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Sample records for chronic intractable pain

  1. [New drug therapies for intractable chronic pain: preface and comments].

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    Recently, new drugs for intractable chronic pain are available in Japan. The following articles describe topics of new drugs for intractable chronic pain including transdermal fentanyl, tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets, buprenorphine transdermal patch, pregabalin, and duloxetine. Treatment of constipation in chronic pain patients and management of opioid induced nausea and vomiting are also described to prevent complication of pain-relief drug therapy. PMID:23905399

  2. [Indication and usage of opioids except morphine for chronic non-malignant intractable pain].

    PubMed

    Saeki, Shigeru

    2008-11-01

    Indication and usage of opioids except morphine for chronic non-malignant intractable pain were reviewed. In Japan, other than morphine, we can use only two opioids, codeine phosphate (codeine), and dihydrocodeine phosphate (dihydrocodeine) for non-malignant pain management according to medical insurance system. But in western countries sustained-release opioids such as MS contine, transdermal fentanyl, oxycontin were used for the management of non-malignant chronic pain. The WHO ladder for cancer management should also be used for the management of non-malignant pain. Initial dose of codeine is 60 mg x day(-1) and the dosage should be increased or decreased according to pain intensity, patients' general condition and age. In most cases pain is controlled at the dose of 80-310 mg x day(-1). If pain intensity does not decrease or change, codeine should be changed to morphine. In our clinic, starting dose of codeine was 40-480 mg x day(-1) (average dose: 107.8 mg x day(-1)), maximum dose was 60-1280 mg x day (average dose: 310 mg x day(-1)). Average period for administration of codeine was 294.4 days. Dihydrocodeine has twice analgesic efficacy compared to codeine. The initial dose is the same as codeine. We hope that sustained release opioids such as transdermal fentanyl, oxycontin, tramadol etc will be used in Japan for management of non-malignant chronic pain in the near future. PMID:19039961

  3. Spinal cord stimulation for intractable chronic upper abdominal pain: a case report of the first patient in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R

    2012-12-14

    We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominal pain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominal pain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. PMID:23321890

  4. Intractable pain--the present position.

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, S.

    1981-01-01

    The broad changes that have occurred in the treatment of intractable pain are considered. There is a new understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain pathways and pain appreciation. Thus gate control theory, the spinal laminae, and the descending inhibitory pain pathway through the raphe nuclei are discussed in relation to the recent discovery of the opioid (enkephalin) systems. Out of this arises the stimulation methods of pain relief--transcutaneous neural stimulation, periaqueductal stimulation, and acupuncture. These are valuable in patients with a normal expectation of life. For patients with a shortened expectation of life other methods, especially destructive ones, are valuable (though in all types of chronic pain drug therapy is still the most used method). Basic changes in techniques and the equipment used to bring this about are detailed broadly. In particular, the use of the image intensifier X-ray machine and the stimulation and destruction available from the modern lesion generator when used in combination provide accuracy and safety. Techniques and methods are constantly altering and examples of this are given. All this costs money in time, personnel, and equipment; the costings of the Liverpool Centre for Pain Relief are given. Finally, the Pain Relief Foundation is in being in Liverpool in the grounds of Walton Hospital. This has been made possible by a large 'seed' donation by the Wolfson Foundation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6894676

  5. Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation for intractable abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barolat, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation has been utilized for a variety of painful conditions affecting the abdominal wall, including sequelae of hernia repair, painful surgical scars, ilio-inguinal neuritis. It has also occasionally been shown to be effective in patients with intractable abdominal visceral pain. Since this is a very recent modality, no large series or prospective studies exist. The results, however, are promising and certainly warrant further investigation. PMID:21422777

  6. Neuraxial (epidural and intrathecal) opioids for intractable pain

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Points 1. Neuraxial opioids are considered for use in patients who have resistant intractable pain that fails to respond to other treatment options or pain that responds to analgesia but for which the doses required result in unacceptable side-effects. 2. Neuraxial opiods can be considered for both chronic non-malignant pain and chronic cancer-related pain. 3. Effectiveness in chronic non-malignant pain and cancer pain is exerted through the use of either single-agent drugs (opioids) or a combination of drugs: opioids, local anaesthetics and other drugs such as clonodine and ziconotide. 4. Complications of long-term continuous infusion therapy are related to the insertion process (haematoma), the mechanical device (both pump and catheter) and the long-term effects of the drugs. 5. Patients will require ongoing ambulatory monitoring and supportive care. PMID:26516463

  7. Eosinophilic Jejunitis Presenting as Intractable Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

  8. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  9. Intrathecal opioids for intractable pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Koulousakis, A; Kuchta, J; Bayarassou, A; Sturm, V

    2007-01-01

    For more than 20 years intrathecal opioid application with implantable pumps is an option for selected patients with malignant as well as non-malignant pain. In general, most types of pain should be treatable by opioid medication. However, the associated systemic side-effects such as nausea, vomiting, constipation or the risk of suppression of the central nervous system hinder the application of oral or intravenous opioid therapy as a sole, widely applicable treatment. Causes of non-malignant pain that may represent an indication for intrathecal drug-delivery systems include: failed back syndrome, neuropathic pain, axial spinal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, diffuse pain, brachial plexitis, central pain, failed spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy, arachnoiditis, poststroke pain, spinal cord injury pain and peripheral neuropathy. Due to the proximity to the receptor sites, the therapeutic effect of intrathecal drug application lasts longer and the rate of systemic side effects is reduced. Before definitive pump implantation, the therapeutic effect of intrathecal opioid therapy is tested with an external pump. If there is no clear and satisfactory effect in this trial application, pump implantation is not indicated. In our patients, with a follow-up exceeding 3 years, the reduction of non-malignant pain (assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale, VAS) was good or excellent (pain decrease >50%) in 71.3% of the patients, fair (VAS 5-6) in 19.8% and poor (VAS 7-10) in 8.9%. After 3 years of continuous treatment, we observed catheter-related technical problems (catheter dislocation, obstruction, kinking, disconnection or rupture) in 17 of 165 patients. Pump malfunctions were very rare (8 of 165 cases) and limited to older pump types. Reversible, specific drug-related side effects of long-term therapy with intrathecal pumps developed in 32 of the 165 patients. In our series, the mean serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration ratio for morphine was 1/3000, which explains the low rate of systemic side effects. Local diffusion difficulties in CSF cause an uneven distribution of morphine in CSF. Therefore the clinical effect is markedly influenced by the position of the catheter tip, a fact that should be kept in mind during catheter implantation. Intrathecal drug application is cost effective and can significantly improve the quality of life in selected patients. An intensive training in this method and awareness of its specific complications is necessary for everyone to participate in the consulting and implanting team. Pumps for chronic intrathecal opioid application should only be implanted in specialized centers. PMID:17691355

  10. Neuromodulation of the cervical spinal cord in the treatment of chronic intractable neck and upper extremity pain: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Ricardo; Kramer, Jeffery; Benyamin, Ramsin

    2007-03-01

    Electrical spinal neuromodulation in the form of spinal cord stimulation is currently used for treating chronic painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, peripheral ischemia, low back pain, and other conditions refractory to more conservative treatments. To date, there are very few published reports documenting the use of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of head/neck and upper limb pain. This paper reports a case series of 5 consecutive patients outlining the use of spinal cord stimulation to treat upper extremity pain. All subjects had previously undergone cervical fusion surgery to treat chronic neck and upper limb pain. Patients were referred following failure of the surgery to manage their painful conditions. Spinal cord stimulators were placed in the cervical epidural space through a thoracic needle placement. Stimulation parameters were adjusted to capture as much of the painful area(s) as possible. In total, 4 out of 5 patients moved to implantation. In all cases, patients reported significant (70-90%) reductions in pain, including axial neck pain and upper extremity pain. Interestingly, 2 patients with associated headache and lower extremity pain obtained relief after paresthesia-steering reportedly covered those areas. Moreover, 2 patients reported that cervical spinal cord stimulation significantly improved axial low back pain. Patients continue to report excellent pain relief up to 9 months following implantation. This case series documents the successful treatment of neck and upper extremity pain following unsuccessful cervical spine fusion surgery. Given this initial success, prospective, controlled studies are warranted to more adequately assess the long term utility and cost effectiveness of electrical neuromodulation treatment of chronic neck and upper extremity pain. PMID:17387353

  11. Intractable pediatric chronic sinusitis with antrochoanal polyp.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Honda, N; Yamada, T; Mori, S; Fujieda, S; Saito, T

    2000-08-31

    It has been reported that pediatric chronic sinusitis with antrochoanal polyp is difficult to cure because it tends to recur easily even with surgery. Therefore, in order to improve its cure rate, aggressive treatment combining polypectomy, intra-maxillary intubation through the inferior meatus, macrolide administration, etc., was attempted. Thirty-seven sides of pediatric chronic sinusitis with antrochoanal polyp and 44 sides of chronic sinusitis without polyp were evaluated after the same treatments. The mean age of patients was 9.7 years, and the mean intubation period was 20 months. Since subjective improvements in children are questionable, the efficacy was evaluated strictly on the basis of X-ray alone focusing on the maxillary sinus. Twenty-four percent of the group with antrochoanal polyp showed 'excellent' effect, i.e. almost complete resolution of the sinus findings, while 45% of the group without polyp showed 'excellent' effect, with a mean follow-up period of 3 years and 6 months. This difference was significant (P<0. 01, chi(2)-test). These results further document the intractableness of chronic sinusitis with choanal polyp in children. PMID:10967380

  12. Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ≥1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice. PMID:23515887

  13. Low back pain - chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  14. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Eun; Choi, Jung Hyun; Park, Hue Jung; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX(®), Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4-5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief. PMID:26761032

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Eun; Choi, Jung Hyun; Park, Hue Jung; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4–5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief. PMID:26761032

  17. What Is Chronic Pain?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Management Tools Videos What Is Chronic Pain? What Is Chronic Pain? View Transcript Download Transcript If you ... with chronic pain, you know that chronic pain is different. Ed Covington, MD, director of the Cleveland ...

  18. [Management of intractable cancer pain: from intrathecal morphine to cell allograft].

    PubMed

    Lazorthes, Y; Sallerin, B; Verdie, J C; Sol, J C; Duplan, H; Tkaczuk, J; Tafani, M; Bastide, R; Bes, J C

    2000-11-01

    The durable effectiveness of intrathecal morphine administration is well established for the management of intractable cancer pain, after failure of systemic opioids, secondary to the persistence of non-reversible undesirable side effects. Many patients are referred to late in the disease course. This conservative method to control pain of malignant origin must not be reserved for last resort treatment for terminal patients. Intra-cerebro-ventricular morphine administration is a very effective and generally safe method for controlling intractable cancer pain. Because of the chronic implantation of an intra-ventricular catheter this method is somewhat invasive. Its indications remain a simple and effective alternative when the topography of nociceptive pain is diffuse or cephalic. In clinical practice, intrathecal and/or intra-cerebro-ventricular administration of opioids is limited by cost, the need for specialized maintenance and mechanical malfunctions if implantable drug delivery systems, or by the risk of bacterial contamination and ambulatory constraints when repeated daily injections via an intrathecal access port are used. To answer these limitations, cell therapy using intrathecal chromaffin cell allograft is a promising approach for the management of cancer pain refractory to traditional drug therapy and pain lesion surgery. The basic rationale and preclinical studies on experimental pain models have enabled starting prospective clinical trials. Prior to transplantation, handling and preparation of the chromaffin tissue is critical for allograft viability. The initial results of clinical trials with human chromaffin cell grafts from intractable cancer pain have reported long-lasting pain relief, in correlation with met-enkephalin release into the CSF. Convincing evidence will require controlled studies. The limitations of this innovative cell therapy and especially the lack of human adrenal gland availability point to the need for new sources of cells. Perspectives include xenogenic or engineered cell lines. PMID:11084478

  19. Fighting Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... earache, toothache, sore throat, sinus pain, facial numbness Muscles and Bones: Arthritis, back pain, bone pain from spread of cancer, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome Neurologic: "Phantom limb" pain after amputation, nerve ...

  20. American Chronic Pain Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ACPA Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  1. Chronic spinal cord stimulation in medically intractable orthostatic tremor

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, J K; Weigel, R; Blahak, C; Bzner, H; Capelle, H?H; Grips, E; Rittmann, M; Whrle, J C

    2006-01-01

    Background Orthostatic tremor with its sense of unsteadiness when standing may have a devastating effect on affected persons. Currently, there are no other treatment options in those who do not respond or who do not tolerate medical treatment. Objectives To report on a pilot study on spinal cord stimulation in medically intractable orthostatic tremor. Methods Chronic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) was performed in two patients with medically?intractable orthostatic tremor via quadripolar plate electrodes implanted at the lower thoracic spine. The electrodes were connected to implantable pulse generators. Results Subjective and objective improvement of unsteadiness was achieved within a frequency range of 50 to 150?Hz, and occurred in the presence of stimulation?induced paraesthesia. With optimized stimulation settings polygraphic electromyelogram (EMG) recordings continued to show the typical 1416?Hz EMG activity. The beneficial effect of SCS was maintained at long?term follow?up. Conclusions The results of this pilot study indicate that SCS may be an option in patients with otherwise intractable orthostatic tremor. PMID:16735398

  2. Employees with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Solutions: An appointment secretary was reprimanded for poor attendance due to chronic pain. She was provided periodic ... flexible schedule to allow more time to access public transit. A switchboard operator with chronic pain and fibromyalgia was ... ...

  3. Patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Salama-Hanna, Joseph; Chen, Grace

    2013-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic pain is important because it may lead to multidisciplinary preoperative treatment of patients' pain and a multimodal analgesia plan for effective pain control. Preoperative multidisciplinary management of chronic pain and comorbid conditions, such as depression, anxiety, deconditioning, and opioid tolerance, can improve patient satisfaction and surgical recovery. Multimodal analgesia using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies shifts the burden of analgesia away from simply increasing opioid dosing. In more complicated chronic pain patients, multidisciplinary treatment, including pain psychology, physical therapy, judicious medication management, and minimally invasive interventions by pain specialists, can improve patients' satisfaction and surgical outcome. PMID:24182727

  4. Preventing chronic postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Reddi, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is common. Nerve injury and inflammation promote chronic pain, the risk of which is influenced by patient factors, including psychological characteristics. Interventional trials to prevent chronic postoperative pain have been underpowered with inadequate patient follow-up. Ketamine may reduce chronic postoperative pain, although the optimum treatment duration and dose for different operations have yet to be identified. The evidence for gabapentin and pregabalin is encouraging but weak; further work is needed before these drugs can be recommended for the prevention of chronic pain. Regional techniques reduce the rates of chronic pain after thoracotomy and breast cancer surgery. Nerve-sparing surgical techniques may be of benefit, although nerve injury is not necessary or sufficient for chronic pain to develop. PMID:26620149

  5. Coping with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cart JOIN APA About APA Topics Publications & Databases Psychology Help Center News & Events Science Education Careers Membership Home // Psychology Help Center // Coping with chronic pain EMAIL PRINT ...

  6. Levorphanol, Methadone, and the Management of Intractable Chronic Pain: An Interview with Kerry Schmidt, BA,MBA; Jack P. McNulty, MD,FACP; and George B. Muller, RPh.

    PubMed

    Vail, Jane

    2006-01-01

    For former National Football League player Kerry Schmidt, BA,MBA, chronic pain is a part of everyday life. To repair sports-related trauma sustained during his 6-year career as a defensive back, Schmidt has undergone 24 major orthopedic surgeries over the past three decades and will undergo two or three additional procedures to repair his lower back. Now a sports reporter, a syndicated sports columnist, and a business owner, Schmidt says his pain at times has rated a 10-plus on a 10-point pain scale. Schmidt recently took control of his constant discomfort. After he consulted with Jack P. McNulty, MD,FACP, a specialist in the management of chronic pain, who collaborated with George B. Muller, RPh, a compounding pharmacist, Schmidt found relief with no adverse effects from the seldom-prescribed drug levorphanol. PMID:23974121

  7. Experience with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for relief of intractable pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Avellanosa, A M; West, C R

    1982-01-01

    Sixty patients with intractable cancer pain were subjected to transcutaneous electrical stimulation for pain control. Evaluation, after two weeks of treatment, revealed: 17 (28.3%) excellent response, 22 (36.2%) fair and 21 (35.0%) no relief. Re-assessment after 3 months revealed 9 (15%) excellent responses, 11 (18.3%) fair and 40 (67%) failures. Extremity and trunk pains appeared to be most rewarding to patient pain, so far as pain relief is concerned. Perineal and pelvic pains were most difficult to control, only 5 of 12 (41%) cases obtained some short term relief. Pain location and sources correlated with treatment results. PMID:6983553

  8. Somatization and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Birket-Smith, M

    2001-10-01

    The experience of pain is related not only to tissue damage and physical illness, but also to mental phenomena including depression, anxiety and somatization. Somatization is common among chronic pain patients and presents special problems in management and treatment. Somatoform patients are often given inappropriate diagnoses, treated for non-existent depressive disorders, and exposed to multiple, superfluous investigations. Psychological models of chronic pain and somatization are presented, and treatment issues including psychotherapy and the use of antidepressants are discussed. PMID:11683662

  9. Chronic Pain Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to take, ask your doctor or your pharmacist. Acetaminophen Acetaminophen (one brand name: Tylenol) helps many kinds of chronic pain. Remember, many over-the-counter and prescription pain medicines have acetaminophen in them. If you're not careful, you ...

  10. Veterans and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Summary points 1. Musculoskeletal problems are the commonest reason for medical discharge in all the British armed forces. By definition, these problems are chronic and resistant to treatment. 2. Pain is also common in veterans who have experienced severe injuries (polytrauma), often accompanied by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) orpostconcussive syndrome. 3. In veterans seeking treatment for chronic pain, PTSD is common. There is also evidence for elevated levels of alcohol misuse in veterans who have been deployed to conflict. However, most veterans do not have pain, PTSD or alcohol problems. 4. Pain clinicians would benefit from training in meeting veterans’ needs, in order to promote their engagement and successful treatment. This should include countering stereotypes, information about the military and support for the assessment and onward referral of PTSD and alcohol problems. PMID:26516504

  11. Buprenorphine for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Raul; Copenhaver, David

    2013-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions, analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The use of transdermal buprenorphine for chronic pain management is discussed. A brief history of the medication is provided. The use of the medication in opioid maintenance, and withdrawal and other concerns are discussed. Possible side effects are described. PMID:24245573

  12. [Chronic pain and depression].

    PubMed

    Rentsch, D; Piguet, V; Cedraschi, C; Desmeules, J; Luthy, C; Andreoli, A; Allaz, A F

    2009-06-17

    Chronic pain and depression are frequently associated. Links between them are numerous and well documented. It is known for example that depression is associated with a greater number and higher intensity of pain symptoms. Similarly the presence of pain complicates the diagnostic evaluation and aggravates the prognosis of depression. The question of the causality link has no clear answer. Taking care of these patients implies to acknowledge the different aspects of their suffering in a holistic bio-psycho-social model. Treatment or medication, for instance antidepressants, should be a post-scriptum to the construction of a therapeutic relationship. PMID:19626761

  13. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rosevelt

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in June 1979, over 500 patients have been treated at the King/Drew Pain Center in Los Angeles. Based upon the treatment and observations of this patient group, this paper describes the psychologic aspects in patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain, low back pain, phantom limb pain, chest pain, and arthritic pain. PMID:6864816

  14. What Is Chronic Pain?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... manageable, but chronic pain is different. And because it is different, we need to think about it in very different ways. Ed Covington, M.D.: ... no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and the patient are accustomed to ...

  15. Chronic Pain: Where the Body Meets the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is one of the most intractable clinical problems faced by clinicians and can be devastating for patients. Central pain amplification is perceived pain that cannot be fully explained on the basis of somatic or neuropathic processes and is due to physiologic alterations in pain transmission or descending pain modulatory pathways. In any individual, central pain amplification may complicate nociceptive or neuropathic pain. Furthermore, patients with somatic symptom disorders may have alterations in their psychological or behavioral responses to pain that contribute significantly to the clinical presentation. Genetic, physiologic, and psychological factors associated with central pain amplification are beginning to be understood. One important contributor to chronic pain is perceived stress and stress response systems. We and others have shown a complex relationship between the physiologic stress response and chronic pain symptoms. Unfortunately, treatments for chronic pain are woefully inadequate and often worsen clinical outcomes. Developing new treatment strategies for patients with chronic pain is of utmost urgency. This essay provides a framework for thinking about chronic pain and developing new treatment approaches. PMID:26330672

  16. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable chronic migraine headache: ONSTIM feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Joel R; Dodick, David W; Silberstein, Stephen D; McCarville, Sally; Sun, Mark; Goadsby, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medically intractable chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling illness characterized by headache ?15 days per month. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, blinded, controlled feasibility study was conducted to obtain preliminary safety and efficacy data on occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) in CM. Eligible subjects received an occipital nerve block, and responders were randomized to adjustable stimulation (AS), preset stimulation (PS) or medical management (MM) groups. Results: Seventy-five of 110 subjects were assigned to a treatment group; complete diary data were available for 66. A responder was defined as a subject who achieved a 50% or greater reduction in number of headache days per month or a three-point or greater reduction in average overall pain intensity compared with baseline. Three-month responder rates were 39% for AS, 6% for PS and 0% for MM. No unanticipated adverse device events occurred. Lead migration occurred in 12 of 51 (24%) subjects. Conclusion: The results of this feasibility study offer promise and should prompt further controlled studies of ONS in CM. PMID:20861241

  17. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Łuczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; Główka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg−1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg−1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL−1 and 235.7 ng·mL−1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL−1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

  18. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate in the treatment of intractable chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoyu; Li, Shaoguang

    2014-01-01

    In a significant proportion of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, resistance to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors develops due to acquisition of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations and insensitivity of leukemia stem cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (formerly called homoharringtonine) is a natural alkaloid that inhibits protein synthesis and induces cell death. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate has been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who failed to respond to multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors and/or acquired the BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. In this review, we discuss the use and effectiveness of omacetaxine mepesuccinate in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, with coverage of its pharmacology, mode of action, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that omacetaxine mepesuccinate will be beneficial to many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who do not respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:24516334

  19. Management of chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Richard L; Roberts, Timothy T; Papaliodis, Dean N; Mulligan, Michael T; Dubin, Andrew H

    2014-02-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain results from a complex interplay of mechanical, biochemical, psychological, and social factors. Effective management is markedly different from that of acute musculoskeletal pain. Understanding the physiology of pain transmission, modulation, and perception is crucial for effective management. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies such as psychotherapy and biofeedback exercises can be used to manage chronic pain. Evidence-based treatment recommendations have been made for chronic pain conditions frequently encountered by orthopaedic surgeons, including low back, osteoarthritic, posttraumatic, and neuropathic pain. Extended-release tramadol; select tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and anticonvulsants; and topical medications such as lidocaine, diclofenac, and capsaicin are among the most effective treatments. However, drug efficacy varies significantly by indication. Orthopaedic surgeons should be familiar with the widely available safe and effective nonnarcotic options for chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24486756

  20. Chronic pain: a neuroscientific understanding.

    PubMed

    Basser, David S

    2012-01-01

    The neuroscientific understanding of chronic pain presented evolved through the integration of clinical, research and theoretical conceptualizations associated with chronic idiopathic orofacial pain after posing the following three questions: (1) What if chronic idiopathic orofacial pain was viewed from a neuroscientific perspective as part of a global syndrome rather than a site-specific anatomo-physiological perspective? (2) What if it was assumed that rather than serving no useful purpose chronic idiopathic orofacial pain served a useful purpose? (3) Would current knowledge be sufficient to explain chronic idiopathic orofacial pain? The understanding defines chronic pain as being a centrally perceived event expressing the continual or episodic persistence of a level of peripheral and/or central neural activity above the pain threshold of a sensitized nervous system that is sufficient to maintain the sensitization. This ongoing neural activity may be associated with or independent of the neural activity that initiated the sensitization. In effect the nervous system is "bruised" and the "bruising" is being maintained (prodded) by the total neural activity of the system irrespective of its origin; the normal protective healing function of the nervous system, pain, continues its warning when the activity of the system activates the switch that is the pain threshold. The common clinical history of initial trauma and ongoing stress suggests that chronic pain might be thought of as an expression of post-traumatic stress. Treatment based on the presented understanding would aim to reduce and maintain total neural activity below the pain threshold level and ideally down to where the sensitization can be reduced or even resolved by neuroplastic processes, the level rather than the origin of neural activity being relevant to the pain mitigation. A review of chronic pain in the light of this understanding will provide the opportunity to formulate, test and refine new and existing strategies for its prevention and treatment, thereby offering hope to the millions of sufferers worldwide. PMID:22019262

  1. Spinal cord stimulation: Current applications for treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vannemreddy, Prasad; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is thought to relieve chronic intractable pain by stimulating nerve fibers in the spinal cord. The resulting impulses in the fibers may inhibit the conduction of pain signals to the brain, according to the pain gate theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 and the sensation of pain is thus blocked. Although SCS may reduce pain, it will not eliminate it. After a period of concern about safety and efficacy, SCS is now regaining popularity among pain specialists for the treatment of chronic pain. The sympatholytic effect of SCS is one of its most interesting therapeutic properties. This effect is considered responsible for the effectiveness of SCS in peripheral ischemia, and at least some cases of complex regional pain syndrome. The sympatholytic effect has also been considered part of the management of other chronic pain states such as failed back surgery syndrome, phantom pain, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia. In general, SCS is part of an overall treatment strategy and is used only after the more conservative treatments have failed. The concept of SCS has evolved rapidly following the technological advances that have produced leads with multiple contact electrodes and battery systems. The current prevalence of patients with chronic pain requiring treatment other than conventional medical management has significantly increased and so has been the need for SCS. With the cost benefit analysis showing significant support for SCS, it may be appropriate to offer this as an effective alternative treatment for these patients. PMID:25885295

  2. Bilateral Thoracoscopic Splanchnotomy to Alleviate Pain in Chronic Pancreatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Bosanquet, David C; Wilcox, Christopher R M; Rasheed, Ashraf

    2016-03-01

    Chronic intractable pain is a common problem in severe pancreatic disease. Bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnotomy, a thoracoscopic neurotomy of the splanchnic nerves, is rarely performed but may provide significant pain relief in these patients. We present a safe strategy that uses prone positioning and two thoracoscopic ports for either hemithorax, permitting easy exposure and simple dissection of the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves. In our experience, this technique provides excellent pain relief with a minimal postoperative stay and few postoperative adverse events. This intervention has the potential to reduce dependency on opioid agents and improve quality of life in carefully selected patients. PMID:26897240

  3. Injections of botulinum toxin type a produce pain alleviation in intractable trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Allam, Nasser; Brasil-Neto, Joaquim P; Brown, Gilberto; Tomaz, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    To report the effects of local injections of botulinum toxin type A regarding pain relief and long-term control in a patient with intractable trigeminal neuralgia. The patient was a 75-year-old man with trigeminal neuralgia in the left hemifacial region. His pain was unbearable and could not be controlled by carbamazepine, amitriptyline, or blocked by infiltration of a glycerol solution or phenol. The authors evaluated pain intensity, quality, and location using a Visual Analog Scale to establish the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injections. Two units of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) were subcutaneously injected once in eight points distributed along the territory of V1 and V2. Visual Analog Scores were measured at baseline and at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after treatment. The authors also examined the patient's general condition and daily life activities. The Visual Analog values were, respectively, 82, 54, 25, 25, and 45 mm at each follow-up examination. No side effects were observed on the site of injection and on the patient's clinical state. The authors have been able to reduce trigeminal neuralgia pain with botulinum toxin type A injections in the V1, V2 territory during all the period of study, as well as to withdraw all medication. Interestingly, there was concomitant reduction of pain also in V3, which was not injected. PMID:15722812

  4. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed. PMID:22609642

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Ropivacaine Addition to Intrathecal Morphine for Pain Management in Intractable Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Li, Xihan; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Jian; Tao, Gaojian

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although intrathecal drug infusion has been commonly adopted for terminal cancer pain relief, its adverse effects have made many clinicians reluctant to employ it for intractable cancer pain. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and security of an intrathecal continuous infusion of morphine and ropivacaine versus intrathecal morphine alone for cancer pain. Methods. Thirty-six cancer patients received either a continuous morphine (n = 19) or morphine and ropivacaine (n = 17) infusion using an intrathecal catheter through a subcutaneous port. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores and the Barthel Index were analyzed. Adverse effects and complications on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 15 were also analyzed. Results. All patients experienced pain relief. Compared to those who received morphine alone, patients receiving morphine and ropivacaine had significantly lower postoperative morphine requirements and higher Barthel Index scores on the 15th postsurgical day (P < 0.05). Patients receiving morphine and ropivacaine had lower NRS scores than patients receiving morphine alone on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 15 (P < 0.05). Negative postsurgical effects were similar in both groups. Conclusions. Morphine and ropivacaine administration through intrathecal access ports is efficacious and safe and significantly improves quality of life. PMID:26556955

  6. Management of Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2009-01-01

    Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799

  7. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2015-02-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications. PMID:25681114

  8. Low back pain (chronic)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Over 70% of people in developed countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Many patients with chronic LBP who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? What are the effects of non-surgical and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-surgical interventional therapies (intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency denervation), spinal manipulative therapy, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:21418678

  9. Multimodal Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rebecca; Stacey, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic pain receive multimodal treatment. There is scant literature to guide us, but when approaching combination pharmacotherapy, the practitioner and patient must weigh the benefits with the side effects; many medications have modest effect yet carry significant side effects that can be additive. Chronic pain often leads to depression, anxiety, and deconditioning, which are targets for treatment. Structured interdisciplinary programs are beneficial but costly. Interventions have their place in the treatment of chronic pain and should be a part of a multidisciplinary treatment plan. Further research is needed to validate many common combination treatments. PMID:26614719

  10. Palliative Sedation and What Constitutes Active Dying: A Case of Severe Progressive Dystonia and Intractable Pain.

    PubMed

    Strand, Jacob J; Feely, Molly A; Kramer, Neha M; Moeschler, Susan M; Swetz, Keith M

    2016-05-01

    We present the case of a 34-year-old woman with Klippel-Feil syndrome who developed progressive generalized dystonia of unclear etiology, resulting in intractable pain despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions. Ultimately, palliative sedation was required to relieve suffering. Herein, we describe ethical considerations including defining sedation, determining prognosis in the setting of an undefined neurodegenerative condition, and use of treatments that concurrently might prolong or alter end-of-life trajectory. We highlight pertinent literature and how it may be applied in challenging and unique clinical situations. Finally, we discuss the need for expert multidisciplinary involvement when implementing palliative sedation and illustrate that procedures and rules need to be interpreted to deliver optimal patient-centered plan of care. PMID:25487783

  11. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  12. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-04-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  13. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097

  14. Chronic pain management: nonpharmacological therapies for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Nonpharmacologic therapies have become a vital part of managing chronic pain (CP). Although these can be used as stand-alone therapies, nonpharmacologic treatments often are used to augment and complement pharmacologic treatments (ie, multimodal therapy). Nonpharmacologic approaches can be classified as behavioral, cognitive, integrative, and physical therapies. Core principles in developing a treatment plan are explaining the nature of the CP condition, setting appropriate goals, and developing a comprehensive treatment approach and plan for adherence. Clinicians should become familiar with these interventions so that they can offer patients flexibility in the pain management approach. Effective noninvasive treatment modalities for CP include behavioral therapy for short-term pain relief; cognitive behavioral therapy for reducing long-term pain and disability; hypnosis as adjunctive therapy; guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, and muscle relaxation, especially for cancer-related pain; mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with chronic low back pain; acupuncture for multiple pain conditions; combination manipulation, manual therapy, endurance exercise, stretching, and strengthening for chronic neck pain; animal-assisted therapy; and S-adenosyl-L-methionine for joint pain. Guidelines for use of these treatment modalities are based on expert panel recommendations in combination with data from randomized controlled trials. PMID:25970869

  15. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women.

    PubMed

    Speer, Linda M; Mushkbar, Saudia; Erbele, Tara

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is defined as persistent, noncyclic pain perceived to be in structures related to the pelvis and lasting more than six months. Often no specific etiology can be identified, and it can be conceptualized as a chronic regional pain syndrome or functional somatic pain syndrome. It is typically associated with other functional somatic pain syndromes (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome, nonspecific chronic fatigue syndrome) and mental health disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). Diagnosis is based on findings from the history and physical examination. Pelvic ultrasonography is indicated to rule out anatomic abnormalities. Referral for diagnostic evaluation of endometriosis by laparoscopy is usually indicated in severe cases. Curative treatment is elusive, and evidence-based therapies are limited. Patient engagement in a biopsychosocial approach is recommended, with treatment of any identifiable disease process such as endometriosis, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, and comorbid depression. Potentially beneficial medications include depot medroxyprogesterone, gabapentin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists with add-back hormone therapy. Pelvic floor physical therapy may be helpful. Behavioral therapy is an integral part of treatment. In select cases, neuromodulation of sacral nerves may be appropriate. Hysterectomy may be considered as a last resort if pain seems to be of uterine origin, although significant improvement occurs in only about one-half of cases. Chronic pelvic pain should be managed with a collaborative, patient-centered approach. PMID:26926975

  16. Chronic Pain and Exercise Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raithel, Kathryn Simmons

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)

  17. Current pharmacotherapy of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Portenoy, R K

    2000-01-01

    Advances in basic and clinical research have greatly expanded the options for analgesic pharmacotherapy. There are three broad categories of analgesic medications: (1) nonopioid analgesics, which includes the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, dipyrone, and others; (2) a diverse group of drugs known as the "adjuvant analgesics," which are defined as "drugs that have primary indications other than pain but may be analgesic in selected circumstances;" and (3) opioid analgesics. The advent of highly selective COX-2 inhibitors has generated excitement because of the possibility that these new NSAIDs will be much safer than previous COX inhibitors. However, the cost-benefit of using these relatively more expensive drugs versus other NSAIDs plus gastro-protective therapies needs to be determined. Adjuvant analgesics can be grouped into four major classes according to their use: multipurpose, neuropathic pain, musculoskeletal pain, and cancer pain. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of these drugs during the past two decades and they now play an important role in the management of chronic pain. Pain specialists are now using opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain in addition to the traditional use for acute and cancer pain. This change in practice evolved from recognition that selected patients with chronic noncancer-related pain can experience sustained analgesia and function better with these drugs, without developing an addictive disorder. The combination of opioids and other drugs, such as an N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist, may improve the balance between analgesia and adverse effects. PMID:10687334

  18. Halt the Hurt! Dealing with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... says Dr. Sean Mackey, who heads Stanford University’s neuroscience and pain lab. “Some differences involve our personality ... with pain. Share your ideas and thoughts while learning from those in the group. Chronic Pain Chronic ...

  19. Primary care management of chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Davis, A E

    1996-08-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, a common problem seen in the primary care setting, is often frustrating for both the patient and the clinician. Despite its prevalence, chronic pain is often poorly understood and inconsistently managed by health care providers. Unlike acute pain, chronic pain serves no biologic function and persists long after the tissue has healed from injury. Patients with chronic pain may become isolated from friends and family, lose their jobs, and develop depression. Nonpharmacologic techniques such as acupuncture, massage, and relaxation may be helpful to the patient with chronic pain. In addition to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, antidepressants and opioid analgesics are useful for treating chronic musculoskeletal pain. This article explains that pathophysiology of chronic pain, lists aspects of chronic pain that distinguish it from acute pain, and develops a general primary care plan for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:8871991

  20. The pain management approach to chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D

    1987-05-01

    Chronic pelvic pain remains a difficult management problem that is often refractory to traditional medical or surgical therapy. The pain management center approach used successfully for the treatment of cancer pain and headache can be adapted to the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. The results of this pilot study suggest that the multidisciplinary techniques of pain management promise to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:2439689

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Descalzi, Giannina; Ikegami, Daigo; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Nestler, Eric; Zachariou, Venetia; Narita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic and inflammatory pain promote a large number of persisting adaptations at the cellular and molecular level, allowing tissue or nerve damage, even if only transient, to elicit changes in cells that contribute to the development of chronic pain and associated symptoms. There is evidence that injury-induced changes in chromatin structure drive stable changes in gene expression and neural function, which may cause several symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, anxiety, and depression. Recent findings on epigenetic changes in the spinal cord and brain during chronic pain may guide fundamental advances in new treatments. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic regulation in the nervous system and then discuss the still-limited literature that directly implicates epigenetic modifications in chronic pain syndromes. PMID:25765319

  2. Chronic leg pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Werner, Brian C; Starman, Jim S; Gwathmey, F Winston; Carson, Eric W; Wilder, Robert P; Diduch, David R

    2015-06-01

    Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management. Although most of these chronic problems are treated nonsurgically, some patients require operative intervention. For each condition listed above, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management option, and outcomes are discussed in turn. PMID:25157051

  3. Pharmacologic management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Dong Eon

    2010-06-01

    Chronic pain is a multifactorial condition with both physical and psychological symptoms, and it affects around 20% of the population in the developed world. In spite of outstanding advances in pain management over the past decades, chronic pain remains a significant problem. This article provides a mechanism- and evidence-based approach to improve the outcome for pharmacologic management of chronic pain. The usual approach to treat mild to moderate pain is to start with a nonopioid analgesic. If this is inadequate, and if there is an element of sleep deprivation, then it is reasonable to add an antidepressant with analgesic qualities. If there is a component of neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia, then a trial with one of the gabapentinoids is appropriate. If these steps are inadequate, then an opioid analgesic may be added. For moderate to severe pain, one would initiate an earlier trial of a long term opioid. Skeletal muscle relaxants and topicals may also be appropriate as single agents or in combination. Meanwhile, the steps of pharmacologic treatments for neuropathic pain include (1) certain antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), calcium channel alpha(2)-delta ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin) and topical lidocaine, (2) opioid analgesics and tramadol (for first-line use in selected clinical circumstances) and (3) certain other antidepressant and antiepileptic medications (topical capsaicin, mexiletine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists). It is essential to have a thorough understanding about the different pain mechanisms of chronic pain and evidence-based multi-mechanistic treatment. It is also essential to increase the individualization of treatment. PMID:20556211

  4. Pharmacologic Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hue Jung

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a multifactorial condition with both physical and psychological symptoms, and it affects around 20% of the population in the developed world. In spite of outstanding advances in pain management over the past decades, chronic pain remains a significant problem. This article provides a mechanism- and evidence-based approach to improve the outcome for pharmacologic management of chronic pain. The usual approach to treat mild to moderate pain is to start with a nonopioid analgesic. If this is inadequate, and if there is an element of sleep deprivation, then it is reasonable to add an antidepressant with analgesic qualities. If there is a component of neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia, then a trial with one of the gabapentinoids is appropriate. If these steps are inadequate, then an opioid analgesic may be added. For moderate to severe pain, one would initiate an earlier trial of a long term opioid. Skeletal muscle relaxants and topicals may also be appropriate as single agents or in combination. Meanwhile, the steps of pharmacologic treatments for neuropathic pain include (1) certain antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), calcium channel ?2-? ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin) and topical lidocaine, (2) opioid analgesics and tramadol (for first-line use in selected clinical circumstances) and (3) certain other antidepressant and antiepileptic medications (topical capsaicin, mexiletine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists). It is essential to have a thorough understanding about the different pain mechanisms of chronic pain and evidence-based multi-mechanistic treatment. It is also essential to increase the individualization of treatment. PMID:20556211

  5. Pain management in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gachago, Cathia; Draganov, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a major clinical problem in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The cause of pain is usually multifactorial with a complex interplay of factors contributing to a varying degree to the pain in an individual patient and, therefore, a rigid standardized approach for pain control tends to lead to suboptimal results. Pain management usually proceeds in a stepwise approach beginning with general lifestyle recommendations. Low fat diet, alcohol and smoking cessation are encouraged. Analgesics alone are needed in almost all patients. Maneuvers aimed at suppression of pancreatic secretion are routinely tried. Patients with ongoing symptoms may be candidates for more invasive options such as endoscopic therapy, and resective or drainage surgery. The role of pain modifying agents (antidepressants, gabapentin, pregabalin), celiac plexus block, antioxidants, octreotide and total pancreatectomy with islet cell auto transplantation remains to be determined. PMID:18506917

  6. Microendoscopy-guided percutaneous cordotomy for intractable pain: case series of 24 patients.

    PubMed

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Lopez, William Omar Contreras; de Oliveira, Ywzhe Sifuentes Almeida; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to show that microendoscopic guidance using a double-channel technique could be safely applied during percutaneous cordotomy and provides clear real-time visualization of the spinal cord and surrounding structures during the entire procedure. METHODS Twenty-four adult patients with intractable cancer pain were treated by microendoscopic-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) cordotomy using the double-channel technique under local anesthesia. A percutaneous lateral puncture was performed initially under fluoroscopy guidance to localize the target. When the subarachnoid space was reached by the guiding cannula, the endoscope was inserted for visualization of the spinal cord and surrounding structures. After target visualization, a second needle was inserted to guide the RF electrode. Cordotomy was performed by a standard RF method. RESULTS The microendoscopic double-channel approach provided real-time visualization of the target in 91% of the cases. The other 9% of procedures were performed by the single-channel technique. Significant analgesia was achieved in over 90% of the cases. Two patients had transient ataxia that lasted for a few weeks until total recovery. CONCLUSIONS The use of percutaneous microendoscopic cordotomy with the double-channel technique is useful for specific manipulations of the spinal cord. It provides real-time visualization of the RF probe, thereby adding a degree of safety to the procedure. PMID:26230468

  7. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    PubMed Central

    Verstraelen, Hans; De Zutter, Eline; De Muynck, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. PMID:26664155

  8. American Chronic Pain Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015 *NEW* Veterans In Pain Events Events for December 2015: View All Events Su M Tu W Th ... Next Week 12/1/2015 SAVE THE DATE - December 1, 2015 #GivingTuesday 12/5/2015 American Headache Society Comprehensive ...

  9. Intracranial Chronic Subdural Hematoma Presenting with Intractable Headache after Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myungsoo

    2015-01-01

    Postdural punctural headache (PDPH) following spinal anesthesia is due to intracranial hypotension caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, and it is occasionally accompanied by an intracranial hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, an intracranial chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) presenting with an intractable headache after a cervical epidural steroid injection (ESI) has not been reported. A 39-year-old woman without any history of trauma underwent a cervical ESI for a herniated nucleus pulposus at the C5-6 level. One month later, she presented with a severe headache that was not relieved by analgesic medication, which changed in character from being positional to non-positional during the preceding month. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a CSDH along the left convexity. Emergency burr-hole drainage was performed and the headache abated. This report indicates that an intracranial CSDH should be considered a possible complication after ESI. In addition, the event of an intractable and changing PDPH after ESI suggests further evaluation for diagnosis of an intracranial hematoma. PMID:26361532

  10. Peripheral and Neuraxial Chemical Neurolysis for the Management of Intractable Lower Extremity Pain in a Patient with Terminal Cancer.

