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Sample records for chronic intractable pain

  1. [New drug therapies for intractable chronic pain: preface and comments].

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    Recently, new drugs for intractable chronic pain are available in Japan. The following articles describe topics of new drugs for intractable chronic pain including transdermal fentanyl, tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets, buprenorphine transdermal patch, pregabalin, and duloxetine. Treatment of constipation in chronic pain patients and management of opioid induced nausea and vomiting are also described to prevent complication of pain-relief drug therapy. PMID:23905399

  2. Intractable pain--the present position.

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, S.

    1981-01-01

    The broad changes that have occurred in the treatment of intractable pain are considered. There is a new understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain pathways and pain appreciation. Thus gate control theory, the spinal laminae, and the descending inhibitory pain pathway through the raphe nuclei are discussed in relation to the recent discovery of the opioid (enkephalin) systems. Out of this arises the stimulation methods of pain relief--transcutaneous neural stimulation, periaqueductal stimulation, and acupuncture. These are valuable in patients with a normal expectation of life. For patients with a shortened expectation of life other methods, especially destructive ones, are valuable (though in all types of chronic pain drug therapy is still the most used method). Basic changes in techniques and the equipment used to bring this about are detailed broadly. In particular, the use of the image intensifier X-ray machine and the stimulation and destruction available from the modern lesion generator when used in combination provide accuracy and safety. Techniques and methods are constantly altering and examples of this are given. All this costs money in time, personnel, and equipment; the costings of the Liverpool Centre for Pain Relief are given. Finally, the Pain Relief Foundation is in being in Liverpool in the grounds of Walton Hospital. This has been made possible by a large 'seed' donation by the Wolfson Foundation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6894676

  3. Neuraxial (epidural and intrathecal) opioids for intractable pain

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Points 1. Neuraxial opioids are considered for use in patients who have resistant intractable pain that fails to respond to other treatment options or pain that responds to analgesia but for which the doses required result in unacceptable side-effects. 2. Neuraxial opiods can be considered for both chronic non-malignant pain and chronic cancer-related pain. 3. Effectiveness in chronic non-malignant pain and cancer pain is exerted through the use of either single-agent drugs (opioids) or a combination of drugs: opioids, local anaesthetics and other drugs such as clonodine and ziconotide. 4. Complications of long-term continuous infusion therapy are related to the insertion process (haematoma), the mechanical device (both pump and catheter) and the long-term effects of the drugs. 5. Patients will require ongoing ambulatory monitoring and supportive care. PMID:26516463

  4. Intracerebroventricular opioids for intractable pain

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

    2012-01-01

    When pain is refractory to systemic opioid and non-opioid analgesic therapy and palliative chemoradiation or ablative or stimulant neurosurgical procedures are not possible, palliative treatment becomes limited, particularly if the patient wishes to be at home at the end of life. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of morphine in the home setting might be presented as an option. The present article reviews the basic and clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of ICV administration of opioids. Information was gathered from various bibliographic sources, including PubMed and others, and summarized and evaluated to assess the efficacy and safety of ICV opioids for pain relief. Results from ICV infusion of morphine into terminally ill patients refractory to other pain treatments have been reported since the early 1980s. Good efficacy has been achieved for the vast majority of patients, without serious development of analgesic tolerance. There have also been a low incidence of adverse effects, such as constipation and respiratory depression, and a significant retention of alertness associated with this route of administration. Intracerebroventricular infusion of opioid analgesics thus appears to be a safe and effective therapy for the palliative treatment of refractory pain. PMID:22295988

  5. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  6. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  7. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (also called Causalgia and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome) information page compiled by the ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (also called Causalgia and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome) information page compiled by the ...

  8. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anything you do to relax or get your mind off your problems may help control pain. It's important to include relaxing activities in your daily life, even if you are already taking medicine for pain. Relaxation can actually change the body's chemicals that produce pain. You might have to ...

  9. What Is Chronic Pain?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources Glossary FAQs Surveys September is ...

  10. Patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Salama-Hanna, Joseph; Chen, Grace

    2013-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic pain is important because it may lead to multidisciplinary preoperative treatment of patients' pain and a multimodal analgesia plan for effective pain control. Preoperative multidisciplinary management of chronic pain and comorbid conditions, such as depression, anxiety, deconditioning, and opioid tolerance, can improve patient satisfaction and surgical recovery. Multimodal analgesia using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies shifts the burden of analgesia away from simply increasing opioid dosing. In more complicated chronic pain patients, multidisciplinary treatment, including pain psychology, physical therapy, judicious medication management, and minimally invasive interventions by pain specialists, can improve patients' satisfaction and surgical outcome. PMID:24182727

  11. Preventing chronic postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Reddi, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is common. Nerve injury and inflammation promote chronic pain, the risk of which is influenced by patient factors, including psychological characteristics. Interventional trials to prevent chronic postoperative pain have been underpowered with inadequate patient follow-up. Ketamine may reduce chronic postoperative pain, although the optimum treatment duration and dose for different operations have yet to be identified. The evidence for gabapentin and pregabalin is encouraging but weak; further work is needed before these drugs can be recommended for the prevention of chronic pain. Regional techniques reduce the rates of chronic pain after thoracotomy and breast cancer surgery. Nerve-sparing surgical techniques may be of benefit, although nerve injury is not necessary or sufficient for chronic pain to develop. PMID:26620149

  12. Low back pain - chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for low-back pain with or without sciatica. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(5):CD003010. Henschke N, ... al. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD002014. Chou R, ...

  13. Depression and Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain? For More Information on Depression Citations Reprints Depression and Chronic Pain Order a free hardcopy En ... difficult, so proper treatment is important. What is depression? Major depressive disorder, or depression, is a serious ...

  14. Technology for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyi; Seymour, Ben

    2014-09-22

    Technology developed for chronic pain management has been fast evolving and offers new stand-alone prospects for the diagnosis and treatment of pain, rather than simply addressing the limitations of pharmacology-based approaches. There are two central challenges to be tackled: developing objective measures that capture the subjectivity of pain experience, and providing technology-based interventions that offer new approaches for pain management. Here we highlight recent developments that hold promise in addressing both of these challenges. PMID:25247372

  15. Managing Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may lead to depression. With the help of occupational therapy, people with chronic pain can learn to manage ... distributed without prior written consent. Occupational therapists and occupational therapy assis- tants are trained in helping both adults ...

  16. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a specific diagnosis What you should know: The pelvic floor muscles act as a muscular sling that supports ... causes Chronic constipation or diarrhea can lead to pelvic floor dysfunction and pelvic pain can become very debilitating ...

  17. Employees with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among individuals. Be aware that not all people with chronic pain will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few ...

  18. Acute vs. chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Auvenshine, R C

    2000-07-01

    The differences between acute and chronic pain are many and varied. They are so different from one another that they must be considered separate entities. The chronic pain patient does not fit the traditional acute illness model as conceptualized by patients and healthcare providers. Because of the complex nature of the pain mechanism as a protective "reflex" and the fact that the pain response gets caught up in emotional expression, pain becomes a learned behavior pattern. When the patient who presents to the dental office suffering from pain is found not to respond to conventional methods of treatment, the dentist should first consider the nature of the pain response and the fact that the patient may not meet all the requirements for the acute illness model. The manner in which the patient describes his or her pain can be a major clue as to the temporal classification of the pain, thus allowing the dentist the advantage of better decision-making. Great discernment on the part of the dental practitioner must be exercised in order to provide the optimum care for the patient. It is important for the dentist to consider the fact that there may be no underlying cause for the pain and it may be necessary to make proper referrals for management of this type of patient. At a more practical and human level, patients want to know if their pain will ever completely go away. Patients are frightened that their pain is attributable to some unrecognized pathology (catastrophic thinking). This drives them to search for the ultimate cure. Going from practitioner to practitioner worsens the confusion as the patient hopes that someone will be able to illuminate the problem. By being able to classify the pain into a recognizable and explainable syndrome, the pain practitioner is often able to offer hope to the patient. Although treatment often does not yield a completely pain-free state, understanding the basis for the pain can provide significant relief through proper management. PMID:11858059

  19. Chronic Pain Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to take, ask your doctor or your pharmacist. Acetaminophen Acetaminophen (one brand name: Tylenol) helps many kinds of chronic pain. Remember, many over-the-counter and prescription pain medicines have acetaminophen in them. If you're not careful, you ...

  20. Complaining about chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kugelmann, R

    1999-12-01

    This paper examines how a group of working class people describes and experiences chronic pain. This hermeneutical-phenomenological study concentrates on the lived body of pain from three perspectives, drawing on interviews with 14 people who were attending a pain management program. First I consider the terms in which pain is circumscribed in the narratives, stories told in the context of learning to manage pain. These terms are polarities, ways of specifying and legitimating pain in relation to "mind" and "body." Pain, in the discursive polarities that define it, is the private property of an individual, who must in some fashion prove that pain exists in an objective manner. The speaker, in this discourse, stands as the one responsible for the production of pain. In the second part, the analysis turns to what this discourse reveals about pain as a lived body phenomenon. Here the analysis centers upon the torment of having to inhabit the intolerable, upon how pain unmakes the lifeworld of the sufferer, and how, simultaneously, people make pain. The place of pain is the body, as body-in-place. The place of pain is at the boundaries of human dwelling, a kind of non-place, expressed metaphorically as "prison" or "homelessness." Finally, after these considerations of how pain is described, in part three, I turn to the act of "saying" pain, that is, to the narratives as addressed to someone else. The participants were not simply dispensing information; they were saying something to me. The narratives had the form of complaints. The form of the narratives, in the context of the pain program, was a quasi-legal call to rectify wrongs. PMID:10574237

  1. Cortical pathophysiology of chronic pain

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Cortical pathophysiology of chronic pain A. Vania Apkarian Department of Physiology multiple non-invasive brain imaging techniques to study the characteristics of patients with chronic pain in chronic pain are summarized, emphasizing the unique role of the prefrontal cortex in chronic, especially

  2. Buprenorphine for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Raul; Copenhaver, David

    2013-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions, analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The use of transdermal buprenorphine for chronic pain management is discussed. A brief history of the medication is provided. The use of the medication in opioid maintenance, and withdrawal and other concerns are discussed. Possible side effects are described. PMID:24245573

  3. Experience with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for relief of intractable pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Avellanosa, A M; West, C R

    1982-01-01

    Sixty patients with intractable cancer pain were subjected to transcutaneous electrical stimulation for pain control. Evaluation, after two weeks of treatment, revealed: 17 (28.3%) excellent response, 22 (36.2%) fair and 21 (35.0%) no relief. Re-assessment after 3 months revealed 9 (15%) excellent responses, 11 (18.3%) fair and 40 (67%) failures. Extremity and trunk pains appeared to be most rewarding to patient pain, so far as pain relief is concerned. Perineal and pelvic pains were most difficult to control, only 5 of 12 (41%) cases obtained some short term relief. Pain location and sources correlated with treatment results. PMID:6983553

  4. Chronic Pain: Where the Body Meets the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is one of the most intractable clinical problems faced by clinicians and can be devastating for patients. Central pain amplification is perceived pain that cannot be fully explained on the basis of somatic or neuropathic processes and is due to physiologic alterations in pain transmission or descending pain modulatory pathways. In any individual, central pain amplification may complicate nociceptive or neuropathic pain. Furthermore, patients with somatic symptom disorders may have alterations in their psychological or behavioral responses to pain that contribute significantly to the clinical presentation. Genetic, physiologic, and psychological factors associated with central pain amplification are beginning to be understood. One important contributor to chronic pain is perceived stress and stress response systems. We and others have shown a complex relationship between the physiologic stress response and chronic pain symptoms. Unfortunately, treatments for chronic pain are woefully inadequate and often worsen clinical outcomes. Developing new treatment strategies for patients with chronic pain is of utmost urgency. This essay provides a framework for thinking about chronic pain and developing new treatment approaches. PMID:26330672

  5. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed. PMID:22609642

  6. Management of Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2009-01-01

    Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799

  7. Multimodal Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rebecca; Stacey, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic pain receive multimodal treatment. There is scant literature to guide us, but when approaching combination pharmacotherapy, the practitioner and patient must weigh the benefits with the side effects; many medications have modest effect yet carry significant side effects that can be additive. Chronic pain often leads to depression, anxiety, and deconditioning, which are targets for treatment. Structured interdisciplinary programs are beneficial but costly. Interventions have their place in the treatment of chronic pain and should be a part of a multidisciplinary treatment plan. Further research is needed to validate many common combination treatments. PMID:26614719

  8. Differential diagnostic validation: acute and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Simon, J M; Baumann, M A; Nolan, L

    1995-01-01

    The authors sought to validate the defining characteristics of acute pain and chronic pain and to compare the differences between them. Expert nurses (N = 125) rated the importance of 55 clinical indicators for each diagnosis (acute pain and chronic pain). Differential diagnostic validity (DDV) scores were calculated for each clinical indicator for both diagnoses. Only acute pain had a DDV score greater than .80, indicating that the characteristic "communication of pain descriptors" was a critical indicator for acute pain. A majority of defining characteristics differentiated between acute pain and chronic pain, thereby supporting the identification of acute pain and chronic pain as separate nursing diagnoses. PMID:7619605

  9. Chronic pain management: nonpharmacological therapies for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Nonpharmacologic therapies have become a vital part of managing chronic pain (CP). Although these can be used as stand-alone therapies, nonpharmacologic treatments often are used to augment and complement pharmacologic treatments (ie, multimodal therapy). Nonpharmacologic approaches can be classified as behavioral, cognitive, integrative, and physical therapies. Core principles in developing a treatment plan are explaining the nature of the CP condition, setting appropriate goals, and developing a comprehensive treatment approach and plan for adherence. Clinicians should become familiar with these interventions so that they can offer patients flexibility in the pain management approach. Effective noninvasive treatment modalities for CP include behavioral therapy for short-term pain relief; cognitive behavioral therapy for reducing long-term pain and disability; hypnosis as adjunctive therapy; guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, and muscle relaxation, especially for cancer-related pain; mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with chronic low back pain; acupuncture for multiple pain conditions; combination manipulation, manual therapy, endurance exercise, stretching, and strengthening for chronic neck pain; animal-assisted therapy; and S-adenosyl-L-methionine for joint pain. Guidelines for use of these treatment modalities are based on expert panel recommendations in combination with data from randomized controlled trials. PMID:25970869

  10. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-04-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  11. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  12. Chest Pain, Chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Yes Your pain may be caused by POSTHERPETIC NEURALGIA, a condition that can remain after the shingles infection. See your doctor. In many cases, postherpetic neuralgia can be treated with over-the-counter pain ...

  13. Chronic Pain and Exercise Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raithel, Kathryn Simmons

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)

  14. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; ?uczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; G?ówka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg?1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg?1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL?1 and 235.7 ng·mL?1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL?1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

  15. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Descalzi, Giannina; Ikegami, Daigo; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Nestler, Eric; Zachariou, Venetia; Narita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic and inflammatory pain promote a large number of persisting adaptations at the cellular and molecular level, allowing tissue or nerve damage, even if only transient, to elicit changes in cells that contribute to the development of chronic pain and associated symptoms. There is evidence that injury-induced changes in chromatin structure drive stable changes in gene expression and neural function, which may cause several symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, anxiety, and depression. Recent findings on epigenetic changes in the spinal cord and brain during chronic pain may guide fundamental advances in new treatments. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic regulation in the nervous system and then discuss the still-limited literature that directly implicates epigenetic modifications in chronic pain syndromes. PMID:25765319

  16. Pain management in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gachago, Cathia; Draganov, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a major clinical problem in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The cause of pain is usually multifactorial with a complex interplay of factors contributing to a varying degree to the pain in an individual patient and, therefore, a rigid standardized approach for pain control tends to lead to suboptimal results. Pain management usually proceeds in a stepwise approach beginning with general lifestyle recommendations. Low fat diet, alcohol and smoking cessation are encouraged. Analgesics alone are needed in almost all patients. Maneuvers aimed at suppression of pancreatic secretion are routinely tried. Patients with ongoing symptoms may be candidates for more invasive options such as endoscopic therapy, and resective or drainage surgery. The role of pain modifying agents (antidepressants, gabapentin, pregabalin), celiac plexus block, antioxidants, octreotide and total pancreatectomy with islet cell auto transplantation remains to be determined. PMID:18506917

  17. American Chronic Pain Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015 *NEW* Veterans In Pain Events Events for December 2015: View All Events Su M Tu W Th ... Next Week 12/1/2015 SAVE THE DATE - December 1, 2015 #GivingTuesday 12/5/2015 American Headache Society Comprehensive ...

  18. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    PubMed Central

    Verstraelen, Hans; De Zutter, Eline; De Muynck, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. PMID:26664155

  19. Evidence Based Practice of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rakesh; Joshi, Saurabh; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2012-01-01

    The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management. PMID:23439674

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Ropivacaine Addition to Intrathecal Morphine for Pain Management in Intractable Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Li, Xihan; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Jian; Tao, Gaojian

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although intrathecal drug infusion has been commonly adopted for terminal cancer pain relief, its adverse effects have made many clinicians reluctant to employ it for intractable cancer pain. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and security of an intrathecal continuous infusion of morphine and ropivacaine versus intrathecal morphine alone for cancer pain. Methods. Thirty-six cancer patients received either a continuous morphine (n = 19) or morphine and ropivacaine (n = 17) infusion using an intrathecal catheter through a subcutaneous port. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores and the Barthel Index were analyzed. Adverse effects and complications on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 15 were also analyzed. Results. All patients experienced pain relief. Compared to those who received morphine alone, patients receiving morphine and ropivacaine had significantly lower postoperative morphine requirements and higher Barthel Index scores on the 15th postsurgical day (P < 0.05). Patients receiving morphine and ropivacaine had lower NRS scores than patients receiving morphine alone on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 15 (P < 0.05). Negative postsurgical effects were similar in both groups. Conclusions. Morphine and ropivacaine administration through intrathecal access ports is efficacious and safe and significantly improves quality of life. PMID:26556955

  1. University receives grant for chronic pain research

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    , electrical engineering professor J.C. Chiao, suffers from chronic neck pain. Because the surgery is extremelyUniversity receives grant for chronic pain research Written by Bryan Bastible WEDNESDAY, 19 for people to deal with chronic pain. Neuronal signals transmitted between the center of a nerve

  2. The prevalence of chronic pain in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Schopflocher, Donald; Taenzer, Paul; Jovey, Roman

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While chronic pain appears to be relatively common, published population prevalence estimates have been highly variable, partly due to differences in the definition of chronic pain and in survey methodologies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Canada using clear case definitions and a validated survey instrument. METHODS: A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of adults from across Canada using the same screening questionnaire that had been used in a recent large, multicountry study conducted in Europe. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain prevalence for adults older than 18 years of age was 18.9%. This was comparable with the overall mean reported using identical survey questions and criteria for chronic pain used in the European study. Chronic pain prevalence was greater in older adults, and females had a higher prevalence at older ages compared with males. Approximately one-half of those with chronic pain reported suffering for more than 10 years. Approximately one-third of those reporting chronic pain rated the intensity in the very severe range. The lower back was the most common site of chronic pain, and arthritis was the most frequently named cause. CONCLUSIONS: A consensus is developing that there is a high prevalence of chronic pain within adult populations living in industrialized nations. Recent studies have formulated survey questions carefully and have used large samples. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of Canadian adults continue to live with chronic pain that is longstanding and severe. PMID:22184555

  3. Theoretical Considerations for Chronic Pain Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Martin; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2015-09-01

    Conventional rehabilitation of patients with chronic pain is often not successful and is frustrating for the treatment team. However, theoretical developments and substantial advances in our understanding of the neurological aspects of chronic pain are changing these experiences. Modern theoretical models of pain consider pain to be a perceptual inference that reflects a "best guess" that protective action is required. This article argues that keen observation and open and respectful clinician-patient and scientist-clinician relationships have been critical for the emergence of effective rehabilitation approaches and will be critical for further improvements. The role in modern pain rehabilitation of reconceptualizing the pain itself-by "Explaining Pain," careful and intentional observation of the person in pain, and the strategic and constant communication of safety-is emphasized. It also is suggested that better understanding of the neural mechanisms underpinning chronic pain has directly informed the development of new therapeutic approaches, which are being further refined and tested. Conventional pain treatment (where the clinician strives to find the pain-relieving medication or exercise) or pain management (where the clinician helps the patient to manage life despite unabating pain) is being replaced by pain rehabilitation, where a truly biopsychosocial approach allows clinicians to provide patients with the knowledge, understanding, and skills to reduce both their pain and disability. A brief overview is provided of the key aspects of modern pain rehabilitation and the considerations that should lead our interaction with patients with chronic pain. PMID:25882484

  4. INTRODUCTION Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    INTRODUCTION · Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome affects 5-10% of men pathophysiological correlates of CP/CPPS pain (prostate inflammation, endocrine abnormalities, pelvic floor muscle/CPPS biomarkers can potentially advance diagnosis of mechanistically distinct pain subtypes and direct

  5. Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... this page please turn Javascript on. What Is Pain? You know it at once. It may be ...

  6. [Post-operative pain therapy of a chronic pain patient].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed. PMID:17151986

  7. Chronic Pain in the Classroom: Teachers' Attributions about the Causes of Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.…

  8. Managing your chronic back pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. ...

  9. Peripheral and Neuraxial Chemical Neurolysis for the Management of Intractable Lower Extremity Pain in a Patient with Terminal Cancer.

    PubMed

    De Pinto, Mario; Naidu, Ramana K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 74-year-old man with Stage IV metastatic, multifocal, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (T2b, N1, M1, G4) invading the proximal area of the left lower extremity and resulting in intractable neuropathic pain along the distribution of the femoral nerve. He described the pain as being so severe to cause inability to ambulate without assistance or to sleep in a supine or prone position. After a spinal cord stimulation trial and a trial of intrathecal (IT) hydromorphone, both performed at an outside institution, had failed to achieve adequate pain relief, we decided to perform a femoral nerve chemical neurolysis with phenol under ultrasound (US) guidance. The intervention provided 6 months of almost complete pain relief. With the tumor spreading in girth distally and proximally to the scrotal and pelvic areas as well as to the lungs, and pain returning back to baseline, we proceeded with a second femoral nerve chemical neurolysis. Unfortunately we were not able to achieve adequate pain relief. Therefore we opted to proceed with a diagnostic injection of local anesthetic under fluoroscopic guidance at the left L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots level. This intervention provided 100% pain relief and was followed, a few days later, by chemical neurolysis with phenol 3%. The patient reported complete pain relief with the procedure and no sensory-motor related side effects or complications. He was able to enjoy the last 6 weeks of life with his wife and family, pain-free. With this report we add to the limited literature available regarding the management of intractable cancer pain with chemical neurolysis in and around the epidural space. PMID:26218956

  10. Intracranial Chronic Subdural Hematoma Presenting with Intractable Headache after Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myungsoo

    2015-01-01

    Postdural punctural headache (PDPH) following spinal anesthesia is due to intracranial hypotension caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, and it is occasionally accompanied by an intracranial hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, an intracranial chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) presenting with an intractable headache after a cervical epidural steroid injection (ESI) has not been reported. A 39-year-old woman without any history of trauma underwent a cervical ESI for a herniated nucleus pulposus at the C5-6 level. One month later, she presented with a severe headache that was not relieved by analgesic medication, which changed in character from being positional to non-positional during the preceding month. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a CSDH along the left convexity. Emergency burr-hole drainage was performed and the headache abated. This report indicates that an intracranial CSDH should be considered a possible complication after ESI. In addition, the event of an intractable and changing PDPH after ESI suggests further evaluation for diagnosis of an intracranial hematoma. PMID:26361532

  11. [On the Differential Diagnosis of Intractable Psychogenic Chronic Cough: Neuropathic Larynx Irritable - Gabapentin's Antitussive Action].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, U; Ossowski, A; Schubert, M; Gall, H; Steinkamp, I; Richter, L E; Khalil-Boutros, Y; Nefedev, A; Kuhlmann, R

    2015-10-01

    We present the case of a 76 year old female inpatient who suffered from a chronic intractable cough which arose simultaneously to a severe major depression and was secondary to an exorbitant psychological distress. Chronic cough had never been experienced before and was initially considered to have a mere psychogenic origin since a comprehensive and guideline-based diagnostic screening did not reveal any underlying somatic cause. However, several factors cast doubt on the solitary psychic genesis of the chronic cough: i) occurrence immediately after a penetrant cold, ii) embedding in other complaints of laryngeal hyperreagibility (larynx irritable), such as persistent globus pharyngeus sensation, throat clearing and episodic dysphonia, iii) first occurrence on old life, iv) erupting from sleep as well, v) persistence despite remission of the major depression, and v) no sustaining benefit from specific psychotherapy and speech therapy. Therefore, diagnostics were extended to apparative tools for objective evaluation of swallowing by using fiberoptic videoendoscopic (FEES) and videofluoroscopic (VFS) techniques, which revealed signs of laryngeal neuropathy but without evidence of penetration or aspiration. A co-existing small goiter and an impaired glucose tolerance along with a putative intracellular vitamin B12 or folate deficiency (as indirectly derived from an apparent hyperhomocysteinemia) were assumed to be responsible for the neuropathy and underwent specific treatments. The impaired glucose tolerance and putative vitamin deficit were compatible with a distal symmetric sensorimotoric, even subclinical polyneuropathy of the lower extremities. The larynx irritable improved under gabapentin being confirmed by drug removals several times, and finally calmed down almost completely under gabapentin, which was in line with the scant literature of this topic. Re-examination of the larynx per FEES nine months later showed no deficits any more under the well-tolerated treatment (gabapentin, levothyroxine, vitamin B12 and folic acid substitution, weight reduction and physical training). All in all, the larynx irritable as well as the chronic cough were most probably induced by a laryngeal neuropathy and were not solely of psychic origin. Due to good treatment options a larynx irritable should be regularly taken into consideration of the investigation of intractable chronic cough. Therefore, an apparative evaluation of deglutition is recommended in the diagnostic toolbox of chronic cough - even if embedded in a psychiatric disorder or distress - before diagnosing a sole psychic origin. An hypothetical scheme of the development of a larynx irritable caused by neuropathic and non-neuropathic ("nociceptive") conditions is proposed. PMID:26588720

  12. Assessment of patients with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Dansie, E. J.; Turk, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic pain is a public health concern affecting 20–30% of the population of Western countries. Although there have been many scientific advances in the understanding of the neurophysiology of pain, precisely assessing and diagnosing a patient's chronic pain problem is not straightforward or well-defined. How chronic pain is conceptualized influences how pain is evaluated and the factors considered when making a chronic pain diagnosis. There is no one-to-one relationship between the amount or type of organic pathology and pain intensity, but instead, the chronic pain experience is shaped by a myriad of biomedical, psychosocial (e.g. patients' beliefs, expectations, and mood), and behavioural factors (e.g. context, responses by significant others). Assessing each of these three domains through a comprehensive evaluation of the person with chronic pain is essential for treatment decisions and to facilitate optimal outcomes. This evaluation should include a thorough patient history and medical evaluation and a brief screening interview where the patient's behaviour can be observed. Further assessment to address questions identified during the initial evaluation will guide decisions as to what additional assessments, if any, may be appropriate. Standardized self-reported instruments to evaluate the patient's pain intensity, functional abilities, beliefs and expectations, and emotional distress are available, and can be administered by the physician, or a referral for in depth evaluation can be made to assist in treatment planning. PMID:23794641

  13. Counseling Adult Clients Experiencing Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Stephanie T.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for…

  14. [Chronic pain and regional anesthesia in children].

    PubMed

    Dadure, C; Marec, P; Veyckemans, F; Beloeil, H

    2013-10-01

    Chronic pain is usually underestimated in children, due to lack of knowledge and its specific signs. In addition to suffering, chronic pain causes a physical, psychological, emotional, social, and financial burden for the child and his family. Practitioners may find themselves in a situation of failure with depletion of medical resources. Some types of chronic pain are refractory to conventional systemic treatment and may require the use of regional anesthesia. Cancer pain is common in children and its medical management is sometimes insufficient. It is accessible to neuroaxial or peripheral techniques of regional anesthesia if it is limited to an area accessible to one of these techniques and no contraindications (e.g., thrombopenia) are present. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 is not rare in children and adolescents, but it often goes undiagnosed. Regional anesthesia may contribute to the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome 1, mainly in case of recurrence, because it provides rapid effective analgesia and allows rapid implementation of intensive physiotherapy. These techniques have also shown interest in phantom limb pain after limb amputation, but they remain controversial for erythromelalgia pain or chronic abdominopelvic pain. Finally, the treatment of postdural puncture headache due to cerebrospinal fluid leak can be treated by performing an epidural injection of the patient's blood, called a blood-patch. Finally, the management of children with chronic pain should be multidisciplinary (pediatrician, physiotherapist, psychologist, surgeon, anesthesiologist) to support the child and her problem in its entirety. PMID:23953871

  15. Management of advanced plexiform neurofibromatosis of the foot presenting with skeletal deformation and intractable pain: an indication for proximal amputation.

    PubMed

    DeFazio, Michael V; Ter Louw, Ryan P; Attinger, Christopher E; Barbour, John R

    2015-03-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas of the foot are rare and often present with significant pain, deformity, and functional impairment secondary to their locally invasive behavior. While treatment has traditionally focused on attempts at radical resection, a lack of consensus among surgeons has hindered the establishment of a well-defined algorithm to guide the management of these highly co-morbid peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We present the case of an advanced plexiform neurofibroma of the right foot in a 24-year-old male with neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient presented following accelerated tumor growth with extensive osseous erosion, intractable pain, and progressive ankle instability that limited his capacity to ambulate and wear shoes. A modified transtibial amputation with a vascularized fibular bone graft (Ertl procedure) was performed without complication. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient regained functional independence and was able to ambulate without pain in a customized prosthesis after 3 months. Plexiform neurofibromas of the foot present a complex challenge for foot and ankle surgeons. On the basis of our experience and previously reported cases, we advocate for amputation over aggressive attempts at advanced limb salvage for patients with extensive skeletal destruction, joint instability, and/or intractable pain caused by tumor mass effect. PMID:25496857

  16. Hypnotherapy for the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Gary; Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews controlled prospective trials of hypnosis for the treatment of chronic pain. Thirteen studies, excluding studies of headaches, were identified that compared outcomes from hypnosis for the treatment of chronic pain to either baseline data or a control condition. The findings indicate that hypnosis interventions consistently produce significant decreases in pain associated with a variety of chronic-pain problems. Also, hypnosis was generally found to be more effective than nonhypnotic interventions such as attention, physical therapy, and education. Most of the hypnosis interventions for chronic pain include instructions in self-hypnosis. However, there is a lack of standardization of the hypnotic interventions examined in clinical trials, and the number of patients enrolled in the studies has tended to be low and lacking long-term follow-up. Implications of the findings for future clinical research and applications are discussed. PMID:17558718

  17. Satisfaction With Chronic Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Amirzadeh, Kimia; Mohabbati, Vahid; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of chronic pain (CP) on physical function and emotional and mental health of individuals, families, and community are well established. No adequate research is conducted in this field in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of CP, types of treatments used for CP and patients’ satisfaction with the CP treatments in an Iranian urban population. Patients and Methods: In the current study, CP was investigated using the international CP questionnaire administered to 1,050 adults living in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions used to evaluate the effects of CP on the studied population including the prevalence of CP, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CP, and participants’ satisfaction with CP treatments. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In the current study, 6.95% of the 1,050 subjects willing to participate in the study had CP for more than six months. According to the results, 54% of the subjects with CP used analgesics, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and narcotic analgesics. Besides, 37% of the subjects used other pain relief methods such as traditional medicine and acupuncture. The results also showed an acceptable rate of satisfaction with treatments. Conclusions: The number of subjects with CP proved it as a prevalent problem in the study population. Furthermore, characteristics and associations of those experiencing CP demonstrated that it might have significant negative health and psychosocial outcomes in this group. The problem was found significant enough to consider special health programs to prevent and manage CP in urban population of Shiraz. PMID:26473099

  18. Management of chronic pain. Part I.

    PubMed

    Barkin, R L; Lubenow, T R; Bruehl, S; Husfeldt, B; Ivankovich, O; Barkin, S J

    1996-07-01

    Chronic pain is associated with substantial psychosocial and economic stress, coupled with functional loss and various levels of vocational dysfunction. The role of a pain center is to focus on chronic pain in a multidisciplinary, comprehensive manner, providing the patient with the most effective opportunity to manage his or her chronic disease syndrome. This article focuses on methods to manage many types of chronic pain and describes a broad range of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions and options available to the patient. Part I of this two-part monograph describes pharmacotherapeutic interventions and regional nerve blocks. Part II focuses on psychologic assessment and treatment and physical therapy. A multimodal management strategy offers patients the greatest improvement potential for specific chronic pain syndromes. Cognitive and behavioral therapies and physical therapies are described. This combination of therapies may provide patients with the skills and knowledge needed to increase their sense of control over pain. The integration of appropriate pharmacotherapeutic regimens, neural blockades, physical therapy, and psychologic techniques maximizes a patient's effectiveness in dealing with chronic pain. Three case studies are presented in Part II. PMID:8706590

  19. Pregabalin in acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Agarwal, Anil; Khanna, Puneet; Arora, Mahesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Pregabalin is a gamma-amino-butyric acid analog shown to be effective in several models of neuropathic pain, incisional injury, and inflammatory injury. In this review, the role of pregabalin in acute postoperative pain and in chronic pain syndromes has been discussed. Multimodal perioperative analgesia with the use of gabapentinoids has become common. Based on available evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis, the perioperative administration of pregabalin reduces opioid consumption and opioid-related adverse effects in the first 24 h following surgery. Postoperative pain intensity is however not consistently reduced by pregabalin. Adverse effects like visual disturbance, sedation, dizziness, and headache are associated with higher doses. The advantage of the perioperative use of pregabalin is so far limited to laparoscopic, gynecological, and daycare surgeries which are not very painful. The role of the perioperative administration of pregabalin in preventing chronic pain following surgery, its efficacy in more painful surgeries and surgeries done under regional anesthesia, and the optimal dosage and duration of perioperative pregabalin need to be studied. The efficacy of pregabalin in chronic pain conditions like painful diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, central neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia has been demonstrated. PMID:21897498

  20. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function. PMID:26614726

  1. Imagery and emotion in chronic pain 

    E-print Network

    Lonsdale, Jennifer Helen

    2010-11-26

    Psychological factors have important implications for adjustment to chronic pain, which itself has a variety of emotional consequences. Mental imagery has historically been assumed to be closely connected to emotional responses, and some...

  2. Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.

    2011-08-01

    We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ? 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.

  3. Chronic pain. Decreased motivation during chronic pain requires long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Neil; Temkin, Paul; Jurado, Sandra; Lim, Byung Kook; Heifets, Boris D; Polepalli, Jai S; Malenka, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    Several symptoms associated with chronic pain, including fatigue and depression, are characterized by reduced motivation to initiate or complete goal-directed tasks. However, it is unknown whether maladaptive modifications in neural circuits that regulate motivation occur during chronic pain. Here, we demonstrate that the decreased motivation elicited in mice by two different models of chronic pain requires a galanin receptor 1-triggered depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in indirect pathway nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons. These results demonstrate a previously unknown pathological adaption in a key node of motivational neural circuitry that is required for one of the major sequela of chronic pain states and syndromes. PMID:25082697

  4. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli induces chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rudick, Charles N; Berry, Ruth E; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Klumpp, David J; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2011-02-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a debilitating syndrome of unknown etiology often postulated, but not proven, to be associated with microbial infection of the prostate gland. We hypothesized that infection of the prostate by clinically relevant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) can initiate and establish chronic pain. We utilized an E. coli strain newly isolated from a patient with CP/CPPS (strain CP1) and examined its molecular pathogenesis in cell culture and in a murine model of bacterial prostatitis. We found that CP1 is an atypical isolate distinct from most UPEC in its phylotype and virulence factor profile. CP1 adhered to, invaded, and proliferated within prostate epithelia and colonized the prostate and bladder of NOD and C57BL/6J mice. Using behavioral measures of pelvic pain, we showed that CP1 induced and sustained chronic pelvic pain in NOD mice, an attribute not exhibited by a clinical cystitis strain. Furthermore, pain was observed to persist even after bacterial clearance from genitourinary tissues. CP1 induced pelvic pain behavior exclusively in NOD mice and not in C57BL/6J mice, despite comparable levels of colonization and inflammation. Microbial infections can thus serve as initiating agents for chronic pelvic pain through mechanisms that are dependent on both the virulence of the bacterial strain and the genetic background of the host. PMID:21078846

  5. Spiritual Coping with Chronic Pain 

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Kevin

    2008-06-26

    and Pain interference (PI) (p?.05). Despite SP correlating well with R/S coping, neither the positive nor negative R/S coping subscales accounted for any of the variance in pain outcomes. Three of the CSQ coping subscales correlated with pain outcomes...

  6. Chronic perianal pain: an unsolved problem.

    PubMed Central

    Neill, M E; Swash, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with chronic anal pain of obscure origin are described. This syndrome is ill-defined and treatment is unsatisfactory. There is a high incidence of sciatica and of damage to the pelvic floor musculature, but although the pain has features consistent with a neuralgia, its cause is unknown. PMID:7069679

  7. The use of cannabinoids in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Timothy David; Osborn, Hannah Louise

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 56-year-old man who developed chronic pain following the excision of a facial cancer that was poorly controlled despite multiple analgesic medications. Following the starting of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) his pain control was greatly improved and this had a huge impact on his quality of life. We also managed to significantly reduce his doses of opioid analgesia and ketamine. We review the current literature regarding the medicinal use of cannabinoids, with an emphasis on chronic pain, in an attempt to clarify their role and how to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. PMID:23893276

  8. Similarities between severe tinnitus and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Moller, A R

    2000-03-01

    The symptoms and signs of severe tinnitus and chronic pain have many similarities and similar hypotheses have been presented regarding how the symptoms are generated. Pain and tinnitus have many different forms. The severity of the symptoms of both varies within wide limits, and it is not likely that all forms have the same pathology. Some individuals with severe tinnitus perceive sounds to be unpleasant or painful. This may be similar to what is known as allodynia, which is a painful sensation of normally innocuous stimulation of the skin. Many individuals with chronic pain experience a worsening of their pain from repeated stimulation (the "wind-up" phenomenon). This is similar to the increasingly unpleasant feeling from sounds that are repeated that many individuals with severe tinnitus experience. There are also similarities in the hypotheses about the generation of pain and tinnitus. Although less severe tinnitus may be generated in the ear, it is believed that severe tinnitus in many cases is caused by changes in the nervous system that occur as a result of neural plasticity. Acute pain caused by tissue injury is generated at the site of injury but chronic pain is often generated in the central nervous system, yet another similarity between chronic pain and severe tinnitus. The changes in the nervous system consist of altered synaptic efficacy including opening of dormant synapses. For pain, this is believed to occur in the wide dynamic range neurons of the spinal cord and brain stem. Less is known about the anatomic location of the changes that cause severe tinnitus but there are indications that it may be the inferior colliculus. It is also possible that other auditory systems than the classical ascending pathways may be involved in severe tinnitus. PMID:10755808

  9. The association between chronic pain and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Okifuji, Akiko; Hare, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain complaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also review the relationship between obesity and pain response to noxious stimulation in animals and humans. Based upon the existing research, we present several potential mechanisms that may link the two phenomena, including mechanical/structural factors, chemical mediators, depression, sleep, and lifestyle. We discuss the clinical implications of obesity and pain, focusing on the effect of weight loss, both surgical and noninvasive, on pain. The literature suggests that the two conditions are significant comorbidities, adversely impacting each other. The nature of the relationship however is not likely to be direct, but many interacting factors appear to contribute. Weight loss for obese pain patients appears to be an important aspect of overall pain rehabilitation, although more efforts are needed to determine strategies to maintain long-term benefit. PMID:26203274

  10. Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Peripheral Nervous System Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major health concern affecting 80 million Americans at some time in their lives with significant associated morbidity and effects on individual quality of life. Chronic pain can result from a variety of inflammatory and nerve damaging events that include cancer, infectious diseases, autoimmune-related syndromes and surgery. Current pharmacotherapies have not provided an effective long-term solution as they are limited by drug tolerance and potential abuse. These concerns have led to the development and testing of gene therapy approaches to treat chronic pain. The potential efficacy of gene therapy for pain has been reported in numerous pre-clinical studies that demonstrate pain control at the level of the spinal cord. This promise has been recently supported by a Phase-I human trial in which a replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector was used to deliver the human pre-proenkephalin (hPPE) gene, encoding the natural opioid peptides met- and leu-enkephalin (ENK), to cancer patients with intractable pain resulting from bone metastases (Fink et al., 2011). The study showed that the therapy was well tolerated and that patients receiving the higher doses of therapeutic vector experienced a substantial reduction in their overall pain scores for up to a month post vector injection. These exciting early clinical results await further patient testing to demonstrate treatment efficacy and will likely pave the way for other gene therapies to treat chronic pain. PMID:22668775

  11. INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Pain perception: Distinctive Features of Ongoing Chronic Pain Ratings Revealed By Nonlinear Analysis

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Pain perception: Distinctive Features of Ongoing Chronic Pain Ratings.7 Approximately 10% of adults suffer from severe chronic pain. By definition, chronic pain is a state of ongoing pain for long periods after the healing of the initial inciting event. A fundamental property

  12. Glia and pain: Is chronic pain a gliopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Berta, Temugin; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Activation of glial cells and neuro-glial interactions are emerging as key mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Accumulating evidence has implicated 3 types of glial cells in the development and maintenance of chronic pain: microglia and astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), and satellite glial cells of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Painful syndromes are associated with different glial activation states: (1) glial reaction (ie, upregulation of glial markers such as IBA1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and/or morphological changes, including hypertrophy, proliferation, and modifications of glial networks); (2) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways; (3) upregulation of adenosine triphosphate and chemokine receptors and hemichannels and downregulation of glutamate transporters; and (4) synthesis and release of glial mediators (eg, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases) to the extracellular space. Although widely detected in chronic pain resulting from nerve trauma, inflammation, cancer, and chemotherapy in rodents, and more recently, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy in human beings, glial reaction (activation state 1) is not thought to mediate pain sensitivity directly. Instead, activation states 2 to 4 have been demonstrated to enhance pain sensitivity via a number of synergistic neuro-glial interactions. Glial mediators have been shown to powerfully modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission at presynaptic, postsynaptic, and extrasynaptic sites. Glial activation also occurs in acute pain conditions, and acute opioid treatment activates peripheral glia to mask opioid analgesia. Thus, chronic pain could be a result of “gliopathy,” that is, dysregulation of glial functions in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances and discuss remaining questions. PMID:23792284

  13. The analogy between tinnitus and pain: a suggestion for a physiological basis of chronic tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Tonndorf, J

    1987-01-01

    A new hypothesis is developed concerning the origin of chronic tinnitus. It is based on an analogy between tinnitus and intractable pain, both of their causes being seen in the de-afferentation of nerve fibers. It is suggested that in the control of tinnitus the same interplay exists between large inner-hair-cell fibers, and small outer-hair-cell fibers, provided they are deafferented, that was demonstrated to exist between large and small deafferented fibers of the somato-sensory system in the control of pain. PMID:2820913

  14. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…

  15. Prevention of chronic pain after whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, R

    2002-01-01

    The acute whiplash injury is a significant health burden for patients and the healthcare system. Traditional approaches to treatment fail to resolve this ever growing medicolegal and social problem. A new biopsychosocial model of whiplash disorder encourages new ways of treating and preventing of the chronic disability. This biopsychosocial model takes into account the mechanism by which acute pain becomes chronic pain, and how this can be prevented. Specific education and treatments encourage a behaviour after whiplash injury that is conducive to more rapid recovery, and provides the whiplash patient with insight into the mediators of chronic pain. The article describes in practical terms how to use education, reassurance, a more judicious use of therapy, and exercise to achieve this goal. Practical guidelines are provided on educating the patient about other symptoms that may cause concern. PMID:12421777

  16. Chronic Low Back Pain: A Personal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Paul E.

    1989-01-01

    Sooner or later, all family physicians will face patients with chronic low back pain. This disorder does not result from the same causes and does not respond to the same treatment as acute back pain. A thorough assessment is the key to efficient treatment and should include data about familial, social, and occupational environments. The treatment should be multimodal and tailored to the patient's type of personality and to the causes of the syndrome. PMID:21249069

  17. Effect of pain chronification and chronic pain on an endogenous pain modulation circuit in rats.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J; Lamana, S M S; Dias, E V; Athie, M; Parada, C A; Tambeli, C H

    2015-02-12

    We tested the hypothesis that chronic pain development (pain chronification) and ongoing chronic pain (chronic pain) reduce the activity and induce plastic changes in an endogenous analgesia circuit, the ascending nociceptive control. An important mechanism mediating this form of endogenous analgesia, referred to as capsaicin-induced analgesia, is its dependence on nucleus accumbens ?-opioid receptor mechanisms. Therefore, we also investigated whether pain chronification and chronic pain alter the requirement for nucleus accumbens ?-opioid receptor mechanisms in capsaicin-induced analgesia. We used an animal model of pain chronification in which daily subcutaneous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) injections into the rat's hind paw for 14 days, referred to as the induction period of persistent hyperalgesia, induce a long-lasting state of nociceptor sensitization referred to as the maintenance period of persistent hyperalgesia, that lasts for at least 30 days following the cessation of the PGE2 treatment. The nociceptor hypersensitivity was measured by the shortening of the time interval for the animal to respond to a mechanical stimulation of the hind paw. We found a significant reduction in the duration of capsaicin-induced analgesia during the induction and maintenance period of persistent mechanical hyperalgesia. Intra-accumbens injection of the ?-opioid receptor selective antagonist Cys(2),Tyr(3),Orn(5),Pen(7)amide (CTOP) 10 min before the subcutaneous injection of capsaicin into the rat's fore paw blocked capsaicin-induced analgesia. Taken together, these findings indicate that pain chronification and chronic pain reduce the duration of capsaicin-induced analgesia, without affecting its dependence on nucleus accumbens ?-opioid receptor mechanisms. The attenuation of endogenous analgesia during pain chronification and chronic pain suggests that endogenous pain circuits play an important role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. PMID:25451282

  18. The pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary E; Watson, C Peter N

    2006-01-01

    The past two decades have contributed a large body of preclinical work that has assisted in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic pain. In this context, it has been recognized that effective treatment of pain is a priority and that treatment often involves the use of one or a combination of agents with analgesic action. The current review presents an evidence-based approach to the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. Medline searches were done for all agents used as conventional treatment in chronic pain. Published papers up to June 2005 were included. The search strategy included randomized, controlled trials, and where available, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further references were found in reference sections of papers located using the above search strategy. Agents for which there were no controlled trials supporting efficacy in treatment of chronic pain were not included in the present review, except in cases where preclinical science was compelling, or where initial human work has been positive and where it was thought the reader would be interested in the scientific evidence to date. PMID:16511612

  19. The cortical rhythms of chronic back pain

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan M.; Baria, Alex; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is maladaptive and influences brain function and behavior by altering the flow and integration of information across brain regions. Here we use a power spectral analysis to investigate impact of presence of chronic pain on brain oscillatory activity in humans. We examine changes in BOLD fluctuations, across different frequencies, in chronic back pain (CBP) patients (n=15) as compared to healthy controls (n=15) during resting state fMRI. While healthy subjects exhibited a specific, frequency band dependent, large-scale neural organization, patients showed increased high frequency BOLD oscillations (0.12–0.20 Hz) circumscribed mainly to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and parts of the default-mode network (DMN). In the patients a correlation analysis related the mPFC aberrant BOLD high frequency dynamics to altered functional connectivity to pain signaling/modulating brain regions, thus linking BOLD frequency changes to function. We also found that increased frequency fluctuations within the mPFC were temporally synchronous with spontaneous pain changes in patients during a pain-rating task. These observations provide novel insights about the nature of CBP, identifying how it disturbs the resting brain, and link high frequency BOLD oscillations to perception. PMID:21957259

  20. [Chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome in primary hyperparathyroidism].

