (95% C.I. 0.37, 0.46). These results were robust to a variety of sensitivity analyses, including those related to publication bias. Conclusions Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option. Significant differences between true and sham acupuncture indicate that acupuncture is more than a placebo. However, these differences are relatively modest, suggesting that factors in addition to the specific effects of needling are important contributors to the therapeutic effects of acupuncture.
Vickers, Andrew J.; Cronin, Angel M.; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Lewith, George; MacPherson, Hugh; Victor, Norbert; Foster, Nadine E.; Sherman, Karen J.; Witt, Claudia M.; Linde, Klaus
Chronic orchalgia is a frustrating clinical problem for both the patient and the physician. We present a 17-year-old boy with a bilateral idiopathic chronic intractable orchalgia with failed conservative treatment. For 2 years, he suffered from severe attacks of scrotal pain that affected his daily activities and caused frequent absence from school. Ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency ablation (PRF) of the genital branches of the genitofemoral nerve performed after local anesthetic nerve block confirmed the diagnosis and yielded 6 weeks of symptom relief. Seven-month follow-up revealed complete satisfactory analgesia. The use of PRF is an effective and non-invasive approach to treat intractable chronic orchalgia.
Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Romdhane, Kamel
.\\u000a Objective: Inflammatory cytokines as well as nitric oxide (NO) play a key role in the pathogenesis of persistent and exaggerated pain\\u000a states. To document this, we investigated whether a range of cytokines and NO were detectable in the plasma of chronic pain\\u000a patients and whether cytokine and NO levels correlated with pain severity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Plasma samples of 94 chronic pain patients
A. Koch; K. Zacharowski; O. Boehm; M. Stevens; P. Lipfert; H. J. von Giesen; A. Wolf; R. Freynhagen
A vast body of literature supports the idea that exercise training is an important modality in the treatment and rehabilitation\\u000a of the chronic pain patient. Exercise testing and prescription should therefore be incorporated in the therapeutic armamentarium\\u000a of health care professionals working with chronic pain patients. In this chapter we present the scientific basis of the positive\\u000a effects regular exercise
Harriët Wittink; Tim Takken
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for chronic wrist pain is challenging. Correct assessment of the triangular fibrocartilage,\\u000a hyaline cartilage, ligaments, and tendons has become mandatory for comprehensive decision making in wrist surgery. The MR\\u000a technique, potential and limits of MR imaging in patients with chronic wrist pain will be discussed. MR arthrography with\\u000a injection of gadolinium-containing contrast material into the distal
Marco Zanetti; Nadja Saupe; Ladislav Nagy
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of repeated thermal therapy in patients with chronic pain. Forty-six chronic pain patients were assigned to group A (multidisciplinary treatment, n=24) or group B (combination of multidisciplinary treatment and repeated thermal therapy, n=22). Thermal therapy was performed with 60 °C far-infrared ray dry sauna for 15 min and was then
Akinori Masuda; Masato Hattanmaru; Chuwa Tei
Background: Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).\\u000aObjectives: To evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques in chronic pain.\\u000aSearch strategy: We searched
Neil E OConnor; Benedict M Wand; Louise Marston; Sally Spencer; Lorraine H DeSouza
A child or adolescent can suffer from chronic pain. Whatever the causes, it can trap the child in a specific process whereby they focus on the pain, fearing that it will appear and experiencing anxiety. Hypno-analgesia and hypnotherapy enable them to escape this process and find within themselves the capacity to face up to the pain. Moreover, these techniques offer them an autonomy which they can use in all areas of their life. PMID:24779171
background Although opioids are commonly used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, there are lim- ited data to guide their use. Few controlled trials have been performed, and many types of neuropathic pain remain unstudied. methods Adults with neuropathic pain that was refractory to treatment were randomly assigned to receive either high-strength (0.75-mg) or low-strength (0.15-mg) capsules of the potent µ-opioid
Michael C. Rowbotham; Lisa Twilling; Pamela S. Davies; Lori Reisner; Kirk Taylor; David Mohr
The authors discuss the relationship between atypical facial pain and psychiatric disturbance. They present contemporary viewpoints and describe four cases that illustrate underlying psychodynamic mechanisms associated with pain in patients who had undergone various dental procedures and other treatments without success. They identify factors which might lead to the early detection of underlying psychological problems and discuss the role of learning, the family system and other factors in producing a chronic pain syndrome.
Baile, Walter F.; Myers, Daniel
This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…
Meyer, Genevieve Rogge
This case report presents the medical history of a patient suffering from chronic knee pain with specific heat phobia who had a long history of sick certificates. Using multimodal pain therapy and biofeedback therapy the acquired anxiety disorder could be solved. Long-term working ability could be achieved. PMID:23321701
Pepke, W; Neubauer, E; Schiltenwolf, M
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common condition in women that is difficult to diagnose. Although heritability estimates have been published for some conditions potentially underlying pelvic pain, the heritability of CPP itself has never been investigated. Using data from 623 MZ and 377 DZ female twin pairs aged 29–50 from an Australian twin cohort, we found an increased CPP
Krina T. Zondervan; Lon R. Cardon; Stephen H. Kennedy; Nicholas G. Martin; Susan A. Treloar
... their own and 75-85 percent of the elderly in care facilities suffer from chronic pain. Yet, pain among older adults is largely undertreated, with serious health consequences, such as depression, anxiety, decreased mobility, social isolation, poor sleep, and related health risks. There ...
Pancreaticojejunostomy is the method of choice for surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis in the case of ductal dilation. The operative risk is small and all remaining glandular tissue preserved. At 5 years postoperatively, about two-thirds of the patients still experience pain relief.
Ingemar Ihse; Kurt Borch; Jörgen Larsson
The use of opioid analgesics for long term management of chronic non-cancer pain is now an accepted, although still a controversial medical practice. In some well selected patients with long-lasting or recurrent pain, severe enough to markedly reduce their quality of life, and for whom no other more effective and less risky therapy is available, opioid analgesics may reduce intensity
A phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of 11 adults attending Awareness Through Movement lessons in the Feldenkrais Method to manage chronic-episodic back pain. Semistructured interviews were analyzed. The results suggest improving self-efficacy through somatic education and awareness potentially offers a way forward given the back pain epidemic. PMID:24722612
Pugh, Judith Dianne; Williams, Anne M
Chronic post-thoracotomy pain is a continuous dysaesthetic burning and aching in the general area of the incision that persists at least 2 months after thoracotomy. It occurs in approximately 50% of patients after thoracotomy and is usually mild or moderate. However, in 5% the pain is severe and disabling. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce the
Mark L. Rogers; John P. Duffy
Summary Chronic post-thoracotomy pain is a continuous dysaesthetic burning and aching in the general area of the incision that persists at least 2 months after thoracotomy. It occurs in approximately 50% of patients after thoracotomy and is usually mild or moderate. However, in 5% the pain is severe and disabling. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce
Mark L. Rogers; John P. Duffy
Chronic pain is a common complication after thoracic surgery. The cause of chronic post-thoracotomy pain is often suggested to be intercostal nerve damage. Thus chronic pain after thoracic surgery should have an important neuropathic component. The present study investigated the prevalence of the neuropathic component in chronic pain after thoracic surgery. Furthermore, we looked for predictive factors for prevalence and
Monique A. H. Steegers; Daphne M. Snik; A. F. T. M. Verhagen; Miep A. van der Drift; Oliver H. G. Wilder-Smith
SUMMARY Chronic pain represents a staggering public health burden. Despite research and technologic advances in pain management, chronic pain is grossly undertreated in the USA. Many pain patients are dissatisfied with their treatment regimens, and disparities exist in pain treatment for minorities and for socioeconomically disadvantaged and elderly patients. Many doctors feel inadequately trained to treat chronic pain. Therapeutic opioid use for chronic pain is a particularly challenging issue for both physicians and patients. Strategies for addressing chronic pain from a public health perspective include increased education of physicians and the public, improved integration of pain management across disciplines, and improved systems for monitoring prescription opioids. PMID:24654817
Gupta, Anita; Weber, Nicholas; Duwell, Monique
Substance use disorders (SUDs), whether active or in remission, are often encountered in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Clinicians are challenged when managing chronic pain while facing substance abuse issues during the course of chronic opioid therapy (COT). Further, the interrelated behavioral symptomatology of addiction and chronic pain suggests that if one disorder is untreated, effective treatment of the other in not possible. Incomplete understanding of the overlapping presentations of the two disorders, coupled with insufficient management of both conditions, leads to undertreated pain and premature discharge of SUD patients from pain treatment. In order to achieve pain relief and optimal functionality, both conditions need to be carefully managed. This paper reviews the prevalence of SUDs in chronic pain patents; the overlapping presentation of the two disorders; risk factors and stratification for addiction; identification of addiction in the chronic pain population; and suggestions for treating patients with COT, with an emphasis on relapse prevention. With appropriate assessment and treatment, COT for chronic pain patients with a history of SUD can be successful, leading to improved functionality and quality of life.
Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies.
Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E
One alternative to traditional treatment modalities for chronic pain is continuous intrathecal administration of morphine via an implanted pump. However, relatively little is known about the benefits and long-term complications of this therapy for chronic nonmalignant pain. The purpose of this study was to describe patient responses to continuous intrathecal morphine over the course of one year with respect to morphine dosage used, complications and subjective assessments of pain. Data were obtained from twelve patients who completed one year of therapy. After one year, a 42% reduction in pain as measured by the McGill pain questionnaire had occurred (p < .01). A similar 41% reduction in pain was also present based on the Verbal Descriptor Scale (p < .01). A 35% reduction in the perceived hardship of pain was present (p < .01) accompanied by anecdotal comments that an improvement in the ability to manage activities of daily living had occurred. One patient was able to return to work. A statistically nonsignificant increase in the mean daily dosage of morphine occurred and few long-term adverse effects were present. Complications of implantation occurred in 33.3% of the patients and were successfully managed without discontinuing therapy. In selected patients with chronic pain, intrathecal administration of morphine via an implanted pump can reduce pain with minimal long-term adverse effects or complications. PMID:9791778
Valentino, L; Pillay, K V; Walker, J
BACKGROUND: There is good support for the effectiveness of interdisciplinary chronic pain management programs in improving functional outcomes; however, relatively little is known about patients who report deterioration following participation in such programs. OBJECTIVES: The present retrospective study investigated patients’ reports of increased pain severity during participation in a cognitive-behaviourally oriented, outpatient treatment for chronic pain. METHODS: Participants (n=280) completed a four-week, group-based, interdisciplinary chronic pain self-management program at a rehabilitation hospital. They completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires, which included global change ratings of pain severity and clinically-relevant measures, including pain intensity ratings, functional limitations, pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy. RESULTS: Statistically significant pre-post improvements were observed for all study variables. Almost all patients reported global improvement overall. Nevertheless, a subset of patients (n=99) reported increased pain severity on global ratings. These individuals were characterized by lower self-efficacy at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Participants endorsed significant pre- and post-treatment improvements in all domains. Nevertheless, some participants reported deterioration. The findings shed light on variables associated with negative treatment outcomes and have practical applications for interdisciplinary chronic pain management programs.
Kowal, John; Wilson, Keith G; Geck, Celia M; Henderson, Peter R; D'Eon, Joyce L
The value of chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients is determined by a balance of poorly understood benefits and harms. Traditionally, this balance has been framed as the potential for improved pain control versus risks of iatrogenic addiction, drug diversion, and aberrant drug-related behaviors. These potential harms are typically defined from the providers’ perspective. This paper
Mark D. Sullivan; Michael Von Korff; Caleb Banta-Green; Joseph O. Merrill; Kathleen Saunders
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a frequent cause of suffering and disability that negatively affects patients’ quality of life. There is\\u000a growing evidence that disparities in the treatment of pain occur because of differences in race.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To determine whether race plays a role in treatment decisions involving patients with chronic nonmalignant pain in a primary\\u000a care population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN, SETTING, AND
Ian Chen; James Kurz; Mark Pasanen; Charles Faselis; Mukta Panda; Lisa J. Staton; Jane O’Rorke; Madhusudan Menon; Inginia Genao; JoAnn Wood; Alex J. Mechaber; Eric Rosenberg; Tim Carey; Diane Calleson; Sam Cykert
The purpose of this paper is to review the rationale for concurrent, evidence-based treatment of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To meet this end, we review pertinent definitions and extant theories related to the two conditions and their correlations with each other. We then synthesize theoretical components into a proposal of a comprehensive conceptual framework for understanding the relationship and clinical complexity of overlapping chronic pain and PTSD. We conclude with an example of an integrated treatment model designed specifically to address a fundamental factor associated with pain and PTSD: avoidance.
Gallinati, Jessica L.; Clark, Michael E.
Chronic post-thoracotomy pain is a continuous dysaesthetic burning and aching in the general area of the incision that persists at least 2 months after thoracotomy. It occurs in approximately 50% of patients after thoracotomy and is usually mild or moderate. However, in 5% the pain is severe and disabling. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce the incidence of chronic postthoracotomy pain. The most likely cause is intercostal nerve damage, although the precise mechanism for this is not known. Future work needs to examine surgical technique in detail. Until then, patients need to be adequately warned of this sequela of thoracotomy. PMID:11113680
Rogers, M L; Duffy, J P
Chronic pain remains a significant clinical problem despite substantial advances in our understanding of how persistent nociceptor stimulation drives plasticity in the CNS. A major theme that has emerged in this area of work is the strong similarity between plasticity involved in learning and memory in CNS regions such as cortex and hippocampus with mechanisms underlying chronic pain development and maintenance in the spinal dorsal horn and other CNS areas such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We, and others have recently implicated an atypical PKC (aPKC), called PKM?, in the maintenance of pain plasticity based on biochemical assays and the use of a peptide pseudosubstrate inhibitor called ZIP. These studies indicate remarkable parallels between the potential role of PKM? as a key molecule for the maintenance of long-term memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) and the maintenance of a chronic pain state. On the other hand, very recent studies have disputed the specificity of ZIP and called into question the role of PKM? as a memory maintenance molecule. Here we critically review the evidence that PKM? might represent a new target for the reversal of certain chronic pain states. Furthermore, we consider whether ZIP might have other aPKC or even non-aPKC targets and the significance of such off-target effects for evaluating maintenance mechanisms of chronic pain. We conclude that, current controversies aside, utilization of ZIP as a tool to interrogate maintenance mechanisms of chronic pain and further investigations into the potential role of PKM?, and other aPKCs, in pain plasticity are likely to lead to further insights with the potential to unravel the enigma that is the disease of chronic pain.
Pain is a complex stressor that presents a significant challenge to most aspects of functioning and contributes to substantial physical, psychological, occupational, and financial cost, particularly in its chronic form. As medical intervention frequently cannot resolve pain completely, there is a need for management approaches to chronic pain, including psychological intervention. Psychotherapy for chronic pain primarily targets improvements in physical, emotional, social, and occupational functioning rather than focusing on resolution of pain itself. However, psychological therapies for chronic pain differ in their scope, duration, and goals, and thus show distinct patterns of treatment efficacy. These therapies fall into four categories: operant-behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The current article explores the theoretical distinctiveness, therapeutic targets, and effectiveness of these approaches as well as mechanisms and individual differences that factor into treatment response and pain-related dysfunction and distress. Implications for future research, dissemination of treatment, and the integration of psychological principles with other treatment modalities are also discussed. PMID:24748826
Sturgeon, John A
BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The six-cluster solution was optimal. The patterns observed coincided with: the believer in control; the yea-sayer; the pure chance; the pure internal; the pure professional; and the nay-sayer clusters. The double external or type VI clusters were not observed. Clusters could be classified from the best to the worst adjustment to chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the empirical validity of the theoretical model of LOC patterns proposed in 1982 by Wallston and Wallston among a chronic pain population. The analysis of patterns provides more accurate information regarding the adjustment to pain compared with analysis of the LOC factors separately.
Cano-Garcia, Francisco Javier; Rodriguez-Franco, Luis; Lopez-Jimenez, Ana Maria
Pain is a complex stressor that presents a significant challenge to most aspects of functioning and contributes to substantial physical, psychological, occupational, and financial cost, particularly in its chronic form. As medical intervention frequently cannot resolve pain completely, there is a need for management approaches to chronic pain, including psychological intervention. Psychotherapy for chronic pain primarily targets improvements in physical, emotional, social, and occupational functioning rather than focusing on resolution of pain itself. However, psychological therapies for chronic pain differ in their scope, duration, and goals, and thus show distinct patterns of treatment efficacy. These therapies fall into four categories: operant-behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The current article explores the theoretical distinctiveness, therapeutic targets, and effectiveness of these approaches as well as mechanisms and individual differences that factor into treatment response and pain-related dysfunction and distress. Implications for future research, dissemination of treatment, and the integration of psychological principles with other treatment modalities are also discussed.
Sturgeon, John A
Background and Objective: Chronic pelvic pain affects 15% of women. Our objective was to evaluate empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration and mesh placement in this population. Methods: Retrospective cohort with follow-up questionnaire of women with lateralizing chronic pelvic pain (right or left), ipsilateral inguinal tenderness on pelvic examination, no clinical hernia on abdominal examination, and ipsilateral empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration with mesh placement (2003–2009). Primary outcome was pain level at the last postoperative visit. Secondary outcomes were pain level and SF-36 scores from the follow-up questionnaire. Results: Forty-eight cases met the study criteria. Surgery was done empirically for all patients, with only 7 patients (15%) found to have an ipsilateral patent processus vaginalis (shallow peritoneal dimple or a deeper defect (occult hernia)). Of 43 cases informative for the primary outcome, there was pain improvement in 15 patients (35%); pain improvement then return of the pain in 18 patients (42%); and pain unchanged in 9 patients (21%) and worse in 1 patient (2%). Improvement in pain was associated with a positive Carnett's test in the ipsilateral abdominal lower quadrant (P = .024). Thirteen patients returned the questionnaire (27%), and the pain was now described as improved in 9 patients (69%), unchanged in 4 patients (31%), and worse in none. Three SF-36 subscales showed improvement (physical functioning, social functioning, and pain). Conclusion: In select women with chronic pelvic pain, empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration and mesh placement results in moderate improvement in outcome. A positive Carnett's test in the ipsilateral abdominal lower quadrant is a predictor of better outcome.