    PubMed

    De Pinto, Mario; Naidu, Ramana K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 74-year-old man with Stage IV metastatic, multifocal, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (T2b, N1, M1, G4) invading the proximal area of the left lower extremity and resulting in intractable neuropathic pain along the distribution of the femoral nerve. He described the pain as being so severe to cause inability to ambulate without assistance or to sleep in a supine or prone position. After a spinal cord stimulation trial and a trial of intrathecal (IT) hydromorphone, both performed at an outside institution, had failed to achieve adequate pain relief, we decided to perform a femoral nerve chemical neurolysis with phenol under ultrasound (US) guidance. The intervention provided 6 months of almost complete pain relief. With the tumor spreading in girth distally and proximally to the scrotal and pelvic areas as well as to the lungs, and pain returning back to baseline, we proceeded with a second femoral nerve chemical neurolysis. Unfortunately we were not able to achieve adequate pain relief. Therefore we opted to proceed with a diagnostic injection of local anesthetic under fluoroscopic guidance at the left L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots level. This intervention provided 100% pain relief and was followed, a few days later, by chemical neurolysis with phenol 3%. The patient reported complete pain relief with the procedure and no sensory-motor related side effects or complications. He was able to enjoy the last 6 weeks of life with his wife and family, pain-free. With this report we add to the limited literature available regarding the management of intractable cancer pain with chemical neurolysis in and around the epidural space. PMID:26218956

  11. Evidence Based Practice of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rakesh; Joshi, Saurabh; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2012-01-01

    The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management. PMID:23439674

  12. [On the Differential Diagnosis of Intractable Psychogenic Chronic Cough: Neuropathic Larynx Irritable - Gabapentin's Antitussive Action].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, U; Ossowski, A; Schubert, M; Gall, H; Steinkamp, I; Richter, L E; Khalil-Boutros, Y; Nefedev, A; Kuhlmann, R

    2015-10-01

    We present the case of a 76 year old female inpatient who suffered from a chronic intractable cough which arose simultaneously to a severe major depression and was secondary to an exorbitant psychological distress. Chronic cough had never been experienced before and was initially considered to have a mere psychogenic origin since a comprehensive and guideline-based diagnostic screening did not reveal any underlying somatic cause. However, several factors cast doubt on the solitary psychic genesis of the chronic cough: i) occurrence immediately after a penetrant cold, ii) embedding in other complaints of laryngeal hyperreagibility (larynx irritable), such as persistent globus pharyngeus sensation, throat clearing and episodic dysphonia, iii) first occurrence on old life, iv) erupting from sleep as well, v) persistence despite remission of the major depression, and v) no sustaining benefit from specific psychotherapy and speech therapy. Therefore, diagnostics were extended to apparative tools for objective evaluation of swallowing by using fiberoptic videoendoscopic (FEES) and videofluoroscopic (VFS) techniques, which revealed signs of laryngeal neuropathy but without evidence of penetration or aspiration. A co-existing small goiter and an impaired glucose tolerance along with a putative intracellular vitamin B12 or folate deficiency (as indirectly derived from an apparent hyperhomocysteinemia) were assumed to be responsible for the neuropathy and underwent specific treatments. The impaired glucose tolerance and putative vitamin deficit were compatible with a distal symmetric sensorimotoric, even subclinical polyneuropathy of the lower extremities. The larynx irritable improved under gabapentin being confirmed by drug removals several times, and finally calmed down almost completely under gabapentin, which was in line with the scant literature of this topic. Re-examination of the larynx per FEES nine months later showed no deficits any more under the well-tolerated treatment (gabapentin, levothyroxine, vitamin B12 and folic acid substitution, weight reduction andphysical training). All in all, the larynx irritable as well as the chronic cough were most probably induced by a laryngeal neuropathy and were not solely of psychic origin. Due to good treatment options a larynx irritable should be regularly taken into consideration of the investigation of intractable chronic cough. Therefore, an apparative evaluation of deglutition is recommended in the diagnostic toolbox of chronic cough - even if embedded in a psychiatric disorder or distress - before diagnosing a sole psychic origin. An hypothetical scheme of the development of a larynx irritable caused by neuropathic and non-neuropathic ("nociceptive") conditions is proposed. PMID:26588720

  13. Managing chronic pain in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kawi, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    At least 100 million adults in the United States are afflicted with chronic pain. Nurse practitioners and other providers are often challenged by the complexity of chronic pain management. This article discusses systematic strategies to facilitate safe, efficient, satisfactory, and quality care of patients with chronic pain in primary care. PMID:26886269

  14. Management of advanced plexiform neurofibromatosis of the foot presenting with skeletal deformation and intractable pain: an indication for proximal amputation.

    PubMed

    DeFazio, Michael V; Ter Louw, Ryan P; Attinger, Christopher E; Barbour, John R

    2015-03-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas of the foot are rare and often present with significant pain, deformity, and functional impairment secondary to their locally invasive behavior. While treatment has traditionally focused on attempts at radical resection, a lack of consensus among surgeons has hindered the establishment of a well-defined algorithm to guide the management of these highly co-morbid peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We present the case of an advanced plexiform neurofibroma of the right foot in a 24-year-old male with neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient presented following accelerated tumor growth with extensive osseous erosion, intractable pain, and progressive ankle instability that limited his capacity to ambulate and wear shoes. A modified transtibial amputation with a vascularized fibular bone graft (Ertl procedure) was performed without complication. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient regained functional independence and was able to ambulate without pain in a customized prosthesis after 3 months. Plexiform neurofibromas of the foot present a complex challenge for foot and ankle surgeons. On the basis of our experience and previously reported cases, we advocate for amputation over aggressive attempts at advanced limb salvage for patients with extensive skeletal destruction, joint instability, and/or intractable pain caused by tumor mass effect. PMID:25496857

  15. [Three successful cases of continuous dexmedetomidine infusion for the treatment of intractable delirium associated with cancer pain].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Kimura, Yoshie; Hato, Akio; Ikegaki, Junichi

    2013-12-01

    We report three cases of successful treatment of intractable delirium associated with cancer pain with continuous dexmedetomidine (DEX) infusion. Case 1 : An 83-year-old man receiving oral oxycodone for lung cancer pain developed delirium. He was resistant to haloperidol infusion, oral quetiapine, and opioid rotation. DEX infusion was administered at 0.4 microg kg-1 hr-1, and his delirium resolved. Case 2: A 50-year-old woman with cervical cancer of the uterus suffered from sepsis but could not take oral oxycodone. After continuous morphine infusion, she developed delirium. She was resistant to haloperidol infusion or injections of oxycodone for opioid rotation, but DEX infusion at 0.4 microg kg-1hr-1 led to disappearance of delirium symptoms. Case 3: A 71-year-old woman with advanced renal cancer was treated with epidural analgesia to alleviate cancer pain. She subsequently developed delirium but was resistant to haloperidol or chlorpromazine infusion. DEX infusion at 0.3 microg kg-1 hr-1 led to disappearance of delirium symptoms and orientation recovery. DEX infusion may be effective for the treatment of intractable delirium associated with cancer pain. PMID:24498781

  16. [Association between chronic pain and depression].

    PubMed

    Alonso Fernndez, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    The comorbidity integrated by chronic pain and depression is very common. The somatoform depressive symptoms appear often as diferent types of pain. Amon them premenstrual pain and fibromialgia are some of the most important clinical pictures. Chronic pain leads to depression as a consequence of these three kinds of factors: biomedical, psychosocial (passive attitude, disability) and pharmacological agents. Copping and acceptance of chronic pain is associated with lower pain intensity, less depression and less psychosocial disability. The appropriate use of analgesics in the management of chronic pain demands individualization. Several antidepressants have possitive effects on pain syndrom. Depression is underrecognized ad undertreated above all in patients with chronic pain. In order screening the depression seven ways are described here: personal and family history, type of the personality, clinic and evolutive aspects of somatoform symptom, search of other depressive symptoms and positive therapeutic effect determinated by an antidepressant. PMID:16776318

  17. Increased Pressure Pain Sensitivity in Women With Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    As-Sanie, Sawsan; Harris, Richard E.; Harte, Steven E.; Tu, Frank F.; Neshewat, Gina; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if women with chronic pelvic pain and variable degrees of endometriosis demonstrate altered pain sensitivity relative to pain-free healthy controls, and whether such differences are related to the presence or severity of endometriosis or comorbid pain syndromes. METHODS Four patient subgroups (endometriosis with chronic pelvic pain (n=42), endometriosis with dysmenorrhea (n=15), pain-free endometriosis (n=35), and chronic pelvic pain without endometriosis (n=22)) were each compared to 30 healthy controls in this cross-sectional study. All patients completed validated questionnaires regarding pain symptoms and underwent screening for comorbid pain disorders. Pain sensitivity was assessed by applying discrete pressure stimuli to the thumbnail using a previously validated protocol. RESULTS While adjusting for age and education, pain thresholds were lower in all subgroups of women with pelvic pain, relative to healthy controls (all p-values <0.01). There was no difference in pain thresholds when comparing endometriosis patients without pelvic pain to healthy controls (mean difference 0.02 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval -0.43, 0.47). The presence and severity of endometriosis and number of comorbid pain syndromes were not associated with a difference in pain thresholds. CONCLUSION Women with chronic pelvic pain demonstrate increased pain sensitivity at a nonpelvic site compared to healthy controls, which is independent of the presence or severity of endometriosis or comorbid pain syndromes. These findings support the notion that central pain amplification may play a role in the development of pelvic pain, and may explain why some women with pelvic pain do not respond to therapies aimed at eliminating endometriosis lesions. PMID:24104772

  18. Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.

    2011-08-01

    We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ? 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.

  19. Safely Managing Chronic Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Chronic Pain Safely Managing Chronic Pain Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Helping ... can help, as well. The Two Faces of Pain: Acute and Chronic What is pain? The International ...

  20. Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... this page please turn Javascript on. What Is Pain? You know it at once. It may be ...

  1. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. Results The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Discussion Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of acting with awareness is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS. PMID:24489915

  2. Chronic pain after open inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Nikkolo, Ceith; Lepner, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Following the widespread use of mesh repairs, recurrence rates after inguinal hernia surgery have become acceptable and focus has shifted from recurrence to chronic pain. Although pain can be controlled with analgesics, chronic postsurgical pain is a major clinical problem, which can significantly influence the patient's quality of life. The rate of chronic pain after inguinal hernia mesh repair can reach 51.6%. The reasons for posthernioplasty chronic pain are often unclear. It has been linked to nerve injury and nerve entrapment, but there is also association between the rate of chronic pain and the type of mesh used for hernia repair. As there are >160 meshes available in the market, it is difficult to choose a mesh whose usage would result in the best outcome. Different mesh characteristics have been studied, among them weight of mesh has probably gained the most attention. The choice of adequate therapy for chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair is controversial. The European Hernia Society recommends that a multidisciplinary approach at a pain clinic should be considered for the treatment of chronic postoperative pain. Although surgical treatment of chronic posthernioplasty pain is limited because of the lack of relevant research data, resection of entrapped nerves, mesh removal in the case of mesh related pain or removal of fixation sutures can be beneficial for the patient with severe pain after inguinal hernia surgery. One drawback of published studies is the lack of consensus over definition of chronic pain, which makes it complicated to compare the results of different studies and to conduct meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Therefore, a uniform definition of chronic pain and its best assessment methods should be developed in order to conduct top quality multicenter randomized trials. Further research to develop meshes with optimal parameters is of vital importance and should be encouraged. PMID:26567717

  3. Managing your chronic back pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. ...

  4. Hydrocodone bitartrate for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, L; Atluri, S; Kaye, A M; Kaye, A D

    2015-07-01

    Hydrocodone bitartrate is the most commonly used drug for acute and chronic pain in the U.S. with over 135 million prescriptions in 2012. The U.S. is the primary consumer of hydrocodone, using 99% of the global supply for 4.4% of the global population. With its easy availability and abuse patterns, hydrocodone has been touted as a primary driver of opioid-related abuse and misuse. There are no clinical efficacy studies of hydrocodone in short-acting form in combination with acetaminophen or ibuprofen in chronic pain. Hydrocodone has been approved with two long-term formulations since 2014. The FDA has rescheduled hydrocodone from Schedule III to Schedule II which went into effect on October 6, 2014, along with a limit on added acetaminophen of 325 mg for each dose of hydrocodone. This review examines the evolution of hydrocodone into a common and yet controversial drug in the U.S. with its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and efficacy. PMID:26261844

  5. Pain Characteristics and Pain Catastrophizing in Incarcerated Women with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Darnall, Beth D.; Sazie, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain in incarcerated women is understudied and poorly described. Study objectives were to describe pain characteristics, correlates, and predictors in a convenience sample of incarcerated women with chronic pain. A survey packet that included the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF) and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was distributed to all inmates at a state prison for women. Those who self-identified as having chronic pain ≥4 on a 0–10 numeric rating scale were invited to complete the survey. Demographics and medical and psychiatric diagnoses were abstracted by chart review. Participants (N=159) rated their current and average pain intensity as severe. Pain catastrophizing was found to predict average pain intensity and level of pain-related interference in functioning. Pain catastrophizing is treatable with behavioral intervention in the general population. Findings suggest that pain catastrophizing may be an important target for research and treatment in incarcerated women with chronic pain. PMID:22643606

  6. Chronic Pain in the Classroom: Teachers' Attributions about the Causes of Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.…

  7. Chronic Pain in the Classroom: Teachers' Attributions about the Causes of Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.

  8. Counseling Adult Clients Experiencing Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Stephanie T.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for…

  9. Counseling Adult Clients Experiencing Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Stephanie T.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for

  10. Chronic Pain Patients: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lori T.

    Chronic pain syndrome appears to have certain dimensions which make it unique as a disabling condition. When pain persists, the resulting anxiety and depression, others' reactions to the patient's sick role behaviors, and situational variables such as disability benefits may all contribute to the pain syndrome and complicate the rehabilitation

  11. Intrathecal drug administration in chronic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ver Donck, Ann; Vranken, Jan H; Puylaert, Martine; Hayek, Salim; Mekhail, Nagy; Van Zundert, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Chronic pain may recur after initial response to strong opioids in both patients with cancer and patients without cancer or therapy may be complicated by intolerable side effects. When minimally invasive interventional pain management techniques also fail to provide satisfactory pain relief, continuous intrathecal analgesic administration may be considered. Only 3 products have been officially approved for long-term intrathecal administration: morphine, baclofen, and ziconotide. The efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide for the management of patients with severe chronic refractory noncancer pain was illustrated in 3 placebo-controlled trials. A randomized study showed this treatment option to be effective over a short follow-up period for patients with pain due to cancer or AIDS. The efficacy of intrathecal opioid administration for the management of chronic noncancer pain is mainly derived from prospective and retrospective noncontrolled trials. The effect of intrathecal morphine administration in patients with pain due to cancer was compared with oral or transdermal treatment in a randomized controlled trial, which found better pain control and fewer side effects with intrathecal opioids. Other evidence is derived from cohort studies. Side effects of chronic intrathecal therapy may either be technical (catheter or pump malfunction) or biological (infection). The most troublesome complication is, however, the possibility of granuloma formation at the catheter tip that may induce neurological damage. Given limited studies, the evidence for intrathecal drug administration in patients suffering from cancer-related pain is more compelling than that of chronic noncancer pain. PMID:24118774

  12. [Chronic pain and regional anesthesia in children].

    PubMed

    Dadure, C; Marec, P; Veyckemans, F; Beloeil, H

    2013-10-01

    Chronic pain is usually underestimated in children, due to lack of knowledge and its specific signs. In addition to suffering, chronic pain causes a physical, psychological, emotional, social, and financial burden for the child and his family. Practitioners may find themselves in a situation of failure with depletion of medical resources. Some types of chronic pain are refractory to conventional systemic treatment and may require the use of regional anesthesia. Cancer pain is common in children and its medical management is sometimes insufficient. It is accessible to neuroaxial or peripheral techniques of regional anesthesia if it is limited to an area accessible to one of these techniques and no contraindications (e.g., thrombopenia) are present. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 is not rare in children and adolescents, but it often goes undiagnosed. Regional anesthesia may contribute to the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome 1, mainly in case of recurrence, because it provides rapid effective analgesia and allows rapid implementation of intensive physiotherapy. These techniques have also shown interest in phantom limb pain after limb amputation, but they remain controversial for erythromelalgia pain or chronic abdominopelvic pain. Finally, the treatment of postdural puncture headache due to cerebrospinal fluid leak can be treated by performing an epidural injection of the patient's blood, called a blood-patch. Finally, the management of children with chronic pain should be multidisciplinary (pediatrician, physiotherapist, psychologist, surgeon, anesthesiologist) to support the child and her problem in its entirety. PMID:23953871

  13. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the thoracic spine. PMID:26308707

  14. Opioids in chronic noncancer pain: More faces from the crowd

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C Peter N

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) remains very controversial. There are several randomized controlled trials, mostly in neuropathic pain, reporting efficacy and safety in the short term, but more long-term data are needed. Randomized controlled trials may be limited in providing data about the patients who benefit from often high-dose opioids over the long term. The present article provides details of these patients and adds to a previous case series. METHODS: The present article contains 17 case reports of 11 CNCP conditions (followed to 2011) selected to illustrate specific issues from a survey of 84 patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids and followed every three months for a median of 11 years. The previous published survey of this group reported outcomes of pain severity, adverse effects, pain relief, satisfaction, mood, problematic opioid use, tolerance, physical dependency, functional status, health-related quality of life (HRQL), immune status and sexual function. The outcome measures for that study included a numerical rating scale for pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory Interference Scale, the Pain Disability Index and, for HRQL, the Short-Form Health Survey 12 version 2. Most patients in the total sample reported 50% or greater relief and a moderate improvement in disability. Scores for functional status and HRQL were not severely affected. Problematic use, tolerance and serious adverse effects, including constipation, were not major issues. These selected patient reports were chosen, not to illustrate optimal results, but rather important aspects of the diagnoses, opioids and doses, the paucity of intolerable adverse effects, particular issues (concurrent addiction history, bipolar disorder and combination therapy), disease-specific and other outcomes and duration of follow-up with complex pain problems. RESULTS: Opioids were found to be safe and useful in the long term for these particular patients, as well as in the larger group from which they originated. INTERPRETATION: These 17 reports of patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids with some success over many years puts a face on more of the participants in the larger survey of 84 subjects, suggesting that this approach is effective and safe for some patients over many years. PMID:22891192

  15. The experience of chronic nonmalignant pain.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, L S; Ferrell, B R; McCaffery, M

    1994-07-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of 204 persons with chronic nonmalignant pain who were members of a national self-help organization. The survey evaluated the organization, explored the perceived effect of pain on quality of life, and assessed experiences with and perceptions of health-care providers. Response rate was 40%. Of survey respondents, 50% reported inadequate pain relief. Respondents identified depression as one of the worst problems caused by their chronic pain: 50% reported that they had considered suicide due to feelings of hopelessness associated with their pain, 51% reported taking only as much medication as prescribed, and 44% reported taking less medication than prescribed. Further investigation is needed to describe the personal impact of chronic nonmalignant pain. PMID:7963783

  16. Chronic pain and suicide: understanding the association.

    PubMed

    Hooley, Jill M; Franklin, Joseph C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain conditions are associated with an elevated risk for suicide. Of particular importance is the question of why pain conditions might be linked to increased suicide risk. We discuss the association between chronic pain and psychological pain, particularly in the context of depression, and the use of suicide as an attempt to escape from what is perceived as unbearable suffering. We also consider the role that chronic pain may play in increasing the capacity for suicide. Bridging across research areas and drawing on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, we suggest that chronic pain may facilitate the development of a key risk factor for suicide: fearlessness about death. Given that chronic pain can lead to (and be exacerbated by) depression, engender hopelessness, facilitate a desire for escape through death, and erode the natural fear of dying, clinicians must be aware of psychological processes that can combine to create elevated suicide risk in patients with chronic pain, and they should also assess and treat suicide risk factors in these patients. PMID:24916035

  17. Noncoding RNAs: New players in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Marie Lutz, Brianna; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common clinical symptom. Current treatments for this disorder are often inadequate or ineffective due to our deficient understanding of molecular mechanisms that trigger the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain. The changes in gene expression in primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following peripheral inflammation and nerve injury may contribute to chronic pain genesis. Newly identified noncoding RNAs play a critical role in the mechanism for gene regulation. Recent studies have shown that peripheral noxious stimuli drive expressional changes in noncoding RNAs and that these changes are associated with pain hypersensitivity under chronic pain conditions. This review first presents current evidence for the peripheral inflammation/nerve injury-induced change in expression of two types of noncoding RNAs, miRNAs and Kcna2 antisense RNA, in pain-related regions, particularly in the DRG, after peripheral inflammation and nerve injury. We then discuss how peripheral noxious stimuli induce such changes. We finally discuss potential mechanisms of how expressional changes in DRG miRNAs and Kcna2 AS RNA contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Understanding of these mechanisms may allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating chronic pain. PMID:24739997

  18. Satisfaction With Chronic Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Amirzadeh, Kimia; Mohabbati, Vahid; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of chronic pain (CP) on physical function and emotional and mental health of individuals, families, and community are well established. No adequate research is conducted in this field in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of CP, types of treatments used for CP and patients satisfaction with the CP treatments in an Iranian urban population. Patients and Methods: In the current study, CP was investigated using the international CP questionnaire administered to 1,050 adults living in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions used to evaluate the effects of CP on the studied population including the prevalence of CP, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CP, and participants satisfaction with CP treatments. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In the current study, 6.95% of the 1,050 subjects willing to participate in the study had CP for more than six months. According to the results, 54% of the subjects with CP used analgesics, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and narcotic analgesics. Besides, 37% of the subjects used other pain relief methods such as traditional medicine and acupuncture. The results also showed an acceptable rate of satisfaction with treatments. Conclusions: The number of subjects with CP proved it as a prevalent problem in the study population. Furthermore, characteristics and associations of those experiencing CP demonstrated that it might have significant negative health and psychosocial outcomes in this group. The problem was found significant enough to consider special health programs to prevent and manage CP in urban population of Shiraz. PMID:26473099

  19. CHRONIC PAIN FOLLOWING SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Radi; Keller, Asaf

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with insults to the spinal cord or central nervous system suffer from excruciating, unrelenting, chronic pain that is largely resistant to treatment. This condition affects a large percentage of spinal cord injury patients, and numerous patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke and other conditions. Despite the recent advances in basic science and clinical research the pathophysiological mechanisms of pain following spinal cord injury remain unknown. Here we describe a novel mechanism of loss of inhibition within the thalamus that may predispose for the development of this chronic pain and discuss a potential treatment that may restore inhibition and ameliorate pain. PMID:23281514

  20. Intractable pain: a neglected area of medical education in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Marcer, D; Deighton, S

    1988-01-01

    Unease over the previous management of 67 patients referred for treatment to 3 pain relief clinics led us to investigate the current state of education in pain and pain control in the UK. Twenty-seven medical schools provided data which revealed; (i) in 4 schools no teaching whatsoever is given in these subjects; (ii) in the remainder it is accorded an average of 3.5 hours during the 5 year course, with little evidence of multidisciplinary teaching; (iii) only 10 schools (37%) regularly set questions on pain control in formal examinations. A survey of 219 general practitioners revealed a wide-ranging lack of knowledge about the facilities and approach to treatment at their local pain relief clinic. These findings have wide reaching implications for medical education. At the undergraduate level they demonstrate a need for more multidisciplinary teaching and practical experience in specialist units. Thereafter specialists in pain control must enable practising doctors to keep abreast of new developments. This may require them to devote more time writing for a non-specialist audience and devising short, postgraduate courses. PMID:3221366

  1. The appropriate treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Vellucci, Renato; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Cherubino, Paolo; Labianca, Roberto; Fornasari, Diego

    2012-02-01

    Chronic pain is a common healthcare problem worldwide that ranks as a predominant reason for consulting a physician, yet effective management of chronic pain remains suboptimal, often resulting in unnecessary suffering and decreased quality of life, lost productivity and excessive healthcare costs. To overcome the challenges associated with the management of chronic pain, increased awareness and both patient and physician education are required. Improving physician knowledge of pain assessment and management guided by recommendations for a comprehensive, multifactorial, personalised treatment approach involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches is key to achieving effective pain relief. Guidelines for the management of non-cancer and cancer pain recommend thorough patient assessment before individualized therapy based on the type and intensity of pain. The availability of mechanism-specific analgesics has facilitated improvements in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain, which may be of neuropathic, muscle, inflammatory, mechanical/compressive or mixed origin. Stepwise escalation of analgesic therapy (paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, mild to strong opioids) according to the World Health Organization's three-step pain ladder remains the standard approach for the selection of treatment for chronic cancer pain, although there is now a greater awareness of the requirements for effective administration of opioids including dose titration, use of short versus long-acting opioids, opioid rotation, management of adverse effects, and ongoing monitoring. Selection of an effective, appropriate, personalized analgesic regimen for patients with chronic pain is achievable and is expected to enhance compliance, overall functioning and quality of life. PMID:23389873

  2. The appropriate treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Vellucci, Renato; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Cherubino, Paolo; Labianca, Roberto; Fornasari, Diego

    2012-02-22

    Chronic pain is a common healthcare problem worldwide that ranks as a predominant reason for consulting a physician, yet effective management of chronic pain remains suboptimal, often resulting in unnecessary suffering and decreased quality of life, lost productivity and excessive healthcare costs. To overcome the challenges associated with the management of chronic pain, increased awareness and both patient and physician education are required. Improving physician knowledge of pain assessment and management guided by recommendations for a comprehensive, multifactorial, personalised treatment approach involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches is key to achieving effective pain relief. Guidelines for the management of non-cancer and cancer pain recommend thorough patient assessment before individualized therapy based on the type and intensity of pain. The availability of mechanism-specific analgesics has facilitated improvements in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain, which may be of neuropathic, muscle, inflammatory, mechanical/compressive or mixed origin. Stepwise escalation of analgesic therapy (paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, mild to strong opioids) according to the World Health Organization's three-step pain ladder remains the standard approach for the selection of treatment for chronic cancer pain, although there is now a greater awareness of the requirements for effective administration of opioids including dose titration, use of short versus long-acting opioids, opioid rotation, management of adverse effects, and ongoing monitoring. Selection of an effective, appropriate, personalized analgesic regimen for patients with chronic pain is achievable and is expected to enhance compliance, overall functioning and quality of life. PMID:22356221

  3. Management of chronic pain. Part I.

    PubMed

    Barkin, R L; Lubenow, T R; Bruehl, S; Husfeldt, B; Ivankovich, O; Barkin, S J

    1996-07-01

    Chronic pain is associated with substantial psychosocial and economic stress, coupled with functional loss and various levels of vocational dysfunction. The role of a pain center is to focus on chronic pain in a multidisciplinary, comprehensive manner, providing the patient with the most effective opportunity to manage his or her chronic disease syndrome. This article focuses on methods to manage many types of chronic pain and describes a broad range of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions and options available to the patient. Part I of this two-part monograph describes pharmacotherapeutic interventions and regional nerve blocks. Part II focuses on psychologic assessment and treatment and physical therapy. A multimodal management strategy offers patients the greatest improvement potential for specific chronic pain syndromes. Cognitive and behavioral therapies and physical therapies are described. This combination of therapies may provide patients with the skills and knowledge needed to increase their sense of control over pain. The integration of appropriate pharmacotherapeutic regimens, neural blockades, physical therapy, and psychologic techniques maximizes a patient's effectiveness in dealing with chronic pain. Three case studies are presented in Part II. PMID:8706590

  4. Pain Part 5a: Chronic (Neuropathic) Orofacial Pain.

    PubMed

    Renton, Tara; Kahwaja, Nadine

    2015-10-01

    Neuropathic pain is a significant social and economic burden. Back pain, joint pain and headaches affect over 30% of the population. Chronic orofacial pain is a common condition and is difficult to diagnose and manage. This two-part paper aims to provide an overview of novel understanding of neuropathic pain, and furnish clinical teams with an update on the less common and less well-recognized chronic orofacial conditions. Headaches and temporomandibular disorders are the most common conditions and are covered in separate papers (6 and 10). Trigeminal neuralgia, burning mouth, and trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are also covered in separate papers (7, 8 and 9). The remaining conditions: post-traumatic neuropathy (nerve injury); and persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia are discussed in this and the following paper. Clinical Relevance: Neuropathic pain, though rare, is a consequence of dental treatment. Nerve injury in relation to M3M surgery, dental implants, endodontics and local anaesthesia result in 70% of affected patients experiencing chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:26685473

  5. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function. PMID:26614726

  6. Veterinarians' attitudes to chronic pain in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bell, A; Helm, J; Reid, J

    2014-11-01

    Veterinary surgeons in the UK were invited to complete an internet survey concerning their attitudes to chronic pain in dogs. UK veterinary surgeons numbering 215 completed surveys in full along with 48 worldwide specialists in anaesthesia and 37 worldwide specialists in oncology. Osteoarthritis, dental and aural disease, vertebral and spinal cord conditions, neoplasia and skin conditions were considered important causes of chronic pain in dogs. UK practitioners used significantly fewer classes of analgesic drugs regularly than either category of specialist. The major barriers to adequate treatment of chronic pain were reported as difficulties with pain assessment, expense of drugs, and difficulties with owner compliance. Illustrations of six common neoplastic conditions were used and scored for pain according to prior experience by practitioners. All six conditions were consistently described as involving some degree of pain with primary bone tumour and oral tumour, causing severe pain and moderate to severe pain, respectively. Years since graduation and specialist status affected the pain scores attributed to the conditions. There was a significant correlation between the pain score attributed to the illustrated condition, and the tendency to administer analgesia. PMID:25028465

  7. Pregabalin in acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Agarwal, Anil; Khanna, Puneet; Arora, Mahesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Pregabalin is a gamma-amino-butyric acid analog shown to be effective in several models of neuropathic pain, incisional injury, and inflammatory injury. In this review, the role of pregabalin in acute postoperative pain and in chronic pain syndromes has been discussed. Multimodal perioperative analgesia with the use of gabapentinoids has become common. Based on available evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis, the perioperative administration of pregabalin reduces opioid consumption and opioid-related adverse effects in the first 24 h following surgery. Postoperative pain intensity is however not consistently reduced by pregabalin. Adverse effects like visual disturbance, sedation, dizziness, and headache are associated with higher doses. The advantage of the perioperative use of pregabalin is so far limited to laparoscopic, gynecological, and daycare surgeries which are not very painful. The role of the perioperative administration of pregabalin in preventing chronic pain following surgery, its efficacy in more painful surgeries and surgeries done under regional anesthesia, and the optimal dosage and duration of perioperative pregabalin need to be studied. The efficacy of pregabalin in chronic pain conditions like painful diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, central neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia has been demonstrated. PMID:21897498

  8. Male chronic pelvic pain: An update

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome collectively referred to as urologic CPPS (UCPPS) is defined by the absence of identifiable bacterial infection as a cause for the chronic pain and urinary symptoms. Methods: A PubMed search of all recent relevant articles using the keywords/phrases: CPPS, CPPS, and male pelvic pain, was conducted. Results: CPPS has a high worldwide prevalence and its negative impact on quality of life compares with or exceeds common chronic morbidities. Triggers include certain comestibles as well as psychosocial factors that promote catastrophizing and illness focused behavior. Several validated tools are currently available to help diagnose and direct targeted therapy. Treatment should begin with the most simple and least invasive based on the presenting clinical phenotype. Conclusions: Although no gold-standard treatment exists, a multidisciplinary approach with multimodal therapy gives the UCPPS patient the best chance of symptom relief. PMID:26941492

  9. Chronic pain. Decreased motivation during chronic pain requires long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Neil; Temkin, Paul; Jurado, Sandra; Lim, Byung Kook; Heifets, Boris D; Polepalli, Jai S; Malenka, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    Several symptoms associated with chronic pain, including fatigue and depression, are characterized by reduced motivation to initiate or complete goal-directed tasks. However, it is unknown whether maladaptive modifications in neural circuits that regulate motivation occur during chronic pain. Here, we demonstrate that the decreased motivation elicited in mice by two different models of chronic pain requires a galanin receptor 1-triggered depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in indirect pathway nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons. These results demonstrate a previously unknown pathological adaption in a key node of motivational neural circuitry that is required for one of the major sequela of chronic pain states and syndromes. PMID:25082697

  10. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli induces chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rudick, Charles N; Berry, Ruth E; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Klumpp, David J; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2011-02-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a debilitating syndrome of unknown etiology often postulated, but not proven, to be associated with microbial infection of the prostate gland. We hypothesized that infection of the prostate by clinically relevant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) can initiate and establish chronic pain. We utilized an E. coli strain newly isolated from a patient with CP/CPPS (strain CP1) and examined its molecular pathogenesis in cell culture and in a murine model of bacterial prostatitis. We found that CP1 is an atypical isolate distinct from most UPEC in its phylotype and virulence factor profile. CP1 adhered to, invaded, and proliferated within prostate epithelia and colonized the prostate and bladder of NOD and C57BL/6J mice. Using behavioral measures of pelvic pain, we showed that CP1 induced and sustained chronic pelvic pain in NOD mice, an attribute not exhibited by a clinical cystitis strain. Furthermore, pain was observed to persist even after bacterial clearance from genitourinary tissues. CP1 induced pelvic pain behavior exclusively in NOD mice and not in C57BL/6J mice, despite comparable levels of colonization and inflammation. Microbial infections can thus serve as initiating agents for chronic pelvic pain through mechanisms that are dependent on both the virulence of the bacterial strain and the genetic background of the host. PMID:21078846

  11. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, David; Moulton, Eric A; Schmidt, Karl F; Becerra, Lino R

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1) Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2) Functional Imaging (fMRI) that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI); (3) Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS) has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS. PMID:17848191

  12. Chronic perianal pain: an unsolved problem.

    PubMed Central

    Neill, M E; Swash, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with chronic anal pain of obscure origin are described. This syndrome is ill-defined and treatment is unsatisfactory. There is a high incidence of sciatica and of damage to the pelvic floor musculature, but although the pain has features consistent with a neuralgia, its cause is unknown. PMID:7069679

  13. Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Peripheral Nervous System Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major health concern affecting 80 million Americans at some time in their lives with significant associated morbidity and effects on individual quality of life. Chronic pain can result from a variety of inflammatory and nerve damaging events that include cancer, infectious diseases, autoimmune-related syndromes and surgery. Current pharmacotherapies have not provided an effective long-term solution as they are limited by drug tolerance and potential abuse. These concerns have led to the development and testing of gene therapy approaches to treat chronic pain. The potential efficacy of gene therapy for pain has been reported in numerous pre-clinical studies that demonstrate pain control at the level of the spinal cord. This promise has been recently supported by a Phase-I human trial in which a replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector was used to deliver the human pre-proenkephalin (hPPE) gene, encoding the natural opioid peptides met- and leu-enkephalin (ENK), to cancer patients with intractable pain resulting from bone metastases (Fink et al., 2011). The study showed that the therapy was well tolerated and that patients receiving the higher doses of therapeutic vector experienced a substantial reduction in their overall pain scores for up to a month post vector injection. These exciting early clinical results await further patient testing to demonstrate treatment efficacy and will likely pave the way for other gene therapies to treat chronic pain. PMID:22668775

  14. TMD and chronic pain: a current view.

    PubMed

    Furquim, Bruno D'Aurea; Flamengui, Lvia Maria Sales Pinto; Conti, Paulo Csar Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This review aims at presenting a current view on the physiopathologic mechanisms associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). While joint pain is characterized by a well-defined inflammatory process mediated by tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin, chronic muscle pain presents with enigmatic physiopathologic mechanisms, being considered a functional pain syndrome similar to fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Central sensitization is the common factor unifying these conditions, and may be influenced by the autonomic nervous system and genetic polymorphisms. Thus, TMDs symptoms should be understood as a complex response which might get worse or improve depending on an individual's adaptation. PMID:25741834

  15. The use of cannabinoids in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Timothy David; Osborn, Hannah Louise

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 56-year-old man who developed chronic pain following the excision of a facial cancer that was poorly controlled despite multiple analgesic medications. Following the starting of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) his pain control was greatly improved and this had a huge impact on his quality of life. We also managed to significantly reduce his doses of opioid analgesia and ketamine. We review the current literature regarding the medicinal use of cannabinoids, with an emphasis on chronic pain, in an attempt to clarify their role and how to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. PMID:23893276

  16. Pharmacogenetics of Chronic Pain and Its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sv?tlk, Svatopluk; Hronov, Karolna; Bakhouche, Hana; Matoukov, Olga; Slana?, Ond?ej

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact of genetic variability of drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, receptors, and pathways involved in chronic pain perception on the efficacy and safety of analgesics and other drugs used for chronic pain treatment. Several candidate genes have been identified in the literature, while there is usually only limited clinical evidence substantiating for the penetration of the testing for these candidate biomarkers into the clinical practice. Further, the pain-perception regulation and modulation are still not fully understood, and thus more complex knowledge of genetic and epigenetic background for analgesia will be needed prior to the clinical use of the candidate genetic biomarkers. PMID:23766564

  17. The association between chronic pain and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Okifuji, Akiko; Hare, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain complaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also review the relationship between obesity and pain response to noxious stimulation in animals and humans. Based upon the existing research, we present several potential mechanisms that may link the two phenomena, including mechanical/structural factors, chemical mediators, depression, sleep, and lifestyle. We discuss the clinical implications of obesity and pain, focusing on the effect of weight loss, both surgical and noninvasive, on pain. The literature suggests that the two conditions are significant comorbidities, adversely impacting each other. The nature of the relationship however is not likely to be direct, but many interacting factors appear to contribute. Weight loss for obese pain patients appears to be an important aspect of overall pain rehabilitation, although more efforts are needed to determine strategies to maintain long-term benefit. PMID:26203274

  18. Expectations predict chronic pain treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Stphanie; Lavigne, Genevive L; Choinire, Manon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment. PMID:26447703

  19. Difficult Cases of Pain and Nonpain Symptoms in Intractable Spinal Infections: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Molly L.; Havyer, Rachel D. A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Swetz, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    In the modern age of advanced surgical techniques and pharmacologic management, bacterial spinal infections (SIs) can be managed (either eradicated or suppressed) in many hosts. However, the optimal management of SIs may be limited by patient comorbidities, which do not allow for surgical management, or limited by antimicrobial options due to side effects, toxicities, or emerging drug resistance. In these settings, frank and honest discussion regarding risks and benefits of treatment should be pursued, including that the SI may be a terminal illness. In this case series, we present 3 patients who had bacterial SIs whose treatments were limited by the above-mentioned factors. Furthermore, each case presented challenges regarding optimal medical management of somatic and neuropathic pain associated with the SI. PMID:22144661

  20. Chronic pain management in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, F; Valensise, H; Sacco, M; Allegri, M

    2014-02-01

    During pregnancy most of women will experience some kind of pain, either as a result of a pre-existing condition (low back pain, headache, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis) or as a direct consequence of pregnancy (weight gain, postural changes, pelvic floor dysfunction, hormonal factors). However, chronic pain management during pregnancy and lactation remains a challenge for clinicians and pregnant women are at risk of undertreatment for painful conditions, because of fear about use of drugs during pregnancy. Few analgesic drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but studies in pregnant women are not available for most of pain medications. The aim of this paper is to review the safety profile in pregnancy or lactation of the commonly prescribed pain medications and non-pharmacological treatments. In addition to the conventional classifications from the Food and Drug Administration and the American Academy of Paediatrics, authors analyzed the currently available clinical data from literature. PMID:23857445

  1. Noncoding RNAs: new players in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Brianna Marie; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain, a common clinical symptom, is often treated inadequately or ineffectively in part due to the incomplete understanding of molecular mechanisms that initiate and maintain this disorder. Newly identified noncoding RNAs govern gene expression. Recent studies have shown that peripheral noxious stimuli drive expressional changes in noncoding RNAs and that these changes are associated with pain hypersensitivity under chronic pain conditions. This review first presents current evidence for the peripheral inflammation/nerve injury-induced change in the expression of two types of noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, and Kcna2 antisense RNA, in pain-related regions, particularly in the dorsal root ganglion. The authors then discuss how peripheral noxious stimuli induce such changes. The authors finally explore potential mechanisms of how expressional changes in dorsal root ganglion microRNAs and Kcna2 antisense RNA contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. An understanding of these mechanisms may propose novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating chronic pain. PMID:24739997

  2. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute

  3. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…

  4. Chronic Low Back Pain: A Personal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Paul E.

    1989-01-01

    Sooner or later, all family physicians will face patients with chronic low back pain. This disorder does not result from the same causes and does not respond to the same treatment as acute back pain. A thorough assessment is the key to efficient treatment and should include data about familial, social, and occupational environments. The treatment should be multimodal and tailored to the patient's type of personality and to the causes of the syndrome. PMID:21249069

  5. The pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a review.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Mary E; Watson, C Peter N

    2006-01-01

    The past two decades have contributed a large body of preclinical work that has assisted in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic pain. In this context, it has been recognized that effective treatment of pain is a priority and that treatment often involves the use of one or a combination of agents with analgesic action. The current review presents an evidence-based approach to the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. Medline searches were done for all agents used as conventional treatment in chronic pain. Published papers up to June 2005 were included. The search strategy included randomized, controlled trials, and where available, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further references were found in reference sections of papers located using the above search strategy. Agents for which there were no controlled trials supporting efficacy in treatment of chronic pain were not included in the present review, except in cases where preclinical science was compelling, or where initial human work has been positive and where it was thought the reader would be interested in the scientific evidence to date. PMID:16511612

  6. The pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary E; Watson, C Peter N

    2006-01-01

    The past two decades have contributed a large body of preclinical work that has assisted in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic pain. In this context, it has been recognized that effective treatment of pain is a priority and that treatment often involves the use of one or a combination of agents with analgesic action. The current review presents an evidence-based approach to the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. Medline searches were done for all agents used as conventional treatment in chronic pain. Published papers up to June 2005 were included. The search strategy included randomized, controlled trials, and where available, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further references were found in reference sections of papers located using the above search strategy. Agents for which there were no controlled trials supporting efficacy in treatment of chronic pain were not included in the present review, except in cases where preclinical science was compelling, or where initial human work has been positive and where it was thought the reader would be interested in the scientific evidence to date. PMID:16511612

  7. The cortical rhythms of chronic back pain.

    PubMed

    Baliki, Marwan N; Baria, Alex T; Apkarian, A Vania

    2011-09-28

    Chronic pain is maladaptive and influences brain function and behavior by altering the flow and integration of information across brain regions. Here we use a power spectral analysis to investigate impact of presence of chronic pain on brain oscillatory activity in humans. We examine changes in BOLD fluctuations, across different frequencies, in chronic back pain (CBP) patients (n = 15) as compared to healthy controls (n = 15) during resting-state fMRI. While healthy subjects exhibited a specific, frequency band-dependent, large-scale neural organization, patients showed increased high-frequency BOLD oscillations (0.12-0.20 Hz) circumscribed mainly to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and parts of the default mode network. In the patients a correlation analysis related the mPFC aberrant BOLD high-frequency dynamics to altered functional connectivity to pain signaling/modulating brain regions, thus linking BOLD frequency changes to function. We also found that increased frequency fluctuations within the mPFC were temporally synchronous with spontaneous pain changes in patients during a pain-rating task. These observations provide novel insights about the nature of CBP, identifying how it disturbs the resting brain, and link high-frequency BOLD oscillations to perception. PMID:21957259

  8. Treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome type 1 with palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine cream: modulation of nonneuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can be intractable to treat and patients sometimes suffer for many years. Therefore, new treatment strategies are needed to alleviate symptoms in CRPS patients. This case report describes a patient suffering from intractable CRPS type 1 for 13 years. Due to her swollen painful feet and left knee she is wheelchair-bound. The combination of palmitoylethanolamide and ketamine 10% cream reduced her pain by more than 50% after 1 month of treatment, and a marked reduction in swelling and skin discoloration was noticed. Furthermore, she could walk independently again and she experienced no side effects. Thus, palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine could be a combination therapy option for treating CRPS patients. PMID:23658493

  9. Imaging brain mechanisms in chronic visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Emeran A; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Hong, Jui-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity, and connectivity, as well as in gray and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data-driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25789437

  10. Experimental pain responses in children with chronic pain and in healthy children: How do they differ?

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie CI; Evans, Subhadra; Seidman, Laura C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extant research comparing laboratory pain responses of children with chronic pain with healthy controls is mixed, with some studies indicating lower pain responsivity for controls and others showing no differences. Few studies have included different pain modalities or assessment protocols. OBJECTIVES: To compare pain responses among 26 children (18 girls) with chronic pain and matched controls (mean age 14.8 years), to laboratory tasks involving thermal heat, pressure and cold pain. Responses to cold pain were assessed using two different protocols: an initial trial of unspecified duration and a second trial of specified duration. METHODS: Four trials of pressure pain and of thermal heat pain stimuli, all of unspecified duration, were administered, as well as the two cold pain trials. Heart rate and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and after completion of the pain tasks. RESULTS: Pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ between children with chronic pain and controls for the unspecified trials. For the specified cold pressor trial, 92% of children with chronic pain completed the entire trial compared with only 61.5% of controls. Children with chronic pain exhibited a trend toward higher baseline and postsession heart rate and reported more anxiety and depression symptoms compared with control children. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual factors related to the fixed trial may have exerted a greater influence on pain tolerance in children with chronic pain relative to controls. Children with chronic pain demonstrated a tendency toward increased arousal in anticipation of and following pain induction compared with controls. PMID:22518373

  11. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants. PMID:24879916

  12. Hypnotic Approaches for Chronic Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

  13. Successful Treatment of Chronic Donor Site Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yanow, Jennifer H; Lorenzo, Luigi Di; Worosilo, Sharon C; Pappagallo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This is a case presentation of a 45-year-old male with chronic donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest successfully treated with superior cluneal nerve blockade. Donor site pain following autologous bone harvest is a common postoperative complication of lumbar fusion procedures that can cause significant morbidity and diminish quality of life, even in the context of an otherwise successful surgery. Dysfunction of the superior cluneal nerves is an etiology of this chronic pain. The patients medical history, attempted treatments, and literature were reviewed. Case Presentation: A 45-year-old male with a six year history of severe pain over the right iliac crest following an otherwise successful lumbar laminectomy and fusion underwent two sets of superior cluneal nerve blocks, with sustained relief of more than 80% at seven months follow up. Conclusions: Donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest is a common surgical complication that is often resistant to conservative treatments such as physical therapy and oral medications. Blockade of the superior cluneal nerves is a safe and technically simple procedure that may result in long-term pain relief, obviating the need to consider more invasive options. PMID:26587399

  14. Art Therapy for Chronic Pain: Applications and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angheluta, Anne-Marie; Lee, Bonnie K.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is acknowledged as a phenomenological experience resulting from biological, psychological, and social interactions. Consequently, treatment for this complex and debilitating health phenomenon is often approached from multidisciplinary and biopsychosocial perspectives. One approach to treating chronic pain involves implementing…

  15. Nerve Block Technique Might Help Ease Chronic Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Nerve Block Technique Might Help Ease Chronic Back Pain Small study found half of patients still getting ... that uses radio waves to treat chronic low back pain provided long-lasting relief to a small group ...