    PubMed

    Stengel, A; Winter, E; West, C; Elbelt, U; Hofmann, T; Klapp, B F

    2012-02-01

    Chronic somatic pain disorders with somatic and mental factors (ICD-10: F45.41) are common among psychosomatic patients. In the present case, due to the close temporal association with a trauma and the subsequent development of symptoms including depressive symptoms, a chronic pain disorder with a relevant somatoform component was suspected. However, after a period of several months without significant somatic findings, targeted diagnostic approaches resulted in the diagnoses of primary hyperparathyroidism and a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgical therapy resulted in an almost complete decline of symptoms within a short period of time. PMID:22366936

  1. The use of a chronic pain diary in older people.

    PubMed

    Hager, Kathy; Brockopp, Dorothy

    This article describes clinical data retrieved using a chronic pain diary in older people residing in a nursing home. Twenty-one diary entries provided the information necessary to formulate an effective plan of care. Residents reported duration of pain, pain at rest, pain with movement, number and location of pain sites, and pain descriptors. Although estimates of chronic pain among nursing home residents range from 4480%, the nursing home participating in this project reported 0% persistent or chronic pain. Diary entries revealed that 17% of communicative residents reported chronic pain. Data showed that a majority of participants experienced pain with movement. They experienced pain an average of 11 hours a day and lower limbs and hips were the most prevalent sites, and residents averaged three pain sites. The dominant pain descriptors used were 'achy' and 'exhausting'. PMID:19377395

  2. Art Therapy for Chronic Pain: Applications and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angheluta, Anne-Marie; Lee, Bonnie K.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is acknowledged as a phenomenological experience resulting from biological, psychological, and social interactions. Consequently, treatment for this complex and debilitating health phenomenon is often approached from multidisciplinary and biopsychosocial perspectives. One approach to treating chronic pain involves implementing…

  3. Medical Marijuana Seems Safe for Chronic Pain Patients, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155032.html Medical Marijuana Seems Safe for Chronic Pain Patients, Study Finds ... 7, 2015 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Medical marijuana appears mostly safe for treating chronic pain, at ...

  4. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants. PMID:24879916

  5. Chronic pain epidemiology – where do lifestyle factors fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524

  6. Hypnotic Approaches for Chronic Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

  7. Seniors and Chronic Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronic pain may involve a team of different pain management specialists—including a physician, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, pharmacist, and others who specialize in pain management. “It takes a team to take care of ...

  8. Successful Treatment of Chronic Donor Site Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yanow, Jennifer H; Lorenzo, Luigi Di; Worosilo, Sharon C; Pappagallo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This is a case presentation of a 45-year-old male with chronic donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest successfully treated with superior cluneal nerve blockade. Donor site pain following autologous bone harvest is a common postoperative complication of lumbar fusion procedures that can cause significant morbidity and diminish quality of life, even in the context of an otherwise successful surgery. Dysfunction of the superior cluneal nerves is an etiology of this chronic pain. The patient’s medical history, attempted treatments, and literature were reviewed. Case Presentation: A 45-year-old male with a six year history of severe pain over the right iliac crest following an otherwise successful lumbar laminectomy and fusion underwent two sets of superior cluneal nerve blocks, with sustained relief of more than 80% at seven months follow up. Conclusions: Donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest is a common surgical complication that is often resistant to conservative treatments such as physical therapy and oral medications. Blockade of the superior cluneal nerves is a safe and technically simple procedure that may result in long-term pain relief, obviating the need to consider more invasive options. PMID:26587399

  9. Prefrontal cortical hyperactivity in patients with sympathetically mediated chronic pain

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Prefrontal cortical hyperactivity in patients with sympathetically mediated chronic pain A. Vania form 12 July 2001; accepted 12 July 2001 Abstract Chronic pain continues to impose a large burden of suffering, yet its neural correlates remain poorly understood. In sympathetically mediated chronic pain (SMP

  10. [Stress and chronic pain: An endocrine perspective].

    PubMed

    Cuatrecasas Cambra, Guillem

    2009-08-01

    Chronic stress, understood as a disturbance of the body homeostasis, is partially driven by many hormonal pathways. Prolactine, TSH (Thyrotropin), vasopresin, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone), and GH (Growth Hormone) have been involved in many stress reactions. In acute stress, there are many evidences for the increased both cathecolaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In chronic conditions, these hyperactivations are controversial and some cases may present a true hypoadrenalism. There is no evidence that treating such androgen/glucocorticoids deficiency may relief chronic pain processes such as fibromyalgia. However, treating somatotroph axis dysfunctions (somatostatin, GH/IGF1 [growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1]) with recombinant GH in carefully seleccioned subgroups of fibromyalgic syndrome, offers us an in-vivo model of the capacity of some hormones to modulate pain. PMID:21794652

  11. How to measure chronic pain: New concepts.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, Fausto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2015-02-01

    The assessment of chronic pain and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions requires the use of multidimensional qualitative and health-related quality of life instruments, but there is still little agreement concerning what these may be or which approach to adopt. Increasing focus on patient-reported outcomes in medicine has had the positive effect of giving prominence to the views and experiences of patients with chronic pain, and the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approach allows patients' symptoms to be assessed in their natural environment in real time without the need for recall. Computerised EMA symptom diaries are now generally regarded as the 'gold standard' in the field of pain medicine, and they have recently attracted increasing attention as an essential component of health-care monitoring systems based on the information and communication technology. A web/Internet-based diary and patient terminal seem to provide a ubiquitous, easy-to-use and cost-efficient solution for patient-centred data acquisition. In addition, telemonitoring is increasingly seen as an effective means of supporting shared decision-making as it can inform patients about typical symptoms, treatment options and prognosis, and it is widely accepted as an additional source of information. This article reviews some of the instruments used to assess chronic pain, including newly developed and well-established validated multidimensional instruments and health-care monitoring systems based on information and communication technology, and it discusses their advantages and limitations. PMID:26267010

  12. Risk Assessment of Opioid Misuse in Italian Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Renata; Duse, Genni; Capraro, Michela; Visentin, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Opioid therapy in patients with chronic noncancer pain must be preceded by evaluation of the risk of opioid misuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the Italian translation of the Pain Medication Questionnaire (PMQ) and of the Diagnosis Intractability Risk and Efficacy Score (DIRE) in chronic pain patients. Design. 75 chronic noncancer pain patients treated with opioids were enrolled and followed longitudinally. Risk of opioid misuse was evaluated through PMQ, DIRE, and the physician's clinical evaluation. Pain experience and psychological characteristics were assessed through specific self-report instruments. At follow-ups, pain intensity, aberrant drug behaviors, and presence of the prescribed opioid and of illegal substances in urine were also checked. Results. PMQ demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.77) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.86). Significant correlations were found between higher PMQ scores and the number of aberrant drug behaviors detected at 2-, 4-, and 6-month follow-ups (P < 0.01). Also the DIRE demonstrated good predictive validity. Conclusions. The results obtained with specific tools are more reliable than the clinician's evaluation alone in predicting the risk of opioid misuse; regular monitoring and psychological intervention will contribute to improving compliance and outcome of long-term opioid use. PMID:25177499

  13. Biopsychosocial Approach to Assessing and Managing Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care. PMID:26614718

  14. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  15. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  16. PAIN INTENSITY MODERATES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND PAIN INTERFERENCE IN CHRONIC OROFACIAL PAIN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A.; Geiger, Paul J.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Study Context Chronic pain is associated with increased interference in daily functioning that becomes more pronounced as pain intensity increases. Based on previous research showing that older adults maintain well-being in the face of pain as well as or better than their younger counterparts, the current study examined the interaction of age and pain intensity on interference in a sample of chronic orofacial pain patients. Methods Data were obtained from the records of 508 chronic orofacial pain patients being seen for an initial evaluation from 2008 to 2012. Collected data included age (range: 18–78) and self-reported measures of pain intensity and pain interference. Bivariate correlations and regression models were used to assess for statistical interactions. Results Regression analyses revealed that pain intensity positively predicted pain interference (R2 = .35, B = 10.40, SE = 0.62, t(507) = 16.70, p < .001). A significant interaction supported the primary hypothesis that aging was associated with reduced interference at high levels of pain intensity (?R2 = .01, B = ?1.31, SE = 0.63, t(505) = ?2.90, p = .04). Conclusion At high levels of pain intensity, interference decreased with age, although the age by pain intensity interaction effect was small. This evidence converges with aging theories, including socioemotional selectivity theory, which posits that as people age, they become more motivated to maximize positive emotions and minimize negative ones. The results highlight the importance of studying the mechanisms older adults use to successfully cope with pain. PMID:26214102

  17. Disrupted amygdala connectivity in chronic back pain reflects spontaneous pain perception

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Disrupted amygdala connectivity in chronic back pain reflects spontaneous pain perception 3974 OHBM 2013 INTRODUCTION · Chronic, spontaneous back pain (CBP) is known to engage brain systems involved in affective processing. Yet, how the amygdala ­ whose role in affect is well known -- contributes to pain

  18. Childhood sexual abuse among chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wurtele, S K; Kaplan, G M; Keairnes, M

    1990-06-01

    Recent literature indicates a relationship between history of sexual abuse and subsequent psychological and social dysfunction. Less thoroughly examined are the possible abuse-related physical effects. This article examines the prevalence of sexual abuse among 135 chronic pain patients. History of abuse for all patients was determined during initial interview. Twenty-eight percent reported child sexual abuse, with history of victimization more significant for women (39%) than men (7%). The abused and nonabused groups of women differed on such variables as marital status, occupation, history of rape and substance abuse, and age of hospitalization. The relationship between sexual abuse and chronic somatic reactions was discussed. PMID:2135003

  19. Frontostriatal Gating of Tinnitus and Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Rauschecker, Josef P; May, Elisabeth S; Maudoux, Audrey; Ploner, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Tinnitus and chronic pain are sensory-perceptual disorders associated with negative affect and high impact on well-being and behavior. It is now becoming increasingly clear that higher cognitive and affective brain systems are centrally involved in the pathology of both disorders. We propose that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens are part of a central 'gatekeeping' system in both sensory modalities, a system which evaluates the relevance and affective value of sensory stimuli and controls information flow via descending pathways. If this frontostriatal system is compromised, long-lasting disturbances are the result. Parallels in both systems are striking and mutually informative, and progress in understanding central gating mechanisms might provide a new impetus to the therapy of tinnitus and chronic pain. PMID:26412095

  20. Chronic pain management: legal and licensure issues.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Legal and licensure issues are an inevitable aspect of treating patients with chronic pain. Clinicians need to ensure compliance with state medical board and federal guidelines. Prescription drug abuse continues to be a significant problem. Despite the legalization of medical marijuana in some states, there is currently no medical indication for prescribing marijuana; the exceptions are dronabinol and nabilone. These are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and dronabinol also is approved for anorexia in patients with AIDS or cancer. Other legal issues concern establishment of chronic pain as a basis for disability status. Clinicians often are asked to provide a letter or assessment, such as a functional capacity evaluation, for documenting disability. Referral to a physical medicine and rehabilitation subspecialist or physical therapist for this evaluation should be considered. Balancing legal and licensure issues with the best interests of the patient can be challenging for clinicians. PMID:25970871

  1. Lumbar paravertebral blockade as intractable pain management method in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Hoffmann, Karolina; G?ówka, Franciszek; ?uczak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Optimal symptoms control in advanced cancer disease, with refractory to conventional pain treatment, needs an interventional procedure. This paper presents coadministration of local anesthetic (LA) via paravertebral blockade (PVB) as the alternative to an unsuccessful subcutaneous fentanyl pain control in a 71-year old cancer patient with pathological fracture of femoral neck, bone metastases, and contraindications to morphine. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (0.25%, 5 mL · hour?1) or in boluses (10 mL of 0.125%–0.5% solution), used for lumbar PVB, resulted in pain relief, decreased demand for opioids, and led to better social interactions. The factors contributing to an increased risk of systemic toxicity from LA in the patient were: renal impairment; heart failure; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and a complex therapy with possible drug-drug interactions. These factors were taken into consideration during treatment. Bupivacaine’s side effects were absent. Coadministered drugs could mask LA’s toxicity. Elevated plasma ?1-acid glycoprotein levels were a protective factor. To evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of the PVB treatment in boluses and in constant infusion, bupivacaine serum levels were determined and the drug plasma half-lives were calculated. Bupivacaine’s elimination was slower when administered in constant infusion than in boluses (t½ = 7.80 hours versus 2.64 hours). Total drug serum concentrations remained within the safe ranges during the whole treatment course (22.9–927.4 ng mL?1). In the case presented, lumbar PVB with bupivacaine in boluses (? 137.5 mg · 24 hours?1) was an easy to perform, safe, effective method for pain control. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (?150 mg · 12 hours?1) had an acceptable risk-benefits ratio, but was ineffective. PMID:24043944

  2. Current understanding of the neuropathophysiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn; Pongprasobchai, Supot

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The main symptom of patients with CP is chronic and severe abdominal pain. However, the pathophysiology of pain in CP remains obscure. Traditionally, researchers believed that the pain was caused by anatomical changes in pancreatic structure. However, treatment outcomes based on such beliefs are considered unsatisfactory. The emerging explanations of pain in CP are trending toward neurobiological theories. This article aims to review current evidence regarding the neuropathophysiology of pain in CP and its potential implications for the development of new treatments for pain in CP. PMID:26600977

  3. New treatments for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810

  4. Nucleus accumbens responses to painful aversive and rewarding stimuli change in chronic pain

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Nucleus accumbens responses to painful aversive and rewarding stimuli change in chronic pain M. N of Neurol. and Physiol., UCSF, San Francisco, CA Brain activity maps for perception of thermal pain 1 back pain (CBP) patients to acute thermal painful stimuli within the context of reward

  5. Updated Mechanisms of Sickle Cell Disease-Associated Chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Brianna; Meiler, Steffen E.; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy, causes sickling of red blood cells, resulting in vessel blockage, stroke, anemia, inflammation, and extreme pain. A vast majority of SCD patients experience pain on a chronic basis, and many turn to opioids to provide limited relief. The side effects that come with chronic opioid use push for research into understanding the specific mechanisms of SCD-associated chronic pain. Current advances in SCD-associated pain have focused on alterations in the pain pathway including nociceptor sensitization and endogenous pain inducers. This article reviews the underlying pathophysiology of SCD, potential pain mechanisms, current treatments and their mechanism of action, and future directions of SCD-associated pain management. The information provided could help propel research in SCD-associated chronic pain and uncover novel treatment options for clinicians. PMID:26301256

  6. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Bushnell, M. Catherine; ?eko, Marta; Low, Lucie A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind–body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states — important components of mind–body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569

  7. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, M Catherine; Ceko, Marta; Low, Lucie A

    2013-07-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind-body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states - important components of mind-body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569

  8. Immersive VR: A Non-pharmacological Analgesic for Chronic Pain?

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Chris

    Immersive VR: A Non-pharmacological Analgesic for Chronic Pain? Abstract This paper describes the research work being carried out by the Transforming Pain Research Group ­ the only group whose work is exclusively focused on the use of immersive VR for chronic pain management. Unlike VR research for acute

  9. Comparison between children and adolescents with and without chronic benign pain: consultation rate and pain characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    van Eekelen, Francijna C A; Perquin, Christel W; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was drawn from the records of ten general practices. According to their responses to a pain questionnaire, subjects were assigned to the chronic benign pain group (n = 95) if they had pain of more than three months' duration, or to the control group (n = 105) if they had pain of less than three months' duration or no pain at all. All the subjects had an average GP consultation rate of 2.6 contacts per year. No significant age and sex differences were found. Chronic benign pain in childhood and adolescence is not related to increased use of healthcare services, suggesting that somatisation does not play a major role in children with chronic benign pain. PMID:12030664

  10. The management of chronic pain in important patient subgroups.

    PubMed

    Cherubino, Paolo; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Labianca, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Chronic pain is a major healthcare issue in Europe and globally, and inadequate or undertreated pain significantly reduces the ability of many patients to participate in ordinary daily activities, adversely affects their employment status and contributes to a substantial rate of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic pain. There is a broad distinction of chronic pain into chronic non-cancer pain and chronic cancer pain, and important subgroups of these include patients with rheumatic and/or orthopaedic diseases, pain syndromes caused by cancer itself and caused by cancer treatment. Despite comprising the majority of non-cancer pain in Europe, chronic non-cancer pain associated with rheumatic diseases and/or orthopaedic conditions is often inadequately managed. Although paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a continuing role in the treatment of chronic rheumatic diseases, accumulating evidence of potential toxicity with both traditional non-selective NSAIDs and selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors has prompted a reassessment of their use. This has particular resonance for the elderly, who are more likely to have significant pain issues than younger patients and are at high risk of NSAID-related adverse events. The use of mild opioids, such as codeine and tramadol, and strong opioids, such as morphine, hydromorphone and oxycodone, may be appropriate where paracetamol and other non-opioid analgesics are ineffective in chronic non-cancer pain. Cancer pain, either related to the underlying disease or caused by cancer treatment, is also a common cause of chronic pain in the elderly. An understanding of individual needs is essential in providing adequate pain relief, which is a central goal of care in all patients with chronic pain. PMID:23389874

  11. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  12. The assessment and management of chronic pain in children.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Robert; Heggen, Judith; Copelan, David N; Pettignano, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is frequently misdiagnosed by caregivers. It is not treated until it results in the loss of routine ability and function. Chronic pain is often associated with underlying diseases commonly seen in childhood, including sickle cell disease, malignancy, rheumatologic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, trauma, and states where there is no identifiable etiology. Chronic pain differs from acute pain in that it serves no useful function. Untreated or under-treated chronic pain will result in the unnecessary suffering of the patient, disruption of family routine, and cohesiveness and restriction of the child's daily activities, thereby increasing long-term disability. Accurate and repeated assessment of chronic pain is required for therapy to be effective. Assessment of chronic pain in children is difficult due to their developing cognitive abilities. The assessment of childhood pain varies with the child's age, type of pain, situation, and prior painful experiences. Assessment tools such as the Varni-Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaire and the Visual Analog Scale are helpful for both the patient and physician in helping to identify situations that precipitate pain, to rate the level of pain and determine if therapy has been effective. Documentation of pain assessments and the effectiveness of interventions in the medical record should be included as a routine part of all patient records. Most caregivers have extensive experience in the treatment of acute pain in children but are often not comfortable with the management of complicated and chronic pain states. The therapy for chronic pain in children is multifactorial. It can include agents from multiple classes of pharmacologic agents (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, and antineuroleptics) nonconventional therapies (acupuncture and pressure and aromatherapy), as well as herbal and homeopathic remedies. PMID:12390045

  13. Cyberhugs: creating a voice for chronic pain sufferers through technology.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karin L

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined. PMID:23276258

  14. Managing Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Landry, Bradford W; Fischer, Philip R; Driscoll, Sherilyn W; Koch, Krista M; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia; Mack, Kenneth J; Wilder, Robert T; Bauer, Brent A; Brandenburg, Joline E

    2015-11-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents can be difficult for a single provider to manage in a busy clinical setting. Part of this difficulty is that pediatric chronic pain not only impacts the child but also the families of these children. In this review article, we discuss etiology and pathophysiology of chronic pain, along with variables that impact the severity of chronic pain and functional loss. We review diagnosis and management of selected chronic pain conditions in pediatric patients, including headache, low back pain, hypermobility, chronic fatigue, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, and complex regional pain syndrome. For each condition, we create a road map that contains therapy prescriptions, exercise recommendations, and variables that may influence pain severity. Potential medications for these pain conditions and associated symptoms are reviewed. A multidisciplinary approach for managing children with these conditions, including pediatric pain rehabilitation programs, is emphasized. Lastly, we discuss psychological factors and interventions for pediatric chronic pain and potential complementary and alternative natural products and interventions. PMID:26568508

  15. Adult Chronic Pain Specialist Referral Please print clearly

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Headache Spondyloarthropathies (i.e. ankylosing spondylitis) Neck pain Myofascial pain syndrome ShoulderAdult Chronic Pain Specialist Referral Please print clearly Place Patient Label Here Mandatory Data pertinent consultation and imaging reports that are NOT available on netCARE (e.g., previous pain

  16. Duloxetine in the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Howard S; Smith, Eric J; Smith, Benjamin R

    2012-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is among the most frequent painful complaints that healthcare providers address. The bulk of these complaints are chronic low back pain and chronic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the United States. It is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by a loss of cartilage, and occurs most often in older persons. The management of osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain may involve both nonpharmacologic (eg, weight loss, resistive and aerobic exercise, patient education, cognitive behavioral therapy) and pharmacologic approaches. Older adults with severe osteoarthritis pain are more likely to take analgesics than those with less severe pain. The pharmacologic approaches to painful osteoarthritis remain controversial, but may include topical as well as oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, duloxetine, and opioids. The role of duloxetine for musculoskeletal conditions is still evolving. PMID:22767991

  17. Medical marijuana use for chronic pain: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Garth T

    2012-01-01

    Questions from patients about medical marijuana use for chronic pain are becoming more common. The information in this report will help patients understand the potential risks and benefits of using this substance for painful conditions. PMID:22448949

  18. Anatomical and physiological factors contributing to chronic muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nicholas S; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic muscle pain remains a significant source of suffering and disability despite the adoption of pharmacologic and physical therapies. Muscle pain is mediated by free nerve endings distributed through the muscle along arteries. These nerves project to the superficial dorsal horn and are transmitted primarily through the spinothalamic tract to several cortical and subcortical structures, some of which are more active during the processing of muscle pain than other painful conditions. Mechanical forces, ischemia, and inflammation are the primary stimuli for muscle pain, which is reflected in the array of peripheral receptors contributing to muscle pain-ASIC, P2X, and TRP channels. Sensitization of peripheral receptors and of central pain processing structures are both critical for the development and maintenance of chronic muscle pain. Further, variations in peripheral receptors and central structures contribute to the significantly greater prevalence of chronic muscle pain in females. PMID:24633937

  19. The Role of Invasive Pain Management Modalities in the Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heather; Youn, Youngwon; Guay, Ryan C; Laufer, Andras; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-01-01

    Invasive analgesic therapies provide an alternative to medical management of chronic pain. With the increasing incidence of chronic pain not only in the United States but worldwide, more therapies have evolved to address the growing need for pain relief options. These therapies include spinal injections, nerve blocks, radiofrequency ablation, neurostimulation, and intrathecal drug delivery. PMID:26614722

  20. Treatment for Chronic Pain in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-07

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  1. Chronic Long Standing Shoulder Pain, Caused by Glomus Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khorshidi, Aseih; Hodjati, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chronic shoulder pain can be caused by muscle, bone and joint inflammatory and tumoral lesions; however, chronic shoulder pain secondary to benign vascular tumor called glomus tumor is an extremely rare occurrence. To the best of our knowledge less than 15 cases of chronic shoulder pain have been reported secondary to glomus tumor. Herein we report our experience with a young lady who presented with chronic shoulder pain which turned out to be caused by a soft tissue glomus tumor. This case has also been unique because if its large size (about 5 cm in greatest diameter). PMID:26266006

  2. Corticostriatal functional connectivity predicts transition to chronic back pain

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Petre, Bogdan; Torbey, Souraya; Herrmann, Kristina M.; Huang, Lejian; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Fields, Howard L.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of brain reorganization in pain chronification is unknown. In a longitudinal brain imaging study, sub–acute back pain (SBP) patients were followed over one year. When pain persisted (SBPp, in contrast to recovering SBP, and healthy controls), brain gray matter density decreased. Importantly, initially greater functional connectivity of nucleus accumbens with prefrontal cortex predicted pain persistence, implying that corticostriatal circuitry is causally involved in the transition from acute to chronic pain. PMID:22751038

  3. The Relationship between Strategies of Coping and Perception of Pain in Three Chronic Pain Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)

  4. Programmable intrathecal pumps for the management of chronic pain: recommendations for improved efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The management of chronic pain can be very challenging. Often, physicians employ intrathecal (IT) drug delivery systems as a last resort to relieve intractable pain. The system consists of an implantable pump that stores and delivers medication through a catheter to the IT space. Programmability is achieved by positioning an external devise over the implanted pump to change the mode of drug delivery. The innovations in programmable IT drug delivery systems are expanding more rapidly than ever before. Unfortunately, the rapid expansion is accompanied by a lack of prospective randomized trials examining these new options. In an effort to improve results and reduce side effects, publications by experts or expert consensus panels provide guidance for the community. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of high interest topics in recent publications. PMID:25336986

  5. Living successfully with pain: The role of illness representations, catastrophising and acceptance in chronic pain functioning 

    E-print Network

    Bose, Sujata

    2007-01-01

    In the past fifty years psychological factors have been shown to influence adjustment to chronic pain. Research demonstrates that individuals’ internal representations of pain and the processes of catastrophising (focusing ...

  6. Images of pain: Exploration of the characteristics and functions of pain-related mental imagery in chronic pain 

    E-print Network

    Gosden, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction A recent study by Potter et al. (in submission) reported that many chronic pain sufferers experience a spontaneous mental image of their pain, and that these individuals also report higher levels of anxiety ...

  7. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Anna M; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M; Montoya, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  8. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  9. The Acute to Chronic Pain Transition: Can Chronic Pain Be Prevented?

    PubMed

    Pozek, John-Paul J; Beausang, David; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a distressing disease process that can lead to long-term disability, reduced quality of life, and increased health care spending. Although the exact mechanism of development of CPSP is unknown, nerve injury and inflammation may lead to peripheral and central sensitization. Given the complexity of the disease process, no novel treatment has been identified. The preoperative use of multimodal analgesia has been shown to decrease acute postoperative pain, but it has no proven efficacy in preventing development of CPSP. PMID:26614716

  10. Chronic neuropathic pain in SCI: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Felix, Elizabeth Roy

    2014-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain develops in approximately 40% of people after a spinal cord injury (SCI) and is notoriously difficult to treat. Because of the frequent presence of more than one pain type and the complex mechanisms and symptoms associated with pain in individuals with SCI, a thorough evaluation is important. This review includes an overview of the most recent guidelines for evaluating and classifying pain, suggestions for standardizing outcome measures for clinical use, and a review of the positive and negative evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to consider when treating individuals with SCI and chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25064788

  11. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  12. Effects of mood on pain responses and pain tolerance: an experimental study in chronic back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nicole K Y; Salkovskis, Paul M; Hodges, Amy; Wright, Kelly J; Hanna, Magdi; Hester, Joan

    2008-08-31

    Although chronic pain and depression commonly co-occur, causal relationships have yet to be established. A reciprocal relationship, with depression increasing pain and vice versa, is most frequently suggested, but experimental evidence is needed to validate such a view. The most straightforward approach would be a demonstration that increasing or decreasing depressed mood predictably modifies pain responses. The current experiment tested whether experimentally induced depressed and happy mood have differential effects on pain ratings and tolerance in 55 patients suffering from chronic back pain. Participants were randomly assigned to depressed, neutral (control) or elated mood induction conditions. They completed a physically passive baseline task prior to receiving mood induction, then a clinically relevant physically active task (holding a heavy bag) to elicit pain responses and tolerance. Measures were taken immediately after the baseline task and immediately after the mood induction to assess the changes in mood, pain ratings and tolerance before and after the experimental manipulation. Results indicate that the induction of depressed mood resulted in significantly higher pain ratings at rest and lower pain tolerance, whilst induced happy mood resulted in significantly lower pain ratings at rest and greater pain tolerance. Correlations between changes in mood on the one hand and changes in pain response and pain tolerance on the other hand were consistent with these findings. It is concluded that, in chronic back pain patients, experimentally induced negative mood increases self-reported pain and decreases tolerance for a pain-relevant task, with positive mood having the opposite effect. PMID:18325674

  13. Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283

  14. Pain volatility and prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A 1 standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302337

  15. MicroRNA expression profiles differentiate chronic pain condition subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ciszek, Brittney P; Khan, Asma A; Dang, Hong; Slade, Gary D; Smith, Shad; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Zolnoun, Denniz; Nackley, Andrea G

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pain is a significant health care problem, ineffectively treated because of its unclear etiology and heterogeneous clinical presentation. Emerging evidence demonstrates that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of pain-relevant genes, yet little is known about their role in chronic pain. Here, we evaluate the relationship among pain, psychological characteristics, plasma cytokines, and whole blood miRNAs in 22 healthy controls (HCs); 33 subjects with chronic pelvic pain (vestibulodynia, VBD); and 23 subjects with VBD and irritable bowel syndrome (VBD + IBS). VBD subjects were similar to HCs in self-reported pain, psychological profiles, and remote bodily pain. VBD + IBS subjects reported decreased health and function; and an increase in headaches, somatization, and remote bodily pain. Furthermore, VBD subjects exhibited a balance in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas VBD + IBS subjects failed to exhibit a compensatory increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. VBD subjects differed from controls in expression of 10 miRNAs of predicted importance for pain and estrogen signaling. VBD + IBS subjects differed from controls in expression of 11 miRNAs of predicted importance for pain, cell physiology, and insulin signaling. miRNA expression was correlated with pain-relevant phenotypes and cytokine levels. These results suggest that miRNAs represent a valuable tool for differentiating VBD subtypes (localized pain with apparent peripheral neurosensory disruption vs widespread pain with a central sensory contribution) that may require different treatment approaches. PMID:26166255

  16. Role of spinal cyclooxygenase in human postoperative and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Eisenach, James C.; Curry, Regina; Rauck, Richard; Pan, Peter; Yaksh, Tony L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to treat postoperative and chronic pain. Animal studies suggest these drugs act in part by blocking prostaglandin production in the spinal cord. We tested intrathecal ketorolac in patients with chronic or postoperative pain. Methods Following Institutional Review Board and Food and Drug Administration approval, 3 clinical studies were performed. First, 15 patients receiving chronic intrathecal morphine received intrathecal ketorolac, 0.5 – 2.0 mg. Second, 12 patients receiving chronic intrathecal morphine received, in a double blinded, randomized, cross over design, intrathecal saline or ketorolac, 2.0 mg, with pain intensity as the primary outcome measure. Third, 30 patients undergoing total vaginal hysterectomy received, in a double blinded, randomized, controlled design, intrathecal saline or ketorolac, 2.0 mg with bupivacaine with time to first morphine dose after surgery as the primary outcome measure. Results Chronic pain patients had many symptoms prior to intrathecal injection, without worsening of these symptoms from ketorolac. Pain intensity was reduced by intrathecal ketorolac, but this did not differ from placebo. In the first study, pain was reduced by intrathecal ketorolac in patients with high cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations, but not in those with normal concentrations. Intrathecal ketorolac did not alter time to first morphine after surgery. Conclusions Intrathecal ketorolac did not relieve chronic pain or extend anesthesia or analgesia from intrathecal bupivacaine administered at the beginning of surgery. Under the conditions of these studies, spinal cylcooxygenase activity appears not contribute to chronic or postoperative pain. PMID:20395820

  17. www.livestrong.org.livestrong.org Chronic PainChronic Pain

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    should consult a trained professional for more information. Please read the Suggestions (http://www.livestrong.org/Get-Help/Learn-About-Cancer/Cancer-Support professional for more information. Please read the Suggestions (http://www.livestrong.org/Get-Help/Learn-About-Cancer/Cancer-Support- Topics/Physical-Effects-of-Cancer/Chronic-Pain#s#s) and Additional Resources (http://www.livestrong.org/Get-Help/Learn-About-Cancer/Cancer-Support

  18. Analgesics as reinforcers with chronic pain: Evidence from operant studies.

    PubMed

    Ewan, Eric E; Martin, Thomas J

    2013-12-17

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  19. Analgesics as Reinforcers with Chronic Pain: Evidence from Operant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  20. Spinal cord stimulation and the relief of chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Koeze, T H; Williams, A C; Reiman, S

    1987-01-01

    Twenty six patients who had received spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain were evaluated by videotaped structured interviews with staff not directly involved in the patients' care. In addition estimates of pain relief were obtained from clinicians involved in the patients' care and from close relatives and friends. Information about lifestyles and drug usage was also collected and correlated with pain relief. At the time of the interviews half of the patients were receiving 50% or better relief of their pain. PMID:3500999

  1. Could Stress Contribute to Pain-Related Fear in Chronic Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to predict pain based on internal or external cues constitutes a fundamental and highly adaptive process aimed at self-protection. Pain-related fear is an essential component of this response, which is formed by associative and instrumental learning processes. In chronic pain, pain-related fear may become maladaptive, drive avoidance behaviors and contribute to symptom chronicity. Pavlovian fear conditioning has proven fruitful to elucidate associative learning and extinction involving aversive stimuli, including pain, but studies in chronic pain remain scarce. Stress demonstrably exerts differential effects on emotional learning and memory processes, but this has not been transferred to pain-related fear. Within this perspective, we propose that stress could contribute to impaired pain-related associative learning and extinction processes and call for interdisciplinary research. Specifically, we suggest to test the hypotheses that: (1) extinction-related phenomena inducing a re-activation of maladaptive pain-related fear (e.g., reinstatement, renewal) likely occur in everyday life of chronic pain patients and may alter pain processing, impair perceptual discrimination and favor overgeneralization; (2) acute stress prior to or during acquisition of pain-related fear may facilitate the formation and/or consolidation of pain-related fear memories; (3) stress during or after extinction may impair extinction efficacy resulting in greater reinstatement or context-dependent renewal of pain-related fear; and (4) these effects could be amplified by chronic stress due to early adversity and/or psychiatric comorbidity such depression or anxiety in patients with chronic pain.

  2. Systematic mechanism-orientated approach to chronic pancreatitis pain

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; de Vries, Marjan; Schreuder, Luuk TW; Olesen, Søren S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) shows similarities with other visceral pain syndromes (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease and esophagitis), which should thus be managed in a similar fashion. Typical causes of CP pain include increased intrapancreatic pressure, pancreatic inflammation and pancreatic/extrapancreatic complications. Unfortunately, CP pain continues to be a major clinical challenge. It is recognized that ongoing pain may induce altered central pain processing, e.g., central sensitization or pro-nociceptive pain modulation. When this is present conventional pain treatment targeting the nociceptive focus, e.g., opioid analgesia or surgical/endoscopic intervention, often fails even if technically successful. If central nervous system pain processing is altered, specific treatment targeting these changes should be instituted (e.g., gabapentinoids, ketamine or tricyclic antidepressants). Suitable tools are now available to make altered central processing visible, including quantitative sensory testing, electroencephalograpy and (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. These techniques are potentially clinically useful diagnostic tools to analyze central pain processing and thus define optimum management approaches for pain in CP and other visceral pain syndromes. The present review proposes a systematic mechanism-orientated approach to pain management in CP based on a holistic view of the mechanisms involved. Future research should address the circumstances under which central nervous system pain processing changes in CP, and how this is influenced by ongoing nociceptive input and therapies. Thus we hope to predict which patients are at risk for developing chronic pain or not responding to therapy, leading to improved treatment of chronic pain in CP and other visceral pain disorders. PMID:25574079

  3. Connecting parents of children with chronic pain through art therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pielech, Melissa; Sieberg, Christine B.; Simons, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To help address the unique needs of parents of children with chronic pain, a four module, parent-only, group art therapy curriculum was designed and implemented within an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation treatment program. We evaluated perceived satisfaction and helpfulness of the group intervention. Methods Fifty-three parents of children experiencing chronic pain enrolled in a day hospital interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program participated. The voluntary parent art therapy group was offered one time per week for one hour. Participants completed a measure of satisfaction, helpfulness, and perceived social support at the end of each group session. Results Parents enjoyed participating in the group, agreed that they would try art therapy again, and found it to be a helpful, supportive, and validating experience. Conclusions Initial results are promising that group art therapy is an appropriate and helpful means of supporting parents of children with chronic pain during interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation. PMID:24563827

  4. Family resilience: towards a new model of chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    West, Caryn; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a critical appraisal of the potential of family resilience as a new model of care for chronic pain. For nurses, this model offers new strategies for working with families where a member experiences chronic pain. Chronic pain is characterised by one or more of the following: pain that lasts more than six months, from a non-life-threatening cause; and/or which is not responsive to available treatment. Chronic pain has the potential to be longstanding and difficult to treat and may result in negative outcomes for individuals and their families. However, a family resilience model of care moves the nurse from a traditional deficit base or problem-focused model of care to one which addresses the individual's and family's strengths. Strengths based models of care such as family resilience offer a fresh approach within Australia's developing agenda of primary health care. A family resilience or strengths based model of chronic pain has the potential to facilitate transformation and growth within families that will enable them to be more resourceful when facing immediate and long-term challenges. Further research into the effectiveness of this approach to nursing care is required to develop specific implementation strategies for working with families experiencing chronic health conditions such as chronic pain. PMID:21469415

  5. [Psychological assessment and psychotherapy for chronic pain in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mattenklodt, P; Leonhardt, C

    2015-08-01

    Systematic reviews of psychosocial assessment and effectiveness of psychotherapy for chronic pain syndromes in older patients are rare. However, it is of particular importance to consider the psychosocial aspects of elderly people with chronic pain. This narrative review describes recommended German-language assessments of the psychosocial dimensions of pain and summarizes existing studies of psychological therapy approaches for chronic pain in old age. Effective psychometric instruments are available for the assessment of cognitive function, pain-specific attitudes, depression, fear of falling, interpersonal processes and social activities, pain management, pain acceptance, disability, psychological well-being, and quality of life. Further experience with the use of these instruments with cognitively impaired or geriatric patients is required. The efficacy of age-adapted cognitive behavioral therapy and multimodal therapy for older patients has been documented. However, there is often a lack of supporting documentation about important result parameters (e.g., quality of life, functioning in everyday life, or pain acceptance). Overall, chronic pain in elderly people requires a biopsychosocial-spiritual model of pain. More attention should be given in research and daily practice to religiosity/spirituality as a possible means of coping, while mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapies should be further explored. PMID:26024645

  6. Recognizing Myofascial Pelvic Pain in the Female Patient with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, PMID:22862153

  7. "Real-life" treatment of chronic pain: Targets and goals.

    PubMed

    Ablin, Jacob N; Buskila, Dan

    2015-02-01

    Treating chronic pain is a complex challenge. While textbooks and medical education classically categorize pain as originating from peripheral (nociceptive), neuropathic, or centralized origins, in real life each and every patient may present a combination of various pain sources, types, and mechanisms. Moreover, individual patients may evolve and develop differing types of pain throughout their clinical follow-up, further emphasizing the necessity to maintain clinical diligence during the evaluation and follow-up of these patients. Rational treatment of patients suffering from chronic pain must attempt at deconstructing complex pain cases, identifying variegate pain generators, and targeting them with appropriate interventions, while incorporating both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies, rather than focusing on the total pain level, which represents an integral of all pain types. Failing to recognize the coexistence of different types of pain in an individual patient and escalating medications only on the basis of total pain intensity are liable to lead to both ineffective control of pain and increased untoward effects. In the current review, we outline strategies for deconstructing complex pain and therapeutic suggestions. PMID:26267005

  8. Pharmacologic Management of Upper Extremity Chronic Nerve Pain.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of pain is a complex process that requires a team approach. This article provides an overview of the pharmaceutical treatments available. It gives providers treating upper extremity disorders more tools to treat their patients with chronic pain. Another goal is to improve hand providers' understanding of the medications their pain colleagues prescribe in shared patients. Pharmaceuticals are an important component in the treatment of chronic pain and opioids are often not a good solution. Knowing what other medications are available can improve the care for these challenging patients. PMID:26611389

  9. Chronic pain: from theory to practical management.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, M C

    1995-12-01

    The neurologist is an important part of the pain management team. Factors that can alter presentation and complicate establishing a diagnosis are reviewed. A multidisciplinary approach to evaluation is advocated, particularly the inclusion of independent psychiatric or psychological evaluation. Treatment planning consists of addressing potential sources of failure of pain management, setting appropriate goals, and using the diagnostic assessment to plan pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions based on pain mechanisms. Even if pharmacologic interventions do not alter pain, an education-oriented behavioral pain program integrated with physical therapy can improve function and foster self-reliance in controlling pain. PMID:8538884

  10. Emerging targets in neuroinflammation-driven chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Current analgesics predominately modulate pain transduction and transmission in neurons and have limited success in controlling disease progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of glial cells and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous system, has an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. This review focuses on emerging targets such as chemokines, proteases and the Wnt pathway that promote spinal cord neuroinflammation and chronic pain. It also highlights the anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators that act on immune cells, glial cells and neurons to resolve neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and pain. Targeting excessive neuroinflammation could offer new therapeutic opportunities for chronic pain and related neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24948120

  11. Care of the patient with chronic pain: Part I.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, C L

    1999-07-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain is estimated to affect over 50 million Americans. It frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual problems for patients and their families. In spite of its prevalence and consequences, chronic pain is often misunderstood and inadequately managed by healthcare professionals. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I outlines the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacological treatment of chronic pain. Part II addresses a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems. PMID:10711057

  12. Study Suggests Brain Is Hard-Wired for Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News Release Tuesday, September 17, 2013 NIH-funded study suggests brain is hard-wired for chronic pain ... Apkarian, Ph.D., a senior author of the study and professor of physiology at Northwestern University Feinberg ...

  13. Active and passive coping strategies in chronic pain patients 

    E-print Network

    Snow-Turek, Andrea Lynn

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of an active/passive conceptualization of coping in a sample of chronic pain patients (N = 84). The validity of active and passive coping dimensions was supported. The Coping Strategies ...

  14. Pain catastrophizing as a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Lindsay C; Ritvo, Sarah E; Ferguson, Meaghan K; Clarke, Hance; Seltzer, Ze’ev; Katz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common and costly surgical procedure. Despite high success rates, many TKA patients develop chronic pain in the months and years following surgery, constituting a public health burden. Pain catastrophizing is a construct that reflects anxious preoccupation with pain, inability to inhibit pain-related fears, amplification of the significance of pain vis-à-vis health implications, and a sense of helplessness regarding pain. Recent research suggests that it may be an important risk factor for untoward TKA outcomes. To clarify this impact, we systematically reviewed the literature to date on pain catastrophizing as a prospective predictor of chronic pain following TKA. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles related to pain catastrophizing, TKA, risk models, and chronic pain. We reviewed titles and abstracts to identify original research articles that met our specified inclusion criteria. Included articles were then rated for methodological quality. including methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up, analyses, and outcomes reported across studies, a quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed. Results We identified six prospective longitudinal studies with small-to-mid-sized samples that met the inclusion criteria. Despite considerable variability in reported pain outcomes, pain catastrophizing was identified as a significant predictor of chronic pain persisting ?3 months following TKA in five of the studies assessed. Limitations of studies included lack of large-scale data, absence of standardized pain measurements, inadequate multivariate adjustment, such as failure to control for analgesic use and other relevant covariates, and failure to report non-significant parameter estimates. Conclusion This study provides moderate-level evidence for pain catastrophizing as an independent predictor of chronic pain post-TKA. Directions for future research include larger, well-controlled studies with standard pain outcomes, identification of clinically-relevant catastrophizing cut-offs that predict pain outcomes, investigation of other psychosocial risk factors, and assessment of interventions aimed to reduce pain catastrophizing on chronic pain outcomes following TKA surgery. PMID:25609995

  15. ‘Two Pains Together’: Patient Perspectives on Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain while Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Walcott, Melonie; Ritchie, Christine; Herbey, Ivan; Kertesz, Stefan G.; Chamot, Eric; Saag, Michael; Turan, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic pain is common in HIV-infected individuals. Understanding HIV-infected patients’ chronic pain experience not just from a biological, but also from a psychological perspective, is a critical first step toward improving care for this population. Our objective was to explore HIV-infected patients’ perspectives on psychological aspects of chronic pain using in-depth qualitative interviews. Methods Investigators engaged in an iterative process of independent and group coding until theme saturation was reached. Results Of the 25 patients with chronic pain interviewed, 20 were male, 15 were younger than age 50, and 15 were African-American. Key themes that emerged included the close relationship between mood and pain; mood and pain in the context of living with HIV; use of alcohol/drugs to self-medicate for pain; and the challenge of receiving prescription pain medications while dealing with substance use disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that psychological approaches to chronic pain treatment may be well received by HIV-infected patients. PMID:25365306

  16. Management of chronic pain with chronic opioid therapy in patients with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs), whether active or in remission, are often encountered in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Clinicians are challenged when managing chronic pain while facing substance abuse issues during the course of chronic opioid therapy (COT). Further, the interrelated behavioral symptomatology of addiction and chronic pain suggests that if one disorder is untreated, effective treatment of the other in not possible. Incomplete understanding of the overlapping presentations of the two disorders, coupled with insufficient management of both conditions, leads to undertreated pain and premature discharge of SUD patients from pain treatment. In order to achieve pain relief and optimal functionality, both conditions need to be carefully managed. This paper reviews the prevalence of SUDs in chronic pain patents; the overlapping presentation of the two disorders; risk factors and stratification for addiction; identification of addiction in the chronic pain population; and suggestions for treating patients with COT, with an emphasis on relapse prevention. With appropriate assessment and treatment, COT for chronic pain patients with a history of SUD can be successful, leading to improved functionality and quality of life. PMID:24341916

  17. Burdensome problems of chronic musculoskeletal pain and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    According to a recent survey, about 15 % of the Japanese population suffers from moderate-severe chronic musculoskeletal pain persisting for at least 6 months. Social factors and related psychological factors (including depression) thus appear to greatly affect chronic musculoskeletal pain. This suggests the need for measures that take these factors into account. Treatment for musculoskeletal pain at present is generally based on a biomedical model that has been used for many years in this field, and modern medical imaging technologies have been a high priority to support this model and treatment strategy. Under the concept of the biomedical model, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, channel blockers and opioid analgesics are generally used as pharmacotherapy to alleviate chronic pain. However, these drugs are commonly associated with problems such as adverse effects, drug dependency and drug abuse, and they must be used with care. Surgery may also be effective in treating certain diseases, but studies have shown that many patients suffer residual chronic pain even after such treatment. Besides, exercise therapy has been found to be effective in treating many different types of chronic pain. Lately, various countries have been launching interdisciplinary pain centers that use a multidisciplinary approach to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Treatment in these centers is provided by a team of specialists in anesthesiology, psychiatry and orthopedics as well as the relevant paramedical professionals. The therapeutic strategy is based on a cognitive-behavioral approach, and patients are taught about methods for restoring physical function and coping with pain, mostly with drugs and exercise therapy, so that any pain present does not impair function and the patient can reintegrate into society. PMID:26260256

  18. Common and unique associated factors for medically unexplained chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue?

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, J.; Tomenson, B.; Chew-Graham, C.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Jackson, J.; Littlewood, A.; Creed, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. Methods We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Results Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N = 93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N = 125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. Discussion This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. PMID:26652592

  19. Chronic Facial Pain: A Clinical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    Facial pain is a common presenting complaint requiring patience and diagnostic acumen. The proliferation of eponyms attached to various syndromes complicates the subject. The most frequent cause of pain is likely to be muscle spasm in masticatory or temporalis muscles. This article presents a rank order for the common causes of facial pain that present diagnostic difficulty, such as temporomandibular joint pain, trigeminal neuralgia, giant cell arteritis, and post-herpetic neuralgia. PMID:21286580

  20. Spontaneous Chronic Pain After Experimental Thoracotomy Revealed by Conditioned Place Preference: Morphine Differentiates Tactile Evoked Pain From Spontaneous Pain.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Strichartz, Gary R

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain after surgery limits social activity, interferes with work, and causes emotional suffering. A major component of such pain is reported as resting or spontaneous pain with no apparent external stimulus. Although experimental animal models can simulate the stimulus-evoked chronic pain that occurs after surgery, there have been no studies of spontaneous chronic pain in such models. Here the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to reveal resting pain after experimental thoracotomy. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a thoracotomy with 1-hour rib retraction, resulting in evoked tactile hypersensitivity, previously shown to last for at least 9 weeks. Intraperitoneal injections of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or gabapentin (40 mg/kg) gave equivalent 2- to 3-hour-long relief of tactile hypersensitivity when tested 12 to 14 days postoperatively. In separate experiments, single trial CPP was conducted 1 week before thoracotomy and then 12 days (gabapentin) or 14 days (morphine) after surgery, followed the next day by 1 conditioning session with morphine or gabapentin, both versus saline. The gabapentin-conditioned but not the morphine-conditioned rats showed a significant preference for the analgesia-paired chamber, despite the equivalent effect of the 2 agents in relieving tactile allodynia. These results show that experimental thoracotomy in rats causes spontaneous pain and that some analgesics, such as morphine, that reduce evoked pain do not also relieve resting pain, suggesting that pathophysiological mechanisms differ between these 2 aspects of long-term postoperative pain. Perspective: Spontaneous pain, a hallmark of chronic postoperative pain, is demonstrated here in a rat model of experimental postthoracotomy pain, further validating the use of this model for the development of analgesics to treat such symptoms. Although stimulus-evoked pain was sensitive to systemic morphine, spontaneous pain was not, suggesting different mechanistic underpinnings. PMID:26116369

  1. Chronic Pain: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Chronic Pain Chronic Pain: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents ... enjoyable activities can lead to disability and despair. Diagnosis Pain is a very personal and subjective experience. ...