Williams, Christina; Allaire, Catherine
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a mysterious pain syndrome with progressive and widespread pain, explicit areas of tender points, stiffness, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and psychological distress without any obvious disease. FM is commonly perceived as a condition of central pain and sensory augmentation. There are documented functional abnormalities in pain and sensory processing in FM. Central sensitization and lack of descending analgesic activity are the 2 leading mechanisms that have been demonstrated by advance in both basic and clinical research. The pathogenesis of FM may also be attributed to the genetic polymorphisms involving serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic systems. Any psychiatric disorders and psychosocial influences in FM may also affect the severity of pain. The various external stimuli or trigger such as infection, trauma, and stress may all contribute to proceed to presentation of FM. The recent launches of 3 US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for FM namely pregabalin, duloxetine, and milnacipran have certainly raised the profile of optimal chronic pain management. However, appropriate evaluation and efficacious management of acute pain has not been as well publicized as chronic pain in FM. Acute pain or flare up caused by any trauma or surgery certainly may present a real challenge for patients with FM and their health care providers. Pre-emptive analgesia and pro-active treatment may offer the momentum for acute pain control based on model of central sensitization and pain in FM. This review article on FM appraises the modern practice of multimodal therapy focus on both acute and chronic pain management. Meanwhile, the evolving nonpharmacological approach is summarized and stressed as an essential component of integrated care in FM. PMID:20458213
Hsu, Eric S
Chronic pain in children has been increasing in prevalence and studies have provided evidence that it impacts the functional/physical aspects of the children's life and their psychological and emotional well-being. Family caregivers of children and adolescents with chronic pain suffer a great sense of burden affecting their emotional, social, and family functioning. The problem is also exacerbated by the additional financial burden secondary to increased physician consultation and medication use. A better understanding of pain in children is needed in order to gain insight in the etiology. The aim of the following article is to provide a review of the literature on the prevalence of chronic pain in children and adolescents and the factors associated with it. PMID:20549898
Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad
Chronic pain is a pervasive health care issue affecting over 50 million Americans and costing more than $100 billion dollars\\u000a annually in lost productivity and health care costs. As a financially and emotionally taxing condition, the families and friends\\u000a of people with chronic pain, as well as society at large, are affected. Current theory supports the role of biological, psychological,
Dennis C. Turk; Hilary D. Wilson
Typically, pain is measured by intensity and sensory characteristics. Although intensity is one of the most common dimensions of pain assessment, it has been suggested that measuring pain intensity in isolation is only capturing part of the pain experience and may not lead to an accurate measurement of how pain impacts a child's daily functioning. The current study aimed to develop a measure that would capture pain intensity along with frequency and duration in a clinical sample of youth diagnosed with chronic pain. The pain-frequency-severity-duration (PFSD) scale was developed and data were collected from a multidisciplinary pain clinic at a large, midwestern children's hospital. Validated measures of functional limitations and health related quality of life were also collected. Significant correlations were found between the PFSD composite score, functional limitations, and health related quality of life. Future research should continue to evaluate this questionnaire utilizing other validated pain measures and other areas potentially impacted by chronic pain and with more diverse samples. This initial finding suggests that the PFSD is a convenient self-reported measure and is strongly related to health related quality of life and functional disability.
Salamon, Katherine S.; Davies, W. Hobart; Fuentes, Melissa R.; Weisman, Steven J.; Hainsworth, Keri R.
This study employed quantitative sensory testing (QST) to evaluate pain responses in chronic spinal pain patients at low risk and high risk for opioid misuse, with risk classification based on scores on the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R). Patients were further sub-grouped according to current use of prescription opioids. Of the 276 chronic pain patients tested, approximately 65% were taking opioids; a median split was used to further categorize these patients as being on lower or higher doses of opioids. The highrisk group (n= 161) reported higher levels of clinical pain, had lower pressure and thermal pain thresholds at multiple body sites, had lower heat pain tolerance, and rated repetitive mechanical stimuli as more painful relative to the low-risk group (n= 115; p’s< .01). In contrast, QST measures did not differ across opioid groups. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that indices of pain-related distress (i.e., anxiety and catastrophizing about pain) were also predictive of hyperalgesia, particularly in patients taking opioids. Collectively, regardless of opioid status, the high-risk group was hyperalgesic relative to the low-risk group; future opioid treatment studies may benefit from the classification of opioid risk, and the examination of pain sensitivity and other factors that differentiate high- and low-risk groups.
Edwards, Robert R.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Michna, Ed; Greenbaum, Seth; Ross, Ed; Jamison, Robert N.
OBJECTIVE To review the evidence on safe and effective prescribing of opioids for chronic non-malignant pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the terms “opioid effectiveness” and “adverse effects.” There is strong evidence that opioids are effective for both nociceptive and neuropathic pain, but limited evidence that they are effective for pain disorder. There is little information on their effectiveness at high doses or on the adverse effects of high doses. MAIN MESSAGE Opioids should be initiated after an adequate trial of acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for nociceptive pain and of tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain. Patients should be asked to sign treatment agreements and to give informed consent to treatment. Patients should experience a graded analgesic response with each dose increase. Titrate doses of immediate-release opioids slowly upward until pain reduction is achieved, and then switch patients to controlled-release opioids. Most patients with chronic non-malignant pain can be managed with<300 mg/d of morphine (or equivalent). CONCLUSION Opioids are safe and effective for managing chronic pain.
Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Midmer, Deana
Up to 80% of patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder are suffering from “unexplained” chronic pain. Theories about the links between traumatization and chronic pain have become the subject of increased interest over the last several years. We will give a short summary about the existing interaction models that emphasize particularly psychological and behavioral aspects of this interaction. After a synopsis of the most important psychoneurobiological mechanisms of pain in the context of traumatization, we introduce the hypermnesia–hyperarousal model, which focuses on two psychoneurobiological aspects of the physiology of learning. This hypothesis provides an answer to the hitherto open question about the origin of pain persistence and pain sensitization following a traumatic event and also provides a straightforward explanatory model for educational purposes.
Egloff, Niklaus; Hirschi, Anna; von Kanel, Roland
The evolution of contemporary clinical pain care dates back to the pub- lication of Melzack and Wall's gate control theory in the journal Science in 1965 (1). Around that time, most of the attention was given to the ''gate'' in this theory of pain, which referred to inhibitory interneurons within the sub- stantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn of the
Mark D. Sullivan; James P. Robinson
Background: Opioid analgesics are the cornerstone of management for malignant pain. Their use in managing chronic, nonmalignant pain, albeit controversial, has increased in recent years. The decisions about whether to initiate opioid therapy or continue it over time should be guided by a comprehensive patient assessment. During long-term treatment, this assessment should focus on a broad range of outcomes, each
Steven D Passik; Kenneth L Kirsh; Laurie Whitcomb; Russell K Portenoy; Nathaniel P Katz; Leah Kleinman; Sheri L Dodd; Jeffrey R Schein
Abdominal aortic aneurysm has a population prevalence of 2-5% and mortality in case of rupture of 80%. Up to 91% of cases is accompanied with low back pain, so it is important to include aortic aneurysm in the differential diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Low back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultions in Services Emergency Hospital Emergency and Primary Care Services, with an estimated 80% of population having spinal pain at some point in their lives, with 90% of them having a benign course. PMID:24095169
Zúñiga Cedó, E; Vico Besó, L
Imperforate hymen in an adolescent usually presents with cyclic abdominal pain or with pelvic mass associated with primary amenorrhea. We present a 13-year-old girl with chronic lower back pain of 6 months' duration as the only complaint. On physical examination, multiple trigger points were detected in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hematometrocolpos secondary to an imperforate hymen. Hymenectomy was performed, with complete resolution of the back pain. Myofascial pain syndrome with a viscerosomatic reflex is a possible explanation for the clinical presentation of our patient. PMID:23958769
Domany, Erel; Gilad, Oded; Shwarz, Michael; Vulfsons, Simon; Garty, Ben Zion
Proinflammatory central immune signaling contributes significantly to the initiation and maintenance of heightened pain states. Recent discoveries have implicated the innate immune system, pattern recognition Toll-like receptors in triggering these proinflammatory central immune signaling events. These exciting developments have been complemented by the discovery of neuronal expression of Toll-like receptors, suggesting pain pathways can be activated directly by the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns or danger associated molecular patterns. This review will examine the evidence to date implicating Toll-like receptors and their associated signaling components in heightened pain states. In addition, insights into the impact Toll-like receptors have on priming central immune signaling systems for heightened pain states will be discussed. The influence possible sex differences in Toll-like receptor signaling have for female pain and the recognition of small molecule xenobiotics by Toll-like receptors will also be reviewed.
Nicotra, Lauren; Loram, Lisa C; Watkins, Linda R; Hutchinson, Mark R
Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine commissioned a systematic review of the evidence on chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. Although evidence is limited, the expert panel concluded that chronic opioid therapy can be an effective therapy for carefully selected and monitored patients with chronic noncancer pain. However, opioids are also associated with potentially serious harms, including opioid-related adverse effects and outcomes related to the abuse potential of opioids. The recommendations presented in this document provide guidance on patient selection and risk stratification; informed consent and opioid management plans; initiation and titration of chronic opioid therapy; use of methadone; monitoring of patients on chronic opioid therapy; dose escalations, high-dose opioid therapy, opioid rotation, and indications for discontinuation of therapy; prevention and management of opioid-related adverse effects; driving and work safety; identifying a medical home and when to obtain consultation; management of breakthrough pain; chronic opioid therapy in pregnancy; and opioid-related polices. Perspective: Safe and effective chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain requires clinical skills and knowledge in both the principles of opioid prescribing and on the assessment and management of risks associated with opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion. Although evidence is limited in many areas related to use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain, this guideline provides recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary expert panel following a systematic review of the evidence.
Chou, Roger; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Fine, Perry G.; Adler, Jeremy A.; Ballantyne, Jane C.; Davies, Pamela; Donovan, Marilee I.; Fishbain, David A.; Foley, Kathy M.; Fudin, Jeffrey; Gilson, Aaron M.; Kelter, Alexander; Mauskop, Alexander; O'Connor, Patrick G.; Passik, Steven D.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Portenoy, Russell K.; Rich, Ben A.; Roberts, Richard G.; Todd, Knox H.; Miaskowski, Christine
Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in sodium channel expression and localization in chronic inflammation and nerve injury in animal and human tissues. We conclude by discussing the role that myelination plays in organizing and maintaining sodium channel clusters at nodes of Ranvier in normal development and how inflammatory processes or nerve injury alter the characteristics of such clusters. Based on these findings, we suggest that chronic pain may in part result from partial demyelination of axons during chronic injury, which creates aberrant sodium channel clusters that serve as sites of ectopic sensitivity or spontaneous activity.
Levinson, Simon R.; Luo, Songjiang; Henry, Michael A.
Background: Few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated preoperative and surgical risk factors for acute postoperative pain after surgery for breast cancer. We investigated demographic, psychological, pain-related and surgical risk factors in women undergoing resectional surgery for breast cancer. Methods: Primary outcomes were pain severity, at rest (PAR) and movement-evoked pain (MEP), in the first postoperative week. Results: In 338 women undergoing surgery, those with chronic preoperative pain were three times more likely to report moderate to severe MEP after breast cancer surgery (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.45–6.99). Increased psychological ‘robustness', a composite variable representing positive affect and dispositional optimism, was associated with lower intensity acute postoperative PAR (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48–0.82) and MEP (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54–0.93). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and intraoperative nerve division were associated with reduced postoperative pain. No relationship was found between preoperative neuropathic pain and acute pain outcomes; altered sensations and numbness postoperatively were more common after axillary sample or clearance compared with SLNB. Conclusion: Chronic preoperative pain, axillary surgery and psychological robustness significantly predicted acute pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer. Preoperative identification and targeted intervention of subgroups at risk could enhance the recovery trajectory in cancer survivors.
Bruce, J; Thornton, A J; Scott, N W; Marfizo, S; Powell, R; Johnston, M; Wells, M; Heys, S D; Thompson, A M
The purpose of the study was to address the impact of pain perception, morbidity and mood on functional impairment in elderly chronic pain patients. Multimorbid pain patients beyond the age of 65 in two geriatric hospitals (n = 84), a pain clinic (n = 60) and three general practices (n = 117) provided information about pain perception, comorbidity, additional symptoms and mood by means of the "Structured Pain Interview for Geriatric Patients", the "Cumulative Illness Rating Scale" and a list of symptoms. Data analysis relied on stepwise multiple regression with variables of pain perception entered in the first step, of morbidity entered in the second step and of mood entered in the third step. Although patients believe that pain is the main reason for their functional impairment (71.3%), the data do not support this assumption. Increasing morbidity and bad mood have more impact to reduced functional performance than the pain perception. Our results support the recommendation that a multimodal program should be offered to even multimorbid and older people with chronic pain in order to achieve a maximum of functional rehabilitation. PMID:15338154
Schuler, Matthias S; Basler, H D; Hesselbarth, S; Kaluza, G; Sohn, W; Nikolaus, Th
Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance), use of opioids, and premorbid alcohol abuse. The cognitive profiles of 16 patients with severe pain due to chronic pancreatitis were determined using an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data from three cognitive domains (psychomotor performance, memory, executive functions) were compared to data from healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Multivariate multilevel analysis of the data showed decreased test scores in patients with chronic pancreatitis pain in different cognitive domains. Psychomotor performance and executive functions showed the most prominent decline. Interestingly, pain duration appeared to be the strongest predictor for observed cognitive decline. Depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, opioid use and history of alcohol abuse provided additional explanations for the observed cognitive decline in some of the tests, but to a lesser extent than pain duration. The negative effect of pain duration on cognitive performance is compatible with the theory of neurodegenerative properties of chronic pain. Therefore, early and effective therapeutic interventions might reduce or prevent decline in cognitive performance, thereby improving outcomes and quality of life in these patients.
Souren, Pierre; Arns, Martijn; Gordon, Evian; Vissers, Kris; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; van Rijn, Clementina M.; van Goor, Harry
Objective To review the epigenetic modifications involved in the transition from acute to chronic pain and to identify potential targets for the development of novel, individualized pain therapeutics. Background Epigenetics is the study of heritable modifications in gene expression and phenotype that do not require a change in genetic sequence to manifest their effects. Environmental toxins, medications, diet, and psychological stresses can alter epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and RNA interference. Since epigenetic modifications potentially play an important role in inflammatory cytokine metabolism, steroid responsiveness, and opioid sensitivity, they are likely key factors in the development of chronic pain. Although our knowledge of the human genetic code and disease-associated polymorphisms has grown significantly in the past decade, we have not yet been able to elucidate the mechanisms that lead to the development of persistent pain after nerve injury or surgery. Design Focused literature review Results Significant laboratory and clinical data support the notion that epigenetic modifications are affected by the environment and lead to differential gene expression. Similar to mechanisms involved in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and inflammatory disorders, the literature endorses an important potential role for epigenetics in chronic pain. Conclusions Epigenetic analysis may identify mechanisms critical to the development of chronic pain after injury, and may provide new pathways and target mechanisms for future drug development and individualized medicine.
Buchheit, Thomas; Van de Ven, Thomas; Shaw, Andrew
Chronic pain, whether localized or generalized, is a widespread, often debilitating condition affecting > 25% of adults in the United States. Oral agents are the cornerstone of chronic pain treatment, but their use may be limited in certain patients, particularly the elderly. Topical therapies offer advantages over systemically administered medications, including the requirement of a lower total systemic daily dose for patients to achieve pain relief, site-specific drug delivery, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism, major drug interactions, infections, and systemic side effects. Several types of topical agents have been shown to be useful in the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Both capsaicin and topical diclofenac have been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with chronic soft-tissue pain. In patients with hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA), the American College of Rheumatology generally recommends oral treatments (acetaminophen, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], tramadol, and intra-articular corticosteroids) and topical NSAIDs equally, favoring topical agents only for patients who have pre-existing gastrointestinal risk or are aged ? 75 years. Topical NSAIDs have been shown to provide relief superior to that of placebo and comparable to that of oral ibuprofen. Similarly, ketoprofen gel has been shown to be superior to placebo and similar to oral celecoxib in reducing pain in patients with knee OA. Different formulations of topical diclofenac (including the diclofenac hydroxyethyl pyrrolidine patch, diclofenac sodium gel, and diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w with dimethyl sulfoxide USP) have been shown to be superior to placebo and comparable to oral diclofenac in the treatment of patients with pain due to knee OA, with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal complaints than with the oral formulation. In patients with neuropathic pain, topical forms of both capsaicin and lidocaine have been shown to be useful in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Lidocaine has also demonstrated efficacy in relieving patient pain due to complex regional pain syndrome and may be useful in the treatment of patients with neuropathic pain who have cancer, although clinical trial results have not been consistent. Data suggest that topical therapies may offer a safe, well-tolerated, and effective alternative to systemic therapies in the treatment of patients with chronic, localized musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. PMID:24547601
Stanos, Steven P; Galluzzi, Katherine E
This project continues to be a biomarker discovery program focusing on the causes of persistent pain after traumatic amputation in the combat setting. In the second year we have: (1) maintained the necessary regulatory approval at WRMC and Duke University...