  16. Meditation May Help Ease Chronic Low Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157895.html Meditation May Help Ease Chronic Low Back Pain Study found it bested cognitive behavioral therapy and ... painkillers when it comes to soothing chronic low back pain, a new clinical trial suggests. The study found ...

  17. Abnormal Pain Modulation in Patients with Spatially Distributed Chronic Pain: Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Staud, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Many chronic pain syndromes including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine headache, chronic back pain, and complex regional pain syndrome are associated with hypersensitivity to painful stimuli and with reduced endogenous pain inhibition. These findings suggest that modulation of pain-related information may be related to the onset and/or maintenance of chronic pain. Although pain sensitivity and pain inhibition are normally distributed in the general population, they are not useful as reliable predictors of future pain. The combination of heightened pain sensitivity and reduced pain-inhibition, however, appears to predispose individuals to greater risk for increased acute clinical pain (e.g., postoperative pain). It is unknown at this time whether such pain processing abnormalities may also place individuals at increased risk for chronic pain. Psychophysical methods, including heat sensory and pressure pain testing have become increasingly available and can be used for the evaluation of pain sensitivity and pain inhibition. However, long-term prospective studies in the general population are lacking which could yield insight into the role of heightened pain sensitivity and pain disinhibition for the development of chronic pain disorders like fibromyalgia. PMID:19647141

  18. Persistence behavior of chronic low back pain patients in an acute pain situation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A J; Brands, A M

    1986-01-01

    The test behavior of 24 chronic low back pain patients was compared with the behavior of 24 healthy control Ss., matched for age and sex, in an experimental, acute pain situation (cold pressor-test). Chronic low back pain patients showed poorer persistence behavior and reported more pain. Thus, elements of typical chronic low back pain behavior were also present in an acute pain situation. These findings are discussed within the framework of stimulus-generalization theory. In addition, the effect of different coping strategies on pain tolerance was reconfirmed. The chronic low back pain group and the control group did not cope differently. PMID:2942681

  19. [Stress and chronic pain: An endocrine perspective].

    PubMed

    Cuatrecasas Cambra, Guillem

    2009-08-01

    Chronic stress, understood as a disturbance of the body homeostasis, is partially driven by many hormonal pathways. Prolactine, TSH (Thyrotropin), vasopresin, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone), and GH (Growth Hormone) have been involved in many stress reactions. In acute stress, there are many evidences for the increased both cathecolaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In chronic conditions, these hyperactivations are controversial and some cases may present a true hypoadrenalism. There is no evidence that treating such androgen/glucocorticoids deficiency may relief chronic pain processes such as fibromyalgia. However, treating somatotroph axis dysfunctions (somatostatin, GH/IGF1 [growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1]) with recombinant GH in carefully seleccioned subgroups of fibromyalgic syndrome, offers us an in-vivo model of the capacity of some hormones to modulate pain. PMID:21794652

  20. Chronic pain epidemiology – where do lifestyle factors fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524

  1. Risk Assessment of Opioid Misuse in Italian Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Renata; Duse, Genni; Capraro, Michela; Visentin, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Opioid therapy in patients with chronic noncancer pain must be preceded by evaluation of the risk of opioid misuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the Italian translation of the Pain Medication Questionnaire (PMQ) and of the Diagnosis Intractability Risk and Efficacy Score (DIRE) in chronic pain patients. Design. 75 chronic noncancer pain patients treated with opioids were enrolled and followed longitudinally. Risk of opioid misuse was evaluated through PMQ, DIRE, and the physician's clinical evaluation. Pain experience and psychological characteristics were assessed through specific self-report instruments. At follow-ups, pain intensity, aberrant drug behaviors, and presence of the prescribed opioid and of illegal substances in urine were also checked. Results. PMQ demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.77) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.86). Significant correlations were found between higher PMQ scores and the number of aberrant drug behaviors detected at 2-, 4-, and 6-month follow-ups (P < 0.01). Also the DIRE demonstrated good predictive validity. Conclusions. The results obtained with specific tools are more reliable than the clinician's evaluation alone in predicting the risk of opioid misuse; regular monitoring and psychological intervention will contribute to improving compliance and outcome of long-term opioid use. PMID:25177499

  2. How to measure chronic pain: New concepts.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, Fausto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2015-02-01

    The assessment of chronic pain and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions requires the use of multidimensional qualitative and health-related quality of life instruments, but there is still little agreement concerning what these may be or which approach to adopt. Increasing focus on patient-reported outcomes in medicine has had the positive effect of giving prominence to the views and experiences of patients with chronic pain, and the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approach allows patients' symptoms to be assessed in their natural environment in real time without the need for recall. Computerised EMA symptom diaries are now generally regarded as the 'gold standard' in the field of pain medicine, and they have recently attracted increasing attention as an essential component of health-care monitoring systems based on the information and communication technology. A web/Internet-based diary and patient terminal seem to provide a ubiquitous, easy-to-use and cost-efficient solution for patient-centred data acquisition. In addition, telemonitoring is increasingly seen as an effective means of supporting shared decision-making as it can inform patients about typical symptoms, treatment options and prognosis, and it is widely accepted as an additional source of information. This article reviews some of the instruments used to assess chronic pain, including newly developed and well-established validated multidimensional instruments and health-care monitoring systems based on information and communication technology, and it discusses their advantages and limitations. PMID:26267010

  3. Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-05-01

    The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

  4. Abnormal endogenous pain modulation is a shared characteristic of many chronic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2012-05-01

    The intensity of acute and chronic pain depends on interactions between peripheral impulse input and CNS pain mechanisms, including facilitation and inhibition. Whereas tonic pain inhibition is a characteristic of most pain-free individuals, pain facilitation can be detected in many chronic pain patients. The capability to inhibit pain is normally distributed along a wide continuum in the general population and can be used to predict chronic pain. Accumulating evidence suggests that endogenous pain inhibition depends on activation of the prefrontal cortex, periaqueductal gray and rostral ventral medulla. Quantitative sensory test paradigms have been designed to acquire detailed information regarding each individual's endogenous pain inhibition and facilitation. Such tests include: temporal summation of pain, which is mostly used to assess facilitatory pain modulation by measuring the change in pain perception during a series of identical nociceptive stimuli; and conditioned pain modulation, which tests pain inhibition by utilizing two simultaneously applied painful stimuli (the 'pain inhibits pain' paradigm). Considerable indirect evidence seems to indicate that not only increased pain facilitation but also ineffective pain inhibition represents a predisposition for chronic pain. This view is supported by the fact that many chronic pain syndromes (e.g., fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, headache and chronic fatigue syndrome) are associated with hypersensitivity to painful stimuli and reduced endogenous pain inhibition. However, future prospective studies will be necessary to provide definitive evidence for this relationship. Such research would not only provide important information about mechanisms relevant to chronic pain but would also permit identification of individuals at high risk for future chronic pain. PMID:22550986

  5. PAIN INTENSITY MODERATES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND PAIN INTERFERENCE IN CHRONIC OROFACIAL PAIN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A.; Geiger, Paul J.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Study Context Chronic pain is associated with increased interference in daily functioning that becomes more pronounced as pain intensity increases. Based on previous research showing that older adults maintain well-being in the face of pain as well as or better than their younger counterparts, the current study examined the interaction of age and pain intensity on interference in a sample of chronic orofacial pain patients. Methods Data were obtained from the records of 508 chronic orofacial pain patients being seen for an initial evaluation from 2008 to 2012. Collected data included age (range: 1878) and self-reported measures of pain intensity and pain interference. Bivariate correlations and regression models were used to assess for statistical interactions. Results Regression analyses revealed that pain intensity positively predicted pain interference (R2 = .35, B = 10.40, SE = 0.62, t(507) = 16.70, p < .001). A significant interaction supported the primary hypothesis that aging was associated with reduced interference at high levels of pain intensity (?R2 = .01, B = ?1.31, SE = 0.63, t(505) = ?2.90, p = .04). Conclusion At high levels of pain intensity, interference decreased with age, although the age by pain intensity interaction effect was small. This evidence converges with aging theories, including socioemotional selectivity theory, which posits that as people age, they become more motivated to maximize positive emotions and minimize negative ones. The results highlight the importance of studying the mechanisms older adults use to successfully cope with pain. PMID:26214102

  6. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  7. Psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A number of psychosocial factors have been associated with the onset, exacerbation and/or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of vulnerability, reinforcement, and modeling. We compared 222 adolescents with chronic pain and no documented physiological etiology (headache, back, limb and abdominal pain) with 148 controls and their (respectively 183 vs. 127) parents. Analyses showed that adolescents with chronic pain are more vulnerable in terms of neuroticism, negative fear of failure, and (less) experienced social acceptance. Contrary to our expectations, the chronic pain group experienced less reinforcement for their pain behavior by both parents and peers than the control group. While the number of pain models was higher in the chronic pain group, no differences were found between their parents and those of the adolescents without chronic pain in pain experience, pain parameters, and pain coping. Regression analyses on the contribution of psychosocial factors to chronic pain and its parameters sustained the positive relation between vulnerability, (less) pain reinforcement, pain models and coping with pain. Furthermore, we also found evidence that gender differences have to be taken into account. PMID:12507698

  8. Biopsychosocial Approach to Assessing and Managing Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care. PMID:26614718

  9. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts

  10. Chronic pain management: legal and licensure issues.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Legal and licensure issues are an inevitable aspect of treating patients with chronic pain. Clinicians need to ensure compliance with state medical board and federal guidelines. Prescription drug abuse continues to be a significant problem. Despite the legalization of medical marijuana in some states, there is currently no medical indication for prescribing marijuana; the exceptions are dronabinol and nabilone. These are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and dronabinol also is approved for anorexia in patients with AIDS or cancer. Other legal issues concern establishment of chronic pain as a basis for disability status. Clinicians often are asked to provide a letter or assessment, such as a functional capacity evaluation, for documenting disability. Referral to a physical medicine and rehabilitation subspecialist or physical therapist for this evaluation should be considered. Balancing legal and licensure issues with the best interests of the patient can be challenging for clinicians. PMID:25970871

  11. Opioid and chronic non-cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sameer; Atcheson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although, opioids are advocated in various guidelines their use for chronic non-cancer pain is controversial because evidence of long term benefit is weak. The potential for serious adverse effects and local regulations promote caution in both the prescribers and users. However, opioids have a place in the management of chronic non-cancer pain in carefully selected patients with regular monitoring and as a part of the multimodal therapy. It is important for the treating physician to be up-to-date with this form of therapy, in order to have the necessary confidence to prescribe opioids and manage adverse effects. The common adverse effects should be treated promptly to improve patient compliance. We believe that opioid therapy in low doses is beneficial to some patients. It should not be denied but carefully considered on case by case basis. PMID:23493455

  12. Chronic pain: not only a matter of time.

    PubMed

    Bonezzi, C; Demartini, L; Buonocore, M

    2012-06-01

    The term "chronic" is often used in daily clinical practice to indicate a type of pain that lasts over time and is accompanied by diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The common feeling is that in this category are actually collected many different clinical cases with the unique characteristic that the pain lasts a long time. It follows that treatment failures are common and patients roam from doctor to doctor in search of an effective care program. At the same time the health spending for the treatment of these patients is becoming increasingly high. In clinical practice we meet many patients with obscure pain syndromes which are classified as "chronic" and untreatable only because persist for long time and that obtain a complete pain relief after a right diagnosis and a specific treatment. In this review the Authors want to argue that the term chronic should not be used only when the pain persists for some time or just when signs and symptoms of mechanisms in the central nervous systems are present. The authors suggest that there is a clear difference between acute and chronic pain but also that in chronic pain patients there are three different painful conditions: 1) patients with a chronic disease (or sequelae) and with chronic pain in which the pain mechanisms are closely related to the underlying chronic disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) or to previous injury that has generated other unsolvable mechanisms (e.g., deafferentation pain after plexus avulsion); 2) patients with a chronic disease and chronic pain in which new mechanisms overlap those related to the underlying disease; 3) patients with chronic pain in whom the correlation between pain and the initial tissue injury is lost and the persistence of pain is due to new developed mechanisms. According to this classification we can distinguish patients with "painful chronic disease" by patients with "independent chronic pain". In these latter cases the complexity of the clinical picture is to be found in a maladaptative response to pain, in emergence of central nervous system mechanisms and in behavioral changes that, in turn, can cause long-term social, psychological and physical sequelae. Differences among patients in developing chronic pain can be related to differences in the ability of the brain to continuously adapt its functional and structural organization. It is obvious that the care plan for these complex patients is profoundly different from that needed for patients with pain linked to a chronic disease or stabilized pain mechanisms. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of the most noteworthy developments in this field and to propose some observations that may help to understand this pain condition and the patients. PMID:22467050

  13. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Endometriosis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Triolo, Onofrio; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Sturlese, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) could be considered nowadays a deep health problem that challenges physicians all over the world. This because its aetiology is still unclear, the course of the disease could vary a lot among different patients and through time in the same patient, and the response to treatments is not every time successful. Among women who underwent laparoscopy for CPP, endometriosis is found in about 1/3 of the cases, while only 25% of women with histological confirmed endometriosis are asymptomatic. A wide range of variables may exert their influence on the resulting pain syndrome in endometriosis; for example, score according to American society for reproductive medicine (rASRM), size of the sub-peritoneal and pelvic wall implants, Douglas obliteration, previous surgery. It is widely accepted nowadays that central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) seems to influence each other and this interconnection play a key role in pain modulation. Moreover, the phenomena induced by endometriosis in the pelvis, including the breakdown of peritoneal homeostasis and the induction of the production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines, are responsible of altered innervations and modulation of pain pathways in these patients. There are many proposed medical and surgical approach to treat this painful syndrome, although there is necessity of more efforts to create new non-invasive strategies that set a more accurate diagnosis of the causes of endometriotic-related CPP, and therefore facilitate its eradication. PMID:23671540

  14. Neuroimmune interactions in itch: Do chronic itch, chronic pain, and chronic cough share similar mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Itch and pain are closely related but also clearly distinct sensations. Pain is known to suppress itch, while analgesics such as morphine can provoke itch. However, in pathological and chronic conditions, pain and itch also have similarities. Dysfunction of the nervous system, as manifested by neural plastic changes in primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (peripheral sensitization) and spinal cord and brain stem neurons in the central nervous system (central sensitization) will result in chronic pain and itch. Importantly, these diseases also result from immune dysfunction, since inflammatory mediators can directly activate or sensitize nociceptive and pruriceptive neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system, leading to pain and itch hypersensitivity. In this mini-review, I discuss the roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel, and Nav1.7 sodium channel in regulating itch and inflammation, with special emphasis of neuronal TLR signaling and the interaction of TLR7 and TRPA1. Chronic pain and chronic itch are debilitating diseases and dramatically impact the life quality of patients. Targeting TLRs for the control of inflammation, neuroinflammation (inflammation restricted in the nervous system), and hyperexcitability of nociceptors and pruriceptors will lead to new therapeutics for the relief of chronic pain and chronic itch. Finally, given the shared mechanisms among chronic cough, chronic pain, and chronic itch and the demonstrated efficacy of the neuropathic pain drug gabapentin in treating chronic cough, novel therapeutics targeting TRPA1, Nav1.7, and TLRs may also help to alleviate refractory cough via modulating neuron-immune interaction. PMID:26351759

  15. Altered Central Sensitization and Pain Modulation in the CNS in Chronic Joint Pain.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Skou, Sren T; Nielsen, Thomas A; Petersen, Kristian K

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain disorders are the second largest contributor to global disability underlining the significance of effective treatments. However, treating chronic musculoskeletal pain, and chronic joint pain (osteoarthritis (OA)) in particular, is challenging as the underlying peripheral and central pain mechanisms are not fully understood, and safe and efficient analgesic drugs are not available. The pain associated with joint pain is highly individual, and features from radiological imaging have not demonstrated robust associations with the pain manifestations. In recent years, a variety of human quantitative pain assessment tools (quantitative sensory testing (QST)) have been developed providing new opportunities for profiling patients and reaching a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic joint pain. As joint pain is a complex interaction between many different pain mechanisms, available tools are important for patent profiling and providing the basic knowledge for development of new drugs and for developing pain management regimes. PMID:26026770

  16. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Bushnell, M. Catherine; ?eko, Marta; Low, Lucie A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mindbody therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states important components of mindbody therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569

  17. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, M Catherine; Ceko, Marta; Low, Lucie A

    2013-07-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind-body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states - important components of mind-body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569

  18. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Anxiety-Chronic Pain Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Min

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is a major medical problem that is resistant to conventional medical intervention. It also causes emotional changes such as anxiety and fear. Furthermore, anxiety or fear often enhances the suffering of pain. Based on recent studies, I propose chronic anxiety triggered by injury or chronic pain is mediated through presynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key cortical region for pain perception. Conversely, NMDA receptor-dependent postsynaptic LTP plays a more important role in behavioral sensitization in chronic pain. Thus, postsynaptic and presynaptic LTP in ACC neurons are likely the key cellular mechanisms for causing chronic pain and its associated anxiety, respectively. This suggests potential targets for treating chronic pain and related anxiety. PMID:26878750

  19. [Chronic pain: medico-biologic and sotsio-economic aspects].

    PubMed

    Iakhno, N N; Kukushkin, M L

    2012-01-01

    In this article the role of neurobiological, psychological and social factors in pathogenesis of chronic pain is analyzed. The chronic pain is considered not as a symptom of damage of tissue and as independent illness due to non-adequate neuroplasticity of systems involved into regulation of pain sensitivity. The major role in development and maintenance of chronic pain is devoted to the primary genetically determined and/or secondary disturbance of interaction between nociceptive and antinociceptive systems at various levels--from peripheral neuron to central structures--that provides pain perception and painful behaviour development. PMID:23210173

  20. Current understanding of the neuropathophysiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn; Pongprasobchai, Supot

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The main symptom of patients with CP is chronic and severe abdominal pain. However, the pathophysiology of pain in CP remains obscure. Traditionally, researchers believed that the pain was caused by anatomical changes in pancreatic structure. However, treatment outcomes based on such beliefs are considered unsatisfactory. The emerging explanations of pain in CP are trending toward neurobiological theories. This article aims to review current evidence regarding the neuropathophysiology of pain in CP and its potential implications for the development of new treatments for pain in CP. PMID:26600977

  1. Updated Mechanisms of Sickle Cell Disease-Associated Chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Brianna; Meiler, Steffen E.; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy, causes sickling of red blood cells, resulting in vessel blockage, stroke, anemia, inflammation, and extreme pain. A vast majority of SCD patients experience pain on a chronic basis, and many turn to opioids to provide limited relief. The side effects that come with chronic opioid use push for research into understanding the specific mechanisms of SCD-associated chronic pain. Current advances in SCD-associated pain have focused on alterations in the pain pathway including nociceptor sensitization and endogenous pain inducers. This article reviews the underlying pathophysiology of SCD, potential pain mechanisms, current treatments and their mechanism of action, and future directions of SCD-associated pain management. The information provided could help propel research in SCD-associated chronic pain and uncover novel treatment options for clinicians. PMID:26301256

  2. Cortical plasticity as a new endpoint measurement for chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of chronic pain are widely used to investigate basic mechanisms of chronic pain and to evaluate potential novel drugs for treating chronic pain. Among the different criteria used to measure chronic pain, behavioral responses are commonly used as the end point measurements. However, not all chronic pain conditions can be easily measured by behavioral responses such as the headache, phantom pain and pain related to spinal cord injury. Here I propose that cortical indexes, that indicate neuronal plastic changes in pain-related cortical areas, can be used as endpoint measurements for chronic pain. Such cortical indexes are not only useful for those chronic pain conditions where a suitable animal model is lacking, but also serve as additional screening methods for potential drugs to treat chronic pain in humans. These cortical indexes are activity-dependent immediate early genes, electrophysiological identified plastic changes and biochemical assays of signaling proteins. It can be used to evaluate novel analgesic compounds that may act at peripheral or spinal sites. I hope that these new cortical endpoint measurements will facilitate our search for new, and more effective, pain medicines, and help to reduce false lead drug targets. PMID:21798042

  3. Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged???14years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Conclusion Chronic pain stages, but also disease load and societal inequalities contributed to societal burden. Pain measurements in epidemiology research of chronic pain should include chronic pain grades and disease load. PMID:24725286

  4. Treating Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Review of the Research for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Summary – Apr. 16, 2012 Treating Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Review of the Research for Women Formats ... assistant. Understanding Your Condition What is chronic pelvic pain? Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is ongoing pain in ...

  5. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  6. Chronic Low Back Pain: Toward an Integrated Psychosocial Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Jenny; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Integrated six dimensions of chronic low back pain (pain intensity, functional disability, attitudes toward pain, pain coping strategies, depression, illness behavior) to provide multidimensional patient profile. Data from 100 patients revealed presence of three distinct patient groups: patients who were in control, patients who were depressed and

  7. Chronic Low Back Pain: Toward an Integrated Psychosocial Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Jenny; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Integrated six dimensions of chronic low back pain (pain intensity, functional disability, attitudes toward pain, pain coping strategies, depression, illness behavior) to provide multidimensional patient profile. Data from 100 patients revealed presence of three distinct patient groups: patients who were in control, patients who were depressed and…

  8. Cyberhugs: creating a voice for chronic pain sufferers through technology.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karin L

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined. PMID:23276258

  9. Managing Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Landry, Bradford W; Fischer, Philip R; Driscoll, Sherilyn W; Koch, Krista M; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia; Mack, Kenneth J; Wilder, Robert T; Bauer, Brent A; Brandenburg, Joline E

    2015-11-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents can be difficult for a single provider to manage in a busy clinical setting. Part of this difficulty is that pediatric chronic pain not only impacts the child but also the families of these children. In this review article, we discuss etiology and pathophysiology of chronic pain, along with variables that impact the severity of chronic pain and functional loss. We review diagnosis and management of selected chronic pain conditions in pediatric patients, including headache, low back pain, hypermobility, chronic fatigue, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, and complex regional pain syndrome. For each condition, we create a road map that contains therapy prescriptions, exercise recommendations, and variables that may influence pain severity. Potential medications for these pain conditions and associated symptoms are reviewed. A multidisciplinary approach for managing children with these conditions, including pediatric pain rehabilitation programs, is emphasized. Lastly, we discuss psychological factors and interventions for pediatric chronic pain and potential complementary and alternative natural products and interventions. PMID:26568508

  10. Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

  11. Seniors and Chronic Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their own and 75-85 percent of the elderly in care facilities suffer from chronic pain. Yet, pain among older adults is largely undertreated, with serious health consequences, such as depression, anxiety, decreased mobility, social isolation, poor sleep, and ...

  12. Medical marijuana use for chronic pain: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Garth T

    2012-01-01

    Questions from patients about medical marijuana use for chronic pain are becoming more common. The information in this report will help patients understand the potential risks and benefits of using this substance for painful conditions. PMID:22448949

  13. Study Suggests Brain Is Hard-Wired for Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... predict whether a subject would recover from low back pain. Red dots represent differences in white matter structure ... predict whether a person will suffer chronic low back pain, according to researchers who used brain scans. The ...

  14. Programmable intrathecal pumps for the management of chronic pain: recommendations for improved efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The management of chronic pain can be very challenging. Often, physicians employ intrathecal (IT) drug delivery systems as a last resort to relieve intractable pain. The system consists of an implantable pump that stores and delivers medication through a catheter to the IT space. Programmability is achieved by positioning an external devise over the implanted pump to change the mode of drug delivery. The innovations in programmable IT drug delivery systems are expanding more rapidly than ever before. Unfortunately, the rapid expansion is accompanied by a lack of prospective randomized trials examining these new options. In an effort to improve results and reduce side effects, publications by experts or expert consensus panels provide guidance for the community. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of high interest topics in recent publications. PMID:25336986

  15. Chronic pain assessment: A seven-factor model

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Megan A; Tripp, Dean A; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Davidson, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many measures assessing related dimensions of the chronic pain experience (eg, pain severity, pain coping, depression, activity level), but the relationships among them have not been systematically established. OBJECTIVE: The present study set out to determine the core dimensions requiring assessment in individuals with chronic pain. METHODS: Individuals with chronic pain (n=126) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Chronic Pain Coping Index, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form, Pain Disability Index and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. RESULTS: Before an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the nine chronic pain measures, EFAs were conducted on each of the individual measures, and the derived factors (subscales) from each measure were submitted together for a single EFA. A seven-factor model best fit the data, representing the core factors of pain and disability, pain description, affective distress, support, positive coping strategies, negative coping strategies and activity. CONCLUSIONS: Seven meaningful dimensions of the pain experience were reliably and systematically extracted. Implications and future directions for this work are discussed. PMID:18719712

  16. The Role of Invasive Pain Management Modalities in the Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heather; Youn, Youngwon; Guay, Ryan C; Laufer, Andras; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-01-01

    Invasive analgesic therapies provide an alternative to medical management of chronic pain. With the increasing incidence of chronic pain not only in the United States but worldwide, more therapies have evolved to address the growing need for pain relief options. These therapies include spinal injections, nerve blocks, radiofrequency ablation, neurostimulation, and intrathecal drug delivery. PMID:26614722

  17. An update on the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-09-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease without disc herniation, also known as discogenic pain, is an elusive diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Lumbar provocation discography and fusion surgery have been frequently utilized for several decades as the gold standards for the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic lumbar discogenic pain, though controversial, based on conjecture, rather than evidence. In addition to lumbar fusion, various other operative and nonoperative modalities of treatments are available in managing chronic lumbar discogenic pain. This review provides an updated assessment of the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain with a critical look at the many modalities of treatments that are currently available. PMID:26255722

  18. Alleviation of chronic pain following rat spinal cord compression injury with multimodal actions of huperzine A

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dou; Thakor, Devang K.; Han, Inbo; Ropper, Alexander E.; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Sidman, Richard L.; Zafonte, Ross; Schachter, Steven C.; Teng, Yang D.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms including activation of NMDA receptors, microglial activation, reactive astrogliosis, loss of descending inhibition, and spasticity are responsible for ?40% of cases of intractable neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because conventional treatments blocking individual mechanisms elicit only short-term effectiveness, a multimodal approach with simultaneous actions against major pain-related pathways may have value for clinical management of chronic pain. We hypothesize that [-]-huperzine A (HUP-A), an alkaloid isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata, that is a potent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and NMDA receptors, could mitigate pain without invoking drug tolerance or dependence by stimulating cholinergic interneurons to impede pain signaling, inhibiting inflammation via microglial cholinergic activation, and blocking NMDA-mediated central hypersensitization. We tested our hypothesis by administering HUP-A i.p. or intrathecally to female SpragueDawley rats (200235 g body weight) after moderate static compression (35 g for 5 min) of T10 spinal cord. Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits. PMID:23386718

  19. Treatment for Chronic Pain in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-07

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  20. Chronic pain management in older people.

    PubMed

    Helme, R D

    2001-01-01

    Successful management of chronic pain in older people is dependent on a careful history and physical examination as it is in young adults. However, detailed attention must also be paid to the effects of co-morbidity on the pain and its treatment, on communication strategies with patients who often have sight and hearing impediments, and on the feasible range of functional outcomes for each patient. Drug interactions are common in older people as they take more medications and have reduced ability to clear most analgesic and adjuvant medications. This suggests a larger than usual role for non-pharmacological management strategies. However, simple analgesics and narcotics are safe to use in older people without overt liver and renal disease, providing the lowest dose compatible with functional improvement is sought; the goal of therapy is to maintain optimum function rather than cure the pain. In general the outcome is positive for both the patient and the practitioner as patients usually respond to medical, physical, psychosocial and cognitive behavioural programmes as well as young adults if given an appropriate milieu, adequate time and empathy. PMID:11798215

  1. The Relationship between Strategies of Coping and Perception of Pain in Three Chronic Pain Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)

  2. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667

  3. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Co-occurring Depression and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Poleshuck, Ellen L.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Cort, Natalie; Hoffman-King, Debra; Cerrito, Beth; Rosario-McCabe, Luis A.; Giles, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Up to 37% of individuals experience chronic pain during their lifetimes. Approximately one-fourth of primary care patients with chronic pain also meet criteria for major depression. Many of these individuals fail to receive psychotherapy or other treatment for their depression; moreover when they do, physical pain is often not addressed directly. Women, socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, African Americans and Latinos all report higher rates of pain and depression compared to other groups. This article describes a version of Interpersonal Psychotherapy tailored for patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression and Pain (IPT-P). While IPT-P potentially could be delivered to many different patient populations in a range of clinical settings, this article focuses on its delivery within primary care settings for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Adaptations include a brief 8-session protocol that incorporates strategies for anticipating barriers to psychotherapy, accepting patients conceptualization of their difficulties, encouraging patients to consider the impact of their pain on their roles and relationships, emphasizing self-care, incorporating pain management techniques, and flexible scheduling. In addition, IPT-P is designed as an adjunct to usual medical pain treatment, and seeks to engage non-treatment seeking patients in psychotherapy by focusing on accessibility and relevance of the intervention to concerns common among patients with pain. Identifying patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain and offering IPT-P as a treatment option has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for individuals with depression and chronic pain. PMID:21191470

  4. The Acute to Chronic Pain Transition: Can Chronic Pain Be Prevented?

    PubMed

    Pozek, John-Paul J; Beausang, David; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a distressing disease process that can lead to long-term disability, reduced quality of life, and increased health care spending. Although the exact mechanism of development of CPSP is unknown, nerve injury and inflammation may lead to peripheral and central sensitization. Given the complexity of the disease process, no novel treatment has been identified. The preoperative use of multimodal analgesia has been shown to decrease acute postoperative pain, but it has no proven efficacy in preventing development of CPSP. PMID:26614716

  5. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  6. Prefrontal cortical hyperactivity in patients with sympathetically mediated chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, A V; Thomas, P S; Krauss, B R; Szeverenyi, N M

    2001-10-01

    Chronic pain continues to impose a large burden of suffering, yet its neural correlates remain poorly understood. In sympathetically mediated chronic pain (SMP), peripheral sympathetic blockade temporarily relieves this pain, so that related neural activity can be studied without perturbing sensory inputs. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and thermal painful stimuli applied to the chronically painful body site, before and after sympathetic blockade, to examine the cortical network of chronic pain. The chronic SMP state was associated with a widely spread prefrontal hyperactivity, increased anterior cingulate activity and decreased activity in the thalamus contralateral to the body side suffering from SMP, but was unrelated to sensorimotor activity. Ineffective sympathetic blocks, i.e. blocks that did not diminish the SMP pain, did not change the cortical responses to the painful thermal stimulus; while effective placebo resulted in similar responses to those of effective blocks. These findings provide evidence for abnormal brain responses to pain in patients with chronic SMP, which engages prefrontal/limbic networks more extensively than in acute pain-states. PMID:11578827

  7. Mechanism of Chronic Pain in Rodent Brain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pei-Ching

    Chronic pain is a significant health problem that greatly impacts the quality of life of individuals and imparts high costs to society. Despite intense research effort in understanding of the mechanism of pain, chronic pain remains a clinical problem that has few effective therapies. The advent of human brain imaging research in recent years has changed the way that chronic pain is viewed. To further extend the use of human brain imaging techniques for better therapies, the adoption of imaging technique onto the animal pain models is essential, in which underlying brain mechanisms can be systematically studied using various combination of imaging and invasive techniques. The general goal of this thesis is to addresses how brain develops and maintains chronic pain in an animal model using fMRI. We demonstrate that nucleus accumbens, the central component of mesolimbic circuitry, is essential in development of chronic pain. To advance our imaging technique, we develop an innovative methodology to carry out fMRI in awake, conscious rat. Using this cutting-edge technique, we show that allodynia is assoicated with shift brain response toward neural circuits associated nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex that regulate affective and cognitive component of pain. Taken together, this thesis provides a deeper understanding of how brain mediates pain. It builds on the existing body of knowledge through maximizing the depth of insight into brain imaging of chronic pain.

  8. Opioid Pharmacotherapy for Chronic Noncancer Pain: The American Experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chronic noncancer pain is a significant and growing public health challenge in the United States. Lacking effective alternative interventions for effective chronic noncancer pain management, many physicians have turned to opioid pharmacotherapy. Increased opioid prescribing brings not only gains in therapeutic benefit but also a higher incidence of adverse drug events including increased medication misuse and opioid related mortality. Currently the United States must confront the dual problems of widespread undertreated chronic noncancer pain and a prescription opioid abuse crisis. Withholding pain relieving drugs from patients in need is unjustifiable, yet drug diversion, abuse and adverse drug events have become major social as well as medical problems. At the heart of this crisis is the lack of definitive evidence about the risk to benefit ratio of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain both on an individual case and on a population basis. This article describes the extent and severity of the American chronic noncancer pain problem and the history of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain in the United States. It then discusses the concept of evidence based practice and reviews current evidence supporting opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain as well as adverse drug events related to opioid pharmacotherapy including misuse and abuse. Finally, it considers the conflict of providing pain relief versus protecting society and reviews steps that governmental agencies, industry and others are taking to contain and ultimately resolve the problems of excessive prescribing and conflicting priorities. PMID:23342201

  9. Distribution of naloxone for overdose prevention to chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Coe, Marion A; Walsh, Sharon L

    2015-11-01

    In this commentary, we reflect on the growing opioid overdose epidemic and propose that chronic pain patients prescribed opioids are contributing to growing mortality rates. We advocate for expanding naloxone access and overdose prevention training, which has historically been directed when available to injection drug users, to chronic pain patients who may be at high risk for accidental opioid overdose. PMID:26024850

  10. Use and abuse of opioid analgesics in chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, B.

    1993-01-01

    Primary care physicians are frequently required to treat patients with chronic debilitating pain. Opioid analgesics can successfully manage chronic pain. To prescribe opioid analgesics effectively, physicians must identify appropriate patients. Several methods can be used to identify and distinguish appropriate patients, addicted patients, and for-profit drug seekers. PMID:8097128

  11. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  12. Chronic neuropathic pain in SCI: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Felix, Elizabeth Roy

    2014-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain develops in approximately 40% of people after a spinal cord injury (SCI) and is notoriously difficult to treat. Because of the frequent presence of more than one pain type and the complex mechanisms and symptoms associated with pain in individuals with SCI, a thorough evaluation is important. This review includes an overview of the most recent guidelines for evaluating and classifying pain, suggestions for standardizing outcome measures for clinical use, and a review of the positive and negative evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to consider when treating individuals with SCI and chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25064788

  13. Pathological and protective roles of glia in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, Erin D.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2009-01-01

    Glia have emerged as key contributors to pathological and chronic pain mechanisms. On activation, both astrocytes and microglia respond to and release a number of signalling molecules, which have protective and/or pathological functions. Here we review the current understanding of the contribution of glia to pathological pain and neuroprotection, and how the protective, anti-inflammatory actions of glia are being harnessed to develop new drug targets for neuropathic pain control. Given the prevalence of chronic pain and the partial efficacy of current drugs, which exclusively target neuronal mechanisms, new strategies to manipulate neuronglia interactions in pain processing hold considerable promise. PMID:19096368

  14. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  15. Pain volatility and prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A 1 standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302337

  16. Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283

  17. Common Brain Mechanisms of Chronic Pain and Addiction.

    PubMed

    Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    While chronic pain is considered by some to be a CNS disease, little is understood about underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Addiction models have heuristic value in this regard, because both pain and addictive disorders are characterized by impaired hedonic capacity, compulsive drug seeking, and high stress. In drug addiction such symptomatology has been attributed to reward deficiency, impaired inhibitory control, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning, and anti-reward allostatic neuroadaptations. Here we propose that similar neuroadaptations exist in chronic pain patients. PMID:26748087

  18. Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n?=?243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium??phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p?=?0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium??phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p?=?0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium??phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957

  19. MicroRNA expression profiles differentiate chronic pain condition subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ciszek, Brittney P; Khan, Asma A; Dang, Hong; Slade, Gary D; Smith, Shad; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Zolnoun, Denniz; Nackley, Andrea G

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pain is a significant health care problem, ineffectively treated because of its unclear etiology and heterogeneous clinical presentation. Emerging evidence demonstrates that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of pain-relevant genes, yet little is known about their role in chronic pain. Here, we evaluate the relationship among pain, psychological characteristics, plasma cytokines, and whole blood miRNAs in 22 healthy controls (HCs); 33 subjects with chronic pelvic pain (vestibulodynia, VBD); and 23 subjects with VBD and irritable bowel syndrome (VBD+IBS). VBD subjects were similar to HCs in self-reported pain, psychological profiles, and remote bodily pain. VBD+IBS subjects reported decreased health and function; and an increase in headaches, somatization, and remote bodily pain. Furthermore, VBD subjects exhibited a balance in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas VBD+IBS subjects failed to exhibit a compensatory increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. VBD subjects differed from controls in expression of 10 miRNAs of predicted importance for pain and estrogen signaling. VBD+IBS subjects differed from controls in expression of 11 miRNAs of predicted importance for pain, cell physiology, and insulin signaling. miRNA expression was correlated with pain-relevant phenotypes and cytokine levels. These results suggest that miRNAs represent a valuable tool for differentiating VBD subtypes (localized pain with apparent peripheral neurosensory disruption vs widespread pain with a central sensory contribution) that may require different treatment approaches. PMID:26166255

  20. Fear of Pain as a Prognostic Factor in Chronic Pain: Conceptual Models, Assessment, and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Hilary D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a pervasive health care issue affecting over 50 million Americans and costing more than $100 billion dollars annually in lost productivity and health care costs. As a financially and emotionally taxing condition, the families and friends of people with chronic pain, as well as society at large, are affected. Current theory supports the role of biological, psychological, and environmental factors in the etiology, exacerbation, and maintenance of chronic pain. Recently, the specific role of pain-related fear in pain experience has received increasing attention. This article summarizes current understanding of the role of pain-related fear in the onset of acute pain incidents, the transition of acute pain to chronic, and the pain severity and disability of patients with ongoing chronic pain conditions. Treatments demonstrated to reduce pain-related fear are presented, evidence demonstrating their efficacy at reducing disability and pain severity are summarized, and recent criticisms of the fear-avoidance model and future directions are considered. PMID:20425197

  1. Vibratory stimulation for the alleviation of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lundeberg, T C

    1983-01-01

    The pain relieving effect of vibratory stimulation was studied in 731 patients suffering from acute pain (135 patients) or chronic pain (596 patients). Most of the patients had previously undergone treatments of various kinds without sufficient pain relief. The effect of vibratory stimulation was assessed before, during and after stimulation using different rating scales. About 70% of the patients reported reduction of pain during vibratory stimulation. In many patients there was a clear relation between the degree of reduction of pain and the intensity of pain before the beginning of stimulation. In general, relief of pain by more than 50% during stimulation was obtained in the patients who reported light, light to moderate, or moderate pain. The patients with moderate to severe, or severe pain before stimulation generally reported a reduction of pain of 50% or less. The best pain reducing site was found to be either the area of pain or close to it, the antagonistic muscle or a trigger point near the painful area. In most patients suffering from musculoskeletal pain the best pain reducing effect was obtained when the vibratory stimulation was applied with moderate pressure (at which contact was achieved with underlying bone) at a frequency of 50-150 Hz. To obtain a maximal duration of pain relief the stimulation had to be applied for 30-45 minutes. Many of the patients experienced pain relief lasting for more than 3 hours. It may be noticed that in many patients the pain relief lasted for 12 hours or more. There was a good correlation between the degree of pain relief and its duration. In the patients who experienced a pain reduction of 50% or less the pain relief generally lasted for less than 6 hours while in the patients who experienced pain relief of more than 50% it lasted for more than 6 hours. In comparison with high or low frequency TENS, vibratory stimulation was found to be as effective and in some patients even more effective in reducing chronic musculoskeletal or orofacial pain. The effect of 20 Hz, 100 Hz and 200 Hz vibratory stimulation, high frequency TENS, low frequency TENS and "placebo" vibratory stimulation was examined in various chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes. 82% of the patients experienced a relief of pain with any of the above mentioned methods; 47% of the patients experienced a reduction of pain with vibratory stimulation or TENS stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6609524

  2. Reduced Cold Pain Tolerance in Chronic Pain Patients Following Opioid Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Younger, Jarred; Barelka, Peter; Carroll, Ian; Kaplan, Kim; Chu, Larry; Prasad, Ravi; Gaeta, Ray; Mackey, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Objective One potential consequence of chronic opioid analgesic administration is a paradoxical increase of pain sensitivity over time. Little scientific attention has been given to how cessation of opioid medication affects the hyperalgesic state. In this study, we examined the effects of opioid tapering on pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients. Design Twelve chronic pain patients on long-term opioid analgesic treatment were observed in a 7- to 14-day inpatient pain rehabilitation program, with cold pain tolerance assessed at admission and discharge. The majority of participants were completely withdrawn from their opioids during their stay. Outcome Measures We hypothesized that those patients with the greatest reduction in daily opioid use would show the greatest increases in pain tolerance, as assessed by a cold pressor task. Results A linear regression revealed that the amount of opioid medication withdrawn was a significant predictor of pain tolerance changes, but not in the direction hypothesized. Greater opioid reduction was associated with decreased pain tolerance. This reduction of pain tolerance was not associated with opioid withdrawal symptoms or changes in general pain. Conclusions These findings suggest that the withdrawal of opioids in a chronic pain sample leads to an acute increase in pain sensitivity. PMID:18564998

  3. Characteristics of sensitization associated with chronic pain conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vierck, Charles J.; Wong, Fong; King, Christopher D.; Mauderli, Andre P.; Schmidt, Siegfried; Riley, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe and understand varieties and characteristics of sensitization contributing to hyperalgesia for patients with chronic pain conditions. Methods Thermal stimulation was delivered to the face, forearm and calf of pain-free subjects and individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), temporomandibular pain disorder (TMD) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Three second contacts of a preheated thermode occurred at 30 sec. intervals in ascending and then descending series (0.7C steps). Results Thermal pain ratings during ascending series were greater at each site for individuals diagnosed with chronic pain. Strong pain at the time of testing further enhanced the ratings at all sites, but mild or moderate clinical pain did not have this effect. Thermal pain for all subjects was greater during descending series than during ascending series of arm and leg stimulation. The hypersensitivity during descending series was comparable for pain-free, FMS and TMD subjects but was increased in duration for arm or leg stimulation of FMS subjects. Discussion The widespread sensitization for IBS and TMD subjects does not rely on mechanisms of spatial and temporal summation often invoked to explain widespread hyperalgesia associated with chronic pain. Increased sensitivity during descending series during stimulation of an arm or leg but not the face indicates a propensity for sensitization of nociceptive input to the spinal cord. Abnormally prolonged sensitization for FMS patients reveals a unique influence of widespread chronic pain referred to deep somatic tissues. PMID:23629594

  4. Analgesics as Reinforcers with Chronic Pain: Evidence from Operant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  5. Preoperative widespread pain sensitization and chronic pain after hip and knee replacement: a cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300

  6. Novel polymeric bioerodable microparticles for prolonged-release intrathecal delivery of analgesic agents for relief of intractable cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Han, Felicity Y; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Lam, Ai-Leen; Whittaker, Andrew K; Smith, Maree T

    2015-07-01

    Intractable cancer-related pain complicated by a neuropathic component due to nerve impingement is poorly alleviated even by escalating doses of a strong opioid analgesic. To address this unmet medical need, we developed sustained-release, bioerodable, hydromorphone (potent strong opioid)- and ketamine (analgesic adjuvant)-loaded microparticles for intrathecal (i.t.) coadministration. Drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water method with evaporation. Encapsulation efficiency of hydromorphone and ketamine in PLGA (50:50) microparticles was 26% and 56%, respectively. Microparticles had the desired size range (20-60 ?m) and in vitro release was prolonged at ?28 days. Microparticles were stable for ?6 months when stored refrigerated protected from light in a desiccator. Desirably, i.t. injected fluorescent dye-labeled PLGA microparticles in rats remained in the lumbar region for ?7 days. In a rat model of neuropathic pain, i.t. coinjection of hydromorphone- and ketamine-loaded microparticles (each 1 mg) produced analgesia for 8 h only. Possible explanations include inadequate release of ketamine and/or hydromorphone into the spinal fluid, and/or insufficient ketamine loading to prevent development of analgesic tolerance to the released hydromorphone. As sub-analgesic doses of i.t. ketamine at 24-48 h intervals restored analgesia on each occasion, insufficient ketamine loading appears problematic. We will investigate these issues in future work. PMID:25990226

  7. Could Stress Contribute to Pain-Related Fear in Chronic Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to predict pain based on internal or external cues constitutes a fundamental and highly adaptive process aimed at self-protection. Pain-related fear is an essential component of this response, which is formed by associative and instrumental learning processes. In chronic pain, pain-related fear may become maladaptive, drive avoidance behaviors and contribute to symptom chronicity. Pavlovian fear conditioning has proven fruitful to elucidate associative learning and extinction involving aversive stimuli, including pain, but studies in chronic pain remain scarce. Stress demonstrably exerts differential effects on emotional learning and memory processes, but this has not been transferred to pain-related fear. Within this perspective, we propose that stress could contribute to impaired pain-related associative learning and extinction processes and call for interdisciplinary research. Specifically, we suggest to test the hypotheses that: (1) extinction-related phenomena inducing a re-activation of maladaptive pain-related fear (e.g., reinstatement, renewal) likely occur in everyday life of chronic pain patients and may alter pain processing, impair perceptual discrimination and favor overgeneralization; (2) acute stress prior to or during acquisition of pain-related fear may facilitate the formation and/or consolidation of pain-related fear memories; (3) stress during or after extinction may impair extinction efficacy resulting in greater reinstatement or context-dependent renewal of pain-related fear; and (4) these effects could be amplified by chronic stress due to early adversity and/or psychiatric comorbidity such depression or anxiety in patients with chronic pain. PMID:26733831

  8. Systematic mechanism-orientated approach to chronic pancreatitis pain.

    PubMed

    Bouwense, Stefan A W; de Vries, Marjan; Schreuder, Luuk T W; Olesen, Søren S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H G

    2015-01-01

    Pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) shows similarities with other visceral pain syndromes (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease and esophagitis), which should thus be managed in a similar fashion. Typical causes of CP pain include increased intrapancreatic pressure, pancreatic inflammation and pancreatic/extrapancreatic complications. Unfortunately, CP pain continues to be a major clinical challenge. It is recognized that ongoing pain may induce altered central pain processing, e.g., central sensitization or pro-nociceptive pain modulation. When this is present conventional pain treatment targeting the nociceptive focus, e.g., opioid analgesia or surgical/endoscopic intervention, often fails even if technically successful. If central nervous system pain processing is altered, specific treatment targeting these changes should be instituted (e.g., gabapentinoids, ketamine or tricyclic antidepressants). Suitable tools are now available to make altered central processing visible, including quantitative sensory testing, electroencephalograpy and (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. These techniques are potentially clinically useful diagnostic tools to analyze central pain processing and thus define optimum management approaches for pain in CP and other visceral pain syndromes. The present review proposes a systematic mechanism-orientated approach to pain management in CP based on a holistic view of the mechanisms involved. Future research should address the circumstances under which central nervous system pain processing changes in CP, and how this is influenced by ongoing nociceptive input and therapies. Thus we hope to predict which patients are at risk for developing chronic pain or not responding to therapy, leading to improved treatment of chronic pain in CP and other visceral pain disorders. PMID:25574079

  9. Systematic mechanism-orientated approach to chronic pancreatitis pain

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; de Vries, Marjan; Schreuder, Luuk TW; Olesen, Sren S; Frkjr, Jens B; Drewes, Asbjrn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) shows similarities with other visceral pain syndromes (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease and esophagitis), which should thus be managed in a similar fashion. Typical causes of CP pain include increased intrapancreatic pressure, pancreatic inflammation and pancreatic/extrapancreatic complications. Unfortunately, CP pain continues to be a major clinical challenge. It is recognized that ongoing pain may induce altered central pain processing, e.g., central sensitization or pro-nociceptive pain modulation. When this is present conventional pain treatment targeting the nociceptive focus, e.g., opioid analgesia or surgical/endoscopic intervention, often fails even if technically successful. If central nervous system pain processing is altered, specific treatment targeting these changes should be instituted (e.g., gabapentinoids, ketamine or tricyclic antidepressants). Suitable tools are now available to make altered central processing visible, including quantitative sensory testing, electroencephalograpy and (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. These techniques are potentially clinically useful diagnostic tools to analyze central pain processing and thus define optimum management approaches for pain in CP and other visceral pain syndromes. The present review proposes a systematic mechanism-orientated approach to pain management in CP based on a holistic view of the mechanisms involved. Future research should address the circumstances under which central nervous system pain processing changes in CP, and how this is influenced by ongoing nociceptive input and therapies. Thus we hope to predict which patients are at risk for developing chronic pain or not responding to therapy, leading to improved treatment of chronic pain in CP and other visceral pain disorders. PMID:25574079

  10. The pain of chronic pancreatitis: a persistent clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The pain of chronic pancreatitis represents a major challenge to those working in the field, including pain specialists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. This article describes the different aetiologies of chronic pancreatitis and lists the models for the pathogenesis of pain, including novel ideas such as the role of the immune system in the modulation of pain. The patient profile in chronic pancreatitis is discussed along with the social impact of the disease in relation to alcohol misuse. The range of treatment strategies including medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches are evaluated. Common analgesic regimes and their limitations are reviewed. The pain of chronic pancreatitis remains refractory to effective treatment in many cases and further study and understanding of the underlying pathophysiology are required. PMID:26516493

  11. Depression, Chronic Pain, and Suicide by Overdose: On the Edge

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, Martin D.