  2. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…

  3. Nonpharmacologic Options for Treating Acute and Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peter I-Kung; Meleger, Alec; Witkower, Alan; Mondale, Timothy; Borg-Stein, Joanne

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the clinical nonpharmacologic treatment options for managing acute and chronic pain. Physical therapy and modalities, interventional techniques, emerging regenerative medicine, and cognitive behavioral paradigms of treatment are presented. Recommendations are evidence-based and are a practical resource for the musculoskeletal pain and sports medicine practitioner. PMID:26568507

  4. Strategies for Coping with Stress and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve Rogge

    This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…

  5. Why Psychotherapy Helps the Patient in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists frequently see patients in their practices who struggle with issues of chronic physical pain. This can present diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. These patients require an approach that allows them to talk about their pain and feel supported while simultaneously being nudged to develop a meaningful life alongside their pain. This article addresses an approach to accomplish this difficult balancing act over the course of time and includes case examples. PMID:19724773

  6. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level III evidence). Conclusion Future guidelines should be based on systematic review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of smoked cannabis. Further research is needed on the effectiveness and long-term safety of smoked cannabis compared with pharmaceutical cannabinoids, opioids, and other standard analgesics. PMID:25500598

  7. Chronic pain management strategies used by low income overweight Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787

  8. Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN): A multimodal, multisite, brain-imaging repository for chronic somatic and visceral pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Liu, Cathy; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Dos Santos, Ivani R; Alaverdyan, Mher; Woodworth, Davis; Gupta, Arpana; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-01-01

    The Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN) repository (painrepository.org) is a newly created NIH (NIDA/NCCAM) funded neuroimaging data repository that aims to accelerate scientific discovery regarding brain mechanisms in pain and to provide more rapid benefits to pain patients through the harmonization of efforts and data sharing. The PAIN Repository consists of two components, an Archived Repository and a Standardized Repository. Similar to other 'open' imaging repositories, neuroimaging researchers can deposit any dataset of chronic pain patients and healthy controls into the Archived Repository. Scans in the Archived Repository can be very diverse in terms of scanning procedures and clinical metadata, complicating the merging of datasets for analyses. The Standardized Repository overcomes these limitations through the use of standardized scanning protocols along with a standardized set of clinical metadata, allowing an unprecedented ability to perform pooled analyses. The Archived Repository currently includes 741 scans and is rapidly growing. The Standardized Repository currently includes 433 scans. Pain conditions currently represented in the PAIN repository include: irritable bowel syndrome, vulvodynia, migraine, chronic back pain, and inflammatory bowel disease. Both the PAIN Archived and Standardized Repositories promise to be important resources in the field of chronic pain research. The enhanced ability of the Standardized Repository to combine imaging, clinical and other biological datasets from multiple sites in particular make it a unique resource for significant scientific discoveries. PMID:25902408

  9. Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kimberly Anne; Petronis, John; Smith, David; Goodrich, David; Wu, Juan; Ravi, Neelima; Doyle, Edward J; Gregory Juckett, R; Munoz Kolar, Maria; Gross, Richard; Steinberg, Lois

    2005-05-01

    Low back pain is a significant public health problem and one of the most commonly reported reasons for the use of Complementary Alternative Medicine. A randomized control trial was conducted in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain comparing Iyengar yoga therapy to an educational control group. Both programs were 16 weeks long. Subjects were primarily self-referred and screened by primary care physicians for study of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The primary outcome for the study was functional disability. Secondary outcomes including present pain intensity, pain medication usage, pain-related attitudes and behaviors, and spinal range of motion were measured before and after the interventions. Subjects had low back pain for 11.2+/-1.54 years and 48% used pain medication. Overall, subjects presented with less pain and lower functional disability than subjects in other published intervention studies for chronic low back pain. Of the 60 subjects enrolled, 42 (70%) completed the study. Multivariate analyses of outcomes in the categories of medical, functional, psychological and behavioral factors indicated that significant differences between groups existed in functional and medical outcomes but not for the psychological or behavioral outcomes. Univariate analyses of medical and functional outcomes revealed significant reductions in pain intensity (64%), functional disability (77%) and pain medication usage (88%) in the yoga group at the post and 3-month follow-up assessments. These preliminary data indicate that the majority of self-referred persons with mild chronic low back pain will comply to and report improvement on medical and functional pain-related outcomes from Iyengar yoga therapy. PMID:15836974

  10. [Rehabilitation for Pain Relief: Preface and Comments].

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    Chronic intractable pain is difficult to manage as the mechanisms of chronic pain are complicated. Recently rehabilitation is used in patients with chronic pain not responding to NSAIDs, non-opioids, anti-depressants and so on. Rehabilitation includes acute, recovery and maintained modes of rehabilitation. This review is focused on the concept of rehabilitation, rehabilitation therapy, rehabilitation during recovery period, nerve rehabilitation, music-trampoline therapy and so on. PMID:26422935

  11. Substance P and Chronic Pain in Patients with Chronic Inflammation of Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance P (SP) is involved in chronic joint inflammation, such as the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The goal of the research was to evaluate the correlation between chronic pain and changes in the SP level in patients with chronic inflammation of the connective tissue. Methods Patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled in this study. The relationship between chronic pain intensity and the serum SP concentration was evaluated in these groups of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Results The results showed a positive correlation between the serum SP concentrations and chronic pain intensity. Conclusions 1. The SP serum concentration was significantly different between the groups of patients with OA and RA. 2. There was a positive correlation between the serum SP concentration and chronic pain intensity in OA and RA patients. PMID:26444559

  12. Chronic pain syndromes and their treatment. II. Trigger points.

    PubMed

    Wyant, G M

    1979-05-01

    Trigger points are distinct areas of focal hyperirritability which give rise to areas of refered pain in well-defined areas of the musculo-skeletal system, sometimes remote from the point itself and not related to it by anatomically definable pathways. While the vast majority of pain manifestations from trigger points are related to the musculo-skeletal system, this need not be invariably so, as has been demonstrated in two of the cases cited, where injection of trigger points in the neck relieved chronic tinnitus. In all manifestations of chronic pain it is recommended that a diligent search be made for such trigger points. PMID:466566

  13. New Developments in the Psychological Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Stephen; Williams, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing how psychological treatment for chronic pain comes to have its current form, and summarizing treatment effectiveness, we explore several areas of development. We describe third wave therapies, such as mindfulness; we discuss what the research literature aggregated can tell us about what trials are more useful to conduct; and we outline some areas of promise and some failures to deliver on promise. The article is drawn together using the framework of the normal psychology of pain, identifying some of its most important implications for improving life for people with chronic pain. PMID:26174216

  14. Amantadine sulfate reduces experimental sensitization and pain in chronic back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kleinböhl, Dieter; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Hölzl, Rupert

    2006-03-01

    We investigated if established psychophysical measures of enhanced experimental sensitization in chronic musculoskeletal pain can be reduced by adjuvant treatment with a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, amantadine sulfate, and whether a reduction in sensitization might be accompanied by a concurrent improvement in clinical pain. Sensitization was evaluated by an experimental tonic heat model of short-term sensitization with concurrent subjective and behavioral psychophysical scaling. Twenty-six patients with chronic back pain were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received daily dosages of either placebo or 100 mg of amantadine sulfate during a 1-wk treatment. Participants completed quantitative sensory testing of pain thresholds and experimental sensitization before and after treatment and clinical pain ratings before, during, and after treatment. Experimental sensitization and clinical pain were reduced in patients receiving verum. Initially, experimental sensitization was enhanced in patients, with early sensitization at nonpainful intensities of contact heat and enhanced sensitization at painful intensities, as shown previously. After 1 wk of treatment, experimental sensitization was reduced with amantadine sulfate but not with placebo. We conclude that adjuvant chronic pain treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists might be beneficial for chronic pain if enhanced sensitization is involved and that the quantitative sensory test of temporal summation may be used to verify this. PMID:16492838

  15. Practical management strategies for the chronic pain patient.

    PubMed

    Forde, Grace; Stanos, Steven

    2007-08-01

    When presented with a chronic pain patient, a thorough diagnostic workup and clinical assessment are essential. A key component of this initial evaluation is to obtain the information necessary to identify the underlying cause of the pain. Although a definitive diagnosis is not always possible, pain is most effectively managed when the underlying cause is identified. Chronic pain is now viewed as a biopsychosocial phenomenon, in which biological, psychological, and social factors are at work. Although one or more chronic diseases may be responsible for at least some of the pain experienced by chronic pain patients, psychological factors also play a prominent role. According to several published reports, major depression occurs in up to 60% of chronic pain patients, and an adjustment disorder with anxious mood can be found in up to nearly a third. In addition, numerous studies have identified a high rate of substance abuse in those suffering from chronic pain, with lifetime prevalence rates ranging from 23% to 41%, according to one source. A pain history is another essential component of the initial workup. A thorough pain history includes questions on any previous therapies tried (including nonpharmacologic interventions) and the success rate of those therapies, an assessment of patient function and overall quality of life, and a review of any personal or family history of substance abuse. One of the complexities of pain diagnosis is the subjective nature of the condition. Simple validated measures, such as the 0 to 10 numerical scale, pictorial scales (eg, faces), and visual analog scales can assist in the assessment of pain intensity and the guidance of subsequent treatments. Of no less relevance in the initial workup of a patient with chronic pain is the establishment of a secure physician-patient relationship. Open and clear communication between these parties is a key component in the treatment process and will help guide the therapy more safely and efficaciously. Realistic expectations and exit strategies for each therapeutic intervention should also be discussed at the initial evaluation and again at the onset of treatment. PMID:18667140

  16. Locus of control patterns in headaches and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; López-Jiménez, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The six-cluster solution was optimal. The patterns observed coincided with: the believer in control; the yea-sayer; the pure chance; the pure internal; the pure professional; and the nay-sayer clusters. The double external or type VI clusters were not observed. Clusters could be classified from the best to the worst adjustment to chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the empirical validity of the theoretical model of LOC patterns proposed in 1982 by Wallston and Wallston among a chronic pain population. The analysis of patterns provides more accurate information regarding the adjustment to pain compared with analysis of the LOC factors separately. PMID:23936894

  17. Central changes associated with chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Brawn, Jennifer; Morotti, Matteo; Zondervan, Krina T.; Becker, Christian M.; Vincent, Katy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a significant public health problem with 1 million affected women in the UK. Although many pathologies are associated with CPP, the pain experienced is often disproportionate to the extent of disease identified and frequently no pathology is found (chronic pelvic pain syndrome). The central nervous system (CNS) is central to the experience of pain and chronic pain conditions in general are associated with alterations in both the structure and function of the CNS. This review describes the available evidence for central changes in association with conditions presenting with CPP. METHODS A detailed literature search was performed to identify relevant papers, however, this is not a systematic review. RESULTS CPP is associated with central changes similar to those identified in other pain conditions. Specifically these include, alterations in the behavioural and central response to noxious stimulation, changes in brain structure (both increases and decreases in the volume of specific brain regions), altered activity of both the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS The evidence reviewed in this paper demonstrates that CPP is associated with significant central changes when compared with healthy pain-free women. Moreover, the presence of these changes has the potential to both exacerbate symptoms and to predispose these women to the development of additional chronic conditions. These findings support the use of adjunctive medication targeting the CNS in these women. PMID:24920437

  18. [Personality and coping in neuropathic chronic pain: a predictable divorce].

    PubMed

    Soriano Pastor, José F; Monsalve Dolz, Vicente; Ibáñez Guerra, Elena; Gómez Carretero, Patricia

    2010-11-01

    We approach the problem about relationships between personality dimensions and the use of coping strategies in chronic pain patients. The most frequently used theoretical model in the area of stress and its relation to pain is the transactional model, taking into account that the incorporation of personality traits improves predictions via coping in the stress process. Following the Big Five model, the relationships between personality and coping strategies in patients with chronical neuropathic pain were established. The results showed slight relationships between the Big-Five dimensions and coping. A vulnerable personality profile in patients with chronic neuropathic pain was obtained, consisting of high neuroticism, low extraversion, openness to experience and responsibility, and moderate agreeableness. PMID:21044475

  19. ANALYZING MUSCULAR PAIN AND THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON CHRONIC PAIN

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Neena

    2008-08-22

    to 2 weeks, suggesting chronic phase of muscle pain. This finding was confirmed with increased Fos activity in the corresponding spinal cord level. Furthermore, the central projection of nociceptors from the paw and the gastrocnemious muscle evoked...

  20. Tapering and discontinuation of methadone for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-06-01

    How to taper and discontinue methadone therapy for chronic pain management is illustrated through a case report. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the website: www.paineurope.com at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources. PMID:26095495

  1. Pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele; Müller, Monika; Ashraf, Aroosiah; Neziri, Alban Y; Streitberger, Konrad; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Hypersensitivity of pain pathways is considered a relevant determinant of symptoms in chronic pain patients, but data on its prevalence are very limited. To our knowledge, no data on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity are available. We studied the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in 961 consecutive patients with various chronic pain conditions. Pain threshold and nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold to electrical stimulation were used to assess pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity, respectively. Using 10th percentile cutoff of previously determined reference values, the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity (95% confidence interval) was 71.2 (68.3-74.0) and 80.0 (77.0-82.6), respectively. As a secondary aim, we analyzed demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics as factors potentially associated with pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity using logistic regression models. Both hypersensitivity parameters were unaffected by most factors analyzed. Depression, catastrophizing, pain-related sleep interference, and average pain intensity were significantly associated with hypersensitivity. However, none of them was significant for both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Furthermore, the odds ratios were very low, indicating modest quantitative impact. To our knowledge, this is the largest prevalence study on central hypersensitivity and the first one on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain patients. The results revealed an impressively high prevalence, supporting a high clinical relevance of this phenomenon. Electrical pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex explore aspects of pain processing that are mostly independent of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical pain-related characteristics. PMID:26172555

  2. Pain pharmacology: focus on opioids

    PubMed Central

    Fornasari, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Summary The incidence of chronic pain is estimated to be 20–25% worldwide. Although major improvements in pain control have been obtained, more than 50% of the patients reports inadequate relief. It is accepted that chronic pain, if not adequately and rapidly treated, can become a disease in itself, often intractable and maybe irreversible. This is mainly due to neuroplasticity of pain pathways. In the present review I will discuss about pain depicting the rational for the principal pharmacological interventions and finally focusing on opioids, that represent a primary class of drug to treat pain. PMID:25568646

  3. Neurobiological studies of chronic pain and analgesia: Rationale and refinements.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Goracke-Postle, Cory J

    2015-07-15

    Chronic pain is a complex condition for which the need for specialized research and therapies has been recognized internationally. This review summarizes the context for the international call for expansion of pain research to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain in order to achieve improvements in pain management. The methods for conducting sensory assessment in animal models are discussed and the development of animal models of chronic pain is specifically reviewed, with an emphasis on ongoing refinements to more closely mimic a variety of human pain conditions. Pharmacological correspondences between pre-clinical pain models and the human clinical experience are noted. A discussion of the 3Rs Framework (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how each may be considered in pain research is featured. Finally, suggestions are provided for engaging principal investigators, IACUC reviewers, and institutions in the development of strong partnerships to simultaneously expand our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying pain and analgesia while ensuring the humane use of animals in research. PMID:25818751

  4. Toll-Like Receptors in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Nicotra, Lauren; Loram, Lisa C; Watkins, Linda R; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Proinflammatory central immune signaling contributes significantly to the initiation and maintenance of heightened pain states. Recent discoveries have implicated the innate immune system, pattern recognition Toll-like receptors in triggering these proinflammatory central immune signaling events. These exciting developments have been complemented by the discovery of neuronal expression of Toll-like receptors, suggesting pain pathways can be activated directly by the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns or danger associated molecular patterns. This review will examine the evidence to date implicating Toll-like receptors and their associated signaling components in heightened pain states. In addition, insights into the impact Toll-like receptors have on priming central immune signaling systems for heightened pain states will be discussed. The influence possible sex differences in Toll-like receptor signaling have for female pain and the recognition of small molecule xenobiotics by Toll-like receptors will also be reviewed. PMID:22001158

  5. Microglia Disrupt Mesolimbic Reward Circuitry in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anna M. W.; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J.; Murphy, Niall P.; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C.; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  6. Microglia disrupt mesolimbic reward circuitry in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J; Murphy, Niall P; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  7. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  8. Topical therapies in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Stanos, Steven P; Galluzzi, Katherine E

    2013-07-01

    Chronic pain, whether localized or generalized, is a widespread, often debilitating condition affecting > 25% of adults in the United States. Oral agents are the cornerstone of chronic pain treatment, but their use may be limited in certain patients, particularly the elderly. Topical therapies offer advantages over systemically administered medications, including the requirement of a lower total systemic daily dose for patients to achieve pain relief, site-specific drug delivery, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism, major drug interactions, infections, and systemic side effects. Several types of topical agents have been shown to be useful in the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Both capsaicin and topical diclofenac have been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with chronic soft-tissue pain. In patients with hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA), the American College of Rheumatology generally recommends oral treatments (acetaminophen, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], tramadol, and intra-articular corticosteroids) and topical NSAIDs equally, favoring topical agents only for patients who have pre-existing gastrointestinal risk or are aged ? 75 years. Topical NSAIDs have been shown to provide relief superior to that of placebo and comparable to that of oral ibuprofen. Similarly, ketoprofen gel has been shown to be superior to placebo and similar to oral celecoxib in reducing pain in patients with knee OA. Different formulations of topical diclofenac (including the diclofenac hydroxyethyl pyrrolidine patch, diclofenac sodium gel, and diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w with dimethyl sulfoxide USP) have been shown to be superior to placebo and comparable to oral diclofenac in the treatment of patients with pain due to knee OA, with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal complaints than with the oral formulation. In patients with neuropathic pain, topical forms of both capsaicin and lidocaine have been shown to be useful in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Lidocaine has also demonstrated efficacy in relieving patient pain due to complex regional pain syndrome and may be useful in the treatment of patients with neuropathic pain who have cancer, although clinical trial results have not been consistent. Data suggest that topical therapies may offer a safe, well-tolerated, and effective alternative to systemic therapies in the treatment of patients with chronic, localized musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. PMID:24547601

  9. Pain and Opioid Use in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Shari S.; Winger, Daniel; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Szigethy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain is common in patients with liver disease, difficult to treat, and poorly understood. Aims The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with pain and prescription opioid use in a large cohort of patients with confirmed chronic liver. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with chronic liver disease visiting a tertiary-care hepatology clinic. Pain was determined by self-report and rated numerically from 0–10. Symptoms of mood and sleep disorders and emotional distress were based on a symptom checklist. Etiology and stage of liver disease and use of prescribed opioids were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Logistic regression was used to establish factors associated with pain and prescription opioid use. Results Among 1286 patients with chronic liver disease, 34% had pain and 25% used opioids. The strongest predictor of pain in multivariate modeling was emotional distress (OR=3.66, CI=2.40,5.64), followed by non-white race (OR=1.87, CI=1.24,2.79), mood symptoms (OR=1.47, CI=1.04,2.07), sleep disturbance/fatigue (OR=1.70, CI=1.24,2.32), and advanced liver disease (Child class B: OR=1.73, CI=1.15,2.60; Child class C: OR=2.78 CI=1.49,5.24) compared to no cirrhosis. Emotional distress, mood-related symptoms, and advanced liver disease were also significant predictors of prescription opioid use, as were age, nicotine use, and etiology of liver disease. Conclusions This large cohort study demonstrates the high prevalence of pain and opioid use in chronic liver disease. While disease variables contribute to pain, psychological symptoms were most strongly associated with pain and opioid use, providing rationale and target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23512406

  10. Sleep quality and acute pain severity among young adults with and without chronic pain: the role of biobehavioral factors.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer E; Streitel, Katherine L

    2010-10-01

    Adequate sleep is essential for health across the lifespan and is likely to be influenced by different factors among those with chronic pain than among others. Questionnaires were administered to 362 college students, some of whom reported chronic pain from varied sources. Among chronic pain sufferers (n = 108), pain severity was uniquely associated with sleep quality after controlling for gender, BMI, perceived health, health behaviors, depressed mood, perceived stress, and scholastic/interpersonal self-esteem. For these participants, perceived health, alcohol use, pain medication use, and depressed mood were also associated with sleep quality, whereas for participants with non-chronic recent pain (n = 129) only perceived health and depressed mood predicted sleep. Individuals with both chronic pain and high stress had the worst sleep. Stress, alcohol use, pain, and mood may contribute to poor sleep among young adults with pain, which could lead to a cycle of long-term health problems. PMID:20464629

  11. [Paracetamol and metamizol in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hackenthal, E

    1997-08-25

    In a medline search (covering 1966 to Sept. 1996) 32 clinical studies were identified, in which the efficacy of paracetamol or matamizol per se, or in comparison to other analgesics, in various chronic pain states, such as migraine, dysmenorrhoea, arthritis and osteoarthritis pain and cancer pain had been examined. In patients with migraine (4 studies) several other analgesics (ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, flupirtin) were slightly more effective than paracetamol, however, the efficacy of paracetamol itself had not been assessed. In patients with chronic tension headache (1 study) paracetamol was superior to placebo, but less effective than naproxen. Pain of dysmenorrhoea was not, or only marginally improved by paracetamol in 3 studies, efficacy was reported in 1 study. Similarly, pain in rheumatoid arthritis was not significantly alleviated when paracetamol was given alone (3 studies) and marginally improved, when combined with naproxen and tested against naproxen alone (1 study). Some improvement by paracetamol of pain scores in patients with osteoarthritis (5 studies) requires further clinical confirmation. No studies were found, in which metamizol had been studied in chronic non-cancer pain. Paracetamol and/or metamizol have been included in 14 studies on cancer pain, most of these studies attempting to validate the WHO analgesic ladder for cancer pain treatment. However, except for one study, in which metamizol was comparable in efficacy to morphine, all other publications do not provide detailed information on the efficacy of individual analgesics. Therefore it is not possible at present, to assess the possible merits of paracetamol or metamizol in the treatment of cancer pain from published studies. PMID:12799814

  12. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture.

    PubMed

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor. PMID:25537694

  13. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients. PMID:24792624

  14. Chronic stress, cortisol dysfunction, and pain: a psychoneuroendocrine rationale for stress management in pain rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Kara E; Bishop, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non-pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non-pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non-pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non-pain-related stress to facilitate treatment, prevent chronic disability, and improve quality of life. PMID:25035267

  15. Care of the patient with chronic pain: part II.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, C L

    2000-01-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual issues for patients and their families. It is often misunderstood and unsuccessfully managed. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I [Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 3 (4), 192-204] outlined the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain. In Part II, a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems are introduced. PMID:11858295

  16. [Endometriosis: an essential differential diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain].

    PubMed

    Wenger, Jean-Marie; Zormpa, Maria; Dällenbach, Patrick; Weber, Laura

    2012-10-24

    In the context of chronic pelvic pain, endometriosis plays a significant role due to its frequency and its effects on the quality of women's lives. It affects 3-10% of women of reproductive age. The clinical signs are part from chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, urinary and digestive symptoms as well as infertility. The clinical signs and symptoms may vary and the clinical examination may be difficult to interpret for a physician who is not familiar with the condition. This explains the fact that it takes more time to make the diagnosis of endometriosis. Delay of diagnosis, multiple consultations and complex surgical procedures implicate physical and psychological suffering for the patient with serious complications. For all these reasons, the differential diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain in women should include endometriosis. PMID:23167072

  17. What Do We Know About the Pathophysiology of Chronic Pain?: Implications for Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the complex features of the pathophysiology of chronic pain and the implications for treatment and provide an overview of nociceptive processes, neuropathic pain, cold hyperalgesia, peripheral nerve injury, wind-up pain, central sensitization, and common clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria. Advanced medicine has proven that chronic pain need not involve any structural pathology as pain is a complex biopsychosocial experience. Treatment of the specific mechanisms responsible for pain should be aimed at preventing and or reducing dysfunctional neuro-plasticity resulting from poorly controlled chronic pain. Further study is needed to reduce the probability and of persistent changes that cause chronic pain. PMID:26614717

  18. Functional abdominal pain in childhood and adolescence increases risk for chronic pain in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lynn S; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Rippel, Sara; Bruehl, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    A few studies of long-term outcomes for pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP) have assessed acute non-abdominal pain at follow-up, but none has assessed chronic pain. We followed a cohort of pediatric patients with FAP (n=155) and a well control group (n=45) prospectively for up to 15 years. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 32 years at a follow-up telephone interview. FAP patients were classified as Resolved (n=101) versus Unresolved (n=54) at follow-up, based on whether they reported symptoms consistent with the adult Rome III criteria for a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Headache symptoms and reports of chronic non-abdominal pain also were assessed at follow-up. In the Unresolved group, 48.1% reported one or more sites of chronic non-abdominal pain at follow-up, compared to 24.7% in the Resolved group and 13.3% in the control group, p<0.01. More than half (57.4%) of the Unresolved group endorsed symptoms consistent with International Headache Society criteria for headache, compared to 44.6% of the Resolved group and 31% of controls, p<0.05. One-third of the Unresolved group reported both headache and one or more sites of chronic non-abdominal pain at follow-up, compared to 17.8% of the Resolved group and 4.4% of controls. Youth with FAP that persists into adulthood may be at increased risk for chronic pain and headache. Examination of central mechanisms that are common across chronic pain disorders may enhance understanding of this subgroup of FAP. PMID:20615615

  19. Acupuncture for Chronic Pain in Japan: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Many Japanese reports of acupuncture and moxibustion for chronic pain are not listed in medical databases such as Medline. Therefore, they are not easily accessible to researchers outside of Japan. To complement existing reviews of acupuncture and moxibustion for chronic pain and to provide more detailed discussion and analysis, we did a literature search using ‘Igaku Chuo Zasshi Wed’ (Japana Centra Revuo Medicina) and ‘Citation Information by National Institute of Information’ covering the period 1978–2006. Original articles and case reports of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment of chronic pain were included. Animal studies, surveys, and news articles were excluded. Two independent reviewers extracted data from located articles in a pre-defined structured way, and assessed the likelihood of causality in each case. We located 57 papers written in Japanese (20 full papers, 37 case reports). Conditions examined were headache (12 trials), chronic low back pain (9 trials), rheumatoid arthritis (8 trials), temporomandibular dysfunction (8 trials), katakori (8 trials) and others (12 trials). While 23 were described as clinical control trials (CCTs), 11 employed a quasi-random method. Applying the 5-point Jadad quality assessment scoring system, the mean score was 1.5 ± 1.3 (SD). Eleven (52%) of the CCTs were conducted to determine a more effective procedure for acupuncture; these compared a certain type of acupuncture with another type of acupuncture or specific additional points. In particular, the trigger point acupuncture was widely used to treat chronic low back pain in Japan. Many reports of chronic pain treatment by acupuncture and moxibustion are listed in Japanese databases. From the data, we conclude that there is limited evidence that acupuncture is more effective than no treatment, and inconclusive evidence that trigger point acupuncture is more effective than placebo, sham acupuncture or standard care. PMID:18227910

  20. Association of anxiety with intracortical inhibition and descending pain modulation in chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional Pain Modulation (CPM)]? We included females with chronic MPS (n?=?47) and healthy controls (n?=?11), aged 19 to 65 years. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by TMS, and anxiety was assessed based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The disability related to pain (DRP) was assessed by the Profile of Chronic Pain scale for the Brazilian population (B:PCP:S), and the psychophysical pain measurements were measured by the QST and CPM. Results In patients, trait-anxiety was positively correlated to intracortical facilitation (ICF) at baseline and after QST evoked pain (??=?0.05 and ??=?0.04, respectively) and negatively correlated to the cortical silent period (CSP) (??=?-1.17 and ??=?-1.23, respectively) (P <0.05 for all comparisons). After QST evoked pain, the DRP was positively correlated to ICF (??=?0.02) (P?Pain scores during CPM were positively correlated with trait-anxiety when it was concurrently with high DRP (??=?0.39; P?=?0.02). Controls’ cortical excitability remained unchanged after QST. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in chronic MPS, the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory descending systems of the corticospinal tract is associated with higher trait-anxiety concurrent with higher DRP. PMID:24645677

  1. An Overview of Pharmacologic Management of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Beal, Benjamin R; Wallace, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain can be challenging to manage and historically providers have relied on opiates to treat pain. Recent studies have brought into question the safety and efficacy of chronic opiate therapy in the noncancer population. There is a vast amount of literature to support the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical agents, cannabinoids, and botulinum toxin either in conjunction with or in lieu of opioids. Intrathecal drug delivery systems can deliver some of these medications directly to their primary site of action while minimizing the side effects seen with systemic administration. PMID:26614720

  2. Perioperative pain management in the opioid-tolerant patient with chronic pain: an evidence-based practice project.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Karen M

    2012-12-01

    According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on pain, chronic pain affects an estimated 116 million American adults and costs the nation more than $600 billion each year in medical treatment and lost worker productivity. Many individuals with chronic pain undergo surgical procedures. Safe and effective treatment of their postoperative pain can present a significant challenge to the health care team but is essential to their optimal recovery. Administrators in a community hospital in central Pennsylvania identified a need to improve the care of their patients with chronic pain and supported a hospital-wide initiative to address various aspects of this population's hospital experience. This article presents the first phase of an evidence-based practice project that focused on improving the perioperative pain management in patients with chronic pain who receive long-acting opioids for the treatment of chronic pain before admission for surgery. PMID:23164203

  3. Opioid use in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Savage, S R

    1999-05-01

    Opioids are a necessary and effective component of the management of chronic non-cancer-related pain in some patients. Careful structuring, monitoring, and documentation of care are important, but the therapeutic use of opioids is uncomplicated in the majority of patients using opioids and is gratifying for both the patient and the treating physician when it results in significant reduction in pain, improvement in level of function, and a higher quality of life. Opioid therapy is most often successful when combined with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions as indicated by the type of pain and the context in which it occurs. PMID:10386124

  4. Novel polymeric bioerodable microparticles for prolonged-release intrathecal delivery of analgesic agents for relief of intractable cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Han, Felicity Y; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Lam, Ai-Leen; Whittaker, Andrew K; Smith, Maree T

    2015-07-01

    Intractable cancer-related pain complicated by a neuropathic component due to nerve impingement is poorly alleviated even by escalating doses of a strong opioid analgesic. To address this unmet medical need, we developed sustained-release, bioerodable, hydromorphone (potent strong opioid)- and ketamine (analgesic adjuvant)-loaded microparticles for intrathecal (i.t.) coadministration. Drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water method with evaporation. Encapsulation efficiency of hydromorphone and ketamine in PLGA (50:50) microparticles was 26% and 56%, respectively. Microparticles had the desired size range (20-60 ?m) and in vitro release was prolonged at ?28 days. Microparticles were stable for ?6 months when stored refrigerated protected from light in a desiccator. Desirably, i.t. injected fluorescent dye-labeled PLGA microparticles in rats remained in the lumbar region for ?7 days. In a rat model of neuropathic pain, i.t. coinjection of hydromorphone- and ketamine-loaded microparticles (each 1 mg) produced analgesia for 8 h only. Possible explanations include inadequate release of ketamine and/or hydromorphone into the spinal fluid, and/or insufficient ketamine loading to prevent development of analgesic tolerance to the released hydromorphone. As sub-analgesic doses of i.t. ketamine at 24-48 h intervals restored analgesia on each occasion, insufficient ketamine loading appears problematic. We will investigate these issues in future work. PMID:25990226

  5. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345

  6. Activation of corticostriatal circuitry relieves chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R; Eberle, Sarah E; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C; Wang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050

  7. Activation of Corticostriatal Circuitry Relieves Chronic Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R.; Eberle, Sarah E.; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050

  8. The impact of chronic low back pain on older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Thomas E.; Weiner, Debra K.; Lieber, Susan J.; Slaboda, Jill; Boston, J. Robert

    2007-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common, poorly understood, and potentially disabling chronic pain conditions from which older adults suffer. Many older adults remain quite functional despite CLBP, and because age-related comorbidities often exist independently of pain (e.g., medical illnesses, sleep disturbance, mobility difficulty), the unique impact of CLBP is unknown. We conducted this research to identify the multidimensional factors that distinguish independent community dwelling older adults with CLBP from those that are pain-free. Three hundred twenty cognitively intact participants (162 with ? moderate pain for ? 3 months, and 158 pain-free) underwent comprehensive assessment of pain severity, medical comorbidity (illnesses, body mass index, medications), severity of degenerative disc and facet disease, lumbar flexion, psychological constructs (self-efficacy, mood, overall mental health), and self-reported as well as performance-based physical function. Significant differences were ascertained for all 22 measures. Discriminant function analysis revealed that eight measures uniquely maximized the separation between the two groups (self-reported function with the Functional Status Index and the SF-36, performance-based function with repetitive trunk rotation and functional reach, mood with the Geriatric Depression Scale, comorbidity with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and BMI, and severity of degenerative disc disease). These results should help to guide investigators that perform studies of CLBP in older adults and practitioners that want an easily adaptable battery for use in clinical settings. PMID:17317008

  9. [Mechanisms by which acute orofacial pain becomes chronic].

    PubMed

    Cahana, A; Forster, A

    2006-06-01

    Pain is a complex, multidimensional experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, cognitive, emotional and motivational dimensions. These dimensions in the orofacial region have particular expression since the face and mouth have special biological, emotional and psychological meaning to each individual. Orofacial pain is frequent. Epidemiological studies reveal a high prevalence of severe pain in syndromes such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD), burning mouth syndrome and toothaches, as well as an important role of psychosocial influences, contributing to the persistence of these syndromes. Many of the difficulties experienced by clinicians with the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic orofacial pain stem from a lack of recognition and understanding of these complex conditions, the various intricate bio-psycho-social interactions and the neurobiology behind the chronicisation of acute pain. This text strives to review the important advances and insights into the peripheral processes by which noxious stimuli activates or modulates nociceptive afferent input into the brainstem, the neural pathways in the brainstem and higher levels of the trigeminal (V) somatosensory system and the mechanisms involved in the plasticity of nociceptive transmission. We shall link this knowledge to clinical correlates and suggest a therapeutic approach in acute orofacial pain, in the attempt to avoid the development of chronic pain. PMID:16804482

  10. Cystic endosalpingiosis presenting as chronic back pain, a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year old woman presented with chronic back pain. Previous examinations had been inconclusive. Gynaecological examination revealed large cystic masses on the fundus uteri and left adnexa. Laparoscopy and histopathology showed unusually extensive cystic endosalpingiosis covering the serosa-coated uterine surface as well as the adnexa on both sides. After uneventful laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy the patient quickly recovered and was relieved of her chronic backache. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1501709091077524. PMID:24299296

  11. Commonalities between pain and memory mechanisms and their meaning for understanding chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Price, Theodore J; Inyang, Kufreobong E

    2015-01-01

    Pain sensing neurons in the periphery (called nociceptors) and the central neurons that receive their projections show remarkable plasticity following injury. This plasticity results in amplification of pain signaling that is now understood to be crucial for the recovery and survival of organisms following injury. These same plasticity mechanisms may drive a transition to a non-adaptive chronic pain state if they fail to resolve following the termination of the healing process. Remarkable advances have been achieved in the past two decades in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie pain plasticity following injury. The mechanisms bear a striking resemblance to molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes in other brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Here those mechanisms, their commonalities and subtle differences, will be highlighted and their role in causing chronic pain will be discussed. Arising from these data is the striking argument that chronic pain is a disease of the nervous system, which distinguishes this phenomena from acute pain that is frequently a symptom alerting the organism to injury. This argument has important implications for the development of disease modifying therapeutics. PMID:25744681

  12. Anti-oppressive practices with chronic pain sufferers.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Judy E

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain and (dis)Ability leaves one struggling for normalcy, trying to make sense out of the fundamental operations of one's body, the meaning of suffering, and the social construction of wellness (Jackson, 2002; MacDonald, 2000; Oliver, 1996; Thomas, 1999; Wendell, 1996). Social work and other helping professions need to find ways to learn from sufferers, to listen to their stories, deriving insight from their knowledge, in order to more effectively attend to their health care needs. Findings from a doctoral dissertation using a narrative "testimonial" methodology, framed within a postmodern anti-oppressive ideology, will be presented. This research listened to the stories of women in, or retired from, the helping professions, who are sufferers of chronic pain, specifically attending to their experiences of living with chronic pain, dealing with the medical system, and the relationship of their pain and (dis)Ability with their helping roles. Six sufferers participated-two physicians, two nurses, and two social workers-providing a cross-disciplinary lens to both their personal and work experiences. The guiding research question was, "How can the stories of women in the helping professions, who are sufferers of chronic pain and (dis)Ability, inform an anti-oppressive approach to social work practice in working with sufferers?" A close read is provided into the sufferers' professional storying, including their insights, reflections, and critiques of health services. An anti-oppressive model of social work is highlighted, extrapolated from participants' storied practices and collaborative visions for best practices in working with chronic pain sufferers. PMID:18956505

  13. Early maladaptive schema factors, chronic pain and depressiveness: a study with 271 chronic pain patients and 331 control participants.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom; Saariaho, Anita; Karila, Irma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain and depression are coexisting entities with high simultaneous prevalence. Both are linked with early adversities. Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) can be seen as a reflection of these adversities. EMSs extensively indicate underlying psychic patterns and provide a good opportunity to detect covert processes and psychic shapes (latent factors), which create the basis of how people rate their schemas. The purpose of this study was to explore these latent, higher order schema factors (SF) and to find out how they are associated with pain intensity or depression in chronic pain patients and a control sample. The study subjects consisted of 271 first-visit pain patients and 331 control participants. Sociodemographic and pain data were gathered by questionnaire; 18 EMSs were measured with the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form) and depressiveness was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, Version II. Exploratory factor and regression analyses were used. The chronic pain patient group showed two SFs. The first SF showed a shameful, defective, socially isolated, failure, emotionally inhibited, deprived, submissive and resigned pattern. The second SF showed a demanding, approval seeking, self-sacrificing and punitive pattern. SF1 predicted more than half of the depressiveness in the pain patient sample. A three-factor structure was found in the control sample, and SFs 1 and 3 together predicted almost one-third of depressiveness. The pain patient and the control groups had a different, higher order factor structure. We assume that SF1 in the pain patients reflected a rather serious, undefined early psychic trauma and was also associated with their depressiveness. PMID:21210495

  14. Acupuncture May Be Helpful for Chronic Pain: A Meta-Analysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... May Be Helpful for Chronic Pain: A Meta-Analysis acupuncture.jpg © BananaStock A recent NCCAM-funded study, ... trials on acupuncture for chronic pain, conducted an analysis of individual patient data from 29 high-quality ...

  15. SPINAL CORD STIMULATION FOR CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS AN EXPERT SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    SPINAL CORD STIMULATION FOR CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS AN EXPERT SYSTEM Kenneth M. Al.uh.edu ABSTRACT Chronic pain is a serious health problem affect­ ing millions of people worldwide. Spinal cord; Spinal Cord Stimulation for

  16. Pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in chronic low back pain and depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Rogério Sarmento; de Macedo, Bárbara Gazolla; Amaral, Tammy da Silva; Gomes, Henrique de Alencar; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Rocha, Fábio Lopes

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which 193 individuals with chronic low back pain were included. The presence of depression was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, using a cutoff validated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The intensity and quality of pain in the groups with and without depression were assessed by the McGill Questionnaire. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia was applied to assess fear of movement. With respect to quality of life, the Medical Outcomes Study 36 was used. The statistical significance level was set at p <0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was 32.1%. The group with depression had worse scores in relation to pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life (physical functioning, rolephysical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health. CONCLUSION: Patients with low back pain and depression had higher pain intensity, greater fear of movement and poorer quality of life. Level of Evidence III, Cross-sectional PMID:24453639

  17. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Psychological Therapies for Children With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Lauren; Palermo, Tonya M.; de C Williams, Amanda C; Lau, Jennifer; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives?This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of psychological therapies for management of chronic pain in children.?Methods?Randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions treating children (<18 years) with chronic pain conditions including headache, abdominal, musculoskeletal, or neuropathic pain were searched for. Pain symptoms, disability, depression, anxiety, and sleep outcomes were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed and quality of the evidence was rated using GRADE.?Results?35 included studies revealed that across all chronic pain conditions, psychological interventions reduced pain symptoms and disability posttreatment. Individual pain conditions were analyzed separately. Sleep outcomes were not reported in any trials. Optimal dose of treatment was explored. For headache pain, higher treatment dose led to greater reductions in pain. No effect of dosage was found for other chronic pain conditions.?Conclusions?Evidence for psychological therapies treating chronic pain is promising. Recommendations for clinical practice and research are presented. PMID:24602890

  18. Coping Constructs Related to College Students with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda J.; Sherman, Amanda L.; Grigsby, Megan E.; Croft, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative research study involved in-depth interviews with 22 participants enrolled in a private Midwestern university. Each participant reported living with a respective chronic pain syndrome while also being a full-time student. Our semi-structured, interviews centered around the constructs of physical, social,…

  19. Deep brain stimulation for chronic pain investigated with magnetoencephalography

    E-print Network

    Cornelissen, Piers

    Deep brain stimulation for chronic pain investigated with magnetoencephalography Morten L CharitableTrust. Received11September 2006; accepted14 September 2006 Deep brain stimulation has shown by magne- toencephalography to map changes in neural activity induced by deep brain stimulation

  20. Treatment of a Case Example with PTSD and Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary reviews the case of GH, a survivor of a road traffic collision, who has chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The case formulation, assessment strategy, and treatment plan are informed by the relevant experimental literature and empirically supported treatments using a cognitive behavioral perspective. Given this…

  1. Safely Managing Chronic Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... half of them receive no treatment. The annual economic cost of chronic pain in the U.S. is estimated to be $100 billion, including healthcare expenses, lost income, and lost productivity at work and at home. Research shows that almost 60 ...

  2. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: New etiologic insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

  3. Chronic Pain Management: An Overview of Taxonomy, Conditions Commonly Encountered, and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Walk, David; Poliak-Tunis, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain has multiple mechanisms that result in pain amplification and maintenance, including central and peripheral sensitization and altered modulation of pain perception. Assessment of pain requires comprehensive assessment of symptoms and signs, suspected pain mechanisms, and the patient's biopsychosocial context. Multiple validated measures exist for the assessment of pain symptoms, pain-related disability, psychological impact of pain, and candidacy for opioid management. PMID:26614715

  4. Ecological system influences in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Deirdre E; Engle, Lisa; Feinstein, Amanda B; Sieberg, Christine B; Sparling, Penny; Cohen, Lindsey L; Conroy, Caitlin; Driesman, Dana; Masuda, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child’s pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child’s outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention. PMID:23248814

  5. Should we start treating chronic low back pain with antibiotics rather than with pain medications?

    PubMed

    Birkenmaier, Christof

    2013-10-01

    For those of us who have read the 2 recently published articles by a Danish - British research group, it might appear that we are observing an impending paradigm shift on the origins of chronic low back pain. The results of this research indicate, that chronic low back pain associated with bone marrow edema in vertebral endplates that are adjacent to herniated intervertebral discs may be caused by infections with anaerobic bacteria of low virulence. According to these articles, treatment with certain antibiotics is significantly more effective than placebo against this low back pain. If these findings are to hold true in repeat studies by other researchers, they stand to fundamentally change our concepts of low back pain, degenerative disc disease and in consequence the suitable therapies for these entities. It may in fact require pain specialists to become familiarized with the details of antibiotic treatments and their specific risks in order to be able to properly counsel their patients. While this seems hard to believe at first glance, bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of other conditions that do not primarily impose as infectious diseases such as gastric ulcers. While the authors refer to a few previous studies pointing into the same direction, the relevant research is really only from one group of collaborating scientists. Therefore, before we start prescribing antibiotics for chronic low back pain, it is imperative that other researchers in different institutions confirm these results. PMID:24155998

  6. Should We Start Treating Chronic Low Back Pain with Antibiotics Rather than with Pain Medications?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For those of us who have read the 2 recently published articles by a Danish - British research group, it might appear that we are observing an impending paradigm shift on the origins of chronic low back pain. The results of this research indicate, that chronic low back pain associated with bone marrow edema in vertebral endplates that are adjacent to herniated intervertebral discs may be caused by infections with anaerobic bacteria of low virulence. According to these articles, treatment with certain antibiotics is significantly more effective than placebo against this low back pain. If these findings are to hold true in repeat studies by other researchers, they stand to fundamentally change our concepts of low back pain, degenerative disc disease and in consequence the suitable therapies for these entities. It may in fact require pain specialists to become familiarized with the details of antibiotic treatments and their specific risks in order to be able to properly counsel their patients. While this seems hard to believe at first glance, bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of other conditions that do not primarily impose as infectious diseases such as gastric ulcers. While the authors refer to a few previous studies pointing into the same direction, the relevant research is really only from one group of collaborating scientists. Therefore, before we start prescribing antibiotics for chronic low back pain, it is imperative that other researchers in different institutions confirm these results. PMID:24155998

  7. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Persons with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Marini, Irmo; Baker, Jeff; Buck, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-five persons receiving treatment for chronic pain were surveyed using the Spirituality and Chronic Pain Survey (SCPS). The survey included a pain assessment, a spiritual/religious practices assessment, and questions related to spiritual/religious beliefs and attitudes. Most participants reported experiencing constant, higher-level pain. The…

  8. Chronic Pain in People with an Intellectual Disability: Under-Recognised and Under-Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, B. E.; Daly, P.; Smyth, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the nature, prevalence and impact of chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability (ID) based on carer report. Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to 250 care-givers and 157 responses were received (63%). Results: Chronic pain was reported in 13% of the sample (n = 21), 6.3% had pain in two sites and 2% had pain in…

  9. Towards a theory of chronic pain A. Vania Apkarian a,b,

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 2.2.3. Management of chronic pain: current management of low back pain remains insufficient of its definition and clinical management. Second, we examine pain mechanisms via nociceptive informationTowards a theory of chronic pain A. Vania Apkarian a,b, *, Marwan N. Baliki a , Paul Y. Geha

  10. Change in Suicidal Ideation Following Interdisciplinary Treatment of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, John; Wilson, Keith G.; Henderson, Peter R.; McWilliams, Lachlan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine suicidal ideation in individuals with chronic pain, especially change in suicidal thinking following interdisciplinary treatment. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 250) admitted to a 4-week, group-based chronic pain management program completed measures of pain intensity, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, overall distress, pain catastrophizing, self-perceived burden, and suicidal ideation at pre- and post-treatment. Results Before treatment, 30 (12.0%) participants were classified as having a high level of suicidal ideation, 56 (22.4%) had a low level of suicidal ideation, and 164 (65.6%) reported none. Following treatment, there was a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and improvements in all other outcomes, but there were still some individuals with high (n = 22, 8.8%) or low (n = 28, 11.2%) levels at discharge. Patients with high suicidal ideation at baseline differed from those with no suicidal thinking on pre- and post-treatment measures of depression, distress, catastrophizing, and self-perceived burden, but not on pain intensity or functional limitations. Patients high in suicidal ideation endorsed greater pain catastrophizing and self-perceived burden than those low in suicidal thinking. Sustained suicidal ideation after treatment was associated with higher baseline levels of suicidal thinking and self-perceived burden to others, as well as a more limited overall response to treatment. Discussion Suicidal ideation was common in individuals with chronic pain, although mostly at a low level. Interdisciplinary treatment may result in reduced suicidal thinking; however, some patients continue to express thoughts of self-harm. Future studies could examine processes of change and interventions for treatment-resistant suicidal concerns. PMID:24281291

  11. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Other Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Muhammad B.