A. D. Shaw
For the present investigation 31 out-patients suffering from chronic pain received a pain diary, that is a booklet in which they recorded their pain level on visual analogue scales and daily activities several times during a day. We used weekly interviews and the patient's records in the diary to evaluate the patient's compliance and the influence of a pain diary on the pain perception and on the physician-patient-interaction. We found that most of the patients were willing and able to use the pain diary. 30 out of 31 patients kept the diary voluntarily for an average period of 4 weeks. 70% of the patients regarded the pain diary as helpful irrespective of whether or not they considered it at the same time as burden. Only 10% reported difficulties in using the pain diary. The majority of patients (70%) noticed no change by the use of the diary in their general pain perception, about 17% reported to feel an increasing fixation on their pain, while 13% felt more distance from their pain by using a pain diary. The use of a pain diary produces a survey over the pain for a longer period than a usual consultation could present. In particular the relationship between the pain level and other recorded events and activities becomes visible. The apin data become especially clear when displayed graphically in a "pain curve". In this way therapeutic interventions can be checked whether or not they are efficient. Each patient was asked at every meeting to indicate on a separate visual analogue scale the pain level he would consider bearable. This mark was accepted by all patients as their aim for the therapy, a more realistic aim than the expectation of a complete freedom from pain. When observed over a period of at least two weeks we found this mark staying constant with half of the patients. In 23.8% the patients decreased this subjectively bearable pain level more than 1 cm, in 14.3% the level was increased. In 9.5% it varied without any clear tendency. For many patients the pain diary was an impulse for an argument with their pain and life situation. Patients from this study reported a better control over their pain and improved conciousness of their own body. As the patient plays an active part the pain diary promotes an equal cooperation between physician and patient. The new information derived from a pain diary enables both patient and physician to alter their point of view. PMID:18415350
Schülin, C; Seemann, H; Zimmermann, M
Cognitive-behavioural therapy and maintenance of exercise have emerged as major tools in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain. Patients' beliefs about their problem may influence their uptake of and responses to particular treatment modalities. In particular, we hypothesised that patients' beliefs about the cause and treatment of pain may mediate changes in physical disability following participation in a multidisciplinary pain management programme. A cohort of 84 patients was invited to respond to booklets of self-report questionnaires prior to, immediately after and 3 months following participation in multidisciplinary pain management programmes. Questionnaires addressed subjects' beliefs about the nature and treatment of pain (Pain Beliefs Questionnaire), and their disability (Likert-modified Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire, Physical Functioning scale of the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire). Patients with chronic low back pain who more strongly endorsed 'organic' concepts about the nature and treatment of pain reported higher levels of physical disability at baseline, and displayed greater reductions in disability following participation in the pain management programmes. Reductions in reported 'organic' pain beliefs were associated with improvements in reported disability. Endorsement of 'psychological' concepts about the nature and treatment of pain was not associated with disability. These findings support a view that patients' beliefs about the nature and treatment of their pain can change during participation in a multidisciplinary pain management programme based on cognitive-behavioural intervention. Modification of these beliefs may be associated with improvements in patients' perceptions of the level of their disability. PMID:12031776
Walsh, David Andrew; Radcliffe, Jenny Clare
Introduction: Although medicinal cannabis has been used for many centuries, the therapeutic potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC; international non-proprietary name = dronabinol) in current pain management remains unclear. Several pharmaceutical products with defined natural or synthesized ?9-THC content have been developed, resulting in increasing numbers of clinical trials investigating the analgesic efficacy of dronabinol in various pain conditions. Different underlying pain mechanisms, including sensitization of nociceptive sensory pathways and alterations in cognitive and autonomic processing, might explain the varying analgesic effects of dronabinol in chronic pain states. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and mechanisms of action of products with a defined dronabinol content are summarized. Additionally, randomized clinical trials investigating the analgesic efficacy of pharmaceutical cannabis based products are reviewed for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain. Expert opinion: We suggest a mechanism-based approach beyond measurement of subjective pain relief to evaluate the therapeutic potential of dronabinol in chronic pain management. Development of objective mechanistic diagnostic biomarkers reflecting altered sensory and cognitive processing in the brain is essential to evaluate dronabinol induced analgesia, and to permit identification of responders and/or non-responders to dronabinol treatment. PMID:24819592
de Vries, Marjan; van Rijckevorsel, Dagmar Cm; Wilder-Smith, Oliver Hg; van Goor, Harry
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is supposedly caused by an ectatic blood vessel affecting the trigeminal nerve at the root entry zone of the brain stem. Recent evidence suggests an additional central component within trigeminal pain-processing in the pathophysiology of TN. Therefore, we aimed to identify specific brain regions possibly associated with the development or maintenance of TN using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Sixty patients with classical TN were compared to 49 healthy controls. Eighteen patients had TN with concomitant constant facial pain, a condition previously described as a predictor of worse treatment outcome. We found gray matter (GM) volume reduction in TN patients compared to healthy controls in the primary somatosensory and orbitofrontal cortices, as well as the in the secondary somatosensory cortex, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), cerebellum, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. GM volume decrease within the ACC, parahippocampus, and temporal lobe correlated with increasing disease duration in TN. There were no differences comparing patients with and without concomitant constant facial pain. No GM increase was found comparing patient subgroups with each other and with healthy controls. The observed changes probably reflect the impact of multiple, daily attacks of trigeminal pain in these patients similar to what was previously described in other chronic pain conditions and may be interpreted as adaptation mechanism to chronic pain in regard to neuronal plasticity. The ACC, parahippocampus and temporal lobe volume reduction in parallel with disease duration may point to a pivotal role of these structures in chronic pain. PMID:23485849
Obermann, Mark; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Naegel, Steffen; Holle, Dagny; Mueller, Daniel; Yoon, Min-Suk; Theysohn, Nina; Blex, Sebastian; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Katsarava, Zaza
Many women with CPP undergo lengthy evaluations and sometimes empiric operative procedures only to continue to have pain for which no clear source can be found. Occasionally, a review of urinary symptoms may be the key to initiating a diagnostic and therapeutic course that reveals a urologic cause for their pain. Appropriate treatment directed to the urinary disorder may lead to improvement and potentially obviate gynecologic surgery. PMID:8115084
Summitt, R L
Adequate sleep is essential for health across the lifespan and is likely to be influenced by different factors among those\\u000a with chronic pain than among others. Questionnaires were administered to 362 college students, some of whom reported chronic\\u000a pain from varied sources. Among chronic pain sufferers (n = 108), pain severity was uniquely associated with sleep quality after controlling for gender, BMI,
Jennifer E. GrahamKatherine; Katherine L. Streitel
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Pain is the most common reason patients with inflammatory arthritis see a rheumatologist. Patients consistently rate pain as one of their highest priorities, and pain is the single most important determinant of patient global assessment of disease activity. Although pain is commonly interpreted as a marker of inflammation, the correlation between pain intensity and measures of peripheral inflammation is imperfect. The prevalence of chronic, non-inflammatory pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia is higher among patients with inflammatory arthritis than in the general population. Inflammatory arthritis patients with fibromyalgia have higher measures of disease activity and lower quality of life than inflammatory patients who do not have fibromyalgia. This review article focuses on current literature involving the effects of pain on disease assessment and quality of life for patients with inflammatory arthritis. It also reviews non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for treatment of pain for patients with inflammatory arthritis, focusing on the implications of comorbidities and concurrent disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Although several studies have examined the effects of reducing inflammation for patients with inflammatory arthritis, very few clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of treatment directed specifically towards pain pathways. Most studies have been small, have focused on rheumatoid arthritis or mixed populations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis plus osteoarthritis), and have been at high risk of bias. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to examine the mechanisms of pain in inflammatory arthritis and to determine the safety and efficacy of analgesic medications in this specific patient population.
This study was undertaken to explore whether the neural substrates demonstrated in brain imaging studies on experimentally induced pain are involved in the perception of chronic neuropathic pain. We investigated the cerebral representation of chronic lateralised ongoing pain in patients with painful mononeuropathy (PMN, i.e., pain in the distribution of a nerve, neuralgia) with positron emission tomography (PET), using regional
Jen-Chuen Hsieh; Måns Belfrage; Sharon Stone-Elander; Per Hansson; Martin Ingvar
This study evaluated a theoretically and empirically based model of the progression of acute neck and back pain to chronic pain and disability, developed from the literature in chronic pain, cognition, and stress and trauma. Clinical information and standardized psychosocial measures of cumulative traumatic events exposure (TLEQ), depressed mood (CES-D), pain (DDS), physical disability (PDI), and pain beliefs (PBPI) were
Corinna Young Casey; Melanie A. Greenberg; Perry M. Nicassio; R. Edward Harpin; David Hubbard
Many cancer survivors suffer from chronic pain related to treatment. Pain management in the survivor is similar to chronic noncancer pain, with the important caveat that new or worsening pain must be promptly assessed for malignancy. This article reviews cancer survivorship, identifies common pain problems, and discusses strategies for management. PMID:23640011
Davies, Pamela Stitzlein
Background This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional Pain Modulation (CPM)]? We included females with chronic MPS (n?=?47) and healthy controls (n?=?11), aged 19 to 65 years. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by TMS, and anxiety was assessed based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The disability related to pain (DRP) was assessed by the Profile of Chronic Pain scale for the Brazilian population (B:PCP:S), and the psychophysical pain measurements were measured by the QST and CPM. Results In patients, trait-anxiety was positively correlated to intracortical facilitation (ICF) at baseline and after QST evoked pain (??=?0.05 and ??=?0.04, respectively) and negatively correlated to the cortical silent period (CSP) (??=?-1.17 and ??=?-1.23, respectively) (P <0.05 for all comparisons). After QST evoked pain, the DRP was positively correlated to ICF (??=?0.02) (P?0.05). Pain scores during CPM were positively correlated with trait-anxiety when it was concurrently with high DRP (??=?0.39; P?=?0.02). Controls’ cortical excitability remained unchanged after QST. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in chronic MPS, the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory descending systems of the corticospinal tract is associated with higher trait-anxiety concurrent with higher DRP.
Chronic pain is a highly prevalent condition that impacts adversely on individual quality of life, imposes substantial costs on the healthcare system and a considerable burden on society. Advances in the understanding of pain mechanisms have opened the way for the development of new treatment strategies. The continuous delivery of short-lived potent bioactive molecules to sensory nerves, spinal cord or meninges - achieved by directed gene transfer - offers the possibility to selectively interrupt nociceptive neurotransmission or to interfere with the plastic changes in the nervous system underlying the development or persistence of chronic pain. In this review we describe advances in the use of non-viral and viral vector-based gene transfer for the treatment of pain, with a special focus on the use of recombinant non-replicating herpes simplex virus-based vectors and the prospects for clinical trials.
Mata, Marina; Hao, Shuanglin; Fink, David J.
The purpose of this paper is to outline the application of a new form of chronic pain management which is currently under investigation by the writer as a PhD study with the University of Wales, Cardiff, UK. The study was initiated by the writer whilst working as a Senior Nurse Specialist in pain management. It is anticipated that the results of the study will be available by 1996. The concept of the Snoezelen will be discussed. Snoezelen has been used by many centres for the care of individuals with learning disabilities. The paper will also describe the Snoezelen centre based in Chesterfield, UK and some of the experiences that are available. Finally, the rationale behind the application of a strategy for the management of individuals experiencing chronic pain will be discussed relating to some of the appropriate literature. As a result of this study several pain clinics are interested in looking at the use of some of the concepts. PMID:9439265
Two patients with severe chronic pain of pancreatic origin are described. In both there was severe back pain and an area of erythema ab igne lay directly over the portion of the pancreas giving rise to the pain. In both patients therapy directed at these areas of diseased pancreas resulted in relief of symptoms. The presence of erythema ab igne on a patient's back at the level of T12-L2 should arouse suspicion of underlying pancreatic pathology, and this may be valuable in a disease with remarkably little to find on clinical examination. In one patient early obstruction of the pancreatic duct by pancreatic carcinoma caused distal chronic pancreatitis and back pain many months before the onset of obstructive jaundice. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. B
Mok, D W; Blumgart, L H
The aim of this pilot study was to add weight to a hypothesis according to which patients presenting with chronic neck pain could have a predisposition towards respiratory dysfunction. Twelve patients with chronic neck pain and 12 matched controls participated in this study. Spirometric values, maximal static pressures, forward head posture and functional tests were examined in all subjects. According to the results, chronic neck patients presented with a statistically significant decreased maximal voluntary ventilation (P = 0.042) and respiratory muscle strength (Pimax and Pemax), (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, the current study demonstrated a strong association between an increased forward head posture and decreased respiratory muscle strength in neck pateits. The connection of neck pain and respiratory function could be an important consideration in relation to patient assessment, rehabilitation and consumption of pharmacological agents. PMID:19187335
Kapreli, E; Vourazanis, E; Billis, E; Oldham, J A; Strimpakos, N
Chronic pelvic pain is a common problem presenting a major challenge to healthcare professionals. This is partly due to the lack of understanding of the aetiology and natural history of the disease. This condition is best managed using a multidisciplinary approach. In recent years, the emphasis in the clinical management has tended towards psychosocial or psychosexual involvement after organic disease has been excluded. Key Words: pelvic pain
Ghaly, A.; Chien, P.
Summary \\u000a Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is commonly described as pain in the lower abdominal area of at least six months duration not associated\\u000a with the menstrual cycle or intercourse. Prevalence rate for CPP in the United States was found to be 15% in a large sample\\u000a of women aged 18–50 years.\\u000a \\u000a In most cases physical evaluation and the use of
A. M. Bergant; M. Widschwendter
Eighty-eight patients (58 women and 30 men; mean age 53.4 years) with chronic non-cancer pain present on average for 9.8 years were evaluated following treatment with intrathecal opioids for an average duration of 36.2 months. Outcome measures were global pain relief, physical activity levels, medication consumption, work status, intrathecal opioid side-effects, proportion of patients who ceased therapy and patient satisfaction.
Lindy J. Roberts; Phillip M. Finch; C. Roger Goucke; Leanne M. Price
BACKGROUND: The etiology and treatment of chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP\\/CPPS) remain poorly understood. Pain, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms and negative impact on quality of life (QOL) are the most common complaints. Acupuncture, which has been widely used to treat painful and chronic conditions, may be a potential treatment to alleviate the constellation of symptoms experienced by men
Jillian L Capodice; Zhezhen Jin; Debra L Bemis; David Samadi; Brian A Stone; Steven Kapan; Aaron E Katz
Study design:?Systematic review Objective:?To compare the safety and effectiveness of fusion versus denervation for chronic sacroiliac joint pain after failed conservative management. Summary of background:?Methods of confirming the sacroiliac joint as a pain source have been extensively studied and reported in the literature. After confirmation of the origin of the pain by positive local anesthetic blocks, chronic sacroiliac joint pain is usually managed with a combination of medication, physical therapies, and injections. We have chosen to compare two alternative treatments for sacroiliac pain that was refractory to conservative therapies. Methods:?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2010. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating fusion or denervation for chronic sacroiliac joint pain after failed conservative management. Studies involving only conservative treatment or traumatic onset of injury were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results:?We identified eleven articles (six fusion, five denervation) meeting our inclusion criteria. The majority of patients report satisfaction after both treatments. Both treatments reported mean improvements in pain and functional outcome. Rates of complications were higher among fusion studies (13.7%) compared to denervation studies (7.3%). Only fusion studies reported infections (5.3%). No infections were reported among denervation patients. The evidence for all findings were very low to low; therefore, the relative efficacy or safety of one treatment over another cannot be established. Conclusions:?Sacroiliac joint fusion or denervation can reduce pain for many patients. Whether a true arthrodesis of the joint is achieved by percutaneous techniques is open to question and whether denervation of the joint gives durable pain relief is not clear. Further comparative studies of these two techniques may provide the answers.
Ashman, Bryan; Norvell, Daniel C.; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.
Widespread pain and pain hypersensitivity are the hallmark of fibromyalgia, a complex pain condition linked to central sensitization. In this study the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), validated to identify neuropathic pain and based on pain quality items, was applied in a cross-sectional sample of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aims of the study were to assess the patient-reported sensory
Kirstine Amris; Anders Jespersen; Henning Bliddal
Evidence suggests that effective conservative treatment is available for chronic low back pain. The effectiveness of conservative treatment has recently received attention following publication of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported similar improvements in outcomes from cognitive intervention with exercise as from spinal fusion surgery. This paper will explore the conservative treatment arms of these RCTs with the goal of educating the reader about the principles of cognitive intervention with exercise. These principles can be incorporated into the care of chronic low back pain patients both as primary treatment and as a means of augmenting surgical outcomes.
Rainville, James; Nguyen, Rosalyn; Suri, Pradeep
Background This cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain epidemiologic data on chronic musculoskeletal pain in the Japanese people,\\u000a and with it a better understanding of the actual conditions and problems involved.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A questionnaire covering basic information, chronic musculoskeletal pain, daily life, quality of life, and social loss was\\u000a prepared and mailed to 11507 individuals aged 18 years or older. Subjects were selected
Masaya NakamuraYuji Nishiwaki; Yuji Nishiwaki; Takahiro Ushida; Yoshiaki Toyama
Patients with chronic pain have a multifactoral problem that exhibits both physical and psychosocial symptoms. Evaluation includes determination of the physical diagnosis and psychosocial contributing factors on an equal and integrated basis. Contributing factors include any factor that plays a role in initiation and perpetuation or results from and thus, complicates the problem. Management follows with both reduction of contributing factors and treatment of the diagnosis. Contributing factors are classified as biological, behavioral, social, cognitive, emotional, and environmental. Individual factors in each group for chronic craniofacial pain are reviewed.
Fricton, James R.