    2011-01-01

    Comorbid conditions that pose risks for suicide, especially depression, are prevalent in people living with chronic pain. The true numbers of failed attempts and successful suicides are unknown and may never be determined. Yet risk factors for suicidal ideation are so high in this population that it must be assumed that some proportion of those who die of drug overdoses might have intended to end their lives, not just temporarily relieve their pain. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight to clinicians the important association between chronic pain and intentional self-harm. Contemporary understanding of the epidemiology of depression and suicide and the relationship to chronic pain will be reviewed. Recommendations for the use of validated and practical screening tools as part of a comprehensive clinical assessment and for approaches to suicide prevention and interventions as crucial components of chronic pain management are outlined. PMID:21668756

  12. Connecting parents of children with chronic pain through art therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pielech, Melissa; Sieberg, Christine B.; Simons, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To help address the unique needs of parents of children with chronic pain, a four module, parent-only, group art therapy curriculum was designed and implemented within an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation treatment program. We evaluated perceived satisfaction and helpfulness of the group intervention. Methods Fifty-three parents of children experiencing chronic pain enrolled in a day hospital interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program participated. The voluntary parent art therapy group was offered one time per week for one hour. Participants completed a measure of satisfaction, helpfulness, and perceived social support at the end of each group session. Results Parents enjoyed participating in the group, agreed that they would try art therapy again, and found it to be a helpful, supportive, and validating experience. Conclusions Initial results are promising that group art therapy is an appropriate and helpful means of supporting parents of children with chronic pain during interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation. PMID:24563827

  13. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D

    2004-01-01

    Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain. PMID:15169547

  14. [Psychological assessment and psychotherapy for chronic pain in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mattenklodt, P; Leonhardt, C

    2015-08-01

    Systematic reviews of psychosocial assessment and effectiveness of psychotherapy for chronic pain syndromes in older patients are rare. However, it is of particular importance to consider the psychosocial aspects of elderly people with chronic pain. This narrative review describes recommended German-language assessments of the psychosocial dimensions of pain and summarizes existing studies of psychological therapy approaches for chronic pain in old age. Effective psychometric instruments are available for the assessment of cognitive function, pain-specific attitudes, depression, fear of falling, interpersonal processes and social activities, pain management, pain acceptance, disability, psychological well-being, and quality of life. Further experience with the use of these instruments with cognitively impaired or geriatric patients is required. The efficacy of age-adapted cognitive behavioral therapy and multimodal therapy for older patients has been documented. However, there is often a lack of supporting documentation about important result parameters (e.g., quality of life, functioning in everyday life, or pain acceptance). Overall, chronic pain in elderly people requires a biopsychosocial-spiritual model of pain. More attention should be given in research and daily practice to religiosity/spirituality as a possible means of coping, while mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapies should be further explored. PMID:26024645

  15. Adult attachment and approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicole E; Meredith, Pamela J; Strong, Jenny; Donohue, Genevieve F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The way in which individuals with chronic pain habitually approach activity engagement has been shown to impact daily functioning, with both avoidance of ones daily activities and overactivity (activity engagement that significantly exacerbates pain) associated with more pain, higher levels of physical disability and poorer psychological functioning. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the development of maladaptive habitual approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain by applying an attachment theory framework. METHODS: A sample of 164 adults with chronic pain completed selfreport measures of attachment, approach to activity and pain cognitions. Mediation analyses were undertaken to examine the direct association between attachment variables and maladaptive approaches to activity, and to test for the mediating role of pain cognitions (catastrophizing and thought suppression). RESULTS: Results demonstrated that higher levels of secure attachment were associated with lower levels of activity avoidance, which was fully mediated by lower levels of pain catastrophizing; higher levels of preoccupied or fearful attachment were directly associated with higher levels overactivity; higher levels of preoccupied attachment were associated with higher levels of activity avoidance, which was partially mediated by higher levels of pain catastrophizing; and higher levels of fearful attachment were indirectly associated with higher levels of activity avoidance through higher levels of catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide preliminary support for the suggestion that insecure attachment may be a source of vulnerability to the development of disabling activity patterns in chronic pain. PMID:25337857

  16. Pain-QuILT: Clinical Feasibility of a Web-Based Visual Pain Assessment Tool in Adults With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhare, Dinesh; Stinson, Jennifer N; Henry, James L

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a prevalent and debilitating problem. Accurate and timely pain assessment is critical to pain management. In particular, pain needs to be consistently tracked over time in order to gauge the effectiveness of different treatments. In current clinical practice, paper-based questionnaires are the norm for pain assessment. However, these methods are not conducive to capturing or tracking the complex sensations of chronic pain. Pain-QuILT (previously called the Iconic Pain Assessment Tool) is a Web-based tool for the visual self-report and tracking of pain (quality, intensity, location, tracker) in the form of time-stamped records. It has been iteratively developed and evaluated in adolescents and adults with chronic pain, including usability testing and content validation. Clinical feasibility is an important stepping-stone toward widespread implementation of a new tool. Our group has demonstrated Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility in the context of a pediatric chronic pain clinic. We sought to extend these findings by evaluating Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility from the perspective of adults with chronic pain, in comparison with standard paper-based methods (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Objective The goal of our study was to assess Pain-QuILT for (1) ease of use, (2) time for completion, (3) patient preferences, and (4) to explore the patterns of self-reported pain across the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI. Methods Participants were recruited during a scheduled follow-up visit at a hospital-affiliated pain management and physical rehabilitation clinic in southwestern Ontario. Participants self-reported their current pain using the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI (randomized order). A semistructured interview format was used to capture participant preferences for pain self-report. Results The sample consisted of 50 adults (54% female, 27/50) with a mean age of 50 years. Pain-QuILT was rated as significantly easier to use than both the MPQ and BPI (P<.01) and was also associated with the fewest difficulties in completion. On average, the time to complete each tool was less than 5 minutes. A majority of participants (58%, 29/50) preferred Pain-QuILT for reporting their pain over alternate methods (16%, 8/50 for MPQ; 14%, 7/50 for BPI; 12%, 6/50 for other). The most commonly chosen pain descriptors on MPQ were matched with Pain-QuILT across 91% of categories. There was a moderate-to-high correlation between Pain-QuILT and BPI scores for pain intensity (r=.70, P<.01). Conclusions The results of this clinical feasibility study in adults with chronic pain are consistent with our previously published pediatric findings. Specifically, data indicate that Pain-QuILT is (1) easy to use, (2) quick to complete, (3) preferred by a majority of patients, and (4) correlated as expected with validated pain measures. As a digital, patient-friendly method of assessing and tracking pain, we conclude that Pain-QuILT has potential to add significant value as one standard component of chronic pain management. PMID:24819478

  17. "Real-life" treatment of chronic pain: Targets and goals.

    PubMed

    Ablin, Jacob N; Buskila, Dan

    2015-02-01

    Treating chronic pain is a complex challenge. While textbooks and medical education classically categorize pain as originating from peripheral (nociceptive), neuropathic, or centralized origins, in real life each and every patient may present a combination of various pain sources, types, and mechanisms. Moreover, individual patients may evolve and develop differing types of pain throughout their clinical follow-up, further emphasizing the necessity to maintain clinical diligence during the evaluation and follow-up of these patients. Rational treatment of patients suffering from chronic pain must attempt at deconstructing complex pain cases, identifying variegate pain generators, and targeting them with appropriate interventions, while incorporating both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies, rather than focusing on the total pain level, which represents an integral of all pain types. Failing to recognize the coexistence of different types of pain in an individual patient and escalating medications only on the basis of total pain intensity are liable to lead to both ineffective control of pain and increased untoward effects. In the current review, we outline strategies for deconstructing complex pain and therapeutic suggestions. PMID:26267005

  18. Temperament Traits and Chronic Pain: The Association of Harm Avoidance and Pain-Related Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Objective Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. Methods One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. Results The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Conclusion Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients. PMID:23133510

  19. Pharmacologic Management of Upper Extremity Chronic Nerve Pain.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of pain is a complex process that requires a team approach. This article provides an overview of the pharmaceutical treatments available. It gives providers treating upper extremity disorders more tools to treat their patients with chronic pain. Another goal is to improve hand providers' understanding of the medications their pain colleagues prescribe in shared patients. Pharmaceuticals are an important component in the treatment of chronic pain and opioids are often not a good solution. Knowing what other medications are available can improve the care for these challenging patients. PMID:26611389

  20. A New Perspective of Neuromyopathy to Explain Intractable Pancreatic Cancer Pains; Dry Needling as an Effective Adjunct to Neurolytic Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Lakshmi; Phanse, Sushama; Pai, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    We present a new perspective of neuromyopathy in pancreatic cancer pain (PCP) referral to bodywall; proposal of new rationale to include ultrasound guided dry needling (USGDN) of body wall muscles as an effective adjunct to neurolytic coeliac plexus block (NCPB) or splanchnic nerve radiofrequency ablation (SRF) for comprehensive interventional management. Methods: PCP response to SRF in 2 patients and NCPB in 3 patients was documented on numerical rating scale (NRS) on post procedure days 3 and 15. If the residual pain was >5 NRS on day 15, USGDN of abdominal and back muscles was started on a thrice weekly basis. The response to USGDN documented on day 30 after approximately 6 sessions of DN, showed a significant pain reduction (0-2 NRS) with 50% reduction of pre-treatment opioid consumption. This was sustained at 6 months or till their demise. Convergence of visceral and somatic nerves at the dorsal horn (viscerosomatic neurons) causes referral of visceral pain to the back and abdominal muscles. This leads to formation of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the muscles which sets up a parallel network of sensitized peripheral and central motor nociceptive processing (neuromyopathy). USGDN specifically addressed the MTrPs that develop as an epiphenomenon of self-perpetuating neuromyopathy while SRF/NCPB, analgesics and neuromodulators could address only visceral nociceptive afferents (pain mediated through celiac plexus) which forms a meagre 10% of the total spinal cord afferent input. Thus, we conclude that combination of neuromyopathy and viscerosomatic convergence in PCP indicate a specific role for DN as an adjunct to SRF/NCPB in our patients PMID:26962286

  1. Can intractable discogenic back pain be managed by low-level laser therapy without recourse to operative intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Ip, David; Fu, Nga-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the possible clinical role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in discogenic back pain patients who failed to respond to a conventional physical therapy program to avoid recourse to operative intervention. Methods The paper reports on the long-term mean 5-year prospective follow-up of a patient cohort of 50 unselected patients visiting our tertiary referral pain center for discogenic back pain who had had a single-level lesion documented by magnetic resonance imaging followed by subsequent discography to confirm the affected disc being the pain generator. All of the patients who entered the study had failed response to a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and had had not less than 3 months of conventional physical therapy. LLLT, at a wavelength of 810 nm wavelength emitted from a GaAIAs semiconductor laser device with 5.4 J per point and a power density of 20 mW/cm2, was employed. The treatment regimen consisted of three sessions of treatment per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Results All but one patient had significant improvement in their Oswestry Disability Index score, from a mean of 50% score to a mean of 10% score, at the end of treatment at 12 weeks. In addition, surprisingly, the improvement was found maintained at follow-up assessments 1 year and 5 years later. The one patient among the 50 patients who failed to respond eventually required surgery, while the others did not require surgery. Conclusion We conclude that LLLT is a viable option in the conservative treatment of discogenic back pain, with a positive clinical result of more than 90% efficacy, not only in the short-term but also in the long-term, with lasting benefits. PMID:26064065

  2. Nociceptor Sensitization Depends on Age and Pain Chronicity123

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral inflammation causes mechanical pain behavior and increased action potential firing. However, most studies examine inflammatory pain at acute, rather than chronic time points, despite the greater burden of chronic pain on patient populations, especially aged individuals. Furthermore, there is disagreement in the field about whether primary afferents contribute to chronic pain. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the contribution of nociceptor activity to the generation of pain behaviors during the acute and chronic phases of inflammation in both young and aged mice. We found that both young (2 months old) and aged (>18 months old) mice exhibited prominent pain behaviors during both acute (2 day) and chronic (8 week) inflammation. However, young mice exhibited greater behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli than their aged counterparts. Teased fiber recordings in young animals revealed a twofold mechanical sensitization in C fibers during acute inflammation, but an unexpected twofold reduction in firing during chronic inflammation. Responsiveness to capsaicin and mechanical responsiveness of A-mechanonociceptor (AM) fibers were also reduced chronically. Importantly, this lack of sensitization in afferent firing during chronic inflammation occurred even as these inflamed mice exhibited continued behavioral sensitization. Interestingly, C fibers from inflamed aged animals showed no change in mechanical firing compared with controls during either the acute or chronic inflammatory phases, despite strong behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli at these time points. These results reveal the following two important findings: (1) nociceptor sensitization to mechanical stimulation depends on age and the chronicity of injury; and (2) maintenance of chronic inflammatory pain does not rely on enhanced peripheral drive. PMID:26866058

  3. Chronic pain: from theory to practical management.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, M C

    1995-12-01

    The neurologist is an important part of the pain management team. Factors that can alter presentation and complicate establishing a diagnosis are reviewed. A multidisciplinary approach to evaluation is advocated, particularly the inclusion of independent psychiatric or psychological evaluation. Treatment planning consists of addressing potential sources of failure of pain management, setting appropriate goals, and using the diagnostic assessment to plan pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions based on pain mechanisms. Even if pharmacologic interventions do not alter pain, an education-oriented behavioral pain program integrated with physical therapy can improve function and foster self-reliance in controlling pain. PMID:8538884

  4. Chronic Low Back Pain, Sleep Disturbance, and Interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Kathi L.; France, Christopher R.; Trost, Zina; Mei Ng, H.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common co-morbidity of chronic pain. Inflammatory processes are dysregulated in sleep disturbance and also contribute to pain sensitivity. Thus, inflammation may play an important role in bi-directional associations between pain and sleep. Little is known about concurrent relationships among chronic pain, sleep, and inflammation. The aim of our study was to examine associations among sleep disturbance and circulating levels of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), in individuals with and without chronic low back pain. Methods Gender and age-matched adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP; n = 25) or without chronic pain (controls; n = 25) completed measures of sleep quality in the past month and depressive symptoms in the past week, and provided a blood draw for IL-6. The next morning, participants reported their sleep quality the previous night and their current experience of morning pain. Results Individuals with CLBP had more sleep disturbance than controls. Circulating IL-6 levels were similar for the two groups; however, in adults with CLBP, poorer sleep quality was associated with higher IL-6 levels, and both sleep and IL-6 related to pain reports. Unlike CLBP participants, controls showed normal, age-related increases in IL-6 levels, whereas sleep quality was unrelated to IL-6 levels. Depressive symptoms could not fully explain the observed associations. Discussion Inflammatory processes may play a significant role in cycles of pain and sleep disturbance. Clinical interventions that improve sleep and reduce concomitant inflammatory dysregulation hold promise for chronic pain management. PMID:21188850

  5. Positive emotions and brain reward circuits in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Navratilova, Edita; Morimura, Kozo; Xie, Jennifer Y; Atcherley, Christopher W; Ossipov, Michael H; Porreca, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is an important public health problem that negatively impacts the quality of life of affected individuals and exacts enormous socioeconomic costs. Chronic pain is often accompanied by comorbid emotional disorders including anxiety, depression, and possibly anhedonia. The neural circuits underlying the intersection of pain and pleasure are not well understood. We summarize recent human and animal investigations and demonstrate that aversive aspects of pain are encoded in brain regions overlapping with areas processing reward and motivation. We highlight findings revealing anatomical and functional alterations of reward/motivation circuits in chronic pain. Finally, we review supporting evidence for the concept that pain relief is rewarding and activates brain reward/motivation circuits. Adaptations in brain reward circuits may be fundamental to the pathology of chronic pain. Knowledge of brain reward processing in the context of pain could lead to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of emotional aspects of pain and comorbid conditions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1646-1652, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26788716

  6. Alterations in Endogenous Opioid Functional Measures in Chronic Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Martikainen, Ilkka K.; Pecia, Marta; Love, Tiffany M.; Nuechterlein, Emily B.; Cummiford, Chelsea M.; Green, Carmen R.; Harris, Richard E.; Stohler, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of consistent end organ abnormalities in many chronic pain syndromes has led to a search for maladaptive CNS mechanisms that may explain their clinical presentations and course. Here, we addressed the role of brain regional ?-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission, one of the best recognized mechanisms of pain regulation, in chronic back pain in human subjects. We compared ?-opioid receptor availability in vivo at baseline, during pain expectation, and with moderate levels of sustained pain in 16 patients with chronic nonspecific back pain (CNBP) and in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, using the ?-opioid receptor-selective radioligand [11C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography. We found that CNBP patients showed baseline increases in thalamic ?-opioid receptor availability, contrary to a previously studied sample of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. During both pain expectation and sustained pain challenges, CNBP patients showed regional reductions in the capacity to activate this neurotransmitter system compared with their control sample, further associated with clinical pain and affective state ratings. Our results demonstrate heterogeneity in endogenous opioid system functional measures across pain conditions, and alterations in both receptor availability and endogenous opioid function in CNBP that are relevant to the clinical presentation of these patients and the effects of opioid analgesics on ?-opioid receptors. PMID:24027273

  7. Pain catastrophizing as a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Lindsay C; Ritvo, Sarah E; Ferguson, Meaghan K; Clarke, Hance; Seltzer, Zeev; Katz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common and costly surgical procedure. Despite high success rates, many TKA patients develop chronic pain in the months and years following surgery, constituting a public health burden. Pain catastrophizing is a construct that reflects anxious preoccupation with pain, inability to inhibit pain-related fears, amplification of the significance of pain vis--vis health implications, and a sense of helplessness regarding pain. Recent research suggests that it may be an important risk factor for untoward TKA outcomes. To clarify this impact, we systematically reviewed the literature to date on pain catastrophizing as a prospective predictor of chronic pain following TKA. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles related to pain catastrophizing, TKA, risk models, and chronic pain. We reviewed titles and abstracts to identify original research articles that met our specified inclusion criteria. Included articles were then rated for methodological quality. including methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up, analyses, and outcomes reported across studies, a quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed. Results We identified six prospective longitudinal studies with small-to-mid-sized samples that met the inclusion criteria. Despite considerable variability in reported pain outcomes, pain catastrophizing was identified as a significant predictor of chronic pain persisting ?3 months following TKA in five of the studies assessed. Limitations of studies included lack of large-scale data, absence of standardized pain measurements, inadequate multivariate adjustment, such as failure to control for analgesic use and other relevant covariates, and failure to report non-significant parameter estimates. Conclusion This study provides moderate-level evidence for pain catastrophizing as an independent predictor of chronic pain post-TKA. Directions for future research include larger, well-controlled studies with standard pain outcomes, identification of clinically-relevant catastrophizing cut-offs that predict pain outcomes, investigation of other psychosocial risk factors, and assessment of interventions aimed to reduce pain catastrophizing on chronic pain outcomes following TKA surgery. PMID:25609995

  8. Emerging targets in neuroinflammation-driven chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Current analgesics predominately modulate pain transduction and transmission in neurons and have limited success in controlling disease progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of glial cells and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous system, has an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. This review focuses on emerging targets such as chemokines, proteases and the Wnt pathway that promote spinal cord neuroinflammation and chronic pain. It also highlights the anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators that act on immune cells, glial cells and neurons to resolve neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and pain. Targeting excessive neuroinflammation could offer new therapeutic opportunities for chronic pain and related neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24948120

  9. [Chronic pain and the belief in self-efficacy].

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Marina de Ges; Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos

    2007-03-01

    The treatment of chronic pain patients includes beliefs, attitudes, values and behavior modifications. Dysfunctional beliefs about pain and management can become the central problem and determine the treatment's outcome. Among the important beliefs for the management of chronic pain, self-efficacy deserves to be highlighted. The concept of self-efficacy, developed by Bandura, is the belief on the individual ability to perform successfully certain tasks or behaviors in order to produce a desired outcome. This study is a critical review of the literature on the belief of self-efficacy related to chronic pain and about the methods to assess self-efficacy. Studies listed in Medline (1992 to 2002), Lilacs and Dedalus (the entire databases) were analyzed. The key words were pain and self-efficacy, dor and auto-eficcia. PMID:17542137

  10. Effectiveness of an interdisciplinary pain management program for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Kames, L D; Rapkin, A J; Naliboff, B D; Afifi, S; Ferrer-Brechner, T

    1990-04-01

    Chronic pelvic pain has rarely been discussed in the pain management literature, although it is extremely common in general gynecological practice and often refractory to traditional medical and surgical therapy. A chronic pelvic pain program was developed to offer an alternative treatment approach for women for whom standard gynecological procedures were inappropriate or unsuccessful. Sixteen subjects completed the full 6-8 week interdisciplinary program, which included both somatic and behavioral therapies. Compared to a waiting list control the results showed a dramatic decrease in reported levels of pain following treatment. Anxiety and depression also decreased and psychosocial functioning improved, including return to work, increased social activities, and improved sexual activity. The outcome suggests that the interdisciplinary pain management approach is effective for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:2352765

  11. Two Pains Together: Patient Perspectives on Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain while Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Walcott, Melonie; Ritchie, Christine; Herbey, Ivan; Kertesz, Stefan G.; Chamot, Eric; Saag, Michael; Turan, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic pain is common in HIV-infected individuals. Understanding HIV-infected patients chronic pain experience not just from a biological, but also from a psychological perspective, is a critical first step toward improving care for this population. Our objective was to explore HIV-infected patients perspectives on psychological aspects of chronic pain using in-depth qualitative interviews. Methods Investigators engaged in an iterative process of independent and group coding until theme saturation was reached. Results Of the 25 patients with chronic pain interviewed, 20 were male, 15 were younger than age 50, and 15 were African-American. Key themes that emerged included the close relationship between mood and pain; mood and pain in the context of living with HIV; use of alcohol/drugs to self-medicate for pain; and the challenge of receiving prescription pain medications while dealing with substance use disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that psychological approaches to chronic pain treatment may be well received by HIV-infected patients. PMID:25365306

  12. Care of the patient with chronic pain: Part I.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, C L

    1999-07-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain is estimated to affect over 50 million Americans. It frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual problems for patients and their families. In spite of its prevalence and consequences, chronic pain is often misunderstood and inadequately managed by healthcare professionals. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I outlines the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacological treatment of chronic pain. Part II addresses a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems. PMID:10711057

  13. Burdensome problems of chronic musculoskeletal pain and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    According to a recent survey, about 15 % of the Japanese population suffers from moderate-severe chronic musculoskeletal pain persisting for at least 6 months. Social factors and related psychological factors (including depression) thus appear to greatly affect chronic musculoskeletal pain. This suggests the need for measures that take these factors into account. Treatment for musculoskeletal pain at present is generally based on a biomedical model that has been used for many years in this field, and modern medical imaging technologies have been a high priority to support this model and treatment strategy. Under the concept of the biomedical model, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, channel blockers and opioid analgesics are generally used as pharmacotherapy to alleviate chronic pain. However, these drugs are commonly associated with problems such as adverse effects, drug dependency and drug abuse, and they must be used with care. Surgery may also be effective in treating certain diseases, but studies have shown that many patients suffer residual chronic pain even after such treatment. Besides, exercise therapy has been found to be effective in treating many different types of chronic pain. Lately, various countries have been launching interdisciplinary pain centers that use a multidisciplinary approach to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Treatment in these centers is provided by a team of specialists in anesthesiology, psychiatry and orthopedics as well as the relevant paramedical professionals. The therapeutic strategy is based on a cognitive-behavioral approach, and patients are taught about methods for restoring physical function and coping with pain, mostly with drugs and exercise therapy, so that any pain present does not impair function and the patient can reintegrate into society. PMID:26260256

  14. Spontaneous Chronic Pain After Experimental Thoracotomy Revealed by Conditioned Place Preference: Morphine Differentiates Tactile Evoked Pain From Spontaneous Pain.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Strichartz, Gary R

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain after surgery limits social activity, interferes with work, and causes emotional suffering. A major component of such pain is reported as resting or spontaneous pain with no apparent external stimulus. Although experimental animal models can simulate the stimulus-evoked chronic pain that occurs after surgery, there have been no studies of spontaneous chronic pain in such models. Here the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to reveal resting pain after experimental thoracotomy. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a thoracotomy with 1-hour rib retraction, resulting in evoked tactile hypersensitivity, previously shown to last for at least 9 weeks. Intraperitoneal injections of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or gabapentin (40 mg/kg) gave equivalent 2- to 3-hour-long relief of tactile hypersensitivity when tested 12 to 14 days postoperatively. In separate experiments, single trial CPP was conducted 1 week before thoracotomy and then 12 days (gabapentin) or 14 days (morphine) after surgery, followed the next day by 1 conditioning session with morphine or gabapentin, both versus saline. The gabapentin-conditioned but not the morphine-conditioned rats showed a significant preference for the analgesia-paired chamber, despite the equivalent effect of the 2 agents in relieving tactile allodynia. These results show that experimental thoracotomy in rats causes spontaneous pain and that some analgesics, such as morphine, that reduce evoked pain do not also relieve resting pain, suggesting that pathophysiological mechanisms differ between these 2 aspects of long-term postoperative pain. Perspective: Spontaneous pain, a hallmark of chronic postoperative pain, is demonstrated here in a rat model of experimental postthoracotomy pain, further validating the use of this model for the development of analgesics to treat such symptoms. Although stimulus-evoked pain was sensitive to systemic morphine, spontaneous pain was not, suggesting different mechanistic underpinnings. PMID:26116369

  15. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective high (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to cannabinoid clinics (level III evidence). Conclusion Future guidelines should be based on systematic review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of smoked cannabis. Further research is needed on the effectiveness and long-term safety of smoked cannabis compared with pharmaceutical cannabinoids, opioids, and other standard analgesics. PMID:25500598

  16. Management of chronic pain with chronic opioid therapy in patients with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs), whether active or in remission, are often encountered in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Clinicians are challenged when managing chronic pain while facing substance abuse issues during the course of chronic opioid therapy (COT). Further, the interrelated behavioral symptomatology of addiction and chronic pain suggests that if one disorder is untreated, effective treatment of the other in not possible. Incomplete understanding of the overlapping presentations of the two disorders, coupled with insufficient management of both conditions, leads to undertreated pain and premature discharge of SUD patients from pain treatment. In order to achieve pain relief and optimal functionality, both conditions need to be carefully managed. This paper reviews the prevalence of SUDs in chronic pain patents; the overlapping presentation of the two disorders; risk factors and stratification for addiction; identification of addiction in the chronic pain population; and suggestions for treating patients with COT, with an emphasis on relapse prevention. With appropriate assessment and treatment, COT for chronic pain patients with a history of SUD can be successful, leading to improved functionality and quality of life. PMID:24341916

  17. Neuromodulation in Male Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Rationale and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    This review explores the treatment of male chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (i.e., chronic prostatitis) through the use of neuromodulation, which is the electrical stimulation of the nervous system. Neuromodulation has been used for the treatment of chronic pain for decades, and this review will examine the theory and use of neuromodulation and the various techniques available for the treatment of CPPS. Because of limited published research, much of the data presented will not be explicitly for male CPPS, but will be extrapolated from other chronic pelvic pain studies where neuromodulation has been used. Although several types of neuromodulation techniques are currently available for chronic pelvic pain conditions, none are considered standard therapies for treating CPPS. Despite the limited evidence, neuromodulation appears to provide benefits for some patients with CPPS. The improvement of urinary symptoms is more clearly defined than improvements in pain, but at least a subset of patients in most of the published studies and case series derive some benefit in the short term, and limited evidence suggests that long-term improvement of symptoms is possible. The debate about the pathophysiology of pelvic pain syndromes continues and the mechanism of action of neuromodulation on urinary and pain symptoms has yet to be defined. The fuller understanding of both will inform the evidence basis of using neuromodulation for male CPPS. PMID:23619478

  18. [Biofeedback therapy in a traumatised migrant with chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Morina, Naser; Mller, J

    2010-07-28

    We report on a 40-year-old Kurdish patient, who was imprisoned for six years for political reasons. The patient suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid chronic pain. For a better pain management the patient was treated initially using biofeedback therapy. The intervention showed good effects on pain. Medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan and course of therapy are described. PMID:20715008

  19. Chronic abdominal pain caused by thoracic disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, D C; Martin, S P; Schoen, R E; Jho, H D

    1995-05-01

    A patient with 7 yr of severe disabling chronic epigastric abdominal pain attributed to chronic pancreatitis was seen in consultation before a 95% pancreatectomy for pain control. Previous attempts to identify and treat the pain lead to extensive radiographic, pharmacological, endoscopic, and surgical interventions, including a Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy. Pain control was poor despite implantation of a continuous intrathecal morphine infusion pump. A focused physical examination, however, raised the suspicion of thoracic disc disease, which was confirmed after myelogram with computed tomography. Disruption of the T7-T8 disc with protrusion into the vertebral canal and displacement of the spinal cord with an associated bone spur were identified. A microsurgical thoracic discectomy was performed. Immediately, the pain began resolving, and she was pain free and off her medications within several weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a herniated thoracic disc presenting as the pain of chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis of thoracic disc syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and should be considered in patients with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:7733103

  20. Strategies for Coping with Stress and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve Rogge

    This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal

  1. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…

  2. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is

  3. Feldenkrais method empowers adults with chronic back pain.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Judith Dianne; Williams, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of 11 adults attending Awareness Through Movement lessons in the Feldenkrais Method to manage chronic-episodic back pain. Semistructured interviews were analyzed. The results suggest improving self-efficacy through somatic education and awareness potentially offers a way forward given the back pain epidemic. PMID:24722612

  4. Common and unique associated factors for medically unexplained chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue?

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, J.; Tomenson, B.; Chew-Graham, C.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Jackson, J.; Littlewood, A.; Creed, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. Methods We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Results Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N=93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N=125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. Discussion This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. PMID:26652592

  5. DNA methylation of SPARC and chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extracellular matrix protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Rich in Cysteine) has been linked to degeneration of the intervertebral discs and chronic low back pain (LBP). In humans, SPARC protein expression is decreased as a function of age and disc degeneration. In mice, inactivation of the SPARC gene results in the development of accelerated age-dependent disc degeneration concurrent with age-dependent behavioral signs of chronic LBP. DNA methylation is the covalent modification of DNA by addition of methyl moieties to cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation plays an important role in programming of gene expression, including in the dynamic regulation of changes in gene expression in response to aging and environmental signals. We tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation down-regulates SPARC expression in chronic LBP in pre-clinical models and in patients with chronic LBP. Results Our data shows that aging mice develop anatomical and behavioral signs of disc degeneration and back pain, decreased SPARC expression and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. In parallel, we show that human subjects with back pain exhibit signs of disc degeneration and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. Methylation of either the human or mouse SPARC promoter silences its activity in transient transfection assays. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that DNA methylation of a single gene plays a role in chronic pain in humans and animal models. This has important implications for understanding the mechanisms involved in chronic pain and for pain therapy. PMID:21867537

  6. Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN): A multimodal, multisite, brain-imaging repository for chronic somatic and visceral pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Liu, Cathy; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Dos Santos, Ivani R; Alaverdyan, Mher; Woodworth, Davis; Gupta, Arpana; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-01-01

    The Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN) repository (painrepository.org) is a newly created NIH (NIDA/NCCAM) funded neuroimaging data repository that aims to accelerate scientific discovery regarding brain mechanisms in pain and to provide more rapid benefits to pain patients through the harmonization of efforts and data sharing. The PAIN Repository consists of two components, an Archived Repository and a Standardized Repository. Similar to other 'open' imaging repositories, neuroimaging researchers can deposit any dataset of chronic pain patients and healthy controls into the Archived Repository. Scans in the Archived Repository can be very diverse in terms of scanning procedures and clinical metadata, complicating the merging of datasets for analyses. The Standardized Repository overcomes these limitations through the use of standardized scanning protocols along with a standardized set of clinical metadata, allowing an unprecedented ability to perform pooled analyses. The Archived Repository currently includes 741 scans and is rapidly growing. The Standardized Repository currently includes 433 scans. Pain conditions currently represented in the PAIN repository include: irritable bowel syndrome, vulvodynia, migraine, chronic back pain, and inflammatory bowel disease. Both the PAIN Archived and Standardized Repositories promise to be important resources in the field of chronic pain research. The enhanced ability of the Standardized Repository to combine imaging, clinical and other biological datasets from multiple sites in particular make it a unique resource for significant scientific discoveries. PMID:25902408

  7. Chronic pain management strategies used by low income overweight Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787

  8. Pain pharmacology: focus on opioids

    PubMed Central

    Fornasari, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Summary The incidence of chronic pain is estimated to be 2025% worldwide. Although major improvements in pain control have been obtained, more than 50% of the patients reports inadequate relief. It is accepted that chronic pain, if not adequately and rapidly treated, can become a disease in itself, often intractable and maybe irreversible. This is mainly due to neuroplasticity of pain pathways. In the present review I will discuss about pain depicting the rational for the principal pharmacological interventions and finally focusing on opioids, that represent a primary class of drug to treat pain. PMID:25568646

  9. Exacerbation of chronic pain following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Widerstrm-Noga, Eva G; Turk, Dennis C

    2004-10-01

    Because of the high prevalence and the refractory nature of pain following spinal cord injury (SCI), it is important to increase the understanding of what factors aggravate different types of pain. This information is related to pain generating mechanisms and may thus be useful in the diagnosis and management of these difficult pain conditions. The aims of the present study were to (1) identify variables (factors) that exacerbate chronic pain associated with SCI and (2) define the relationships among these patterns of pain exacerbation, specific pain characteristics, and psychological features. A sample out of 159 (75.5%) people with SCI and chronic pain, volunteered to participate in a mail survey. Over 50% of the sample indicated that prolonged sitting, infections, fatigue, muscle spasms, cold weather, and sudden movements exacerbated their pain. A principal components analysis detected five sets of factors that were reported to magnify pain: negative mood, prolonged afferent activity (bowel, bladder, somatic), weather, voluntary physical activity, and transient somatic afferent activity. Negative mood and prolonged afferent activity were frequently and significantly associated with both pain characteristics and psychosocial issues. A multiple regression analysis revealed that a combination of decreased activity levels due to pain (t = 3.54; p < 0.001), pain located in the frontal aspects of torso (including genitals) (t = 2.29; p < 0.05), "burning" (t = 2.26; p < 0.05), or "electric" (t = 2.09; p < 0.05) pain, and a limited perception of life control (t = -2.16; p < 0.05) was significantly associated with a high extent of pain aggravation (R2 = 0.39; p < 0.000). PMID:15672629

  10. Chronic Pain and Complementary Health Approaches: What You Need To Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... V W X Y Z Chronic Pain: In Depth Share: On This Page What’s the Bottom Line? ... as emotion, attention, environment, and genetics affect pain perception. The program is also exploring how chronic pain ...