    2012-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild. PMID:22191024

  12. Pain intensity, disability and depression in individuals with chronic back pain1

    PubMed Central

    Garbi, Márcia de Oliveira Sakamoto Silva; Hortense, Priscilla; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; da Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli; Castanho, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to measure the pain intensity, identify the disability and depression levels in people with chronic back pain and to correlate these variables. A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken at the Pain Treatment Clinic of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto Hospital das Clínicas, between February and June 2012, after receiving approval from the Ethics Committee at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing. METHOD: sixty subjects with chronic back pain participated. The instruments used were: the 11-point Numerical Category Scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. To analyze the data, the arithmetic means, standard deviations and Spearman's correlation coefficient were calculated. RESULTS: the findings show that the participants presented high pain, disability and depression levels. The correlation between pain intensity and disability and between pain intensity and depression was positive and weak and, between disability and depression, positive and moderate. CONCLUSION: the study variables showed moderate and weak indices and the mutual correlations were positive. PMID:25296139

  13. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Persu, C; Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, Irina; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

    2010-01-01

    There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems. PMID:20968203

  14. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, I; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

    2010-01-01

    There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems. PMID:20968203

  15. The effects of persistent pain: the chronic headache sufferer.

    PubMed

    Philips, H C; Jahanshahi, M

    1985-02-01

    A survey of the psychological characteristics of a large sample of chronic headache cases (n = 360), including classical and common migraine and tension headache sufferers, was carried out. Comparing groups defined in terms of the chronicity of their headache problems, it was found that those with a longer history of headache had a higher level of behavioural disruption and a stronger bond between pain experience, and both complaint levels and behavioural avoidance patterns. Despite the common somatic components (sleep disturbance, fatigue, irritability, etc.), depression was not found to be elevated in this chronic pain group. In addition, there was no evidence of depression levels being higher in the populations who had had a longer history of headache problems. Higher levels of complaint were found in those with higher depression and higher extroversion and neuroticism scores. Behavioural avoidance was significantly related to the emotional reaction component of pain. The implications of these findings with respect to the development of chronic headache are discussed. PMID:3982840

  16. Managing Chronic Pain in Special Populations with Emphasis on Pediatric, Geriatric, and Drug Abuser Populations.

    PubMed

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; Young, Erin E; Starkweather, Angela R; Guite, Jessica W; Russell, Beth S; Manworren, Renee C B

    2016-01-01

    In the adult population chronic pain can lead to loss of productivity and earning potential, and decreased quality of life. There are distinct groups with increased vulnerability for the emergence of chronic pain. These groups may be defined by developmental status and/or life circumstances. Within the pediatric, geriatric, and drug abuser populations, chronic pain represents a significant health issue. This article focuses on known anatomic, physiologic, and genetic mechanisms underlying chronic pain in these populations, and highlights the need for a multimodal approach from multiple health care professionals for management of chronic pain in those with the most risk. PMID:26614727

  17. Chronic pain management in the active-duty military

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

    2012-06-01

    As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

  18. Gender differences in chronic pain--findings from a population-based study of Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Rustøen, Tone; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Hanestad, Berit Rokne; Lerdal, Anners; Paul, Steven; Miaskowski, Christine

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate for gender differences in the experience of chronic pain and the impact of chronic pain on quality of life (QOL). A total of 1,912 out of 4,000 Norwegian citizens returned a mailed questionnaire, and 24.4% reported chronic pain. More women than men reported chronic pain, and women reported significantly higher pain intensity scores than men did. Although the duration of chronic pain was similar in women and men, women more often received treatment for their chronic pain. Men in chronic pain reported a poorer QOL than women did. Although specific variables that predicted present pain intensity in women and men differed, the variables that explained the largest percentage of the variance in pain for both genders were the disease and the pain location variables. These findings support previously published studies that document gender differences in chronic pain and extend the work to the impact of chronic pain on QOL. PMID:15359222

  19. Neurotic tendencies among chronic pain patients: an MMPI item analysis.

    PubMed

    Watson, D

    1982-01-01

    Previous research has shown chronic pain patients to have elevated scores on the Hypochondriasis (Hs), Depression (D), and Hysteria (Hy) scales of the MMPI. While high scores on these scales are generally considered to reflect neurotic symptomatology and emotional disturbance, their interpretation is more ambiguous within this patient population. Item-level and subscale analyses of these scales and the K scale (a measure of defensiveness) were performed in order to clarify the meaning of these elevated scores. In these analyses a pain group's endorsement of each item was compared with the responses of two control groups, one a general medical patient sample, the other consisting of first year college students. Items showing group endorsement differences of 10% or greater were interpreted as providing significant information about the pain sample. Analysis of the Hs items indicated that a significant portion of the pain group exhibited the vague and diffuse somatic complaining characteristic of hypochondriasis. While the D scale results revealed a considerable amount of depressive symptomatology (such as sleep disturbance, poor self-esteem, apathy, and feelings of unhappiness, anxiety, and dissatisfaction), they did not support the notion that pain patients have the personality characteristics associated with severe depression. Analyses of the Hy and K scales indicated that the pain patients were no more defensive than were either of the control groups, and that their responses did not conform to the classic hysterical pattern. PMID:7162839

  20. Lifestyle and Risk of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in a Cohort of United States Male Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter C.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Wu, Kana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a prevalent urological disorder among men of all ages, its etiology remains unknown. Only a few previous studies have examined associations between lifestyle factors and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, of which most were limited by the cross-sectional study design and lack of control for possible confounders. To address these limitations we performed a cohort study of major lifestyle factors (obesity, smoking and hypertension) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk in the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study), a large ongoing cohort of United States based male health professionals. Materials and Methods The HPFS includes 51,529 men who were 40 to 75 years old at baseline in 1986. At enrollment and every 2 years thereafter participants have completed questionnaires on lifestyle and health conditions. In 2008 participants completed an additional set of questions on recent chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome pain symptoms modified from the NIH (National Institutes of Health)-CPSI (Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) as well as questions on approximate date of symptom onset. The 653 participants with NIH-CPSI pain scores 8 or greater who first experienced symptoms after 1986 were considered incident chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and the 19,138 who completed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome questions but did not report chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome related pain were considered noncases. Results No associations were observed for baseline body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, cigarette smoking and hypertension with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk (each OR ?1.34). Conclusions In this large cohort study none of the lifestyle factors examined was associated with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk. As the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains unknown, additional prospective studies are needed to elucidate modifiable risk factors for this common condition. PMID:26070893

  1. Update: soccer injury and prevention, concussion, and chronic groin pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    Soccer, or football, as it is known in much of the world, is one of the most popular sports in the world. The purpose of this article was to provide a concise update on select soccer-specific medical issues published in the last year as they relate to soccer injury and prevention, concussions, and chronic groin pain. Both the Fédération Internationale de Football Association and the Union of European Football Associations published data from their longstanding injury tracking systems, providing foundation for further research. Concussion research continues to drive much interest, especially as it relates to heading and the controversy of subconcussive trauma. Lastly, our understanding of chronic groin pain continues to be refined as we try to understand the complexity of its pathophysiology and attempt to standardize a multispecialty approach of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25211620

  2. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: role of a thorough clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) presents with a variety of symptoms affecting multiple systems. There is no universal treatment that can be given to all patients with CPPS. The results of treatment depend greatly on an accurate diagnosis. A thorough clinical assessment, including a "four-step plan", should include paying special attention to the musculoskeletal system. This assessment is not difficult to perform and provides valuable information on possible muscular problems and neuropathy. PMID:25253424

  3. LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN OPIOID DOSE ADJUSTMENT AND PAIN SCORE CHANGE IN A GROUP OF CHRONIC PAIN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lucy; Vo, Trang; Seefeld, Lindsey; Malarick, Charlene; Houghton, Mary; Ahmed, Shihab; Zhang, Yi; Cohen, Abigail; Retamozo, Cynthia; Hilaire, Kristen St.; Zhang, Vivian; Mao, Jianren

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of opioid analgesics for chronic pain management, it is unclear whether opioid dose escalation leads to better pain relief during chronic opioid therapy. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data collected from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Center for Pain Medicine over a 7-year period. We examined 1) the impact of opioid dose adjustment (increase or decrease) on clinical pain score, 2) gender and age differences in response to opioid therapy, and 3) the influence of clinical pain conditions on the opioid analgesic efficacy. A total of 109 subjects met the criteria for data collection. We found that neither opioid dose increase, nor decrease, correlated with point changes in clinical pain score in a subset of chronic pain patients over a prolonged course of opioid therapy (an average of 704 days). This lack of correlation was consistent regardless of the type of chronic pain including neuropathic, nociceptive, or mixed pain conditions. Neither gender nor age differences showed a significant influence on the clinical response to opioid therapy in these subjects. These results suggest that dose adjustment during opioid therapy may not necessarily alter long-term clinical pain score in a group of chronic pain patients and that individualized opioid therapy based on the clinical effectiveness should be considered to optimize the treatment outcome. Perspectives The study reports a relationship, or lack thereof, between opioid dose change and clinical pain score in a group of chronic pain patients. The study also calls for further investigation into the effectiveness of opioid therapy in the management of chronic non-malignant pain conditions. PMID:23452826

  4. Perceived Early Childhood Family Influence, Perceived Pain Self-Efficacy, and Chronic Pain Disability: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kate R. M.; Watts, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them…

  5. Epigenetic modulation of chronic anxiety and pain by histone deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Tran, L; Schulkin, J; Ligon, C O; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2015-10-01

    Prolonged exposure of the central amygdala (CeA) to elevated corticosteroids (CORT) facilitates long-term anxiety and pain through activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). However, the mechanisms maintaining these responses are unknown. Since chronic phenotypes can be sustained by epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications such as deacetylation, we tested the hypothesis that histone deacetylation contributes to the maintenance of chronic anxiety and pain induced by prolonged exposure of the CeA to CORT. We found that bilateral infusions of a histone deacetylase inhibitor into the CeA attenuated anxiety-like behavior as well as somatic and visceral hypersensitivity resulting from elevated CORT exposure. Moreover, we delineated a novel pathway through which histone deacetylation could contribute to CORT regulation of GR and subsequent CRF expression in the CeA. Specifically, deacetylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9), through the coordinated action of the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-6 (SIRT6) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), sequesters GR expression leading to disinhibition of CRF. Our results indicate that epigenetic programming in the amygdala, specifically histone modifications, is important in the maintenance of chronic anxiety and pain. PMID:25288139

  6. Exercise in the Management of Chronic Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dreisinger, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic back pain is one of the most common and expensive medical conditions facing today's population. Its costs are estimated to be as much as $100 billion in the United States alone. Causation is poorly understood and healthcare providers share little common language concerning this pain. In addition, costly medical diagnostic tests are performed that do little to inform treatment. In the era of evidence-based medicine, back pain healthcare providers must find better ways to communicate with one another. Methods The key to better communication is measurement within the context of an evidence-based, protocol-driven clinical rehabilitation model. Measurement is the key to better communication among providers treating spinal pain. Measurement means acquiring both patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and clinician-based outcomes (CBOs). Results Musculoskeletal strengthening of the lumbar and cervical extensors has been shown to significantly reduce pain and provide successful clinical results for patients suffering from chronic back and neck pain. Lumbar strengthening has been successful because it is a safe exercise, it is prescribed based on pretreatment evaluation, and it provides objective measurements. Conclusion Without measurement, clinical results rely more on opinion than on objectively prescribed courses of treatment. Although indirect measures (PROs) are typically presented in clinical papers and clinical reviews, they are not often used in normal physical therapy practices. Adding direct patient-performance measures (CBOs) creates a much clearer clinical picture. The key to understanding the value of clinical practice and its predictable impact on patient treatment is objective measurement. PMID:24688341

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of CBT Interventions for Co-Morbid Chronic Pain & Insomnia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan; Matteson-Rusby, Sara; Jungquist, Carla R.; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Perlis, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic pain is difficult to treat and often precedes or exacerbates sleep disturbances such as insomnia. Insomnia, in turn, can amplify the pain experience. Both conditions are associated with inflammatory processes, which may be involved in the bidirectional relationship between pain and sleep. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain and CBT for insomnia are evidence based interventions for, respectively, chronic pain and insomnia. The study objectives were to determine the feasibility of combining CBT for pain and for insomnia and to assess the effects of the combined intervention and the stand alone interventions on pain, sleep, and mood outcomes compared to a control condition. Methods Twenty-one adults with co-occurring chronic pain and chronic insomnia were randomized to either CBT for pain, CBT for insomnia, combined CBT for pain and insomnia, or a wait-list control condition. Results The combined CBT intervention was feasible to deliver and produced significant improvements in sleep, disability from pain, depression and fatigue compared to the control condition. Overall, the combined intervention appeared to have a strong advantage over CBT for pain on most outcomes, modest advantage over both CBT for insomnia in reducing insomnia severity in chronic pain patients. Discussion CBT for pain and CBT for insomnia may be combined with good results for patients with co-occurring chronic pain and insomnia. PMID:22982083

  8. Nurse-led pain management program: effect on self-efficacy, pain intensity, pain-related disability, and depressive symptoms in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, Carol; Arnstein, Paul; Caudill, Margaret

    2002-12-01

    Nurses routinely use a variety of nonpharmacologic and patient education interventions designed to reduce pain and promote independence. Research on group programs that combine these nursing strategies in a systematic approach provides evidence that chronic pain patients can realize an enhanced confidence in their ability to manage pain (improved self-efficacy) in addition to reductions in pain, emotional distress, and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of participating in a nurse-led cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) pain management program on self-efficacy, pain intensity, pain-related disability, and depressive symptoms among patients with chronic pain. Pre- and postprogram data from 154 participants were examined to identify changes in pain intensity, self-efficacy, disability, and depressive symptoms. Mean differences, effect sizes, and 95% confidence intervals were computed for the study variables and paired t-tests were done to determine if changes were significant. Z-scores were then calculated. Pearson product moment correlations were examined to test the association between changes in self-efficacy and changes in the other variables of interest. Patients in this study reported significant improvements in all scores postprogram. Self-efficacy, pain-intensity, pain-related disability, and symptoms of depression can be changed through participation in a nurse-led outpatient CBT program. In concert with results from other research on CBT pain programs this study provides further evidence that reduction in suffering and improved sense of well-being is possible even for people who have experienced pain for many years. PMID:12454805

  9. Pain in chronic pancreatitis: Managing beyond the pancreatic duct

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) continues to be a clinical challenge. Persistent or recurrent abdominal pain is the most compelling symptom that drives patients to seek medical care. Unfortunately, in spite of using several treatment approaches in the clinical setting, there is no single specific treatment modality that can be earmarked as a cure for this disease. Traditionally, ductal hypertension has been associated with causation of pain in CP; and patients are often subjected to endotherapy and surgery with a goal to decompress the pancreatic duct. Recent studies on humans (clinical and laboratory based) and experimental models have put forward several mechanisms, including neuroimmune alterations, which could be responsible for pain. This might explain the partial or no response to single modality treatment in a significant proportion of patients. The current review discusses the recent concepts of pain generation in CP and evidence based therapeutic approaches (other than ductal decompression) to handle persistent or recurrent pain. We focus primarily on parenchymal and neural components; and discuss the role of antioxidants and the existing controversies, drugs that interfere with neural transmission, pancreatic enzyme supplementation, celiac neurolysis, and pancreatic resection procedures. The review concludes with the treatment approach that we follow at our institute. PMID:24151350

  10. Differential changes in functional disability and pain intensity over the course of psychological treatment for children with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lynch-Jordan, Anne M.; Sil, Soumitri; Peugh, James; Cunningham, Natoshia; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting for treatment of chronic pain often believe that pain reduction must be achieved before returning to normal functioning. However, treatment programs for chronic pain typically take a rehabilitative approach, emphasizing decreasing pain-related disability first with the expectation that pain reduction will follow. This information is routinely provided to patients, yet no studies have systematically examined the actual trajectories of pain and disability in a clinical care setting. In this study of youth with chronic pain (N = 94, 8 to 18 years), it was hypothesized that 1) functional disability and pain would decrease over the course of psychological treatment for chronic pain and 2) functional disability would decrease more quickly than pain intensity. Participants received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain management (M = 5.6 sessions) plus standard medical care. The Functional Disability Inventory and a Numeric Rating Scale of average pain intensity were completed by the child at every CBT session. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to examine the longitudinal trajectories of disability and pain. Standardized estimates of the slopes of change were obtained to test differences in rates of change between pain and disability. Results showed an overall significant decline in functional disability over time. Although pain scores reduced slightly from pretreatment to posttreatment, the longitudinal decline over treatment was not statistically significant. As expected, the rate of change of disability was significantly more rapid than pain. Evidence for variability in treatment response was noted, suggesting the need for additional research into individual trajectories of change in pediatric pain treatment. PMID:24954165

  11. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain

  12. Managing Chronic Pain in People with Learning Disabilities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sarah; Bell, Dorothy; Gillanders, David

    2007-01-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent, under-diagnosed problem in the learning disability population. This is in part due to communication problems, unrecognized pain behaviours and the effects of medication. As a consequence, chronic pain often goes untreated and causes ongoing distress. This paper initially describes the main research that has been…

  13. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  14. Impact of potential inappropriate NSAIDs use in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ussai, S; Miceli, L; Pisa, F E; Bednarova, R; Giordano, A; Rocca, G Della; Petelin, R

    2015-01-01

    Pain remains one of the main reasons for medical consultation worldwide: moderate- to severe-intensity pain occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not recommended for long-term use and a careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical. This study aims to assess: 1) the pattern of use of NSAIDs and opioids in a population covered by a cloud-based pharmacovigilance surveillance system; and 2) potential inappropriate use. A retrospective 18-months systematic analysis on patients’ pain treatment was performed. The primary endpoint was evaluating the prevalence of NSAIDs and opioids use and the duration of therapy regimen. The secondary endpoint was to investigate the prevalence of NSAIDs taken for >21 consecutive days concomitant with drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or antiplatelet drugs. The yearly cost for individual users of concomitant NSAIDs for more than 21 consecutive days and of GORD medications has been estimated. A total of 3,050 subjects with chronic pain were enrolled; 97% of them took NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days; about one-fourth of these users also received drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A02B). The yearly cost foran individual who uses NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days as well as concomitant GORD medications is 61.23 euros. In total, 238 subjects (8%) using NSAIDs for >21 days also received one antiplatelet agent. About 11% of subjects received opioids at least once and only 2% of them carried on the therapy for more than 90 consecutive days. In evaluating the escalation in dosage as a proxy of dependence risk, this study shows no dosage escalation in our cohort of chronic pain population - that is to say we show no risk of dependence. PMID:25926717

  15. Effects of Glycemic Regulation on Chronic Postischemia Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Huot, Marie-Christine; Laferrière, André; Gi, Cho Min; Khorashadi, Mina; Schricker, Thomas; Coderre, Terence J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries consist of enhanced oxidative and inflammatory responses along with microvascular dysfunction following prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. Since I/R injuries induce chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) in laboratory animals, it is possible that surgical procedures utilizing prolonged ischemia may result in chronic postoperative pain. Glycemic modulation during ischemia and reperfusion could impact pain following I/R injury, as glucose triggers oxidative, inflammatory and thrombotic reactions, whereas insulin has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory properties. Methods 110 rats underwent a 3-h period of ischemia followed by reperfusion to produce CPIP. CPIP rats had previously been divided into 6 groups with differing glycemic-modulation paradigms: 1) normal feeding; 2) fasting; 3) fasting with normal saline administration; 4) fasting with dextrose administration; 5) normal feeding with insulin administration; and 6) normal feeding with dextrose and insulin administration. Blood glucose levels were assessed during ischemia and reperfusion in these separate groups of rats, and they were tested for mechanical and cold allodynia over the following 21 days (on days 2, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 21 post-I/R injury). Results I/R injury in rats with normoglycemia or relative hyperglycemia (groups 1, 4) led to significant mechanical and cold allodynia; conversely, relative hypoglycemia associated with insulin treatment or fasting (groups 2, 3, and 5) reduced allodynia induced by I/R injury. Importantly, insulin treatment did not reduce allodynia when administered to fed rats given dextrose (group 6). Conclusion Our results suggest that glycemic levels at the time of I/R injury significantly modulate postinjury pain thresholds in CPIP rats. Strict glycemic control during I/R injury significantly reduces CPIP pain and, and conversely, hyperglycemia significantly enhances it, which could have potential clinical applications especially in the surgical field. PMID:21795964

  16. The influence of chronic pain on the daily lives of underprivileged South Africans.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Martjie; Maree, Johanna Elizabeth; van Belkum, Corrien

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain is a major public health problem that changes lives and has devastating consequences for the person experiencing the pain, the family, and society. Living with chronic pain is not easy, especially in South Africa where the public health care system, serving 80% of the population, fails people suffering from chronic pain. The purpose of the study was to explore how experiencing chronic pain influenced the daily lives of underprivileged patients receiving nursing care at the palliative care clinic serving a resource-poor community in Tshwane, South Africa. A qualitative descriptive phenomenologic design was selected for the study. Nine purposively selected community members, registered as patients at the palliative care clinic and who suffered chronic pain, participated in the study. In-depth interviews were conducted and Tesch's coding process was used to analyze the data. Data gathering and analysis were done concurrently to determine data saturation. Four themes arose from the data: pain as a multidimensional experience, the influence of pain on physical activities, the psychosocial influence of pain, and the influence of pain on spirituality. Participants' experience of pain tells of severe suffering that hindered them in performing activities of daily living. Participants were confronted with total pain and were caught in a vicious circle where pain was responsible for severe suffering and their suffering added to their pain. However, strong religious beliefs improved pain and gave hope for the future. PMID:25434498

  17. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  18. Differences between patients with chronic widespread pain and local chronic low back pain in primary care - a comparative cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a common reason for consultation in general practice. Current research distinguishes between chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to identify differences between CWP and chronic low back pain (CLBP), a common type of CLP, in primary care settings. Methods Fifty-eight German general practitioners (GPs) consecutively recruited all eligible patients who consulted for chronic low back pain during a 5-month period. All patients received a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, pain characteristics, comorbidities, psychosomatic symptoms, and previous therapies. Results GPs recruited 647 eligible patients where of a quarter (n?=?163, 25.2%) met the CWP criteria according to the American College of Rheumatology. CWP patients had significantly more comorbidities and psychosomatic symptoms, showed longer pain duration, and suffered predominantly from permanent pain instead of distinguishable pain attacks. CWP patients were more often females, are less working and reported a current pension application or a state-approved grade of disability more frequently. We found no other differences in demographic parameters such as age, nationality, marital status, number of persons in household, education, health insurance status, or in health care utilization data. Conclusions This project is the largest study performed to date which analyzes differences between CLBP and CWP in primary care settings. Our results showed that CWP is a frequent and particularly severe pain syndrome. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register, DRKS00003123. PMID:24330525

  19. Strategies Aimed at Preventing Chronic Post-surgical Pain: Comprehensive Perioperative Pain Management after Total Joint Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Linda J.; Kennedy, Deborah; Stratford, Paul; Katz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a frequent outcome of musculoskeletal surgery. Physiotherapists often treat patients with pain before and after musculoskeletal surgery. The purposes of this paper are (1) to raise awareness of the nature, mechanisms, and significance of CPSP; and (2) to highlight the necessity for an inter-professional team to understand and address its complexity. Using total joint replacement surgeries as a model, we provide a review of pain mechanisms and pain management strategies. Summary of Key Points: By understanding the mechanisms by which pain alters the body's normal physiological responses to surgery, clinicians selectively target pain in post-surgical patients through the use of multi-modal management strategies. Clinicians should not assume that patients receiving multiple medications have a problem with pain. Rather, the modern-day approach is to manage pain using preventive strategies, with the aims of reducing the intensity of acute postoperative pain and minimizing the development of CPSP. Conclusions: The roles of biological, surgical, psychosocial, and patient-related risk factors in the transition to pain chronicity require further investigation if we are to better understand their relationships with pain. Measuring pain intensity and analgesic use is not sufficient. Proper evaluation and management of risk factors for CPSP require inter-professional teams to characterize a patient's experience of postoperative pain and to examine pain arising during functional activities. PMID:22654235

  20. Naturopathic Care for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Szczurko, Orest; Cooley, Kieran; Busse, Jason W.; Seely, Dugald; Bernhardt, Bob; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Zhou, Qi; Mills, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Chronic low back pain represents a substantial cost to employers through benefits coverage and days missed due to incapacity. We sought to explore the effectiveness of Naturopathic care on chronic low back pain. Methods This study was a randomized clinical trial. We randomized 75 postal employees with low back pain of longer than six weeks duration to receive Naturopathic care (n?=?39) or standardized physiotherapy (n?=?36) over a period of 12 weeks. The study was conducted in clinics on-site in postal outlets. Participants in the Naturopathic care group received dietary counseling, deep breathing relaxation techniques and acupuncture. The control intervention received education and instruction on physiotherapy exercises using an approved education booklet. We measured low back pain using the Oswestry disability questionnaire as the primary outcome measure, and quality of life using the SF-36 in addition to low back range of motion, weight loss, and Body Mass Index as secondary outcomes. Results Sixty-nine participants (92%) completed eight weeks or greater of the trial. Participants in the Naturopathic care group reported significantly lower back pain (?6.89, 95% CI. ?9.23 to ?3.54, p?=?<0.0001) as measured by the Oswestry questionnaire. Quality of life was also significantly improved in the group receiving Naturopathic care in all domains except for vitality. Differences for the aggregate physical component of the SF-36 was 8.47 (95% CI, 5.05 to 11.87, p?=?<0.0001) and for the aggregate mental component was 7.0 (95% CI, 2.25 to 11.75, p?=?0.0045). All secondary outcomes were also significantly improved in the group receiving Naturopathic care: spinal flexion (p<0.0001), weight-loss (p?=?0.0052) and Body Mass Index (?0.52, 95% CI, ?0.96 to ?0.08, p?=?0.01). Conclusions Naturopathic care provided significantly greater improvement than physiotherapy advice for patients with chronic low back pain. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN41920953 PMID:17878954

  1. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly taken orally, but they are also available in topical preparations to be applied to or rubbed onto the skin of a painful joint, typically one affected by arthritis, with the aim of relieving pain locally. Topical NSAIDs are widely used in some parts of the world for acute and chronic painful conditions, but have not been universally accepted until recently. One of the problems has been that older clinical studies were generally short, lasting four weeks or less, and short duration studies are not regarded as adequate in ongoing painful conditions. Objectives To examine the use of topical NSAIDs in chronic musculoskeletal pain, focusing on studies of high methodological quality, and examining the measured effect of the preparations according to study duration. The principal aim was to estimate treatment efficacy in longer duration studies of at least 8 weeks. Search methods A series of electronic searches, together with bibliographic searches, and searches of in-house databases were combined with electronic searches of clinical trial registers and manufacturers of topical NSAIDs, or companies known to be actively researching topical NSAIDs. There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind studies with placebo or active comparators, where at least one treatment was a topical NSAID product, in any topical formulation (cream, gel, patch, solution), in studies lasting at least two weeks. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Information was available from 7688 participants in 34 studies from 32 publications; 23 studies compared a topical NSAID with placebo. Topical NSAIDs were significantly more effective than placebo for reducing pain due to chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The best data were for topical diclofenac in osteoarthritis, where the NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 8 to 12 weeks compared with placebo was 6.4 for the solution, and 11 for the gel formulation. There were too few data of good quality to calculate NNTs for other individual topical NSAIDs compared with placebo. Direct comparison of topical NSAID with an oral NSAID did not show any difference in efficacy. There was an increase in local adverse events (mostly mild skin reactions) with topical NSAIDs compared with placebo or oral NSAIDs, but no increase in serious adverse events. Gastrointestinal adverse events with topical NSAID did not differ from placebo, but were less frequent than with oral NSAIDs. A substantial amount of data from unpublished studies was unavailable. Much of this probably relates to formulations that have never been marketed. Authors’ conclusions Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief; topical diclofenac solution is equivalent to that of oral NSAIDs in knee and hand osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence for other chronic painful conditions. Formulation can influence efficacy. The incidence of local adverse events is increased with topical NSAIDs, but gastrointestinal adverse events are reduced compared with oral NSAIDs. PMID:22972108

  2. Perspectives on yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a "relaxation response" in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  3. The place of oxycodone/naloxone in chronic pain management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are usually effective in the management of severe chronic pain. However, symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) are common during opioid therapy. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is often unsuccessfully managed due to limited effectiveness and numerous adverse effects of traditional laxatives. Newer treatment possibilities directed at the pathomechanism of OIBD comprise combined prolonged-release oxycodone with prolonged-release naloxone (oxycodone/naloxone) tablets. Oxycodone/naloxone provides effective analgesia with limited impact on bowel function as oxycodone displays high oral bioavailability and naloxone act as local antagonist on opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract due to nearly complete inactivation in the liver. Oxycodone/naloxone is administered to opioid-naive patients with severe pain and those unsuccessfully treated with weak opioids. Oxycodone/naloxone may be also administered to patients treated with strong opioids who experience intense symptoms of OIBD. Studies conducted to date indicate that oxycodone/naloxone is an important drug in chronic pain management, prevention and treatment of OIBD. PMID:23788978

  4. Perspectives on Yoga Inputs in the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a “relaxation response” in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  5. Pain and pressure pain thresholds in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Anette; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Helseth, Sølvi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although pain is a significant symptom in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), pain is poorly understood in adolescents with CFS. The aim of this study was to explore pain distribution and prevalence, pain intensity and its functional interference in everyday life, as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in adolescents with CFS and compare this with a control group of healthy adolescents (HC). Methods This is a case–control, cross-sectional study on pain including 120 adolescents with CFS and 39 HCs, aged 12–18?years. We measured pain frequency, pain severity and pain interference using self-reporting questionnaires. PPT was measured using pressure algometry. Data were collected from March 2010 until October 2012 as part of the Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial. Results Adolescents with CFS had significantly lower PPTs compared with HCs (p<0.001). The Pain Severity Score and the Pain Interference Score were significantly higher in adolescents with CFS compared with HCs (p<0.001). Almost all adolescents with CFS experienced headache, abdominal pain and/or pain in muscles and joints. Moreover, in all sites, the pain intensity levels were significantly higher than in HCs (p<0.001). Conclusions We found a higher prevalence of severe pain among adolescents with CFS and lowered pain thresholds compared with HCs. The mechanisms, however, are still obscure. Large longitudinal population surveys are warranted measuring pain thresholds prior to the onset of CFS. Trial registration number Clinical Trials, NCT01040429; The Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial (NorCAPITAL) http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25287104

  6. More than meets the eye: visual attention biases in individuals reporting chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Fashler, Samantha R; Katz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The present study used eye-tracking technology to assess whether individuals who report chronic pain direct more attention to sensory pain-related words than do pain-free individuals. A total of 113 participants (51 with chronic pain, 62 pain-free) were recruited. Participants completed a dot-probe task, viewing neutral and sensory pain-related words while their reaction time and eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking data were analyzed by mixed-design analysis of variance with group (chronic pain versus pain-free) as the between-subjects factor, and word type (sensory pain versus neutral) as the within-subjects factor. Results showed a significant main effect for word type: all participants attended to pain-related words more than neutral words on several eye-tracking parameters. The group main effect was significant for number of fixations, which was greater in the chronic pain group. Finally, the group by word type interaction effect was significant for average visit duration, number of fixations, and total late-phase duration, all greater for sensory pain versus neutral words in the chronic pain group. As well, participants with chronic pain fixated significantly more frequently on pain words than did pain-free participants. In contrast, none of the effects for reaction time were significant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with chronic pain display specific attentional biases toward pain-related stimuli and demonstrate the value of eye-tracking technology in measuring differences in visual attention variables. PMID:25285022

  7. Differences in Pain, Psychological Symptoms, and Gender Distribution Among Patients with Left vs. Right-Sided Chronic Spinal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wasan, Ajay D.; Anderson, Nina K.; Giddon, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine pain levels, function, and psychological symptoms in relation to predominant sidedness of pain (right or left) and gender in patients being treated for chronic spinal pain. Design Prospective cohort study Patients Patients with chronic neck or low back pain undergoing a nerve block procedure in a speciality pain medicine clinic Interventions/Outcomes Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Brief Pain Inventory just prior to the procedure. Pain history and demographic variables were collected from a chart review. Chi-square, Pearson correlations, and multivariate statistics were used to characterize the relationships between side of pain, gender, pain levels, pain interference, and psychological symptoms. Results Among 519 subjects, men with left-sided pain (n=98) were found to have significantly greater depression and anxiety symptoms and worse pain-related quality of life (p<.01), despite having similar pain levels as men with right-sided pain (n=91) or women with left or right-sided pain (n=289). In men, psychological symptoms had a significantly greater correlation with pain levels than in women (p<.01). Conclusion In this sample, men with left-sided spinal pain report worse quality of life and more psychological symptoms than women. These data provide clinical evidence corroborating basic neuroscience findings indicating that the right cerebral hemisphere is preferentially involved in the processing of pain and negative affect. These data suggest that men appear more right hemisphere dominant in pain and affect processing. These findings have implications for multidisciplinary assessment and treatment planning in men. PMID:20667025

  8. Evidence for the endothelin system as an emerging therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Terika P; Haymond, Tami; Smith, Sherika N; Sweitzer, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Many people worldwide suffer from pain and a portion of these sufferers are diagnosed with a chronic pain condition. The management of chronic pain continues to be a challenge, and despite taking prescribed medication for pain, patients continue to have pain of moderate severity. Current pain therapies are often inadequate, with side effects that limit medication adherence. There is a need to identify novel therapeutic targets for the management of chronic pain. One potential candidate for the treatment of chronic pain is therapies aimed at modulating the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1. In addition to vasoactive properties, endothelin-1 has been implicated in pain transmission in both humans and animal models of nociception. Endothelin-1 directly activates nociceptors and potentiates the effect of other algogens, including capsaicin, formalin, and arachidonic acid. In addition, endothelin-1 has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain, cancer pain, neuropathic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and pain associated with sickle cell disease. Therefore, endothelin-1 may prove a novel therapeutic target for the relief of many types of chronic pain. PMID:25210474

  9. Oxytocin – A Multifunctional Analgesic for Chronic Deep Tissue Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Ness, Timothy J.; Robbins, Meredith T.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain arising from deep tissues is currently inadequate and there is need for new pharmacological agents to provide analgesia. The endogenous paracrine hormone/neurotransmitter oxytocin is intimately involved in the modulation of multiple physiological and psychological functions. Recent experiments have given clear evidence for a role of oxytocin in the modulation of nociception. The present article reviews the existent human and basic science data related to the direct and indirect effects of oxytocin on pain. Due to its analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and other central nervous system effects, there is strong evidence that oxytocin and other drugs acting through the oxytocin receptor could act as multifunctional analgesics with unique therapeutic value. PMID:25345612

  10. Chronic low back pain and insomnia : understanding the experience and attributions made by out-patients about sleeplessness, pain and their interaction 

    E-print Network

    McKenzie, Paul Stephen

    2012-11-28

    Systematic Review: Chronic pain and insomnia are highly comorbid, and evidence suggests a reciprocal relationship between these. CBT-I has been shown to improve sleep in those with chronic pain, therefore the potential ...

  11. Chronic Paraspinal Pain due to Multiple Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arindam; Biswas, Nirendra Mohan; Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Mainak

    2015-05-01

    Aneurysms of the aorta are not uncommon, both of the thoracic aorta or the abdominal aorta and may be associated with congenital aortic valve diseases, cystic medial necrosis, Marfan's Syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or atherosclerosis. We report a case of a 46 year old smoker who had developed multiple aneurysms of the aorta in both the thoracic and abdominal parts and was incidentally diagnosed on work-up of a chronic back pain associated with venous prominence on left side of chest and left arm. PMID:26591150

  12. Decreased motivation during chronic pain requires long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Neil; Temkin, Paul; Jurado, Sandra; Lim, Byung Kook; Heifets, Boris D.; Polepalli, Jai S.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Several symptoms associated with chronic pain, including fatigue and depression, are characterized by reduced motivation to initiate or complete goal-directed tasks. However, it is unknown whether maladaptive modifications in neural circuits that regulate motivation occur during chronic pain. Here, we demonstrate that the decreased motivation elicited in mice by two different models of chronic pain requires a galanin receptor 1–triggered depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in indirect pathway nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons. These results demonstrate a previously unknown pathological adaption in a key node of motivational neural circuitry that is required for one of the major sequela of chronic pain states and syndromes. PMID:25082697

  13. CRHBP polymorphisms predict chronic pain development following motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Bortsov, Andrey V; Soward, April C; Swor, Robert; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey; Rathlev, Niels; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert; Hendry, Phyllis L; McLean, Samuel A

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common sequela of traumatic stress exposure. While biological factors contributing to chronic MSP after motor vehicle collision (MVC) have traditionally focused on tissue injury, increasing evidence suggests that neuro/stress/immune processes mediated by stress system activation may play a more dominant role. In a previous study, we found that genetic variants in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related gene FKBP5 influence vulnerability to persistent MSP 6 weeks after MVC. In the present cohort study (n = 855), we evaluated whether genetic variants in several other important HPA axis-related genes, including the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor R1 (CRHR1), and corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRHBP), influence risk of chronic MSP over time after MVC. Genetic polymorphism rs7718461 in the CRHBP gene showed significant association (P = 0.0012) with overall pain severity during the year after MVC in regression models controlling for multiple comparisons. Two additional CRHBP alleles in high linkage disequilibrium with rs7718461 also showed trend-level significance. In secondary analyses, a significant interaction between this CRHBP locus (minor allele frequency = 0.33) and time was observed (P = 0.015), with increasing effect observed over time following trauma. A significant CRHBP × FKBP5 interaction was also observed, with substantially increased MSP after MVC in those with a risk allele in both genes compared with either gene alone. The results of this study indicate that genetic variants in 2 different HPA axis genes predict chronic MSP severity following MVC and support the hypothesis that the HPA axis is involved in chronic post-MVC MSP pathogenesis. PMID:26447706

  14. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the relationship between sleep disorder and pain level, quality of life, and disability

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332

  15. Determining the Optimal Number of Spinal Manipulation Sessions for Chronic Low-Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our disclaimer about external links Menu Determining the Optimal Number of Spinal Manipulation Sessions for Chronic Low- ... SMT for chronic low-back pain, but average optimal dose has not previously been scientifically established. This ...

  16. Exploring the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain: When, How, and for Whom?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Abigail; Kominek, Courtney; Pham, Thien C; Fudin, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview regarding intent to initiate and consider ongoing chronic opioid therapy (COT) for treatment of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). COT should be an individualized decision based on a comprehensive evaluation, assessment, and monitoring. It is imperative that providers discuss various risks and benefits of COT initially and at follow-up visits, and continue appropriate monitoring and follow-up at regular intervals. The decision to initiate or continue opioid therapy is based on clinical judgment; however, it is understood that opioid and other medication therapy represent one piece of the complete treatment plan for patients with CNCP. PMID:26614721

  17. Neuropathic Pain in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Painand Effects of Pregabalin: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenyu; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Sadayuki; Harada, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Preliminary study. Purpose To assess the association of neuropathic pain with chronic low back pain (LBP) and the effect of pregabalin on neuropathic pain in the elderly. Overview of Literature Of those with chronic LBP, 37% were predominantly presenting with neuropathic pain in young adults. Pregabalin is effective for pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuralgia. No study has reported on the effects of pregabalin for chronic LBP in elderly patients yet. Methods Pregabalin was administered to 32 patients (age, ?65 years) with chronic LBP for 4 weeks. Pain and activities of daily living were assessed using the Neuropathic Pain Screening Questionnaire (NePSQ), the pain DETECT questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Modic change and spinal canal stenosis were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Altogether, 43.3% of patients had neuropathic pain according to the NePSQ and 15.6% patients had pain according to the pain DETECT. The efficacy rate of pregabalin was 73.3%. A significant effect was observed in patients with neuropathic pain after 4 weeks of administration. Conclusions Neuropathic pain was slightly less frequently associated with chronic LBP in the elderly. Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain in patients with chronic LBP accompanied with neuropathic pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis and lower limb symptoms were observed in patients with neuropathic pain. We recommend the use of pregabalin for patients after evaluating a screening score, clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging studies. PMID:25901238

  18. Chronic Pain in Patients With HIV Infection: What Clinicians Need To Know.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Jessica S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is common in individuals with HIV infection. The primary goal of treatment of chronic pain is not only to improve pain but also to improve physical and emotional function. Patients with chronic pain should be assessed for concurrent psychiatric and substance use disorders, as these conditions often coexist. Treatment of chronic pain may have limited success in the absence of treatment of psychiatric disorders. Treatments for chronic pain include nonopioid pharmacologic therapies and nonpharmacologic therapies (eg, cognitive and behavioral therapy, physical therapy), and the latter option is often the most effective for improving patient function. Care must be taken when initiating or continuing treatment with opioids, and the risks and benefits of treatment with opioids should be regularly assessed. This article summarizes a presentation by Jessica S. Merlin, MD, MBA, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in New York, New York, in March 2015. PMID:26518396

  19. Intersection of chronic pain treatment and opioid analgesic misuse: causes, treatments, and policy strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Boyer, Edward; Naqvi, Zafar N; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Treating chronic pain in the context of opioid misuse can be very challenging. This paper explores the epidemiology and potential treatments for chronic pain and opioid misuse and identifies educational and regulation changes that may reduce diversion of opioid analgesics. We cover the epidemiology of chronic pain and aberrant opioid behaviors, psychosocial influences on pain, pharmacological treatments, psychological treatments, and social treatments, as well as educational and regulatory efforts being made to reduce the diversion of prescription opioids. There are a number of ongoing challenges in treating chronic pain and opioid misuse, and more research is needed to provide strong, integrated, and empirically validated treatments to reduce opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain. PMID:24474854

  20. Functional Reorganization of the Default Mode Network across Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Mansour, Ali R.; Baria, Alex T.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is associated with neuronal plasticity. Here we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional changes in patients suffering from chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). We isolated five meaningful resting-state networks across the groups, of which only the default mode network (DMN) exhibited deviations from healthy controls. All patient groups showed decreased connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) to the posterior constituents of the DMN, and increased connectivity to the insular cortex in proportion to the intensity of pain. Multiple DMN regions, especially the MPFC, exhibited increased high frequency oscillations, conjoined with decreased phase locking with parietal regions involved in processing attention. Both phase and frequency changes correlated to pain duration in OA and CBP patients. Thus chronic pain seems to reorganize the dynamics of the DMN and as such reflect the maladaptive physiology of different types of chronic pain. PMID:25180885

  1. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN.