Pain resulting from chronic pancreatitis is often debilitating and difficult to manage. Many approaches have been used to treat these patients, including narcotic analgesia, antidepressants, pancreatic enzymes, octreotide, denervation procedures, such as celiac plexus block, and various palliative, decompression, or drainage procedures. Many of these procedures can be performed endoscopically, while others require a more invasive, surgical approach. The effectiveness of these therapies is not only highly variable but also often controversial. This review will discuss the endoscopic options for pain management in patients with chronic pancreatitis and their utility in treating this difficult disease.
Goodman, Adam J.; Gress, Frank G.
Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Of those patients who present to primary care with acute LBP, 40% continue to report symptoms 3?months later and develop chronic LBP. Although it is possible to identify these patients early, effective interventions to improve their outcomes are not available. This double-blind (participant/outcome assessor) randomised controlled trial will investigate the efficacy of a brief educational approach to prevent chronic LBP in ‘at-risk’ individuals. Methods/analysis Participants will be recruited from primary care practices in the Sydney metropolitan area. To be eligible for inclusion participants will be aged 18–75?years, with acute LBP (<4?weeks’ duration) preceded by at least a 1?month pain-free period and at-risk of developing chronic LBP. Potential participants with chronic spinal pain and those with suspected serious spinal pathology will be excluded. Eligible participants who agree to take part will be randomly allocated to receive 2×1?h sessions of pain biology education or 2×1?h sessions of sham education from a specially trained study physiotherapist. The study requires 101 participants per group to detect a 1-point difference in pain intensity 3?months after pain onset. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of chronic LBP, disability, pain intensity, depression, healthcare utilisation, pain attitudes and beliefs, global recovery and recurrence and are measured at 1?week post-intervention, and at 3, 6 and 12?months post LBP onset. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of New South Wales Human Ethics Committee in June 2013 (ref number HC12664). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conference meetings. Trial registration number https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12612001180808
Traeger, Adrian C; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hubscher, Markus; Lee, Hopin; Skinner, Ian W; Nicholas, Michael K; Henschke, Nicholas; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Blyth, Fiona M; Main, Chris J; Hush, Julia M; Pearce, Garry; McAuley, James H
Background Chronic back pain is relatively resistant to unimodal therapy regimes. The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate the short-term outcome of a three-week intensive multidisciplinary outpatient program for patients with back pain and sciatica, measured according to decrease of functional impairment and pain. Methods The program was designed for patients suffering from chronic back pain to provide intensive interdisciplinary therapy in an outpatient setting, consisting of interventional injection techniques, medication, exercise therapy, back education, ergotherapy, traction, massage therapy, medical training, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, aquatraining, and relaxation. Results Based on Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores, a significant improvement in pain intensity and functionality of 66.83% NRS and an ODI of 33.33% were achieved by our pain program within 3 weeks. Conclusion This paper describes the organization and short-term outcome of an intensive multidisciplinary program for chronic back pain on an outpatient basis provided by our orthopedic department, with clinically significant results.
Artner, Juraj; Kurz, Stephan; Cakir, Balkan; Reichel, Heiko; Lattig, Friederike
Chronic pain is complex and there is still much to discover about the burden that it places on children and their families. The aim of this study was to explore the way in which the experience of chronic pain impacts on the lives of young people. Through the use of a pain workshop that involved a series of guided activities and a focus group, young people were able to share their experiences with each other and the facilitators/researchers. Data were analysed using a theoretical coding technique supported by Atlas.ti. Five key interlinked themes emerged from the data and each theme is expressed in the words of the young people themselves: 'no one's pain's the same', 'getting on with it', 'it's hard 'cos...', 'keeping with the dream', and 'it depends ... some are OK'. The young people did experience significant disruption in their lives as a result of their pain. Pain was experienced as if it was both a separate entity as well as an intrinsic part of them and, to a degree, blighted their future. Based on the experiences shared by the young people, professionals need to develop insight and strategies into the challenges young people with chronic pain face on a daily basis. PMID:12427180
Carter, Bernie; Lambrenos, Karina; Thursfield, Jonathan
Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population.
Pain is an unpleasant sensory experience that evokes negative emotions and erodes an individual's quality of life, constituting a significant amount of stress. Chronic-wound patients have described pain as most intense during dressing change and the worst part of living with an ulcer. Wound-related pain is complex, involving a multitude of physiologic and psychologic factors, such as emotional state, culture, personality, meaning, and expectation. Although the exact mechanism(s) remains elusive, a burgeoning body of evidence suggests a close link between stress/anxiety and pain. Wound healing can be compromised by overproduction of cortisol compromising the function of immune system in addition to catecholamines causing vasoconstriction and poor tissue oxygenation. The purpose of this paper is to review the relationships among pain, stress, and wound healing. PMID:23023574
Woo, Kevin Y
Patients high in alientation and distrust may be poor compliers. Because only the somatic concern dimension predicted outcome, a single scale that measures this characteristic may be sufficient for effective identification of the potential good v poor responders to conservative treatment of low back pain. (Author)
McCreary, Charles P.; And Others
Study Design: A retrospective review. Objectives: Evaluation of the prevalence of facet or zygapophy- sial joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar origin by using controlled, comparative local anesthetic blocks and evaluation of false-positive rates of single blocks in the diagnosis of chronic spinal pain of facet joint origin. Summary of Background Data: Facet or zygapophysial
Rajeev Manchukonda; Kavita N. Manchikanti; Kimberly A. Cash; Vidyasagar Pampati; Laxmaiah Manchikanti
The standard opioids for relieving moderate to severe pain are: codeine as a step 2 analgesic and morphine for step 3. Tapentadol is an opioid similar to tramadol. An immediate-release form has been authorised in France for moderate to severe acute pain in adults and a sustained-release form for severe chronic pain in adults. It has been evaluated in comparative trials in several types of acute pain: pain following orthopaedic or gynaecological surgery or tooth extraction, and joint pain. These trials were principally designed to show its analgesic effect versus placebo.They did not establish the equianalgesic dose ratios of tapentadol to codeine, morphine or oxycodone. In chronic pain, one trial compared sustained-release tapentadol versus sustained-release morphine, but only unconvincing preliminary results are available.The results of other trials versus sustained-release oxycodone are unconvincing, because half of the patients were lost to follow-up. The known adverse effects of tapentadolare mainly those associated with all opioids, including neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction. Aggression and serotonin syndrome are possible reactions that require further investigation. Gastrointestinal disorders appeared less common with tapentadol than with oxycodone, but the data could well be biased due to the use of a relative overdose of oxycodone in the trials. In practice, the evaluation of tapentadol was not designed to show whether this drug represents a therapeutic advance. Its analgesic efficacy remains unclear, and it provokes the adverse effects common to all opioids. PMID:24926510
In the last decade, considerable evidence as accumulated to support the development of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists for the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. Whereas there is a widely accepted rationale for the development of TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of various inflammatory pain conditions, their development for indications of chronic pain, where conditions of tactical, mechanical and spontaneous pain predominate, is less clear. Preclinical localization and expression studies provide a firm foundation for the use of molecules targeting TRPV1 for conditions of bone pain, osteoarthritis and neuropathic pain. Selective TRPV1 antagonists weakly attenuate tactile and mechanical hypersensivity and are partially effective for behavioral and electrophysiological endpoints that incorporate aspects of spontaneous pain. While initial studies with TRPV1 antagonist in normal human subjects indicate a loss of warm thermal perception, clinical studies assessing allelic variants suggests that TRPV1 may mediate other sensory modalities under certain conditions. The focus of this review is to summarize the current perspectives of TRPV1 for the treatment of conditions beyond those with a primary thermal sensitivity.
Brandt, Michael R.; Beyer, Chad E.; Stahl, Stephen M.
A 48-year old woman presented with chronic back pain. Previous examinations had been inconclusive. Gynaecological examination revealed large cystic masses on the fundus uteri and left adnexa. Laparoscopy and histopathology showed unusually extensive cystic endosalpingiosis covering the serosa-coated uterine surface as well as the adnexa on both sides. After uneventful laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy the patient quickly recovered and was relieved of her chronic backache. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1501709091077524.
Chronic tendon pain from overuse is a common condition, with limited options for ongoing pain management. Two cases are presented in which pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) therapy was used for pain relief following surgical intervention for chronic tendinopathy-associated pain, unresponsive to conventional therapies. Both patients showed a dramatic reduction in pain following PRFE therapy after 2 to 3 weeks of treatment, and at the 7-month (case 1) and 6-month (case 2) follow-up visits, both patients reported that pain had not returned. Recent molecular evidence suggests a possible mechanism underlying PRFE-mediated pain relief. Further study into this promising technology is warranted. PMID:23764157
Cortes, Jane; Kubat, Nicole; Japour, Christopher
One in five Canadians suffers from some form of persistent or chronic pain. The impact on individual lives, families and friends, the health services sector and the economy is huge. Reliable evidence is available that the burden of persistent pain can be markedly reduced when available knowledge is applied. Bridging the quality chasm between chronic pain and the care process will require a unique confluence of opinion from all stakeholders committed within a focused community of practice to address the impact of pain. Various levels of success in this regard have been demonstrated when there is exchange, synthesis and ethically sound application of research findings within a complex set of interactions among researchers and knowledge users. It is now critical to accelerate the capture of the benefits of research for Canadians through improved health, more effective and responsive services and products, and a strengthened health care system to bring about health reform and health care reform across Canada as it pertains to the one in five Canadians living with chronic, disabling pain. The overarching outcome of such an initiative needs to be promoted to sustain a balanced portfolio of curiosity-and needs-based research, which along with existing knowledge, can be mobilized and applied for the benefit of Canadians, the health care system and the economy.
Henry, James L
This phenomenological, qualitative research study involved in-depth interviews with 22 participants enrolled in a private Midwestern university. Each participant reported living with a respective chronic pain syndrome while also being a full-time student. Our semi-structured, interviews centered around the constructs of physical, social,…
Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda J.; Sherman, Amanda L.; Grigsby, Megan E.; Croft, Jennifer N.
A better understanding of the nature of chronic pain after combat related to TBI is of central importance in the treatment of warfighters who suffer from this condition. The broad objective of this work is to characterize the neural networks involved in p...
A case of chronic shoulder pain is reported with marked limitation of both active and passive elevations and a normal range of motion of the glenohumeral joint. X-ray examination demonstrated cloudy calcification in the coracoclavicular region, presumably indicating calcifying supracoracoid bursitis.
J Mens; J K van der Korst
Cluster analyzed the MMPI profiles of 70 male chronic pain patients into four homogeneous subgroups. Mean composites for each subgrouping were entered into a PDP 11 computer to generate an objective actuarial narrative description. Findings appeared to extend and replicate the work of earlier investigators. (Author)
Hart, Ronald R.
diagnosed or suspected fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and\\/or chronic myofascial pain (CMP) were interviewed. A chart was prepared for each patient, combining information from these interviews with information gleaned from medical records they had provided. While further insights were gained over the course of gathering these data, the information presented here is summarized only from those questions which did not change
Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor to current pain, but more likely due to long-lasting pain. No group differences were found for kinaesthetic sense.
Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar
Endometriosis has been traditionally included among the most important causes of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women of reproductive age. The main clinical manifestations of endometriosis are dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic nonmenstrual pain. Despite the high prevalence of endometriosis in women suffering from CPP, controversy still exists regarding the true association between the stage and extent of this peculiar disease and the severity of pain. Over the last decade, advances in endoscopic technology have enabled gynecologic surgeons to recognize many atypical appearances of the endometriotic implants not known to exist before, thus allowing their complete excision or destruction. Laparoscopic surgery may offer considerable relief in patients with endometriosis and CPP. Although cases with advanced endometriosis seem to benefit the most, we also support surgical treatment in patients with early endometriosis diagnosed using laparoscopy, as many will experience improvement in their symptoms. PMID:14644834
Milingos, Spyros; Protopapas, Athanasios; Drakakis, Peter; Liapi, Anthoula; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Kallipolitis, George; Milingos, Dimitrios; Michalas, Stylianos
Management of chronic pain by intrathecal delivery is gaining increasing use. The aim of this article is to review the literature pertinent to implantable devices used for treatment of chronic pain, and to highlight what is known. Articles were obtained from Medline database and reviewed. Practical patient selection criteria, trial management, and surgical technique are described. Expert consensus guidelines for intrathecal medication use are also reviewed. Finally, an exhaustive description of known complications and future implications is discussed. We concluded that intrathecal pump seems to be overused, while there is still weak evidence to support its outcome. It is also recommended that future research focus on the outcome, measured by functional parameters rather than commonly used pain scores.
Knight, Karen H.; Brand, Frances M.; Mchaourab, Ali S.; Veneziano, Giorgio
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a non selective ligand-gated cation channel activated by capsaicin, heat, protons and endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As well as peripheral primary afferent neurons and dorsal root ganglia, TRPV1 receptor is also expressed in spinal and supraspinal structures such as those belonging to the endogenous antinociceptive descending pathway which is a circuitry of the supraspinal central nervous system whose task is to counteract pain. It includes periaqueductal grey (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) whose activation leads to analgesia. Such an effect is associated with a glutamate increase and the activation of OFF and inhibition of ON cell population in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Activation of the antinociceptive descending pathway via TPRV1 receptor stimulation in the PAG may be a novel strategy for producing analgesia in chronic pain. This review will summarize the more recent insights into the role of TRPV1 receptor within the antinociceptive descending pathway and its possible exploitation as a target for new pain-killer agents in chronic pain conditions, with particular emphasis on the most untreatable pain state: neuropathic pain.
Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child’s pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child’s outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention.
Logan, Deirdre E; Engle, Lisa; Feinstein, Amanda B; Sieberg, Christine B; Sparling, Penny; Cohen, Lindsey L; Conroy, Caitlin; Driesman, Dana; Masuda, Akihiko
... acupuncture (as well as massage, yoga, and functional restoration) is effective for chronic low back pain. The ... massage (as well as acupuncture, yoga, and functional restoration) are effective for chronic low back pain. The ...
Chronic pain costs the nation about $600 billion each year, a quarter of which is borne by Medicare. One MAC, Noridian Healthcare Solutions (Noridian), began denying CRNA claims for certain chronic pain services in 2011, citing patient safety concerns. CM...
... University published their findings in the Annals of Family Medicine . Researchers enrolled 228 people with chronic neck pain ... therapeutic massage for chronic neck pain. Annals of Family Medicine. 2014;12(2):112–120. Additional Resources Massage ...
This prospective study of children with recurrent abdominal pain (N = 133; ages 8–15 years) used path analysis to examine relations among dispositional pain beliefs and coping styles, cognitions and behavior related to a specific pain episode, and short- and long-term outcomes. Children believing they could not reduce or accept pain appraised their episode-specific coping ability as low and reported passive coping behavior. Dispositional passive coping had direct effects on both episode-specific passive coping and long-term symptoms and disability. Accommodative coping (acceptance and self-encouragement) was associated with reduced episode-specific distress, which itself predicted reduced depressive symptoms 3 months later. Results suggest that coping-skill interventions for children with chronic pain should target reductions in passive coping and consider the potential benefits of accommodative coping strategies.
Walker, Lynn S.; Smith, Craig A.; Garber, Judy; Claar, Robyn Lewis
Introduction: We examined the effects of pain site and intensity on function in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and chronic pain. Methods: Questionnaires assessing pain sites, pain extent (number of sites), pain intensity, and pain interference were completed by 182 individuals with DM1 (43%) or FSHD (57%) and chronic pain. Results: There was a positive association between pain extent and intensity with pain interference, and a negative association with psychological functioning in both DM1 and FSHD. Pain intensity at specific sites had differential impact beyond the effects of pain intensity alone. Head pain intensity independently affected psychological functioning, whereas leg, foot, hip, and knee pain contributed independently to the prediction of pain interference. Conclusions: Pain site and intensity differentially modulates the effect of chronic pain on function in DM1 and FSHD patients. Researchers and clinicians should consider these factors when assessing and treating pain. Muscle Nerve 49: 900-905, 2014. PMID:24415580
Miró, Jordi; Gertz, Kevin J; Carter, Gregory T; Jensen, Mark P
Aim Chronic prostatitis (CP) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common disabling condition that is primarily associated\\u000a with pain in the urogenital region and disturbances in urinary and sexual function. Chronic pelvic pain symptoms are the most\\u000a common presentation, especially perineal, lower abdominal, testicular, penile as well as ejaculatory pain. Other genitourinary\\u000a tract complaints include voiding disorders and sexual
N. C. SonmezM; M. C. Kiremit; S. Güney; S. Arisan; O. Akça; A. Dalk?l?ç
It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future. PMID:15062718
Maher, C G
Background. Fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic pain condition of unknown aetiology often develops following a traumatic event. FM has been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD). Method. Patients seen in a referral clinic (N = 571) were evaluated for FM and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) criteria. Patients completed questionnaires, and underwent a physical examination and a
P. ROY-BYRNE; W. R. SMITH; J. GOLDBERG; N. AFARI; D. BUCHWALD
OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of pain arising from the zygapophysial joint in patients with chronic low back pain and to determine whether any clinical features could distinguish patients with and without such pain. METHODS--Sixty three patients with chronic low back pain were studied prospectively. All patients underwent a detailed history and physical examination as well as a series of intra-articular
A C Schwarzer; S C Wang; N Bogduk; P J McNaught; R Laurent
This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders.
Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E
Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild.
Yunus, Muhammad B.