  11. Amantadine sulfate reduces experimental sensitization and pain in chronic back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kleinbhl, Dieter; Grtelmeyer, Roman; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Hlzl, Rupert

    2006-03-01

    We investigated if established psychophysical measures of enhanced experimental sensitization in chronic musculoskeletal pain can be reduced by adjuvant treatment with a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, amantadine sulfate, and whether a reduction in sensitization might be accompanied by a concurrent improvement in clinical pain. Sensitization was evaluated by an experimental tonic heat model of short-term sensitization with concurrent subjective and behavioral psychophysical scaling. Twenty-six patients with chronic back pain were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received daily dosages of either placebo or 100 mg of amantadine sulfate during a 1-wk treatment. Participants completed quantitative sensory testing of pain thresholds and experimental sensitization before and after treatment and clinical pain ratings before, during, and after treatment. Experimental sensitization and clinical pain were reduced in patients receiving verum. Initially, experimental sensitization was enhanced in patients, with early sensitization at nonpainful intensities of contact heat and enhanced sensitization at painful intensities, as shown previously. After 1 wk of treatment, experimental sensitization was reduced with amantadine sulfate but not with placebo. We conclude that adjuvant chronic pain treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists might be beneficial for chronic pain if enhanced sensitization is involved and that the quantitative sensory test of temporal summation may be used to verify this. PMID:16492838

  12. New Developments in the Psychological Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Stephen; Williams, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing how psychological treatment for chronic pain comes to have its current form, and summarizing treatment effectiveness, we explore several areas of development. We describe third wave therapies, such as mindfulness; we discuss what the research literature aggregated can tell us about what trials are more useful to conduct; and we outline some areas of promise and some failures to deliver on promise. The article is drawn together using the framework of the normal psychology of pain, identifying some of its most important implications for improving life for people with chronic pain. PMID:26174216

  13. Conceptualizing and Treating Comorbid Chronic Pain and PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Gallinati, Jessica L.; Clark, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the rationale for concurrent, evidence-based treatment of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To meet this end, we review pertinent definitions and extant theories related to the two conditions and their correlations with each other. We then synthesize theoretical components into a proposal of a comprehensive conceptual framework for understanding the relationship and clinical complexity of overlapping chronic pain and PTSD. We conclude with an example of an integrated treatment model designed specifically to address a fundamental factor associated with pain and PTSD: avoidance. PMID:23819047

  14. Practical management strategies for the chronic pain patient.

    PubMed

    Forde, Grace; Stanos, Steven

    2007-08-01

    When presented with a chronic pain patient, a thorough diagnostic workup and clinical assessment are essential. A key component of this initial evaluation is to obtain the information necessary to identify the underlying cause of the pain. Although a definitive diagnosis is not always possible, pain is most effectively managed when the underlying cause is identified. Chronic pain is now viewed as a biopsychosocial phenomenon, in which biological, psychological, and social factors are at work. Although one or more chronic diseases may be responsible for at least some of the pain experienced by chronic pain patients, psychological factors also play a prominent role. According to several published reports, major depression occurs in up to 60% of chronic pain patients, and an adjustment disorder with anxious mood can be found in up to nearly a third. In addition, numerous studies have identified a high rate of substance abuse in those suffering from chronic pain, with lifetime prevalence rates ranging from 23% to 41%, according to one source. A pain history is another essential component of the initial workup. A thorough pain history includes questions on any previous therapies tried (including nonpharmacologic interventions) and the success rate of those therapies, an assessment of patient function and overall quality of life, and a review of any personal or family history of substance abuse. One of the complexities of pain diagnosis is the subjective nature of the condition. Simple validated measures, such as the 0 to 10 numerical scale, pictorial scales (eg, faces), and visual analog scales can assist in the assessment of pain intensity and the guidance of subsequent treatments. Of no less relevance in the initial workup of a patient with chronic pain is the establishment of a secure physician-patient relationship. Open and clear communication between these parties is a key component in the treatment process and will help guide the therapy more safely and efficaciously. Realistic expectations and exit strategies for each therapeutic intervention should also be discussed at the initial evaluation and again at the onset of treatment. PMID:18667140

  15. Substance P and Chronic Pain in Patients with Chronic Inflammation of Connective Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance P (SP) is involved in chronic joint inflammation, such as the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The goal of the research was to evaluate the correlation between chronic pain and changes in the SP level in patients with chronic inflammation of the connective tissue. Methods Patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled in this study. The relationship between chronic pain intensity and the serum SP concentration was evaluated in these groups of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Results The results showed a positive correlation between the serum SP concentrations and chronic pain intensity. Conclusions 1. The SP serum concentration was significantly different between the groups of patients with OA and RA. 2. There was a positive correlation between the serum SP concentration and chronic pain intensity in OA and RA patients. PMID:26444559

  16. Advanced Innovations for Pain.

    PubMed

    Lamer, Tim J; Deer, Timothy R; Hayek, Salim M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pain represents one of the most important public health problems in terms of both the number of patients afflicted and health care costs. Most patients with chronic pain are treated with medications as the mainstay of therapy, and yet most medically treated patients continue to report ongoing pain. Additionally, adverse effects from pain medications represent a major challenge for clinicians and patients. Spinal cord stimulation and intrathecal drug delivery systems are well-established techniques that have been utilized for over 25 years. Intrathecal drug delivery systems have proven efficacy for a wide variety of intractable pain conditions and fewer adverse effects than systemic medical therapy in patients with refractory cancer-related pain. Spinal cord stimulation is cost-effective and provides improved pain control compared with medical therapy in patients with a variety of refractory pain conditions including complex regional pain syndrome, painful diabetic neuropathy, and chronic radiculopathy. Patients who have intractable pain that has not responded to reasonable attempts at conservative pain care measures should be referred to a qualified interventional pain specialist to determine candidacy for the procedures discussed in this article. PMID:26848005

  17. Central changes associated with chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Brawn, Jennifer; Morotti, Matteo; Zondervan, Krina T.; Becker, Christian M.; Vincent, Katy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a significant public health problem with 1 million affected women in the UK. Although many pathologies are associated with CPP, the pain experienced is often disproportionate to the extent of disease identified and frequently no pathology is found (chronic pelvic pain syndrome). The central nervous system (CNS) is central to the experience of pain and chronic pain conditions in general are associated with alterations in both the structure and function of the CNS. This review describes the available evidence for central changes in association with conditions presenting with CPP. METHODS A detailed literature search was performed to identify relevant papers, however, this is not a systematic review. RESULTS CPP is associated with central changes similar to those identified in other pain conditions. Specifically these include, alterations in the behavioural and central response to noxious stimulation, changes in brain structure (both increases and decreases in the volume of specific brain regions), altered activity of both the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS The evidence reviewed in this paper demonstrates that CPP is associated with significant central changes when compared with healthy pain-free women. Moreover, the presence of these changes has the potential to both exacerbate symptoms and to predispose these women to the development of additional chronic conditions. These findings support the use of adjunctive medication targeting the CNS in these women. PMID:24920437

  18. Locus of control patterns in headaches and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; López-Jiménez, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The six-cluster solution was optimal. The patterns observed coincided with: the believer in control; the yea-sayer; the pure chance; the pure internal; the pure professional; and the nay-sayer clusters. The double external or type VI clusters were not observed. Clusters could be classified from the best to the worst adjustment to chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the empirical validity of the theoretical model of LOC patterns proposed in 1982 by Wallston and Wallston among a chronic pain population. The analysis of patterns provides more accurate information regarding the adjustment to pain compared with analysis of the LOC factors separately. PMID:23936894

  19. Minimally invasive therapies for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Salim A; Fariello, Jennifer Y; Whitmore, Kristene

    2010-07-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common problem among men and women worldwide. It is a symptoms-complex term for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in women and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. Patients often present with a combination of lower urinary tract symptoms with pelvic pain and sexual dysfunction. No gold standard exists for diagnosis or treatment of CPPS. The diagnosis is often challenging and is determined by elimination. Multiple treatment modalities exist, ranging from physical therapy to surgery. We discuss minimally invasive therapies for treatment of this complex of symptoms. Although data suggest reasonable efficacy of several medications, multimodal therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. We review the following minimally invasive therapeutic modalities: dietary modifications, physical therapy, mind-body therapies, medical therapy, intravesical therapies, trigger point injections, botulinum toxin injections to the pelvic floor, and neuromodulation. We report data supporting their use and efficacy and highlight the limitations of each. PMID:20449696

  20. Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy in Chronic Noncancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Roger; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Fine, Perry G.; Adler, Jeremy A.; Ballantyne, Jane C.; Davies, Pamela; Donovan, Marilee I.; Fishbain, David A.; Foley, Kathy M.; Fudin, Jeffrey; Gilson, Aaron M.; Kelter, Alexander; Mauskop, Alexander; O'Connor, Patrick G.; Passik, Steven D.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Portenoy, Russell K.; Rich, Ben A.; Roberts, Richard G.; Todd, Knox H.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine commissioned a systematic review of the evidence on chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. Although evidence is limited, the expert panel concluded that chronic opioid therapy can be an effective therapy for carefully selected and monitored patients with chronic noncancer pain. However, opioids are also associated with potentially serious harms, including opioid-related adverse effects and outcomes related to the abuse potential of opioids. The recommendations presented in this document provide guidance on patient selection and risk stratification; informed consent and opioid management plans; initiation and titration of chronic opioid therapy; use of methadone; monitoring of patients on chronic opioid therapy; dose escalations, high-dose opioid therapy, opioid rotation, and indications for discontinuation of therapy; prevention and management of opioid-related adverse effects; driving and work safety; identifying a medical home and when to obtain consultation; management of breakthrough pain; chronic opioid therapy in pregnancy; and opioid-related polices. Perspective: Safe and effective chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain requires clinical skills and knowledge in both the principles of opioid prescribing and on the assessment and management of risks associated with opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion. Although evidence is limited in many areas related to use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain, this guideline provides recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary expert panel following a systematic review of the evidence. PMID:19187889

  1. ZIPping to pain relief: the role (or not) of PKM? in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a significant clinical problem despite substantial advances in our understanding of how persistent nociceptor stimulation drives plasticity in the CNS. A major theme that has emerged in this area of work is the strong similarity between plasticity involved in learning and memory in CNS regions such as cortex and hippocampus with mechanisms underlying chronic pain development and maintenance in the spinal dorsal horn and other CNS areas such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We, and others have recently implicated an atypical PKC (aPKC), called PKM?, in the maintenance of pain plasticity based on biochemical assays and the use of a peptide pseudosubstrate inhibitor called ZIP. These studies indicate remarkable parallels between the potential role of PKM? as a key molecule for the maintenance of long-term memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) and the maintenance of a chronic pain state. On the other hand, very recent studies have disputed the specificity of ZIP and called into question the role of PKM? as a memory maintenance molecule. Here we critically review the evidence that PKM? might represent a new target for the reversal of certain chronic pain states. Furthermore, we consider whether ZIP might have other aPKC or even non-aPKC targets and the significance of such off-target effects for evaluating maintenance mechanisms of chronic pain. We conclude that, current controversies aside, utilization of ZIP as a tool to interrogate maintenance mechanisms of chronic pain and further investigations into the potential role of PKM?, and other aPKCs, in pain plasticity are likely to lead to further insights with the potential to unravel the enigma that is the disease of chronic pain. PMID:23433248

  2. Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Pigg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds. Thresholds for cold, warmth and painful heat were measured in four intraoral and two extraoral sites. Measurements were repeated 3 times over 6 weeks, using four sizes of stimulation area (0.125-0.81 cm2). The threshold levels were highly dependent on location but less dependent on measuring probe size and time variability was small, and this knowledge is important for the interpretation of QST results. Study II applied a recently developed standardized QST examination protocol (intended for use on skin) inside the oral cavity. Two trained examiners evaluated 21 pain-free subjects on three occasions over 1-3 weeks, at four sites-three intraoral and one extraoral. Most tests had acceptable reliability and the original test instruments and techniques could be applied intraorally with only minor adjustments. Study III examined the value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pain investigations. Twenty patients with AO and 5 with symptomatic apical periodontitis (inflammatory tooth pain) participated. The results indicate that when AO is suspected, addition of CBCT can improve the diagnostic certainty compared to sole use of periapical and panoramic radiographs, especially because of the superior ability of CBCT to exclude inflammation as the pain cause. Study IV assessed the long-term prognosis of AO, and analyzed potential outcome predictors. A comprehensive questionnaire including validated and reliable instruments was used to gather data on patient and pain characteristics and pain consequences from 37 patients in 2002 and 2009. Thirty-five percent of the patients reported substantial overall improvement at follow-up, but almost all still had pain of some degree after many years. The initial high level of emotional distress was unchanged. Low baseline pain intensity predicted improvement over time. PMID:22338784

  3. THE ROLE OF SODIUM CHANNELS IN CHRONIC PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Simon R.; Luo, Songjiang; Henry, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in sodium channel expression and localization in chronic inflammation and nerve injury in animal and human tissues. We conclude by discussing the role that myelination plays in organizing and maintaining sodium channel clusters at nodes of Ranvier in normal development and how inflammatory processes or nerve injury alter the characteristics of such clusters. Based on these findings, we suggest that chronic pain may in part result from partial demyelination of axons during chronic injury, which creates aberrant sodium channel clusters that serve as sites of ectopic sensitivity or spontaneous activity. PMID:22806363

  4. Barcoding Human Physical Activity to Assess Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Perruchoud, Christophe; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern theories define chronic pain as a multidimensional experience the result of complex interplay between physiological and psychological factors with significant impact on patients' physical, emotional and social functioning. The development of reliable assessment tools capable of capturing the multidimensional impact of chronic pain has challenged the medical community for decades. A number of validated tools are currently used in clinical practice however they all rely on self-reporting and are therefore inherently subjective. In this study we show that a comprehensive analysis of physical activity (PA) under real life conditions may capture behavioral aspects that may reflect physical and emotional functioning. Methodology PA was monitored during five consecutive days in 60 chronic pain patients and 15 pain-free healthy subjects. To analyze the various aspects of pain-related activity behaviors we defined the concept of PA barcoding. The main idea was to combine different features of PA (type, intensity, duration) to define various PA states. The temporal sequence of different states was visualized as a barcode which indicated that significant information about daily activity can be contained in the amount and variety of PA states, and in the temporal structure of sequence. This information was quantified using complementary measures such as structural complexity metrics (information and sample entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity), time spent in PA states, and two composite scores, which integrate all measures. The reliability of these measures to characterize chronic pain conditions was assessed by comparing groups of subjects with clinically different pain intensity. Conclusion The defined measures of PA showed good discriminative features. The results suggest that significant information about pain-related functional limitations is captured by the structural complexity of PA barcodes, which decreases when the intensity of pain increases. We conclude that a comprehensive analysis of daily-life PA can provide an objective appraisal of the intensity of pain. PMID:22384191

  5. Challenges in drug discovery for overcoming 'dysfunctional pain': an emerging category of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    'Dysfunctional pain', a type of chronic pain, is associated with a broad range of clinical disorders, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis. It is emerging as a serious issue due to the negative impact of inexplicable pain on quality of life, lack of effective therapies and health care cost. Although drug discovery efforts in pain research have so far focused primarily on inflammatory and neuropathic pain, this editorial attracts attention to dysfunctional pain research and discusses a possible fundamental framework for tackling this difficult issue. While dysfunctional pain is characterized by chronic widespread or regional pain symptoms and occurrence of pain amplification, underlying pathophysiologies remain to be identified. Thus, a pivotal step in future research would be the exploration of pathophysiological pathways, such as relevant molecular networks, which are responsible for dysfunctional pain. Utilization of developing technologies paves the way for the identification of underlying pathophysiologies and the development of effective drugs which would eventually solve the clinical issues associated with dysfunctional pain. PMID:26160648

  6. Neurobiological studies of chronic pain and analgesia: Rationale and refinements.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Goracke-Postle, Cory J

    2015-07-15

    Chronic pain is a complex condition for which the need for specialized research and therapies has been recognized internationally. This review summarizes the context for the international call for expansion of pain research to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain in order to achieve improvements in pain management. The methods for conducting sensory assessment in animal models are discussed and the development of animal models of chronic pain is specifically reviewed, with an emphasis on ongoing refinements to more closely mimic a variety of human pain conditions. Pharmacological correspondences between pre-clinical pain models and the human clinical experience are noted. A discussion of the 3Rs Framework (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how each may be considered in pain research is featured. Finally, suggestions are provided for engaging principal investigators, IACUC reviewers, and institutions in the development of strong partnerships to simultaneously expand our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying pain and analgesia while ensuring the humane use of animals in research. PMID:25818751

  7. Overactivity in chronic pain: is it a valid construct?

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicole Emma; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Overactivity is a frequently used term in chronic pain literature. It refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals engage in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain, resulting in periods of incapacity. Overactivity, as a construct, has been derived solely from patients' self-reports, raising concerns about the legitimacy of the construct. Self-reported overactivity reflects an individual's “belief,” collected retrospectively, that their earlier activity levels have resulted in increased levels of pain. This may be different to an individual actually engaging in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain. In this study, a 5-day observational study design was used to investigate the validity of overactivity as a construct by examining the relationship between a self-report measure of overactivity, patterns of pain, and objectively measured physical activity over time. A sample of 68 adults with chronic pain completed a questionnaire investigating self-reported habitual engagement in overactivity and activity avoidance behaviour, before commencing 5 days of data collection. Over the 5-day period, participants wore an activity monitor and recorded their pain intensity 6 times a day using a handheld computer. Associations were found between (1) high levels of pain and both high overactivity and high avoidance, (2) high levels of overactivity and more variation in pain and objective activity across days, and (3) high levels of overactivity and the reoccurrence of prolonged activity engagement followed by significant pain increases observed in data sets. These results offer some preliminary support for the validity of overactivity as a legitimate construct in chronic pain. PMID:26067583

  8. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity. PMID:25952059

  9. Reconceptualizing John F. Kennedy's chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Robert S; Hassett, Afton L

    2013-01-01

    When the medical records for John Fitzgerald Kennedy were made public, it became clear that the 35th President of the United States suffered greatly from a series of medical illnesses from the time he was a toddler until his assassination in November of 1963. Aside from having Addison disease, no condition seemed to cause him more distress than did his chronic low back pain. A number of surgical procedures to address the presumed structural cause of the pain resulted in little relief and increased disability. Later, a conservative program, including trigger point injections and exercises, provided modest benefit. Herein, the mechanisms underlying his pain are evaluated based on more contemporary pain research. This reconceptualizing of John Fitzgerald Kennedy's pain could serve as a model for other cases where the main cause of the pain is presumed to be located in the periphery. PMID:23900054

  10. Epigenetics and the Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Thomas; Van de Ven, Thomas; Shaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the epigenetic modifications involved in the transition from acute to chronic pain and to identify potential targets for the development of novel, individualized pain therapeutics. Background Epigenetics is the study of heritable modifications in gene expression and phenotype that do not require a change in genetic sequence to manifest their effects. Environmental toxins, medications, diet, and psychological stresses can alter epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and RNA interference. Since epigenetic modifications potentially play an important role in inflammatory cytokine metabolism, steroid responsiveness, and opioid sensitivity, they are likely key factors in the development of chronic pain. Although our knowledge of the human genetic code and disease-associated polymorphisms has grown significantly in the past decade, we have not yet been able to elucidate the mechanisms that lead to the development of persistent pain after nerve injury or surgery. Design Focused literature review Results Significant laboratory and clinical data support the notion that epigenetic modifications are affected by the environment and lead to differential gene expression. Similar to mechanisms involved in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and inflammatory disorders, the literature endorses an important potential role for epigenetics in chronic pain. Conclusions Epigenetic analysis may identify mechanisms critical to the development of chronic pain after injury, and may provide new pathways and target mechanisms for future drug development and individualized medicine. PMID:22978429

  11. Microglia Disrupt Mesolimbic Reward Circuitry in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anna M. W.; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J.; Murphy, Niall P.; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C.; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  12. Microglia disrupt mesolimbic reward circuitry in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J; Murphy, Niall P; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  13. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture.

    PubMed

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor. PMID:25537694

  14. Serum Cotinine and Chronic Pain: NHANES 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R Constance

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be the leading preventable risk factor for many diseases and has the potential to be a risk factor for chronic pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of chronic pain with smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and non-smoking using serum cotinine (and self-report of living with someone who smokes in the home) to identify the tobacco exposure groups. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 was used for this study. Participants were queried about pain duration and had serum cotinine levels determined during the course of the NHANES examination/survey. Participants, ages 20 years and above, with complete data on chronic pain, cotinine level, sex, race/ethnicity, and responses concerning living with someone who smoked in the home were included in the study (n=4429). Results The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco smoke exposure on chronic pain was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.59; p=0.0220) for participants with a serum cotinine level >10 ng/mg (smokers) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. For individuals with a serum cotinine level >0.011 ng/mg to 10 ng/mg who identified as living with someone who smoked in the home, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.65; p=0.6785) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. Conclusion Chronic pain is a complex situation with many factors affecting it. Similarly, smoking is a complex addiction. The interplay of chronic pain and cotinine levels in this study were significant. PMID:26835515

  15. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Materials and Methods: Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm2 per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). After treatment, no significant differences were observed in the knee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee. PMID:25705083

  16. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain. PMID:25931693

  17. Pain and Opioid Use in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Shari S.; Winger, Daniel; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Szigethy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain is common in patients with liver disease, difficult to treat, and poorly understood. Aims The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with pain and prescription opioid use in a large cohort of patients with confirmed chronic liver. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with chronic liver disease visiting a tertiary-care hepatology clinic. Pain was determined by self-report and rated numerically from 010. Symptoms of mood and sleep disorders and emotional distress were based on a symptom checklist. Etiology and stage of liver disease and use of prescribed opioids were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Logistic regression was used to establish factors associated with pain and prescription opioid use. Results Among 1286 patients with chronic liver disease, 34% had pain and 25% used opioids. The strongest predictor of pain in multivariate modeling was emotional distress (OR=3.66, CI=2.40,5.64), followed by non-white race (OR=1.87, CI=1.24,2.79), mood symptoms (OR=1.47, CI=1.04,2.07), sleep disturbance/fatigue (OR=1.70, CI=1.24,2.32), and advanced liver disease (Child class B: OR=1.73, CI=1.15,2.60; Child class C: OR=2.78 CI=1.49,5.24) compared to no cirrhosis. Emotional distress, mood-related symptoms, and advanced liver disease were also significant predictors of prescription opioid use, as were age, nicotine use, and etiology of liver disease. Conclusions This large cohort study demonstrates the high prevalence of pain and opioid use in chronic liver disease. While disease variables contribute to pain, psychological symptoms were most strongly associated with pain and opioid use, providing rationale and target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23512406

  18. Schistosomiasis as a Cause of Chronic Lower Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Tom J.

    1995-01-01

    Background: Chronic intestinal schistosomiasis is rare in the United Kingdom. The symptoms are nonspecific and may mimic several other gastrointestinal conditions. We present a case of chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a West Indian woman presenting to a genitourinary clinic. Case: The patient presented with chronic lower abdominal pain and dysuria. A sexually transmitted disease (STD) screen was negative and midstream urine cultures were sterile. A rectal biopsy revealed a non-necrotizing granulomatous reaction around the ova of Schistosoma. Her symptoms resolved with anti-schistosomiasis therapy. Conclusion: This case illustrates that physicians should be aware of chronic schistosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdominal pain in women who have come from or visited areas where schistosomiasis is endemic. PMID:18475400

  19. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index

  20. Chronic Stress, Cortisol Dysfunction, and Pain: A Psychoneuroendocrine Rationale for Stress Management in Pain Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or nonpain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or nonpain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and nonpain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for nonpain-related stress to facilitate treatment, prevent chronic disability, and improve quality of life. PMID:25035267

  1. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients. PMID:24792624

  2. Effect and Treatment of Chronic Pain in Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pain is the most common reason patients with inflammatory arthritis see a rheumatologist. Patients consistently rate pain as one of their highest priorities, and pain is the single most important determinant of patient global assessment of disease activity. Although pain is commonly interpreted as a marker of inflammation, the correlation between pain intensity and measures of peripheral inflammation is imperfect. The prevalence of chronic, non-inflammatory pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia is higher among patients with inflammatory arthritis than in the general population. Inflammatory arthritis patients with fibromyalgia have higher measures of disease activity and lower quality of life than inflammatory patients who do not have fibromyalgia. This review article focuses on current literature involving the effects of pain on disease assessment and quality of life for patients with inflammatory arthritis. It also reviews non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for treatment of pain for patients with inflammatory arthritis, focusing on the implications of comorbidities and concurrent disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Although several studies have examined the effects of reducing inflammation for patients with inflammatory arthritis, very few clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of treatment directed specifically towards pain pathways. Most studies have been small, have focused on rheumatoid arthritis or mixed populations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis plus osteoarthritis), and have been at high risk of bias. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to examine the mechanisms of pain in inflammatory arthritis and to determine the safety and efficacy of analgesic medications in this specific patient population. PMID:23292816

  3. Coanalgesics for chronic pain therapy: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bair, Matthew J; Sanderson, Tamara R

    2011-11-01

    Chronic pain is inadequately treated in many patients, which has led clinicians and researchers to investigate new indications for existing medications with pain-relieving or adjuvant properties. These medications are known as coanalgesics. This review provides an evidence-based overview of select coanalgesics that are used in clinical practice for a variety of neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain disorders. The coanalgesics include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antispasmodic agents. An update on emergent treatments and uses is also presented. The goals of this article are to highlight coanalgesic treatment options that are currently available for patients with chronic pain as well as provide guidelines for their use in clinical practice. PMID:22104463

  4. Neuropathic pain as part of chronic widespread pain: environmental and genetic influences

    PubMed Central

    Momi, Sukhleen K.; Fabiane, Stella Maris; Lachance, Genevieve; Livshits, Gregory; Williams, Frances M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) has complex aetiology and forms part of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Recent evidence suggests a higher frequency of neuropathic pain features in those with CWP than previously thought. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neuropathic pain features in individuals with CWP and to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on neuropathic pain in CWP. Validated questionnaires (the London Fibromyalgia Screening Study questionnaire and PainDETECT questionnaire) were used to classify twins as having CWP and neuropathic pain, respectively. The prevalence of CWP was 14.7% (n = 4324), and of the 1357 twins invited to complete neuropathic pain screening, 15.9% of those having CWP demonstrated features of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was found to be heritable (A = 37%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 23%-50%) with unique environmental factors accounting for 63% (95% CI: 49%-79%) of the variance. Heritability of neuropathic pain and CWP were found to be correlated, 0.54 (95% CI: 0.42-0.65). Increasing age, raised body mass index, female gender, and smoking were all risk factors for neuropathic pain (P < 0.05), and CWP (P < 0.05). High socioeconomic status showed negative correlation with neuropathic pain (P = 0.003) and CWP (P = 0.001). Bivariate analysis of the 2 pain traits revealed that genetic predisposition to neuropathic pain is shared with that for CWP. This is the first study to provide formal heritability estimates for neuropathic pain in CWP. The findings suggest that at least some of the genetic factors underlying the development of neuropathic pain and CWP are the same. PMID:26121255

  5. Care of the patient with chronic pain: part II.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, C L

    2000-01-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain frequently results in significant physical, behavioral, psychological, social, and spiritual issues for patients and their families. It is often misunderstood and unsuccessfully managed. Advanced practice nurses who are knowledgeable about chronic pain and the complex biopsychosocial-spiritual needs of this patient population serve an important role in recognizing these patients and intervening appropriately in their care. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide that information. Part I [Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 3 (4), 192-204] outlined the pathophysiology, assessment, biopsychosocial-spiritual aspects, and pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain. In Part II, a variety of nonpharmacologic and self-management interventions one can use in the primary care setting to treat these difficult health problems are introduced. PMID:11858295

  6. Association of anxiety with intracortical inhibition and descending pain modulation in chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional Pain Modulation (CPM)]? We included females with chronic MPS (n?=?47) and healthy controls (n?=?11), aged 19 to 65years. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by TMS, and anxiety was assessed based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The disability related to pain (DRP) was assessed by the Profile of Chronic Pain scale for the Brazilian population (B:PCP:S), and the psychophysical pain measurements were measured by the QST and CPM. Results In patients, trait-anxiety was positively correlated to intracortical facilitation (ICF) at baseline and after QST evoked pain (??=?0.05 and ??=?0.04, respectively) and negatively correlated to the cortical silent period (CSP) (??=?-1.17 and ??=?-1.23, respectively) (P <0.05 for all comparisons). After QST evoked pain, the DRP was positively correlated to ICF (??=?0.02) (P?Pain scores during CPM were positively correlated with trait-anxiety when it was concurrently with high DRP (??=?0.39; P?=?0.02). Controls cortical excitability remained unchanged after QST. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in chronic MPS, the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory descending systems of the corticospinal tract is associated with higher trait-anxiety concurrent with higher DRP. PMID:24645677

  7. Systematic review of outpatient services for chronic pain control.

    PubMed

    McQuay, H J; Moore, R A; Eccleston, C; Morley, S; Williams, A C

    1997-01-01

    AIM OF REPORT. This report reviews the evidence about the effectiveness of treatments for chronic pain. While treatment of chronic pain is usually seen as an integrated service, this report concentrates on the individual interventions that constitute the service. HOW THE RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED. Searches of databases and journals identified over 15,000 randomised studies with pain as an outcome, and many more which were not randomised. Over 150 systematic reviews relevant to chronic pain treatment were identified and their quality assessed using a simple scoring system. Systematic reviews conducted for this report were based mainly on randomised trials. The number needed to treat (NNT) was chosen as the output for the report. NNTs of 2-4 indicate effective treatments. Because NNT is treatment-specific it overcomes problems associated with highly variable placebo or control event rates in pain trials. Such variability is predominantly due to the limited numbers of patients in the clinical trials. Dichotomous outcome measures are important in synthesising information from many studies, and in deriving NNTs. Methods have been developed which allow mean information on pain relief and intensity to be converted reliably into the simple dichotomous outcome of at least 50% pain relief. RESEARCH FINDINGS. PHYSICAL INTERVENTIONS. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown not to be effective in postoperative and labour pain. In chronic pain, there is evidence that TENS effectiveness increases slowly, and that large doses need to be used. There is lack of evidence for the effectiveness of TENS in chronic pain. There is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of relaxation. Intravenous systemic regional blockade with guanethidine has been shown to be without effect. Epidural corticosteroids are effective in the short term for back pain and sciatica. Injections of corticosteroids in or around shoulder joints for shoulder pain have been shown not to be effective. There is a lack of evidence supporting spinal cord stimulators. Case series are of poor quality and do not provide evidence of effectiveness, although at least 50% pain relief at 5 years is reported in over 50% of patients. PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS. Minor analgesics are important in chronic pain. NNTs were calculated for analgesics given orally for moderate or severe acute postoperative pain. The NNTs found ranged from 17 (poor) for codeine, 60 mg, to 2.5 (good) for ibuprofen, 400 mg. Anticonvulsant and antidepressant drugs are prescribed for neuropathic pains like diabetic neuropathy. NNTs are of the order of 2.5, showing them to be effective treatments. However, there are too few studies with too few patients to determine which is the best drug. Minor adverse events are common, and major adverse events occur in about 1 in 20 patients. There are no studies comparing antidepressants and anticonvulsants directly. Systemic local anaesthetic-type drugs have been shown to be effective in nerve injury pain but there is little or no evidence to support their use in migraine or cancer-related pain. Topical NSAIDs (for example, gels, creams) are effective in rheumatological conditions with an overall NNT of 3. There are too few studies to determine which is the best agent. Topical NSAIDs have few adverse events; most importantly they are without the major gastrointestinal adverse events found with oral NSAIDs, which might make them an important choice for some patients with peripheral arthritis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9483161

  8. Acupuncture for Chronic Pain in Japan: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Many Japanese reports of acupuncture and moxibustion for chronic pain are not listed in medical databases such as Medline. Therefore, they are not easily accessible to researchers outside of Japan. To complement existing reviews of acupuncture and moxibustion for chronic pain and to provide more detailed discussion and analysis, we did a literature search using Igaku Chuo Zasshi Wed (Japana Centra Revuo Medicina) and Citation Information by National Institute of Information covering the period 19782006. Original articles and case reports of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment of chronic pain were included. Animal studies, surveys, and news articles were excluded. Two independent reviewers extracted data from located articles in a pre-defined structured way, and assessed the likelihood of causality in each case. We located 57 papers written in Japanese (20 full papers, 37 case reports). Conditions examined were headache (12 trials), chronic low back pain (9 trials), rheumatoid arthritis (8 trials), temporomandibular dysfunction (8 trials), katakori (8 trials) and others (12 trials). While 23 were described as clinical control trials (CCTs), 11 employed a quasi-random method. Applying the 5-point Jadad quality assessment scoring system, the mean score was 1.5 1.3 (SD). Eleven (52%) of the CCTs were conducted to determine a more effective procedure for acupuncture; these compared a certain type of acupuncture with another type of acupuncture or specific additional points. In particular, the trigger point acupuncture was widely used to treat chronic low back pain in Japan. Many reports of chronic pain treatment by acupuncture and moxibustion are listed in Japanese databases. From the data, we conclude that there is limited evidence that acupuncture is more effective than no treatment, and inconclusive evidence that trigger point acupuncture is more effective than placebo, sham acupuncture or standard care. PMID:18227910

  9. INSOMNIA IN CHRONIC DISABLING MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN DISORDERS IS INDEPENDENT OF PAIN AND DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Asih, Sali; Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G.; Brede, Emily; Gatchel, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Insomnia is frequently experienced by patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal disorders, but is often seen as simply a symptom of pain or depression, and not as an independent disorder. Compared to those who experience only chronic pain, patients with both chronic pain and insomnia report higher pain intensity, more depressive symptoms, and greater distress. However, insomnia has not yet been systematically studied in a chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. PURPOSES This study assessed the prevalence and severity of patient-reported insomnia, as well as the relationship among insomnia, pain intensity, and depressive symptoms, in a chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING A retrospective study of prospectively captured data. PATIENT SAMPLE A consecutive cohort of 326 chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability patients (85% with spinal injuries) entered a functional restoration treatment program. All patients signed a consent form to participate in this protocol. OUTCOME MEASURES Insomnia was assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), a validated patient-report measure of insomnia symptoms. Four patient groups were formed: No Clinically Significant Insomnia (score 0–7); Sub-Threshold Insomnia (score 8–14); Moderate Clinical Insomnia (score 15–21); and Severe Clinical Insomnia (score 22–28). Three patterns of sleep disturbance were also evaluated: Early, Middle, and Late Insomnia. Additional validated psychosocial patient-report data were collected, including the Pain Visual Analog Scale (PVAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ). METHODS Patients completed a standard psychosocial assessment battery upon admission to the functional restoration program. The program included a quantitatively-directed exercise process in conjunction with a multimodal disability management approach. The four insomnia groups were compared on demographic and psychosocial variables. The shared variances among insomnia, depression, and pain were determined by partial correlational analyses. The writing of this article was supported in part by Grant 1K05 MH 71892 from NIH, focusing on evidence-based assessment and treatment approaches to musculoskeletal pain and the monitoring of valid outcomes. None of the authors involved in this study had a conflict of interest. RESULTS The presence of No Clinically Significant Insomnia, Sub-threshold Insomnia, Moderate Clinical Insomnia and Severe Clinical Insomnia was found in 5.5%, 21.2%, 39.6%, and 33.7% of the cohort, respectively. More than 70% of patients reported moderate to severe insomnia symptoms, which is a considerably higher prevalence than found in most patient cohorts studied previously. A step-wise pattern was found, in which Severe Clinical Insomnia patients reported the highest pain, the most severe depressive symptoms, and the greatest disability. The Severe Clinical Insomnia patients also reported a higher number of sleep disturbance types (Early, Middle, and Late insomnia) than the other 3 groups. In fact, 62.9% of them reported all 3 disturbance types. Although correlations were found between insomnia and depressive symptoms, and between insomnia and pain, the shared variances were small (12.9% and 3.6%, respectively), indicating that depression and pain are separate constructs from insomnia. CONCLUSION This research indicates that insomnia is a significant and pervasive problem in a chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. Most importantly, although insomnia has traditionally been assumed to be simply a symptom of pain or depression, the findings of the present study reveal that it is a construct relatively independent from both pain and depression. Specific insomnia assessment and treatment is therefore recommended for this chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. PMID:24333458

  10. Overtreating chronic back pain: time to back off?

    PubMed

    Deyo, Richard A; Mirza, Sohail K; Turner, Judith A; Martin, Brook I

    2009-01-01

    Chronic back pain is among the most common patient complaints. Its prevalence and impact have spawned a rapidly expanding range of tests and treatments. Some of these have become widely used for indications that are not well validated, leading to uncertainty about efficacy and safety, increasing complication rates, and marketing abuses. Recent studies document a 629% increase in Medicare expenditures for epidural steroid injections; a 423% increase in expenditures for opioids for back pain; a 307% increase in the number of lumbar magnetic resonance images among Medicare beneficiaries; and a 220% increase in spinal fusion surgery rates. The limited studies available suggest that these increases have not been accompanied by population-level improvements in patient outcomes or disability rates. We suggest a need for a better understanding of the basic science of pain mechanisms, more rigorous and independent trials of many treatments, a stronger regulatory stance toward approval and post-marketing surveillance of new drugs and devices for chronic pain, and a chronic disease model for managing chronic back pain. PMID:19124635

  11. What Do We Know About the Pathophysiology of Chronic Pain?: Implications for Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the complex features of the pathophysiology of chronic pain and the implications for treatment and provide an overview of nociceptive processes, neuropathic pain, cold hyperalgesia, peripheral nerve injury, wind-up pain, central sensitization, and common clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria. Advanced medicine has proven that chronic pain need not involve any structural pathology as pain is a complex biopsychosocial experience. Treatment of the specific mechanisms responsible for pain should be aimed at preventing and or reducing dysfunctional neuro-plasticity resulting from poorly controlled chronic pain. Further study is needed to reduce the probability and of persistent changes that cause chronic pain. PMID:26614717

  12. IL-17 is not essential for inflammation and chronic pelvic pain development in an experimental model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motrich, Ruben D; Breser, Mara L; Snchez, Leonardo R; Godoy, Gloria J; Prinz, Immo; Rivero, Virginia E

    2016-03-01

    Pain and inflammation in the absence of infection are hallmarks in chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) patients. The etiology of CP/CPPS is unclear, and autoimmunity has been proposed as a cause. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) models have long been used for studying CP/CPPS. Herein, we studied prostate inflammation induction and chronic pelvic pain development in EAP using IL-12p40-KO, IL-4-KO, IL-17-KO, and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. Prostate antigen (PAg) immunization in C57BL/6 mice induced specific Th1 and Th17 immune responses and severe prostate inflammation and cell infiltration, mainly composed of CD4 T cells and macrophages. Moreover, chronic pelvic pain was evidenced by increased allodynia responses. In immunized IL-17-KO mice, the presence of a prominent PAg-specific Th1 immune response caused similar prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. Furthermore, markedly high PAg-specific Th1 immune responses, exacerbated prostate inflammation, and chronic pelvic pain were detected in immunized IL-4-KO mice. Conversely, immunized IL-12p40-KO mice developed PAg-specific Th2 immune responses, characterized by high IL-4 secretion and neither infiltration nor damage in the prostate. As observed in wild-type control animals, IL12p40-KO mice did not evidence tactile allodynia responses. Our results suggest that, as in patients, chronic pelvic pain is a consequence of prostate inflammation. After PAg immunization, a Th1-associated immune response develops and induces prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. The absence of Th1 or Th2 cytokines, respectively, diminishes or enhances EAP susceptibility. In addition, IL-17 showed not to be essential for pathology induction and chronic pelvic pain development. PMID:26882345

  13. Cerebral interactions of pain and reward and their relevance for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2012-06-29

    Pain and reward are opponent, interacting processes. Such interactions are enabled by neuroanatomical and neurochemical overlaps of brain systems that process pain and reward. Cerebral processing of hedonic ('liking') and motivational ('wanting') aspects of reward can be separated: the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids play an important role for the hedonic experience, and the ventral striatum and dopamine predominantly process motivation for reward. Supported by neuroimaging studies, we present here the hypothesis that the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids are responsible for pain modulation by hedonic experience, while the ventral striatum and dopamine mediate motivational effects on pain. A rewarding stimulus that appears to be particularly important in the context of pain is pain relief. Further, reward, including pain relief, leads to operant learning, which can affect pain sensitivity. Indirect evidence points at brain mechanisms that might underlie pain relief as a reward and related operant learning but studies are scarce. Investigating the cerebral systems underlying pain-reward interactions as well as related operant learning holds the potential of better understanding mechanisms that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain, as detailed in the last section of this review. PMID:22440855

  14. An Overview of Pharmacologic Management of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Beal, Benjamin R; Wallace, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain can be challenging to manage and historically providers have relied on opiates to treat pain. Recent studies have brought into question the safety and efficacy of chronic opiate therapy in the noncancer population. There is a vast amount of literature to support the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical agents, cannabinoids, and botulinum toxin either in conjunction with or in lieu of opioids. Intrathecal drug delivery systems can deliver some of these medications directly to their primary site of action while minimizing the side effects seen with systemic administration. PMID:26614720

  15. [Sciatic hernia as a cause of chronic pelvic pain].

    PubMed

    De los Ros, Jos F; Calle, Gustavo; Castaeda, Juan D; Serna, Eduardo A; Vsquez, Ricardo A; Arango, Adriana M; Lpez, Claudia C

    2013-04-01

    Sciatic hernia constitutes the scarcest group of hernias of pelvic floor; however, they should be considered in the origin of chronic pelvic pain. The proper diagnosis of sciatic hernias has allowed to surgeons treating successfully patients with acute or chronic pelvic pain, with intestinal or ureteral obstruction and with urinary or gluteus sepsis. It has to be considered as differential diagnosis before the finding of a congenital or acquired gluteus mass. Laparoscopist gynecologist should know the existence of this defect, to be familiar with its aspect in laparoscopic view and to know the laparoscopic treatment of this disease. PMID:23720933

  16. Behavioral and Psychosocial Factors in Chronic Craniofacial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fricton, James R.

    1985-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain have a multifactoral problem that exhibits both physical and psychosocial symptoms. Evaluation includes determination of the physical diagnosis and psychosocial contributing factors on an equal and integrated basis. Contributing factors include any factor that plays a role in initiation and perpetuation or results from and thus, complicates the problem. Management follows with both reduction of contributing factors and treatment of the diagnosis. Contributing factors are classified as biological, behavioral, social, cognitive, emotional, and environmental. Individual factors in each group for chronic craniofacial pain are reviewed. PMID:3857877

  17. Emotional Disturbance and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Charles P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Patients high in alientation and distrust may be poor compliers. Because only the somatic concern dimension predicted outcome, a single scale that measures this characteristic may be sufficient for effective identification of the potential good v poor responders to conservative treatment of low back pain. (Author)

  18. Opioid use in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Savage, S R

    1999-05-01

    Opioids are a necessary and effective component of the management of chronic non-cancer-related pain in some patients. Careful structuring, monitoring, and documentation of care are important, but the therapeutic use of opioids is uncomplicated in the majority of patients using opioids and is gratifying for both the patient and the treating physician when it results in significant reduction in pain, improvement in level of function, and a higher quality of life. Opioid therapy is most often successful when combined with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions as indicated by the type of pain and the context in which it occurs. PMID:10386124

  19. Activation of corticostriatal circuitry relieves chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R; Eberle, Sarah E; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C; Wang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050

  20. Activation of Corticostriatal Circuitry Relieves Chronic Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R.; Eberle, Sarah E.; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050

  1. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345

  2. Juvenile fibromyalgia in an adolescent patient with sickle cell disease presenting with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ramprakash, Stalin; Fishman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia in children with sickle cell disease has not been reported in the literature. We report an adolescent patient with sickle cell whose pain symptoms progressed from having recurrent acute sickle cell pain crisis episodes to a chronic pain syndrome over several years. He was eventually diagnosed with juvenile fibromyalgia based on the clinical history and myofascial tender points and his pain symptoms responded better to multidisciplinary strategies for chronic fibromyalgia pain. Chronic pain in sickle cell disease is an area of poor research, and in addition there is inconsistency in the definition of chronic pain in sickle cell disease. Central sensitisation to pain is shown to occur after recurrent painful stimuli in a genetically vulnerable individual. In a chronic pain condition such as fibromyalgia central sensitisation is thought to play a key role. Fibromyalgia should be considered as one of the main differential diagnosis in any sickle cell patient with chronic pain. PMID:26430233

  3. Commonalities between pain and memory mechanisms and their meaning for understanding chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Price, Theodore J; Inyang, Kufreobong E

    2015-01-01

    Pain sensing neurons in the periphery (called nociceptors) and the central neurons that receive their projections show remarkable plasticity following injury. This plasticity results in amplification of pain signaling that is now understood to be crucial for the recovery and survival of organisms following injury. These same plasticity mechanisms may drive a transition to a nonadaptive chronic pain state if they fail to resolve following the termination of the healing process. Remarkable advances have been achieved in the past two decades in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie pain plasticity following injury. The mechanisms bear a striking resemblance to molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes in other brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Here those mechanisms, their commonalities and subtle differences, will be highlighted and their role in causing chronic pain will be discussed. Arising from these data is the striking argument that chronic pain is a disease of the nervous system, which distinguishes this phenomena from acute pain that is frequently a symptom alerting the organism to injury. This argument has important implications for the development of disease modifying therapeutics. PMID:25744681

  4. Commonalities between pain and memory mechanisms and their meaning for understanding chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Price, Theodore J; Inyang, Kufreobong E

    2015-01-01

    Pain sensing neurons in the periphery (called nociceptors) and the central neurons that receive their projections show remarkable plasticity following injury. This plasticity results in amplification of pain signaling that is now understood to be crucial for the recovery and survival of organisms following injury. These same plasticity mechanisms may drive a transition to a non-adaptive chronic pain state if they fail to resolve following the termination of the healing process. Remarkable advances have been achieved in the past two decades in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie pain plasticity following injury. The mechanisms bear a striking resemblance to molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes in other brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Here those mechanisms, their commonalities and subtle differences, will be highlighted and their role in causing chronic pain will be discussed. Arising from these data is the striking argument that chronic pain is a disease of the nervous system, which distinguishes this phenomena from acute pain that is frequently a symptom alerting the organism to injury. This argument has important implications for the development of disease modifying therapeutics. PMID:25744681

  5. Cystic endosalpingiosis presenting as chronic back pain, a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year old woman presented with chronic back pain. Previous examinations had been inconclusive. Gynaecological examination revealed large cystic masses on the fundus uteri and left adnexa. Laparoscopy and histopathology showed unusually extensive cystic endosalpingiosis covering the serosa-coated uterine surface as well as the adnexa on both sides. After uneventful laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy the patient quickly recovered and was relieved of her chronic backache. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1501709091077524. PMID:24299296

  6. Cystic endosalpingiosis presenting as chronic back pain, a case report.

    PubMed

    Scheel, Andreas H; Frasunek, Josef; Meyer, Werner; Strbel, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year old woman presented with chronic back pain. Previous examinations had been inconclusive. Gynaecological examination revealed large cystic masses on the fundus uteri and left adnexa. Laparoscopy and histopathology showed unusually extensive cystic endosalpingiosis covering the serosa-coated uterine surface as well as the adnexa on both sides. After uneventful laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy the patient quickly recovered and was relieved of her chronic backache. Virtual slides: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1501709091077524. PMID:24299296

  7. The relationship of demographic and psychosocial variables to pain-related outcomes in a rural chronic pain population

    PubMed Central

    Day, Melissa A.; Thorn, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    Rural residency and low socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased likelihood of chronic pain. Other demographics are also differentially associated with the experience of pain. This study examines the relations between demographic and pain-related variables in a virtually unstudied population of rural Alabama chronic pain patients. One-hundred-and-fifteen patients completed validated measures of pain catastrophizing, depression, pain intensity, pain interference, perceived disability, and life satisfaction. Average age of study participants was 52-years, 79% were female, 74% were African-American, 72% reported annual income between 00,000-12,999, and 61% were unemployed. Although average years of reported education was 12.26, reading level percentile (primary literacy indicant) was 17.33. Cross-sectional multivariate and univariate analyses were conducted to examine associations among demographic and psychosocial variables in relation to various pre-treatment pain-related variables. The mediating role of pain catastrophizing and depression was investigated. Results indicate that race was significantly associated with pain intensity and pain interference, such that African-Americans reported higher scores than White-Americans. Pain catastrophizing was uniquely associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and perceived disability; depression was uniquely associated with pain interference, and life satisfaction. Pain catastrophizing mediated the relation between primary literacy and pain intensity; age effects were differentially mediated by either pain catastrophizing or depression. These analyses provide insight into the specific demographic and psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in a low-literacy, low-SES rural population. PMID:20817401

  8. Anti-oppressive practices with chronic pain sufferers.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Judy E

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain and (dis)Ability leaves one struggling for normalcy, trying to make sense out of the fundamental operations of one's body, the meaning of suffering, and the social construction of wellness (Jackson, 2002; MacDonald, 2000; Oliver, 1996; Thomas, 1999; Wendell, 1996). Social work and other helping professions need to find ways to learn from sufferers, to listen to their stories, deriving insight from their knowledge, in order to more effectively attend to their health care needs. Findings from a doctoral dissertation using a narrative "testimonial" methodology, framed within a postmodern anti-oppressive ideology, will be presented. This research listened to the stories of women in, or retired from, the helping professions, who are sufferers of chronic pain, specifically attending to their experiences of living with chronic pain, dealing with the medical system, and the relationship of their pain and (dis)Ability with their helping roles. Six sufferers participated-two physicians, two nurses, and two social workers-providing a cross-disciplinary lens to both their personal and work experiences. The guiding research question was, "How can the stories of women in the helping professions, who are sufferers of chronic pain and (dis)Ability, inform an anti-oppressive approach to social work practice in working with sufferers?" A close read is provided into the sufferers' professional storying, including their insights, reflections, and critiques of health services. An anti-oppressive model of social work is highlighted, extrapolated from participants' storied practices and collaborative visions for best practices in working with chronic pain sufferers. PMID:18956505

  9. The Use of Botulinum Toxins for Chronic Pain and Headaches.

    PubMed

    Argoff, Charles E.