    PubMed

    Omran, Eman Kh; Mohammad, Asmaa N

    2015-08-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Sohag (Upper Egypt) in patients with chronic abdominal pain is scarce. This study determined the intestinal parasites symptoms in 130 patients with chronic abdominal pain and cross-matched 20 healthy persons. Parasitic infection was confirmed by stool analysis.The most commonest clinical data with stool analysis was as following: 1-Entamoeba histolytica associated with nausea 20 (3 7.74%) followed by anorexia 19 (35.85%), 2-Entamoeba coli associated with diarrhea 3 (100%) followed by nausea 2 (66.67%) and vomiting 2 (66.67%), 3-Enetrobius vermicularis associated with nausea 2 (66.67%), diarrhea 2 (66.67%) followed by flatulence 1(33.33%), 4-Giardia lamblia associated with anorexia 3 (42.86%), vomiting 3 (42.86%) followed by diarrhea 2 (28.57%)., 6-Hymenolepis nana associated with anorexia 10 (40.00%) followed by flatulence 9 (36.00%), 7-Taenia saginata associated with dyspepsia 3 (60.00%) followed by flatulence 2 (40.00%), and 8-Ancylostoma duodenal associated with anorexia 2 (66.67%) and diarrhea 2 (66.67%). PMID:26485858

  2. Effectiveness of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain: a review.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jennie C I

    2007-06-01

    Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain. PMID:17549233

  3. Living with difference: Exploring the social self of adolescents with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Forgeron, Paula A; Evans, Joan; McGrath, Patrick J; Stevens, Bonnie; Finley, G Allen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain negatively affects an adolescent’s life; however, little is known about the social impact of chronic pain for adolescents. More is known about the general peer relationships of adolescents with chronic pain than their close friendships. Close friendships begin to take on more importance during adolescence as these relationships facilitate the development of an adolescent’s sense of personal identity and increasing independence from family influences. Thus, chronic pain may create friendship challenges for adolescents beyond those typically experienced during this developmental trajectory, which may negatively impact their abilities to secure social support. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the challenges adolescents with chronic pain face with regard to their friendships. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological study using individual interviews was conducted. RESULTS: Two themes emerged. ‘Rethinking the self with pain’ describes the intrusive nature of chronic pain, challenging the participants to rethink the way they view themselves and their place within their social network. ‘Rethinking friendships’ describes the interpretation of their friends’ reactions to their chronic pain condition, which led to these adolescents spending more time by themselves, and feeling misunderstood and unsupported. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of chronic pain on the adolescent as an individual as well as the responses of close friends and others within their social network resulted in the development of new friendship needs. However, the adolescents were not always able to secure these new friendship needs. Their experiences suggest factors within friendships that may be ameliorated by interventions, thus maintaining and strengthening their close friendships. PMID:24308027

  4. Disability predictors in chronic low back pain after aquatic exercise.

    PubMed

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Ángel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Artero, Enrique G; Robles-Fuentes, Alejandro; Gatto-Cardia, María Claudia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The physical and psychological factors associated with reduction of disability after aquatic exercise are not well understood. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women; age, 50.60 [9.69] yrs; body mass index, 27.21 [5.20] kg/m²) with chronic low back pain were prospectively recruited. The 8-wk aquatic therapy program was carried out in an indoor pool sized 25 × 6 m, with 140-cm water depth and 30°C (1°C) of water temperature, where patients exercised for 2-5 days a week. Each aquatic exercise session lasted 55-60 mins (10 mins of warm-up, 20-25 mins of aerobic exercise, 15-20 mins of resistance exercise, and 10 mins of cooldown). Demographic information, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), back pain (visual analog scale), quality-of-life (Short Form 36), abdominal muscular endurance (curl-up), handgrip strength, trunk flexion and hamstring length (sit and reach), resting heart rate, and body mass index were outcomes variables. Significant correlations between change in disability and visual analog scale (at rest, flexion, and extension), curl-up and handgrip (r ranged between -0.353 and 0.582, all Ps < 0.01) were found. Changes in pain and abdominal muscular endurance were significant predictors of change in disability after therapy. PMID:24887967

  5. Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress. PMID:22699798

  6. Heterogeneous Depression Responses to Chronic Pain Onset among Middle-Aged Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Bonanno, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on depression response to chronic pain are limited by lack of clarification of different forms of response patterns and cross-sectional measures. The current study examined heterogeneous long-term patterns of depression response to chronic pain onset using the mixture modeling technique. Depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset over a course of six years were charted in a nationally representative middle-aged sample. Four distinct depression symptom trajectories emerged. The resilience (72.0%) trajectory describes a pattern of no/minimal depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset. The post-pain depression trajectory (11.4%) describes a pattern of low depression at baseline and increasing symptoms following pain onset. The chronic depression (6.8%) trajectory is characterized by persistently high depression symptoms irrespective of pain onset. The prior depression improved (9.8%) trajectory describes a pattern of high depression at baseline and gradually declining symptoms following pain onset. Self-rated health at both baseline and following pain onset predicted the resilience trajectory. Baseline self-rated health distinguished the post-pain depression and chronic depression trajectories. Individuals in the prior depression improved trajectory were older and had more chronic illnesses at baseline but fewer illnesses following pain onset, compared to those in the resilience or post-pain depression trajectory. PMID:24679514

  7. Chronic Pain in the Japanese Community—Prevalence, Characteristics and Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Fumio; Nishihara, Makoto; Arai, Young-Chang P.; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Kawai, Takashi; Inoue, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is recognized as a public health problem that affects the general population physically, psychologically, and socially. However, there is little knowledge about the associated factors of chronic pain, such as the influence of weather, family structure, daily exercise, and work status. Objectives This survey had three aims: 1) to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Japan, 2) to analyze these associated factors, and 3) to evaluate the social burden due to chronic pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey in a sample of 6000 adults aged ?20 years. The response rate was 43.8%. Results The mean age of the respondents was 57.7 years (range 20–99 years); 39.3% met the criteria for chronic pain (lasting ?3 months). Approximately a quarter of the respondents reported that their chronic pain was adversely influenced by bad weather and also oncoming bad weather. Risk factors for chronic pain, as determined by a logistic regression model, included being an older female, being unemployed, living alone, and no daily exercise. Individuals with chronic pain showed significantly lower quality of life and significantly higher psychological distress scores than those without chronic pain. The mean annual duration of absence from work of working-age respondents was 9.6 days (range 1–365 days). Conclusions Our findings revealed that high prevalence and severity of chronic pain, associated factors, and significant impact on quality of life in the adult Japanese population. A detailed understanding of factors associated with chronic pain is essential for establishing a management strategy for primary care. PMID:26076135

  8. Stress-related Clinical Pain and Mood in Women with Chronic Pain: Moderating Effects of Depression and Positive Mood Induction

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary C.; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain with co-morbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. Purpose Compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Methods Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N=110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Results Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression X mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Conclusions Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions. PMID:24532393

  9. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: review of mechanisms and biochemical biomarkers as assessed by the microdialysis technique

    PubMed Central

    Gerdle, Björn; Ghafouri, Bijar; Ernberg, Malin; Larsson, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions are multifaceted, and approximately 20% of the adult population lives with severe chronic pain, with a higher prevalence in women and in lower income groups. Chronic pain is influenced by and interacts with physical, emotional, psychological, and social factors, and a biopsychosocial framework is increasingly applied in clinical practice. However, there is still a lack of assessment procedures based on the activated neurobiological pain mechanisms (ie, the biological part of the biopsychosocial model of pain), which may be a necessary step for further optimizing outcomes after treatments for patients with chronic pain. It has been suggested that chronic pain conditions are mainly driven by alterations in the central nervous system with little or no peripheral stimuli or nociception. In contrast, other authors argue that such central alterations are driven by peripheral alterations and nociceptive input. Microdialysis is an in vivo method for studying local tissue alterations and allows for sampling of substances in the interstitium of the muscle, where nociceptor free nerve endings are found close to the muscle fibers. The extracellular matrix plays a key role in physiologic functions of cells, including the primary afferent nociceptor. The present review mainly concerns the results of microdialysis studies and how they can contribute to the understanding of activated peripheral nociceptive and pain mechanisms in humans with chronic pain. The primary aim was to review molecular studies using microdialysis for the investigation of human chronic muscle pain, ie, chronic masticatory muscle pain, chronic trapezius myalgia, chronic whiplash-associated disorders, and chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia syndrome. Several studies clearly showed elevated levels of serotonin, glutamate, lactate, and pyruvate in localized chronic myalgias and may be potential biomarkers. These results indicate that peripheral muscle alterations are parts of the activated pain mechanisms in common chronic pain conditions. Muscle alterations have been reported in fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic widespread pain, but more studies are needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. For other substances, results are inconclusive across studies and patient groups. PMID:24966693

  10. The Relationship between PTSD and Chronic Pain: Mediating Role of Coping Strategies and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Lovejoy, Travis I.; Lu, Mary; Turk, Dennis C.; Lewis, Lynsey; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    People with chronic pain and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report more severe pain and poorer quality of life than those with chronic pain alone. This study evaluated the extent to which associations between PTSD and chronic pain interference and severity are mediated by pain-related coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Veterans with chronic pain were divided into two groups, those with (n=65) and those without (n=136) concurrent PTSD. All participants completed measures of pain severity, interference, emotional functioning, and coping strategies. Those with current PTSD reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference, had more symptoms of depression, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a current alcohol or substance use disorder (all p-values ? 0.01). Participants with PTSD reported more use of several coping strategies, including guarding, resting, relaxation, exercise/stretching, and coping self-statements. Illness-focused pain coping (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) and depressive symptoms jointly mediated the relationship between PTSD and both pain interference (total indirect effect = 0.194, p < 0.001) and pain severity (total indirect effect = 0.153, p = 0.004). Illness-focused pain coping also evidenced specific mediating effects, independent of depression. In summary, specific pain coping strategies and depressive symptoms partially mediated the relationship between PTSD and both pain interference and severity. Future research should examine whether changes in types of coping strategies following targeted treatments predict improvements in pain-related function for chronic pain patients with concurrent PTSD. PMID:23398939

  11. Painful Bladder Filling and Painful Urgency Are Distinct Characteristics in Men and Women with Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes – A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Krieger, John N.; Pontari, Michel A.; Buchwald, Dedra; Hou, Xiaoling; Landis, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe bladder-associated symptoms in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS) and to correlate these symptoms with urologic, non-urologic, psychosocial, and quality of life measures. Methods Participants were 233 women and 191 men with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in a multi-center study. They completed a battery of measures, including items asking if their pain worsened with bladder filling (“painful filling”) or if their urge to urinate was due to pain, pressure, or discomfort (“painful urgency”). Participants were categorized into 3 groups: 1) “both” painful filling and painful urgency, 2) “either” painful filling or painful urgency, or 3) “neither.” Results Seventy-five percent of men and 88% of women were categorized as “both” or “either.” These bladder characteristics were associated with more severe urologic symptoms (increased pain, frequency, urgency), higher somatic symptom burden, depression, and worse quality of life (all p<0.01, 3-group trend test). A gradient effect was observed across groups (both > either > neither). Compared to those in the “neither” group, men categorized as “both” or “either” reported more frequent UCPPS symptom flares, catastrophizing, and irritable bowel syndrome, and women categorized as “both” or “either” were more likely to have negative affect and chronic fatigue syndrome. Conclusions Men and women with bladder symptoms characterized as painful filling or painful urgency had more severe urologic symptoms, more generalized symptoms, and worse quality of life than participants who reported neither characteristic, suggesting that these symptom characteristics might represent important subsets of UCPPS patients. PMID:26192257

  12. Widespread musculoskeletal chronic pain associated with smoking. An epidemiological study in a general rural population.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Ejlertsson, G; Leden, I

    1998-09-01

    Data on smoking and pain symptoms from a random sample (n = 1806) of a general population were used to evaluate the association between chronic pain at various locations and smoking. In both genders current smoking was associated with reports of increased pain in low back, neck and with multiple locations. In a multiple logistic regression analysis current smoking was associated with an increase in widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.60, CI 1.04-2.46, in relation to non-smokers) and chronic low back pain (OR 1.58, CI 1.13-2.20, in relation to non-smokers). A dose-response relationship was found between the daily cigarette consumption and the prevalence of chronic low back pain. Smoking is associated not only with low back pain but also with chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. No conclusive decrease in pain prevalence was found after quitting smoking. Further studies are necessary to elucidate an aetiologic relationship between smoking and chronic pain. PMID:9782546

  13. mTOR Kinase: A Possible Pharmacological Target in the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, Paola; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a major public health problem worldwide. Current pharmacological treatments for chronic pain syndromes, including neuropathic pain, are only partially effective, with significant pain relief achieved in 40–60% of patients. Recent studies suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and downstream effectors may be implicated in the development of chronic inflammatory, neuropathic, and cancer pain. The expression and activity of mTOR have been detected in peripheral and central regions involved in pain transmission. mTOR immunoreactivity was found in primary sensory axons, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and in dorsal horn neurons. This kinase is a master regulator of protein synthesis, and it is critically involved in the regulation of several neuronal functions, including the synaptic plasticity that is a major mechanism leading to the development of chronic pain. Enhanced activation of this pathway is present in different experimental models of chronic pain. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity turned out to have significant antinociceptive effects in several experimental models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We will review the main evidence from animal and human studies supporting the hypothesis that mTOR may be a novel pharmacological target for the management of chronic pain. PMID:25685786

  14. [Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain with neuropathic component at Parakou in northern Benin in 2012].

    PubMed

    Adoukonou, T; Gnonlonfoun, D; Kpozehouen, A; Adjien, C; Tchaou, B; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Adechina, H; Covi, R; Houinato, D

    2014-11-01

    The burden of chronic and neuropathic pain is high making it an important public health problem. The epidemiology is not well known in the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component at Tititou in Parakou in northeastern Benin. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to 31 May 2012 and included 2314 people in a door-to-door survey. Chronic pain was defined as pain occurring for more than three months. Neuropathic pain was assessed with the DN4 score. A neurological exam was performed by a young physician for all people with chronic pain. During the interview, sociodemographic data, past medical history, weight and height were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the main associated factors. Among the 2314 people included in this survey, 49.7% were male. The mean age was 32.3 ± 13.1 years. Nine hundred seven reported pain occurring for more than 3 months. The prevalence of chronic pain was 39.2% (CI95%: 29.3-34.7). It was more frequent in females, older people, among diabetics, people with a history of any surgery, stroke, brain trauma, and alcoholism. The prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component was 6.3% (CI95%: 5.0-7.9). The main associated factors were age, matrimonial status, professional occupation, body mass index, diabetes, history of zoster, history of any surgery, brain trauma. People with neuropathic pain often reported pain with burning (87.6%), prickling (82.8%), numbness (66.9%), tingling (63.4%), and lightning pain (48.3%). The main locations were the lower limbs and low back pain. This study suggested the high frequency of chronic neuropathic pain in the general population in Parakou compared with rates reported in western countries. PMID:25444451

  15. Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to play a role in causing the pain Chronic fatigue syndrome Symptoms • long-lasting fatigue that doesn’t get ... painfoundation. org Phone number: (888) 615-7246 The Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome Association of America PO Box 220398 Charlotte, NC ...

  16. An Exploration of Positive Identity Development in Women Living with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Hillary; Alderson, Kevin; Collins, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    We explored the concept of living positively with chronic pain using a mixed-methods design that relied primarily on hermeneutic phenomenology. Ten women described their experiences of developing a positive identity while contending with chronic pain. Throughout their journeys, the women interviewed experienced a number of key themes including:…

  17. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…

  18. Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

  19. Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend <0.0001). In sex-adjusted analyses, for an SD lower intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain. PMID:23137899

  20. Primary Care Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Veterans: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs…

  1. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of…

  2. Structural Brain Changes in Chronic Pain Reflect Probably Neither Damage Nor Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Niemeier, Andreas; Ihle, Kristin; Ruether, Wolfgang; May, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain appears to be associated with brain gray matter reduction in areas ascribable to the transmission of pain. The morphological processes underlying these structural changes, probably following functional reorganisation and central plasticity in the brain, remain unclear. The pain in hip osteoarthritis is one of the few chronic pain syndromes which are principally curable. We investigated 20 patients with chronic pain due to unilateral coxarthrosis (mean age 63.25±9.46 (SD) years, 10 female) before hip joint endoprosthetic surgery (pain state) and monitored brain structural changes up to 1 year after surgery: 6–8 weeks, 12–18 weeks and 10–14 month when completely pain free. Patients with chronic pain due to unilateral coxarthrosis had significantly less gray matter compared to controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insular cortex and operculum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex. These regions function as multi-integrative structures during the experience and the anticipation of pain. When the patients were pain free after recovery from endoprosthetic surgery, a gray matter increase in nearly the same areas was found. We also found a progressive increase of brain gray matter in the premotor cortex and the supplementary motor area (SMA). We conclude that gray matter abnormalities in chronic pain are not the cause, but secondary to the disease and are at least in part due to changes in motor function and bodily integration. PMID:23405082

  3. Fundamentals of chronic pain in children and young people. Part 1.

    PubMed

    A Forgeron, Paula; Stinson, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    Persistent and recurrent pain is a common condition in childhood. Chronic pain can have a negative effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical, emotional, social and role functioning. A small percentage of these children and young people (5-8%) will experience significant impairments due to their pain condition. Most chronic pain requires a holistic multidisciplinary approach to treatment - pharmacological, physical and psychological strategies. Nurses are key members of the health care team in terms of helping children, young people and their families to manage the negative consequences of chronic pain. This article will review the prevalence, pathophysiology, contributing factors, consequences. Part two, to be published next month, will cover multimodal treatment of chronic pain in children and young people. PMID:25289630

  4. Treating Chronic Pain in Veterans Presenting to an Addictions Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Haas, Elizabeth; Czyz, Ewa; Webster, Linda; Sorrell, John T.; Chermack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. The pharmacological treatment of pain is complicated in individuals with substance use disorders because of the potential for abuse and diversion of many prescription pain medications. One potential approach is to use a combination of cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based strategies…

  5. Our recent fMRI studies indicate that spontaneous chronic back-pain (CBP) is

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Our recent fMRI studies indicate that spontaneous chronic back-pain (CBP) is associated with sustained activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while thermal acute pain is associated with more to spontaneous fluctuations of ongoing pain in post-herpetic neuropathy (PHN), using fMRI, and we contrast

  6. Physical exercise as non-pharmacological treatment of chronic pain: Why and when.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Kirsten R; Golightly, Yvonne M

    2015-02-01

    Chronic pain broadly encompasses both objectively defined conditions and idiopathic conditions that lack physical findings. Despite variance in origin or pathogenesis, these conditions are similarly characterized by chronic pain, poor physical function, mobility limitations, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, and they are treated alone or in combination by pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches, such as physical activity (aerobic conditioning, muscle strengthening, flexibility training, and movement therapies). Physical activity improves general health, disease risk, and progression of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. When applied to chronic pain conditions within appropriate parameters (frequency, duration, and intensity), physical activity significantly improves pain and related symptoms. For chronic pain, strict guidelines for physical activity are lacking, but frequent movement is preferable to sedentary behavior. This gives considerable freedom in prescribing physical activity treatments, which are most successful when tailored individually, progressed slowly, and account for physical limitations, psychosocial needs, and available resources. PMID:26267006

  7. Yoga attitudes in chronic low back pain: Roles of catastrophizing and fear of movement.

    PubMed

    Combs, Martha A; Thorn, Beverly E

    2015-08-01

    Chronic low back pain is a significant public health problem and, although underused, yoga may be an effective complementary treatment. The current study examined associations of pain catastrophizing and fear of movement with attitudes toward yoga in adults with chronic low back pain. Participants completed three quantitative questionnaires assessing specific constructs: beliefs about yoga, fear of movement, and pain catastrophizing. A semi-structured in-person interview was then conducted to obtain specific pain-related information. Hierarchical regression and mediational analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with the fear-avoidance model of chronic pain, catastrophizing and fear of movement were negatively associated with yoga attitudes. Specifically, fear of movement was a mediator between catastrophizing and attitudes toward yoga. Individuals with higher levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement may be less likely to consider a pain treatment involving physical movement. PMID:26256134

  8. 77 FR 6567 - Assessment of Analgesic Treatment of Chronic Pain-A Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...FDA-2012-N-0067] Assessment of Analgesic Treatment of Chronic Pain--A Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...data on the efficacy of analgesics in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP)....

  9. Living with chronic pain - a longitudinal study of the interrelations between acceptance, emotions, illness perceptions and health status 

    E-print Network

    Dima, Alexandra-Lelia

    2010-11-26

    Psychological adjustment to chronic pain has been recently explored within three separate frameworks: a behaviour-focused account of chronic pain acceptance within the broader remit of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; ...

  10. Predictors of chronic shoulder pain after 5 years in a working population.

    PubMed

    Herin, Fabrice; Vézina, Michel; Thaon, Isabelle; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Paris, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    The role of psychosocial and physical factors in the development of shoulder pain has now been clearly demonstrated. However, only a few studies have analyzed these associations over time. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of work-related psychological and mechanical factors on chronic shoulder pain. A total of 12,714 subjects (65% men) born in 1938, 1943, 1948, and 1953 participating in a French prospective longitudinal epidemiological investigation in 1990 to 1995 Enquête Santé Travail Et Vieillissement (ESTEV) were included. Clinical examination was performed by 400 trained occupational physicians. Personal factors and work exposure were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Statistical associations between chronic shoulder pain and personal and occupational factors were analyzed using logistic regression modeling. A total of 1706 subjects experienced chronic shoulder pain in 1990, and 2089 experienced chronic shoulder pain in 1995. The incidence of chronic shoulder pain in 1995 was 11% (n=1355). Forceful effort (odds ratio [OR]=1.24 95% CI [1.05-1.44], awkward posture (OR=1.34 95% CI [1.19-1.52]), decision latitude (OR=1.19 [1.04 to 1.35]), and psychological demand (OR=1.19 95% CI [1.06-1.32]) in 1990 were significantly associated with chronic shoulder pain in 1995, even after adjustment for personal factors and previous shoulder pain status. Awkward posture (OR=1.43 [1.25 to 1.63]), psychological demand (OR=1.24 [1.09 to 1.40]), and decision latitude (OR=1.21 [1.04 to 1.41] work-related factors in 1990 were associated with the development of chronic shoulder pain between 1990 and 1995. These results suggest that awkward posture, forceful effort, job demand, and decision control are predictors of chronic shoulder pain at work. Interventions designed to reduce the incidence of chronic shoulder pain must include both mechanical and psychological factors. PMID:22940463

  11. Pharmacological management of chronic pain: a clinician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cherry, D A; Gourlay, G K

    1994-10-01

    Of the currently available mu agonist drugs, the following are relatively contraindicated: 1. Methadone--unpredictable duration of action [5]. 2. Pethidine--unwanted central effects, metabolised to an active metabolite and too short acting. 3. Codeine--too weak and with constipating side-effects. 4. Fentanyl--too short acting. 5. Oxycodone--too short acting although suppositories may overcome some theoretical disadvantages. 6. Dextropropoxyphene--weak agonist which is possibly metabolised to a cardiotoxic metabolite [6]. Morphine remains the drug of choice for chronic pain when administered in a sustained release preparation. MS Contin, a slow release oral formulation of morphine, is available and has a predictable duration of action lasting from 8-12 h, while improved formulations are about to be released in the near future in some countries. Prescribers need to take into account the relatively poor oral bioavailability of morphine when calculating the daily morphine dose. PMID:7879706

  12. Perceptions of disability and occupational stress as discriminators of work disability in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, M; Thebarge, R W

    1991-09-01

    Pain-related work disability can be influenced by a number of medical, physical, and psychosocial factors. The present study investigated the role of perceived disability, occupational stress, pain, and distress in patients with chronic pain disorders who work despite pain and patients who are work disabled. A total of 165 patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain treatment center for chronic pain (> 6 months) were studied. The two groups were compared on age, gender, education, marital status, duration of pain problem, pain severity, psychological distress, perceived disability, and perception of the work environment. A discriminant function analysis was computed entering pain severity, distress, perceived disability (physical and psychosocial) and work environment variables. The two groups were equivalent on age, gender, education, marital status, and duration of pain problem. The groups differed on diagnosis and insurance coverage with the work-disabled group diagnosed with low back pain and receiving Workers Compensation coverage more frequently than working controls. Univariate analyses indicated that the work-disabled group reported higher pain severity, perceived physical and psychosocial disability, and job stress than their working cohorts. The discriminant function analysis indicated that the perception of physical disability, supervisor support, distress, and work pressure were capable of correctly classifying patients with chronic pain who continued to work from those who were work disabled. These findings indicate the importance of evaluating perceived disability and job stress, and if present, directing intervention effort at these factors in order to facilitate work re-entry. PMID:24242740

  13. Somatosensory and Affective Contributions to Emotional, Social, and Daily Functioning in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A; Carlson, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the independent and interactive contributions of the somatosensory component of pain (pain intensity) and the affective component of pain (pain unpleasantness) on emotional, social, and daily functioning in chronic pain patients. Subjects Participants were 472 patients seeking treatment for chronic orofacial pain. Mean age of the sample was 46.0 years (standard deviation [SD] = 14.67, range 18–78), with 82.2% female. Average pain duration at the time of initial appointment was 75.7 months (SD = 106.66). Methods Participants completed self-report measures of pain intensity, unpleasantness, and functional outcomes at the time of their first appointment. These data were later extracted from participant’s de-identified medical records. Multivariate linear regression was used to test the interaction of pain intensity and unpleasantness on outcome measures of emotional, social, and daily functioning. Results Results revealed that pain intensity contributed to poorer functional outcomes but higher levels of social support even after controlling for pain unpleasantness. After controlling for pain intensity, unpleasantness was associated with higher pain interference and affective distress. There was also pain intensity by unpleasantness interaction on pain interference. Specifically, at lower levels of pain unpleasantness, changes in pain intensity produced greater changes in pain interference than they did at higher levels of pain unpleasantness. Conclusions Results suggest that both intensity and unpleasantness contribute unique variance to functional outcomes. The results highlight the importance of interventions that not only try to reduce pain levels but also reduce levels of pain unpleasantness. PMID:25351790

  14. The Emerging Role of Spinal Dynorphin in Chronic Pain: A Therapeutic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Podvin, Sonia; Yaksh, Tony; Hook, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Notable findings point to the significance of the dynorphin peptide neurotransmitter in chronic pain. Spinal dynorphin neuropeptide levels are elevated during development of chronic pain and sustained during persistent chronic pain. Importantly, knockout of the dynorphin gene prevents development of chronic pain in mice, but acute nociception is unaffected. Intrathecal (IT) administration of opioid and nonopioid dynorphin peptides initiates allodynia through a nonopioid receptor mechanism; furthermore, antidynorphin antibodies administered by the IT route attenuate chronic pain. Thus, this review presents the compelling evidence in the field that supports the role of dynorphin in facilitating the development of a persistent pain state. These observations illustrate the importance of elucidating the control mechanisms responsible for the upregulation of spinal dynorphin in chronic pain. Also, spinal dynorphin regulation of downstream signaling molecules may be implicated in hyperpathic states. Therapeutic strategies to block the upregulation of spinal dynorphin may provide a nonaddictive approach to improve the devastating condition of chronic pain that occurs in numerous human diseases. PMID:26738478

  15. Pharmacological Inhibition of Voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels for Chronic Pain Relief

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungkyu

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major therapeutic problem as the current treatment options are unsatisfactory with low efficacy and deleterious side effects. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), which are multi-complex proteins consisting of ?1, ?, ?, and ?2? subunits, play an important role in pain signaling. These channels are involved in neurogenic inflammation, excitability, and neurotransmitter release in nociceptors. It has been previously shown that N-type VGCCs (Cav2.2) are a major pain target. U.S. FDA approval of three Cav2.2 antagonists, gabapentin, pregabalin, and ziconotide, for chronic pain underlies the importance of this channel subtype. Also, there has been increasing evidence that L-type (Cav1.2) or T-type (Cav3.2) VGCCs may be involved in pain signaling and chronic pain. In order to develop novel pain therapeutics and to understand the role of VGCC subtypes, discovering subtype selective VGCC inhibitors or methods that selectively target the inhibitor into nociceptors would be essential. This review describes the various VGCC subtype inhibitors and the potential of utilizing VGCC subtypes as targets of chronic pain. Development of VGCC subtype inhibitors and targeting them into nociceptors will contribute to a better understanding of the roles of VGCC subtypes in pain at a spinal level as well as development of a novel class of analgesics for chronic pain. PMID:24396337

  16. [Chronic upper abdominal pain: Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Between 20% and 40% of the population have chronic or recurrent upper abdominal pain, frequently in combination with other dyspeptic symptoms. In about 50% of patients, who visit a doctor because of these complaints, symptoms are caused by an organic disease, whereas the other patients suffer from functional disturbances. Currently, the Rome III-criteria are established for diagnosis of functional dyspepsia. They request epigastric pain burning, bothersome postprandial fullness and/or early satiety and absence of structural disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. These criteria need to have been fulfilled for the previous 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months before diagnosis. For exclusion of organic disease performance of an upper endoscopy is required. Some experts also recommend to investigate routine laboratory parameters and to perform an abdominal ultrasound investigation. Only in young patients who present with typical and moderate symptoms and have no alarm symptoms, probatory therapy without previous technical investigations and, thus, without final establishment of the diagnosis, may be considered. If they do not respond adequately within 4 weeks, these patients also have to undergo further diagnostic testing. Therapeutic options for functional dyspepsia are limited. They include the clear explanation of the diagnosis, consideration of factors that trigger or ameliorate symptoms and application of drugs such as certain herbal remedies, acid suppressing drugs and/or prokinetics. PMID:25970409

  17. Risk factors associated with chronic low back pain in Syria

    PubMed Central

    Alhalabi, Mohammad Salem; Alhaleeb, Hassan; Madani, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify risk factors associated with chronic low back pain (C-LBP) in Syria. Materials and Methods: We conducted the study in a busy outpatient neurology clinic in Damascus city from October 2011 to August 2012. We enrolled all eligible adults presenting with C-LBP along with those who denied any back pain as a controls. We considered C-LBP any LBP lasting over 3 months. We developed our own questionnaire. A clinical nurse interviewed each person and filled in the results. Results: We had a total of 911 subjects; 513 patients and 398 controls. We found that C-LBP increased with age. Having a sibling with C-LBP was a strong predictor of C-LBP. In women obesity, but not overweight, was a risk factor. Number of children was a risk factor for mothers. Higher level of education decreased the chance of C-LBP in women. Sedentary job increased the risk of C-LBP. Conclusion: This study sheds some light on risk factors for C-LBP in our population and might help find possible preventive measures. PMID:26629465

  18. Predictive validity of behavioural animal models for chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Odd-Geir

    2011-01-01

    Rodent models of chronic pain may elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms and identify potential drug targets, but whether they predict clinical efficacy of novel compounds is controversial. Several potential analgesics have failed in clinical trials, in spite of strong animal modelling support for efficacy, but there are also examples of successful modelling. Significant differences in how methods are implemented and results are reported means that a literature-based comparison between preclinical data and clinical trials will not reveal whether a particular model is generally predictive. Limited reports on negative outcomes prevents reliable estimate of specificity of any model. Animal models tend to be validated with standard analgesics and may be biased towards tractable pain mechanisms. But preclinical publications rarely contain drug exposure data, and drugs are usually given in high doses and as a single administration, which may lead to drug distribution and exposure deviating significantly from clinical conditions. The greatest challenge for predictive modelling is, however, the heterogeneity of the target patient populations, in terms of both symptoms and pharmacology, probably reflecting differences in pathophysiology. In well-controlled clinical trials, a majority of patients shows less than 50% reduction in pain. A model that responds well to current analgesics should therefore predict efficacy only in a subset of patients within a diagnostic group. It follows that successful translation requires several models for each indication, reflecting critical pathophysiological processes, combined with data linking exposure levels with effect on target. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21371010

  19. Pain detector joint effort near testing The pain-measuring device could help communicate what level of pain a chronic sufferer is in to

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    that accompany drugs, Chiao said. "If successful, this would help in future therapy of chronic pain and acute medicine to more specific solutions." Drugs such as morphine are addictive, and Chiao said the setup would as this hopes to be. September 5, 2006 Page 1 of 2The Shorthorn Online | News | Pain detector joint effort near

  20. Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability.

    PubMed

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

  1. Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability

    PubMed Central

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

  2. 77 FR 6567 - Assessment of Analgesic Treatment of Chronic Pain-A Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Assessment of Analgesic Treatment of Chronic Pain--A Public Workshop... treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). The focus of the presentations and discussions by scientific... the open session of the meeting, please email your registration to CDER--ChronicPain--Workshop...

  3. Family and Parent Influences on Pediatric Chronic Pain: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Karlson, Cynthia W.

    2014-01-01

    Pain that recurs or persists is unfortunately a common experience for children. One of the unique considerations in pediatric chronic pain management is the bidirectional influences of children’s pain experiences and parental and family factors. In this review we present a developmental perspective on understanding pediatric chronic pain and disability, highlighting factors relevant from infancy to adolescence, and family and parent influences. Preliminary evidence indicates that developmental processes are influenced and may also shape the pediatric pain experience. Parent emotions, behaviors, and health also play a role in children’s pain experiences, where overly protective parent behaviors, increased distress, and history of chronic pain are important parent level influences. Research on family level influences has revealed that families of children with chronic pain have poorer family functioning (e.g., more conflict, less cohesion) than families of healthy children. Several important gaps exist in this research, such as in understanding basic developmental processes in children with chronic pain and how they influence children’s perception of and responses to pain. Also, there is a lack of longitudinal data on family relationships and individual adjustment to allow for understanding of whether changes occur in parenting over the course of the child’s chronic pain experience. Although parent interventions have been successfully incorporated into many cognitive-behavioral treatments for children with chronic pain conditions, little guidance exists for adapting intervention strategies to be developmentally appropriate. Additional research is needed to examine whether parent interventions are effective at different developmental stages and the best way to incorporate developmental goals into treatment. PMID:24547800

  4. Topical Combinations to Treat Microvascular Dysfunction of Chronic Postischemia Pain

    PubMed Central

    Laferrière, André; Abaji, Rachid; Tsai, Cheng-Yu Mark; Ragavendran, J. Vaigunda; Coderre, Terence J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing evidence indicates that patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) exhibit tissue abnormalities caused by microvascular dysfunction in the blood vessels of skin, muscle and nerve. We tested whether topical combinations aimed at improving microvascular function would relieve allodynia in an animal model of CRPS. We hypothesized that topical administration of either ?2-adrenergic (?2A) receptor agonists or nitric oxide (NO) donors given to increase arterial blood flow, combined with either phosphatidic acid (PA) or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors to increase capillary blood flow, would effectively reduce allodynia and signs of microvascular dysfunction in the animal model of chronic pain. Methods Mechanical allodynia was induced in the hind paws of rats with chronic postischemia pain (CPIP). Allodynia was assessed before and after topical application of vehicle, single drugs or combinations of an ?2A receptor agonist (apraclonidine) or an NO donor (linsidomine), with PA or PDE inhibitors (lisofylline, pentoxifylline). A topical combination of apraclonidine + lisofylline was also evaluated for its effects on a measure of microvascular function (post-occlusive reactive hyperemia) and tissue oxidative capacity (formazan production by tetrazolium reduction) in CPIP rats. Results Each of the single topical drugs produced significant dose-dependent antiallodynic effects compared to vehicle in CPIP rats (n = 30), and the antiallodynic dose-response curves of either PA or PDE inhibitors were shifted 5 to 10 fold to the left when combined with nonanalgesic doses of ?2A receptor agonists or NO donors (n = 28). The potent antiallodynic effects of ipsilateral treatment with combinations of ?2A receptor agonists or NO donors with PA or PDE inhibitors, were not reproduced by the same treatment of the contralateral hindpaw (n = 28). Topical combinations produced antiallodynic effects lasting up to 6 h (n = 15), and were significantly enhanced by low dose systemic pregabalin in early, but not late, CPIP rats (n = 18). An antiallodynic topical combination of apraclonidine + lisofylline was also found to effectively relieve depressed post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in CPIP rats (n = 61), and to increase formazan production in postischemic tissues (skin and muscle) (n = 56). Conclusions The present results support the hypothesis that allodynia in an animal model of CRPS is effectively relieved by topical combinations of ?2A receptor agonists or NO donors with PA or PDE inhibitors. This suggests that topical treatments aimed at improving microvascular function by increasing both arterial and capillary blood flow produce effective analgesia for CRPS. PMID:24651238

  5. Eliminating sedimentation for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SUN, ZHONGMING; BAO, YANZHONG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effects of eliminating sedimentation inside the prostate via manipulation for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) using the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-chronic prostatitis symptom index (CPSI) scores. According to the prostatitis classification standard of the NIH, 721 patients with CPPS were divided into groups IIIA and IIIB by prostatic fluid routine examination (EPSRt) and treated using manipulation. The treatment was performed once per 3 days for 3–5 min and 10 treatments were considered to be a period. The EPSRt and NIH-CPSI scores were tested before and at the end of each period following treatment. After 3 treatment periods, the effectiveness and total effectiveness rates of the IIIA group were 72.3 and 15.9%, respectively and those of the IIIB group were 71.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the curative effects in the two groups (P>0.05). The NIH-CPSI scores of the two groups were significantly improved following each treatment period (P<0.01). Eliminating sedimentation using manipulation dispersed the blockage, discharged the turbidity and cleared the gland, leading to the elimination of sedimentation and the relief of sinus hyperemia around the prostate, which significantly improved the clinical symptoms of CPPS and the quality of life of the patients. PMID:23737875

  6. Effect of pain neuroscience education and dry needling on chronic elbow pain as a result of cyberchondria: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a 31-year-old male who presented with complaints of chronic pain in his right elbow. Detailed subjective examination revealed that the patient had searched Google for extensive online information relating to his pain, ultimately self-labeling with various diagnoses. After researching in YouTube, the patient self-treated with ice, exercises, neural mobilization, self-massage and taping, all resulting in a failed outcome. Clinical findings revealed trigger points in his right brachioradialis muscle with added symptoms of central pain. This is a potential first-time description of physical therapy management of brachioradialis myofascial pain syndrome with superadded central pain caused as a result of cyberchondria where the patient used the Internet for arriving at a wrong self-diagnosis and incorrect self-treatment with failed or worsening pain outcomes leading to pain sustenance or chronicity. Physical therapy consisted of Pain Neuroscience Education, dry needling and exercise therapy. The patient was completely pain free and fully functional at the end of the sixth session, which was maintained at a one-month follow-up. PMID:25487824

  7. Synergistic effect of a rehabilitation program and treadmill exercise on pain and dysfunction in patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Ki; Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Seong, Jun-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the influence of treadmill exercise added to a low back pain rehabilitation program on low back extensor strength, pain, and dysfunction in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty men aged 22–36?years with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 10 patients each. Both groups underwent a low back pain rehabilitation program lasting 30?min each, thrice/week for 8 weeks. The experimental group was prescribed an additional 30?min of treadmill exercise without a slope at a speed of 3.0–3.5?km/h, at which patients could walk comfortably. Low back extensor strength was tested using the Medx lumbar extension machine, pain level was tested, using the visual analog scale, and dysfunction was tested, using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. [Results] Changes in low back extensor strength by angle showed significant interaction effects between measurement time and group at 12°, 24°, and 36°. The results of the visual analog scale and Oswestry Questionnaire showed a decreasing trend after the experiment in both groups. However, there was no interaction effect of the additional treadmill exercise in the experimental group. [Conclusion] The combination of a low back pain rehabilitation program and treadmill exercise has a synergistic effect, to some extent, on the improvement of low back extensor strength and should be considered for treatment and rehabilitation of low back pain patients. PMID:25995585

  8. Synergistic effect of a rehabilitation program and treadmill exercise on pain and dysfunction in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Ki; Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Seong, Jun-Hyuk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the influence of treadmill exercise added to a low back pain rehabilitation program on low back extensor strength, pain, and dysfunction in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty men aged 22-36?years with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 10 patients each. Both groups underwent a low back pain rehabilitation program lasting 30?min each, thrice/week for 8 weeks. The experimental group was prescribed an additional 30?min of treadmill exercise without a slope at a speed of 3.0-3.5?km/h, at which patients could walk comfortably. Low back extensor strength was tested using the Medx lumbar extension machine, pain level was tested, using the visual analog scale, and dysfunction was tested, using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. [Results] Changes in low back extensor strength by angle showed significant interaction effects between measurement time and group at 12°, 24°, and 36°. The results of the visual analog scale and Oswestry Questionnaire showed a decreasing trend after the experiment in both groups. However, there was no interaction effect of the additional treadmill exercise in the experimental group. [Conclusion] The combination of a low back pain rehabilitation program and treadmill exercise has a synergistic effect, to some extent, on the improvement of low back extensor strength and should be considered for treatment and rehabilitation of low back pain patients. PMID:25995585

  9. Exploring the associations between sleep problems and chronic musculoskeletal pain in adolescents: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Lee; Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal chronic pain in adolescents is estimated to be approximately 4% to 40%. The development of musculoskeletal pain during teenage years could have a marked impact on physical, psychological and social well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sleep problems during adolescence are associated with musculoskeletal pain, particularly chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children, the relationship between sleep problems at 15 years of age and the presence of chronic regional and widespread pain at 17 years of age was explored. Pain data were not available at 15 years of age. A total of 2493 participants with complete data were identified. Relationships among sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain were examined using logistic regression. ORs were calculated after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic position and depression (15 years of age). RESULTS: Sleep disturbance (usually wakes up more than two or three times), difficulties with hypersomnolence and poor subjective sleep perception were associated with the presence of both musculoskeletal regional and widespread pain. Finally, using ordered logistic regression, poor subjective sleep perception was also found to be associated with greater pain severity in participants with chronic musculoskeletal regional and widespread pain. DISCUSSION: The results of the present study suggest an association between sleep problems during adolescence and the presence of musculoskeletal pain at a later stage. These findings are consistent with adult literature suggesting a link between sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain. Given these associations, sleep problems in adolescence may be an important risk factor for musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25299477

  10. Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach-Results From a Massive Open Online Course.

    PubMed

    Fricton, James; Anderson, Kathleen; Clavel, Alfred; Fricton, Regina; Hathaway, Kate; Kang, Wenjun; Jaeger, Bernadette; Maixner, William; Pesut, Daniel; Russell, Jon; Weisberg, Mark B; Whitebird, Robin

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain conditions are the top reason patients seek care, the most common reason for disability and addiction, and the biggest driver of healthcare costs; their treatment costs more than cancer, heart disease, dementia, and diabetes care. The personal impact in terms of suffering, disability, depression, suicide, and other problems is incalculable. There has been much effort to prevent many medical and dental conditions, but little effort has been directed toward preventing chronic pain. To address this deficit, a massive open online course (MOOC) was developed for students and healthcare professionals. "Preventing Chronic Pain: A Human Systems Approach" was offered by the University of Minnesota through the online platform Coursera. The first offering of this free open course was in the spring of 2014 and had 23 650 participants; 53% were patients or consumers interested in pain. This article describes the course concepts in preventing chronic pain, the analytic data from course participants, and postcourse evaluation forms. PMID:26421231

  11. Interrelationships between pain processing, cortisol and cognitive performance in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Mira; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Ickmans, Kelly; Baert, Isabel; Coppieters, Iris; Roussel, Nathalie; Struyf, Filip; Pattyn, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims at studying interactions between cognitive performance and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and healthy controls. In addition, the relation between cortisol concentrations and cognitive performance will be studied in patients with chronic WAD. Thirty-one subjects, 16 healthy subjects and 15 patients with chronic WAD, were enrolled and subjected to several self-report and physiological measures. Self-report measures encompassed pain rating during a procedure evaluating conditioned pain modulation. Afterward, they were subjected to physiological measures, which are cognitive tests (Stroop task, psychomotor vigilance task, and operation span task) preceded and followed by salivary cortisol concentration measurements. Chronic WAD patients performed worse in recall at the operation span task and presented longer reaction times at the psychomotor vigilance task and at the Stroop task when sleep-related words were shown (p?pain modulation and cortisol concentrations were not significantly different between patients and controls (p?>?.05). Only in the healthy subjects, conditioned pain modulation and baseline cortisol concentrations were correlated to cognitive performance (p?pain inhibition and cognitive performance in chronic WAD. We did not reveal impaired pain inhibition but did reveal cognitive dysfunctions in patients with chronic WAD. In healthy subjects, pain inhibition was related to cognitive performance but not in the patient group. PMID:24337691

  12. Chronic Pelvic Pain: the Occurrence of Interstitial Cystitis in a Gynecological Population

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine what relationship exists between interstitial cystitis and chronic pelvic pain in patients. Methods: A prospective study of 35 women with a complaint of chronic pelvic pain was performed between August 2002 and September 2003. These patients underwent a workup to exclude other causes of pelvic pain and underwent a laparoscopy and a cystoscopy with hydro-distention at 80 cm of hydrostatic water pressure. Results were obtained and quantified. Results: Twenty-eight patients (80%) were diagnosed with interstitial cystitis, 28 were diagnosed with endometriosis (80%), 24 had both disease entities simultaneously (69%), and 32 (91%) had endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, or both. Three patients (9%) had neither and were diagnosed with other pathologies. Conclusions: Chronic pelvic pain is a major concern for many women in the United States. Patients with chronic pelvic pain have traditionally been difficult to manage. A large percentage of women presenting with chronic pelvic pain have been shown to have endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, or both. Therefore, an appropriate workup for those individuals with chronic pelvic pain involves not only obtaining a good history and performing a good physical examination, but the possibility of a cystoscopy being performed when a laparoscopy has been deemed necessary for diagnosis of the pain. These procedures can serve as both a means for diagnosis and short-term treatment of these problems when encountered. PMID:16381360

  13. Novel Treatment of Chronic Bladder Pain Syndrome and Other Pelvic Pain Disorders by OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    PubMed Central

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain in the pelvic organs and related structures of at least 6 months’ duration. The pathophysiology of CPP is uncertain, and its treatment presents challenges. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), known for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant activity, has been used recently to treat refractory CPP with promising results. In patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, most studies suggest intravesical BoNT-A injection reduces bladder pain and increases bladder capacity. Repeated BoNT-A injection is also effective and reduces inflammation in the bladder. Intraprostatic BoNT-A injection could significantly improve prostate pain and urinary frequency in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Animal studies also suggest BoNT-A injection in the prostate decreases inflammation in the prostate. Patients with CPP due to pelvic muscle pain and spasm also benefit from localized BoNT-A injections. BoNT-A injection in the pelvic floor muscle improves dyspareunia and decreases pelvic floor pressure. Preliminary studies show intravesical BoNT-A injection is useful in inflammatory bladder diseases such as chemical cystitis, radiation cystitis, and ketamine related cystitis. Dysuria is the most common adverse effect after BoNT-A injection. Very few patients develop acute urinary retention after treatment. PMID:26094697

  14. Effects of the active release technique on pain and range of motion of patients with chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Han Suk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the influences of the active release technique (ART) and joint mobilization (JM) on the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and neck range of motion (ROM) of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] Twenty-four individuals with chronic neck pain were randomly and equally assigned to 3 groups: an ART group, a joint mobilization (JM) group, and a control group. Before and after the intervention, the degree of pain, PPT, and ROM of the neck were measured using a VAS, algometer, and goniometer, respectively. [Results] The ART group and JM group demonstrated significant changes in VAS and ROM between pre and post-intervention, while no significant change was observed in the control group. Significant differences in the PPT of all muscles were found in the ART group, while significant differences in all muscles other than the trapezius were found in the JM group. No significant difference in PPT was observed in any muscle of the control group. The posthoc test indicated no statistically significant difference between the ART and JM group, but the differences of variation in VAS, PPT, and ROM were greater in the ART group than in the JM and control groups. [Conclusion] ART for the treatment of chronic neck pain may be beneficial for neck pain and movement. PMID:26357426

  15. The effect of chronic pain on life satisfaction: evidence from Australian data.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Paul; Mendolia, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Chronic pain is associated with significant costs to individuals directly affected by this condition, their families, the healthcare system, and the society as a whole. This paper investigates the relationship between chronic pain and life satisfaction using a sample of around 90,000 observations from the first ten waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (HILDA), which is a representative survey of the Australian population that started in 2000. We estimate the negative impact on life satisfaction and examine the persistence of the effect over multiple years. Chronic pain is associated with poor health conditions, disability, decreased participation in the labour market and lower quality of life. We calculate the compensating income variation of chronic pain, based on the measurement of chronic pain, the life satisfaction of individuals and the income of households. Panel data models with random and fixed effects are used to control for characteristics of individuals that do not vary over time. Further, we investigate whether individuals who experience chronic pain exhibit adaptation and recovery in life satisfaction after 3 years. Overall, we find that chronic pain has a large negative association with life satisfaction, and that the compensating income variation is substantial (around 640 US$ per day). PMID:25306411

  16. Effect of environment on the long-term consequences of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, M C; Case, L K; Ceko, M; Cotton, V A; Gracely, J L; Low, L A; Pitcher, M H; Villemure, C

    2015-04-01

    Much evidence from pain patients and animal models shows that chronic pain does not exist in a vacuum but has varied comorbidities and far-reaching consequences. Patients with long-term pain often develop anxiety and depression and can manifest changes in cognitive functioning, particularly with working memory. Longitudinal studies in rodent models also show the development of anxiety-like behavior and cognitive changes weeks to months after an injury causing long-term pain. Brain imaging studies in pain patients and rodent models find that chronic pain is associated with anatomical and functional alterations in the brain. Nevertheless, studies in humans reveal that lifestyle choices, such as the practice of meditation or yoga, can reduce pain perception and have the opposite effect on the brain as does chronic pain. In rodent models, studies show that physical activity and a socially enriched environment reduce pain behavior and normalize brain function. Together, these studies suggest that the burden of chronic pain can be reduced by nonpharmacological interventions. PMID:25789436

  17. Strategic and automatic threat processing in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a startle probe investigation.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Collimore, Kelsey C; Ellwanger, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Attentional bias research with chronic pain samples has yielded conflicting results. In the present investigation the startle paradigm was used to test the postulate that fear-based mechanisms play an important role in attentional biases for pain-related threat in chronic pain. Participants, including 31 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain and 20 healthy controls, completed a startle task designed to measure attention to different types of words (neutral vs sensory pain vs affective pain vs health catastrophe) presented at different levels of cognitive processing (strategic vs automatic). Measures of fear-based individual difference variables, including anxiety sensitivity and fear of pain, were also completed. Startle amplitudes and latencies to acoustic startle probes that followed word presentations were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVAs and correlational analysis. Significant between-group differences were found indicating that, relative to chronic pain participants, healthy controls had higher startle amplitude index scores for health catastrophe words. There was also a trend among patients with chronic pain for greater startle amplitude index scores for strategic presentations of sensory pain words. In the automatic condition, all participants demonstrated a lower startle latency index for sensory words relative to both affect and health catastrophe words, suggesting participants had more difficulty disengaging from affect and health catastrophe words or were more avoidant of sensory words. Correlational analyses indicated that startle response indices for words related to health catastrophe became more pronounced for chronic pain patients as anxiety sensitivity and fear of pain increased. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17189241

  18. Beliefs underlying pain-related fear and how they evolve: a qualitative investigation in people with chronic back pain and high pain-related fear

    PubMed Central

    Bunzli, Samantha; Smith, Anne; Schütze, Robert; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The fear-avoidance model describes how the belief that pain is a sign of damage leads to pain-related fear and avoidance. But other beliefs may also trigger the fear and avoidance responses described by the model. Experts have called for the next generation of fear avoidance research to explore what beliefs underlie pain-related fear and how they evolve. We have previously described damage beliefs and suffering/functional loss beliefs underlying high pain-related fear in a sample of individuals with chronic back pain. The aim of this study is to identify common and differential factors associated with the beliefs in this sample. Design A qualitative study employing semistructured interviews. Setting Musculoskeletal clinics in Western Australia. Participants 36 individuals with chronic back pain and high scores on the Tampa Scale (mean 47/68). Results The overarching theme was a pain experience that did not make sense to the participants. The experience of pain as unpredictable, uncontrollable and intense made it threatening. Attempting to make sense of the threatening pain, participants with damage beliefs drew on past personal experiences of pain, societal beliefs, and sought diagnostic certainty. Met with diagnostic uncertainty, or diagnoses of an underlying pathology that could not be fixed, they were left fearful of damage and confused about how to ‘fix’ it. Participants with suffering/functional loss beliefs drew on past personal experiences of pain and sought help from healthcare professionals to control their pain. Failed treatments and the repeated failure to achieve functional goals left them unable to make ‘sensible’ decisions of what to do about their pain. Conclusions The findings raise the suggestion that sense-making processes may be implicated in the fear-avoidance model. Future research is needed to explore whether fear reduction may be enhanced by considering beliefs underlying fear and providing targeted intervention to help individuals make sense of their pain. PMID:26482773

  19. The Toronto General Hospital Transitional Pain Service: development and implementation of a multidisciplinary program to prevent chronic postsurgical pain.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel; Weinrib, Aliza; Fashler, Samantha R; Katznelzon, Rita; Shah, Bansi R; Ladak, Salima Sj; Jiang, Jiao; Li, Qing; McMillan, Kayla; Mina, Daniel Santa; Wentlandt, Kirsten; McRae, Karen; Tamir, Diana; Lyn, Sheldon; de Perrot, Marc; Rao, Vivek; Grant, David; Roche-Nagle, Graham; Cleary, Sean P; Hofer, Stefan Op; Gilbert, Ralph; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Ritvo, Paul; Janmohamed, Tahir; O'Leary, Gerald; Clarke, Hance

    2015-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), an often unanticipated result of necessary and even life-saving procedures, develops in 5-10% of patients one-year after major surgery. Substantial advances have been made in identifying patients at elevated risk of developing CPSP based on perioperative pain, opioid use, and negative affect, including depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms. The Transitional Pain Service (TPS) at Toronto General Hospital (TGH) is the first to comprehensively address the problem of CPSP at three stages: 1) preoperatively, 2) postoperatively in hospital, and 3) postoperatively in an outpatient setting for up to 6 months after surgery. Patients at high risk for CPSP are identified early and offered coordinated and comprehensive care by the multidisciplinary team consisting of pain physicians, advanced practice nurses, psychologists, and physiotherapists. Access to expert intervention through the Transitional Pain Service bypasses typically long wait times for surgical patients to be referred and seen in chronic pain clinics. This affords the opportunity to impact patients' pain trajectories, preventing the transition from acute to chronic pain, and reducing suffering, disability, and health care costs. In this report, we describe the workings of the Transitional Pain Service at Toronto General Hospital, including the clinical algorithm used to identify patients, and clinical services offered to patients as they transition through the stages of surgical recovery. We describe the role of the psychological treatment, which draws on innovations in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy that allow for brief and effective behavioral interventions to be applied transdiagnostically and preventatively. Finally, we describe our vision for future growth. PMID:26508886

  20. The Toronto General Hospital Transitional Pain Service: development and implementation of a multidisciplinary program to prevent chronic postsurgical pain

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Weinrib, Aliza; Fashler, Samantha R; Katznelzon, Rita; Shah, Bansi R; Ladak, Salima SJ; Jiang, Jiao; Li, Qing; McMillan, Kayla; Mina, Daniel Santa; Wentlandt, Kirsten; McRae, Karen; Tamir, Diana; Lyn, Sheldon; de Perrot, Marc; Rao, Vivek; Grant, David; Roche-Nagle, Graham; Cleary, Sean P; Hofer, Stefan OP; Gilbert, Ralph; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Ritvo, Paul; Janmohamed, Tahir; O’Leary, Gerald; Clarke, Hance

    2015-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), an often unanticipated result of necessary and even life-saving procedures, develops in 5–10% of patients one-year after major surgery. Substantial advances have been made in identifying patients at elevated risk of developing CPSP based on perioperative pain, opioid use, and negative affect, including depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms. The Transitional Pain Service (TPS) at Toronto General Hospital (TGH) is the first to comprehensively address the problem of CPSP at three stages: 1) preoperatively, 2) postoperatively in hospital, and 3) postoperatively in an outpatient setting for up to 6 months after surgery. Patients at high risk for CPSP are identified early and offered coordinated and comprehensive care by the multidisciplinary team consisting of pain physicians, advanced practice nurses, psychologists, and physiotherapists. Access to expert intervention through the Transitional Pain Service bypasses typically long wait times for surgical patients to be referred and seen in chronic pain clinics. This affords the opportunity to impact patients’ pain trajectories, preventing the transition from acute to chronic pain, and reducing suffering, disability, and health care costs. In this report, we describe the workings of the Transitional Pain Service at Toronto General Hospital, including the clinical algorithm used to identify patients, and clinical services offered to patients as they transition through the stages of surgical recovery. We describe the role of the psychological treatment, which draws on innovations in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy that allow for brief and effective behavioral interventions to be applied transdiagnostically and preventatively. Finally, we describe our vision for future growth. PMID:26508886

  1. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients and the mitigating effects of gabapentin

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Russell, Daric; Weidner, Greg; Durda, Michael; Joseph, Nicholas C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain patients receiving opioid drugs are at risk for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), wherein opioid pain medication leads to a paradoxical pain state. OIH involves central sensitization of primary and secondary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion, similar to neuropathic pain. Gabapentin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog anticonvulsant used to treat neuropathic pain, has been shown in animal models to reduce fentanyl hyperalgesia without compromising analgesic effect. Chronic pain patients have also exhibited lower opioid consumption and improved pain response when given gabapentin. However, few human studies investigating gabapentin use in OIH have been performed in recent years. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie OIH and provide a critical overview of interventional therapeutic strategies, especially the clinically-successful drug gabapentin, which may reduce OIH. PMID:26074817

  2. Review of the Uses of Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Krishnan; Chaudhry, Hira; Williams, Kayode; Christo, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Recent human and animal studies provide growing evidence that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) can deliver strong analgesic effects in addition to providing therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of refractory epilepsy and depression. Analgesia is potentially mediated by vagal afferents that inhibit spinal nociceptive reflexes and transmission and have strong anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this review is to provide pain practitioners with an overview of VNS technology and limitations. It specifically focuses on clinical indications of VNS for various chronic pain syndromes, including fibromyalgia, pelvic pain, and headaches. We also present potential mechanisms for VNS modulation of chronic pain by reviewing both animal and human studies. PMID:26493698

  3. Clinical commentary of the evolution of the treatment for chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alfredson, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    The chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion was for many years, and still is in many countries, treated with intratendinous revision surgery. However, by coincidence, painful eccentric calf muscle training was tried, and it showed very good clinical results. This finding was unexpected and led to research into the pain mechanisms involved in this condition. Today we know that there are very few nerves inside, but multiple nerves outside, the ventral side of the chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion. These research findings have resulted in new treatment methods targeting the regions with nerves outside the tendon, methods that allow for a rapid rehabilitation and fast return to sports. PMID:26537813

  4. The Role of Suggestions in Hypnosis for Chronic Pain: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dillworth, Tiara; Jensen, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Several controlled trials have demonstrated that hypnosis is an efficacious treatment for chronic pain. However, less attention has been given to the specific procedures and suggestions used in hypnotic treatments in research. The goal of this review was to address the issue of differences in the content of hypnotic suggestions, including pain management suggestions, non-pain related suggestions, and posthypnotic suggestions, in the context of published clinical trials of hypnosis for chronic pain management. This review focused on the types of suggestions used in twenty five studies comparing hypnosis to active treatments (e.g., relaxation, biofeedback), non-treatment control groups (e.g., standard care/wait-list control, supportive attention), or both in adult populations with various chronic pain conditions. Overall, these studies found hypnosis to be more effective than non-treatment control groups and similarly effective when compared to active treatments on pain-related outcomes when either pain-related suggestions or non-pain related suggestions were used. However, for studies that included both pain-specific and non-pain related suggestions, hypnosis was found to be superior to active treatments on a variety of pain-related outcomes. PMID:21686037

  5. The Downward Spiral of Chronic Pain, Prescription Opioid Misuse, and Addiction: Cognitive, Affective, and Neuropsychopharmacologic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Zeidan, Fadel; Partin, Kaitlyn; Howard, Matthew O.