Out of 57 patients operated for intractable epilepsy of the central region, 8 harbored an indolent glioma (7 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 1 ganglioglioma). Mapping of the sensorimotor area with depth electrodes implanted for stereoelectroencephalographic exploration demonstrated no or abnormal motor responses after low-frequency stimulation, and variable sensory responses to high-frequency stimulation, suggesting reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex representation around the tumor and absence of functional tissue within the neoplastic volume. After lesionectomy (3 cases) or corticectomy including the tumor (5 cases), 6 (75%) patients were seizure-free (class I of Engel) at the time to follow-up. No permanent motor or sensory deficit was observed in 6 cases. In 2, a mild facial (in 1) and arm (in 1) deficit persisted. It is concluded that the resection of intrinsic low-grade tumors associated with long-standing epilepsy and located in the central region can be associated with excellent seizure outcome and no or minimal postoperative deficit because of functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex. PMID:9711760
Devaux, B; Chassoux, F; Landré, E; Turak, B; Daumas-Duport, C; Chagot, D; Gagnepain, J P; Chodkiewicz, J P
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on pain relief in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injuries using an implanted peripheral nerve stimulator applied directly to the nerve branch involved into the axillary cavity. Seven patients with post-traumatic brachial plexus lesions or distal peripheral nerve complaining of severe intractable chronic pain were enrolled in a single-centre, open-label trial. Conventional drugs and traditional surgical treatment were not effective. Patients underwent careful neurological evaluation, pain questionnaires and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Surgical treatment consists of a new surgical technique: a quadripolar electrode lead was placed directly on the sensory peripheral branch of the main nerve involved, proximally to the site of lesion, into the axillary cavity. To assess the effect, we performed a complete neuroalgological evaluation and QST battery after 1 week and again after 1, 6 and 12 weeks. All patients at baseline experienced severe pain with severe positive phenomena in the median (5) and/or radial (2) territory. After turning on the neuro-stimulator system, all patients experienced pain relief within a few minutes (>75 % and >95 % in most), with long-lasting pain relief with a reduction in mean Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of 76.2 % after 6 months and of 71.5 % after 12 months. No significant adverse events occurred. We recommend and encourage this surgical technique for safety reasons; complications such as dislocation of electrocatheters are avoided. The peripheral nerve stimulation is effective and in severe neuropathic pain after post-traumatic nerve injuries of the upper limbs. PMID:24558032
Stevanato, Giorgio; Devigili, Grazia; Eleopra, Roberto; Fontana, Pietro; Lettieri, Christian; Baracco, Chiara; Guida, Franco; Rinaldo, Sara; Bevilacqua, Marzio
Ninety-five persons receiving treatment for chronic pain were surveyed using the Spirituality and Chronic Pain Survey (SCPS). The survey included a pain assessment, a spiritual/religious practices assessment, and questions related to spiritual/religious beliefs and attitudes. Most participants reported experiencing constant, higher-level pain. The…
Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Marini, Irmo; Baker, Jeff; Buck, Tina
Aim: To examine the nature, prevalence and impact of chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability (ID) based on carer report. Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to 250 care-givers and 157 responses were received (63%). Results: Chronic pain was reported in 13% of the sample (n = 21), 6.3% had pain in two sites and 2% had pain in…
McGuire, B. E.; Daly, P.; Smyth, F.
Background: It has been reported that local thermal therapy with a hot pack or paraffin relieves pain. We hypothesized that systemic warming may decrease pain and improve the outcomes in patients with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of systemic thermal therapy in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Group A (n = 24) patients
Akinori Masuda; Yasuyuki Koga; Masato Hattanmaru; Shinichi Minagoe; Chuwa Tei
There has been a need for a brief assessment tool for providers who treat chronic pain patients to determine potential risk of abuse when prescribed opioids for pain. The purpose of this study was to develop and begin the validation of a self-administered screening tool (Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain, SOAPP) for chronic pain patients considered for
Stephen F. Butler; Simon H. Budman; Kathrine Fernandez; Robert N. Jamison
The purpose was to determine the efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound in patients with chronic low back pain. Thirty-one patients, age 38-77, with low back pain lasting more than three months and the intensity of pain on visual analogue scale at least 50 mm, are randomly divided in two groups. Ultrasound is applied on the lumbar paravertebral muscle in 16 patients and in 15 patients the machine was not switched on. All patients also underwent kinesitherapy. Pharmacological treatment was not changed during the research (except the possibility of using paracetamol as the "rescue drug"). Following parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the research: pain intensity on the visual analogue scale/mm, modified Schober measure/cm, patient's and physician's global assessment of treatment efficacy (1-5 scale). The intensity of pain in the ultrasound group before the treatment was 82,7+/-14,0 and after the treatment 79,8+/-12,2 (p<0,05). The intensity of pain in the placebo group before the treatment was 81,7+/-12,1 and at the end of the treatment 78,9+/-12,1 (p>0,05). The value of the modified Schober measure for the ultrasound group were 5,7+0,8 cm vs. 5,8+/-0,9 cm (p>0,05) and in the placebo group were 5,4+/-0,9 cm vs. 5,6+/-1,0 cm (p>0,05). There was no significant statistical difference between ultrasound and placebo group regarding the efficacy of the treatment (patients p>0,05, physicians p>0,05). Therapeutic ultrasound was effective in decreasing the pain intensity in this research, but showed no improvement regarding the functional ability of the lumbar spine in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:17580544
Grubisi?, Frane; Grazio, Simeon; Jaji?, Zrinka; Nemci?, Tomislav
Adults who suffer from chronic pain are at increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts, but it is not clear whether adolescents with chronic pain are similarly at elevated risk. This study investigates whether chronic pain is associated with an increase in suicidal ideation\\/attempts independent of depression in a population sample of adolescents. We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal
Miranda A. L. van Tilburg; Naomi J. Spence; William E. Whitehead; Shrikant Bangdiwala; David B. Goldston
It has been suggested that pancreatic ductal hypertension, secondary to pancreatic outflow obstruction, is a cause of pain in chronic pancreatitis. This study investigated the effect of inhibiting pancreatic secretion with octreotide in chronic pancreatitis pain. Ten patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and severe daily pain were included in an intraindividual double blind crossover study. All patients received octreotide (3
P Malfertheiner; D Mayer; M Büchler; J E Domínguez-Muñoz; B Schiefer; H Ditschuneit
Chronic pain can result in anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life. However, its effects on cognitive abilities have remained unclear although many studies attempted to psychologically profile chronic pain. We hypothesized that performance on an emotional decision-making task may be impaired in chronic pain since human brain imaging studies show that brain regions critical for this ability are also
A. Vania Apkarian; Yamaya Sosa; Beth R. Krauss; P. Sebastian Thomas; Bruce E. Fredrickson; Robert E. Levy; R. Norman Harden; Dante R. Chialvo
Mental defeat is a psychological construct that has recently been applied to characterize the experience of chronic pain. Elevated levels of mental defeat have been identified in patients with chronic pain, and while its presence distinguishes treatment seeking from non-treatment seeking individuals, the link between mental defeat and disability in chronic pain is yet to be established. The current study
Nicole K. Y. Tang; Claire E. Goodchild; Joan Hester; Paul M. Salkovskis
In this review epidemiological studies concerning chronic benign pain among adults are discussed. To this end, studies focusing on chronic pain, reporting prevalences at a population or primary health care level, including subjects aged between 18 and 75 years have been collected and analyzed. Focus of analysis was on research methods, definitions of chronic benign pain used, and reported prevalences.
PETER F. M. VERHAAK; JAN J. KERSSENS; Joost Dekker; MARJOLIJN J. SORBI; JOZIEN M. BENSING
Sixty-five patients attending a pain relief clinic were randomly allocated to treatment for 5 weeks with amitriptyline alone, distigmine alone, amitriptyline and distigmine started together, or addition of distigmine to preexisting treatment with amitriptyline. Forty-eight patients successfully completed the trial; the most common cause for withdrawal was dry mouth in the amitriptyline-alone group. Two parameters were measured: Pain intensity was measured at the beginning and end of the treatment, and the saliva flow was measured at the beginning and the end of the treatment. At the end of 5 weeks, treatment with a combination of amitriptyline (75 mg/day) and distigmine (10 mg/day) resulted in a 43% reduction of pain and no subjectively noticeable mouth dryness. Distigmine alone also decreased pain and increased saliva flow, sometimes to the point of discomfort, whereas amitriptyline alone, in this particular series, did not significantly reduce pain and produced unpleasant mouth dryness. The addition of distigmine to preexisting (and ineffective) amitriptyline treatment failed to relieve pain. We therefore conclude that a combination of amitriptyline and distigmine (both given ab initio) may be a useful therapy for chronic pain.
Hampf, G.; Bowsher, D.; Nurmikko, T.
Aims: To describe and quantify impairment in an outpatient population of children with chronic pain of unknown origin (UCP). Methods: A total of 149 children who presented with pain of at least three months' duration and without a satisfactory explanation at presentation were studied. Number of somatic complaints (Children's Somatisation Inventory, CSI), pain intensity (VAS, 0–10 cm), functional disability (Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF) and clinical history), and general health perceptions (CHQ) were determined. Results: Mean age of the children was 11.8 years; 73% were girls. Overall, 72% suffered impairment in sports activities, 51% reported absence from school, 40% experienced limitations in social functioning, and 34% had problems with sleeping. Mean number of somatic symptoms differed significantly between boys (8.4) and girls (10.7). The CHQ-CF scores for physical functioning, role/social functioning, and general health perceptions were 76.4, 70.7, and 57.5, respectively, indicating substantial impairment on all domains. The mean pain intensity was 4.7 for current and 7.1 for worst pain. Children solely evaluated by a general practitioner prior to referral reported less, though still substantial, impairment. Low general health perceptions, impaired role/social functioning, high pain intensity, and having headache or musculoskeletal pain were independent predictors of having significant impairment. Conclusions: Referred children with UCP show substantial impairment on multiple domains in daily life.
Konijnenberg, A; Uiterwaal, C; Kimpen, J; van der Hoeven, J; Buitelaar, J; de Graeff-Meeder, E R
There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems.
Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, I; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P
This study explored family relationships and intimacy of women experiencing chronic pain from the perspective of the women and their family members. A narrative ethnographic qualitative research design was used. Narrative and field data were analyzed using the coding procedure outlined by Strauss aided by the QSR NUD*IST 4 qualitative computer software program. Twenty-five women self-identified as experiencing chronic pain, and 13 family members including 7 husbands, 1 father, 1 stepmother, and 4 children living in the home were interviewed. Three patterns of behavior emerged regarding family relationships: cycle of close involvement compensated with isolation, focus directed toward others, and loss of physical sexual intimacy. Findings of this study indicate that family members' perception is that chronic pain affects important basic relationships and both emotional and physical intimacy. A need exists to relieve some of the suffering that accompanies pain in these women and their families. Based on the study's findings, several treatment strategies are recommended. PMID:14566711
Smith, A Ann
Chronic, noncancer pain such as that associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee is typically managed according to American College of Rheumatology guidelines. Patients unresponsive to first-line treatment with acetaminophen receive nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. However, many patients may have chronic pain that is refractory to these agents, or they may be at risk for the gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular complications associated with their use. Tramadol, a mild opioid agonist and norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is recommended by current guidelines for the treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain in patients who have not responded to previous oral therapy, or in patients who have contraindications to COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective NSAIDs. An extended-release (ER) formulation of tramadol was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2005. In contrast with immediate-release (IR) tramadol, this ER formulation allows once-daily dosing, providing around-the-clock analgesia. In clinical studies, tramadol ER has demonstrated a lower incidence of adverse events than that reported for IR tramadol. Unlike nonselective NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, tramadol ER is not associated with gastrointestinal, renal, or cardiovascular complications. Although tramadol is an opioid agonist, significant abuse has not been demonstrated after long-term therapy. It is concluded that tramadol ER has an efficacy and safety profile that warrants its early use for the management of chronic pain, either alone or in conjunction with nonselective NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:18488071
Objective it has been established that chronic neck pain following whiplash is associated with the phenomenon of central sensitization, in which injured and uninjured parts of the body exhibit lowered pain thresholds due to an alteration in central pain processing. it has furthermore been hypothesized that peripheral sources of nociception in the muscles may perpetuate central sensitization in chronic whiplash. the hypothesis explored in the present study was whether myofascial trigger points serve as a modulator of central sensitization in subjects with chronic neck pain. Design controlled case series. Setting outpatient chronic pain clinic. Subjects seventeen patients with chronic and intractable neck pain and 10 healthy controls without complaints of neck pain. Intervention symptomatic subjects received anesthetic infiltration of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscles and controls received the anesthetic in the thigh. Outcome measures: pre and post injection cervical range of motion, pressure pain thresholds (ppt) over the infraspinatus, wrist extensor, and tibialis anterior muscles. sensitivity to light (photophobia) and subjects' perception of pain using a visual analog scale (vas) were also evaluated before and after injections. only the ppt was evaluated in the asymptomatic controls. Results immediate (within 1 minute) alterations in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds were observed following an average of 3.8 injections with 1–2 cc of 1% lidocaine into carefully identified trigger points. cervical range of motion increased by an average of 49% (p = 0.000) in flexion and 44% (p = 0.001) in extension, 47% (p = 0.000) and 28% (p < 0.016) in right and left lateral flexion, and a 27% (p = 0.002) and 45% (p = 0.000) in right and left rotation. ppt were found increased by 68% over the infraspinatus (p = 0.000), by 78% over the wrist extensors (p = 0.000), and by 64% over the tibialis anterior (p = 0.002). among 11 subjects with photophobia, only 2 remained sensitive to light after the trigger point injections (p = 0.033). average vas dropped by 57%, from 6.1 to 2.6 (p = 0.000). no significant changes in ppt were observed in the control group following lidocaine infiltration of the thigh. Conclusion the present data suggest that myofascial trigger points serve to perpetuate lowered pain thresholds in uninjured tissues. additionally, it appears that lowered pain thresholds associated with central sensitization can be immediately reversed, even when associated with long standing chronic neck pain. although the effects resulting from anesthesia of trigger points in the present study were temporary, it is possible that surgical excision or ablation of the same trigger points may offer more permanent solutions for chronic neck pain patients. further study is needed to evaluate these and other options for such patients.
Psychosocial treatments for chronic pain are effective. There is a need, however, to understand the processes involved in determining how these treatments contribute to behavior change. Control and acceptance strategies represent two potentially important processes involved in treatment, although they differ significantly in approach. Results from…
Vowles, Kevin E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Gross, Richard T.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Mouse, Angela; Bates, Mick; Gallimore, Paula; McCall, Cindy
In the United States, the prevalence and burden of chronic pain is large and still growing. Older adults (aged ?65 years) make up a large portion of the population with chronic pain, and their presentation, diagnosis, and treatment tends to be more complicated because of age-related physiological changes and comorbidities. Guidelines on treating patients with severe back pain recommend opioids as an option for those who do not find adequate pain relief from acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). For older adult patients at higher risk for NSAID-related adverse effects, such as those who have gastrointestinal or cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or who are taking low-dose aspirin, opioids are recommended instead. Opioids may also be an appropriate option for patients with neuropathic pain who have not achieved adequate analgesia from maximum doses of first- and second-line antineuropathic agents. Still, opioids are not appropriate for all patients; rather, a differential diagnosis, consideration of other comorbidities, and the potential for opioid-related adverse effects and substance abuse are required to confirm the value of opioid treatment for each individual. For nonresponders to opioid therapy, opioid rotation should be considered before discontinuation is pursued. PMID:23414718
de Leon-Casasola, Oscar A
Our purpose is to report a rare complication of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with vertebral bone penetration, interval fracture, subsequent endovascular management and outcome. We report a case of an IVC filter embedded within the second lumbar vertebral body and in which one of the primary struts fractured, which presented as chronic low back pain. The filter was retrieved percutaneously approximately 2 years after placement. A fractured small strut remained within the vertebral bone; patient's pain resolved. Symptomatic filter in situ should be retrieved even when fractured. PMID:22542386
Kendirli, Mustafa T; Sildiroglu, Onur; Cage, Dorothy L; Turba, Ulku C
Background In animal models, the impact of social and environmental manipulations on chronic pain have been investigated in short term studies where enrichment was implemented prior to or concurrently with the injury. The focus of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental enrichment or impoverishment in mice three months after induction of chronic neuropathic pain. Methods Thirty-four CD-1 seven to eight week-old male mice were used. Mice underwent surgery on the left leg under isoflurane anesthesia to induce the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain or sham condition. Mice were then randomly assigned to one of four groups: nerve injury with enriched environment (n?=?9), nerve injury with impoverished environment (n?=?8), sham surgery with enriched environment (n?=?9), or sham surgery with impoverished environment (n?=?8). The effects of environmental manipulations on mechanical (von Frey filaments) heat (hot plate) and cold (acetone test) cutaneous hypersensitivities, motor impairment (Rotarod), spontaneous exploratory behavior (open field test), anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze) and depression-like phenotype (tail suspension test) were assessed in neuropathic and control mice 1 and 2 months post-environmental change. Finally, the effect of the environment on spinal expression of the pro-nociceptive neuropeptides substance P and CGRP form the lumbar spinal cord collected at the end of the study was evaluated by tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results Environmental enrichment attenuated nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical and cold stimuli. In contrast, an impoverished environment exacerbated mechanical hypersensitivity. No antidepressant effects of enrichment were observed in animals with chronic neuropathic pain. Finally, environmental enrichment resulted lower SP and CGRP concentrations in neuropathic animals compared to impoverishment. These effects were all observed in animals that had been neuropathic for several months prior to intervention. Conclusions These results suggest that environmental factors could play an important role in the rehabilitation of chronic pain patients well after the establishment of chronic pain. Enrichment is a potentially inexpensive, safe and easily implemented non-pharmacological intervention for the treatment of chronic pain.
As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.
Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.