    2003-11-01

    The use of botulinum toxin in the management of various neurologic and non-neurologic disorders has grown considerably over the past decade. At the same time, new information regarding the mechanism of action of these toxins has evolved allowing for a greater understanding of the versatility of these agents. Although two types of botulinum toxin (type A Botox and type B Myobloc ) are commercially available in the US, most studies of the use of these toxins for the management of chronic pain and headache have been completed with type A. Data from open-label and retrospective studies as well as clinical practice suggest as strongly as possible that there is a role for these agents, especially Botox, in the management of several chronic headache disorders, including chronic migraine, chronic tension-type, cervicogenic, and cluster headache. Emerging data regarding the use of these agents for so-called "analgesic-rebound" headache also appear impressive; however, as of yet, no multicenter, randomized, controlled studies for any headache type have been published that confirm the results seen in noncontrolled studies. Nevertheless, the benefit that some patients experience from this agent is impressive, and this drug appears for many to modify the disorder in a very positive manner. In a similar fashion, data for other pain states are often restricted to open-label and case study approaches; however, clinical experience and some of the available studies (even small controlled studies) suggest a role for the toxins in the management of various chronic pain states, such as myofascial pain, low back pain, and neuropathic pain. One of the greatest challenges ahead for all interested in this area is confirming the benefit seen clinically through appropriately designed multicenter, randomized, controlled studies. PMID:14516525

  10. Understanding Help Seeking for Chronic Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jinks, Clare; Ong, Bie Nio

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis-related joint pain is prevalent and potentially disabling. United Kingdom clinical guidelines suggest that patients should be supported to self-manage in primary care settings. However, the processes and mechanisms that influence patient consultation decisions for joint pain are not comprehensively understood. We recruited participants (N = 22) from an existing longitudinal survey to take part in in-depth interviews and a diary study. We found that consultation decisions and illness actions were ongoing social processes. The need for and benefits of consulting were weighed against the value of consuming the time of a professional who was considered an expert. We suggest that how general practitioners manage consultations influences patient actions and is part of a broader process of defining the utility and moral worth of consulting. Recognizing these factors will improve self-management support and consultation outcomes. PMID:24970250

  11. Does anterior trunk pain predict a different course of recovery in chronic low back pain?

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, John; Hancock, Mark J; Kongsted, Alice; Hush, Julia; Kent, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Patient characteristics associated with the course and severity of low back pain (LBP) and disability have been the focus of extensive research, however, known characteristics do not explain much of the variance in outcomes. The relationship between anterior trunk pain (ATP) and LBP has not been explored, though mechanisms for visceral referred pain have been described. Study objectives were: (1) determine prevalence of ATP in chronic LBP patients, (2) determine whether ATP is associated with increased pain and disability in these patients, and (3) evaluate whether ATP predicts the course of pain and disability in these patients. In this study, spinal outpatient department patients mapped the distribution of their pain and patients describing pain in their chest, abdomen or groin were classified with ATP. Generalized estimating equations were performed to investigate the relationship between ATP and LBP outcomes. A total of 2974 patients were included and 19.6% of patients reported ATP. At all time points, there were significant differences in absolute pain intensity and disability in those with ATP compared with those without. The presence of ATP did not affect the clinical course of LBP outcomes. The results of this study suggest that patients who present with LBP and ATP have higher pain and disability levels than patients with localised LBP. Visceral referred pain mechanisms may help to explain some of this difference. PMID:24502844

  12. Topical capsaicin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Lloyd, Rosalind; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Topical creams with capsaicin are used to treat pain from a wide range of chronic conditions including neuropathic pain. Following application to the skin capsaicin causes enhanced sensitivity to noxious stimuli, followed by a period with reduced sensitivity and, after repeated applications, persistent desensitisation. There is uncertainty about the efficacy and tolerability of capsaicin for treating painful chronic neuropathies. Objectives To review the evidence from controlled trials on the efficacy and tolerability of topically applied capsaicin in chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Search methods Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Oxford Pain Relief Database, searched in May 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled studies of at least six weeks duration, using topical capsaicin to treat neuropathic pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Information was extracted on numbers of participants with pain relief (clinical improvement) after at least six weeks, and with local skin reactions, and used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) and harm (NNH). Details of definition of pain relief and specific adverse events were sought. Main results Six studies (389 participants in total) compared regular application of low dose (0.075%) capsaicin cream with placebo cream; the NNT for any pain relief over six to eight weeks was 6.6 (4.1 to 17). Two studies (709 participants in total) compared a single application of high dose (8%) capsaicin patch with placebo patch; the NNT for ? 30% pain relief over twelve weeks was 12 (6.4 to 70). Local skin reactions were more common with capsaicin, usually tolerable, and attenuated with time; the NNH for repeated low dose application was 2.5 (2.1 to 3.1). There were insufficient data to analyse either data set by condition or outcome definition. All studies satisfied minimum criteria for quality and validity, but maintenance of blinding remains a potential problem. Authors conclusions Capsaicin, either as repeated application of a low dose (0.075%) cream, or a single application of a high dose (8%) patch may provide a degree of pain relief to some patients with painful neuropathic conditions. Local skin irritation, which is often mild and transient but may lead to withdrawal, is common. Systemic adverse effects are rare. Estimates of benefit and harm are not robust due to limited amounts of data for different neuropathic conditions and inconsistent outcome definition. PMID:19821411

  13. Functional chronic pain syndromes and naturopathic treatments: neurobiological foundations.

    PubMed

    Musial, Frauke; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence that reflex therapies such as massage, Gua Sha, cupping, wet packs, acupuncture etc. are helpful in reducing symptoms of chronic pain. However, the neurobiological basis of these effects has rarely been investigated even though the increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of chronic pain syndromes allows for specific hypotheses. Reflex therapies are likely able to influence chronic pain at the level of the nociceptor and the spinal cord. Moreover, it can be speculated that these therapies have a strong impact on relaxation and maybe understood as a social, comforting interaction. Since it is well accepted that the positive effect of grooming has a neurobiological basis in non-human primates, its biosocial impact on wellbeing and pain processing in humans may be underestimated. A synopsis of the neurobiological foundations of pain perception, from the nociceptor up the spinal cord to brain mechanisms provides the basis for the investigation of the 'way of action' of reflex therapies. Specific hypotheses on their neurobiological bases and methods suitable for their investigation are outlined. Further clarification of the mechanisms of action of reflex therapies will support their clinical evidence and add to our understanding of the neurobiology of complementary medicine. PMID:18496023

  14. Oxycodone. Pharmacological profile and clinical data in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, F; Mattia, C

    2005-01-01

    Opioids are widely used as effective analgesic therapy for cancer pain. Despite years of controversy, their use has been also accepted in chronic non-cancer pain. Oxycodone alone and in combination has been used for over 80 years in the treatment of a variety of pain syndromes. As single agent, the controlled release (CR) oxycodone's market in the USA grew from 10% in 1996 to 53% in 2000 and it has become a leading opioid in the United States. Recent data showed that the fixed-combination oxycodone/acetaminophen (5 mg/325 mg) is the most often prescribed opioid across all the different chronic pain diagnoses. Compared with morphine, oxycodone has a higher oral bioavailability and is about twice as potent. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data support oxycodone as a pharmacologically active opiod that does not require conversion to oxymoprhone for pharmacological activity. Seven studies addressed the safety and efficacy of oxycodone for the treatment of non-cancer pain (low back pain, osteoarthritis pain, and painful diabetic neuropathy). Both immediate release (IR) and CR oxycodone are equally effective and safe. Along these trials, mean daily dosage of oxycodone was approximately 40 mg, with a low incidence of intolerable typical opiate side effects. In cancer pain, oxycodone can be considered a valid alternative to oral morphine to be used for opioid rotation. No difference in analgesic efficacy between CR oxycodone and CR morphine was found. Controlled-release preparations, with a long duration of action, are attractive because they offer the advantage of longer dosing intervals and sustained analgesic effect. PMID:16012419

  15. Treatment of a Case Example with PTSD and Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary reviews the case of GH, a survivor of a road traffic collision, who has chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The case formulation, assessment strategy, and treatment plan are informed by the relevant experimental literature and empirically supported treatments using a cognitive behavioral perspective. Given this

  16. Chronic Pain and Depression: Does the Evidence Support a Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Turner, Judith A.

    1985-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the relevant literature provides some support for an association between depression and chronic pain. Common conceptual and methodological problems are discussed. Current biological and psychological models of the mechanisms by which the two syndromes may interact are summarized, and suggestions are made for future

  17. Coping Constructs Related to College Students with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda J.; Sherman, Amanda L.; Grigsby, Megan E.; Croft, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative research study involved in-depth interviews with 22 participants enrolled in a private Midwestern university. Each participant reported living with a respective chronic pain syndrome while also being a full-time student. Our semi-structured, interviews centered around the constructs of physical, social,…

  18. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    PubMed

    ebe?i?, Boidar; Japjec, Mladen; Jankovi?, Saa; Vencel ?uljak; Doj?inovi?, Bojan; Stareini?, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. PMID:25868316

  19. Sex Differences in the Presentation of Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Christine E.; Cassisi, Jeffrey E.; Ferraresi, Laurette M.; Lofland, Kenneth R.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2002-01-01

    Sex differences in 351 patients with chronic low back pain were examined. Biological, psychological, and psychosocial factors were considered. Sex differences in adaptive functioning were consistent with traditional gender roles. Significant interactions were found for sex and employment status, and sex and marital status. Retired women reported…

  20. Sex Differences in the Presentation of Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Christine E.; Cassisi, Jeffrey E.; Ferraresi, Laurette M.; Lofland, Kenneth R.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2002-01-01

    Sex differences in 351 patients with chronic low back pain were examined. Biological, psychological, and psychosocial factors were considered. Sex differences in adaptive functioning were consistent with traditional gender roles. Significant interactions were found for sex and employment status, and sex and marital status. Retired women reported

  1. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9 (95% CI; 12.215.6) for the WAD group, 17.9 (95% CI; 16.119.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9 (95% CI; 23.728.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor to current pain, but more likely due to long-lasting pain. No group differences were found for kinaesthetic sense. PMID:18570647

  2. [Working women with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a case series].

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Hernández, Cecilia Andrea; Contreras-Estrada, Mónica Isabel; Soltero-Avelar, Ruben

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the experience of working women suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain, using a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. The technique drew on in-depth interviews with five working women that presented to the orthopedics and neurosurgery departments of a hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico, with a complaint of musculoskeletal pain for more than six months. The study showed that the women felt rejection, segregation, discrimination, lack of support at the workplace, and feelings of frustration and powerlessness related to their health condition. The women also perceived as a barrier the lack of efficiency in disability proceedings and job reintegration or relocation. Financial and family responsibilities were their main reason for continuing to work despite their chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:26735388

  3. Ecological system influences in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Deirdre E; Engle, Lisa; Feinstein, Amanda B; Sieberg, Christine B; Sparling, Penny; Cohen, Lindsey L; Conroy, Caitlin; Driesman, Dana; Masuda, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the childs pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the childs outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention. PMID:23248814

  4. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Psychological Therapies for Children With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Lauren; Palermo, Tonya M.; de C Williams, Amanda C; Lau, Jennifer; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives?This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of psychological therapies for management of chronic pain in children.?Methods?Randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions treating children (<18 years) with chronic pain conditions including headache, abdominal, musculoskeletal, or neuropathic pain were searched for. Pain symptoms, disability, depression, anxiety, and sleep outcomes were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed and quality of the evidence was rated using GRADE.?Results?35 included studies revealed that across all chronic pain conditions, psychological interventions reduced pain symptoms and disability posttreatment. Individual pain conditions were analyzed separately. Sleep outcomes were not reported in any trials. Optimal dose of treatment was explored. For headache pain, higher treatment dose led to greater reductions in pain. No effect of dosage was found for other chronic pain conditions.?Conclusions?Evidence for psychological therapies treating chronic pain is promising. Recommendations for clinical practice and research are presented. PMID:24602890

  5. Chronic Low-Back Pain and Complementary Health Approaches: What the Science Says

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Chronic Low-Back Pain and Complementary Health Approaches: What the Science Says ... Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Chronic Low-Back Pain and Complementary Health Approaches Spinal Manipulation The term ...

  6. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: New etiologic insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

  7. Should we start treating chronic low back pain with antibiotics rather than with pain medications?

    PubMed

    Birkenmaier, Christof

    2013-10-01

    For those of us who have read the 2 recently published articles by a Danish - British research group, it might appear that we are observing an impending paradigm shift on the origins of chronic low back pain. The results of this research indicate, that chronic low back pain associated with bone marrow edema in vertebral endplates that are adjacent to herniated intervertebral discs may be caused by infections with anaerobic bacteria of low virulence. According to these articles, treatment with certain antibiotics is significantly more effective than placebo against this low back pain. If these findings are to hold true in repeat studies by other researchers, they stand to fundamentally change our concepts of low back pain, degenerative disc disease and in consequence the suitable therapies for these entities. It may in fact require pain specialists to become familiarized with the details of antibiotic treatments and their specific risks in order to be able to properly counsel their patients. While this seems hard to believe at first glance, bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of other conditions that do not primarily impose as infectious diseases such as gastric ulcers. While the authors refer to a few previous studies pointing into the same direction, the relevant research is really only from one group of collaborating scientists. Therefore, before we start prescribing antibiotics for chronic low back pain, it is imperative that other researchers in different institutions confirm these results. PMID:24155998

  8. Should We Start Treating Chronic Low Back Pain with Antibiotics Rather than with Pain Medications?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For those of us who have read the 2 recently published articles by a Danish - British research group, it might appear that we are observing an impending paradigm shift on the origins of chronic low back pain. The results of this research indicate, that chronic low back pain associated with bone marrow edema in vertebral endplates that are adjacent to herniated intervertebral discs may be caused by infections with anaerobic bacteria of low virulence. According to these articles, treatment with certain antibiotics is significantly more effective than placebo against this low back pain. If these findings are to hold true in repeat studies by other researchers, they stand to fundamentally change our concepts of low back pain, degenerative disc disease and in consequence the suitable therapies for these entities. It may in fact require pain specialists to become familiarized with the details of antibiotic treatments and their specific risks in order to be able to properly counsel their patients. While this seems hard to believe at first glance, bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of other conditions that do not primarily impose as infectious diseases such as gastric ulcers. While the authors refer to a few previous studies pointing into the same direction, the relevant research is really only from one group of collaborating scientists. Therefore, before we start prescribing antibiotics for chronic low back pain, it is imperative that other researchers in different institutions confirm these results. PMID:24155998

  9. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Maher, C G

    2004-01-01

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future. PMID:15062718

  10. Chronic Pain Management: An Overview of Taxonomy, Conditions Commonly Encountered, and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Walk, David; Poliak-Tunis, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain has multiple mechanisms that result in pain amplification and maintenance, including central and peripheral sensitization and altered modulation of pain perception. Assessment of pain requires comprehensive assessment of symptoms and signs, suspected pain mechanisms, and the patient's biopsychosocial context. Multiple validated measures exist for the assessment of pain symptoms, pain-related disability, psychological impact of pain, and candidacy for opioid management. PMID:26614715

  11. Change in Suicidal Ideation Following Interdisciplinary Treatment of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, John; Wilson, Keith G.; Henderson, Peter R.; McWilliams, Lachlan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine suicidal ideation in individuals with chronic pain, especially change in suicidal thinking following interdisciplinary treatment. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 250) admitted to a 4-week, group-based chronic pain management program completed measures of pain intensity, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, overall distress, pain catastrophizing, self-perceived burden, and suicidal ideation at pre- and post-treatment. Results Before treatment, 30 (12.0%) participants were classified as having a high level of suicidal ideation, 56 (22.4%) had a low level of suicidal ideation, and 164 (65.6%) reported none. Following treatment, there was a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and improvements in all other outcomes, but there were still some individuals with high (n = 22, 8.8%) or low (n = 28, 11.2%) levels at discharge. Patients with high suicidal ideation at baseline differed from those with no suicidal thinking on pre- and post-treatment measures of depression, distress, catastrophizing, and self-perceived burden, but not on pain intensity or functional limitations. Patients high in suicidal ideation endorsed greater pain catastrophizing and self-perceived burden than those low in suicidal thinking. Sustained suicidal ideation after treatment was associated with higher baseline levels of suicidal thinking and self-perceived burden to others, as well as a more limited overall response to treatment. Discussion Suicidal ideation was common in individuals with chronic pain, although mostly at a low level. Interdisciplinary treatment may result in reduced suicidal thinking; however, some patients continue to express thoughts of self-harm. Future studies could examine processes of change and interventions for treatment-resistant suicidal concerns. PMID:24281291

  12. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in other chronic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2012-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild. PMID:22191024

  13. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Other Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Muhammad B.

    2012-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild. PMID:22191024

  14. Opioid use behaviors, mental health and pain-Development of a typology of chronic pain patients*

    PubMed Central

    Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Boudreau, Denise M.; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The intersection of pain, addiction and mental health has not been adequately described. We describe the roles of these three conditions in a chronic pain patient population using opioid analgesics. Aims were to improve our understanding of this population as well as to explore ways of identifying different types of patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large integrated group medical practice in Washington State with persons using opioids chronically (n=704). Patient classes were derived with latent class analysis using factors representing DSM-IV opioid abuse and dependence, opioid misuse, pain, anxiety and depression. Regression analyses explored the utility of automated and interview data to distinguish the empirically-derived patient groups. Results Three classes were identified: a Typical group, the substantial majority that had persistent, moderate mental health and pain symptoms; an Addictive Behaviors group with elevated mental health symptoms and opioid problems, but pain similar to the Typical class; and a Pain Dysfunction class with significantly higher pain interference as well as elevated mental health and opioid problems. Prescribed average daily dose of opioids was three times higher for those in the two atypical groups and was strongly associated with class membership after adjusting for other variables. Conclusion We describe three distinct types of patient classes as well as data elements that could help identify the two atypical types. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and determine the utility of this approach in other clinical settings. PMID:19473786

  15. Pain intensity, disability and depression in individuals with chronic back pain1

    PubMed Central

    Garbi, Mrcia de Oliveira Sakamoto Silva; Hortense, Priscilla; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; da Silva, Talita de Cssia Raminelli; Castanho, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Sousa, Ftima Aparecida Emm Faleiros

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to measure the pain intensity, identify the disability and depression levels in people with chronic back pain and to correlate these variables. A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken at the Pain Treatment Clinic of the University of So Paulo at Ribeiro Preto Hospital das Clnicas, between February and June 2012, after receiving approval from the Ethics Committee at the University of So Paulo at Ribeiro Preto College of Nursing. METHOD: sixty subjects with chronic back pain participated. The instruments used were: the 11-point Numerical Category Scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. To analyze the data, the arithmetic means, standard deviations and Spearman's correlation coefficient were calculated. RESULTS: the findings show that the participants presented high pain, disability and depression levels. The correlation between pain intensity and disability and between pain intensity and depression was positive and weak and, between disability and depression, positive and moderate. CONCLUSION: the study variables showed moderate and weak indices and the mutual correlations were positive. PMID:25296139

  16. Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of pain as a recurrent symptom in children is known to be high, but little is known about children with high impairment from chronic pain seeking specialized treatment. The purpose of this study was the precise description of children with high impairment from chronic pain referred to the German Paediatric Pain Centre over a 5-year period. Methods Demographic variables, pain characteristics and psychometric measures were assessed at the first evaluation. Subgroup analysis for sex, age and pain location was conducted and multivariate logistic regression applied to identify parameters associated with extremely high impairment. Results The retrospective study consisted of 2249 children assessed at the first evaluation. Tension type headache (48%), migraine (43%) and functional abdominal pain (11%) were the most common diagnoses with a high rate of co-occurrence; 18% had some form of musculoskeletal pain disease. Irrespective of pain location, chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors was diagnosed frequently (43%). 55% of the children suffered from more than one distinct pain diagnosis. Clinically significant depression and general anxiety scores were expressed by 24% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Girls over the age of 13 were more likely to seek tertiary treatment compared to boys. Nearly half of children suffered from daily or constant pain with a mean pain value of 6/10. Extremely high pain-related impairment, operationalized as a comprehensive measure of pain duration, frequency, intensity, pain-related school absence and disability, was associated with older age, multiple locations of pain, increased depression and prior hospital stays. 43% of the children taking analgesics had no indication for pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Children with chronic pain are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as they often have two or more different pain diagnoses, are prone to misuse of analgesics and are severely impaired. They are at increased risk for developmental stagnation. Adequate treatment and referral are essential to interrupt progression of the chronic pain process into adulthood. PMID:22591492

  17. Use of acupuncture in the management of chronic haemophilia pain.

    PubMed

    Lambing, A; Kohn-Converse, B; Hanagavadi, S; Varma, V

    2012-07-01

    Persons with haemophilia experience persistent pain resulting in chronic arthritic symptoms. The older person with haemophilia who did not benefit from primary prophylaxis are particularly at risk for persistent pain in multiple target joints as a result of repeated joint bleeding with delayed treatment received. The National Pain Study, Ref. [11] identified over 700 persons with haemophilia who rated daily persistent pain as 4.22/10 (SD 2.05) using a visual analogue scale. The study suggests that persons are continually seeking additional resources to relieve pain. This study seeks to identify: (i) effects of acupuncture use for persons with haemophilia who experience persistent joint pain as a result of repeated haemarthrosis and (ii) document no reported increased bleeding risk as a result of acupuncture use. End points include the subjects reported perception of reduction in pain via the 10-point visual analogue pain scale and bleeding. Nine subjects participated in the study, some who received a factor replacement to 15% correction and others who did not receive factor prior to any acupuncture sessions totaling 14 acupuncture treatments. No one of the subjects experienced bleeding or bruising. Six of the nine subjects reported an improvement in pain scores by at least 50%. Seven of the nine quality of life (QOL) domains within the QOL SF-36 questionnaire improved, suggesting a perception by subjects of improvement. This study suggests that acupuncture therapy can be a safe additional modality for pain management therapies in persons with haemophilia, although larger randomized studies are needed for further validation. PMID:22404527

  18. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Persons with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Marini, Irmo; Baker, Jeff; Buck, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-five persons receiving treatment for chronic pain were surveyed using the Spirituality and Chronic Pain Survey (SCPS). The survey included a pain assessment, a spiritual/religious practices assessment, and questions related to spiritual/religious beliefs and attitudes. Most participants reported experiencing constant, higher-level pain. The

  19. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Persons with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Marini, Irmo; Baker, Jeff; Buck, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-five persons receiving treatment for chronic pain were surveyed using the Spirituality and Chronic Pain Survey (SCPS). The survey included a pain assessment, a spiritual/religious practices assessment, and questions related to spiritual/religious beliefs and attitudes. Most participants reported experiencing constant, higher-level pain. The…

  20. Chronic Pain in People with an Intellectual Disability: Under-Recognised and Under-Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, B. E.; Daly, P.; Smyth, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the nature, prevalence and impact of chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability (ID) based on carer report. Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to 250 care-givers and 157 responses were received (63%). Results: Chronic pain was reported in 13% of the sample (n = 21), 6.3% had pain in two sites and 2% had pain in…

  1. Chronic Pain in People with an Intellectual Disability: Under-Recognised and Under-Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, B. E.; Daly, P.; Smyth, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the nature, prevalence and impact of chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability (ID) based on carer report. Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to 250 care-givers and 157 responses were received (63%). Results: Chronic pain was reported in 13% of the sample (n = 21), 6.3% had pain in two sites and 2% had pain in

  2. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, I; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

    2010-01-01

    There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems. PMID:20968203

  3. Tramadol extended-release in the management of chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    McCarberg, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Chronic, noncancer pain such as that associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee is typically managed according to American College of Rheumatology guidelines. Patients unresponsive to first-line treatment with acetaminophen receive nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. However, many patients may have chronic pain that is refractory to these agents, or they may be at risk for the gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular complications associated with their use. Tramadol, a mild opioid agonist and norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is recommended by current guidelines for the treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain in patients who have not responded to previous oral therapy, or in patients who have contraindications to COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective NSAIDs. An extended-release (ER) formulation of tramadol was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2005. In contrast with immediate-release (IR) tramadol, this ER formulation allows once-daily dosing, providing around-the-clock analgesia. In clinical studies, tramadol ER has demonstrated a lower incidence of adverse events than that reported for IR tramadol. Unlike nonselective NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, tramadol ER is not associated with gastrointestinal, renal, or cardiovascular complications. Although tramadol is an opioid agonist, significant abuse has not been demonstrated after long-term therapy. It is concluded that tramadol ER has an efficacy and safety profile that warrants its early use for the management of chronic pain, either alone or in conjunction with nonselective NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:18488071

  4. Chronic low back pain among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo D; Fassa, Anaclaudia G; Faria, Neice M X; Fiori, Nadia S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite tobacco farming involving intensive manual labor, chronic low back pain (CLBP) prevalence and associated factors are unknown among this occupational group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in southern Brazil. A random sample of tobacco farmers was interviewed. Socioeconomic and individual characteristics, occupational tasks, workloads, and comorbidities were investigated. Chronic low back pain prevalence was described in relation to independent variables, and associations were examined with Poisson regression. Results: Chronic low back pain prevalence was 84%. Increasing age, rearing two or more species of livestock (PR 165), exposure to tasks that require heavy physical exertion (PR 200), working in awkward postures (PR 136), green tobacco sickness (GTS) (PR 163), pesticide poisoning (PR 237), and minor psychiatric disorders (PR 255) were associated with CLBP. Conclusions: This study found that CLBP is a relevant health problem among tobacco farmers and highlights understudied risk factors such as pesticide poisoning and GTS. Policies to minimize exposure to physiological and chemical workloads in tobacco planting to prevent CLBP are needed. Health professionals should be trained to diagnose and prevent acute low back pain episodes and thus prevent/minimize limitations and disabilities due to CLBP. PMID:25633930

  5. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review on Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used analgesic worldwide and recommended as first-line treatment in all pain conditions by WHO. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the efficacy of acetaminophen when used for chronic pain conditions. Applying three broad search strategies for acetaminophen use in chronic pain in both Embase and PubMed, 1551 hits were obtained. After cross-reference searches of both trials and 38 reviews, seven studies comparing acetaminophen in continuous dosing regimens of more than 2 weeks with placebo were included. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. All studies were conducted in patients with hip- or knee osteoarthritis and six of seven studies had observation periods of less than 3 months. All included studies showed no or little efficacy with dubious clinical relevance. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of acetaminophen treatment in patients with chronic pain conditions. Assessment of continuous efficacy in the many patients using acetaminophen worldwide is recommended. PMID:26572078

  6. History of physical and sexual abuse in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D; Darke, L L; Stampler, F M; Naliboff, B D

    1990-07-01

    The history of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood was assessed in 31 women with chronic pelvic pain, 142 women with chronic pain in other locations, and 32 controls. Thirty-nine percent of patients with chronic pelvic pain had been physically abused in childhood. This percentage was significantly greater than that observed in other chronic-pain patients (18.4%) or controls (9.4%), though the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse did not differ among the groups (19.4, 16.3, and 12.5%, respectively). Abuse in adulthood was less common and was not significantly more likely to have occurred in patients with chronic pelvic pain than in other chronic-pain patients or controls. These data suggest that pelvic pain is unlikely to be specifically and psychodynamically related to sexual abuse but that the pernicious nature of abuse, whether physical or sexual, may promote the chronicity of painful conditions. PMID:2359571

  7. Offspring of parents with chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of pain, health, psychological, and family outcomes.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Kristen S; Birnie, Kathryn A; Chambers, Christine T; Wilson, Anna C; Caes, Line; Clark, Alexander J; Lynch, Mary; Stinson, Jennifer; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    2015-11-01

    Offspring of parents with chronic pain may be at risk for poorer outcomes than offspring of healthy parents. The objective of this research was to provide a comprehensive mixed-methods systematic synthesis of all available research on outcomes in offspring of parents with chronic pain. A systematic search was conducted for published articles in English examining pain, health, psychological, or family outcomes in offspring of parents with chronic pain. Fifty-nine eligible articles were identified (31 population-based, 25 clinical, 3 qualitative), including offspring from birth to adulthood and parents with varying chronic pain diagnoses (eg, mixed pain samples, arthritis). Meta-analysis was used to synthesize the results from population-based and clinical studies, while meta-ethnography was used to synthesize the results of qualitative studies. Increased pain complaints were found in offspring of mothers and of fathers with chronic pain and when both parents had chronic pain. Newborns of mothers with chronic pain were more likely to have adverse birth outcomes, including low birthweight, preterm delivery, caesarian section, intensive care admission, and mortality. Offspring of parents with chronic pain had greater externalizing and internalizing problems and poorer social competence and family outcomes. No significant differences were found on teacher-reported externalizing problems. The meta-ethnography identified 6 key concepts (developing independence, developing compassion, learning about health and coping, missing out, emotional health, and struggles communicating with parents). Across study designs, offspring of parents with chronic pain had poorer outcomes than other offspring, although the meta-ethnography noted some constructive impact of having a parent with chronic pain. PMID:26172553

  8. Opioids for chronic pain: new evidence, new strategies, safe prescribing.

    PubMed

    de Leon-Casasola, Oscar A

    2013-03-01

    In the United States, the prevalence and burden of chronic pain is large and still growing. Older adults (aged ?65 years) make up a large portion of the population with chronic pain, and their presentation, diagnosis, and treatment tends to be more complicated because of age-related physiological changes and comorbidities. Guidelines on treating patients with severe back pain recommend opioids as an option for those who do not find adequate pain relief from acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). For older adult patients at higher risk for NSAID-related adverse effects, such as those who have gastrointestinal or cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or who are taking low-dose aspirin, opioids are recommended instead. Opioids may also be an appropriate option for patients with neuropathic pain who have not achieved adequate analgesia from maximum doses of first- and second-line antineuropathic agents. Still, opioids are not appropriate for all patients; rather, a differential diagnosis, consideration of other comorbidities, and the potential for opioid-related adverse effects and substance abuse are required to confirm the value of opioid treatment for each individual. For nonresponders to opioid therapy, opioid rotation should be considered before discontinuation is pursued. PMID:23414718

  9. A Comparative Study Between Longitudinal Pancreacticojejunostomy v/s Lateral Pancreaticogastrostomy as a Drainage Procedure for Pain Relief in Chronic Pancreatitis Done in a Tertiary Referral Centre of Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Halder, Shyamal Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Bhar, Partha; Das, Cinjini; Pandey, Pranjal; Rakshit, Krishna Pada; Pachaury, Anadi

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammation of pancreas that leads to progressive fibrosis of pancreatic parenchyma. Commonest indication of surgery in chronic pancreatitis is intractable pain. Choice of procedure depends upon the main pancreatic duct (MPD) morphology. Decompression is useful in dilated and obstructed ducts. Traditional form of decompression is construction of a pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis (LPJ). Another method to achieve ductal decompression is by a pancreaticogastrostomy (LPG) and this study will try to evaluate its effectiveness against pancreaticojejunostomy. To compare the effectiveness of LPG and LPJ in relieving intractable abdominal pain in patients with CP and their respective post-operative complications. This prospective study was done over a period of 4years from Jan 2007 to Dec 2010 at IPGME & R (SSKM), a tertiary hospital of eastern India. Patients with diagnosis of CP with or without duct calculi and MPD diameter ?7mm with intractable pain were included. 70 patients were randomly allocated for LPJ and LPG operation by lottery method. Study tools were questionnaires, blood and radiological investigations and standard instruments for open surgery. The patients were prospectively analyzed for duration of surgery and hospital stay, operative/postoperative complications and assessment of postoperative pain relief. Pain relief was assessed as complete (no analgesic requirement), satisfactory (tolerable pain with normal daily activities) and unsatisfactory (hospitalization, narcotics or hampered daily activities). 1. Operative time was shorter in LPG than LPJ (Median 85 vs. 110min). 2. Incidence of ileus was lesser in LPG group (p?=?.054). Other complications were comparable in both groups. 3. LPG was associated with shorter duration of hospital stay (Mean 6 vs. 8days). 4. Pain relief was comparable in LPG and LPJ. LPG is a good alternative to LPJ for CP. PMID:26139966

  10. Comparing Chronic Pain Treatment Seekers in Primary Care versus Tertiary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Fink-Miller, Erin L.; Long, Dustin M.; Gross, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients frequently seek treatment for chronic nonmalignant pain in primary care settings. Compared with physicians who have completed extensive specialization (eg, fellowships) in pain management, primary care physicians receive much less formal training in managing chronic pain. While chronic pain represents a complicated condition in its own right, the recent increase in opioid prescriptions further muddles treatment. It is unknown whether patients with chronic pain seeking treatment in primary care differ from those seeking treatment in tertiary care settings. This study sought to determine whether patients with chronic pain in primary care reported less pain, fewer psychological variables related to pain, and lower risk of medication misuse/abuse compared with those in tertiary care. Methods Data collected from patients with chronic pain in primary care settings and tertiary care settings were analyzed for significant differences using Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Fisher exact tests, and linear regression. A host of variables among populations, including demographics, self-reported pain severity, psychological variables related to pain, and risk for opioid misuse and abuse, were compared. Results Findings suggest that primary care patients with chronic pain were similar to those in tertiary care on a host of indices and reported more severe pain. There were no significant group differences for risk of medication misuse or abuse. Conclusion It seems that primary care physicians care for a complicated group of patients with chronic pain that rivals the complexity of those seen in specialized tertiary care pain management facilities. PMID:25201929

  11. Carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbamazepine is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Objectives Evaluation of analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain management (except headaches). Search methods Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of carbamazepine in acute, chronic or cancer pain were identified, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, SIGLE and Cochrane CENTRAL to June 2010, reference lists of retrieved papers, and reviews. Selection criteria RCTs reporting the analgesic effects of carbamazepine. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted results and scored for quality. Numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from dichotomous data for effectiveness, adverse effects and adverse event withdrawal. Issues of study quality, size, duration, and outcomes were examined. Main results Fifteen included studies (12 cross-over design; three parallel-group) with 629 participants. Carbamazepine was less effective than prednisolone in preventing postherpetic neuralgia following acute herpes zoster (1 study, 40 participants). No studies examined acute postoperative pain. Fourteen studies investigated chronic neuropathic pain: two lasted eight weeks, others were four weeks or less (mean 3 weeks, median 2 weeks). Five had low reporting quality. Ten involved fewer than 50 participants; mean and median maximum treatment group sizes were 34 and 29. Outcome reporting was inconsistent. Most placebo controlled studies indicated that carbamazepine was better than placebo. Five studies with 298 participants provided dichotomous results; 70% improved with carbamazepine and 12% with placebo. Carbamazepine at any dose, using any definition of improvement was significantly better than placebo (70% versus 12% improved; 5 studies, 298 participants); relative benefit 6.1 (3.9 to 9.7), NNT 1.7 (1.5 to 2.0). Four studies (188 participants) reporting outcomes equivalent to 50% pain reduction or more over baseline had a similar NNT. With carbamazepine, 66% of participants experienced at least one adverse event, and 27% with placebo; relative risk 2.4 (1.9 to 3.1), NNH 2.6 (2.1 to 3.5). Adverse event withdrawals occurred in12 of 323 participants (4%) with carbamazepine and 0 of 310 with placebo. Serious adverse events were not reported consistently; rashes were associated with carbamazepine. Five deaths occurred in patients on carbamazepine, with no obvious drug association. Authors conclusions Carbamazepine is effective in chronic neuropathic pain, with caveats. No trial was longer than four weeks, of good reporting quality, using outcomes equivalent to at least moderate clinical benefit. In these circumstances, caution is needed in interpretation, and meaningful comparison with other interventions is not possible. PMID:21249671

  12. Complementary and alternative medications for chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Leong, Fah Che

    2014-09-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is common, but rarely cured, thus patients seek both second opinions and alternative means of controlling their pain. Complementary and alternative medicine accounts for 11.2% of out-of-pocket medical expenditures for adults for all conditions in the United States. Although there are many treatments, rigorous testing and well-done randomized studies are lacking. Dietary changes and physical modalities such as physical therapy have often been included in the category of alternative medicine, but their use is now considered mainstream. This article concentrates on other sources of alternative and complementary medicine, such as dietary supplementation and acupuncture. PMID:25155128

  13. Association of Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis With Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Pamela; Khachikyan, Izabella; Sinaii, Ninet; Ortiz, Robin; Shah, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sensitization, myofascial trigger points, and quality of life in women with chronic pelvic pain with and without endometriosis. Methods A cross-sectional prospective study of women aged 18 to 50 with pain suggestive of endometriosis and healthy, pain-free volunteers without history of endometriosis. Patients underwent a physiatric neuro-musculoskeletal assessment of clinical signs of sensitization and myofascial trigger points in the abdominopelvic region. Pain symptoms, psychosocial, and quality-of-life measures were also assessed. All pain participants underwent laparoscopic excision of suspicious lesions to confirm endometriosis diagnosis by histologic evaluation. Results Patients included 18 with current, biopsy-proven endometriosis, 11 with pain only, and 20 healthy volunteers. The prevalence of sensitization as measured by regional allodynia and hyperalgesia was similar in both pain groups (83% and 82%) but much lower among healthy volunteers (15%, p<0.001). Nearly all women with pain had myofascial trigger points (94% and 91%). Adjusting for study group, those with high anxiety (OR=1.05, 95% CI:1.0041.099; p=0.031) and depression (OR=1.06, 95% CI:1.0051.113; p=0.032) scores were more likely to have sensitization. Pain patients with any history of endometriosis had the highest proportion of sensitization compared to the others (87% v 67% v 15%; p<0.001). Adjusting for any history of endometriosis, those with myofascial trigger points were most likely sensitized (OR=9.41, 95% CI:1.7750.08, p=0.009). Conclusions Sensitization and myofascial trigger points were common in women with pain regardless of whether they had endometriosis at surgery. Those with any history of endometriosis were most likely to have sensitization. Traditional methods of classifying endometriosis-associated pain based on disease, duration, and anatomy are inadequate and should be replaced by a mechanism-based evaluation, as our study illustrates. PMID:25730237

  14. Topical rubefacients for acute and chronic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Paul; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Rubefacients (containing salicylates or nicotinamides) cause irritation of the skin, and are believed to relieve various musculoskeletal pains. They are available on prescription, and are common components in over-the-counter remedies. A non-Cochrane review in 2004 found limited evidence for efficacy. Objectives To review current evidence for efficacy and safety of topically applied rubefacients in acute and chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions in adults. Search methods Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, and reference lists of articles were searched; last search December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled clinical trials of topical rubefacient for musculoskeletal pain in adults, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm, and reporting outcomes at close to 7 (minimum 3, maximum 10) days for acute conditions and 14 (minimum 7) days or longer for chronic conditions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and quality, and extracted data. Relative benefit or risk and number needed to treat to benefit or harm (NNT or NNH) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Acute and chronic conditions were analysed separately. Main results Six placebo and one active controlled studies (560 and 137 participants) in acute pain, and seven placebo and two active controlled studies (489 and 90 participants) in chronic pain were included. All used topical salicylates. The evidence in acute conditions was not robust; using only better quality, valid studies, there was no difference between topical rubefacient and topical control, though overall, including lower quality studies, the NNT for clinical success compared with placebo was 3.2 (95% CI: 2.4 to 4.9). In chronic conditions the NNT was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0 to 13) compared with topical placebo. Adverse events and withdrawals occurred more often with rubefacients than placebo, but analyses were sensitive to inclusion of individual studies, so not robust. There were insufficient data to draw conclusions against active controls. Authors conclusions The evidence does not support the use of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for acute injuries, and suggests that in chronic conditions their efficacy compares poorly with topical non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Topical salicylates seem to be relatively well tolerated in the short-term, based on limited data. There is no evidence at all for topical rubefacients with other components. PMID:19588430

  15. Chronic pain management in the active-duty military

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

    2012-06-01

    As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

  16. Effects of Pain Acceptance and Pain Control Strategies on Physical Impairment in Individuals with Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowles, Kevin E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Gross, Richard T.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Mouse, Angela; Bates, Mick; Gallimore, Paula; McCall, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial treatments for chronic pain are effective. There is a need, however, to understand the processes involved in determining how these treatments contribute to behavior change. Control and acceptance strategies represent two potentially important processes involved in treatment, although they differ significantly in approach. Results from

  17. Effects of Pain Acceptance and Pain Control Strategies on Physical Impairment in Individuals with Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowles, Kevin E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Gross, Richard T.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Mouse, Angela; Bates, Mick; Gallimore, Paula; McCall, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial treatments for chronic pain are effective. There is a need, however, to understand the processes involved in determining how these treatments contribute to behavior change. Control and acceptance strategies represent two potentially important processes involved in treatment, although they differ significantly in approach. Results from…

  18. Chronic pain--the end of the welfare state?

    PubMed

    Nachemson, A

    1994-12-01

    The problem of low back pain has reached epidemic proportions in the industrialized nations. The predicament of back pain is common, 30-40% of our populations from 10-65 years old report such trouble to occur on a monthly basis. In 1-8% this results in work-disabling back pain. Only in very few of these patients can physicians diagnose a definite pathoanatomical cause for the pain. It can be deduced that psychosocial factors, including insurance benefits are of importance for this variation. Sweden, with 100% sickness benefits, has the highest disability rate. Few non-surgical methods have proven effective in rendering the patient better for him to return to work. Even fewer studies demonstrate any benefit from surgery, simple open removal of a proven disc hernia being the only exception. For patients with unproven diagnostic labels such as facet arthritis, degenerative disc disease, internal disc resorption and instability, no evidence exists that any type of surgery is cost-effective. More attention must be paid to illness behaviour by anyone treating chronic low back pain syndromes (> 3 months). Such psychological reactions to an originally nociceptive pain stimulus somewhere in the motion segment, must be elucidated and addressed, before embarking on risky and expensive treatment modalities including surgery. It is time for all of us, politicians as well as physicians, to distinguish what types of support will contribute to our nations' future and which ones will undermine it. Our welfare systems are at stake. PMID:7866365