    2013-01-01

    Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are emerging public health concerns of considerable significance. Estimates suggest that more than 10% of chronic pain patients misuse opioid analgesics, and the number of fatalities related to nonmedical or inappropriate use of prescription opioids is climbing. Because the prevalence and adverse consequences of this threat are increasing, there is a pressing need for research that identifies the biobehavioral risk chain linking chronic pain, opioid analgesia, and addictive behaviors. To that end, the current manuscript draws upon current neuropsychopharmacologic research to provide a conceptual framework of the downward spiral leading to prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy. Addictive use of opioids is described as the outcome of a cycle initiated by chronic pain and negative affect and reinforced by opioidergic-dopamingeric interactions, leading to attentional hypervigilance for pain and drug cues, dysfunctional connectivity between self-referential and cognitive control networks in the brain, and allostatic dysregulation of stress and reward circuitry. Implications for clinical practice are discussed; multimodal, mindfulness-oriented treatment is introduced as a potentially effective approach to disrupting the downward spiral and facilitating recovery from chronic pain and opioid addiction. PMID:23988582

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of an Instrument to Identify Chronic Pain in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Jessica S; Westfall, Andrew O; Chamot, Eric; Saag, Michael; Walcott, Melonie; Ritchie, Christine; Kertesz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    A method to rapidly identify the presence of chronic pain would enhance the care of HIV-infected individuals, but such an instrument has not been assessed in this population to date. We assessed the construct validity of the two-question Brief Chronic Pain Questionnaire (BCPQ) in HIV-infected patients by assessing the association between BCPQ responses and known correlates of chronic pain. Participants in the University of Alabama Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort completed the BCPQ, along with the EuroQOL to assess physical function, the PHQ-9 to assess depression, and the PHQ-anxiety module to assess anxiety. Among 100 participants, 25% were female, the mean age was 45 (SD 12), 63% were African American, 27% were publicly insured, the median CD4(+) T cell count was 572 cells/mm(3) (IQR 307-788), and 82% had an undetectable viral load. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to have impaired mobility (43% vs. 12%, p=0.001), difficulty with usual activities (47% vs. 12%, p<0.001), lower overall health state (70 vs. 84, p=0.002), pain today (80% vs. 27%, p<0.001), depression (30% vs. 15%, p=0.10), and anxiety (43% vs. 10%, p<0.001) than those without chronic pain. This study provides preliminary evidence for the BCPQ as a brief questionnaire to identify the presence of chronic pain in HIV care settings. PMID:25693683

  7. The effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on pain, disability, and depression of chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeonjee; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Jeon, Chunbae; Kim, Taehoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on pain, disability, and depression of chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects] In this study, 30 chronic low back pain patients were divided into an extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (ESWTG, n=15) and a conservative physical therapy group (CPTG, n=15). [Methods] The ESWTG received extracorporeal shock wave therapy and the CPTG received general conservative physical therapy two times per week for six weeks. Pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), the degree of disability of the patients was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and their degree of depression was measured using the Beck depression index (BDI). [Results] In intra-group comparisons, ESWTG and CPTG showed significant decreases in VAS, ODI, and BDI scores. Intergroup comparisons revealed that these decreases in VAS, ODI, and BDI scores were significantly larger in ESWTG than in CPTG. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an effective intervention for the treatment of pain, disability, and depression in chronic low back pain patients. PMID:25729177

  8. Pain, not chronic disease, is associated with the recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that poor physical health might be associated with increased depression and anxiety recurrence. The objectives of this study were to determine whether specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics are associated with depression and anxiety recurrence and to examine whether such associations are mediated by subthreshold depressive or anxiety symptoms. Methods 1122 individuals with remitted depressive or anxiety disorder (Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety) were followed up for a period of four years. The impact of specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics on recurrence was assessed using Cox regression and mediation analyses. Results Chronic diseases were not associated with recurrence. Neck (HR 1.45, p?pain, an increase in the number of pain locations (HR 1.10, p?pain severity (HR 1.18, p?=?.01) were associated with an increased risk of depression recurrence but not anxiety. Subthreshold depressive symptoms mediated the associations between pain and depression recurrence. Conclusions Pain, not chronic disease, increases the likelihood of depression recurrence, largely through its association with aggravated subthreshold depressive symptoms. These findings support the idea of the existence of a mutually reinforcing mechanism between pain and depression and are indicative of the importance of shedding light on neurobiological links in order to optimize pain and depression management. PMID:24965597

  9. The Pain Medical Home: A Patient-Centered Medical Home Model of Care for Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Pryzbylkowski, Peter; Ashburn, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pain affects an estimated 100 million people a year in the United States and costs society anywhere from $560 to $635 billion annually. The patient-centered medical home and the patient-centered medical home-neighbor models of care have been advocated to improve patient outcomes. These models of care advocate improved coordination of care within the primary care and specialty care setting. The authors present the patient-centered medical home model of care and suggest how this model of care might be used to improve patient outcomes for patients with chronic pain. PMID:26610630

  10. Disrupted functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Gollub, Randy L.; Spaeth, Rosa; Napadow, Vitaly; Wasan, Ajay; Kong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common neurological disorder. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a key role in the descending modulation of pain. In this study, we investigated brain resting state PAG functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in low pain or high pain condition and matched healthy controls (HCs). PAG seed based functional connectivity (FC) analysis of the functional MR imaging data was performed to investigate the difference among the connectivity maps in the cLBP in the low or high pain condition and HC groups as well as within the cLBP at differing endogenous back pain intensities. Results showed that FC between the PAG and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) increased in cLBP patients compared to matched controls. In addition, we also found significant negative correlations between pain ratings and PAG–vmPFC/rACC FC in cLBP patients after pain-inducing maneuver. The duration of cLBP was negatively correlated with PAG–insula and PAG–amygdala FC before pain-inducing maneuver in the patient group. These findings are in line with the impairments of the descending pain modulation reported in patients with cLBP. Our results provide evidence showing that cLBP patients have abnormal FC in PAG centered pain modulation network during rest. PMID:25379421

  11. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ? 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain. PMID:25790450

  12. Mediators of yoga and stretching for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Karen J; Wellman, Robert D; Cook, Andrea J; Cherkin, Daniel C; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week), cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy), affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep), and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA) mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ)). For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators). For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators). In open-ended questions, ?20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups), relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga), benefits of regular practice (stretching). Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms. PMID:23690832

  13. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Karen J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cook, Andrea J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Ceballos, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week), cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy), affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep), and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA) mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ)). For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators). For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators). In open-ended questions, ?20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups), relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga), benefits of regular practice (stretching). Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms. PMID:23690832

  14. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Visser, Folkert W.; Drenth, Joost P.H.; Gevers, Tom J.G.; Groen, Gerbrand J.; Hogan, Marie C.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Drenth, J.P.H.; de Fijter, J.W.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Peters, D.J.M.; Wetzels, J.; Zietse, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4–6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. PMID:25165181

  15. A review of abuse-deterrent opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain.

    PubMed

    Moorman-Li, Robin; Motycka, Carol A; Inge, Lisa D; Congdon, Jocelyn Myrand; Hobson, Susan; Pokropski, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain, which affects millions of people, is the most common reason patients seek medical care. Both current and potential opioid analgesics are discussed, along with new technologies used to prevent abuse. PMID:22876107

  16. Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... X Y Z Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain mbody1559hi.jpg © ... study found that multiple 60-minute massages per week were more effective than fewer or shorter sessions ...

  17. [Drug Strategies in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: Fokus on Hyperalgesic Effective Strategies].

    PubMed

    Stephan, M; Karst, M; Bernateck, M

    2015-07-01

    Throughout Europe, chronic pain syndromes occur with a point prevalence of about 20%, with somatic, psychological, and social factors playing a significant role for their development. Therefore, a careful evaluation of the interaction of these factors is the decisive step for a successful therapy. New insights into pathophysiological processes associated with chronic pain have led to an increasing differentiation of drug and non-drug strategies. These strategies take individual factors into account and aim on influencing the neural network for chronic pain. The drugs used are chosen on the basis of pathophysiological findings and specific drug effects. Adjunctive agents are often used in the management of chronic pain. Knowledge of anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic drugs such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants increases continuously and is therefore presented in more detail in the present study. PMID:26200046

  18. Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors: New hope for the treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Pedro L

    2006-01-01

    Depression and painful symptoms occur frequently together. Over 75% of depressed patients report painful symptoms such as headache, stomach pain, neck and back pain as well as non-specific generalized pain. In addition, World Health Organization data have shown that primary care patients with chronic pain have a four fold greater risk of becoming depressed than pain-free patients. Increasingly, pain is considered as an integral symptom of depression and there evidence to suggest that pain and depression may arise from a common neurobiological dysfunction. Serotonergic cell bodies, in the raphe nucleus, and noradrenergic cell bodies in the locus coeruleus send projections to various parts of the brain, where they are involved in the control of mood, movement, cognitive functioning and emotions. In addition both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons project to the spinal cord. These descending pathways serve to inhibit input from the intestines, skeletal muscles and other sensory inputs. Usually, these inhibitory effects are modest, but in times of stress, in the interest of the survival of the individual, they can completely inhibit the input from painful stimuli. A dysfunction of the serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons can thus affect both the ascending and descending pathways resulting in the psychological symptoms of depression and somatic pain symptoms such as chronic pain, fibromyalgia, non-cardiac chest pain, or irritable bowel syndrome. In view of this, it is not surprising that tricyclic antidepressants have been a standard treatment of chronic pain for many years. In contrast and in spite of their improved tolerance, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not appear to be particularly effective in the treatment of pain. Recently, a number of open and controlled trials with selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors such as venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine, suggest that these compounds may be more effective in relieving pain than selective inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Wherever valid comparisons have been made the newer dual action drugs appear to be as effective as the tricyclic and considerably better tolerated. Dual action antidepressants may thus soon become the new standard treatment of chronic pain whether it is associated with depression or not. In addition, these agents may also have a role in modulating neurogenesis and other neuroplastic changes in the central nervous system, thereby leading to more complete recovery in patients suffering from the symptoms of depression or chronic pain. PMID:24921678

  19. A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Chronic Pain Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lynda D.; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    1995-01-01

    Provides counselors with an introduction to the role of psychosocial processes in the experience of pain and offers assessment and intervention recommendations based on a cognitive-behavioral therapy approach to pain management. (JPS)

  20. Neuropathic and chronic pain stimuli downregulate central mu-opioid and dopaminergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Keiichi; Narita, Minoru; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2010-07-01

    Although morphine and other mu-opioid agonists are the main analgesics for severe pain, these compounds have potential for abuse and/or addiction. This has complicated the use of mu-agonists in the treatment of chronic pain. However, clinical studies show that when mu-agonist analgesics are appropriately used to control pain, actual abuse or addiction does not usually occur, although some risk factors that increase vulnerability need to be considered, including genetic variation. We review recent findings on molecular adaptations in sustained pain models, and propose how these adaptations (including sustained release of the endogenous mu-agonist beta-endorphin) can result in decreased abuse potential of mu-agonists in chronic pain states. We also review data on particular gene polymorphisms (e.g. in the mu-receptor gene) that could also influence the relative abuse potential of mu-agonists in clinical pain populations. PMID:20471111

  1. Chronic pain management in dermatology: pharmacotherapy and therapeutic monitoring with opioid analgesia.

    PubMed

    Enamandram, Monica; Rathmell, James P; Kimball, Alexandra B

    2015-10-01

    A number of chronic dermatologic conditions may necessitate long-term adjunctive pain management in addition to treatment of the primary skin disease, such as hidradenitis suppurativa, lichen planus, and other systemic diseases associated with significant pain. Adequate management of chronic pain can represent a unique challenge, but remains an integral component of clinical treatment in relevant contexts. For nociceptive pain of moderate to severe intensity, opioid analgesics can be beneficial when other pain management strategies have failed to produce adequate relief. The decision to initiate long-term opioid therapy must be carefully weighed, and individualized treatment plans are often necessary to effectively treat pain while minimizing adverse effects. Part II of this 2-part continuing medical education article will describe the appropriate settings for initiation of opioid analgesia for dermatology patients and detail therapeutic strategies and patient monitoring guidelines. PMID:26369841

  2. Counseling Clients with Chronic Pain: A Religiously Oriented Cognitive Behavior Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Linda A.; Smith, Heather L.; Ray, Shannon L.; Jones, K. Dayle

    2009-01-01

    The experience of chronic pain is largely influenced by core schemas and cognitive processes, including those that are religious in nature. When these schemas are negative, they contribute to the exacerbation of pain and related problems. A framework is presented for the identification of problematic religious schemas and their modification…

  3. Semantic Behavior Therapy and Psychosocial Variables in the Treatment of Chronic Pain in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    This study explored the efficacy of semantic behavior therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain in elderly patients as well as the relationships among pain, physical health, personality, and social characteristics in this population. The sample consisted of 8 elderly persons who had osteoarthritis of the knee, and 11 healthy elderly…

  4. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of articular branches of femoral and obturator nerves for chronic hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Chye, Cien-Leong; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Lu, Kang; Chen, Ya-Wen; Liliang, Po-Chou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chronic hip pain is a common symptom experienced by many people. Often, surgery is not an option for patients with multiple comorbidities, and conventional drugs either have many side effects or are ineffective. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a new method in the treatment of pain. We attempt to compare the efficacy of PRF relative to conservative management for chronic hip pain. RPatients and methods Between August 2011 and July 2013, 29 patients with chronic hip pain were divided into two groups (PRF and conservative treatment) according to consent or refusal to undergo PRF procedure. Fifteen patients received PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves, and 14 patients received conservative treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS), Oxford hip scores (OHS), and pain medications were used for outcome measurement before treatment and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment. Results At 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment initiation, improvements in VAS were significantly greater with PRF. Improvements in OHS were significantly greater in the PRF group at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Patients in the PRF group also used less pain medications. Eight subjects in the conservative treatment group switched to the PRF group after 12 weeks, and six of them had >50% improvement. Conclusion When compared with conservative treatment, PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves offers greater pain relief for chronic hip pain and can augment physical functioning. PMID:25834413

  5. Biofeedback and Relaxation Therapy for Chronic Temporomandibular Joint Pain: Predicting Successful Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funch, Donna P.; Gale, Elliot N.

    1984-01-01

    Randomly assigned 57 patients with chronic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain to receive either relaxation or biofeedback therapy. Successful patients in the relaxation condition tended to be younger and had experienced TMJ pain for a shorter period of time than the successful biofeedback patients. (BH)

  6. The effects of distraction on exercise and cold pressor tolerance for chronic low back pain sufferers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M H; Petrie, S M

    1997-01-01

    Distraction has been found to be effective for the attenuation of experimental and acute clinical pain but its efficacy for chronic pain management remains unclear. There are even some suggestions that distraction may be a counterproductive strategy for chronic pain sufferers. In this study we found that a word shadowing distraction task increased the ability of a group of 12 female and eight male chronic low back pain (CLBP) sufferers to carry out a brief (maximum 300 s) step-up exercise that temporarily increased their pain (P < 0.05). This 15% increase in exercise time was not accompanied by an increase in reported pain after the exercise. Interestingly, the same distraction task did not increase the cold pressor (CP) tolerance time for the CLBP group but produced a 26% increase in tolerance time for a pain-free control group consisting of nine females and nine males (P < 0.05). Also, performance on the distraction task during the CP was worse for the CLBP group than the controls (P < 0.05). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously because of the parameters of the experiment, they do suggest that distraction is a potentially useful technique to assist chronic pain sufferers. PMID:9060011

  7. NP and Computational Intractability

    E-print Network

    Kosecka, Jana

    4/28/14 1 1 Chapter 8 NP and Computational Intractability Slides by Kevin Wayne. Copyright © 2005 Pearson-Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 8.3 Definition of NP 3 Decision Problems Decision problem. X

  8. NP and Computational Intractability

    E-print Network

    Kosecka, Jana

    4/30/14 1 1 Chapter 8 NP and Computational Intractability Slides by Kevin Wayne. Copyright © 2005 Pearson-Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 2 Basic genres. Packing problems: SET-PACKING, INDEPENDENT

  9. Chronic pain in adolescents is associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors

    PubMed Central

    van Tilburg, Miranda A.L.; Spence, Naomi J.; Whitehead, William E.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant; Goldston, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Adults who suffer from chronic pain are at increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts, but it is not clear whether adolescents with chronic pain are similarly at increased risk. This study investigates whether chronic pain is associated with an increase in suicidal ideation/attempts independent of depression in a population sample of adolescents. We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States (N=9,970). Most chronic pain was related to suicide ideation/attempt both in the last year (OR’s 1.3–2.1) and during the subsequent year (OR’s 1.2–1.8). After controlling for depressive symptoms, headaches (OR=1.3 last year, OR=1.2 subsequent year) and muscle aches (OR=1.3 last year) remained associated with suicide ideation but not suicide attempt. These findings show that chronic pain in adolescence is a risk factor for suicide ideation; this effect is partly but not fully explained by depression. Youth with co-morbid depression and chronic pain are at increased risk of thinking about and attempting suicide. Clinicians should be alert to suicide ideation/attempt and co-morbid depression in this at-risk population. PMID:21684217

  10. Extended-release morphine sulfate in treatment of severe acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Robert J; Trescot, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Morphine is the archetypal opioid analgesic. Because it is a short-acting opioid, its use has been limited to the management of acute pain. The development of extended-release formulations have resulted in the increased utilization of morphine in chronic pain conditions. This review documents the history of morphine use in pain treatment, and describes the metabolism, pharmacodynamics, formulations, and efficacy of the currently available extended-release morphine medications. PMID:21197323

  11. Safe management of chronic pain in pregnancy in an era of opioid misuse and abuse.

    PubMed

    Pritham, Ursula A; McKay, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Safe and effective management of chronic pain in pregnancy is challenging. Use of over-the-counter analgesics, opioids, opioid substitution therapies, complementary and alternative therapies, antidepressants, and anxiolytics each have benefits and risks for the mother and neonate that must be considered. Because of their potency, opioids are often used despite associated risks for adverse effects, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Development of a pain management protocol for the counsel and care of pregnant women with pain is necessary. PMID:25123962

  12. [Multimodal pain therapy for treatment of chronic pain syndrome. Consensus paper of the ad hoc commission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society on treatment contents].

    PubMed

    Arnold, B; Brinkschmidt, T; Casser, H-R; Diezemann, A; Gralow, I; Irnich, D; Kaiser, U; Klasen, B; Klimczyk, K; Lutz, J; Nagel, B; Pfingsten, M; Sabatowski, R; Schesser, R; Schiltenwolf, M; Seeger, D; Söllner, W

    2014-10-01

    Multimodal pain management is a comprehensive treatment of complex chronic pain syndromes. In addition to medical therapy various other specialized therapeutic interventions based on the biopsychosocial model of pain origin and chronic pain development, are added. During the last few years treatment centers for chronic pain have been established throughout Germany. Multimodal pain management has been included in the official catalogue of the recognized medical procedures for day clinic units as well as for inpatient pain management. In daily practice there is, however, still a lack of clarity and of consistency about the components that multimodal pain management should contain. This is the reason for the ad hoc commission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society to propose the following position paper that has been worked out in a multilevel and interdisciplinary consensus process. The paper describes the mandatory treatment measures in the four core disciplines of multimodal pain management, pain medicine, psychotherapy, exercise therapy including physiotherapy and assistant medical professions including nurses. PMID:25216605

  13. The fear-avoidance model of chronic pain: validation and age analysis using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Cook, Andrew J; Brawer, Peter A; Vowles, Kevin E

    2006-04-01

    The cognitive-behavioral, fear-avoidance (FA) model of chronic pain (Vlaeyen JWS, Kole-Snijders AMJ, Boeren RGB, van Eek H. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain 1995a;62:363-72) has found broad empirical support, but its multivariate, predictive relationships have not been uniformly validated. Applicability of the model across age groups of chronic pain patients has also not been tested. Goals of this study were to validate the predictive relationships of the multivariate FA model using structural equation modeling and to evaluate the factor structure of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), levels of pain-related fear, and fit of the FA model across three age groups: young (< or =40), middle-aged (41-54), and older (> or =55) adults. A heterogeneous sample of 469 chronic pain patients provided ratings of catastrophizing, pain-related fear, depression, perceived disability, and pain severity. Using a confirmatory approach, a 2-factor, 13-item structure of the TSK provided the best fit and was invariant across age groups. Older participants were found to have lower TSK fear scores than middle-aged participants for both factors (FA, Harm). A modified version of the Vlaeyen JWS, Kole-Snijders AMJ, Boeren RGB, van Eek H (Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain 1995a;62:363-72.) FA model provided a close fit to the data (chi(2)(29)=42.0, p>0.05, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.97, CFI=0.99, RMSEA=0.031 (90% CI 0.000-0.050), p close fit=0.95). Multigroup analyses revealed significant differences in structural weights for older vs. middle-aged participants. For older chronic pain patients, a stronger mediating role for pain-related fear was supported. Results are consistent with a FA model of chronic pain, while indicating some important age group differences in this model and in levels of pain-related fear. Longitudinal testing of the multivariate model is recommended. PMID:16495008

  14. The periaqueductal gray and descending pain modulation: why should we study them and what role do they play in chronic pain?

    PubMed

    Hemington, Kasey S; Coulombe, Marie-Andrée

    2015-10-01

    In this Neuro Forum we discuss the significance of a recent study by Yu et al. (Neuroimage Clin 6: 100-108, 2014). The authors examined functional connectivity of a key node of the descending pain modulation pathway, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), in chronic back pain patients. Altered PAG connectivity to pain-related regions was found; we place results within the context of recent literature and emphasize the importance of understanding the descending component of pain in pain research. PMID:25673745

  15. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Egorova, Natalia; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG), medial frontal cortex (MFC) and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc). We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham) is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory. PMID:26594625

  16. Adolescents with chronic pain and associated functional disability: A descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Andrea A; Banez, Gerard A

    2014-03-18

    The purpose of this research was to describe the biopsychosocial characteristics of adolescents with chronic pain and functional disability. Data were obtained from a registry of 100 adolescents (mean age = 15.84, SD = 2.72; 21 males) admitted to an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program. Clinician ratings were used to categorize coping and personality styles. The most common chief complaint at admission was limb pain (n = 44), followed by headache (n = 21) and abdominal pain (n = 17). Eighteen patients presented with other types of pain. The most frequent triggers to pain were physical trauma, medical condition or disability, and surgery or another medical procedure. Sleep problems, mental health difficulties, and high academic performance were common. Seven previously identified pain-associated disability factors, including passive or dependent coping style, chronic illness in a parent, personality consistent with alexithymia, unresolved family problems, early pain experiences, learning/developmental difficulties, and perfectionistic personality, were common. Ninety-eight adolescents presented with two or more of these contributing factors. Fifty-six adolescents had four or more of the factors. Adolescents with chronic pain and associated disability presented with numerous biopsychosocial factors that relate to their impairment. The understanding and attention to these factors will be important for successful rehabilitation. PMID:24642656

  17. The Efficacy of a Perceptive Rehabilitation on Postural Control in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolucci, Teresa; Fusco, Augusto; Iosa, Marco; Grasso, Maria R.; Spadini, Ennio; Paolucci, Stefano; Saraceni, Vincenzo M.; Morone, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain have a worse posture, probably related to poor control of the back muscles and altered perception of the trunk midline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a perceptive rehabilitation in terms of stability and pain relief in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Thirty patients were…

  18. Chronic Pain and the Modulation of Self in Immersive Virtual Reality Dr. Diane Gromala, Dr. Chris Shaw, Meehae Song

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Chris

    Chronic Pain and the Modulation of Self in Immersive Virtual Reality Dr. Diane Gromala, Dr. Chris 102 Avenue, Surrey, BC V3T 0A3 CANADA dgromala | shaw | meehaes@sfu.ca Abstract In contrast to "pain of agency over their experience of chronic pain. Meditating in Virtual Environments Many specialists who

  19. Chronic pain patients are impaired on an emotional decision-making task A. Vania Apkariana,*, Yamaya Sosaa

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Chronic pain patients are impaired on an emotional decision-making task A. Vania Apkariana pain can result in anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life. However, its effects on cognitive abilities have remained unclear although many studies attempted to psychologically profile chronic pain. We

  20. Treatment of chronic pain in pediatric rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukiko; Walco, Gary A

    2007-04-01

    Pain in children with rheumatic disease is common, and is most often caused by arthritis. Despite the widespread use of effective new biologic agents, pain continues to be a problem in these patients, and it greatly impairs their daily functioning and quality of life. The pathogenesis of pain in children with rheumatic diseases is multifactorial, and disease treatment alone is often not enough to alleviate it. No standard of care or detailed algorithm for managing pain in these patients exists. Specific pain treatments often include acetaminophen, NSAIDs and medications that treat arthritis, such as methotrexate and etanercept. Other approaches should include nonpharmacologic interventions, for example exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy, as well as the use of analgesics such as opioids in patients whose pain is refractory to standard therapies. The use of systemic corticosteroids to treat pain in children with arthritis should be avoided. PMID:17396106

  1. A Tool for Classifying Individuals with Chronic Back Pain: Using Multivariate Pattern Analysis with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Daniel; Mills, Lloyd; Nott, Connie; England, Robert; England, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world today, yet neurological markers, critical to diagnosis of chronic pain, are still largely unknown. The ability to objectively identify individuals with chronic pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is important for the advancement of diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical knowledge of brain processes associated with chronic pain. The purpose of our research is to investigate specific neurological markers that could be used to diagnose individuals experiencing chronic pain by using multivariate pattern analysis with fMRI data. We hypothesize that individuals with chronic pain have different patterns of brain activity in response to induced pain. This pattern can be used to classify the presence or absence of chronic pain. The fMRI experiment consisted of alternating 14 seconds of painful electric stimulation (applied to the lower back) with 14 seconds of rest. We analyzed contrast fMRI images in stimulation versus rest in pain-related brain regions to distinguish between the groups of participants: 1) chronic pain and 2) normal controls. We employed supervised machine learning techniques, specifically sparse logistic regression, to train a classifier based on these contrast images using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. We correctly classified 92.3% of the chronic pain group (N?=?13) and 92.3% of the normal control group (N?=?13) by recognizing multivariate patterns of activity in the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortex. This technique demonstrates that differences in the pattern of brain activity to induced pain can be used as a neurological marker to distinguish between individuals with and without chronic pain. Medical, legal and business professionals have recognized the importance of this research topic and of developing objective measures of chronic pain. This method of data analysis was very successful in correctly classifying each of the two groups. PMID:24905072

  2. Attentional Bias For Prescription Opioid Cues Among Opioid Dependent Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Passik, Steven D.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent use of prescription opioid analgesics by chronic pain patients may result in opioid dependence, which involves implicit neurocognitive operations that organize and impel craving states and compulsive drug taking behavior. Prior studies have identified an attentional bias (AB) towards heroin among heroin dependent individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether opioid-dependent chronic pain patients exhibit an AB towards prescription opioidrelated cues. Opioid-dependent chronic pain patients (n = 32) and a comparison group of non-dependent opioid users with chronic pain (n = 33) completed a dot probe task designed to measure opioid AB. Participants also rated their opioid craving and self-reported arousal associated with opioid-related and neutral images, pain severity, and relief from pain treatments. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (opioid-dependent vs. non-dependent opioid user) × presentation duration (200 ms. vs. 2000 ms.) interaction, such that opioid-dependent individuals evidenced a significant AB towards opioid cues presented for 200 ms but not for cues presented for 2000 ms, whereas non-dependent opioid users did not exhibit a significant mean AB at either stimulus duration. Among opioid-dependent individuals, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with opioid craving, while among non-dependent opioid users, 200 ms opioid AB was significantly associated with relief from pain treatments. Furthermore, dependent and non-dependent opioid users experienced opioid cues as significantly more arousing than neutral cues. Opioid dependence among chronic pain patients appears to involve an automatic AB towards opioid-related cues. When coupled with chronic pain, attentional fixation on opioid cues may promote compulsive drug use and addictive behavior. PMID:22968666

  3. Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation on pain and quality of life of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Banth, Sudha; Ardebil, Maryam Didehdar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recovery of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) is depended on several physical and psychological factors. Therefore, the authors aimed to examine the efficacy of mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) as a mind-body intervention on quality of life and pain severity of female patients with nonspecific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). Methods: Eighty-eight patients diagnosed as NSCLBP by physician and randomly assigned to experimental (MBSR+ usual medical care) and the control group (usual medical care only). The subjects assessed in 3 times frames; before, after and 4 weeks after intervention by Mac Gil pain and standard brief quality of life scales. Data obtained from the final sample analyzed by ANCOVA using SPSS software. Results: The findings showed MBSR was effective in reduction of pain severity and the patients who practiced 8 sessions meditation reported significantly lower pain than patients who only received usual medical care. There was a significant effect of the between subject factor group (F [1, 45] = 16.45, P < 0.001) and (F [1, 45] = 21.51, P < 0.001) for physical quality of life and (F [1, 45] = 13.80, P < 0.001) and (F [1, 45] = 25.07, P < 0.001) mental quality of life respectively. Conclusion: MBSR as a mind-body therapy including body scan, sitting and walking meditation was effective intervention on reduction of pain severity and improvement of physical and mental quality of life of female patients with NSCLBP. PMID:26170592

  4. Factors Associated With the Development of Chronic Post-Sternotomy Pain: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Mário Augusto Cray; Trentini, Conrado Auer; Schafranski, Marcelo Derbli; Pipino, Oswaldo; Gomes, Ricardo Zanetti; Reis, Elise Souza dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors associated with chronic post-sternotomy pain in heart surgery patients. METHODS Between January 2013 and February 2014, we evaluated 453 patients with >6 months post-sternotomy for cardiac surgery at a surgical outpatient clinic. The patients were allocated into a group with chronic post-sternotomy pain (n=178) and a control group without pain (n=275). The groups were compared for potential predictors of chronic post-sternotomy pain. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine which independent variables were associated with the development of chronic post-sternotomy pain. RESULTS In total, 39.29% of the patients had chronic poststernotomy pain. The following factors were significantly associated with chronic post-sternotomy pain: (a) use of the internal thoracic artery in coronary bypass grafting (P=0.009; HR=1.39; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.80); (b) a history of antidepressant use (P=0.0001; HR=2.40; 95% CI, 1.74 to 3.32); (c) hypothyroidism (P=0.01; HR=1.27; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.56); (d) surgical wound complication (P=0.01; HR=1.69; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.63), and (e) patients on disability benefits or scheduled for a consultative medical examination for retirement (P=0.0002; HR=2.05; 95% CI, 1.40 to 3.02). CONCLUSION The factors associated with chronic poststernotomy pain were: use of the internal thoracic artery; use of antidepressants; hypothyroidism; surgical wound complication, and patients on disability benefits or scheduled for a consultative examination.

  5. The role of ketamine in the treatment of chronic cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    ZGAIA, ARMEANA OLIMPIA; IRIMIE, ALEXANDRU; SANDESC, DOREL; VLAD, CATALIN; LISENCU, COSMIN; ROGOBETE, ALEXANDRU; ACHIMAS-CADARIU, PATRICIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Ketamine is a drug used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, for the treatment of postoperative and posttraumatic acute pain, and more recently, for the reduction of postoperative opioid requirements. The main mechanism of action of ketamine is the antagonization of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that are associated with central sensitization. In the pathogenesis of chronic pain and particularly in neuropathic pain, an important role is played by the activation of NMDA receptors. Although ketamine is indicated and used for the treatment of chronic cancer pain as an adjuvant to opioids, there are few clinical studies that clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of ketamine in this type of pain. The aim of this study is to analyze evidence-based clinical data on the effectiveness and safety of ketamine administration in the treatment of chronic neoplastic pain, and to summarize the evidence-based recommendations for the use of ketamine in the treatment of chronic cancer pain. Method We reviewed the literature from the electronic databases of MEDLINE, COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDSCAPE (1998–2014), as well as chapters of specialized books (palliative care, pain management, anesthesia). Results A number of studies support the effectiveness of ketamine in the treatment of chronic cancer pain, one study does not evidence clear clinical benefits for the use of ketamine, and some studies included too few patients to be conclusive. Conclusions Ketamine represents an option for neoplasic pain that no longer responds to conventional opioid treatment, but this drug should be used with caution, and the development of potential side effects should be carefully monitored.

  6. Chronic widespread pain: clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and (2) the decomposition of the covariation into genetic and environmental components. A total of 3266 female twins (mean age 56.6 years) were subject to multivariate analyses. Using validated questionnaires to classify twins as having CWP, the prevalence of CWP was 20.8%. In the multivariate analysis, the most suitable model was the common pathway model. This model revealed 2 underlying latent variables, one common to anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional instability (f1) and the other common to depression and CWP (f2), the latter being highly heritable (86%). Both latent variables (f1 and f2) shared an additive genetic and a nonshared environmental factor. In addition, a second additive genetic factor loading only on f2 was found. This study reveals the structure of genetic and environmental influences of CWP and its psychoaffective correlates. The results show that the clustering of CWP and depression is due to a common, highly heritable, underlying latent trait. In addition, we found evidence that CWP, anxiety, emotional instability, and emotional intelligence are influenced by different underlying latent traits sharing the same genetic and nonshared environmental factors. This is the first study to reveal the structure and relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on complex etiological mechanisms of CWP and its correlates. PMID:25851458

  7. Subhallucal Interphalangeal Sesamoiditis: A Rare Cause of Chronic Great Toe Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Puppala, Radha; Ayachit, Anurag; Singh, Ruchika

    2015-01-01

    Subhallucal interphalangeal sesamoiditis presenting as chronic great toe pain is a rarely reported clinical entity, being often overlooked and misdiagnosed for other pathologies. By altering the biomechanics of the movements at great toe, the interphalangeal sesamoid is prone to various painful pathologies like trauma, infection, degeneration, osteonecrosis and inflammation. Imaging plays an important role in narrowing down the differentials and guiding for appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a neglected case of hallucal interphalangeal sesamoiditis presenting as a case of chronic great toe pain and discuss the role of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Computed tomography (CT) scan in its diagnosis. PMID:26155529

  8. Interventional Spine Procedures for Management of Chronic Low Back Pain—A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Iannuccilli, Jason D.; Prince, Ethan A.; Soares, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition. Percutaneous fluoroscopic-guided interventions are safe and effective procedures for the management of chronic low back pain, which can be performed in an outpatient setting. Interventional radiologists already possess the technical skills necessary to perform these interventions effectively so that they may be incorporated into a busy outpatient practice. This article provides a basic approach to the evaluation of patients with low back pain, as well as a review of techniques used to perform the most common interventions using fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:24436553

  9. Self-reports of medication side effects and pain-related activity interference in patients with chronic pain: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Martel, Marc O; Finan, Patrick H; Dolman, Andrew J; Subramanian, Subu; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Jamison, Robert N

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-reports of medication side effects and pain-related activity interference in patients with chronic pain. The potential moderators of the association between reports of side effects and pain-related activity interference were also examined. A total of 111 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain were asked to provide, once a month for a period of 6 months, self-reports of medication use and the presence of any perceived side effects (eg, nausea, dizziness, headaches) associated with their medications. At each of these time points, patients were also asked to provide self-reports of pain intensity, negative affect, and pain-related activity interference. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that month-to-month increases in perceived medication side effects were associated with heightened pain-related activity interference (P < 0.05). Importantly, multilevel models revealed that perceived medication side effects were associated with heightened pain-related activity interference even after controlling for the influence of patient demographics, pain intensity, and negative affect. This study provides preliminary evidence that reports of medication side effects are associated with heightened pain-related activity interference in patients with chronic pain beyond the influence of other pain-relevant variables. The implications of our findings for clinical practice and the management of patients with chronic pain conditions are discussed. PMID:25782367

  10. [Multidisciplinary guideline 'Recognition and treatment of chronic pain in vulnerable elderly people'].