Patients with a chronic pain syndrome often suffer from sleep disturbance. As both symptoms are frequent in the fibromyalgia syndrome, these patients in particular have been examined in this regard. No clear polysomnographic evaluation of the subjectively experienced sleep disturbance in these patients has been done so far. Therefore, we recorded the sleep EEG of 13 patients with a fibromyalgia syndrome in order to objectively characterize their sleep. Furthermore, we were interested in the relationship between the sleep alterations and pain intensity. In a subsequent placebo-controlled study based on pathophysiological considerations, we attempted to beneficially influence the sleep disturbance and the pain syndrome with the 5-HT2-receptor antagonist ketanserine, as this system has been proved to play a major role in the regulation of both sleep and pain. The results of our studies in patients with fibromyalgia show that the alteration of sleep is mainly characterized by a disturbance of sleep continuity associated with the experience of pain intensity. The application of 5-HT-receptor-antagonists may be a new strategy for the common treatment of sleep disturbance and the pain syndrome which needs to be evaluated in further studies. Duration of the patients' illness seems to be a predictive value in relation to intensity of the symptoms and the therapeutic outcome. PMID:8848700
Hemmeter, U; Kocher, R; Ladewig, D; Hatzinger, M; Seifritz, E; Lauer, C J; Holsboer-Trachsler, E
Plantar incision in rat generates spontaneous pain behaviour. The opioid drug, morphine used to treat postsurgical pain produces tolerance after long-term administration. Loperamide, a potent mu-opioid agonist, has documented analgesic action in various pain conditions. However, loperamide analgesia and associated tolerance following continuous spinal administration in postsurgical pain has not been reported. Chronic spinal infusion of drugs was achieved using intrathecal catheters connected to osmotic minipump. Coinciding with the onset of spinal infusion of loperamide or morphine, rats were subjected to plantar incision. Pain-related behaviour was assessed by Hargreaves apparatus (thermal hyperalgesia) and von Frey filaments (mechanical allodynia). Morphine and loperamide (0.5, 1 and 2 microL/h) induced analgesia was observed until 7th day post-plantar incision in Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphine and loperamide produced dose-dependent analgesia. Loperamide, in the highest dose, produced analgesia till 7th day. However, the highest dose of morphine produced inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia till 5th day and mechanical allodynia only till 3rd day post-plantar incision. Morphine and loperamide produced analgesia in postsurgical pain, which may be mediated through different mechanisms. Longer duration of analgesia with loperamide could probably be due sustained blockade of calcium channels. PMID:24772934
Kumar, Rakesh; Reeta, K H; Ray, Subrata Basu
This experimental study investigated the use of Snoezelen - a sensory environment purported to produce relaxation - against traditional relaxation within the pain clinic setting. The variables measured included pain, anxiety, depression, coping, self-efficacy and disability. Assessments were carried out at three time intervals on a range of symptoms designed to reflect the multidimensional nature of the chronic pain experience, including pain intensity and quality, anxiety, depression, coping, confidence and quality of life. The experimental group experienced significant reductions in pain (sensory score P=0.002), and an improvement in self-efficacy (P=0.02) and sickness impact for the following scales: physical (P=0.009), psychosocial (P=0.009), recreation (P=0.001), sleep (P=0.001) and sickness impact total (P=0.001). The control group experienced significant improvements in sickness impact scales of psychosocial (P=0.05), sleep (P=0.01) and sickness impact total (P=0.004). The findings suggest that Snoezelen environments are as effective as, if not slightly better than, teaching relaxation within the traditional pain clinic environment for this group of patients. PMID:12131831
This study explored the impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Singers participated in nine 30-minute sessions of small group singing, while comparisons listened to music while exercising. A short form of The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after selected singing sessions to assess whether singing produced short-term elevations in mood. Results indicated that pre to post difference scores were significantly different between singing and control groups for only one of the 15 mood variables (i.e., uneasy). To test the longer term impacts of singing the Profile of Mood States, Zung Depression Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Pain Rating Self-Statement, and Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered immediately before and after the singing sessions. All inventories other than the POMS were re-administered 6 months later. One-way ANCOVAs indicated that participants who attended the singing sessions showed evidence of postintervention improvements in active coping, relative to those who failed to attend, when preintervention differences in active coping were controlled for. While the singing group showed marked improvements from pre to postintervention on all mood, coping, and perceived pain variables, these improvements were also observed among comparison participants. The results of this study suggest that active singing may have some benefits, in terms of enhancing active coping, though the limitations of the study and small effect sizes observed suggest that further research is required to fully explore such effects. PMID:15327342
Kenny, Dianna T; Faunce, Gavin
Chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions are multifaceted, and approximately 20% of the adult population lives with severe chronic pain, with a higher prevalence in women and in lower income groups. Chronic pain is influenced by and interacts with physical, emotional, psychological, and social factors, and a biopsychosocial framework is increasingly applied in clinical practice. However, there is still a lack of assessment procedures based on the activated neurobiological pain mechanisms (ie, the biological part of the biopsychosocial model of pain), which may be a necessary step for further optimizing outcomes after treatments for patients with chronic pain. It has been suggested that chronic pain conditions are mainly driven by alterations in the central nervous system with little or no peripheral stimuli or nociception. In contrast, other authors argue that such central alterations are driven by peripheral alterations and nociceptive input. Microdialysis is an in vivo method for studying local tissue alterations and allows for sampling of substances in the interstitium of the muscle, where nociceptor free nerve endings are found close to the muscle fibers. The extracellular matrix plays a key role in physiologic functions of cells, including the primary afferent nociceptor. The present review mainly concerns the results of microdialysis studies and how they can contribute to the understanding of activated peripheral nociceptive and pain mechanisms in humans with chronic pain. The primary aim was to review molecular studies using microdialysis for the investigation of human chronic muscle pain, ie, chronic masticatory muscle pain, chronic trapezius myalgia, chronic whiplash-associated disorders, and chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia syndrome. Several studies clearly showed elevated levels of serotonin, glutamate, lactate, and pyruvate in localized chronic myalgias and may be potential biomarkers. These results indicate that peripheral muscle alterations are parts of the activated pain mechanisms in common chronic pain conditions. Muscle alterations have been reported in fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic widespread pain, but more studies are needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. For other substances, results are inconclusive across studies and patient groups.
Gerdle, Bjorn; Ghafouri, Bijar; Ernberg, Malin; Larsson, Britt
Background Dexketoprofen, an NSAID used in the management of acute and chronic pains, is licensed in several countries but has not previously been the subjected of a systematic review. We used published and unpublished information from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of dexketoprofen in painful conditions to assess evidence on efficacy and harm. Methods PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched for RCTs of dexketoprofen for pain of any aetiology. Reference lists of retrieved articles and reviews were also searched. Menarini Group produced copies of published and unpublished studies (clinical trial reports). Data were abstracted into a standard form. For studies reporting results of single dose administration, the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief was derived and used to calculate the relative benefit (RB) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief compared with placebo. Results Thirty-five trials were found in acute pain and chronic pain; 6,380 patients were included, 3,381 receiving dexketoprofen. Information from 16 trials (almost half the total patients) was obtained from clinical trial reports from previously unpublished trials or abstracts. Almost all of the trials were of short duration in acute conditions or recent onset pain. All 12 randomised trials that compared dexketoprofen (any dose) with placebo found dexketoprofen to be statistically superior. Five trials in postoperative pain yielded NNTs for 12.5 mg dexketoprofen of 3.5 (2.7 to 4.9), 25 mg dexketoprofen of 3.0 (2.4 to 3.9), and 50 mg dexketoprofen of 2.1 (1.5 to 3.5). In 29/30 active comparator trials, dexketoprofen at the dose used was at least equivalent in efficacy to comparator drugs. Adverse event withdrawal rates were low in postoperative pain and somewhat higher in trials of longer duration; no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Dexketoprofen was at least as effective as other NSAIDs and paracetamol/opioid combinations. While adverse event withdrawal was not different between dexketoprofen and comparator analgesics, the different conditions and comparators studies precluded any formal analysis. Exposure was limited, and no conclusions could be drawn about safety in terms of serious adverse events like gastrointestinal bleeding or cardiovascular events.
Moore, R Andrew; Barden, Jodie
Background Gabapentin increasingly is being used to treat chronic pain in addition to seizures, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Chorea has been reported as a potential side effect of gabapentin. Case Report We report the case of a patient with chronic low back pain who was treated with a host of modalities, including gabapentin. After she increased her dose of gabapentin, she developed chorea of the upper extremities, neck, and head. With cessation of gabapentin, the bulk of her symptoms resolved within 24 hours, and symptoms completely resolved in the following months. Conclusions Chorea is thought to appear when the basal ganglia are deregulated. Gabapentin interferes with gamma-aminobutyric acid, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the motor pathway. Chorea associated with gabapentin has been reported in several case studies, but not at a dose as low as the patient took in this case.
Souzdalnitski, Dmitri; Chang, Anita Kumar; Guirguis, Maged
OBJECTIVE To estimate the relationship between the presence of vulvodynia, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS Validated questionnaire-based screening tests for the four pain conditions were completed by women with and without vulvodynia who were participating in the Michigan Woman to Woman Health Study -- a longitudinal population-based survey in southeastern Michigan. Weighted population-based estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of participants with these chronic comorbid pain conditions were calculated using regression analyses. RESULTS Of 1,940 women who completed the survey containing all four screening tests, 1,890 (97.4%) answered all screening questions and were included. The prevalences of the screening-based diagnoses ranged from 7.5% (95% CI 6.2, 9.0) for interstitial cystitis, 8.7% (95% CI 7.3, 10.4) for vulvodynia, 9.4% (95% CI 8.1, 11.0) for irritable bowel syndrome, to 11.8% (95% CI 10.1, 13.7) for fibromyalgia, with 27.1% screening positive for multiple conditions. The presence of vulvodynia was associated with the presence of each of the other comorbid pain conditions (p<0.001, OR = 2.3 to 3.3). Demographic risk factors for each condition varied. Increasing age was not associated with greater numbers of comorbid conditions, and only low socioeconomic status was associated with having multiple comorbid conditions concurrently. CONCLUSIONS Chronic pain conditions are common, and a subgroup of women with vulvodynia is more likely than those without vulvodynia to have one or more of the three other chronic pain conditions evaluated.
Reed, Barbara D.; Harlow, Sioban D.; Sen, Ananda; Edwards, Rayna M.; Chen, Di; Haefner, Hope K.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pain syndrome identified by the presence of noninfectious pelvic or perineal pain lasting longer than 3 months. Current diagnoses and treatments for the syndrome solely depend on and target symptoms, respectively. Thus far, the mechanistic disturbances responsible for the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS have remained largely elusive and treatments, and therefore, continue to be ineffective. To move toward successful management and treatment of CP/CPPS, it is necessary to elicit the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for the syndrome. Therefore, a phenotyping system that is able to bridge the gap between current symptom-based diagnosis and future mechanistic approaches to diagnosis and treatment is needed. In this article, we examine current CP/CPPS phenotyping systems, analyze their utility, and make suggestions for changes in clinical approaches to the syndrome that would both promulgate a mechanistic understanding and advance treatment approaches. PMID:21533747
Mahal, Brandon A; Cohen, Jeffrey M; Allsop, Stephen A; Moore, John B; Bhai, Salman F; Inverso, Gino; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D
The objective of this study was to investigate spirituality and blood parameters associated with stress in patients with facial musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-four women with chronic facial musculoskeletal pain (CFMP) and 24 healthy women were evaluated with a protocol for orofacial characteristics, research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders and the Spiritual Perspective Scale. Blood samples were collected to analyze blood count, cortisol, ACTH, C3, C4, thyroid hormones, total immunoglobulin, C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor. The study group was more spiritualized than control group. Individuals with a high score of spirituality had less myofascial pain, less bruxism and fewer complaints. They also had lower levels of ACTH and IgE. Spirituality was higher in the study group and can be considered an important tool for coping with CFMP. PMID:23990038
Lago-Rizzardi, Camilla Domingues; de Siqueira, Jose Tadeu T; de Siqueira, Silvia Regina D T
Pain medicine in Israel and in the world has reached a crisis. The lack of available pain medicine services is resulting in the unsatisfactory treatment for chronic pain sufferers. The main causes of this crisis are: 1) the high prevalence of chronic pain, reaching levels of 17% in the adult population;2) the lack of appropriate training of primary care physicians in the field of chronic pain management; and 3) the paucity of consultation services in the field of chronic pain. In this journal article, we propose a possible model for the solution of the problem, based upon levels of treatment according to the severity of the disease and upon training of primary and secondary care physicians in the treatment of pain. According to the model, the vast majority of treatment and management will take place in the community after appropriate training of primary care physicians. More complex cases will be referred to secondary care community-based pain clinics manned by physicians with further in-depth training. Only the most complex of patients, or those needing specialized treatment such as invasive analgesic therapy, will be referred to tertiary pain centers manned by specialists in pain medicine. Implementation of this model will necessitate training of primary care physicians and the establishment of secondary care facilities and can, in our opinion, pose a pragmatic solution for the hundreds of thousands of patients suffering from chronic pain.
Minerbi, Amir; Vulfsons, Simon
Fifty cases of chronic non-specific abdominal pain were studied prospectively. All patients were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and investigations related to gastrointestinal system. A full psychiatric assessment was done with application of Goldberg's 60 item's General Health Questionnaire. Thirty four (68%) patients had psychiatric symptoms, of whom twenty six (52%) had a definite psychiatric illness while the remaining eight patients had organic illness. Sixteen patients (32%) had a pure organic illness. Dysthymic disorder constituted the main (22%) psychiatric illness.
Kachhwaha, S.S.; Chadda, V.S.; Singhwal, A.K.; Bhardwaj, P.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model for learning and memory and believed to be critical for plastic changes in\\u000a the brain. Depending on the central nervous system region, LTP has been proposed to contribute to many key physiological functions\\u000a and pathological conditions, such as learning\\/memory, chronic pain, and drug addiction. While the induction of LTP in general\\u000a requires activation
Giannina Descalzi; Susan Kim; Min Zhuo
Neurolytic blockade and neural blockade in general have come under scrutiny as the evidence-based medicine revolution moves\\u000a forward. Prognostic nerve blocks with local anesthetic have been shown to correlate poorly with relief of chronic pain following\\u000a nerve resection . Numerous reasons exist to explain the discrepancy . The purpose of this chapter is to describe the\\u000a role of neurolytic blocks
Gabor Racz; James E. Heavner; C. E. Noe
Diagnostic infusion therapy has several advantages over other routes of drug administration in the management of chronic pain.\\u000a Although systemic side effects may occur, the procedure is relatively noninvasive and is generally well tolerated by patients.\\u000a Infusion techniques have a potential use in the blinded evaluation of a patient’s response to a specific therapy, and thus\\u000a may minimize placebo responses
David A. O’Gorman; Srinivasa N. Raja
\\u000a Propentofylline is a unique methylxanthine with clear cyclic AMP, phosphodiesterase, and adenosine actions, including enhanced\\u000a synaptic adenosine signaling. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated profound neuroprotective, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects of propentofylline.\\u000a Propentofylline has shown efficacy in preclinical models of stroke, opioid tolerance, and acute and chronic pain. Clinically,\\u000a propentofylline has shown efficacy in degenerative and vascular
Sarah Sweitzer; Joyce De Leo
Smoking cigarettes is prevalent among individuals with chronic pain. Some studies indicate nicotine reduces pain and others suggest it may cause or exacerbate pain. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 151 chronic pain patients from a large, urban VA medical center. Patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) non-smokers, (2) smokers who deny using cigarettes to cope with pain, and (3) smokers who report using cigarettes to cope with pain. Patients who reported smoking as a coping strategy for chronic pain scored significantly worse compared to the other 2 groups on the majority of measures of pain-related outcome. Non-smokers and smokers who denied smoking to cope did not differ on any variable examined. After controlling for the effects of demographic and clinical factors, smoking cigarettes as a coping strategy for pain was significantly and positively associated with pain intensity (p=0.04), pain interference (p=0.005), and fear of pain (p=0.04). In addition to the assessment of general smoking status, a more specific assessment of the chronic pain patient’s reasons for smoking may be an important consideration as part of interdisciplinary pain treatment.
Patterson, Alexander L.; Gritzner, Susan; Resnick, Michael P.; Dobscha, Steven K.; Turk, Dennis C.; Morasco, Benjamin J.
Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them…
Walker, Kate R. M.; Watts, Richard E.
AIM: To prove the hypothesis that patients with chronic pancreatitis would show increased theta activity during painful visceral stimulation. METHODS: Eight patients and 12 healthy controls underwent an experiment where the esophagus was electrically stimulated at the pain threshold using a nasal endoscope. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 64 surface electrodes and “topographic matching pursuit” was used to extract the EEG information in the early brain activation after stimulation. RESULTS: A major difference between controls and patients were seen in delta and theta bands, whereas there were only minor differences in other frequency bands. In the theta band, the patients showed higher activity than controls persisting throughout the 450 ms of analysis with synchronous brain activation between the channels. The main theta components oscillated with 4.4 Hz in the patients and 5.5 Hz in the controls. The energy in the delta (0.5-3.5 Hz) band was higher in the controls, whereas the patients only showed scattered activity in this band. CONCLUSION: The differences in the theta band indicate that neuropathic pain mechanisms are involved in chronic pancreatitis. This has important implications for the understanding and treatment of pain in these patients, which should be directed against drugs with effects on neuropathic pain disorders.