  19. Managing Chronic Pain in Special Populations with Emphasis on Pediatric, Geriatric, and Drug Abuser Populations.

    PubMed

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; Young, Erin E; Starkweather, Angela R; Guite, Jessica W; Russell, Beth S; Manworren, Renee C B

    2016-01-01

    In the adult population chronic pain can lead to loss of productivity and earning potential, and decreased quality of life. There are distinct groups with increased vulnerability for the emergence of chronic pain. These groups may be defined by developmental status and/or life circumstances. Within the pediatric, geriatric, and drug abuser populations, chronic pain represents a significant health issue. This article focuses on known anatomic, physiologic, and genetic mechanisms underlying chronic pain in these populations, and highlights the need for a multimodal approach from multiple health care professionals for management of chronic pain in those with the most risk. PMID:26614727

  20. Gender differences in chronic pain--findings from a population-based study of Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Rusten, Tone; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Hanestad, Berit Rokne; Lerdal, Anners; Paul, Steven; Miaskowski, Christine

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate for gender differences in the experience of chronic pain and the impact of chronic pain on quality of life (QOL). A total of 1,912 out of 4,000 Norwegian citizens returned a mailed questionnaire, and 24.4% reported chronic pain. More women than men reported chronic pain, and women reported significantly higher pain intensity scores than men did. Although the duration of chronic pain was similar in women and men, women more often received treatment for their chronic pain. Men in chronic pain reported a poorer QOL than women did. Although specific variables that predicted present pain intensity in women and men differed, the variables that explained the largest percentage of the variance in pain for both genders were the disease and the pain location variables. These findings support previously published studies that document gender differences in chronic pain and extend the work to the impact of chronic pain on QOL. PMID:15359222

  1. Update: soccer injury and prevention, concussion, and chronic groin pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    Soccer, or football, as it is known in much of the world, is one of the most popular sports in the world. The purpose of this article was to provide a concise update on select soccer-specific medical issues published in the last year as they relate to soccer injury and prevention, concussions, and chronic groin pain. Both the Fdration Internationale de Football Association and the Union of European Football Associations published data from their longstanding injury tracking systems, providing foundation for further research. Concussion research continues to drive much interest, especially as it relates to heading and the controversy of subconcussive trauma. Lastly, our understanding of chronic groin pain continues to be refined as we try to understand the complexity of its pathophysiology and attempt to standardize a multispecialty approach of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25211620

  2. Pain, power and patience - A narrative study of general practitioners' relations with chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic pain patients are common in general practice. In this study "chronic pain" is defined as diffuse musculoskeletal pain not due to inflammatory diseases or cancer. Effective patient-physician relations improve treatment results. The relationship between doctors and chronic pain patients is often dysfunctional. Consultation training for physicians and medical students can improve the professional ability to build effective relations, but this demands a thorough understanding of the problems in the relation. Several studies have defined the issues that frequently cause problems, but few have described the process. The aim of this study was to understand and illustrate what GPs' experience in contact with chronic pain patients and what works and does not work in these consultations. Methods Our theoretical perspective is constructivist, based upon the relativist view that individuals construct realities to understand and navigate the world. Five Swedish General Practitioners (GPs), two male and three female, were interviewed and asked to tell a story about a difficult encounter with a chronic pain patient. Tapes of the interviews were transcribed and analysed using narrative analysis. Three GPs told narratives suited for our analytic tools and these were included in the final results. Results Each narrative highlights a certain dilemma and a strategy. The dilemmas were: power game; good intentions that fail when a patient is persuaded against her own conviction; persuasion of the unwilling; transferred tiredness; distrust and dissociation from the patient. Professional strategies of listening, encouraging and teamwork were central to handling difficult situations. Conclusions The narratives show that GP's consultations with chronic pain patients sometimes are characterized by conflicts and difficult situations. They are facilitated by methods such as active listening and teamwork, but still may remain hard to handle. This has not before been studied among Swedish GPs. Narratives based on experience are known to be successful in education and this study suggest how narratives can serve as a training of consultation for medical students, but also in Continuing Professional Development groups for experienced doctors in practice. PMID:21575158

  3. Chronic Pain in a Couples Context: A Review and Integration of Theoretical Models and Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Michelle T.; Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the social context of chronic pain conditions. The purpose of this article is to provide an integrated review of the evidence linking marital functioning with chronic pain outcomes including pain severity, physical disability, pain behaviors, and psychological distress. We first present an overview of existing models that identify an association between marital functioning and pain variables. We then review the empirical evidence for a relationship between pain variables and several marital functioning variables including marital satisfaction, spousal support, spouse responses to pain, and marital interaction. On the basis of the evidence, we present a working model of marital and pain variables, identify gaps in the literature, and offer recommendations for research and clinical work. Perspective The authors provide a comprehensive review of the relationships between marital functioning and chronic pain variables to advance future research and help treatment providers understand marital processes in chronic pain. PMID:16750794

  4. The impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Faunce, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Singers participated in nine 30-minute sessions of small group singing, while comparisons listened to music while exercising. A short form of The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after selected singing sessions to assess whether singing produced short-term elevations in mood. Results indicated that pre to post difference scores were significantly different between singing and control groups for only one of the 15 mood variables (i.e., uneasy). To test the longer term impacts of singing the Profile of Mood States, Zung Depression Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Pain Rating Self-Statement, and Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered immediately before and after the singing sessions. All inventories other than the POMS were re-administered 6 months later. One-way ANCOVAs indicated that participants who attended the singing sessions showed evidence of postintervention improvements in active coping, relative to those who failed to attend, when preintervention differences in active coping were controlled for. While the singing group showed marked improvements from pre to postintervention on all mood, coping, and perceived pain variables, these improvements were also observed among comparison participants. The results of this study suggest that active singing may have some benefits, in terms of enhancing active coping, though the limitations of the study and small effect sizes observed suggest that further research is required to fully explore such effects. PMID:15327342

  5. Exercise in the Management of Chronic Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dreisinger, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic back pain is one of the most common and expensive medical conditions facing today's population. Its costs are estimated to be as much as $100 billion in the United States alone. Causation is poorly understood and healthcare providers share little common language concerning this pain. In addition, costly medical diagnostic tests are performed that do little to inform treatment. In the era of evidence-based medicine, back pain healthcare providers must find better ways to communicate with one another. Methods The key to better communication is measurement within the context of an evidence-based, protocol-driven clinical rehabilitation model. Measurement is the key to better communication among providers treating spinal pain. Measurement means acquiring both patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and clinician-based outcomes (CBOs). Results Musculoskeletal strengthening of the lumbar and cervical extensors has been shown to significantly reduce pain and provide successful clinical results for patients suffering from chronic back and neck pain. Lumbar strengthening has been successful because it is a safe exercise, it is prescribed based on pretreatment evaluation, and it provides objective measurements. Conclusion Without measurement, clinical results rely more on opinion than on objectively prescribed courses of treatment. Although indirect measures (PROs) are typically presented in clinical papers and clinical reviews, they are not often used in normal physical therapy practices. Adding direct patient-performance measures (CBOs) creates a much clearer clinical picture. The key to understanding the value of clinical practice and its predictable impact on patient treatment is objective measurement. PMID:24688341

  6. Cocaine and morphine interaction in acute and chronic cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Kaiko, R F; Kanner, R; Foley, K M; Wallenstein, S L; Canel, A M; Rogers, A G; Houde, R W

    1987-10-01

    An evaluation of the analgesic, mood and side effects of the combination of intramuscular morphine and oral cocaine was conducted in 17 patients with postoperative pain and 19 others with chronic malignant pain for the purpose of assessing the therapeutic merits of so-called 'euphoriant' elixirs in the management of pain in cancer patients. The study was designed as a randomized and double-blind single dose but complete cross-over comparison of the combination of 10 mg intramuscular morphine and 10 mg oral cocaine with morphine alone, cocaine alone, and placebo. While patients clearly discriminated between the analgesic effects of morphine and placebo, there were no differences in the analgesic responses to cocaine and placebo, or in responses to morphine and the combination of morphine and cocaine in either patient group. Side effects were predominantly morphine-like and occurred in 59% of patients after the combination, 43% after morphine, 34% after cocaine and 25% after placebo. Interaction effects between cocaine and morphine were observed in terms of positive changes toward selected aspects of mood (e.g., cheerful, friendly) in postoperative patients but toward negative aspects of mood (e.g., sad, serious) in patients with chronic pain. PMID:3320880

  7. LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN OPIOID DOSE ADJUSTMENT AND PAIN SCORE CHANGE IN A GROUP OF CHRONIC PAIN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lucy; Vo, Trang; Seefeld, Lindsey; Malarick, Charlene; Houghton, Mary; Ahmed, Shihab; Zhang, Yi; Cohen, Abigail; Retamozo, Cynthia; Hilaire, Kristen St.; Zhang, Vivian; Mao, Jianren

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of opioid analgesics for chronic pain management, it is unclear whether opioid dose escalation leads to better pain relief during chronic opioid therapy. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data collected from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Center for Pain Medicine over a 7-year period. We examined 1) the impact of opioid dose adjustment (increase or decrease) on clinical pain score, 2) gender and age differences in response to opioid therapy, and 3) the influence of clinical pain conditions on the opioid analgesic efficacy. A total of 109 subjects met the criteria for data collection. We found that neither opioid dose increase, nor decrease, correlated with point changes in clinical pain score in a subset of chronic pain patients over a prolonged course of opioid therapy (an average of 704 days). This lack of correlation was consistent regardless of the type of chronic pain including neuropathic, nociceptive, or mixed pain conditions. Neither gender nor age differences showed a significant influence on the clinical response to opioid therapy in these subjects. These results suggest that dose adjustment during opioid therapy may not necessarily alter long-term clinical pain score in a group of chronic pain patients and that individualized opioid therapy based on the clinical effectiveness should be considered to optimize the treatment outcome. Perspectives The study reports a relationship, or lack thereof, between opioid dose change and clinical pain score in a group of chronic pain patients. The study also calls for further investigation into the effectiveness of opioid therapy in the management of chronic non-malignant pain conditions. PMID:23452826

  8. Linear and nonlinear analyses of EEG dynamics during non-painful somatosensory processing in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Sitges, Carolina; Bornas, Xavier; Llabrs, Jordi; Noguera, Miquel; Montoya, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize brain dynamics of affective modulation of somatosensory processing in chronic pain. We hypothesized that chronic pain patients will show abnormal EEG activity under negative mood conditions compared to healthy controls. Nineteen patients with chronic pain and 21 healthy subjects participated in the experiment. Multiscale entropy, fractal dimension, event-related potentials, and fast Fourier transform were used to analyze EEG data. A significant enhancement of entropy was found in pain patients at P4 compared to P3. Analysis of fractal dimension also revealed significantly higher values at P4 than P3 when pain patients were viewing unpleasant pictures. By contrast, no significant differences due to hemisphere or affective condition were found on nonlinear measures for healthy controls. Analyses of somatosensory ERPs showed that P50 amplitudes elicited by pleasant pictures were more reduced in chronic pain patients than in healthy controls. Finally, we observed that EEG band power was lower in pain patients than in healthy controls, in particular for theta and beta bands over sensorimotor cortices and temporal regions when viewing pleasant images. These findings suggest that sustained pain seems to be accompanied by an abnormal activation and dynamic of brain networks related to emotional processing of somatosensory information in chronic pain. Furthermore, our findings suggest that both linear and nonlinear measures of EEG time series may contribute to the understanding of brain dysfunction in chronic pain. PMID:20538021

  9. Occupational Therapy Interventions in Chronic Pain - A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hesselstrand, Malin; Samuelsson, Kersti; Liedberg, Gunilla

    2015-12-01

    The use of interventions based on the best available evidence in occupational therapy is essential, and evaluation of research is part of an evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of studies describing and evaluating the effects of occupational therapy interventions on chronic pain. A systematic review of studies with diverse designs was carried out. A quality assessment was conducted, and the level of evidence was defined using the Research Pyramid Model. Of 19 included studies, three received the highest evidence level, and three were considered to be of high quality. The clinical recommendations that can be derived from this study are the following: occupational therapy interventions should start from the identified needs of the person with chronic pain; no support exists for the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback training as a supplement, more studies are needed to confirm this result; the efficacy of instructions on body mechanics was significant during work-hardening treatment; and occupational therapists need to perform and present more clinical studies of high quality and high-evidence level to build up a trustworthy arsenal of evidence-based interventions, for example, in persons with chronic pain. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26076994

  10. Lifestyle and Risk of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in a Cohort of United States Male Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter C.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Wu, Kana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a prevalent urological disorder among men of all ages, its etiology remains unknown. Only a few previous studies have examined associations between lifestyle factors and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, of which most were limited by the cross-sectional study design and lack of control for possible confounders. To address these limitations we performed a cohort study of major lifestyle factors (obesity, smoking and hypertension) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk in the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study), a large ongoing cohort of United States based male health professionals. Materials and Methods The HPFS includes 51,529 men who were 40 to 75 years old at baseline in 1986. At enrollment and every 2 years thereafter participants have completed questionnaires on lifestyle and health conditions. In 2008 participants completed an additional set of questions on recent chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome pain symptoms modified from the NIH (National Institutes of Health)-CPSI (Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) as well as questions on approximate date of symptom onset. The 653 participants with NIH-CPSI pain scores 8 or greater who first experienced symptoms after 1986 were considered incident chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and the 19,138 who completed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome questions but did not report chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome related pain were considered noncases. Results No associations were observed for baseline body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, cigarette smoking and hypertension with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk (each OR ?1.34). Conclusions In this large cohort study none of the lifestyle factors examined was associated with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome risk. As the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains unknown, additional prospective studies are needed to elucidate modifiable risk factors for this common condition. PMID:26070893

  11. Nurse-led pain management program: effect on self-efficacy, pain intensity, pain-related disability, and depressive symptoms in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wells-Federman, Carol; Arnstein, Paul; Caudill, Margaret

    2002-12-01

    Nurses routinely use a variety of nonpharmacologic and patient education interventions designed to reduce pain and promote independence. Research on group programs that combine these nursing strategies in a systematic approach provides evidence that chronic pain patients can realize an enhanced confidence in their ability to manage pain (improved self-efficacy) in addition to reductions in pain, emotional distress, and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of participating in a nurse-led cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) pain management program on self-efficacy, pain intensity, pain-related disability, and depressive symptoms among patients with chronic pain. Pre- and postprogram data from 154 participants were examined to identify changes in pain intensity, self-efficacy, disability, and depressive symptoms. Mean differences, effect sizes, and 95% confidence intervals were computed for the study variables and paired t-tests were done to determine if changes were significant. Z-scores were then calculated. Pearson product moment correlations were examined to test the association between changes in self-efficacy and changes in the other variables of interest. Patients in this study reported significant improvements in all scores postprogram. Self-efficacy, pain-intensity, pain-related disability, and symptoms of depression can be changed through participation in a nurse-led outpatient CBT program. In concert with results from other research on CBT pain programs this study provides further evidence that reduction in suffering and improved sense of well-being is possible even for people who have experienced pain for many years. PMID:12454805

  12. Perceived Early Childhood Family Influence, Perceived Pain Self-Efficacy, and Chronic Pain Disability: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kate R. M.; Watts, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them…

  13. Perceived Early Childhood Family Influence, Perceived Pain Self-Efficacy, and Chronic Pain Disability: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kate R. M.; Watts, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them

  14. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buskila, D

    2000-03-01

    Fibromyalgia and widespread pain were common in Gulf War veterans with unexplained illness referred to a rheumatology clinic. Increased tenderness was demonstrated in the postmenstrual phase of the cycle compared with the intermenstrual phase in normally cycling women but not in users of oral contraceptives. Patients with fibromyalgia had high levels of symptoms that have been used to define silicone implant-associated syndrome. Tender points were found to be a common transient finding associated with acute infectious mononucleosis, but fibromyalgia was an unusual long-term outcome. The common association of fibromyalgia with other rheumatic and systemic illnesses was further explored. A preliminary study revealed a possible linkage of fibromyalgia to the HLA region. Patients with fibromyalgia were found to have an impaired ability to activate the hypothalamic pituitary portion of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis as well as the sympathoadrenal system, leading to reduced corticotropin and epinephrine response to hypoglycemia. Much interest has been expressed in the literature on the possible role of autonomic dysfunction in the development or exacerbation of fatigue and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome. Mycoplasma genus and mycoplasma fermentans were detected by polymerase chain reaction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. It was reported that myofascial temporomandibular disorder does not run in families. No major therapeutic trials in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myofascial pain syndrome were reported over the past year. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavior therapy for chronic pain in adults was emphasized. A favorable outcome of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome in children and adolescents was reported. PMID:10751014

  15. Chronic pain disorders in HIV primary care: clinical characteristics and association with healthcare utilization.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jocelyn M; So, Eric; Jebakumar, Jebakaran; George, Mary Catherine; Simpson, David M; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is common in HIV, but incompletely characterized, including its underlying etiologies, its effect on healthcare utilization, and the characteristics of affected patients in the HIV primary care setting. These data are needed to design and justify appropriate clinic-based pain management services. Using a clinical data warehouse, we analyzed one year of data from 638 patients receiving standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy in a large primary care HIV clinic, located in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. We found that 40% of patients carried one or more chronic pain diagnoses. The most common diagnoses were degenerative musculoskeletal disorders (eg, degenerative spinal disease and osteoarthritis), followed by neuropathic pain and headache disorders. Many patients (16%) had multiple chronic pain diagnoses. Women, older patients, and patients with greater burdens of medical illness, and psychiatric and substance use comorbidities were disproportionately represented among those with chronic pain diagnoses. Controlling for overall health status, HIV patients with chronic pain had greater healthcare utilization including emergency department visits and radiology procedures. In summary, our study demonstrates the high prevalence of chronic pain disorders in the primary care HIV clinic. Colocated interventions for chronic pain in this setting should not only focus on musculoskeletal pain but also account for complex multifaceted pain syndromes, and address the unique biopsychosocial features of this population. Furthermore, because chronic pain is prevalent in HIV and associated with increased healthcare utilization, developing clinic-based pain management programs could be cost-effective. PMID:26683238

  16. Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory and stability of the MPI classification system in chronic back pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was only examined once in the past in a small sample. Previous international studies mainly involving fibromyalgia patients showed that retest resulted in 3338% of patients being assigned to a different Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification. Methods Participants were 204 persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain (82% chronic non-specific back pain). Subgroup classification was conducted by cluster analysis at 4 weeks before entry (=test) and at entry into the pain management program (=retest) using Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale scores. No therapeutic interventions in this period were conducted. Reliability was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and stability by kappa coefficients (?). Results Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory scales was least with ICC?=?0.57 for the scale life control and further ranged from ICC?=?0.72 (negative mood) to 0.87 (solicitous responses) in the other scales. At retest, 82% of the patients in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster interpersonally distressed (??=?0.69), 80% of the adaptive copers (??=?0.58), and 75% of the dysfunctional patients (??=?0.70) did not change classification. In total, 22% of the patients changed Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster group, mainly into the adaptive copers subgroup. Conclusion Test-retest reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was moderate to good and comparable to other language versions. Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification is substantially stable in chronic back pain patients when compared to other diagnostic groups and other examiner-based subgroup Classification Systems. The MPI Classification System can be recommended for reliable and stable specification of subgroups in observational and interventional studies in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:22916687

  17. [Features of colonic fixation in children with chronic abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Komissarov, I A; Komarov, K M; Umenushkin, A A; Kolesnikova, N G

    2003-01-01

    Complex examination (clinical, rentegenological, endorectal ultrasonography and colodynamic investigations) of 73 children with chronic pains in the abdomen has shown that the cause of the disease might be the impaired fixation of the colon. Four main variants of the abnormal position of the colon in the abdominal cavity are determined which manifested themselves as a combination of pain syndrome with constipation. They are: "moving" blind gut, right-sided colonoptosis, total colonoptosis and the Payr syndrome. Most frequently the abdominal pains as well as their combination with constipation were noted in children with the Payr syndrome. The treatment was started with conservative measures directed to cupping the pain syndrome and elimination of intestinal stasis. The conservative therapy was effective in 75% of cases. The indication for surgical correction of the wrong fixation of the colon were: pronounced pain syndrome not cupped by conservative methods and deterioration of the quality of life of the patient. Surgical correction of the impairment of fixation of the colon was fulfilled on 10 patients. Good immediate and long-term results were obtained in 8 of them. If the cause of constipation was intumescence of the internal sphincter of the anus, the first step of surgery was internal sphincterotomy after Lynn (7 patients). PMID:12708394

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of CBT Interventions for Co-Morbid Chronic Pain & Insomnia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan; Matteson-Rusby, Sara; Jungquist, Carla R.; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Perlis, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic pain is difficult to treat and often precedes or exacerbates sleep disturbances such as insomnia. Insomnia, in turn, can amplify the pain experience. Both conditions are associated with inflammatory processes, which may be involved in the bidirectional relationship between pain and sleep. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain and CBT for insomnia are evidence based interventions for, respectively, chronic pain and insomnia. The study objectives were to determine the feasibility of combining CBT for pain and for insomnia and to assess the effects of the combined intervention and the stand alone interventions on pain, sleep, and mood outcomes compared to a control condition. Methods Twenty-one adults with co-occurring chronic pain and chronic insomnia were randomized to either CBT for pain, CBT for insomnia, combined CBT for pain and insomnia, or a wait-list control condition. Results The combined CBT intervention was feasible to deliver and produced significant improvements in sleep, disability from pain, depression and fatigue compared to the control condition. Overall, the combined intervention appeared to have a strong advantage over CBT for pain on most outcomes, modest advantage over both CBT for insomnia in reducing insomnia severity in chronic pain patients. Discussion CBT for pain and CBT for insomnia may be combined with good results for patients with co-occurring chronic pain and insomnia. PMID:22982083

  19. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R.; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D.; Zrcher, Nicole R.; Albrecht, Daniel S.; Vangel, Mark G.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2015-01-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand 11C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for 11C-PBR28, nine patientcontrol pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 2963 for patients and 2865 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. PMID:25582579

  20. Preclinical Pharmacological Approaches in Drug Discovery for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Garth T; Pomonis, James D; Kennedy, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, animal behavioral models, particularly those used in pain research, have been increasingly scrutinized and criticized for their role in the poor translation of novel pharmacotherapies for chronic pain. This chapter addresses the use of animal models of pain used in drug discovery research. It highlights how, when, and why animal models of pain are used as one of the many experimental tools used to gain better understanding of target mechanisms and rank-order compounds in the iterative process of establishing structure-activity relationship. Together, these models help create an "analgesic signature" for a compound and inform the indications most likely to yield success in clinical trials. In addition, the authors discuss some often underappreciated aspects of currently used (traditional) animal models of pain, including simply applying basic pharmacological principles to study design and data interpretation as well as consideration of efficacy alongside side effect measures as part of the overall conclusion of efficacy. This is provided to add perspective regarding current efforts to develop new models and endpoints both in rodents and in larger animal species as well as assess cognitive and/or affective aspects of pain. Finally, the authors suggest ways in which efficacy evaluation in animal models of pain, whether traditional or new, might better align with clinical standards of analysis, citing examples where applying effect size and number needed to treat estimations to animal model data suggest that the efficacy bar often may be set too low preclinically to allow successful translation to the clinical setting. PMID:26920017

  1. Differential changes in functional disability and pain intensity over the course of psychological treatment for children with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lynch-Jordan, Anne M.; Sil, Soumitri; Peugh, James; Cunningham, Natoshia; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting for treatment of chronic pain often believe that pain reduction must be achieved before returning to normal functioning. However, treatment programs for chronic pain typically take a rehabilitative approach, emphasizing decreasing pain-related disability first with the expectation that pain reduction will follow. This information is routinely provided to patients, yet no studies have systematically examined the actual trajectories of pain and disability in a clinical care setting. In this study of youth with chronic pain (N = 94, 8 to 18 years), it was hypothesized that 1) functional disability and pain would decrease over the course of psychological treatment for chronic pain and 2) functional disability would decrease more quickly than pain intensity. Participants received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain management (M = 5.6 sessions) plus standard medical care. The Functional Disability Inventory and a Numeric Rating Scale of average pain intensity were completed by the child at every CBT session. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to examine the longitudinal trajectories of disability and pain. Standardized estimates of the slopes of change were obtained to test differences in rates of change between pain and disability. Results showed an overall significant decline in functional disability over time. Although pain scores reduced slightly from pretreatment to posttreatment, the longitudinal decline over treatment was not statistically significant. As expected, the rate of change of disability was significantly more rapid than pain. Evidence for variability in treatment response was noted, suggesting the need for additional research into individual trajectories of change in pediatric pain treatment. PMID:24954165

  2. Targeting Epigenetic Mechanisms for Chronic Pain: A Valid Approach for the Development of Novel Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Casey O; Moloney, Rachel D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is a multifaceted and complex condition. Broadly classified into somatic, visceral, or neuropathic pain, it is poorly managed despite its prevalence. Current drugs used for the treatment of chronic pain are limited by tolerance with long-term use, abuse potential, and multiple adverse side effects. The persistent nature of pain suggests that epigenetic machinery may be a critical factor driving chronic pain. In this review, we discuss the latest insights into epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, and we describe their involvement in the pathophysiology of chronic pain and whether epigenetic modifications could be applied as future therapeutic targets for chronic pain. We provide evidence from experimental models and translational research in human tissue that have enhanced our understanding of epigenetic processes mediating nociception, and we then speculate on the potential future use of more specific and selective agents that target epigenetic mechanisms to attenuate pain. PMID:26787772

  3. Reasons for opioid use among patients with dependence on prescription opioids: the role of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; McHugh, R Kathryn; Haller, Deborah; Jacobs, Petra; Gardin, John; Fischer, Dan; Rosen, Kristen D

    2014-08-01

    The number of individuals seeking treatment for prescription opioid dependence has increased dramatically, fostering a need for research on this population. The aim of this study was to examine reasons for prescription opioid use among 653 participants with and without chronic pain, enrolled in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study, a randomized controlled trial of treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Participants identified initial and current reasons for opioid use. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to report pain as their primary initial reason for use; avoiding withdrawal was rated as the most important reason for current use in both groups. Participants with chronic pain rated using opioids to cope with physical pain as more important, and using opioids in response to social interactions and craving as less important, than those without chronic pain. Results highlight the importance of physical pain as a reason for opioid use among patients with chronic pain. PMID:24814051

  4. Reasons for opioid use among patients with dependence on prescription opioids: The role of chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Roger D.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Haller, Deborah; Jacobs, Petra; Gardin, John; Fischer, Dan; Rosen, Kristen D.

    2014-01-01

    The number of individuals seeking treatment for prescription opioid dependence has increased dramatically, fostering a need for research on this population. The aim of this study was to examine reasons for prescription opioid use among 653 participants with and without chronic pain, enrolled in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study, a randomized controlled trial of treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Participants identified initial and current reasons for opioid use. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to report pain as their primary initial reason for use; avoiding withdrawal was rated as the most important reason for current use in both groups. Participants with chronic pain rated using opioids to cope with physical pain as more important, and using opioids in response to social interactions and craving as less important, than those without chronic pain. Results highlight the importance of physical pain as a reason for opioid use among patients with chronic pain. PMID:24814051

  5. Modulation of Chronic Pain by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chiechio, Santina

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to class C G-protein-coupled receptors. They are expressed throughout the nervous system on both neurons and glial cells. In the central nervous system (CNS), mGluRs are mainly located in the proximity of the synaptic cleft where they regulate glutamatergic transmission in addition to a number of other neurotransmitters. To date, eight subtypes of mGluRs (mGluR1-mGluR8) have been cloned and classified into three groups on the basis of sequence similarities, and pharmacological and biochemical properties. Consequently, group I mGluRs includes mGluR1 and mGluR5, group II mGluRs includes mGluR2 and mGluR3, and group III mGluRs consists of mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8. With the exception of mGluR6, whose localization is restricted within the retina, all mGluRs are ubiquitously expressed throughout the peripheral and CNS with some subtype specificity in different anatomical regions. mGluRs participate in many physiological processes and play important roles in a number of neurological conditions including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders. mGluRs also participate in the physiological transmission of pain stimuli as well as to mechanisms involved in the establishment of chronic pain. Therefore, these receptors are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in several neurological disorders including chronic pain. Thus, understanding the physiological function and role of each mGluR subtype in the development of chronic pain will provide a better insight into the potential use of subtype-selective drugs currently being developed as orthosteric or allosteric ligands. PMID:26920009

  6. Impact of potential inappropriate NSAIDs use in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ussai, S; Miceli, L; Pisa, F E; Bednarova, R; Giordano, A; Della Rocca, G; Petelin, R

    2015-01-01

    Pain remains one of the main reasons for medical consultation worldwide: moderate- to severe-intensity pain occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not recommended for long-term use and a careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical. This study aims to assess: 1) the pattern of use of NSAIDs and opioids in a population covered by a cloud-based pharmacovigilance surveillance system; and 2) potential inappropriate use. A retrospective 18-months systematic analysis on patients' pain treatment was performed. The primary endpoint was evaluating the prevalence of NSAIDs and opioids use and the duration of therapy regimen. The secondary endpoint was to investigate the prevalence of NSAIDs taken for >21 consecutive days concomitant with drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or antiplatelet drugs. The yearly cost for individual users of concomitant NSAIDs for more than 21 consecutive days and of GORD medications has been estimated. A total of 3,050 subjects with chronic pain were enrolled; 97% of them took NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days; about one-fourth of these users also received drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A02B). The yearly cost foran individual who uses NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days as well as concomitant GORD medications is 61.23 euros. In total, 238 subjects (8%) using NSAIDs for >21 days also received one antiplatelet agent. About 11% of subjects received opioids at least once and only 2% of them carried on the therapy for more than 90 consecutive days. In evaluating the escalation in dosage as a proxy of dependence risk, this study shows no dosage escalation in our cohort of chronic pain population - that is to say we show no risk of dependence. PMID:25926717

  7. Impact of potential inappropriate NSAIDs use in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ussai, S; Miceli, L; Pisa, F E; Bednarova, R; Giordano, A; Rocca, G Della; Petelin, R

    2015-01-01

    Pain remains one of the main reasons for medical consultation worldwide: moderate- to severe-intensity pain occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not recommended for long-term use and a careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical. This study aims to assess: 1) the pattern of use of NSAIDs and opioids in a population covered by a cloud-based pharmacovigilance surveillance system; and 2) potential inappropriate use. A retrospective 18-months systematic analysis on patients’ pain treatment was performed. The primary endpoint was evaluating the prevalence of NSAIDs and opioids use and the duration of therapy regimen. The secondary endpoint was to investigate the prevalence of NSAIDs taken for >21 consecutive days concomitant with drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or antiplatelet drugs. The yearly cost for individual users of concomitant NSAIDs for more than 21 consecutive days and of GORD medications has been estimated. A total of 3,050 subjects with chronic pain were enrolled; 97% of them took NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days; about one-fourth of these users also received drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A02B). The yearly cost foran individual who uses NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days as well as concomitant GORD medications is 61.23 euros. In total, 238 subjects (8%) using NSAIDs for >21 days also received one antiplatelet agent. About 11% of subjects received opioids at least once and only 2% of them carried on the therapy for more than 90 consecutive days. In evaluating the escalation in dosage as a proxy of dependence risk, this study shows no dosage escalation in our cohort of chronic pain population - that is to say we show no risk of dependence. PMID:25926717

  8. Effects of Glycemic Regulation on Chronic Postischemia Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Huot, Marie-Christine; Laferrire, Andr; Gi, Cho Min; Khorashadi, Mina; Schricker, Thomas; Coderre, Terence J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries consist of enhanced oxidative and inflammatory responses along with microvascular dysfunction following prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. Since I/R injuries induce chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) in laboratory animals, it is possible that surgical procedures utilizing prolonged ischemia may result in chronic postoperative pain. Glycemic modulation during ischemia and reperfusion could impact pain following I/R injury, as glucose triggers oxidative, inflammatory and thrombotic reactions, whereas insulin has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory properties. Methods 110 rats underwent a 3-h period of ischemia followed by reperfusion to produce CPIP. CPIP rats had previously been divided into 6 groups with differing glycemic-modulation paradigms: 1) normal feeding; 2) fasting; 3) fasting with normal saline administration; 4) fasting with dextrose administration; 5) normal feeding with insulin administration; and 6) normal feeding with dextrose and insulin administration. Blood glucose levels were assessed during ischemia and reperfusion in these separate groups of rats, and they were tested for mechanical and cold allodynia over the following 21 days (on days 2, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 21 post-I/R injury). Results I/R injury in rats with normoglycemia or relative hyperglycemia (groups 1, 4) led to significant mechanical and cold allodynia; conversely, relative hypoglycemia associated with insulin treatment or fasting (groups 2, 3, and 5) reduced allodynia induced by I/R injury. Importantly, insulin treatment did not reduce allodynia when administered to fed rats given dextrose (group 6). Conclusion Our results suggest that glycemic levels at the time of I/R injury significantly modulate postinjury pain thresholds in CPIP rats. Strict glycemic control during I/R injury significantly reduces CPIP pain and, and conversely, hyperglycemia significantly enhances it, which could have potential clinical applications especially in the surgical field. PMID:21795964

  9. [Role of pendoxifiline (PTX) in different and cute and chronic models of pain in rats].

    PubMed

    Nowak, ?ukasz; Zurowski, Daniel; Garlicki, Jaros?aw; Thor, Piotr J

    2008-01-01

    Pentoxifilne (PTX) is a non specific inhibitor of cytokines release, which suppress mainly TNF production. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioural activity changes in response to acute and chronic nociceptive stimulus. PTX was more effective in neuropathic pain than acute pain model. Use of cytokine inhibitors might offer new strategies of drug-resistant chronic pain treatment. PMID:20050583

  10. Managing Chronic Pain in People with Learning Disabilities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sarah; Bell, Dorothy; Gillanders, David

    2007-01-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent, under-diagnosed problem in the learning disability population. This is in part due to communication problems, unrecognized pain behaviours and the effects of medication. As a consequence, chronic pain often goes untreated and causes ongoing distress. This paper initially describes the main research that has been

  11. The transition from acute to chronic pain: might intensive care unit patients be at risk?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Pain remains a significant problem for patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs). As research has shown, for some of these patients pain might even persist after discharge and become chronic. Exposure to intense pain and stress during medical and nursing procedures could be a risk factor that contributes to the transition from acute to chronic pain, which is a major disruption of the pain neurological system. New evidence suggests that physiological alterations contributing to chronic pain states take place both in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review cutting-edge theories regarding pain and mechanisms that underlie the transition from acute to chronic pain, such as increases in membrane excitability of peripheral and central nerve fibers, synaptic plasticity, and loss of the function of descending inhibitory pain fibers; 2) provide information on the association between the immune system and pain and its crucial contribution to development of chronic pain syndromes, and 3) discuss mechanisms at brain levels in the nervous system and their contribution to affective (i.e., emotional) states associated with chronic pain conditions. Finally, we will offer suggestions for ICU clinical interventions to attempt to prevent the transition from acute to chronic pain. PMID:22898192

  12. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  13. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly taken orally, but they are also available in topical preparations to be applied to or rubbed onto the skin of a painful joint, typically one affected by arthritis, with the aim of relieving pain locally. Topical NSAIDs are widely used in some parts of the world for acute and chronic painful conditions, but have not been universally accepted until recently. One of the problems has been that older clinical studies were generally short, lasting four weeks or less, and short duration studies are not regarded as adequate in ongoing painful conditions. Objectives To examine the use of topical NSAIDs in chronic musculoskeletal pain, focusing on studies of high methodological quality, and examining the measured effect of the preparations according to study duration. The principal aim was to estimate treatment efficacy in longer duration studies of at least 8 weeks. Search methods A series of electronic searches, together with bibliographic searches, and searches of in-house databases were combined with electronic searches of clinical trial registers and manufacturers of topical NSAIDs, or companies known to be actively researching topical NSAIDs. There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind studies with placebo or active comparators, where at least one treatment was a topical NSAID product, in any topical formulation (cream, gel, patch, solution), in studies lasting at least two weeks. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Information was available from 7688 participants in 34 studies from 32 publications; 23 studies compared a topical NSAID with placebo. Topical NSAIDs were significantly more effective than placebo for reducing pain due to chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The best data were for topical diclofenac in osteoarthritis, where the NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 8 to 12 weeks compared with placebo was 6.4 for the solution, and 11 for the gel formulation. There were too few data of good quality to calculate NNTs for other individual topical NSAIDs compared with placebo. Direct comparison of topical NSAID with an oral NSAID did not show any difference in efficacy. There was an increase in local adverse events (mostly mild skin reactions) with topical NSAIDs compared with placebo or oral NSAIDs, but no increase in serious adverse events. Gastrointestinal adverse events with topical NSAID did not differ from placebo, but were less frequent than with oral NSAIDs. A substantial amount of data from unpublished studies was unavailable. Much of this probably relates to formulations that have never been marketed. Authors conclusions Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief; topical diclofenac solution is equivalent to that of oral NSAIDs in knee and hand osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence for other chronic painful conditions. Formulation can influence efficacy. The incidence of local adverse events is increased with topical NSAIDs, but gastrointestinal adverse events are reduced compared with oral NSAIDs. PMID:22972108

  14. Perspectives on Yoga Inputs in the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a “relaxation response” in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  15. Perspectives on yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a "relaxation response" in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  16. Strategies Aimed at Preventing Chronic Post-surgical Pain: Comprehensive Perioperative Pain Management after Total Joint Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Linda J.; Kennedy, Deborah; Stratford, Paul; Katz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a frequent outcome of musculoskeletal surgery. Physiotherapists often treat patients with pain before and after musculoskeletal surgery. The purposes of this paper are (1) to raise awareness of the nature, mechanisms, and significance of CPSP; and (2) to highlight the necessity for an inter-professional team to understand and address its complexity. Using total joint replacement surgeries as a model, we provide a review of pain mechanisms and pain management strategies. Summary of Key Points: By understanding the mechanisms by which pain alters the body's normal physiological responses to surgery, clinicians selectively target pain in post-surgical patients through the use of multi-modal management strategies. Clinicians should not assume that patients receiving multiple medications have a problem with pain. Rather, the modern-day approach is to manage pain using preventive strategies, with the aims of reducing the intensity of acute postoperative pain and minimizing the development of CPSP. Conclusions: The roles of biological, surgical, psychosocial, and patient-related risk factors in the transition to pain chronicity require further investigation if we are to better understand their relationships with pain. Measuring pain intensity and analgesic use is not sufficient. Proper evaluation and management of risk factors for CPSP require inter-professional teams to characterize a patient's experience of postoperative pain and to examine pain arising during functional activities. PMID:22654235

  17. Individual and Additive Effects of Mothers and Fathers Chronic Pain on Health Outcomes in Young Adults With a Childhood History of Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Amanda L.; Bruehl, Stephen; Smith, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective?To evaluate effects of mothers and fathers chronic pain on health outcomes in adult sons and daughters with a childhood history of functional abdominal pain (FAP).?Method?Adults (n = 319; Mean age = 22.09 years) with a childhood history of FAP reported parental history of chronic pain and their own current health (chronic pain, somatic symptoms, disability, use of medication and health care, illness-related job loss).?Results?Positive histories of maternal and paternal chronic pain were each associated with poorer health in sons and daughters, regardless of child or parent gender. Having 2 parents with chronic pain was associated with significantly poorer health than having 1 or neither parent with chronic pain.?Conclusions?Chronic pain in both mothers and fathers is associated with poor health and elevated health service use in young adults with a childhood history of FAP. Having both parents with chronic pain increases risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:23335355

  18. Pain Sensitivity and Recovery From Mild Chronic Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Roehrs, Timothy A.; Harris, Erica; Randall, Surilla; Roth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether an extended bedtime in sleepy and otherwise healthy volunteers would increase alertness and thereby also reduce pain sensitivity. Setting: Outpatient with sleep laboratory assessments. Participants and Interventions: Healthy volunteers (n = 18), defined as having an average daily sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) < 8 min, were randomized to 4 nights of extended bedtime (10 hr) (EXT) or 4 nights of their diary-reported habitual bedtimes (HAB). On day 1 and day 4 they received a standard MSLT (10:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 16:00 hr) and finger withdrawal latency pain testing to a radiant heat stimulus (10:30 and 14:30 hr). Results: During the four experimental nights the EXT group slept 1.8 hr per night more than the HAB group and average daily sleep latency on the MSLT increased in the EXT group, but not the HAB group. Similarly, finger withdrawal latency was increased (pain sensitivity was reduced) in the EXT group but not the HAB group. The nightly increase in sleep time during the four experimental nights was correlated with the improvement in MSLT, which in turn was correlated with reduced pain sensitivity. Conclusions: These are the first data to show that an extended bedtime in mildly sleepy healthy adults, which resulted in increased sleep time and reduced sleepiness, reduces pain sensitivity. Citation: Roehrs TA; Harris E; Randall S; Roth T. Pain sensitivity and recovery from mild chronic sleep loss. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1667-1672. PMID:23204609

  19. Pain and pressure pain thresholds in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Anette; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Smstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Helseth, Slvi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although pain is a significant symptom in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), pain is poorly understood in adolescents with CFS. The aim of this study was to explore pain distribution and prevalence, pain intensity and its functional interference in everyday life, as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in adolescents with CFS and compare this with a control group of healthy adolescents (HC). Methods This is a casecontrol, cross-sectional study on pain including 120 adolescents with CFS and 39 HCs, aged 1218?years. We measured pain frequency, pain severity and pain interference using self-reporting questionnaires. PPT was measured using pressure algometry. Data were collected from March 2010 until October 2012 as part of the Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial. Results Adolescents with CFS had significantly lower PPTs compared with HCs (p<0.001). The Pain Severity Score and the Pain Interference Score were significantly higher in adolescents with CFS compared with HCs (p<0.001). Almost all adolescents with CFS experienced headache, abdominal pain and/or pain in muscles and joints. Moreover, in all sites, the pain intensity levels were significantly higher than in HCs (p<0.001). Conclusions We found a higher prevalence of severe pain among adolescents with CFS and lowered pain thresholds compared with HCs. The mechanisms, however, are still obscure. Large longitudinal population surveys are warranted measuring pain thresholds prior to the onset of CFS. Trial registration number Clinical Trials, NCT01040429; The Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial (NorCAPITAL) http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25287104

  20. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We

  1. Spousal Mindfulness and Social Support in Couples with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Amy M.; Cano, Annmarie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing research has reported the correlation between patients’ psychological flexibility, of which mindfulness is a component, and their perceptions of the spouses’ support provision. It is quite likely that spouses’ mindfulness, in particular certain aspects of mindfulness, is also related to the support they provide to patients. The current study examined this issue. Methods The sample included 51 couples in which one partner had chronic pain. Patients and their spouses each completed a questionnaire that assessed three facets of their own mindfulness (i.e., non-reactivity, acting with awareness, non-judging). In addition, patients reported on their pain-related psychological flexibility, marital satisfaction, and perceptions of spousal support. Results Only one facet of patients’ mindfulness (i.e., non-reactivity) was related to their perceptions of their spouses as being emotionally responsive to them. Spouses’ non-judging and non-reactivity were negatively correlated with punishing spouse responses. In addition, spouses’ acting with awareness was positively correlated with patients’ reports of perceived partner responsiveness and instrumental support and negatively correlated with patients’ reports of punishing spouse responses, often over and above the contribution of patients' own mindfulness or pain-related psychological flexibility. Discussion Spouses’ mindfulness, especially as it pertains to acting with awareness, was most consistently associated with patient perceptions of spousal support. These findings suggest that acting with awareness should be examined further including the possible contributions this type of mindfulness may make to healthy relationship behaviors in the context of pain. PMID:24281274

  2. [Chronic pelvic pain. Another diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Dellenbach, P; Rempp, C; Haeringer, M T; Simon, T; Magnier, F; Meyer, C

    2001-03-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a frequent and difficult problem because despite the quality and diversity of diagnostic procedures no relevant etiology will be found in 30 to 40% of all cases. Psychologic and psychotherapeutic counselling is than usually proposed and usually not well accepted. A different approach can now be proposed according to a new semeiologic overall. In many cases the pain dominant is not visceral but parietal. The pelvic envelope is actually more painfull than the pelvic content. In these cases one can evoke the diagnosis of pelvic fibromyalgia and this is quite similar to classic fibromyalgia. This pelvifibromyalgia can be quantified with an algometric index. This form of pain actually is the somatisation of a past and difficult issue which will be very slowly and progressively revealed in the realm of a multidisciplinary and simultaneous physical and psychological approach. In the majority of cases these women have occurred physical, moral or sexual trauma inflicted by family members or a third party. Taking in account the physical dimension of body pain at the same time as psychotherapy will considerably enhance the efficiency of treatment. In our experience 70% of all women will be cured using this new approach. PMID:11300048

  3. Determining the Optimal Number of Spinal Manipulation Sessions for Chronic Low-Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Number of Spinal Manipulation Sessions for Chronic Low-Back Pain Share: holding_lower_back_pain.jpg © Matthew Lester ... print. Additional Resources Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain Low-Back Pain Information Publication Date: October 16, 2013 Sign ...