    PubMed

    Achterberg, Wilco P; de Ruiter, Corinne M; de Weerd-Spaetgens, Chantal M E E; Geels, Paul; Horikx, Annemieke; Verduijn, Monique M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in vulnerable elderly people is still poorly recognized and treated, both at home and in hospitals and care and nursing homes. Vulnerable elderly people experience and express pain differently to relatively healthy adults, especially when they suffer from cognitive impairment or specific conditions. Determining the nature and severity of the pain requires the use of pain assessment instruments that have been validated for use in vulnerable elderly people. Effective treatment of pain demands careful diagnosis and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that have proven effectiveness in vulnerable elderly people. The combination of multiple morbidity and poly-pharmacy increases the chance of side-effects and complications. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of many drugs are different in vulnerable elderly people. The advice is to start with a lower dose of pain medication and gradually build up a level on the basis of pain relief and side-effects ('start low, go slow!'). PMID:22929749

  11. Providers’ Experiences Treating Chronic Pain Among Opioid-Dependent Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Arnsten, Julia H.; Sacajiu, Galit; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Successful management of chronic pain with opioid medications requires balancing opioid dependence and addiction with pain relief and restoration of function. Evaluating these risks and benefits is difficult among patients with chronic pain and pre-existing addiction, and the ambiguity is increased for patients on methadone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Providers treating both chronic pain and addiction routinely make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, but decision-making strategies in this context have not been well described. OBJECTIVE Our objective was twofold. We sought first to explore providers’ perceptions of ambiguity, and then to examine their strategies for making diagnostic and treatment decisions to manage chronic pain among patients on methadone maintenance therapy. DESIGN Qualitative semi-structured interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS We interviewed health-care providers delivering integrated medical care and substance abuse treatment to patients in a methadone maintenance program. RESULTS Providers treating pain and co-morbid addiction described ambiguity in all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. To cope with this inherent ambiguity, most providers adopted one of two decision-making frameworks, which determined clinical behavior. One framework prioritized addiction treatment by emphasizing the destructive consequences of abusing illicit drugs or prescription medications; the other prioritized pain management by focusing on the destructive consequences of untreated pain. Identification with a decision-making framework shaped providers’ experiences, including their treatment goals, perceptions of treatment risks, pain management strategies, and tolerance of ambiguity. Adherence to one of these two frameworks led to wide variation in pain management practices, which created tension among providers. CONCLUSIONS Providers delivering integrated medical care and substance abuse treatment to patients in a methadone maintenance program found tremendous ambiguity in the management of chronic pain. Most providers adopted one of the two divergent heuristic frameworks we identified, which resulted in significant variations in pain management. To reduce variation and determine best practices, studies should examine clinically relevant endpoints, including pain, illicit drug use, prescription drug abuse, and functional status. Until then, providers managing chronic pain in patients with co-morbid addiction should attempt to reduce tension by acknowledging ambiguity and engaging in open discourse. PMID:19189194

  12. Pain.

    PubMed

    Melzack, Ronald; Katz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pain has many valuable functions. It often signals injury or disease, generates a wide range of adaptive behaviors, and promotes healing through rest. Despite these beneficial aspects of pain, there are negative features that challenge our understanding of the puzzle of pain, including persistent phantom limb pain after amputation or total spinal cord transection. Pain is a personal, subjective experience influenced by cultural learning, the meaning of the situation, attention, and other psychological variables. Pain processes do not begin with the stimulation of receptors. Rather, injury or disease produces neural signals that enter an active nervous system that (in the adult organism) is the substrate of past experience, culture, and a host of other environmental and personal factors. These brain processes actively participate in the selection, abstraction, and synthesis of information from the total sensory input. Pain is not simply the end product of a linear sensory transmission system; it is a dynamic process that involves continuous interactions among complex ascending and descending systems. The neuromatrix theory guides us away from the Cartesian concept of pain as a sensation produced by injury, inflammation, or other tissue pathology and toward the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience produced by multiple influences. These influences range from the existing synaptic architecture of the neuromatrix-which is determined by genetic and sensory factors-to influences from within the body and from other areas in the brain. Genetic influences on synaptic architecture may determine-or predispose toward-the development of chronic pain syndromes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1-15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304172

  13. Chronic stress and peripheral pain: Evidence for distinct, region-specific changes in visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-11-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. PMID:26408049

  14. A novel use for testosterone to treat central sensitization of chronic pain in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    White, Hillary D; Robinson, Thomas D

    2015-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a diffuse chronic pain condition that occurs predominantly in women and may be under-reported in men. Symptoms include a loss of feeling of well-being and generalized widespread flu-like muscle aches and pain that fail to resolve due to central sensitization of nociceptive neurons. It has commonalities with a myriad of other chronic pain conditions which include PTSD, "Gulf War Syndrome", and various stress-induced conditions caused, for example, by viral infection, emotional or physical stress, trauma, combat, accident or surgery. It is not understood why some individuals are susceptible to this condition and others are not. White et al., elsewhere in this issue, present a clinical feasibility study designed to test the hypothesis that 1) low or deficient testosterone serum levels are linked to a high risk for an inflamed nociceptive nervous system and resultant chronic pain states, and 2) a testosterone transdermal gel applied once a day by fibromyalgia patients can be an effective therapeutic against chronic pain. Here, a short profile of fibromyalgia is provided along with a brief summary of best practices currently recommended by clinical specialists. The link between testosterone and pain is then discussed, with an overview of scientific studies that lay the foundation for testosterone as a possible important additional therapeutic that has the potential to be safely administered and effective but also avoid the adverse effects of other therapeutics. Finally, novel mechanisms by which testosterone therapy is likely to down-modulate pain signaling are proposed. PMID:26004314

  15. A preliminary study comparing methadone and buprenorphine in patients with chronic pain and coexistent opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anne M; Blondell, Richard D; Jaanimägi, Urmo; Giambrone, Amanda K; Homish, Gregory G; Lozano, Jacqueline R; Kowalik, Urszula; Azadfard, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Patients with opioid addiction who receive prescription opioids for treatment of nonmalignant chronic pain present a therapeutic challenge. Fifty-four participants with chronic pain and opioid addiction were randomized to receive methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone. At the 6-month follow-up examination, 26 (48.1%) participants who remained in the study noted a 12.75% reduction in pain (P = 0.043), and no participants in the methadone group compared to 5 in the buprenorphine group reported illicit opioid use (P = 0.039). Other differences between the two conditions were not found. Long-term, low-dose methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone treatment produced analgesia in participants with chronic pain and opioid addiction. PMID:23480249

  16. Chronic Pain and Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Opioid Dependent Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Judith I.; Herman, Debra S.; Kettavong, Malyna; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown if infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a risk factor for pain among persons who have used injection drugs (IDU). Multivariate regression was used to determine whether HCV was associated with greater likelihood of reporting significant chronic pain and discomfort intolerance in a cohort of 97 opioid dependent IDU. Study results suggest that participants with HCV may be more likely to suffer chronic pain (aOR=1.98; 95% CI: 0.76 to 5.12, p=0.16). Furthermore, HCV was found to be associated with a higher discomfort intolerance scale score, reflecting intolerance to physical discomfort (?=2.34; 95% CI: 0.06 to 4.62, p=0.04). Infection with HCV may be an overlooked cause for chronic pain and discomfort intolerance among opioid dependent IDU. PMID:21491290

  17. Severity of chronic pain in an elderly population in Sweden--impact on costs and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bernfort, Lars; Gerdle, Björn; Rahmqvist, Mikael; Husberg, Magnus; Levin, Lars-Åke

    2015-03-01

    Chronic pain is associated with large societal costs, but few studies have investigated the total costs of chronic pain with respect to elderly subjects. The elderly usually require informal care, care performed by municipalities, and care for chronic diseases, all factors that can result in extensive financial burdens on elderly patients, their families, and the social services provided by the state. This study aims to quantify the societal cost of chronic pain in people of age 65 years and older and to assess the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. This study collected data from 3 registers concerning health care, drugs, and municipal services and from 2 surveys. A postal questionnaire was used to collect data from a stratified sample of the population 65 years and older in southeastern Sweden. The questionnaire addressed pain intensity and quality of life variables (EQ-5D). A second postal questionnaire was used to collect data from relatives of the elderly patients suffering from chronic pain. A total of 66.5% valid responses of the 10,000 subjects was achieved; 76.9% were categorized as having no or mild chronic pain, 18.9% as having moderate chronic pain, and 4.2% as having severe chronic pain. Consumed resources increased with the severity of chronic pain. Clear differences in EQ-5D were found with respect to the severity of pain. This study found an association between resource use and severity of chronic pain in elderly subjects: the more severe the chronic pain, the more extensive (and expensive) the use of resources. PMID:25599240

  18. Immediate effects of a brief mindfulness-based body scan on patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ussher, Michael; Spatz, Amy; Copland, Claire; Nicolaou, Andrew; Cargill, Abbey; Amini-Tabrizi, Nina; McCracken, Lance M

    2014-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has benefits for those with chronic pain. MBSR typically entails an intensive 8-week intervention. The effects of very brief mindfulness interventions are unknown. Among those with chronic pain, the immediate effects of a 10 min mindfulness-based body scan were compared with a control intervention. Fifty-five adult outpatients were randomly assigned to either: (1) mindfulness-based body scan (n = 27) or (2) a reading about natural history (control group, n = 28), provided via a 10 min audio-recording. Interventions were delivered twice across 24 h; once in the clinic and once in participants' 'normal' environment. Immediately before and after listening to the recording, participants rated pain severity, pain related distress, perceived ability for daily activities, perceived likelihood of pain interfering with social relations, and mindfulness. In the clinic, there was a significant reduction in ratings for pain related distress and for pain interfering with social relations for the body scan group compared with the control group (p = 0.005; p = 0.036, respectively). In the normal environment none of the ratings were significantly different between the groups. These data suggest that, in a clinic setting, a brief body scan has immediate benefits for those experiencing chronic pain. These benefits need to be confirmed in the field. PMID:23129105

  19. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  20. Acceptance of pain is an independent predictor of mental well-being in patients with chronic pain: empirical evidence and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Viane, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Eccleston, Christopher; Poppe, Carine; Devulder, Jacques; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn; De Corte, Wilfried

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports upon: (1) the value of acceptance of pain in predicting well-being in patients suffering from chronic pain and (2) the construct validity of acceptance by comparing two questionnaires designed to measure acceptance (the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, CPAQ, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, 1992 and the Illness Cognitions Questionnaire, ICQ, J Consult Clin Psychol 69 (2001) 1026). The results of two independent cross-sectional studies are reported. Study 1 included 120 patients seeking help in tertiary care settings. In Study 2, 66 patients were recruited from a self-support group for fibromyalgia patients and from a pain clinic. Both studies revealed that acceptance of pain predicted mental well-being beyond pain severity and pain catastrophizing, but did not account for physical functioning. In both instruments, it was found that acceptance of pain was strongly related to engagement in normal life activities and the recognition that pain may not change. Acceptance in both instruments was strongly related to a cognitive control over pain. Study 2 further revealed that the correlation between the CPAQ and the ICQ is moderate, indicating that both instruments measured different aspects of acceptance. It is concluded that acceptance of chronic pain is best conceived of as the shift away from pain to non-pain aspects of life, and the shift away from a search for a cure with an acknowledgement that pain may not change. PMID:14581112

  1. The phenomenological-existential comprehension of chronic pain: going beyond the standing healthcare models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of the biomedical model is its compartmentalized view of man. This way of seeing human beings has its origin in Greek thought; it was stated by Descartes and to this day it still considers humans as beings composed of distinct entities combined into a certain form. Because of this observation, one began to believe that the focus of a health treatment could be exclusively on the affected area of the body, without the need to pay attention to patient’s subjectivity. By seeing pain as a merely sensory response, this model was not capable of encompassing chronic pain, since the latter is a complex process that can occur independently of tissue damage. As of the second half of the twentieth century, when it became impossible to deny the relationship between psyche and soma, the current understanding of chronic pain emerges: that of chronic pain as an individual experience, the result of a sum of physical, psychological, and social factors that, for this reason, cannot be approached separately from the individual who expresses pain. This understanding has allowed a significant improvement in perspective, emphasizing the characteristic of pain as an individual experience. However, the understanding of chronic pain as a sum of factors corresponds to the current way of seeing the process of falling ill, for its conception holds a Cartesian duality and the positivist premise of a single reality. For phenomenology, on the other hand, the individual in his/her unity is more than a simple sum of parts. Phenomenology sees a human being as an intending entity, in which body, mind, and the world are intertwined and constitute each other mutually, thus establishing the human being’s integral functioning. Therefore, a real understanding of the chronic pain process would only be possible from a phenomenological point of view at the experience lived by the individual who expresses and communicates pain. PMID:24410937

  2. An increased response to experimental muscle pain is related to psychological status in women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance). Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP) and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON) participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline) together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds. PMID:21992460

  3. A holistic approach to chronic pain management that involves all stakeholders: change is needed.

    PubMed

    Kress, Hans-Georg; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Collett, Beverly; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-K?pska, Magdalena; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ferri, Cesar Margarit; Mavrocordatos, Philippe; Morlion, Bart; Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Nicolaou, Andrew; Hernández, Concepción Pérez; Sichère, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain affects a large proportion of the population, imposing significant individual distress and a considerable burden on society, yet treatment is not always instituted and/or adequate. Comprehensive multidisciplinary management based on the biopsychosocial model of pain has been shown to be clinically effective and cost-efficient, but is not widely available. A literature review of stakeholder groups revealed many reasons for this, including: i) many patients believe healthcare professionals lack relevant knowledge, and consultations are rushed, ii) general practitioners consider that pain management has a low priority and is under-resourced, iii) pain specialists cite non-adherence to evidence-based treatment, sub-optimal prescribing, and chronic pain not being regarded as a disease in its own right, iv) nurses', pharmacists' and physiotherapists' skills are not fully utilized, and v) psychological therapy is employed infrequently and often too late. Many of the issues relating to physicians could be addressed by improving medical training, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels - for example, by making pain medicine a compulsory core subject of the undergraduate medical curriculum. This would improve physician/patient communication, increase the use of standardized pain assessment tools, and allow more patients to participate in treatment decisions. Patient care would also benefit from improved training for other multidisciplinary team members; for example, nurses could provide counseling and follow-up support, psychologists offer coping skills training, and physiotherapists have a greater role in rehabilitation. Equally important measures include the widespread adoption of a patient-centered approach, chronic pain being recognized as a disease in its own right, and the development of universal guidelines for managing chronic non-cancer pain. Perhaps the greatest barrier to improvement is lack of political will at both national and international level. Some powerful initiatives and collaborations are currently lobbying policy-making bodies to raise standards and reduce unnecessary pain - it is vital they continue. PMID:26172982

  4. Sublingual buprenorphine is effective in the treatment of chronic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malinoff, Herbert L; Barkin, Robert L; Wilson, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Many patients with chronic pain have less than optimal therapeutic outcomes after prolonged treatment with opiate analgesics. Worsening of pain perception, functional capacity, and mood often result. Medical detoxification is often undertaken in this situation. Ninety-five consecutive patients (49 men and 46 women; age range, 26-84) with chronic noncancer pain (maldynia) were referred by local pain clinics for detoxification from long-term opiate analgesic (LTOA) therapy. All patients had failed treatment as manifest by increasing pain levels, worsening functional capacity, and, in 8%, the emergence of opiate addiction. Length of prior LTOA therapy ranged from 1.5 to 27 years (mean, 8.8 years). After a minimum of 12 hours of abstinence from all opiate analgesics, patients were given low doses of sublingual (SL) buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone (Reckitt Benckiser). Maintenance dosing was individualized to treat chronic pain. Daily SL dose of buprenorphine ranged from 4 to 16 mg (mean, 8 mg) in divided doses. Mean duration of treatment is 8.8 months (range, 2.4-16.6 months). At clinic appointments, patients were assessed for pain reports, functional capacity, and mood inventory. Eighty-six percent of patients experienced moderate to substantial relief of pain accompanied by both improved mood and functioning. Patient and family satisfaction was robust. Only 6 patients discontinued therapy secondary to side effects and/or exacerbation of pain. In this open-label study, SL buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone were well tolerated and safe and appeared to be effective in the treatment of chronic pain patients refractory to LTOA. PMID:16148422

  5. Effect of yoga on pain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and serotonin in premenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moseon; Moon, Woongjoon; Kim, Jaehee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P < 0.001), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) in the control group. Back flexibility was improved in the yoga group (P < 0.01). Serum BDNF increased in the yoga group (P < 0.01), whereas it tended to decrease in the control group (P = 0.05). Serum serotonin maintained in the yoga group, while it reduced (P < 0.01) in the control group. The depression level maintained in the yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P = 0.07). Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain. PMID:25120574

  6. Physician-to-physician telephone consultations for chronic pain patients: A pragmatic randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alexander J; Taenzer, Paul; Drummond, Neil; Spanswick, Christopher C; Montgomery, Lori S; Findlay, Ted; Pereira, John X; Williamson, Tyler; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Braun, Ted

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of telephone consultations between pain specialists and primary care physicians regarding the care of patients with chronic pain is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of telephone consultations between pain specialists and primary care physicians regarding the care of patients with chronic pain. METHODS: Patients referred to an interdisciplinary chronic pain service were randomly assigned to either receive usual care by the primary care physician, or to have their case discussed in a telephone consultation between a pain specialist and the referring primary care physician. Patients completed a numerical rating scale for pain, the Pain Disability Index and the Short Form-36 on referral, as well as three and six months later. Primary care physicians completed a brief survey to assess their impressions of the telephone consultation. RESULTS: Eighty patients were randomly assigned to either the usual care group or the standard telephone consultation group, and 67 completed the study protocol. Patients were comparable on baseline pain and demographic characteristics. No differences were found between the groups at six months after referral in regard to pain, disability or quality of life measures. Eighty percent of primary care physicians indicated that they learned new patient care strategies from the telephone consultation, and 97% reported that the consultation answered their questions and helped in the care of their patient. DISCUSSION: Most primary care physicians reported that a telephone consultation with a pain specialist answered their questions, improved their patients’ care and resulted in new learning. Differences in patient status compared with a usual care control group were not detectable at six-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: While telephone consultations are clearly an acceptable strategy for knowledge translation, additional strategies may be required to actually impact patient outcomes. PMID:26474380

  7. Efficacy of Fentanyl Transdermal Patch in the Treatment of Chronic Soft Tissue Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hemati, Karim; Zaman, Behrooz; Hassani, Valliolah; Imani, Farnad; Dariaie, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer pain may be a major problem for health care providers worldwide. According to different studies reporting the pain severity, one-third of patients reported to have moderate to severe pain. Management of cancer pain is one of the most important goals of palliative care. Recently, different research results on the efficacy of opioid analgesics in chronic pain management have played a role to implement standards in pain control by government agencies worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in the treatment of chronic soft tissue cancer pain. Patients and Methods: In a prospective descriptive study, we evaluated 86 patients with soft tissue tumors with chronic pain referred to cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2006-2007. For all patients, transdermal fentanyl patch (25 ?g/h) was administered. The appearance of patches was the same. Pain severity was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) initially and 24, 48 and 72 hours after the initiation of treatment. Results: Patients' characteristics and VAS score before the treatment were not significantly different (P > 0.05). According to our findings, the pain severity was significantly reduced after the treatment (P = 0.001). The incidence of adverse events in patients was significantly high (72%). The most common adverse events were sleepiness, nausea and vomiting in 30.2% and 18.6%, respectively. Conclusions: Transdermal fentanyl patch was an effective and safe method to reduce pain in patients with soft tissue tumors. Moreover, it could improve the quality of life in these patients, but adverse events occurred in approximately 72% of patients. PMID:25789240

  8. Development and validation of the French-Canadian Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Bourgault, Patricia; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Courtemanche-Harel, Roxanne; Choinière, Manon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy is a non-negligible outcome when measuring the impact of self-management interventions for chronic pain patients. However, no validated, chronic pain-specific self-efficacy scales exist for studies conducted with French-speaking populations. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the use of the French-Canadian Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (FC-CPSES) among chronic pain patients. METHODS: The Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale is a validated 33-item self-administered questionnaire that measures perceived self-efficacy to perform self-management behaviours, manage chronic disease in general and achieve outcomes (a six-item version is also available). This scale was adapted to the context of chronic pain patients following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. The FC-CPSES was administered to 109 fibromyalgia and 34 chronic low back pain patients (n=143) who participated in an evidence-based self-management intervention (the PASSAGE program) offered in 10 health care centres across the province of Quebec. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (?) were calculated to determine the internal consistency of the 33- and six-item versions of the FC-CPSES. With regard to convergent construct validity, the association between the FC-CPSES baseline scores and related clinical outcomes was examined. With regard to the scale’s sensitivity to change, pre- and postintervention FC-CPSES scores were compared. RESULTS: Internal consistency was high for both versions of the FC-CPSES (?=0.86 to ?=0.96). Higher self-efficacy was significantly associated with higher mental health-related quality of life and lower pain intensity and catastrophizing (P<0.05), supporting convergent validity of the scale. There was a statistically significant increase in FC-CPSES scores between pre- and postintervention measures for both versions of the FC-CPSES (P<0.003), which supports their sensitivity to clinical change during an intervention. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that both versions of the FC-CPSES are reliable and valid for the measurement of pain management self-efficacy among chronic pain patients. PMID:25848845

  9. [Multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain--opportunities and challenges for collaboration between psychosomatic medicine and physiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Wössmer, B; Loosli, P; Hochstrasser, J

    2007-10-01

    Chronic pain is often associated with inefficient treatments attempts and a significant impairment of quality of life. The treatment of patients with chronic pain has been a major challenge for all disciplines concerned; none has convincingly shown that their approach achieves the goal of a pain free life. Multimodal pain management programs are characterised by a joint effort of somatic medicine, physiotherapy, and psychology or psychotherapy to cooperate in a shared model of diagnosis and treatment for chronic pain patients. We present the model that is in practice since eight years at the Division of Psychosomatic Medicine at the University Hospital Basel, combining elements of cognitive behaviour therapy and physiotherapeutic exercises. The presence of physiotherapists in therapeutic group sessions is essential because physical activation helps to improve body awareness; it yields bodily sensations that are often interpreted in a catastrophic way that can then be dealt with in a cognitive-behavioural approach. Such a close collaboration between different departments and between representatives of different professions takes time to develop, it needs open minded psychologists and physiotherapists who are willing to cooperate and share responsibility. On the other hand, having achieved a good working relationship leads to mutual support in working with these patient who sometimes induce intense feelings of helplessness in the professional, it provides patients with two different 'battlefields' to tackle chronic pain, thus allowing for a broader set of experiences from which patients can feed their motivation. PMID:18214215

  10. Abnormal brain processing of cutaneous pain in patients with chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Tonali, Pietro; Puca, Francomichele

    2003-01-01

    Syndromes with chronic daily headache include chronic migraine (CM). The reason for the transformation of migraine into chronic daily headache is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and event-related potentials following CO(2)-laser thermal stimulation (LEPS) in hand and facial regions in patients with CM, to show changes in nociceptive brain responses related to dysfunction of pain elaboration at the cortical level. The results were compared with findings from normal control subjects and from subjects who suffer from migraine without aura. The effects of stimulus intensity, subjective pain perception and attention were monitored and compared with features of the LEPS. Twenty-five CM patients, 15 subjects suffering from migraine without aura and 15 normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. LEPS amplitude variation was reduced in CM patients with respect to the perceived stimulus intensity, in comparison with migraine without aura patients and control subjects. In both headache groups, the distraction from the painful laser stimulus induced by an arithmetic task failed to suppress the LEPS amplitude, in comparison with control subjects. These results suggest an abnormal cortical processing of nociceptive input in CM patients, which could lead to the chronic state of pain. In both headache groups, an inability to reduce pain elaboration during an alternative cognitive task emerged as an abnormal behaviour probably predisposing to migraine. PMID:12507697

  11. Biospectral analysis of the bladder channel point in chronic low back pain patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Alberto Espinosa; Nava, Juan José Godina; Segura, Miguel Ángel Rodriguez; Bastida, Albino Villegas

    2012-10-01

    Chronic pain is the main cause of disability in the productive age people and is a public health problem that affects both the patient and society. On the other hand, there isn't any instrument to measure it; this is only estimated using subjective variables. The healthy cells generate a known membrane potential which is part of a network of biologically closed electric circuits still unstudied. It is proposed a biospectral analysis of a bladder channel point as a diagnosis method for chronic low back pain patients. Materials and methods: We employed a study group with chronic low back pain patients and a control group without low back pain patients. The visual analog scale (VAS) to determine the level of pain was applied. Bioelectric variables were measured for 10 seconds and the respective biostatistical analyses were made. Results: Biospectral analysis on frequency domain shows a depression in the 60-300 Hz frequency range proportional to the chronicity of low back pain compared against healthy patients.

  12. The oral administration of trans-caryophyllene attenuates acute and chronic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Paula-Freire, L I G; Andersen, M L; Gama, V S; Molska, G R; Carlini, E L A

    2014-02-15

    Trans-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene present in many medicinal plants' essential oils, such as Ocimum gratissimum and Cannabis sativa. In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive activity of trans-caryophyllene in murine models of acute and chronic pain and the involvement of trans-caryophyllene in the opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Acute pain was determined using the hot plate test (thermal nociception) and the formalin test (inflammatory pain). The chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve induced hypernociception was measured by the hot plate and von Frey tests. To elucidate the mechanism of action, mice were pre-treated with naloxone or AM630 30 min before the trans-caryophyllene treatment. Afterwards, thermal nociception was evaluated. The levels of IL-1? were measured in CCI-mice by ELISA. Trans-caryophyllene administration significantly minimized the pain in both the acute and chronic pain models. The antinociceptive effect observed during the hot plate test was reversed by naloxone and AM630, indicating the participation of both the opioid and endocannabinoid system. Trans-caryophyllene treatment also decreased the IL-1? levels. These results demonstrate that trans-caryophyllene reduced both acute and chronic pain in mice, which may be mediated through the opioid and endocannabinoid systems. PMID:24055516

  13. Qualitative Investigation of a Brief Chronic Pain Screening Tool in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Melonie M.; Herbey, Ivan; Chamot, Eric; Ritchie, Christine; Saag, Michael S.; Kertesz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain in HIV-infected patients is prevalent but understudied. A limitation of HIV/chronic pain research to date is the lack of a widely used chronic pain screening tool. A Brief Chronic Pain Screening tool (BCPS) has been described, but has not yet been tested in a clinical population. This study sought to evaluate how the BCPS is experienced by HIV-infected individuals, and adapt its questions if necessary. We conducted cognitive interviews using cognitive inquiry in participants from the UAB 1917 HIV Clinic Cohort. Data were analyzed using a process of inductive, iterative coding by three investigators. Results: Of 30 participants, most were male, African American, and less than 50 years old. Participants reported that the questions were understandable; however, feedback suggested concerns regarding lack of specificity in regard to the intensity and consistency of pain. An introductory statement aimed at improving clarity resulted in more divergent responses. This research team concluded that the version of the BCPS used in the first 30 interviews was optimum. Its inclusive language allows the respondent to decide what pain merits reporting. This study is the first investigation of the BCPS in a clinical population, and should lead to further quantitative validation studies of this tool. PMID:24621145

  14. Developments in managing severe chronic pain: role of oxycodone–naloxone extended release

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Guido; Fanelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a highly disabling condition, which can significantly reduce patients’ quality of life. Prevalence of moderate and severe chronic pain is high in the general population, and it increases significantly in patients with advanced cancer and older than 65 years. Guidelines for the management of chronic pain recommend opioids for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain in patients whose pain is not responsive to initial therapies with paracetamol and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite their analgesic efficacy being well recognized, adverse events can affect daily functioning and patient quality of life. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) occurs in 40% of opioid-treated patients. Laxatives are the most common drugs used to prevent and treat OIC. Laxatives do not address the underlying mechanisms of OIC; for this reason, they are not really effective in OIC treatment. Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist with low systemic bioavailability. When administered orally, naloxone antagonizes the opioid receptors in the gut wall, while its extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism ensures the lack of antagonist influence on the central-mediated analgesic effect of the opioids. A prolonged-release formulation consisting of oxycodone and naloxone in a 2:1 ratio was developed trying to reduce the incidence of OIC maintaining the analgesic effect compared with use of the sole oxycodone. This review includes evidence related to use of oxycodone and naloxone in the long-term management of chronic non-cancer pain and OIC. PMID:26229442

  15. Sublingual buprenorphine for chronic pain: A survey of clinician prescribing practices

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Kristen; Gutierrez, Antonio; Haller, Deborah; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sublingual buprenorphine, with and without naloxone, is indicated for the treatment of opioid use disorders. Although not approved for pain, some evidence suggests it may be a safe and effective alternative to conventional opioid analgesics, particularly for those with addiction problems. This study surveyed pain specialists to examine the extent to which sublingual buprenorphine was prescribed for chronic pain and explore associated clinician attitudes and characteristics. Method A 36-item survey examining clinician attitudes and characteristics related to sublingual buprenorphine and other opioids was distributed to 1,307 members of the American Pain Society, a multi-disciplinary professional group. Members were provided a paper copy of the survey and URL to an on-line version. A follow up letter was mailed after 2 weeks. Results Overall, 230 completed surveys were returned (18.5%). Of clinicians who prescribed opioids for chronic pain (92.5%), 19.7% reported prescribing sublingual buprenorphine for chronic pain at least once; of these prescribers, 39.6% did not have a DEA X-waiver to prescribe sublingual buprenorphine for opioid dependance. Prescribers were more likely than non-prescribers to find sublingual buprenorphine effective for chronic pain. Prescribers were also significantly more likely to view sublingual buprenorphine as safer than full agonists in terms of addiction, overdose, and drug interaction. No differences emerged between prescribers and non-prescribers regarding perceptions of potential for drug diversion or in terms of overall opioid prescribing behaviors. Discussion Results suggest that sublingual buprenorphine is indeed being used to treat chronic pain; however, the circumstances when this occurs are not entirely clear. PMID:23727654

  16. Relationship between chronic pain and brain reorganization after deafferentation: A systematic review of functional MRI findings?

    PubMed Central

    Jutzeler, C.R.; Curt, A.; Kramer, J.L.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying the development of phantom limb pain and neuropathic pain after limb amputation and spinal cord injury, respectively, are poorly understood. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the robustness of evidence in support of “maladaptive plasticity” emerging from applications of advanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Using MeSH heading search terms in PubMed and SCOPUS, a systematic review was performed querying published manuscripts. Results From 146 candidate publications, 10 were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Results from fMRI investigations provided some level of support for maladaptive cortical plasticity, including longitudinal studies that demonstrated a change in functional organization related to decreases in pain. However, a number of studies have reported no relationship between reorganization, pain and deafferentation, and emerging evidence has also suggested the opposite — that is, chronic pain is associated with preserved cortical function. Conclusion Based solely on advanced functional neuroimaging results, there is only limited evidence for a relationship between chronic pain intensity and reorganization after deafferentation. The review demonstrates the need for additional neuroimaging studies to clarify the relationship between chronic pain and reorganization.

  17. Insomnia Co-Occurring with Chronic Pain: Clinical Features, Interaction, Assessments and Possible Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Insomnia is a major source of distress to people with chronic pain; many of whom presenting for treatment want tangible help with sleep. Compared to chronic pain patients who do not have trouble sleeping, those who do, report more severe pain, longer pain duration, greater levels of anxiety, depression and health anxiety, and worse impairment in physical and psychosocial functioning. Sleep disturbance experienced by patients with chronic pain can be characterised by longer sleep onset, more frequent and longer awakenings after sleep onset, shorter total sleep time, lower sleep efficiency and poorer sleep quality. Such pattern of disturbance is analogous to that of primary insomnia. The relationship between pain and sleep is likely to be bi-directional, although exactly how the two problems interact is little understood. The offer of sleep advice and the use of pharmacotherapy for pain-related insomnia have their respective limitations. Psychological and behavioural treatments demonstrated to be effective for both primary and comorbid insomnia may be a viable treatment alternative. PMID:26525182

  18. Randomized trial of trigger point acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (p<0.001). Shoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (p<0.001). A comparison using the area under the outcome curves demonstrated a significant difference between groups (p=0.024). Compared with SH acupuncture therapy, TrP therapy appears more effective for chronic shoulder pain. PMID:24745863

  19. Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Presenting as Exercise-induced Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Famularo, Marissa; Lombardi, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Patients with a stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery and a widely patent celiac axis are often asymptomatic because of a rich network of collaterals between the two. Compression of the celiac axis by the diaphragm is, in patients without additional vascular disease, also frequently asymptomatic. Here, we describe an unusual case of exercise-induced abdominal pain caused by a combination of these two pathologies. In our patient with a previously occluded inferior mesenteric artery and a 90% superior mesenteric artery stenosis, celiac compression by the diaphragm, worsened with exercise, caused severe abdominal pain. This exercise-induced pain resolved completely with endovascular treatment of the superior mesenteric artery stenosis. PMID:26184369

  20. [Clinical pharmacology of medical cannabinoids in chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Ing Lorenzini, Kuntheavy; Broers, Barbara; Lalive, Patrice H; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules; Piguet, Valérie

    2015-06-24

    In Switzerland, medical cannabinoids can be prescribed under compassionate use after special authorization in justified indications such as refractory pain. Evidence of efficacy in pain is limited and the clinical benefit seems to be modest. Their drug-drug interactions (DDI) profile is poorly documented. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 2C9 and 3A4 are involved in the metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which implies possible DDI with CYP450 inhibitor and inducer, such as anticonvulsivants and HIV protease inhibitors, which may be prescribed in patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:26267945

  1. Long-Term Outcome of the Management of Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Dwight E; Clark, A John; Gordon, Allan; Lynch, Mary; Morley-Forster, Patricia K; Nathan, Howard; Smyth, Cathy; Toth, Cory; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Gilani, Ammar; Ware, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    This prospective observational cohort study addressed the long-term clinical effectiveness of the management of chronic neuropathic noncancer pain at 7 Canadian tertiary pain centers. Patients were treated according to standard guidelines and were followed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Standard outcome measures for pain, mood, quality of life, and overall treatment satisfaction were administered, with the primary outcome measure designated as the composite of 30% reduction in average pain intensity and 1-point decrease in the mean Interference Scale Score (0-10) of the Brief Pain Inventory at 12 months relative to baseline. Of 789 patients recruited, mean age was 53.5 ± 14.2 years (55% female) and mean duration of pain was 4.88 ± 5.82 years. Mean average pain intensity (0-10) at baseline was 6.1 ± 1.9. All standard outcome measures showed statistically significant improvement at 12 months relative to baseline (P < .001). However, only 23.7% attained clinically significant improvement in pain and function at 12 months as the primary outcome measure. Univariable analyses showed poorer outcomes at 12-month follow-up with longer duration of pain (P = .002), greater cigarette use (P = .01), more disability compensation (P = .001), and higher opioid doses at baseline and at 12 months (P < .02). Our present treatment modalities provide significant long-term benefit in only about a quarter of patients with neuropathic pain managed at tertiary care pain clinics. Opioid therapy may not be beneficial for the long term. Perspective: Evidence-based treatment of chronic neuropathic pain provides long-term benefit in only about one-quarter of patients seen in tertiary care centers. Opioid therapy may not be beneficial. PMID:26080044

  2. Practical considerations and patient selection for intrathecal drug delivery in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Saulino, Michael; Kim, Philip S; Shaw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain continues to pose substantial and growing challenges for patients, caregivers, health care professionals, and health care systems. By the time a patient with severe refractory pain sees a pain specialist for evaluation and management, that patient has likely tried and failed several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to pain treatment. Although relegated to one of the interventions of "last resort", intrathecal drug delivery can be useful for improving pain control, optimizing patient functionality, and minimizing the use of systemic pain medications in appropriately selected patients. Due to its clinical and logistical requirements, however, intrathecal drug delivery may fit poorly into the classic pain clinic/interventional model and may be perceived as a "critical mass" intervention that is feasible only for large practices that have specialized staff and appropriate office resources. Potentially, intrathecal drug delivery may be more readily adopted into larger practices that can commit the necessary staff and resources to support patients' needs through the trialing, initiation, monitoring, maintenance, and troubleshooting phases of this therapy. Currently, two agents - morphine and ziconotide - are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for long-term intrathecal delivery. The efficacy and safety profiles of morphine have been assessed in long-term, open-label, and retrospective studies of >400 patients with chronic cancer and noncancer pain types. The efficacy and safety profiles of ziconotide have been assessed in three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 457 patients, and safety has been assessed in 1,254 patients overall, with severe chronic cancer, noncancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pain types. Both agents are highlighted as first-line intrathecal therapy for the management of neuropathic or nociceptive pain. The purpose of this review is to discuss practical considerations for intrathecal drug delivery, delineate criteria for the identification and selection of candidates for intrathecal drug delivery, and consider which agent may be more appropriate for individual patients. PMID:25419158

  3. Practical considerations and patient selection for intrathecal drug delivery in the management of chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Saulino, Michael; Kim, Philip S; Shaw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain continues to pose substantial and growing challenges for patients, caregivers, health care professionals, and health care systems. By the time a patient with severe refractory pain sees a pain specialist for evaluation and management, that patient has likely tried and failed several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to pain treatment. Although relegated to one of the interventions of “last resort”, intrathecal drug delivery can be useful for improving pain control, optimizing patient functionality, and minimizing the use of systemic pain medications in appropriately selected patients. Due to its clinical and logistical requirements, however, intrathecal drug delivery may fit poorly into the classic pain clinic/interventional model and may be perceived as a “critical mass” intervention that is feasible only for large practices that have specialized staff and appropriate office resources. Potentially, intrathecal drug delivery may be more readily adopted into larger practices that can commit the necessary staff and resources to support patients’ needs through the trialing, initiation, monitoring, maintenance, and troubleshooting phases of this therapy. Currently, two agents – morphine and ziconotide – are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for long-term intrathecal delivery. The efficacy and safety profiles of morphine have been assessed in long-term, open-label, and retrospective studies of >400 patients with chronic cancer and noncancer pain types. The efficacy and safety profiles of ziconotide have been assessed in three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 457 patients, and safety has been assessed in 1,254 patients overall, with severe chronic cancer, noncancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pain types. Both agents are highlighted as first-line intrathecal therapy for the management of neuropathic or nociceptive pain. The purpose of this review is to discuss practical considerations for intrathecal drug delivery, delineate criteria for the identification and selection of candidates for intrathecal drug delivery, and consider which agent may be more appropriate for individual patients. PMID:25419158

  4. Management of Chronic Pain in the Rheumatic Diseases with Insights for the Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Shir, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    Pain that accompanies musculoskeletal conditions should be regarded as an illness entity in its own right and deserves treatment in parallel with the management of the underlying condition. Recent understanding of the pathophysiology of rheumatic pain invokes interplay of the nociceptive mechanisms driven by local tissue factors and the neurogenic responses that sustain chronic pain. In line with other pain conditions, ideal treatment of rheumatic pain should be through a multimodal approach, integrating nonpharmacologic as well as pharmacologic treatments. In the light of this new concept of pain mechanisms, future pharmacologic treatment options may encompass a wider scope than the use of traditional analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There is currently limited experience for use of pharmacologic treatments that act primarily on neurogenic mechanisms in rheumatic conditions. Drug combination studies are lacking, but this strategy seems clinically reasonable to allow for an approach to treating pain from different mechanistic perspectives. An added advantage would be the opportunity to use lower doses of individual drugs and thereby reduce the side effect profile. Ideal pain management must also include attention to the important co-associates of pain such as effects on sleep, mood and energy, which all have an impact on the global burden of suffering. Although complete relief of pain is still an unrealistic objective, reasonable outcome goals for symptom relief should be accompanied with an improvement in function. PMID:22870477

  5. Management of sickle pain.

    PubMed

    Ballas, S K

    1997-03-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of acute pain. Some patients also suffer from chronic pain syndromes including avascular necrosis, leg ulcers, and intractable pain. Approaches to rational therapy of sickle pain include pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and preventive therapeutic interventions. Pharmacologic treatment of sickle pain entails the use of nonopioid analgesics, opioid analgesics, and adjuvants singly or in combination depending on the severity of pain. Meticulous evaluation and assessment of painful episodes should precede and accompany all approaches to management. The choice of the opioid analgesic, its route of administration, dose, and frequency of administration should be individualized on a case-by-case basis. Meperidine should be avoided whenever possible. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, meperidine, and morphine are contraindicated in the presence of renal failure. Administration of opioids on a fixed schedule or by patient-controlled analgesia is ideal for effective therapy. Nonpharmacologic approaches to manage sickle pain are underutilized and more studies are needed to determine their role in sickle pain. Preventive therapy of sickle pain is best achieved with hydroxyurea, which was found to decrease the frequency of crises significantly, decrease the incidence of acute chest syndrome, and decrease the need for blood transfusion. PMID:9107526

  6. Treatment expectations among adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents before an initial pain clinic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Guite, Jessica W.; Kim, Sohee; Chen, Chia-Pei; Sherker, Jennifer L.; Sherry, David D.; Rose, John B.; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand expectations regarding treatment recommendations among treatment-seeking adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents. Methods A total of 102 adolescent-parent dyads were recruited at the time of initial contact with a multidisciplinary pain management clinic. Each participant completed reports of adolescent pain intensity and disability, biopsychosocial perspective of pain, and treatment expectations related to recommendations and feedback for a vignette description of an adolescent presenting at an initial multidisciplinary pain clinic evaluation. Results Descriptive findings for individual treatment expectations and adolescent-parent dyad agreement statistics were examined. Slight to fair levels of agreement occurred for 50% of the expectations assessed. The strongest shared expectations were for recommendations to return to school, pursue psychological counseling, and pursue PT/OT treatment. Stronger agreement occurred for items reflecting alternative, emotional, behavioral, and activity recommendations with weaker agreement for medical interventions (eg, medication and surgery). Correlations emerged between individual expectations and adolescent pain intensity, disability, with the greatest number of significant relationships found for adolescent and parent expectations and biopsychosocial perspectives of pain. Discussion Our results document that adolescents and parents show modest levels of agreement on expectations for treatment at the time of an initial pain clinic evaluation. This may relate to expectations being internal perspectives not clearly expressed within families; thus, the initial treatment consultation may provide an important opportunity to create and align appropriate expectations. Implications of our findings are considered with respect to education, treatment, and future research to understand factors that contribute to treatment adherence and outcomes. PMID:23446075

  7. Are neuroactive steroids promising therapeutic agents in the management of acute and chronic pain?

    PubMed Central

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Covey, Douglas F.; Todorovic, Slobodan M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Neuroactive steroids with potentiating effects on GABAA channels and inhibitory effects on T-type Ca2+ channels which are located in peripheral sensory neurons are potent modulators of pain perception. The focus of this review is on peripheral anti-nociceptive properties of 5?- and 5?-reduced neuroactive steroids with either selective or combined modulatory action on GABAA and T-type Ca2+ neurotransmission. We report that these neuroactive steroids are very effective in alleviating peripheral nociception in both acute and chronic pain conditions in animal models of pain. We believe that promising animal data warrant the exploration of their usefulness in clinical settings especially considering the fact that chronic pain sufferers are often young and otherwise healthy people. PMID:19577375

  8. A Learning and Teaching Resource on Patient Self-Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lin; Bundy, Anita; Ronaldson, Sue; McKenzie, Heather; Lewis, Peter; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop, pilot test, and evaluate an instructional module on patient self-management for undergraduate pharmacy students in an Australian university. Design. Learning outcomes and associated content and assessment tasks were developed, featuring lecture and readings, in-class discussions, and online delivery of in-depth interviews with patients who were living with chronic pain. Assessment. Students completed a premodule and postmodule questionnaire and were further assessed by multiple-choice questions following completion of the module and again at the end of the semester. Positive changes were identified in the students’ discourse surrounding patient self-management of chronic pain. Responses to multiple-choice questions showed that knowledge was sustained over the course of the semester. Conclusions. Completion of a comprehensive module on patient self-management increased undergraduate pharmacy students’ understanding and knowledge of patients experiencing chronic pain. The module could be implemented across other healthcare disciplines. PMID:23518902

  9. Expert insights on the design and implementation of interactive patient websites for people with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Schulz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a burden on an individual, social and economic level. Growing published research outlines various innovative online solutions aimed at addressing this issue, including interactive patient websites. This paper presents expert insights regarding an existing interactive chronic pain website, 'ONESELF', operating in Switzerland. Based on their experience, members of the research team involved in the 'ONESELF' project were asked to reflect about what they understood to be key considerations salient to designing and implementing such interventions. Thematic analysis uncovered five main themes that these experts used to interpret what worked, when and why in 'ONESELF' design and implementation: health literacy, Internet literacy, access to healthcare, adherence and attrition, and health outcomes. These findings may serves as a base to assist Australian health researchers and practitioners working toward developing effective interactive patient websites for people with chronic pain. PMID:25087536

  10. Ethical quandaries in caring for primary-care patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Patricia J; Rickard, Julie A

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade, more and more behavioral health providers have begun consultation practices in primary-care settings. Their availability makes multidisciplinary care a reality and the possibility of improved outcomes for patients with chronic pain more feasible. However, behavioral health providers encounter new ethical quandaries in providing services to patients with chronic pain and to the primary-care providers who plan their treatment. This article presents two cases to illustrate the questions that arise in delivery of primary-care behavioral health services to patients with chronic pain. Relevant professional ethical guidelines for psychologists, social workers, and physicians are examined and recommendations for addressing the gaps in extant guides are offered. PMID:23566128

  11. Naturopathic reflex therapies for the treatment of chronic back and neck pain - Part 1: Neurobiological foundations.

    PubMed

    Musial, Frauke; Spohn, Dorothee; Rolke, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from recent RCT's has shown that naturopathic reflex therapies such as massage, Gua Sha massage, cupping, wet packs, or rhythmic embrocation etc. are helpful in reducing symptoms of chronic pain. These bodily oriented therapies are likely able to influence chronic pain not only through brain mechanisms such as expectation or the feeling of well-being, but also through mechanisms at the level of the peripheral nociceptor and the spinal cord. However, the neurobiological basis of these effects has rarely been investigated even though the accumulating knowledge of the pathophysiology of chronic pain syndromes allows for developing specific hypotheses. This essay discusses specific reflex therapies (cupping, Gua Sha massage, classical massage, and rhythmic embrocation) and their possible mechanisms of action via ascending pathways to the brain. PMID:23860024

  12. Effects of complex manual therapy on PTSD, pain, function, and balance of male torture survivors with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify the impact of physiotherapy using complex manual therapy as a part of an integrated treatment for sequelae in the musculoskeletal system of torture survivors. [Subjects] This study reviewed 30 male torture survivors presenting with chronic low back pain. They were randomly selected and divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] For the experimental group, complex manual therapy was performed twice a week for 8 weeks to improve the physical sequelae of patients. Improvement was measured using the PDS-K for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain examination, the Korean Oswestry Disability Index (KODI) for back function assessment, and the Balance System SD as a dynamic balance test. The total period of the intervention for both groups was 8 weeks. [Results] For the experimental group, PDS-K, VAS, KODI, and the dynamic balance test all showed significant improvements after the intervention, which they did not for the control group. In the comparison of the groups, PDS-K, VAS, KODI, and the dynamic balance test all showed significant differences. [Conclusion] Complex manual therapy for torture survivors with chronic low back pain contributes to functional recovery by reducing back pain. The treatment can be considered to have positive effects on sequelae in the musculoskeletal system of torture survivors as they age. PMID:26504288

  13. Effects of complex manual therapy on PTSD, pain, function, and balance of male torture survivors with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify the impact of physiotherapy using complex manual therapy as a part of an integrated treatment for sequelae in the musculoskeletal system of torture survivors. [Subjects] This study reviewed 30 male torture survivors presenting with chronic low back pain. They were randomly selected and divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] For the experimental group, complex manual therapy was performed twice a week for 8 weeks to improve the physical sequelae of patients. Improvement was measured using the PDS-K for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain examination, the Korean Oswestry Disability Index (KODI) for back function assessment, and the Balance System SD as a dynamic balance test. The total period of the intervention for both groups was 8 weeks. [Results] For the experimental group, PDS-K, VAS, KODI, and the dynamic balance test all showed significant improvements after the intervention, which they did not for the control group. In the comparison of the groups, PDS-K, VAS, KODI, and the dynamic balance test all showed significant differences. [Conclusion] Complex manual therapy for torture survivors with chronic low back pain contributes to functional recovery by reducing back pain. The treatment can be considered to have positive effects on sequelae in the musculoskeletal system of torture survivors as they age. PMID:26504288

  14. How do people with chronically painful joint hypermobility syndrome make decisions about activity?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anne; Corcoran, Kelley; Grahame, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background: The model of activity avoidance prompted by fear of increased pain and/or harm dominates understanding and research into activity limitation in chronic pain. Yet, the accounts of people with chronic pain on decisions about activity limitation are rarely heard beyond the confines of fear and avoidance questionnaires. Methods: We used semi-structured interviews to explore the decisions of 11 women attending a pain management clinic with chronically painful Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS). Results: Six themes emerged from Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: the overall aim of keeping pain to a manageable level, considering whether the planned activity was worth it and, running through all judgements, the influence of pain intensity. The decision was tipped towards avoidance by unpredictability of pain and by high emotional cost and towards going ahead with the activity by the wish to exert control and by low emotional cost. Many accounts described a specifiable cost–benefit analysis of individual decisions, weighing the importance of each activity against its potential aversive consequences, which only in a minority of cases was dominated by fear of pain or injury. Conclusion: Assumptions of fear as the basis of activity avoidance should not be used uncritically in clinical settings. Decisions about activity should explore beyond pain expectancy, incorporating goals, values, and decision processes. Summary points The model of fear of pain or re/injury and associated avoidance, an important insight that has generated effective therapeutic interventions, risks being over-applied and assumed rather than demonstrated. Patients’ own accounts, using qualitative analysis of interview in 11 women with long term chronic pain associated with joint hypermobility, give a more nuanced description of complex decision-making around activity. While a few activities were unquestionably avoided because of such fears, others were undertaken when benefits (according to personal values, such as children’s needs) outweighed costs in pain and distress. We suggest that activity needs to be discussed with patients beyond asking about avoidance and in the context of their lifestyle choices. PMID:26516572

  15. Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Manzanares, J; Julian, MD; Carrascosa, A

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids are still widely considered illegal substances. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that they may result useful to treat diverse diseases, including those related with acute or chronic pain. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the machinery for the synthesis, transport, and degradation of these retrograde messengers, has equipped us with neurochemical tools for novel drug design. Agonist-activated cannabinoid receptors, modulate nociceptive thresholds, inhibit release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and display synergistic effects with other systems that influence analgesia, especially the endogenous opioid system. Cannabinoid receptor agonists have shown therapeutic value against inflammatory and neuropathic pains, conditions that are often refractory to therapy. Although the psychoactive effects of these substances have limited clinical progress to study cannabinoid actions in pain mechanisms, preclinical research is progressing rapidly. For example, CB1mediated suppression of mast cell activation responses, CB2-mediated indirect stimulation of opioid receptors located in primary afferent pathways, and the discovery of inhibitors for either the transporters or the enzymes degrading endocannabinoids, are recent findings that suggest new therapeutic approaches to avoid central nervous system side effects. In this review, we will examine promising indications of cannabinoid receptor agonists to alleviate acute and chronic pain episodes. Recently, Cannabis sativa extracts, containing known doses of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, have granted approval in Canada for the relief of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. Further double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effectiveness of various cannabinoid agonists-based medications for controlling different types of pain. PMID:18615144

  16. Management of chronic arthritis pain in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Lussier, David; Shir, Yoram

    2010-06-01

    Musculoskeletal pain in the elderly is common and disabling. As the conditions causing rheumatic pain, including osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis and soft-tissue conditions such as tendonitis and bursitis, are, for the most part, not curable, pain control is paramount in order to maintain quality of life. Pain management should be multimodal and tailored to the individual patient, and will likely include a combination of both nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Nonpharmacological treatments begin with education of the patient, encouragement to practise self-management strategies and attention to healthy life habits such as weight control and regular physical activity and exercise. Advice in this regard may be effectively given by healthcare professionals other than physicians. Although herbal products and nutritional supplements are commonly used by patients, studies of their efficacy and safety, especially in the elderly, are limited. In contrast, topical applications, and in particular those containing NSAIDs, are being used more frequently, are associated with fewer adverse effects than oral preparations and offer a new and safer treatment alternative. Similarly, intra-articular and soft-tissue injections of corticosteroids provide an easy and cost-effective option for symptom relief with minimal risk. The use of any pharmacological agent in the elderly should be tempered with caution regarding increased sensitivity to medications, drug-drug interactions and associated co-morbidities. Therefore, the elderly will often require down-adjustment of dosage and careful attention to the risk/benefit ratio of the treatment. There is, however, no single ideal pain medication for management of rheumatic pain. The four broad categories of treatments, namely simple analgesics (i.e. paracetamol [acetaminophen]), NSAIDs, stronger analgesics (i.e. opioids) and adjuvant drugs, each have unique and particular concerns regarding their adverse effect profiles. The continued use of any medication should also be repeatedly assessed to ensure that efficacy is maintained. Throughout the treatment period, physicians must remain vigilant for emergent adverse effects. Patients and physicians should have realistic outcome goals for effective rheumatic pain management. Although complete pain relief is seldom achieved, modulation of pain and the associated components of sleep disturbance, fatigue and mood disorder will improve overall quality of life in the elderly. However, barriers to effective pain management from both the patient and the healthcare professional perspectives still exist, and will be overcome only by educational efforts. Successful rheumatic pain management in the elderly should begin with an accurate diagnosis by the physician, and patients must be realistic in their expectations. Treatments should be multimodal, with attention given to the co-morbidities of pain as well as the global health status of the patient. Whether or not an outcome is favourable should be determined not only by the treatment's impact on pain but also by its capacity to improve function and enhance quality of life. The wider range of treatment options now available is both useful and encouraging for the physician managing musculoskeletal aches and pain in the elderly. PMID:20524707