Drewes, Asbj?rn M; Gratkowski, Maciej; Sami, Saber AK; Dimcevski, Georg; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
BACKGROUND Successful management of chronic pain with opioid medications requires balancing opioid dependence and addiction with pain\\u000a relief and restoration of function. Evaluating these risks and benefits is difficult among patients with chronic pain and\\u000a pre-existing addiction, and the ambiguity is increased for patients on methadone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence.\\u000a Providers treating both chronic pain and addiction routinely make diagnostic
Karina M. Berg; Julia H. Arnsten; Galit Sacajiu; Alison Karasz
Background Inguinal hernia is one of the most common male diseases all over the world with an incidence rate of 18-24% throughout life. Chronic inguinal pain is one of the complications that prolong return to work time. Objectives The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of ilioinguinal neurectomy on postoperative chronic pain (PCP) in patients that underwent open inguinal hernia repair via the Lichtenstein method. Materials and Methods In this randomised controlled clinical trial, male patients with unilateral inguinal hernia were randomized into two groups: 74 cases in the preserved-nerve group and 66 cases in the nerve-excised group. The method of herniorrhaphy was the classic Lichtenstein method. Pain and numbness were evaluated at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery via visual analogue scale (VAS) system. We used SPSS ver.16 for analysis. Results All patients were male with mean age of 39.1 years (with a range of 18 to 68 years). The follow-up rate was 100% after 1 year. Pain severity was significantly lower in nerve-excised patients at 1 day, 1week, 1 month and 6 months after surgery; but it was not significant after one year, although overall pain severity was low. Numbness was significantly higher in excised patients at all endpoints (1 day, 1month, 3 months, 6 months and one year after surgery). Conclusions Ilioinguinal nerve excision at the time of inguinal hernia repair decreased post-surgical inguinal pain, and it can be used as a routine method in herniorrhaphy.
Khoshmohabat, Hadi; Panahi, Farzad; Alvandi, Ali Akbar; Mehrvarz, Shaban; Mohebi, Hasan Ali; Shams Koushki, Ehsan
Background The triallelic serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with alterations in thermal pain perception. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations between heat pain (HP) perception and the triallelic 5-HTTLPR in a large cohort of adults with chronic pain. Methods The cohort included 277 adults with chronic pain who met inclusion criteria, and were consecutively admitted to an outpatient pain rehabilitation program from March 2009 through March 2010. Individuals were genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR (including rs25531) and categorized as high, intermediate, or low expressors of the serotonin transporter. Standardized measures of HP perception were obtained using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. Results The distribution of the high, intermediate, and low expressing genotypes was 61 (22%), 149 (54%) and 67 (24%), respectively. The Hardy-Weinberg P-value was 0.204 which indicated no departure from equilibrium. A significant effect of genotype was observed for values of HP threshold (P?=?0.029). Individual group comparisons showed that values of HP threshold were significantly greater in the intermediate compared to the high expressing group (P?=?0.009) but not the low expressing group (P?>?0.1). In a multiple variable linear regression model, the intermediate group (P?=?0.034) and male sex (P?=?0.021) were associated with significantly greater values of HP 0.5, but no significant genotype-by-sex interaction effect was observed. Conclusions In this study that involved adults with chronic pain, the intermediate triallelic 5-HTTLPR expressing group, but not the low expressing group, was associated with greater HP thresholds compared to the high expressing group.
Abstract Chronic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly prevalent clinical condition that is difficult to treat. Using both von Frey filaments and radiant infrared heat to assess mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively, we have demonstrated that a one-time injection of fibronectin (50??g/mL) into the spinal dorsal column (1??L/min each injection for a total of 5??L) immediately after SCI inhibits the development of mechanical allodynia (but not thermal hyperalgesia) over an 8-month observation period following spinal cord dorsal column crush (DCC). DCC will only induce mechanical Allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia or overt motor deficits. By applying various fibronectin fragments as well as competitive inhibitors, these effects were shown to be dependent on the connecting segment-1 (CS-1) motif of fibronectin. Furthermore, we found that acute fibronectin treatment diminished inflammation and blood–spinal cord barrier permeability, which in turn leads to enhanced fiber sparing and sprouting. In particular, the reduction of serotonin (5-HT) in the superficial dorsal horn, an important descending brainstem system in the modulation of pain, was blocked with fibronectin treatment. We conclude that treatment of SCI with fibronectin preserves sensory regulation and prevents the development of chronic allodynia, providing a potential therapeutic intervention to treat chronic pain following SCI.
Lee, Yu-Shang; Lin, Vernon W.; Silver, Jerry
Background This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was only examined once in the past in a small sample. Previous international studies mainly involving fibromyalgia patients showed that retest resulted in 33–38% of patients being assigned to a different Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification. Methods Participants were 204 persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain (82% chronic non-specific back pain). Subgroup classification was conducted by cluster analysis at 4 weeks before entry (=test) and at entry into the pain management program (=retest) using Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale scores. No therapeutic interventions in this period were conducted. Reliability was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and stability by kappa coefficients (?). Results Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory scales was least with ICC?=?0.57 for the scale life control and further ranged from ICC?=?0.72 (negative mood) to 0.87 (solicitous responses) in the other scales. At retest, 82% of the patients in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster interpersonally distressed (??=?0.69), 80% of the adaptive copers (??=?0.58), and 75% of the dysfunctional patients (??=?0.70) did not change classification. In total, 22% of the patients changed Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster group, mainly into the adaptive copers subgroup. Conclusion Test-retest reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was moderate to good and comparable to other language versions. Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification is substantially stable in chronic back pain patients when compared to other diagnostic groups and other examiner-based subgroup Classification Systems. The MPI Classification System can be recommended for reliable and stable specification of subgroups in observational and interventional studies in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.
People with chronic pain and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report more severe pain and poorer quality of life than those with chronic pain alone. This study evaluated the extent to which associations between PTSD and chronic pain interference and severity are mediated by pain-related coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Veterans with chronic pain were divided into 2 groups, those with (n=65) and those without (n=136) concurrent PTSD. All participants completed measures of pain severity, interference, emotional functioning, and coping strategies. Those with current PTSD reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference, had more symptoms of depression, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a current alcohol or substance use disorder (all p-values <.01). Participants with PTSD reported more use of several coping strategies, including guarding, resting, relaxation, exercise/stretching, and coping self-statements. Illness-focused pain coping (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) and depressive symptoms jointly mediated the relationship between PTSD and both pain interference (total indirect effect=0.194, p<.001) and pain severity (total indirect effect=0.153, p=.004). Illness-focused pain coping also evidenced specific mediating effects, independent of depression. In summary, specific pain coping strategies and depressive symptoms partially mediated the relationship between PTSD and both pain interference and severity. Future research should examine whether changes in types of coping strategies after targeted treatments predict improvements in pain-related function for chronic pain patients with concurrent PTSD. PMID:23398939
Morasco, Benjamin J; Lovejoy, Travis I; Lu, Mary; Turk, Dennis C; Lewis, Lynsey; Dobscha, Steven K
Translational research has not yet elucidated whether alterations in central pain processes are related to peripheral inflammatory processes in chronic pain patients. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of cytokines in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients with chronic pain correlate with parameters of hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system. The concentrations of 15 peritoneal fluid cytokines were measured in 11 patients with chronic pelvic pain and a diagnosis of endometriosis. Six parameters assessing central pain processes were recorded. Positive correlations between concentration of some cytokines in the peritoneal fluid and amplification of central pain processing were found. The results suggest that inflammatory mechanisms may be important in the pathophysiology of altered central pain processes and that cytokines produced in the environment of endometriosis could act as mediators between the peripheral lesion and changes in central nociceptive processes. PMID:24694998
Neziri, Alban Y; Bersinger, Nick A; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mueller, Michael D; Curatolo, Michele
Purpose Our aim was to analyze the physiopsychosocial variables in patients with long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain\\u000a (CNCP) in Taiwan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients registered in the database of the National Bureau of Controlled Drugs (NBCD), Taiwan, were interviewed and completed\\u000a questionnaires on pain assessment and interference in quality of life, using the Taiwanese version of the Brief Pain Inventory,\\u000a and questionnaires
Tso-Chou Lin; Che-Hao Hsu; Chih-Cherng Lu; Yu-Chuan Tsai; Shung-Tai Ho
Introduction Chronic pain is difficult to treat and often precedes or exacerbates sleep disturbances such as insomnia. Insomnia, in turn, can amplify the pain experience. Both conditions are associated with inflammatory processes, which may be involved in the bidirectional relationship between pain and sleep. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain and CBT for insomnia are evidence based interventions for, respectively, chronic pain and insomnia. The study objectives were to determine the feasibility of combining CBT for pain and for insomnia and to assess the effects of the combined intervention and the stand alone interventions on pain, sleep, and mood outcomes compared to a control condition. Methods Twenty-one adults with co-occurring chronic pain and chronic insomnia were randomized to either CBT for pain, CBT for insomnia, combined CBT for pain and insomnia, or a wait-list control condition. Results The combined CBT intervention was feasible to deliver and produced significant improvements in sleep, disability from pain, depression and fatigue compared to the control condition. Overall, the combined intervention appeared to have a strong advantage over CBT for pain on most outcomes, modest advantage over both CBT for insomnia in reducing insomnia severity in chronic pain patients. Discussion CBT for pain and CBT for insomnia may be combined with good results for patients with co-occurring chronic pain and insomnia.
Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan; Matteson-Rusby, Sara; Jungquist, Carla R.; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Perlis, Michael L.
National Institutes of Health category III prostatitis, also known as chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, is\\u000a a common condition with significant impact on quality of life. This clinically defined syndrome has a multifactorial etiology\\u000a and seems to respond best to multimodal therapy. At least half of these patients have pelvic floor spasm. There are several\\u000a approaches to therapy including biofeedback,
Karin E. Westesson; Daniel A. Shoskes
Chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP\\/CPPS) is not well understood. The mechanisms involved in its pathophysiology\\u000a have yet to be fully elucidated. Men with CP\\/CPPS suffer from symptoms that may not necessarily be linked to concurrent prostate\\u000a involvement. Recent literature embraces the notion that symptoms may result from complex interactions, and studies have looked\\u000a at other disease syndromes in an
Raymond M. Bernal; Michel A. Pontari
To discuss challenges concerning treatment for chronic prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP\\/ CPPS) and review complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies being evaluated for this condition, we performed a comprehensive search of articles published from 1990-2005 using the PubMed, Medline databases. Data from the articles were abstracted and pooled by subject. Keywords cross-searched with CP\\/CPPS included: complementary, alternative, integrative, therapies,
Jillian L. Capodice; Debra L. Bemis; Ralph Buttyan; Steven A. Kaplan; Aaron E. Katz
The number of individuals seeking treatment for prescription opioid dependence has increased dramatically, fostering a need for research on this population. The aim of this study was to examine reasons for prescription opioid use among 653 participants with and without chronic pain, enrolled in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study, a randomized controlled trial of treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Participants identified initial and current reasons for opioid use. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to report pain as their primary initial reason for use; avoiding withdrawal was rated as the most important reason for current use in both groups. Participants with chronic pain rated using opioids to cope with physical pain as more important, and using opioids in response to social interactions and craving as less important, than those without chronic pain. Results highlight the importance of physical pain as a reason for opioid use among patients with chronic pain. PMID:24814051
Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; McHugh, R Kathryn; Haller, Deborah; Jacobs, Petra; Gardin, John; Fischer, Dan; Rosen, Kristen D
Chronic pain is often associated with comorbidities such as anxiety and depression, resulting in a low health-related quality of life. The mechanisms underlying this association are not clear, but a disturbance in the pain control systems from the brain stem has been suggested. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and 26 pain-free age- and gender-matched controls
Lise Gormsen; Raben Rosenberg; Flemming W. Bach; Troels S. Jensen
Summary Background Over the last several decades there has been a general trend toward reduction and minimalization in surgical treatment of chronic back pain, since open surgery brings complications in small and contained disc herniations instead of achieving expected success. Attention has been focussed on percutaneous nucleoplasty due to the limited success of other minimally invasive methods, as well due to their associated complications. However, there have been few studies in the English literature with a follow-up period of more than 1 year. Material/Methods Patients with chronic disc herniations having more significant radicular leg pain, who did not respond to non-invasive treatment methods and for whom open surgery was not an option were selected for percutaneous nucleoplasty application. Upon intervention, patients were prospectively questioned by an independent physician regarding pain, physical improvement, and operation satisfaction at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Pain was evaluated with VAS, and physical improvement was evaluated based on the Oswestry Disability Index. Results Mean VAS that was 8.7±1.1 before the procedure was determined to be 3.4±1.9 at 24 months follow-up. At the latest follow-up, 87.5% of the patients reported a 30% or higher decrease in their pain. While Oswestry scores were 76.1±10.2 in the beginning, they went down to 33.9±14.9 at the end of 2 years. The percent of those stating “good” and “excellent” satisfaction was 66% (23 persons) on the last follow-up. Conclusions While it is once more shown that nucleoplasty is a safe method, it is also shown that its effectiveness continues at the end of 2 years.
Karaman, Haktan; Tufek, Adnan; Kavak, Gonul Olmez; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Temel, Vildan; Celik, Feyzi; Akdemir, Mehmet Salim; Kaya, Sedat
Objective There is some evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture in chronic low back pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of two different modes of trigger point acupuncture on pain and quality of life in chronic low back pain patients compared to standard acupuncture treatment.Methods Thirty five consecutive
Kazunori Itoh; Yasukazu Katsumi; Hiroshi Kitakoji
Chronic pain is a prevalent, under-diagnosed problem in the learning disability population. This is in part due to communication problems, unrecognized pain behaviours and the effects of medication. As a consequence, chronic pain often goes untreated and causes ongoing distress. This paper initially describes the main research that has been…
Lewis, Sarah; Bell, Dorothy; Gillanders, David
Pentoxifilne (PTX) is a non specific inhibitor of cytokines release, which suppress mainly TNF production. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioural activity changes in response to acute and chronic nociceptive stimulus. PTX was more effective in neuropathic pain than acute pain model. Use of cytokine inhibitors might offer new strategies of drug-resistant chronic pain treatment. PMID:20050583
Nowak, ?ukasz; Zurowski, Daniel; Garlicki, Jaros?aw; Thor, Piotr J
Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many health providers have concerns about cognitive effects, tolerance, dependence, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help providers offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. Many persons with chronic pain
Robert N. Jamison; Robert R. Edwards
Sclerosing polidocanol injections targeting the area with neovessels (vascularity) have been demonstrated to give promising clinical results in patients with chronic painful Achilles and patellar tendinosis. Recently, we demonstrated vascularity in the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow, but not in controls with pain-free elbows. In this pilot study, 11 patients (four men and seven women, mean
Eva Zeisig; Lars Öhberg; Håkan Alfredson
It has been proposed that high anxiety sensitivity amplifies a number of fears and anxiety reactions. The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxiety sensitivity influences pain-related anxiety and associated cognitive and affective reactions in patients with physically unexplained chronic back pain. Seventy patients with chronic back pain without demonstrable organic pathology completed a battery of questionnaires prior
Gordon J. G. Asmundson; G. Ron Norton
Two lines of evidence provide preliminary support for the role that brain state, measured via electroencephalogram (EEG), may play in chronic pain. First, research has identified a link between brain EEG activity and the experience of pain. Second, there are a number of published studies documenting the beneficial effects of interventions that impact the cortical activity associated with chronic pain.
Mark P. Jensen; Leslie H. Sherlin; Shahin Hakimian; Felipe Fregni
This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…
Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy
Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a “relaxation response” in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived.
Chronic pain in the Republic of Ireland--community prevalence, psychosocial profile and predictors of pain-related disability: results from the Prevalence, Impact and Cost of Chronic Pain (PRIME) study, part 1.
The aims of the PRIME study (Prevalence, Impact and Cost of Chronic Pain) were 3-fold: (1) to determine the point prevalence of chronic pain in Ireland; (2) to compare the psychological and physical health profiles of those with and without chronic pain; and (3) to explore a predictive model of pain-related disability. A postal survey of 3136 people was conducted with a representative community-based sample of adults. Measures were obtained for sociodemographic variables, physical and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, presence of pain, pain severity, pain-related disability, and illness perceptions. Responses were received from 1204 people. The prevalence of chronic pain was 35.5% (95% CI=32.8-38.2) (n=428). No gender difference in prevalence was found. Prevalence of pain increased with age and was associated with manual employment. The most commonly reported site of pain was the lower back (47.6%); however, multiple pain sites was the norm, with more than 80% of participants reporting more than 1 pain site. Approximately 12% of participants were unable to work or were on reduced work hours because of pain. Of those with chronic pain, 15% met the criteria for clinically relevant depression compared with 2.8% of those without pain. A multiple regression analysis, predicting 67% of variance, showed that pain intensity was the strongest predictor of pain-related disability. Depression and illness perceptions were also predictive of pain-related disability, after controlling for the effects of pain intensity. Chronic pain is a prevalent health problem in Ireland and is associated with significant psychological and functional disability. Psychological factors appear to influence the level of pain-related disability. PMID:21450402
Raftery, Miriam N; Sarma, Kiran; Murphy, Andrew W; De la Harpe, Davida; Normand, Charles; McGuire, Brian E
Chronic pelvic pain in women is a debilitating, costly condition often treated by physical therapists. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial and poorly understood, given the complex interplay of muscles, bones, and soft tissue that comprise the pelvis. There are few guidelines directing treatment interventions for this condition. In the last decade, several investigators have highlighted the role of psychological variables in conditions such as vulvodynia and painful bladder syndrome. Pain-related fear is the focus of the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain, which theorizes that some people are more likely to develop and maintain pain after an injury because of their emotional and behavioral responses to pain. The FAM groups people into 2 classes on the basis of how they respond to pain: people who have low fear, confront pain, and recover from injury and people who catastrophize pain—a response that leads to avoidance/escape behaviors, disuse, and disability. Given the presence of pain-related cognitions in women with chronic pelvic pain, including hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and anxiety, research directed toward the application of the FAM to guide therapeutic interventions is warranted. Isolated segments of the FAM have been studied to theorize why traditional approaches (ie, medications and surgery) may not lead to successful outcomes. However, the explicit application of the FAM to guide physical therapy interventions for women with chronic pelvic pain is not routine. Integrating the FAM might direct physical therapists' clinical decision making on the basis of the pain-related cognitions and behaviors of patients. The aims of this article are to provide information about the FAM of musculoskeletal pain and to provide evidence for the relevance of the FAM to chronic pelvic pain in women.