  17. Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still the dominant method of pain treatment in Japan. The current study aimed to evaluate comprehensive psychological functions and processes in Japanese chronic pain patients. Methods The Rorschach Comprehensive System was administered to 49 in-patients with non-malignant chronic pain. Major variables and frequencies from the test were then compared to normative data from non-patient Japanese adults by way of the t-test and chi-square test. Results Patients exhibited high levels of emotional distress with a sense of helplessness with regard to situational stress, confusion, and ambivalent feelings. These emotions were managed by the patients in an inappropriate manner. Cognitive functions resulted in moderate dysfunction in all stages. Information processing tended to focus upon minute features in an inflexible manner. Mediational dysfunction was likely to occur with unstable affective conditions. Ideation was marked by pessimistic and less effective thinking. Since patients exhibited negative self-perception, their interpersonal relationship skills tended to be ineffective. Originally, our patients displayed average psychological resources for control, stress tolerance, and social skills for interpersonal relationships. However, patient coping styles were either situation- or emotion-dependent, and patients were more likely to exhibit emotional instability influenced by external stimuli, resulting in increased vulnerability to pain. Conclusions Data gathered from the Rorschach test suggested psychological approaches to support chronic pain patients that are likely to be highly beneficial, and we thus recommend their incorporation into the course of current pain treatments. PMID:21110860

  18. A prospective study of percutaneous vertebroplasty for chronic painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hong-Yu; Wang, Li-Min; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Yi-Lin; Song, Rui-Peng

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for patients with chronic painful osteoporotic compression fractures has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of PVP for patients with chronic painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients with chronic painful osteoporotic VCFs for ?3 months underwent PVP. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia. The outcomes were pain relief at one week, one month, three months, six months and one year, as measured by visual analogue scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO) and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire scores. RESULTS: The PVP procedures were technically successful and well tolerated in all patients. Sixty-two patients underwent PVP on 92 vertebrae in 73 procedures three to five days after referral, and no 30-day mortality was observed. Compared with baseline scores, improvement in visual analogue scale, Oswestry Disability Index, QUALEFFO and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire scores was significantly greater after PVP at one week (P<0.001), one month (P<0.001), three months (P<0.001), six months (P<0.001) and one year (P<0.001), and the number of patients using drugs for pain treatment was significantly reduced. Five new fractures were reported in five of 62 patients treated with PVP during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PVP is effective in patients with chronic painful osteoporotic VCFs. Pain relief after PVP was immediate, was sustained for one year and may be an important factor for reducing persistent pain. PMID:24945287

  19. A rare cause of chronic sciatic pain: Schwannoma of the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Rhanim, Abdelkarim; El Zanati, Rachid; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas are common, benign tumors of the shelth of peripheral nerves. Sciatic schwannomas are rare. Their symptomatology usually mimics sciatic pain due to a herniated disc, which can delay the diagnosis. If there is no lumbar pain and lumbar MRI is normal, the sciatic nerve must be clinically and radiologically examined all along its course. We report a case of sciatic nerve schwannoma presenting with chronic sciatica which was diagnosed and monitored radiologically for several years before successful surgical resection. PMID:26403631

  20. Strategies for Coping with Chronic Lower Back Pain in Patients with Long Physiotherapy Wait Time.

    PubMed

    Cabak, Anna; D?browska-Zimakowska, Anna; Truszczy?ska, Aleksandra; Rogala, Patryk; Laprus, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Wies?aw

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Treatment efficacy for the increasing prevalence of back pain is a great challenge for both health care providers and individuals coping with this problem. This study aimed to evaluate pain coping strategies used by primary care patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) as a supplementation of medical diagnosis before a physiotherapy programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 88 people were divided into 3 age groups: young adults (21-40 years old), middle-aged adults (41-60 years old), and the elderly (over 60 years old). Data was gathered from rehabilitation centers and primary medical care facilities. A cross-sectional design was used. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) was completed before the physiotherapy course. RESULTS Patients complained of CLBP for 11.32±6.81 years on average. The most common strategies to cope with back pain included declaring that the pain is manageable, praying and hoping, as well as increased behavioral activity. Statistically significant differences in coping strategies were found between age groups. The elderly patients were more likely to "declare coping with pain" in comparison to the younger age groups (p<0.01). People over 60 years of age were more likely to declare active coping with pain, while young people reported catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS Patients in different age groups had various difficulties in pain coping. Most of them required support in self-management of pain in addition to physiotherapy. The basic assessment of pain coping strategies should be consistently taken into account and included in rehabilitation protocols in chronic pain treatment. PMID:26670743

  1. Effects of Chronic Electroacupuncture on Depression- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Yue, Na; Liu, Shen-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Yu, Jin; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that chronic neuropathic pain is frequently accompanied by an array of psychiatric diseases, such as depression and anxiety. Electroacupuncture (EA), as one therapy of traditional Chinese medicine, has displayed potent antidepressant-like effects in numerous clinical studies. The present study was designed to examine the possible effects of EA on the depressive and anxiety disorders induced by neuropathic pain. A classic rat model of neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. EA was performed on acupoints “Bai-Hui” (GV20) and unilateral “Yang-Ling-Quan” (GB34). The antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of EA treatment were analyzed using the forced swimming test (FST) and the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, respectively. CCI resulted in remarkable depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, whereas the chronic EA treatment significantly improved the behavioral deficits of CCI rats. Moreover, the phosphorylation level of the NMDA receptor type 1 (NR1) subunit was decreased in the hippocampus of CCI rats. Intriguingly, continuous EA treatment effectively blocked this decrease in the levels of pNR1. These results suggested that EA has antidepressive and anxiolytic effects on rats with neuropathic pain and that this might be associated with restoring the phosphorylation of NR1 in the hippocampus. PMID:24795763

  2. Transdermal buprenorphine in chronic pain: indications and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Kusnik, Stefan; Likar, Rudolf; Sittl, Reinhard

    2008-11-01

    Transdermal buprenorphine has been shown to be effective in managing moderate-to-severe cancer pain and severe pain that is unresponsive to nonopioid analgesics. In clinical trials, it provided better pain relief than placebo, despite a higher consumption of rescue analgesia by placebo patients. Analgesia was rated as satisfactory or better by 90% of patients in a long-term follow-up study and 94.6% considered the buprenorphine matrix patch to be user friendly. Transdermal buprenorphine is well tolerated; most adverse events are transient local reactions to the patch or systemic effects typical of treatment with opioids. Even in opioid-experienced volunteers, buprenorphine does not cause respiratory depression at doses up to 70-times higher than those used for analgesia. No problems have been encountered when switching from another opioid to transdermal buprenorphine, or in combining the buprenorphine patch with intravenous morphine or tramadol for breakthrough pain. There is a growing body of evidence that transdermal buprenorphine may be particularly useful for managing neuropathic pain. Most notably, it appears to be effective in treating hyperalgesic states and syndromes characterized by pronounced central sensitization. PMID:24410602

  3. Assessment and Treatment of Abuse Risk in Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Serraillier, Juliana; Michna, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no “gold standard” for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management. PMID:22110936

  4. Canadian guideline for safe and effective use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a practical clinical summary of the Canadian Guideline for Safe and Effective Use of Opioids for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain, developed by the National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Quality of evidence Researchers for the guideline conducted a systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness and safety of opioids for chronic noncancer pain, and drafted a series of recommendations. A panel of 49 clinicians from across Canada reviewed the draft and achieved consensus on 24 recommendations. Main message Screening for addiction risk is recommended before prescribing opioids. Weak opioids (codeine and tramadol) are recommended for mild to moderate pain that has not responded to first-line treatments. Oxycodone, hydromorphone, and morphine can be tried in patients who have not responded to weaker opioids. A low initial dose and slow upward titration is recommended, with patient education and close monitoring. Physicians should watch for the development of complications such as sleep apnea. The optimal dose is one which improves function or decreases pain ratings by at least 30%. For by far most patients, the optimal dose will be well below a 200-mg morphine equivalent dose per day. Tapering is recommended for patients who have not responded to an adequate opioid trial. Conclusion Opioids play an important role in the management of chronic noncancer pain, but careful prescribing is needed to limit potential harms. The new Canadian guideline provides much-needed guidance to help physicians achieve a balance between optimal pain control and safety. PMID:22084455

  5. Assessment and treatment of abuse risk in opioid prescribing for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Robert N; Serraillier, Juliana; Michna, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no "gold standard" for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management. PMID:22110936

  6. Opioid use for Chronic Pain Management in Italy: Results from the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey Project.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Guido; Cherubino, Paolo; Compagnone, Christian

    2014-04-22

    Pain is a common symptom in orthopedic patients, but is managed sub-optimally, partly due to scarce opioid use in severe cases. The aim of the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey (POIS) was to evaluate changes in pain management in Italian orthopedic practice 2 years after a legislative change (Law 38/2010) simplifying opioid access for pain control. A web-based survey on the knowledge of this law and trends observed in clinical practice for severe pain treatment was administered to 143 Italian orthopedic specialists. In total, 101 (70%) respondents showed a high level of knowledge. Nevertheless, 54.5% stated that they do not use opioids for severe osteo-articular pain management. Main barriers to opioid use are fear of adverse events (61.4%), especially nausea/vomiting and constipation, and patient resistance (29.7%). A modest knowledge of pain classification was also demonstrated. Opioid use remains very limited in Italian orthopedic practice. Physicians' fear of side effects showed poor knowledge of strategies for effective management of opioid-related adverse events, such as combined oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone. Continuing educational programs could improve delivery of evidence-based pain management. PMID:25002934

  7. Opioid use for Chronic Pain Management in Italy: Results from the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey Project

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Guido; Cherubino, Paolo; Compagnone, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a common symptom in orthopedic patients, but is managed sub-optimally, partly due to scarce opioid use in severe cases. The aim of the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey (POIS) was to evaluate changes in pain management in Italian orthopedic practice 2 years after a legislative change (Law 38/2010) simplifying opioid access for pain control. A web-based survey on the knowledge of this law and trends observed in clinical practice for severe pain treatment was administered to 143 Italian orthopedic specialists. In total, 101 (70%) respondents showed a high level of knowledge. Nevertheless, 54.5% stated that they do not use opioids for severe osteo-articular pain management. Main barriers to opioid use are fear of adverse events (61.4%), especially nausea/vomiting and constipation, and patient resistance (29.7%). A modest knowledge of pain classification was also demonstrated. Opioid use remains very limited in Italian orthopedic practice. Physicians’ fear of side effects showed poor knowledge of strategies for effective management of opioid-related adverse events, such as combined oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone. Continuing educational programs could improve delivery of evidence-based pain management. PMID:25002934

  8. Psychological flexibility and catastrophizing as associated change mechanisms during online Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Fox, Jean-Paul; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2015-11-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic pain need further clarification. The role of, and associations between, pain-related psychological flexibility (PF) and pain catastrophizing (PC) were examined during a randomized controlled trial on internet-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT) for chronic pain. We assessed (1) the unique and combined indirect effects of PF and PC on outcomes, and (2) the causality of relations between PF, PC and the primary outcome pain interference in daily life (MPI) during ACT. A total of 238 pain sufferers were allocated to either ACT, a control condition on Expressive Writing, or a waiting list condition. Non-parametric cross-product of coefficients mediational analyses and cross-lagged panel designs were applied. Compared to control conditions, both baseline to post-intervention changes in PF and PC seemed to uniquely mediate baseline to three-month follow-up changes in pain interference and psychological distress. Only PF mediated changes in pain intensity. Indirect effects were twice as large for PF (?² = .09-.19) than for PC (?² PCS = .05-.10). Further assessment of changes during ACT showed, however, that only PF, and not PC, predicted subsequent changes in MPI, while early and late changes in both PF and PC predicted later changes in each other. In conclusion, only PF functioned as a direct, causal working mechanism during ACT, with larger indirect effects that occurred earlier than changes in PC. Additionally, PC may function as an indirect mechanism of change during ACT for chronic pain via its direct influence on PF. PMID:26409158

  9. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (?0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (?17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study. PMID:26203273

  10. Fatigue in chronic inflammation - a link to pain pathways.

    PubMed

    Louati, Karine; Berenbaum, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a frequent symptom in several inflammatory diseases, particularly in rheumatic diseases. Elements of disease activity and cognitive and behavior aspects have been reported as causes of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fatigue could be associated with activity of inflammatory rheumatism. Indeed, biologic agents targeting inflammatory cytokines are effective in fatigue. Fatigue is also associated with pain and depressive symptoms. Different pathways could be involved in fatigue and interact: the immune system with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 and -6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha), dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurological phenomena involving the central and autonomic nervous systems. A pro-inflammatory process could be involved in pain and behavioral symptoms. Inflammation could be a common link between fatigue, pain, and depression. PMID:26435495

  11. Vitamin D and Pain: Vitamin D and Its Role in the Aetiology and Maintenance of Chronic Pain States and Associated Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.; Shipton, Elspeth E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of new data suggests that the benefits of Vitamin D extend beyond healthy bones. This paper looks at Vitamin D and its role in the aetiology and maintenance of chronic pain states and associated comorbidities. The interfaces between pain and Vitamin D and the mechanisms of action of Vitamin D on pain processes are explored. Finally the association between Vitamin D and pain comorbidities such as sleep and depression is investigated. The paper shows that Vitamin D exerts anatomic, hormonal, neurological, and immunological influences on pain manifestation, thereby playing a role in the aetiology and maintenance of chronic pain states and associated comorbidities. More research is necessary to determine whether Vitamin D is useful in the treatment of various pain conditions and whether or not the effect is limited to patients who are deficient in Vitamin D. PMID:26090221

  12. Phytotherapy of chronic abdominal pain following pancreatic carcinoma surgery: a single case observation

    PubMed Central

    Wiebelitz, Karl Rüdiger; Beer, André-Michael

    2012-01-01

    A patient with pancreatic carcinoma diagnosed in 2005 suffered from chronic abdominal pain 6 years later that did not respond to conventional pain treatment according to guidelines. Furthermore, several complementary medical approaches remained ineffective. In the long run, only an Iberis amara drug combination relieved pain sufficiently. The drug is registered in Germany for the indications irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia. The multi-target approach of this combination drug may account for the effectiveness under these fundamentally different pathophysiological conditions. No serious undesired effects have been described in the use of this drug for other indications and none were observed in this case. PMID:23097614

  13. Improving the assessment of pediatric chronic pain: harnessing the potential of electronic diaries.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jennifer N

    2009-01-01

    Current methods for evaluating chronic pain in children suffer from methodological problems. Real-time data capture approaches using electronic diaries have been proposed as a new standard for pain measurement. However, there is limited information available regarding the development, feasibility and validity of these approaches in children. The present paper reviews problems with current measures; rationale for developing real-time data capture approaches using electronic diaries; mechanics of developing electronic pain diaries; current evidence regarding their usability, feasibility and validity; and discusses future directions for research in this area. PMID:19262918

  14. Influence of Pilates Mat and Apparatus Exercises on Pain and Balance of Businesswomen with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants’ static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE. PMID:24764614

  15. Pancreatic cancer and chronic thoracic back pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yurkiw, Dennis J

    1995-01-01

    A male with persistent thoracic spine pain and clinical symptoms suggesting a more grave condition than mechanical back pain is presented. The patient had previously been attended to by a medical doctor and a chiropractor. The symptom picture and the ineffectiveness of previously administered chiropractic care suggests a medical referral with further investigation. The importance of history taking is emphasized. An accurate diagnosis and administration of the appropriate treatment is paramount because the prognosis of detected pancreatic cancer is poor. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

  16. [Efficacy of an internet-delivered aftercare program for patients with chronic back pain].

    PubMed

    Moessner, Markus; Aufdermauer, Nicole; Baier, Christa; Göbel, Hartmut; Kuhnt, Oliver; Neubauer, Eva; Poesthorst, Helge; Kordy, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Chronic back pain leads to high societal costs and severely decreased quality of life for the sufferers. Pain treatment aims at sustainable behaviour changes in order to positively affect pain development in the medium term. A multicenter, randomised control trial was conducted. Participants (N=334) were recruited at 6 German hospitals and randomly assigned to an Internet-based aftercare intervention or treatment-as-usual. Primary endpoint was 12 months after treatment termination, primary outcome was pain intensity, and secondary outcomes were physical functioning, quality of life, and ability to work.The intervention was well accepted by the participants. Its efficacy could not be demonstrated. Neither pain intensity nor the secondary outcomes differed between the 2 study groups.Possible reasons for disappointing efficacy and preconditions for Internet-based programs will be discussed. PMID:24101036

  17. Perioperative Pain Management for Patients on Chronic Buprenorphine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chern, Sy-Yeu S; Isserman, Rebecca; Chen, Linda; Ashburn, Michael; Liu, Renyu

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a patient with a Type I Chiari malformation who was receiving buprenorphine for chronic pain who underwent two separate urogynecologic procedures for removal of vaginal mesh with two different pain management regimens. For the first procedure at an outside hospital, the patient’s usual dose of buprenorphine (8 mg sublingual every 8 hours) was continued up through her surgery and then a full opioid receptor agonist was used for postoperative pain management. The patient complained that this resulted in very poor pain control for her in the postoperative period. Prior to her second procedure, which was performed at our institution, buprenorphine was switched to a full opioid agonist (oral hydromorphone 4 mg every 4 to 6 hours, maximum 20 mg per day) for 5 days prior to surgery; postoperative pain was managed with full opioid receptor agonists. The patient again reported suboptimal pain control in spite of substantially increased doses of opioids. This case report highlights the difficulty of perioperative pain management for patients on chronic buprenorphine and emphasizes the need for additional investigation. PMID:24307971

  18. Increased thermal pain sensitivity in animals exposed to chronic high dose Vicodin but not pure hydrocodone.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Thomas F; Carpenter, Patrick S; Caballero, Nadia; Putnam, Andrew J; Steere, Joshua T; Matz, Gregory J; Foecking, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    Vicodin, the combination drug of acetaminophen and the opioid hydrocodone, is one of the most prescribed drugs on the market today. Opioids have demonstrated the ability to paradoxically cause increased pain sensitivity to users in a phenomena called opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). While selected opioids have been shown to produce OIH symptoms in an animal model, hydrocodone and the combination drug Vicodin have yet to be studied. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of exposure to chronic high dose Vicodin or its components on the sensitivity to both thermal and mechanical pain. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups, Vicodin, acetaminophen, hydrocodone, or vehicle control, and administered the drug daily for 120 days. Rats were subsequently tested for thermal and mechanical sensitivity. The rats in the Vicodin group displayed a significant decrease in withdrawal time to thermal pain. The rats receiving acetaminophen, hydrocodone, and vehicle showed no statistically significant hypersensitivity in thermal testing. None of the groups demonstrated statistically significant hypersensitivity to mechanical testing. The data suggests Vicodin produces signs of OIH in a rodent model. However, increased pain sensitivity was only noted in the thermal pathway and the hypersensitivity was only seen with the opioid combination drug, not the opioid alone. The results of this study both support the results of previous rodent opioid studies while generating further questions about the specific properties of Vicodin that contribute to pain hypersensitivity. The growing use of Vicodin to treat chronic pain necessitates further research looking into this paradoxical pain response. PMID:25054394

  19. Managing Chronic Pain in Adults with or in Recovery from Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is common in the general population as well as in people who have a substance use disorder (SUD) (Exhibit 1-1). Chronic pain is not harmless; it has physiological, social, and psychological dimensions that can seriously harm health, functioning, and well-being. As a multidimensional condition with both objective and…

  20. The cortical rhythms of chronic back pain INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    ) Spatial distribution of spectral power for BOLD oscillations in healthy and CBP 2 A)Brain maps show spatial distribution of the group average spectral power for the three frequency band (low: 0.01-0.05 Hz patient during pain and visual rating tasks. Second panel show the spectrogram of the mPFC BOLD signal

  1. Acupuncture for chronic low back pain: protocol for a multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of acupuncture has widely increased in patients with chronic low back pain. However, the evidence supporting its efficacy remains unclear. In this article, we report the design and the protocol of a multi-center randomized sham-controlled trial to treat chronic low back pain. Our goal is to verify the effect of acupuncture on chronic low back pain. Methods/Design This study is a multi-center randomized sham-controlled trial with 2 parallel arms. Participants included in the study met the following criteria: 1) low back pain lasting for at least the last 3 months, 2) a documented ? 5 points on a 10 cm visual analog scale for bothersomeness of low back pain at the time of screening and 3) between 18 and 65 years of age. Participants were blinded to the real and sham acupuncture treatments. The real acupuncture treatment group received real acupuncture 2 times a week, during a total of 12 sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received sham acupuncture during the same period. In order to assess the primary and secondary outcome measures, the participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire at the baseline and 6, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after starting the treatments. The primary outcome was measured using the visual analog scale for bothersomeness of low back pain at 8 weeks after the initiation of treatments. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2010) will demonstrate the efficacy of using acupuncture to treat chronic low back pain. Trial registration This study is registered with the U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials registry: NCT00815529 PMID:20540806

  2. Interventional Therapies for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Focused Review (Efficacy and Outcomes)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram B.; Wasserman, Ronald; Imani, Farnad

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower back pain is considered to be one of the most common complaints that brings a patient to a pain specialist. Several modalities in interventional pain management are known to be helpful to a patient with chronic low back pain. Proper diagnosis is required for appropriate intervention to provide optimal benefits. From simple trigger point injections for muscular pain to a highly complex intervention such as a spinal cord stimulator are very effective if chosen properly. The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive reading for treatment of lower back pain using interventional modalities. Evidence Acquisition: Extensive search for published literature was carried out online using PubMed, Cochrane database and Embase for the material used in this manuscript. This article describes the most common modalities available to an interventional pain physician along with the most relevant current and past references for the treatment of lower back pain. All the graphics and images were prepared by and belong to the author. Results: This review article describes the most common modalities available to an interventional pain physician along with the most relevant current and past references for the treatment of lower back pain. All the graphics and images belong to the author. Although it is beyond the scope of this review article to include a very detailed description of each procedure along with complete references, a sincere attempt has been made to comprehensively cover this very complex and perplexing topic. Conclusion: Lower back pain is a major healthcare issue and this review article will help educate the pain practitioners about the current evidence based treatment options. PMID:26484298

  3. The MAPP research network: a novel study of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) may be defined to include interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The hallmark symptom of UCPPS is chronic pain in the pelvis, urogenital floor, or external genitalia often accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite numerous past basic and clinical research studies there is no broadly identifiable organ-specific pathology or understanding of etiology or risk factors for UCPPS, and diagnosis relies primarily on patient reported symptoms. In addition, there are no generally effective therapies. Recent findings have, however, revealed associations between UCPPS and “centralized” chronic pain disorders, suggesting UCPPS may represent a local manifestation of more widespread pathology in some patients. Here, we describe a new and novel effort initiated by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) to address the many long standing questions regarding UCPPS, the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network. The MAPP Network approaches UCPPS in a systemic manner, in which the interplay between the genitourinary system and other physiological systems is emphasized. The network’s study design expands beyond previous research, which has primarily focused on urologic organs and tissues, to utilize integrated approaches to define patient phenotypes, identify clinically-relevant subgroups, and better understand treated natural history and pathophysiology. Thus, the MAPP Network provides an unprecedented, multi-layered characterization of UCPPS. Knowledge gained is expected to provide important insights into underlying pathophysiology, a foundation for better segmenting patients for future clinical trials, and ultimately translation into improved clinical management. In addition, the MAPP Network’s integrated multi-disciplinary research approach may serve as a model for studies of urologic and non-urologic disorders that have proven refractory to past basic and clinical study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01098279 “Chronic Pelvic Pain Study of Individuals with Diagnoses or Symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis and/or Chronic Prostatitis (MAPP-EP)”. PMID:25085007

  4. Impact of a multidisciplinary pain program for the management of chronic low back pain in patients undergoing spine surgery and primary total hip replacement: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a very common disorder. In this field chronic low back pain represents a special challenge. The management of chronic low back pain consists of a range of different intervention strategies. Usually operative intervention should be avoided if possible. However, there are constellations were surgical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain seems to be meaningful. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes after spine surgery and hip replacement in patients with chronic low back pain after undergoing a structured rehabilitation program including cognitive – behavioral therapy. Methods From January 1, 2007 to January 1, 2010 patients were indicated for total hip replacement (THA) or spine surgery after receiving inpatient multidisciplinary pain programs including cognitive – behavioral therapy at our orthopedic institute with a specialized unit for the rehabilitation of chronic pain patients. Indications for surgery were based on the synopsis of clinical and imaging findings and on positive effects after local injections during the multidisciplinary pain program. The tools for assessment included follow-up at 6 and 12 months and analyses of pain, chronicity, physical functioning and depression. Results Of the 256 patients admitted for multidisciplinary pain program, fifteen were indicated to benefit from a surgical intervention during multidisciplinary pain program. Ten patients received spine surgery. THA was indicated in five patients. In all cases, the peri- and postoperative clinical courses were uneventful. Only two of the patients subjected to spine surgery and three patients who had THA were improved after 12 months. One patient reported a worsened condition. All patients presented with good functional outcomes and normal radiological findings. Conclusions The indication for surgical intervention in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative diseases must be critically assessed. THA in this cohort should focus on functional aspects, such as the improvement of range of motion, rather than the reduction of pain. Spine surgery in chronic low back pain patients after multidisciplinary pain program including cognitive – behavioral therapy cannot be recommended due to its questionable success. PMID:25473419

  5. Report of the NIH Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:26388962

  6. Osteopathic Manual Treatment and Ultrasound Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Licciardone, John C.; Minotti, Dennis E.; Gatchel, Robert J.; Kearns, Cathleen M.; Singh, Karan P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE We studied the efficacy of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) and ultrasound therapy (UST) for chronic low back pain. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design was used to study OMT and UST for short-term relief of nonspecific chronic low back pain. The 455 patients were randomized to OMT (n = 230) or sham OMT (n = 225) main effects groups, and to UST (n = 233) or sham UST (n = 222) main effects groups. Six treatment sessions were provided over 8 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed to measure moderate and substantial improvements in low back pain at week 12 (30% or greater and 50% or greater pain reductions from baseline, respectively). Five secondary outcomes, safety, and treatment adherence were also assessed. RESULTS There was no statistical interaction between OMT and UST. Patients receiving OMT were more likely than patients receiving sham OMT to achieve moderate (response ratio [RR] = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.64; P <.001) and substantial (RR = 1.41, 95% CI, 1.13-1.76; P = .002) improvements in low back pain at week 12. These improvements met the Cochrane Back Review Group criterion for a medium effect size. Back-specific functioning, general health, work disability specific to low back pain, safety outcomes, and treatment adherence did not differ between patients receiving OMT and sham OMT. Nevertheless, patients in the OMT group were more likely to be very satisfied with their back care throughout the study (P <.001). Patients receiving OMT used prescription drugs for low back pain less frequently during the 12 weeks than did patients in the sham OMT group (use ratio = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.43-1.00; P = .048). Ultrasound therapy was not efficacious. CONCLUSIONS The OMT regimen met or exceeded the Cochrane Back Review Group criterion for a medium effect size in relieving chronic low back pain. It was safe, parsimonious, and well accepted by patients. PMID:23508598

  7. REPORT OF THE NIH TASK FORCE ON RESEARCH STANDARDS FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:24787228

  8. Functional abdominal pain patient subtypes in childhood predict functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic pain and psychiatric comorbidities in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lynn S; Sherman, Amanda L; Bruehl, Stephen; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A

    2012-09-01

    Although pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP) has been linked to abdominal pain later in life, childhood predictors of long-term outcomes have not been identified. This study evaluated whether distinct FAP profiles based on patterns of pain and adaptation in childhood could be identified and whether these profiles predicted differences in clinical outcomes and central sensitization (wind-up) on average 9years later. In 843 pediatric FAP patients, cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups at initial FAP evaluation based on profiles of pain severity, gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms, pain threat appraisal, pain coping efficacy, catastrophizing, negative affect, and activity impairment. Three profiles were identified: high pain dysfunctional, high pain adaptive, and low pain adaptive. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age and sex showed that, compared with pediatric patients with the low pain adaptive profile, those with the high pain dysfunctional profile were significantly more likely at long-term follow-up to meet criteria for pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) (odds ratio: 3.45, confidence interval: 1.95 to 6.11), FGID with comorbid nonabdominal chronic pain (odds ratio: 2.6, confidence interval: 1.45 to 4.66), and FGID with comorbid anxiety or depressive psychiatric disorder (odds ratio: 2.84, confidence interval: 1.35 to 6.00). Pediatric patients with the high pain adaptive profile had baseline pain severity comparable to that of the high pain dysfunctional profile, but had outcomes as favorable as the low pain adaptive profile. In laboratory pain testing at follow-up, high pain dysfunctional patients showed significantly greater thermal wind-up than low pain adaptive patients, suggesting that a subgroup of FAP patients has outcomes consistent with widespread effects of heightened central sensitization. PMID:22721910

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Axial Pain, Inflammatory Back Pain, and Spondyloarthritis in Diagnosed Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Nicole; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Zhang, Xiao; Reveille, John; Weisman, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide prevalence estimates for inflammatory back pain (IBP) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) in those subjects with psoriasis using 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Methods In the NHANES 2009–2010 sample set, 6,684 persons ages 20–69 years were screened for participation, and 5,103 answered questions regarding onset of back pain, location of pain, and functional limitations. Data set assembly and statistical analysis were performed using SASTM and SUDAAN software. SEs were estimated by Taylor series linearization. The equality of the prevalence estimates for selected variables was tested (univariately) at an alpha level of 0.05 using 2-sided Student’s t-test with appropriate degrees of freedom. Results A total of 148 persons had self-reported medically diagnosed psoriasis. The psoriasis group versus the nonpsoriasis group had a significantly higher prevalence of axial pain using the 3-month duration criterion (31.1% versus 18.9%; P = 0.04) and alternating buttock pain (7.2% versus 2.4%; P = 0.03) and more frequently met IBP criteria from Berlin criteria 7b and 8a (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The prevalence of SpA was significantly higher in the psoriasis group versus the nonpsoriasis group when using Amor or European Spondyloarthritis Study Group criteria (14.3% versus 1.5%; P < 0.001). Sudden onset of axial pain was significantly higher in the psoriasis group (23.3% versus 13.0%; P = 0.01). Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of lower axial pain, IBP, SpA, and alternating buttock pain associated with a prior diagnosis of psoriasis. These data may influence the way psoriasis patients are approached in primary care and specialty clinics. PMID:25469666

  10. The use of CAM and conventional treatments among primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Majid; Croft, Peter; Lewis, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the single most cited reason for use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Primary care is the most frequent conventional medical service used by patients with pain in the UK. We are unaware, however, of a direct evidence of the extent of CAM use by primary care patients, and how successful they perceive it to be. Methods Aims and objectives To determine CAM use among patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who have consulted about their pain in primary care. Study design Face-to-face interview-based survey. Setting Three general practices in North Staffordshire. Participants Respondents to a population pain survey who had reported having musculoskeletal pain in the survey and who had consulted about their pain in primary care in the previous 12 months as well as consenting to further research and agreeing to an interview. Information was gathered about their pain and the use of all treatments for pain, including CAM, in the previous year. Results 138 interviews were completed. 116 participants (84%) had used at least one CAM treatment for pain in the previous year. 65% were current users of CAM. The ratio of over-the-counter CAM use to care from a CAM provider was 3:2. 111 participants (80%) had used conventional treatment. 95 (69%) were using a combination of CAM and conventional treatment. Glucosamine and fish oil were the most commonly used CAM treatments (38%, 35% respectively). Most CAM treatments were scored on average as being helpful, and users indicated that they intended to use again 87% of the CAM treatments they had already used. Conclusion We provide direct evidence that most primary care consulters with chronic musculoskeletal pain have used CAM in the previous year, usually in combination with conventional treatments. The high prevalence and wide range of users experiences of benefit and harm from CAM strengthen the argument for more research into this type of medicine to quantify benefit and assess safety. The observation that most users of conventional medicine also used CAM suggests a continuing need for more investigation of effective pain management in primary care. PMID:17480212

  11. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Chronic Respiratory Failure in Patients with Chronic Pain on Long Term Opioid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Anand R.; Catcheside, Peter G.; McEvoy, R. Doug; Paul, Denzil; Kapur, Dilip; Peak, Emily; Vakulin, Andrew; Antic, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The use of opioid medication for chronic pain has been increasing. The main aim of this study was to assess how many patients on opioids for chronic pain had sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and the type of SDB. The impact of these medications on daytime arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements and psychomotor vigilance was also studied. Methods: Twenty-four patients (aged 18-75 years) on long-term opioids were prospectively recruited. Patients underwent home polysomnogram (PSG), psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT), and awake daytime ABG. Overnight PSG findings were compared to those of patients matched for age, sex, and BMI referred to our sleep service for evaluation of SDB. PVT results in the patient cohort were compared to PVT in healthy controls. Results: Forty-six percent of opioid patients had severe SDB as defined by an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) > 30/h. The severity of SDB was similar in opioid-treated pain clinic patients and sleep clinic patients (mean ± SD AHI: Opioid-treated patients 32.7 ± 25.6; Sleep Study comparator group 28.9 ± 24.6, p = 0.6). Opioid patients had a higher frequency of central apneas and a lower arousal index (CAI: 3.9 ± 8.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 events/h; p = 0.004, AI 8.0 ± 4.1 vs. 20.1 ± 13.8, p < 0.001). Pain clinic patients had impaired gas exchange during sleep and wakefulness. Nine of 20 (45%) had daytime hypercapnia, indicating a surprising number were in chronic respiratory failure. Morphine equivalent doses correlated with the severity of SDB. PVT was impaired when compared to a healthy PVT comparator group (RT: Opioid-treated patients 0.43 ± 0.27: Healthy PVT comparator group 0.28 ± 0.03 sec; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients on long-term opioids frequently have severe SDB, which in part is central in origin. PVT was markedly impaired. Half of the patients studied have evidence of chronic ventilatory failure. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 853. Citation: Rose AR, Catcheside PG, McEvoy RD, Paul D, Kapur D, Peak E, Vakulin A, Antic NA. Sleep disordered breathing and chronic respiratory failure in patients with chronic pain on long term opioid therapy. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):847-852. PMID:25126029

  12. Discovery of the drivers of inflammation induced chronic low back pain: from bacteria to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorth, Deborah J; Shapiro, Irving M; Risbud, Makarand V

    2015-10-01

    The intervertebral disc is a unique avascular organ that supports axial skeleton flexion and rotation. The high proteoglycan content of the nucleus pulposus tissue, present at the center of the disc, is pivotal for its mechanical function, distribution of compressive loads. Chronic low back pain, a prevalent and costly condition, is strongly associated with disc degeneration. Degenerated discs exhibit high levels of inflammatory cytokines, matrix catabolizing enzymes, and an overall reduction in proteoglycan content. Although the cytokine profile of diseased discs has been widely studied, little is known of what initiates and drives inflammation and subsequent low back pain. Recent studies have shown that anaerobic bacteria are present in a high percentage of painful, herniated discs and long-term treatment with antibiotics resolves symptoms associated with chronic low back pain. It is thought that these anaerobic bacteria in the disc may stimulate inflammation through toll-like receptors to further exacerbate disc degeneration. Despite the promise and novelty of this theory, there are other possible inflammatory mediators that need careful consideration. The metabolic environment associated with diabetes and atypical matrix degradation products also have the ability to activate many of the same inflammatory pathways as seen during microbial infection. It is therefore imperative that the research community must investigate the contribution of all possible drivers of inflammation to address the wide spread problem of discogenic chronic low back pain. PMID:26562470

  13. (+)-Borneol alleviates mechanical hyperalgesia in models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Shen, Ying Ying; Li, Jun; Lin, Yu Hui; Luo, Chun Xia; Zhu, Dong Ya

    2015-06-15

    Chronic pain is a major public health problem categorized as inflammatory or neuropathic, each involving impaired GABAergic control in the spinal cord of mammals. (+)-Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene present in the essential oil of plants, is used for analgesia and anesthesia in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been reported that (+)-borneol directly potentiates GABA activity at recombinant human GABAA receptors. Although borneol has antinociceptive effect on acute pain models, little is known about its effect on chronic pain and its mechanism. Here we report that (+)-borneol has remarkable anti-hyperalgesic effects on neuropathic and inflammatory pain in animal models. Neuropathic hypersensitivity was induced by segmental spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and inflammatory hypersensitivity was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of complete Freund?s adjuvant (CFA). Both oral administration (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg) and intrathecal injection (i.t.) (15, 30 and 60 ?g) of (+)-borneol reduced mechanical hypersensitivity dose-dependently in SNL and CFA models. The anti-hyperalgesic effects of (+)-borneol were abolished by a selective GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonist bicuculline (i.t., at 30 min after (+)-borneol injection). Furthermore, (+)-borneol (500 mg/kg, p.o. or 60 ?g, i.t.) did not influence motor function. These findings suggest that (+)-borneol may ameliorate mechanical hyperalgesia by enhancing GABAAR-mediated GABAergic transmission in the spinal cord, and could serve as a therapeutic for chronic pain. PMID:25835611

  14. Critical appraisal of extended-release hydrocodone for chronic pain: patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Harry J; Paul, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are currently the most effective pharmacologic option for the management of both acute and chronic forms of moderate-to-severe pain. Although the “as-needed” use of immediate-release formulations is considered optimum for treating acute, painful episodes of limited duration, the scheduled dosing of extended-release formulations with immediate-release supplementation for breakthrough pain is regarded to be most effective for managing chronic conditions requiring around-the-clock treatment. The recent introduction of extended-release formulations of the opioid analgesic hydrocodone potentially broadened the possibility of providing pain relief for individuals for whom current formulations are either ineffective or not tolerated. However, reaction to the approval of the new formulations has fueled controversy over the general safety and need for opioid medications, in light of their potential for misuse, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Here, we discuss how the approval of extended-release formulations of hydrocodone and the emotionally charged controversy over their release may affect physician prescribing and the care available to patients in need of chronic opioid therapy for the management of pain. PMID:26543371

  15. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  16. Theory of Mind and Emotional Awareness in Chronic Somatoform Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Halski, Agnes; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed at investigating whether chronic pain patients are impaired in Theory of Mind (ToM), or Emotional Awareness. Methods Thirty inpatients suffering from chronic somatoform pain, as well as thirty healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education were recruited. ToM abilities were measured using the Frith-Happé animation task, in which participants interpret video-clips depicting moving geometric forms that mimic social interactions. The responses given were scored for appropriateness and the degree of inferred intentionality according to established protocols. Emotional awareness was measured using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), for which participants provide written descriptions of feelings in imaginary emotional situations. Standardized scoring was performed to capture the number and quality of emotional terms used. Results Responses lengths were similar in both groups and for both tasks. Patients attained significantly lower intentionality but not appropriateness scores when interpreting ToM interactions. No significant group differences were found when interpreting goal directed interactions. Emotional awareness scores were significantly lower in patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that chronic pain patients are impaired in mentalizing and emotional awareness. Future studies are needed to determine whether these ToM and emotional awareness deficits contribute to the etiology of somatoform pain and whether addressing these deficits in therapeutic interventions can improve polymodal pain therapy. PMID:26445110

  17. Treating co-occurring chronic low back pain & generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Kristina; Peters-Watral, Brenda

    2016-01-16

    The complex, bidirectional correlation between chronic low back pain (CLBP) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), common ailments in primary care, can increase the risk of inadequate treatment. This article will review the relationship between CLBP and GAD and provide optimal management strategies for NPs caring for individuals with this dyad. PMID:26642348

  18. Treatment of Oppositional Behavior in Children of Parents with Brain Injury and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, Joseph M.; Davidson, Amy; Rushford, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    This case study evaluated effects of errorless compliance training on cooperation of sons of two fathers with brain injury and chronic pain. Following treatment, children displayed high levels of compliance to parent requests as well as generalization and maintenance of treatment gains. Errorless compliance training is recommended to foster…

  19. Prevalence and conditions associated with chronic pelvic pain in women from São Luís, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, L.S.C.; Brito, L.M.O.; Chein, M.B.C.; Mascarenhas, T.S.; Costa, J.P.L.; Nogueira, A.A.; Poli-Neto, O.B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in the community of São Luís, capital of the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, and to identify independent conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including a sample of 1470 women older than 14 years predominantly served by the public health system. The interviews were held in the subject's home by trained interviewers not affiliated with the public health services of the municipality. The homes were visited at random according to the city map and the prevalence of the condition was estimated. To identify the associated conditions, the significant variables (P=0.10) were selected and entered in a multivariate analysis model. Data are reported as odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, with the level of significance set at 0.05. The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain was 19.0%. The independent conditions associated with this diagnosis were: dyspareunia (OR=3.94), premenopausal status (OR=2.95), depressive symptoms (OR=2.33), dysmenorrhea (OR=1.77), smoking (OR=1.72), irregular menstrual flow (OR=1.62), and irritative bladder symptoms (OR=1.90). The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Sao Luís is high and is associated with the conditions cited above. Guidelines based on prevention and/or early identification of risk factors may reduce the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in São Luís, Brazil. PMID:25075577

  20. The treatment of chronic benign pain syndrome in capitated health care.

    PubMed

    Kent, J

    1996-01-01

    Developing specialized services for the management of chronic benign pain syndrome offers enhanced patient care and reduced costs. The evolution of a behavioral medicine/health psychology department to provide these services in a large HMO is described. Operational aspects and implementation challenges are discussed. PMID:10157265

  1. Demographic and Psycho-Social Implications for Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Pain Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auvenshine, Dwight

    Several demographic and psychosocial variables affect assessment and treatment of chronic pain patients. The variables include demographic characteristics, life styles, family constellations, job conditions, financial status, support networks, and leisure activities. In recent years clinics and programs have emerged in a variety of configurations.…

  2. Addressing Shared Vulnerability for Comorbid PTSD and Chronic Pain: A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Hadjistavropolous, Heather D.

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occurs with other conditions and symptoms that can complicate assessment and treatment. Of these, chronic musculoskeletal pain and related avoidance behaviors are amongst the most common and, unfortunately, the most often overlooked. In this paper we discuss issues that warrant consideration in…

  3. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain: Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.; Craig, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    Divided 90 chronic low back pain patients into those who demonstrated signs that were congruent or incongruent with underlying anatomical and physiological principles. Low socioeconomic status, compensation claims, use of opiate analgesics, greater disability, catastrophizing cognitions, stronger emotionality, and passive coping were more…

  4. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Psychophysiological Disorders and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    In training counseling students, it is increasingly important to acquaint them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. This review of empirically supported treatments (EST's) concerning psychophysiological disorders and chronic pain is intended to facilitate the educational process. EST's, or…

  5. Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Are Deconditioned and Have An Increased Body Fat Percentage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodselmans, Audy P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare data on the level of aerobic capacity and body composition of nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with normative data matched for sex, age and level of sporting activity. The study population consisted of 101 outpatients with nonspecific CLBP who had entered a rehabilitation…

  6. Chronic Pelvic Pain due to Pelvic Congestion Syndrome: The Role of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeshan, Arul; Upponi, Sara; Hon, Lye-Quen; Uthappa, M. C.; Warakaulle, Dinuke R.; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-11-15

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common cause of gynecologic referral. Pelvic congestion syndrome, which is said to occurs due to ovarian vein incompetence, is a recognized cause of CPP. The aim of this paper is to briefly describe the clinical manifestations, and to review the role of diagnostic and interventional radiology in the management of this probably under-diagnosed condition.

  7. Unlearning chronic pain: A randomized controlled trial to investigate changes in intrinsic brain connectivity following Cognitive

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    contrib- ute to the development of chronic pain and to persistent changes in the central nervous system in emotional regulation via connec- tions with limbic regions, such as the amygdala, remediation of maladaptive in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between these prefrontal and limbic regions. Resting

  8. Can a self-administered questionnaire identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    TAKEKAWA, Karina Satiko; GONÇALVES, Josiane Sotrate; MORIGUCHI, Cristiane Shinohara; COURY, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; SATO, Tatiana de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To verify if the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and physical examination of the lumbar spine can identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain, using health history for reference. Fifty office workers of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55?yr, were evaluated using a standardized physical examination and the NMQ, VAS and RDQ. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the discriminant properties of these instruments. A higher success rate (94%) was observed in the model including only the NMQ and in the model including the NMQ and the physical examination. The lowest success rate (82%) was observed in the model including the NMQ, RDQ and VAS. The NMQ was able to detect subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The NMQ appears to be the best instrument for identifying subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain. Thus, this self-reported questionnaire is suitable for screening workers for chronic or recurring low back pain in occupational settings. PMID:25810448

  9. Chronic abdominal pain in a patient with escobar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ülkü Mete; Tek?n, Ye?im Bayo?lu; Kir ?ah?n, Figen; Erd?vanli, Ba?ar; Kazdal, H?z?r

    2015-01-01

    Escobar syndrome is characterized with multiple pterygia or webs of the skin and multiple congenital anomalies. We present a 15-year-old patient with Escobar syndrome who complained of persistent blunt abdominal pain for 1 year. Preoperative evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of imperforate hymen, and the patient underwent hymenectomy under intravenous sedation. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and her complaints resolved completely. After a 3-month follow-up, she reported having normal menstrual bleeding intervals each month without any complications. Patients with Escobar syndrome may suffer from abdominal pain due to imperforate hymen. Careful evaluation of these patients must include a complete gynaecological assessment and, if indicated, surgical treatment must be performed without delay. PMID:25196531

  10. Calibration and Validation of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference Item Bank in Patients with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Crins, Martine H. P.; Roorda, Leo D.; Smits, Niels; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Westhovens, Rene; Cella, David; Cook, Karon F.; Revicki, Dennis; van Leeuwen, Jaap; Boers, Maarten; Dekker, Joost; Terwee, Caroline B.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Group translated the adult PROMIS Pain Interference item bank into Dutch-Flemish. The aims of the current study were to calibrate the parameters of these items using an item response theory (IRT) model, to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Dutch-Flemish translations compared to the original English items, and to evaluate their reliability and construct validity. The 40 items in the bank were completed by 1085 Dutch chronic pain patients. Before calibrating the items, IRT model assumptions were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Items were calibrated using the graded response model (GRM), an IRT model appropriate for items with more than two response options. To evaluate cross-cultural validity, differential item functioning (DIF) for language (Dutch vs. English) was examined. Reliability was evaluated based on standard errors and Cronbach’s alpha. To evaluate construct validity correlations with scores on legacy instruments (e.g., the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire) were calculated. Unidimensionality of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank was supported by CFA tests of model fit (CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.986). Furthermore, the data fit the GRM and showed good coverage across the pain interference continuum (threshold-parameters range: -3.04 to 3.44). The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank has good cross-cultural validity (only two out of 40 items showing DIF), good reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.98), and good construct validity (Pearson correlations between 0.62 and 0.75). A computer adaptive test (CAT) and Dutch-Flemish PROMIS short forms of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank can now be developed. PMID:26214178

  11. Chronic multisite pain in adolescent girls and boys with emotional and behavioral problems: the Young-HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Skrove, Marit; Romundstad, Pål; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic multisite pain with high disability in relation to emotional or behavioral problems and resilience factors in adolescence. A second aim was to investigate if resilience factors could attenuate the associations between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. The study was based on a large cross-sectional study carried out in Norway between 2006 and 2008 and included 7,070 adolescents aged 13-19 years. Chronic multisite pain was defined as pain at least once a week during the last 3 months, scoring high on a disability index, and occurring in three or more locations. Chronic multisite pain was prevalent among adolescents with high scores (>85%) for anxiety/depression, social anxiety, conduct or attention problems (22.8-31.0 for girls, 8.8-19.0% for boys). Several coexistent psychiatric symptoms increased the prevalence of chronic multisite pain for both girls and boys. Resilience factors, including high self-esteem, seldom feeling lonely, and high scores for family cohesion or social competence, were associated with a lower prevalence and markedly attenuated the association between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. Psychiatrists should be careful to assess and treat comorbid chronic pain in adolescents with emotional or behavioral problems. PMID:25138145

  12. The Rare Cuboid-Navic