Bishop, Mark D.
Postoperative pain and analgesic requirements may be associated with chronic pain. The aim of the study was to investigate this association. We studied 98 patients who had cancer breast surgery and served as controls in four previous studies, receiving placebo. We compared the pain and analgesic requirements 0-9 h and 1-6 days postoperatively: a) between patients with chronic pain 3 months postoperatively versus patients without and b) between those patients who consumed analgesics at home versus those who did not. Patients with chronic pain had experienced higher intensity pain at rest the first 9 postoperative hours (VAS-rest p = 0.033). Patients requiring analgesics at home had consumed postoperatively more opioids (p = 0.005) and more paracetamol (p = 0.037). These patients had experienced pain of higher intensity the first 9 postoperative hours (VAS-rest p = 0.022, VAS-movement p = 0.009) as well as during the six postoperative days (VAS-rest p = 0.013, VAS-movement p = 0.001). Higher intensities of acute postoperative pain are associated with chronic pain development. Higher analgesic needs and higher acute postoperatively pain intensity are associated with long-term analgesic consumption. PMID:19235522
Fassoulaki, A; Melemeni, A; Staikou, C; Triga, A; Sarantopoulos, C
Evaluation of healthcare services by patients is an essential component of quality improvement. We studied association between patient satisfaction and accessibility of healthcare services to patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. A hundred patients from the Pain Clinic, Split University Hospital Center, Split, Croatia, completed a 27-item questionnaire about their condition, duration of chronic pain treatment, access to healthcare, waiting times for various healthcare services, and their satisfaction with the pain clinic and health system. Patients were referred to the pain clinic after median of 4.5 years of chronic nonmalignant pain duration. Median waiting time for pain clinic appointment, seeing a specialist and performing diagnostic procedures was 10, 30 and 90 days, respectively. However, some patients waited for an appointment to a specialist and diagnosis for up to one year. Negative association was found between waiting time for pain clinic appointment and healthcare system grade (r = -0.34, P = 0.02). Patient suggestions for improving pain clinic were more staff, better approach to each patient, and better organization. In conclusion, access to public healthcare for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain should be better to improve patient satisfaction and provide better care. PMID:23837276
Triva, Petra; Juki?, Marko; Puljak, Livia
Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…
Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.
Potentially noxious stimuli are sensed by specialized nerve cells named nociceptors, which convey nociceptive signals from peripheral tissues to the central nervous system. The spinal dorsal horn and the trigeminal nucleus serve as first relay stations for incoming nociceptive signals. At these sites, nociceptor terminals contact a local neuronal network consisting of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons as well as of projection neurons. Blockade of neuronal inhibition in this network causes an increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli (hyperalgesia), painful sensations occurring after activation of non-nociceptive fibers (allodynia), and spontaneous pain felt in the absence of any sensory stimulation. It thus mimics the major characteristics of chronic pain states. Diminished inhibitory pain control in the spinal dorsal horn occurs naturally, e.g., through changes in the function of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors or through altered chloride homeo-stasis in the course of inflammation or nerve damage. This review summarizes our current knowledge about endogenous mechanisms leading to diminished spinal pain control and discusses possible ways that could restore proper inhibition through facilitation of fast inhibitory neurotransmission. PMID:21854227
Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Benke, Dietmar; Yevenes, Gonzalo E
The objective of this study was to determine if the combination of tenderness-guided endovaginal ultrasound and digital pelvic exam (i.e. EVUS-assisted exam) for preoperative pain mapping, in cases without nodules or endometriomas, increases sensitivity/specificity for laparoscopic findings. This was a retrospective review of women with chronic pelvic pain ± infertility with preoperative pain mapping exam prior to laparoscopy (n = 97, 2006-7). Predictor variables (EVUS-assisted exam vs digital pelvic exam alone, for pain mapping) were coded as tender vs non-tender. Primary outcome was findings on laparoscopy (e.g. endometriosis or adhesions) and was coded as abnormal vs normal. We found that EVUS-assisted exam had greater sensitivity (0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.89) for abnormal laparoscopy compared with digital pelvic exam alone (0.58, 95% CI: 0.46-0.69) (McNemar's test, p < 0.001). Specificity was limited for both types of pain mapping (0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.44 for EVUS-assisted; and 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20-0.61 for digital), with no significant difference (p = 0.13). In conclusion, in the absence of nodules or endometriomas, EVUS-assisted exam increases sensitivity, but with no benefit in specificity, for prediction of abnormal laparoscopy. PMID:24127962
Yong, P J; Sutton, C; Suen, M; Williams, C
Background Chronic postoperative pain (CPOP) is defined as pain of at least 2 months duration after a surgical procedure. Until recently, it has been a neglected topic, because it can occur after a wide spectrum of operations; however, little is known regarding its underlying mechanism, prevalence, risk factors, and treatments. We investigated characteristics of CPOP after various operations via a questionnaire. Methods Patients were contacted at > 2 months after surgery, irrespective of sex, type of operation or anesthesia method, and a follow-up pain questionnaire was administered by phone. Results One hundred forty-five of 400 patients (36.3%) described CPOP. The prevalence of CPOP was significantly lower in laparoscopic surgery (29/159, 18.2%) than open surgery (116/241, 48.1%). The prevalence of CPOP was higher with the use of PCA (patient controlled analgesia), (45.3%) than without PCA (24.6%). There were no significant differences regarding sex, anesthetic method, or duration of operation. Conclusions Our results indicate that the prevalence of CPOP may be related to use of an endoscope and PCA. However, it is difficult to completely explain the correlation, because this is a complex area of research. More research is needed to improve the quality of pain relief.
Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Chae, Won-Seok; Jin, Hee-Cheol; Lee, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ik
It is easy to overlook osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle in patients with chronic lower limb pain, such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger's disease). A 57-year-old woman diagnosed with type 1 CRPS, and a 58-year-old man, diagnosed with TAO, complained of tactile and cold allodynia in their lower legs. After neurolytic lumbar sympathethic ganglion block and titration of medications for neuropathic pain, each subject could walk without the aid of crutches. However, they both complained of constant pain on the left ankle during walking. Focal tenderness was noted; subsequent imaging studies revealed OCLs of her talus and his distal tibia, respectively. Immediately after percutaneous osteoplasties, the patients could walk without ankle pain. It is important to consider the presence of a hidden OCL in chronic pain patients that develop weight-bearing pain and complain of localized tenderness on the ankle.
Ri, Hyun Su; Lee, Dong Heon
... or Iraq, nearly double the estimate for the civilian population. Civilian chronic pain rates are about 26 percent. Soldiers also are nearly four times more likely than civilians to use prescription narcotics to treat their pain, ...
BACKGROUND: The intervention of pacing is regularly recommended for chronic pain patients. However, pacing is poorly defined and appears to be interpreted in varying, potentially contradictory manners within the field of chronic pain. This conceptual lack of clarity has implications for effective service delivery and for researchers’ ability to conduct rigorous study. An examination of the background literature demonstrates that while pacing is often one part of a multidisciplinary pain management program, outcome research is hindered by a lack of a clear and shared definition of this currently ill-defined construct. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a formal concept analysis of the term ‘pacing’. METHODS: A standardized concept analysis process (including literature scoping to identify all uses of the concept, analysis to determine defining attributes of the concept and identification of model, borderline and contrary cases) was used to determine what the concept of pacing does and does not represent within the current evidence base. RESULTS: A conceptual model including the core attributes of action, time, balance, learning and self-management emerged. From these attributes, an evidence-based definition for pacing was composed and distributed to stakeholders for review. After consideration of stakeholder feedback, the emergent definition of pacing was finalized as follows: “Pacing is an active self-management strategy whereby individuals learn to balance time spent on activity and rest for the purpose of achieving increased function and participation in meaningful activities”. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present concept analysis will help to standardize the use and definition of the term pacing across disciplines for the purposes of both pain management and research.
Jamieson-Lega, Kathryn; Berry, Robyn; Brown, Cary A
Many people throughout the world have both chronic pain and obesity. Overweight and obese people are more prone to a proinflammatory state manifesting as metabolic syndrome but also to a higher prevalence of chronic pain comorbidities. Obesity and a high body mass index (BMI) are associated with impaired functional capacity and reduced quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic pain conditions. Systemic inflammation is not only involved in metabolic syndrome but it also initiates and perpetuates chronic pain. Changes in lifestyle, behavior, physical activity, and diet have demonstrated benefits in functional capacity and QoL; therefore, patient assessment should tackle high BMI and metabolic syndrome as part of the treatment of chronic pain. A healthier lifestyle would lead to a lower inflammatory state and consequently to an improvement in function and QoL in overweight or obese patients who have chronic pain conditions. PMID:24264719
Arranz, Laura-Isabel; Rafecas, Magda; Alegre, Cayetano
Background Pelvic adhesions are found in up to 50% of women with CPP during investigative surgeries and adhesiolysis is often performed as part of their management although the causal or casual association of adhesions, and the clinical benefit of adhesiolysis in the context of CPP is still unclear. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of whether laparoscopic adhesiolysis leads to significant pain relief and improvement in quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and adhesions. Methods This was a double-blinded RCT. This study was conducted in 2 tertiary referral hospitals in United Kingdom over 4 years. Women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) were randomized into having laparoscopic adhesiolysis or diagnostic laparoscopy. Women were assessed at 0, 3 and 6 months for Visual analogue scale scores (VAS) and Quality of Life (QoL) measures (SF-12 and EHP-30). Results A total of 92 participants were recruited; 50 qualified to be randomized, with 26 in the adhesiolysis and 24 in the control group. The results are expressed in median (interquartile ranges). In women who underwent adhesiolysis, there was a significant improvement at 6 months in VAS scores (-17.5 (-36.0 - -5.0) compared to controls (-1.5 (-15.0 – 4.5; p?=?0.048); SF-12 scores physical component score (25.0 (18.8 – 43.8)) compared to controls (6.3 (-6.3 – 18.8); p?=?0.021), SF-12 emotional component score 32.5 (4.4 – 48.8) compared to controls -5 (-21.3 – 15.0); p?0.0074) and EHP-30 emotional well being domain 32.5 (4.4 – 48.8) compared to the controls -5 (-21.3 – 15.0; p?0.0074). Conclusions This study stopped before recruitment reached the statistically powered sample size due to difficulty with enrollment and lack of continued funding. In selected population of women presenting to the gynecological clinic with chronic pelvic pain, adhesiolysis in those who have adhesions may be of benefit in terms of improvement of pain and their quality of life. Trial registration number ISRCTN 43852269
The overall impact of chronic pain on the response to opioids is ambiguous in the literature, and comparisons between human and animal studies are complicated by vast differences between the manner and dosage of opioids given to humans treated for pain in comparison to rodents as well as a lack of healthy participant studies examining the impact of chronic opioids.
Megan L. Uhelski; Jessica A. Boyette-Davis; Perry N. Fuchs
Background Although more individuals are sharing their experiences with chronic pain or illness through blogging (writing an Internet web log), research on the psychosocial effects and motivating factors for initiating and maintaining a blog is lacking. Objective The objective was to examine via online questionnaire the perceived psychosocial and health benefits of blogging among patients who use this media to communicate their experience of chronic pain or illness. Methods A 34-item online questionnaire was created, tested, and promoted through online health/disease forums. The survey employed convenience sampling and was open from May 5 to July 2, 2011. Respondents provided information regarding demographics, health condition, initiation and upkeep of blogs, and dynamics of online communication. Qualitative data regarding respondents’ blogging experiences, expectations for blogging, and the perceived effects from blogging on the blogger’s health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life were collected in the form of written narrative. Results Out of 372 respondents who started the survey, 230 completed the entire questionnaire. Demographic data showed survey respondents to be predominantly female (81.8%) and highly educated (97.2% > high school education and 39.6% with graduate school or professional degrees). A wide spectrum of chronic pain and illness diagnoses and comorbidities were represented. Respondents reported that initiating and maintaining an illness blog resulted in increased connection with others, decreased isolation, and provided an opportunity to tell their illness story. Blogging promoted accountability (to self and others) and created opportunities for making meaning and gaining insights from the experience of illness, which nurtured a sense of purpose and furthered their understanding of their illness. Conclusions Results suggest that blogging about chronic pain and illness may decrease a sense of isolation through the establishment of online connections with others and increases a sense of purpose to help others in similar situations. Further study involving a larger sample size, a wider range of education levels, and respondents with different types and magnitudes of illnesses will be needed to better elucidate the mechanism of the observed associations in this understudied area.
There are several therapies designed to increase body awareness. They are commonly known as body awareness therapies (BAT) and include Basic BAT, Mensendieck and Feldenkrais therapy. A focus on emotions is important in all these therapies. In this article the aim and development of Basic BAT is described together with evaluations of treatments including Basic BAT. Multidisciplinary studies have shown that Basic BAT can increase health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However Basic BAT needs to be further studied in relation to patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic pain. Studies so far indicate that Basic BAT has positive effects. PMID:16012065
BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of multimodal treatment of MTrPs in patients with chronic shoulder pain. METHODS: A
Carel Bron; Arthur de Gast; Jan Dommerholt; Boudewijn Stegenga; Michel Wensing; Rob AB Oostendorp
Introduction Chronic pelvic pain (persisting pain in hips, groins or lower back) is poorly described in studies of cervical cancer survivors\\u000a (CCSs). The aims of this study were to describe chronic pelvic pain and associated variables in CCSs surveyed >5 years post-radiotherapy,\\u000a and to compare the presence of pain in hips and lower back in CCSs with findings in the general female
Ingvild Vistad; Milada Cvancarova; Gunnar Balle Kristensen; Sophie Dorothea Fosså
with high levels of pain-related disability in 129\\/439 (27%). Nominated causes of chronic pain were injury in 173 (38%), most commonly sports injury (54; 13%), and a health problem in 132 (29%). Pain was work-related in 62 (14%). A musculoskeletal condition was the leading diagnosis (127; 26%). Of the 474 with chronic pain, 374 (78%) had consulted at least one
Fiona M Blyth; Lyn M March; Michael J Cousins
Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a serious problem. Incidence as high as 50% has been reported, depending on type of surgery undergone. Because the etiology of chronic pain is grounded in the bio-psychosocial model, physical, psychological, and social factors are implicated in the development of CPSP. Biomedical factors such as pre-operative pain, severe acute post-operative pain, modes of anesthesia, and
Anke Hinrichs-Rocker; Kerstin Schulz; Imke Järvinen; Rolf Lefering; Christian Simanski; Edmund A. M. Neugebauer
Background Due to tolerance development and adverse side effects, chronic pain patients frequently need to be switched to alternative opioid therapy Objective To assess the efficacy and tolerability of an alternative transdermally applied (TDS) opioid in patients with chronic cancer pain receiving insufficient analgesia using their present treatment. Methods A total of 32 patients received alternative opioid therapy, 16 were switched from buprenorphine to fentanyl and 16 were switched from fentanyl to buprenorphine. The dosage used was 50% of that indicated in equipotency conversion tables. Pain relief was assessed at weekly intervals for the next 3 weeks Results Pain relief as assessed by VAS, PPI, and PRI significantly improved (p < 0.0001) in all patients at all 3 follow up visits. After 3 weeks of treatment, the reduction in the mean VAS, PPI, and PRI scores in the fentanyl and buprenorphine groups was 68, 77, 74, and 69, 79, and 62%, respectively. Over the same time period the use of oral morphine as rescue medication was reduced from 27.5 ± 20.5 (mean ± SD) to 3.75 ± 8.06, and 33.8 ± 18.9 to 3.75 ± 10.9 mg/day in the fentanyl and buprenorphine groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in either pain relief or rescue medication use between the two patient groups The number of patient with adverse events fell during the study. After the third week of the treatment the number of patients with constipation was reduced from 11 to 5, and 10 to 4 patients in the fentanyl and buprenorphine groups, respectively. There was a similar reduction in the incidence of nausea and vomiting. No sedation was seen in any patient after one week of treatment. Conclusion Opioid switching at 50% of the calculated equianalgesic dose produced a significant reduction in pain levels and rescue medication. The incidence of side effects decreased and no new side effects were noted. Further studies are required to provide individualized treatment for patients according to their different types of cancer.
Aurilio, C; Pace, MC; Pota, V; Sansone, P; Barbarisi, M; Grella, E; Passavanti, MB
Rumination is a form of thought characterized by repetitive focus on discomforting emotions or stimuli. In chronic pain disorders, rumination can impede treatment efficacy. The brain mechanisms underlying rumination about chronic pain are not understood. Interestingly, a link between rumination and functional connectivity (FC) of the brain's default mode network (DMN) has been identified within the context of mood disorders. We, and others, have also found DMN dysfunction in chronic pain populations. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key node of the DMN that is anatomically connected with the descending pain modulatory system. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that in patients with chronic pain, the mPFC exhibits abnormal FC related to the patient's degree of rumination about their pain. Seventeen patients with idiopathic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting state functional MRI, and rumination about pain was assessed through the rumination subscale of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Compared with healthy controls, we found that TMD patients exhibited enhanced mPFC FC with other DMN regions, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus (PCu) and retrosplenial cortex. We also found that individual differences in pain rumination in the chronic pain patients (but not in healthy controls) were positively correlated to mPFC FC with the PCC/PCu, retrosplenial cortex, medial thalamus, and periaqueductal/periventricular gray. These data implicate communication within the DMN and of the DMN with the descending modulatory system as a mechanism underlying the degree to which patients ruminate about their chronic pain. PMID:24623774