  4. A Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model of Chronic Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lou Ella V.; Stotts, Nancy A.; Humphreys, Janice; Treadwell, Marsha J.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex multidimensional experience that includes biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors. To date, three models of pain associated with SCD (i.e., biomedical model; biopsychosocial model for SCD pain; Health Belief Model) are published. The biopsychosocial (BPS) multidimensional approach to chronic pain developed by Turk and Gatchel is a widely used model of chronic pain. However, this model has not been applied to chronic pain associated with SCD. In addition, a spiritual/religious dimension is not included in this model. Because spirituality/religion is central to persons affected by SCD, this dimension needs to be added to any model of chronic pain in adults with SCD. In fact, data from one study suggest that spirituality/religiosity is associated with decreased pain intensity in adults with chronic pain from SCD. A BPS-Spiritual model is proposed for adults with chronic pain from SCD since it embraces the whole person. This model includes the biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors relevant to adults with SCD based on past and current research. The purpose of this paper is to describe an adaptation of Turk and Gatchels model of chronic pain for adults with SCD and to summarize research findings that support each component of the revised model (i.e., biological, psychological, sociological, spiritual). The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the use of this model in research. PMID:24315252

  5. What does the chronic pain grade questionnaire measure?

    PubMed

    Dixon, Diane; Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie

    2007-08-01

    This study explored the ability of the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire (CPG) to operationalise the WHO's model of health outcomes, namely the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Twelve expert judges used the method of discriminant content validation to allocate the seven items of the CPG to one or more ICF outcome, namely, impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. One-sample t-tests classified each item as measuring impairment, activity limitations or participation restrictions, or a combination thereof. The results indicated that the CPG contains items able to measure each of the three ICF outcomes. However, the pain grade classification system used in the CPG conflates the ICF outcomes. The implication of this conflation of outcome for the assessment of interventions is discussed. PMID:17257751

  6. Oxytocin - a multifunctional analgesic for chronic deep tissue pain.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Burel R; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain arising from deep tissues is currently inadequate and there is need for new pharmacological agents to provide analgesia. The endogenous paracrine hormone/neurotransmitter oxytocin is intimately involved in the modulation of multiple physiological and psychological functions. Recent experiments have given clear evidence for a role of oxytocin in the modulation of nociception. The present article reviews the existent human and basic science data related to the direct and indirect effects of oxytocin on pain. Due to its analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and other central nervous system effects, there is strong evidence that oxytocin and other drugs acting through the oxytocin receptor could act as multifunctional analgesics with unique therapeutic value. PMID:25345612

  7. Chronic Back Pain: Assessing the Patient at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Koelink, Anthony F.C.

    1990-01-01

    Pain in the lower back is a growing and costly problem. A simple, effective diagnosis can usually be provided by the family physician, based on a clinical history, especially regarding the circumstances surrounding an injury, and physical examination. Work-related risk factors implicated in the cause of the disorder are also important. Spinal X-ray examinations are of little value in diagnosis during the acute stage of low back pain. Chronic cases can be avoided by appropriate early treatment: a short period of analgesia and rest, followed by education about the back, a graduated exercise program, and if the clinical condition is stable or improving, early return to a modified level of work, even in the presence of symptoms. PMID:21233988

  8. Oxytocin – A Multifunctional Analgesic for Chronic Deep Tissue Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Ness, Timothy J.; Robbins, Meredith T.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain arising from deep tissues is currently inadequate and there is need for new pharmacological agents to provide analgesia. The endogenous paracrine hormone/neurotransmitter oxytocin is intimately involved in the modulation of multiple physiological and psychological functions. Recent experiments have given clear evidence for a role of oxytocin in the modulation of nociception. The present article reviews the existent human and basic science data related to the direct and indirect effects of oxytocin on pain. Due to its analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and other central nervous system effects, there is strong evidence that oxytocin and other drugs acting through the oxytocin receptor could act as multifunctional analgesics with unique therapeutic value. PMID:25345612

  9. Pacing: A concept analysis of a chronic pain intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson-Lega, Kathryn; Berry, Robyn; Brown, Cary A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intervention of pacing is regularly recommended for chronic pain patients. However, pacing is poorly defined and appears to be interpreted in varying, potentially contradictory manners within the field of chronic pain. This conceptual lack of clarity has implications for effective service delivery and for researchers’ ability to conduct rigorous study. An examination of the background literature demonstrates that while pacing is often one part of a multidisciplinary pain management program, outcome research is hindered by a lack of a clear and shared definition of this currently ill-defined construct. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a formal concept analysis of the term ‘pacing’. METHODS: A standardized concept analysis process (including literature scoping to identify all uses of the concept, analysis to determine defining attributes of the concept and identification of model, borderline and contrary cases) was used to determine what the concept of pacing does and does not represent within the current evidence base. RESULTS: A conceptual model including the core attributes of action, time, balance, learning and self-management emerged. From these attributes, an evidence-based definition for pacing was composed and distributed to stakeholders for review. After consideration of stakeholder feedback, the emergent definition of pacing was finalized as follows: “Pacing is an active self-management strategy whereby individuals learn to balance time spent on activity and rest for the purpose of achieving increased function and participation in meaningful activities”. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present concept analysis will help to standardize the use and definition of the term pacing across disciplines for the purposes of both pain management and research. PMID:23717825

  10. Special sunrise & sunset solar energy stored papers and their clinical applications for intractable pain, circulatory disturbances & cancer: comparison of beneficial effects between Special Solar Energy Stored Paper and Qigong Energy Stored Paper.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki

    2004-01-01

    Various phases of solar energy were evaluated for possible medical application, using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. A 2-4 minute interval of highly beneficial phase during sunrise and sunset which is comparable or is stronger than (+) Qigong Energy was detected. This energy was stored on 3 x 5 inch index cards. The sun energy stored on the exposed surface had a Bi-Digital O-Ring Test extremely strong positive (+) response, and the opposite side of the index card which was not exposed to the sun showed an equally strong negative (-) response. When the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test strong positive side (+) was applied to the patient's skin above various intractable painful areas with circulatory disturbances, including gangrenous pain, muscle pain, joint pain, & migraine headache, most of the pain disappeared or was significantly reduced within between 10 seconds and 5 minutes, with accelerated wound healing compared with Qigong energy stored paper of the same exposure, which caused pain to disappear within between 1.5 minutes and 15 minutes. When this Special Solar Energy Stored Paper was applied either directly to the skin above cancer positive areas or the midline of the upper chest above the thymus gland representation area, or the occipital area above the medulla oblongata, various cancer related parameters returned to close to normal values, with immediate clinical improvement. The beneficial effects of 10-60 seconds of application of the Special Solar Energy Stored Paper lasted for between 7 and 40 days, depending on the individual and their environmental electromagnetic field, how the special solar energy was stored, and how it was applied to the patient. PMID:15382787

  11. Evidence for the endothelin system as an emerging therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Terika P; Haymond, Tami; Smith, Sherika N; Sweitzer, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Many people worldwide suffer from pain and a portion of these sufferers are diagnosed with a chronic pain condition. The management of chronic pain continues to be a challenge, and despite taking prescribed medication for pain, patients continue to have pain of moderate severity. Current pain therapies are often inadequate, with side effects that limit medication adherence. There is a need to identify novel therapeutic targets for the management of chronic pain. One potential candidate for the treatment of chronic pain is therapies aimed at modulating the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1. In addition to vasoactive properties, endothelin-1 has been implicated in pain transmission in both humans and animal models of nociception. Endothelin-1 directly activates nociceptors and potentiates the effect of other algogens, including capsaicin, formalin, and arachidonic acid. In addition, endothelin-1 has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain, cancer pain, neuropathic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and pain associated with sickle cell disease. Therefore, endothelin-1 may prove a novel therapeutic target for the relief of many types of chronic pain. PMID:25210474

  12. A psychological flexibility conceptualisation of the experience of injustice among individuals with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lance M; Trost, Zina

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the experience of injustice in patients with chronic pain is associated with poorer pain-related outcomes. Despite this evidence, a theoretical framework to understand this relationship is presently lacking. This review is the first to propose that the psychological flexibility model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may provide a clinically useful conceptual framework to understand the association between the experience of injustice and chronic pain outcomes. A literature review was conducted to identify research and theory on the injustice experience in chronic pain, chronic pain acceptance, and ACT. Research relating injustice to chronic pain outcomes is summarised, the relevance of psychological flexibility to the injustice experience is discussed, and the subprocesses of psychological flexibility are proposed as potential mediating factors in the relationship between injustice and pain outcomes. Application of the psychological flexibility model to the experience of pain-related injustice may provide new avenues for future research and clinical interventions for patients with pain. Summary points • Emerging research links the experience of pain-related injustice to problematic pain outcomes. • A clinically relevant theoretical framework is currently lacking to guide future research and intervention on pain-related injustice. • The psychological flexibility model would suggest that the overarching process of psychological inflexibility mediates between the experience of injustice and adverse chronic pain outcomes. • Insofar as the processes of psychological inflexibility account for the association between injustice experiences and pain outcomes, methods of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may reduce the impact of injustice of pain outcomes. • Future research is needed to empirically test the proposed associations between the experience of pain-related injustice, psychological flexibility and pain outcomes, and whether ACT interventions mitigate the impact of pain-related injustice on pain outcomes. PMID:26516537

  13. Deciphering the Temporal Link between Pain and Sleep in a Heterogeneous Chronic Pain Patient Sample: A Multilevel Daily Process Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nicole K.Y.; Goodchild, Claire E.; Sanborn, Adam N.; Howard, Jonathan; Salkovskis, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Because insomnia is a common comorbidity of chronic pain, scientific and clinical interest in the relationship of pain and sleep has surged in recent years. Although experimental studies suggest a sleep-interfering property of pain and a pain-enhancing effect of sleep deprivation/fragmentation, the temporal association between pain and sleep as experienced by patients is less understood. The current study was conducted to examine the influence of presleep pain on subsequent sleep and sleep on pain reports the next day, taking into consideration other related psychophysiologic variables such as mood and arousal. Design: A daily process study, involving participants to monitor their pain, sleep, mood, and presleep arousal for 1 wk. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Setting: In the patients' natural living and sleeping environment. Patients: One hundred nineteen patients (73.9% female, mean age = 46 years) with chronic pain and concomitant insomnia. Measurement: An electronic diary was used to record patients' self-reported sleep quality/efficiency and ratings of pain, mood, and arousal at different times of the day; actigraphy was also used to provide estimates of sleep efficiency. Results: Results indicated that presleep pain was not a reliable predictor of subsequent sleep. Instead, sleep was better predicted by presleep cognitive arousal. Although sleep quality was a consistent predictor of pain the next day, the pain-relieving effect of sleep was only evident during the first half of the day. Conclusions: These findings challenge the often-assumed reciprocal relationship between pain and sleep and call for a diversification in thinking of the daily interaction of these 2 processes. Citation: Tang NKY; Goodchild CE; Sanborn AN; Howard J; Salkovskis PM. Deciphering the temporal link between pain and sleep in a heterogeneous chronic pain patient sample: a multilevel daily process study. SLEEP 2012;35(5):675-687. PMID:22547894

  14. Communicating the Experience of Chronic Pain and Illness Through Blogging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although more individuals are sharing their experiences with chronic pain or illness through blogging (writing an Internet web log), research on the psychosocial effects and motivating factors for initiating and maintaining a blog is lacking. Objective The objective was to examine via online questionnaire the perceived psychosocial and health benefits of blogging among patients who use this media to communicate their experience of chronic pain or illness. Methods A 34-item online questionnaire was created, tested, and promoted through online health/disease forums. The survey employed convenience sampling and was open from May 5 to July 2, 2011. Respondents provided information regarding demographics, health condition, initiation and upkeep of blogs, and dynamics of online communication. Qualitative data regarding respondents blogging experiences, expectations for blogging, and the perceived effects from blogging on the bloggers health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life were collected in the form of written narrative. Results Out of 372 respondents who started the survey, 230 completed the entire questionnaire. Demographic data showed survey respondents to be predominantly female (81.8%) and highly educated (97.2% > high school education and 39.6% with graduate school or professional degrees). A wide spectrum of chronic pain and illness diagnoses and comorbidities were represented. Respondents reported that initiating and maintaining an illness blog resulted in increased connection with others, decreased isolation, and provided an opportunity to tell their illness story. Blogging promoted accountability (to self and others) and created opportunities for making meaning and gaining insights from the experience of illness, which nurtured a sense of purpose and furthered their understanding of their illness. Conclusions Results suggest that blogging about chronic pain and illness may decrease a sense of isolation through the establishment of online connections with others and increases a sense of purpose to help others in similar situations. Further study involving a larger sample size, a wider range of education levels, and respondents with different types and magnitudes of illnesses will be needed to better elucidate the mechanism of the observed associations in this understudied area. PMID:23092747

  15. Complementary and alternative treatments for chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Adam J; Pathak, Ravi; Young, Mark; Christo, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a significant clinical entity that affects both men and women alike. The etiologies of CPP are multifactorial, and treatments are myriad. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) refers to non-allopathic health systems, and its use is popular in the United States. In particular, several recent studies have investigated the efficacy of various CAM practices in the treatment of CPP. The authors systematically evaluated recent literature in this area by searching the PubMed database for English-language studies published between January 2007 and August 2012. PMID:23315022

  16. A Behavioral Approach to Managing Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, William M.

    1985-01-01

    Most patients with chronic back pain have no defined disease for which there is a specific treatment. These patients demonstrate excessive illness behavior. The initial approach must be to rule out a treatable disease. Then the patient must accept that while activity may hurt, it will not harm. The patient and spouse must both understand that no further investigation or specific therapy will help. The family physician must teach patients to change their lifestyle through a program of progressive activity. Realistic expectations must be set, with return to a normal lifestyle and work as the ultimate goals. PMID:21274224

  17. Body awareness therapy for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Gard, Gunvor

    2005-06-17

    There are several therapies designed to increase body awareness. They are commonly known as body awareness therapies (BAT) and include Basic BAT, Mensendieck and Feldenkrais therapy. A focus on emotions is important in all these therapies. In this article the aim and development of Basic BAT is described together with evaluations of treatments including Basic BAT. Multidisciplinary studies have shown that Basic BAT can increase health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However Basic BAT needs to be further studied in relation to patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic pain. Studies so far indicate that Basic BAT has positive effects. PMID:16012065

  18. Opioids Switching with Transdermal Systems in Chronic Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Aurilio, C; Pace, MC; Pota, V; Sansone, P; Barbarisi, M; Grella, E; Passavanti, MB

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to tolerance development and adverse side effects, chronic pain patients frequently need to be switched to alternative opioid therapy Objective To assess the efficacy and tolerability of an alternative transdermally applied (TDS) opioid in patients with chronic cancer pain receiving insufficient analgesia using their present treatment. Methods A total of 32 patients received alternative opioid therapy, 16 were switched from buprenorphine to fentanyl and 16 were switched from fentanyl to buprenorphine. The dosage used was 50% of that indicated in equipotency conversion tables. Pain relief was assessed at weekly intervals for the next 3 weeks Results Pain relief as assessed by VAS, PPI, and PRI significantly improved (p < 0.0001) in all patients at all 3 follow up visits. After 3 weeks of treatment, the reduction in the mean VAS, PPI, and PRI scores in the fentanyl and buprenorphine groups was 68, 77, 74, and 69, 79, and 62%, respectively. Over the same time period the use of oral morphine as rescue medication was reduced from 27.5 20.5 (mean SD) to 3.75 8.06, and 33.8 18.9 to 3.75 10.9 mg/day in the fentanyl and buprenorphine groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in either pain relief or rescue medication use between the two patient groups The number of patient with adverse events fell during the study. After the third week of the treatment the number of patients with constipation was reduced from 11 to 5, and 10 to 4 patients in the fentanyl and buprenorphine groups, respectively. There was a similar reduction in the incidence of nausea and vomiting. No sedation was seen in any patient after one week of treatment. Conclusion Opioid switching at 50% of the calculated equianalgesic dose produced a significant reduction in pain levels and rescue medication. The incidence of side effects decreased and no new side effects were noted. Further studies are required to provide individualized treatment for patients according to their different types of cancer. PMID:19422676

  19. CRHBP polymorphisms predict chronic pain development following motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Bortsov, Andrey V; Soward, April C; Swor, Robert; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey; Rathlev, Niels; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert; Hendry, Phyllis L; McLean, Samuel A

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common sequela of traumatic stress exposure. While biological factors contributing to chronic MSP after motor vehicle collision (MVC) have traditionally focused on tissue injury, increasing evidence suggests that neuro/stress/immune processes mediated by stress system activation may play a more dominant role. In a previous study, we found that genetic variants in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related gene FKBP5 influence vulnerability to persistent MSP 6 weeks after MVC. In the present cohort study (n = 855), we evaluated whether genetic variants in several other important HPA axis-related genes, including the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor R1 (CRHR1), and corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRHBP), influence risk of chronic MSP over time after MVC. Genetic polymorphism rs7718461 in the CRHBP gene showed significant association (P = 0.0012) with overall pain severity during the year after MVC in regression models controlling for multiple comparisons. Two additional CRHBP alleles in high linkage disequilibrium with rs7718461 also showed trend-level significance. In secondary analyses, a significant interaction between this CRHBP locus (minor allele frequency = 0.33) and time was observed (P = 0.015), with increasing effect observed over time following trauma. A significant CRHBP FKBP5 interaction was also observed, with substantially increased MSP after MVC in those with a risk allele in both genes compared with either gene alone. The results of this study indicate that genetic variants in 2 different HPA axis genes predict chronic MSP severity following MVC and support the hypothesis that the HPA axis is involved in chronic post-MVC MSP pathogenesis. PMID:26447706

  20. Enhanced medial prefrontal-default mode network functional connectivity in chronic pain and its association with pain rumination.

    PubMed

    Kucyi, Aaron; Moayedi, Massieh; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Goldberg, Michael B; Freeman, Bruce V; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Davis, Karen D

    2014-03-12

    Rumination is a form of thought characterized by repetitive focus on discomforting emotions or stimuli. In chronic pain disorders, rumination can impede treatment efficacy. The brain mechanisms underlying rumination about chronic pain are not understood. Interestingly, a link between rumination and functional connectivity (FC) of the brain's default mode network (DMN) has been identified within the context of mood disorders. We, and others, have also found DMN dysfunction in chronic pain populations. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key node of the DMN that is anatomically connected with the descending pain modulatory system. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that in patients with chronic pain, the mPFC exhibits abnormal FC related to the patient's degree of rumination about their pain. Seventeen patients with idiopathic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting state functional MRI, and rumination about pain was assessed through the rumination subscale of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Compared with healthy controls, we found that TMD patients exhibited enhanced mPFC FC with other DMN regions, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus (PCu) and retrosplenial cortex. We also found that individual differences in pain rumination in the chronic pain patients (but not in healthy controls) were positively correlated to mPFC FC with the PCC/PCu, retrosplenial cortex, medial thalamus, and periaqueductal/periventricular gray. These data implicate communication within the DMN and of the DMN with the descending modulatory system as a mechanism underlying the degree to which patients ruminate about their chronic pain. PMID:24623774

  1. Presence of Mental Imagery Associated with Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Chantal; Vincent, Katy; Moore, Jane; Tracey, Irene; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether a small sample of patients with chronic pelvic pain experienced any pain-related cognitions in the form of mental images. Patients Ten women with chronic pelvic pain consecutively referred from a tertiary referral center by the physicians in charge of their treatment. Outcome measures An interview was used to determine the presence, emotional valence, content, and impact of cognitions about pain in the form of mental images and verbal thoughts. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed. Results In a population of patients with a prolonged duration of pain and high distress, all patients reported experiencing cognitions about pain in the form of mental images. For each patient, the most significant image was both negative in valence and intrusive. The associated emotional-behavioral pattern could be described within a cognitive behavioral therapy framework. Eight patients also reported coping imagery. Conclusion Negative pain-related cognitions in the form of intrusive mental imagery were reported by women with chronic pelvic pain. Targeting such imagery has led to interesting treatment innovation in the emotional disorders. Thus, imagery, hitherto neglected in pain phenomenology, could provide a novel target for cognitive behavioral therapy in chronic pain. These exciting yet preliminary results require replication and extension in a broader population of patients with chronic pain. PMID:21668746

  2. Development and Validation of a Pain Behavior Assessment in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katharina; Klipstein, Andreas; Oesch, Peter; Jansen, Beatrice; Kool, Jan; Niedermann, Karin

    2016-03-01

    Purpose High levels of pain behavior adversely affect the success of multidisciplinary rehabilitation of patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNSLBP). Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) assessment should detect high levels of pain behavior to prevent the inclusion of unsuitable patients to functional rehabilitation programs. The aim of this study was to develop a Pain Behavior Assessment (PBA) and to evaluate its construct validity. Methods The PBA was developed by experts in the field and is literature-based. Inclusion criteria for participants of the validation study were: CNSLBP, age 20-60 years, referral for fitness-for-work evaluation. The PBA was applied by physiotherapists during FCE. Rasch analysis was performed to evaluate the construct validity of the PBA. Internal consistency was indicated by the person separation index (PSI), which corresponds to Cronbach's alpha. Results 145 male (72.5 %) and 55 female patients were included. Rasch analysis removed 11 items due to misfit and redundancy, resulting in a final PBA of 41 items. Item mean fit residual was -0.33 (SD 1.06) and total item Chi square 100.39 (df = 82, p = 0.08). The PSI value was 0.83. DIF analysis for age and gender revealed no bias. Conclusions The PBA is a valid assessment tool to describe pain behavior in CNSLBP patients. The high PSI-value justifies the use of the PBA in individuals. The PBA may help to screen patients for high levels of pain behavior. PMID:26149617

  3. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the relationship between sleep disorder and pain level, quality of life, and disability

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332

  4. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN.

    PubMed

    Omran, Eman Kh; Mohammad, Asmaa N

    2015-08-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Sohag (Upper Egypt) in patients with chronic abdominal pain is scarce. This study determined the intestinal parasites symptoms in 130 patients with chronic abdominal pain and cross-matched 20 healthy persons. Parasitic infection was confirmed by stool analysis.The most commonest clinical data with stool analysis was as following: 1-Entamoeba histolytica associated with nausea 20 (3 7.74%) followed by anorexia 19 (35.85%), 2-Entamoeba coli associated with diarrhea 3 (100%) followed by nausea 2 (66.67%) and vomiting 2 (66.67%), 3-Enetrobius vermicularis associated with nausea 2 (66.67%), diarrhea 2 (66.67%) followed by flatulence 1(33.33%), 4-Giardia lamblia associated with anorexia 3 (42.86%), vomiting 3 (42.86%) followed by diarrhea 2 (28.57%)., 6-Hymenolepis nana associated with anorexia 10 (40.00%) followed by flatulence 9 (36.00%), 7-Taenia saginata associated with dyspepsia 3 (60.00%) followed by flatulence 2 (40.00%), and 8-Ancylostoma duodenal associated with anorexia 2 (66.67%) and diarrhea 2 (66.67%). PMID:26485858

  5. Exploring the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain: When, How, and for Whom?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Abigail; Kominek, Courtney; Pham, Thien C; Fudin, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview regarding intent to initiate and consider ongoing chronic opioid therapy (COT) for treatment of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). COT should be an individualized decision based on a comprehensive evaluation, assessment, and monitoring. It is imperative that providers discuss various risks and benefits of COT initially and at follow-up visits, and continue appropriate monitoring and follow-up at regular intervals. The decision to initiate or continue opioid therapy is based on clinical judgment; however, it is understood that opioid and other medication therapy represent one piece of the complete treatment plan for patients with CNCP. PMID:26614721

  6. Neuropathic Pain in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Painand Effects of Pregabalin: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenyu; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Sadayuki; Harada, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Preliminary study. Purpose To assess the association of neuropathic pain with chronic low back pain (LBP) and the effect of pregabalin on neuropathic pain in the elderly. Overview of Literature Of those with chronic LBP, 37% were predominantly presenting with neuropathic pain in young adults. Pregabalin is effective for pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuralgia. No study has reported on the effects of pregabalin for chronic LBP in elderly patients yet. Methods Pregabalin was administered to 32 patients (age, ≥65 years) with chronic LBP for 4 weeks. Pain and activities of daily living were assessed using the Neuropathic Pain Screening Questionnaire (NePSQ), the pain DETECT questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Modic change and spinal canal stenosis were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Altogether, 43.3% of patients had neuropathic pain according to the NePSQ and 15.6% patients had pain according to the pain DETECT. The efficacy rate of pregabalin was 73.3%. A significant effect was observed in patients with neuropathic pain after 4 weeks of administration. Conclusions Neuropathic pain was slightly less frequently associated with chronic LBP in the elderly. Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain in patients with chronic LBP accompanied with neuropathic pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis and lower limb symptoms were observed in patients with neuropathic pain. We recommend the use of pregabalin for patients after evaluating a screening score, clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging studies. PMID:25901238

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat depression and insomnia with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Se Jin; Koh, Do Yle; Han, Yoo Mi

    2014-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive and safe technique for motor cortex stimulation. TMS is used to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders, including mood and movement disorders. TMS can also treat several types of chronic neuropathic pain. The pain relief mechanism of cortical stimulation is caused by modifications in neuronal excitability. Depression is a common co-morbidity with chronic pain. Pain and depression should be treated concurrently to achieve a positive outcome. Insomnia also frequently occurs with chronic lower back pain. Several studies have proposed hypotheses for TMS pain management. Herein, we report two cases with positive results for the treatment of depression and insomnia with chronic low back pain by TMS. PMID:25031816

  8. Functional Reorganization of the Default Mode Network across Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Mansour, Ali R.; Baria, Alex T.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is associated with neuronal plasticity. Here we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional changes in patients suffering from chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). We isolated five meaningful resting-state networks across the groups, of which only the default mode network (DMN) exhibited deviations from healthy controls. All patient groups showed decreased connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) to the posterior constituents of the DMN, and increased connectivity to the insular cortex in proportion to the intensity of pain. Multiple DMN regions, especially the MPFC, exhibited increased high frequency oscillations, conjoined with decreased phase locking with parietal regions involved in processing attention. Both phase and frequency changes correlated to pain duration in OA and CBP patients. Thus chronic pain seems to reorganize the dynamics of the DMN and as such reflect the maladaptive physiology of different types of chronic pain. PMID:25180885

  9. The role of the family in relation to chronic pain: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Snelling, J

    1990-07-01

    As families maintain the primary responsibility for the care of the chronic pain sufferer, this paper examines the family's aetiological role in chronic pain, the ways in which the family influences and maintains pain, and the impact that chronic pain has on the family unit. Although some of the research is contentious, it can be concluded that, (a) there is a tendency for patients to come from families which include another member suffering from pain or illness, (b) that it is conceivable that spouses reinforce pain behaviors in their partners, and (c) that it is possible that the chronic pain sufferer may significantly subscribe to poor marital relationships, poor sexual adjustment and high levels of emotional distress. PMID:2203840

  10. Intersection of chronic pain treatment and opioid analgesic misuse: causes, treatments, and policy strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Boyer, Edward; Naqvi, Zafar N; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Treating chronic pain in the context of opioid misuse can be very challenging. This paper explores the epidemiology and potential treatments for chronic pain and opioid misuse and identifies educational and regulation changes that may reduce diversion of opioid analgesics. We cover the epidemiology of chronic pain and aberrant opioid behaviors, psychosocial influences on pain, pharmacological treatments, psychological treatments, and social treatments, as well as educational and regulatory efforts being made to reduce the diversion of prescription opioids. There are a number of ongoing challenges in treating chronic pain and opioid misuse, and more research is needed to provide strong, integrated, and empirically validated treatments to reduce opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain. PMID:24474854

  11. Intersection of chronic pain treatment and opioid analgesic misuse: causes, treatments, and policy strategies.

    PubMed

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Boyer, Edward; Naqvi, Zafar N; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Treating chronic pain in the context of opioid misuse can be very challenging. This paper explores the epidemiology and potential treatments for chronic pain and opioid misuse and identifies educational and regulation changes that may reduce diversion of opioid analgesics. We cover the epidemiology of chronic pain and aberrant opioid behaviors, psychosocial influences on pain, pharmacological treatments, psychological treatments, and social treatments, as well as educational and regulatory efforts being made to reduce the diversion of prescription opioids. There are a number of ongoing challenges in treating chronic pain and opioid misuse, and more research is needed to provide strong, integrated, and empirically validated treatments to reduce opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain. PMID:24474854

  12. Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, Non-malignant Pain: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain. PMID:17549233

  13. Living with difference: Exploring the social self of adolescents with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Forgeron, Paula A; Evans, Joan; McGrath, Patrick J; Stevens, Bonnie; Finley, G Allen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain negatively affects an adolescents life; however, little is known about the social impact of chronic pain for adolescents. More is known about the general peer relationships of adolescents with chronic pain than their close friendships. Close friendships begin to take on more importance during adolescence as these relationships facilitate the development of an adolescents sense of personal identity and increasing independence from family influences. Thus, chronic pain may create friendship challenges for adolescents beyond those typically experienced during this developmental trajectory, which may negatively impact their abilities to secure social support. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the challenges adolescents with chronic pain face with regard to their friendships. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological study using individual interviews was conducted. RESULTS: Two themes emerged. Rethinking the self with pain describes the intrusive nature of chronic pain, challenging the participants to rethink the way they view themselves and their place within their social network. Rethinking friendships describes the interpretation of their friends reactions to their chronic pain condition, which led to these adolescents spending more time by themselves, and feeling misunderstood and unsupported. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of chronic pain on the adolescent as an individual as well as the responses of close friends and others within their social network resulted in the development of new friendship needs. However, the adolescents were not always able to secure these new friendship needs. Their experiences suggest factors within friendships that may be ameliorated by interventions, thus maintaining and strengthening their close friendships. PMID:24308027

  14. Pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain: Foundation, application and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Asmundson, Gordon JG; Noel, Melanie; Petter, Mark; Parkerson, Holly A

    2012-01-01

    The fear-avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain has become an increasingly popular conceptualization of the processes and mechanisms through which acute pain can become chronic. Despite rapidly growing interest and research regarding the influence of fear-avoidance constructs on pain-related disability in children and adolescents, there have been no amendments to the model to account for unique aspects of pediatric chronic pain. A comprehensive understanding of the role of fear-avoidance in pediatric chronic pain necessitates understanding of both child/adolescent and parent factors implicated in its development and maintenance. The primary purpose of the present article is to propose an empirically-based pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain that accounts for both child/adolescent and parent factors as well as their potential interactive effects. To accomplish this goal, the present article will define important fear-avoidance constructs, provide a summary of the general fear-avoidance model and review the growing empirical literature regarding the role of fear-avoidance constructs in pediatric chronic pain. Assessment and treatment options for children with chronic pain will also be described in the context of the proposed pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Finally, avenues for future investigation will be proposed. PMID:23248813

  15. Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress. PMID:22699798

  16. Heterogeneous Depression Responses to Chronic Pain Onset among Middle-Aged Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Bonanno, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on depression response to chronic pain are limited by lack of clarification of different forms of response patterns and cross-sectional measures. The current study examined heterogeneous long-term patterns of depression response to chronic pain onset using the mixture modeling technique. Depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset over a course of six years were charted in a nationally representative middle-aged sample. Four distinct depression symptom trajectories emerged. The resilience (72.0%) trajectory describes a pattern of no/minimal depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset. The post-pain depression trajectory (11.4%) describes a pattern of low depression at baseline and increasing symptoms following pain onset. The chronic depression (6.8%) trajectory is characterized by persistently high depression symptoms irrespective of pain onset. The prior depression improved (9.8%) trajectory describes a pattern of high depression at baseline and gradually declining symptoms following pain onset. Self-rated health at both baseline and following pain onset predicted the resilience trajectory. Baseline self-rated health distinguished the post-pain depression and chronic depression trajectories. Individuals in the prior depression improved trajectory were older and had more chronic illnesses at baseline but fewer illnesses following pain onset, compared to those in the resilience or post-pain depression trajectory. PMID:24679514

  17. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would

  18. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

  19. Validation and reliability of the German version of the Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire in primary care back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Klasen, Bernhard W.; Hallner, Dirk; Schaub, Claudia; Willburger, Roland; Hasenbring, Monika

    2004-01-01

    In 1992 Von Korff and his co-workers developed a simple, brief questionnaire to assess the severity of chronic pain problems, the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG). The present study was conducted to analyse the psychometric properties of the translated German version of the CPG within a population of primary care back pain patients (n=130). Factor analysis yielded two factors which accounted for 72% of the variance of the questionnaire. The first factor 'Disability Score' (53.56% of the variance) revealed a good internal consistency (alpha=.88), the internal consistency of the second factor 'Characteristic Pain Intensity' was moderate (alpha=.68). The reliability of the whole instrument was good (alpha=.82). The CPG and its subscales show moderate to high relations with other instruments assessing the patient's disability (FFbH-R, Pain Disability Index PDI). Additionally weak to moderate but significant correlations were found between the CPG and other measures of grading and staging chronic pain (MPSS, RGS). Further, positive correlations between the CPG and both, the frequency of doctor visits and the frequent use of pain medication have been seen. The reported findings suggest, that the German version of the CPG is a reliable, valid and useful instrument if a brief, simple method of grading the severity of chronic pain is needed. The German version leads to a better comparability between German and English language studies and facilitates an international collaboration in this field of research. PMID:19742049

  20. Chronic Pain in the Japanese Community—Prevalence, Characteristics and Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Fumio; Nishihara, Makoto; Arai, Young-Chang P.; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Kawai, Takashi; Inoue, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is recognized as a public health problem that affects the general population physically, psychologically, and socially. However, there is little knowledge about the associated factors of chronic pain, such as the influence of weather, family structure, daily exercise, and work status. Objectives This survey had three aims: 1) to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Japan, 2) to analyze these associated factors, and 3) to evaluate the social burden due to chronic pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey in a sample of 6000 adults aged ≥20 years. The response rate was 43.8%. Results The mean age of the respondents was 57.7 years (range 20–99 years); 39.3% met the criteria for chronic pain (lasting ≥3 months). Approximately a quarter of the respondents reported that their chronic pain was adversely influenced by bad weather and also oncoming bad weather. Risk factors for chronic pain, as determined by a logistic regression model, included being an older female, being unemployed, living alone, and no daily exercise. Individuals with chronic pain showed significantly lower quality of life and significantly higher psychological distress scores than those without chronic pain. The mean annual duration of absence from work of working-age respondents was 9.6 days (range 1–365 days). Conclusions Our findings revealed that high prevalence and severity of chronic pain, associated factors, and significant impact on quality of life in the adult Japanese population. A detailed understanding of factors associated with chronic pain is essential for establishing a management strategy for primary care. PMID:26076135

  1. Painful Bladder Filling and Painful Urgency Are Distinct Characteristics in Men and Women with Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Krieger, John N.; Pontari, Michel A.; Buchwald, Dedra; Hou, Xiaoling; Landis, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe bladder-associated symptoms in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS) and to correlate these symptoms with urologic, non-urologic, psychosocial, and quality of life measures. Methods Participants were 233 women and 191 men with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in a multi-center study. They completed a battery of measures, including items asking if their pain worsened with bladder filling (painful filling) or if their urge to urinate was due to pain, pressure, or discomfort (painful urgency). Participants were categorized into 3 groups: 1) both painful filling and painful urgency, 2) either painful filling or painful urgency, or 3) neither. Results Seventy-five percent of men and 88% of women were categorized as both or either. These bladder characteristics were associated with more severe urologic symptoms (increased pain, frequency, urgency), higher somatic symptom burden, depression, and worse quality of life (all p<0.01, 3-group trend test). A gradient effect was observed across groups (both > either > neither). Compared to those in the neither group, men categorized as both or either reported more frequent UCPPS symptom flares, catastrophizing, and irritable bowel syndrome, and women categorized as both or either were more likely to have negative affect and chronic fatigue syndrome. Conclusions Men and women with bladder symptoms characterized as painful filling or painful urgency had more severe urologic symptoms, more generalized symptoms, and worse quality of life than participants who reported neither characteristic, suggesting that these symptom characteristics might represent important subsets of UCPPS patients. PMID:26192257

  2. Referred Pain Patterns Provoked on Intra-Pelvic Structures among Women with and without Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Stephen; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. Materials and Methods In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas. Results Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm (19.2 to 53.7) in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm (1.0 to 5.1) in women without CPP, p< 0.0001. Conclusions Referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis. PMID:25793999

  3. Psychological influences on repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael J L; Thibault, Pascal; Andrikonyte, Juste; Butler, Heather; Catchlove, Richard; Larivière, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of pain catastrophizing, fear of movement and depression as determinants of repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain. The sample consisted of 90 (44 women and 46 men) work-disabled individuals with chronic low back pain. Participants were asked to lift a series of 18 canisters that varied according to weight (2.9kg, 3.4kg, 3.9kg) and distance from the body. The canisters were arranged in a 3x6 matrix and the weights were distributed such that each 'column' of three canisters was equated in terms of physical demands. Participants rated their pain after each lift, and in a separate trial, estimated the weight of each canister. Mean activity-related pain ratings were computed for each Column of the task. An index of repetition-induced summation of pain was derived as the change in pain ratings across the six 'columns' of the task. Pain catastrophizing, fear of movement and depression were significantly correlated with condition-related pain (e.g., MPQ) and activity-related pain ratings. Women rated their pain as more intense than men, and estimated weights to be greater than men. A repetition-induced summation of pain effect was observed where pain ratings increased as participants lifted successive canisters. Fear of movement, but not pain catastrophizing or depression, was associated with greater repetition-induced summation of pain. The findings point to possible neurophysiological mechanisms that could help explain why fear of pain is a robust predictor of pain-related disability. Mechanisms of repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain are discussed. PMID:19059719

  4. A qualitative exploration of people's experiences of pain neurophysiological education for chronic pain: The importance of relevance for the individual.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Victoria; King, Richard; Ryan, Cormac G; Martin, Denis J

    2016-04-01

    Pain neurophysiology education (PNE) is a distinct form of patient education in pain management. The aims of this study were to explore the experience of PNE for people with chronic pain and to gain insight into their understanding of their pain after PNE. This was a qualitative study, based on Interpretive Phenomenology Analysis, using individual semi-structured interviews to collect data. We recruited a purposive sample of 10 adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (men and women; mean age 48 years; with a mean pain duration of 9 years) who had recently completed PNE delivered as a single 2-h group session. The interview transcripts were analysed for emerging themes. We identified three themes: perceived relevance for the individual participant; perceived benefits for the individual participant; and evidence of reconceptualisation. An interlinking narrative was the importance of relevance. Eight participants viewed the session as relevant and reported benefits ranging from a better understanding of pain, improved ability to cope with the pain, and some suggested improved levels of physical activity. Four of these participants showed evidence of reconceptualisation, which we describe as partial and patchy. Two participants reported no benefit and did not perceive the material delivered within PNE to be relevant to themselves. Relevance to the individual needs of a person with chronic pain may be a key factor in the success of PNE, and this is a particular challenge when it is delivered in a group situation. PMID:26511524

  5. A measure for quality of life assessment in chronic pain: preliminary properties of the WHOQOL-pain.

    PubMed

    Mason, V L; Skevington, S M; Osborn, M

    2009-04-01

    Chronic pain has a considerable impact on patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QoL). To assess QoL in people with chronic pain, a pain and discomfort module (PDM) was developed for use with the WHOQOL-100 and its psychometric properties assessed. Sixteen items covered four facets on pain relief; anger and frustration; vulnerability, fear and worry; and uncertainty. Chronic low back pain patients (n = 133) (age 56; pain duration 85 months; 65% female) completed the WHOQOL-100 and PDM, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and SF-12. The PDM showed good internal consistency reliability (alpha = .88) (alphas .66-.81). Except for anger, all facets associated most strongly with their 'parent' domain. Pain and poorer QoL were strongly associated, supporting construct validity. The SF-12 physical health component associated strongly with pain relief, and the mental health score with other facets, indicating good concurrent validity. Discriminant validity tests showed that PDM scores distinguished between ill and well patients, and between those reporting different health statuses. The PDM has fair to good psychometric properties indicating its value as a patient-reported outcome measure for clinical trials. PMID:19057988

  6. The Relationship between PTSD and Chronic Pain: Mediating Role of Coping Strategies and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Lovejoy, Travis I.; Lu, Mary; Turk, Dennis C.; Lewis, Lynsey; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    People with chronic pain and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report more severe pain and poorer quality of life than those with chronic pain alone. This study evaluated the extent to which associations between PTSD and chronic pain interference and severity are mediated by pain-related coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Veterans with chronic pain were divided into two groups, those with (n=65) and those without (n=136) concurrent PTSD. All participants completed measures of pain severity, interference, emotional functioning, and coping strategies. Those with current PTSD reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference, had more symptoms of depression, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a current alcohol or substance use disorder (all p-values ? 0.01). Participants with PTSD reported more use of several coping strategies, including guarding, resting, relaxation, exercise/stretching, and coping self-statements. Illness-focused pain coping (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) and depressive symptoms jointly mediated the relationship between PTSD and both pain interference (total indirect effect = 0.194, p < 0.001) and pain severity (total indirect effect = 0.153, p = 0.004). Illness-focused pain coping also evidenced specific mediating effects, independent of depression. In summary, specific pain coping strategies and depressive symptoms partially mediated the relationship between PTSD and both pain interference and severity. Future research should examine whether changes in types of coping strategies following targeted treatments predict improvements in pain-related function for chronic pain patients with concurrent PTSD. PMID:23398939

  7. Chronic orofacial muscle pain: a new approach to diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Klineberg, I; McGregor, N; Butt, H; Dunstan, H; Roberts, T; Zerbes, M

    1998-07-01

    The initial data from this study indicate that there are clearly identifiable chronic muscle pain conditions in the form of localized pain; myofascial pain or regional pain conditions; and fibromyalgia or generalized pain conditions. A clear difference exists between the prevalence of these conditions in male and female patients, with a higher percentage of female patients suffering generalized pain problems and temporomandibular problems. Generalized or localized pain appears to be an individual variant of a similar problem and pain patients may have a genetically determined vulnerability associated with bacterial toxins, particularly within the genitourinary tract. It appears that in fibromyalgia there is an underlying genetic factor that causes abnormalities in the muscle metabolic cycle, and preliminary data suggest that lipid anomalies predispose to fibromyalgia and possibly chronic fatigue syndrome. Patients report infectious events at/or around onset in more than 60 percent of cases. Seventy percent of fibromyalgic cases report orofacial pain. PMID:9927897

  8. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: review of mechanisms and biochemical biomarkers as assessed by the microdialysis technique

    PubMed Central

    Gerdle, Björn; Ghafouri, Bijar; Ernberg, Malin; Larsson, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions are multifaceted, and approximately 20% of the adult population lives with severe chronic pain, with a higher prevalence in women and in lower income groups. Chronic pain is influenced by and interacts with physical, emotional, psychological, and social factors, and a biopsychosocial framework is increasingly applied in clinical practice. However, there is still a lack of assessment procedures based on the activated neurobiological pain mechanisms (ie, the biological part of the biopsychosocial model of pain), which may be a necessary step for further optimizing outcomes after treatments for patients with chronic pain. It has been suggested that chronic pain conditions are mainly driven by alterations in the central nervous system with little or no peripheral stimuli or nociception. In contrast, other authors argue that such central alterations are driven by peripheral alterations and nociceptive input. Microdialysis is an in vivo method for studying local tissue alterations and allows for sampling of substances in the interstitium of the muscle, where nociceptor free nerve endings are found close to the muscle fibers. The extracellular matrix plays a key role in physiologic functions of cells, including the primary afferent nociceptor. The present review mainly concerns the results of microdialysis studies and how they can contribute to the understanding of activated peripheral nociceptive and pain mechanisms in humans with chronic pain. The primary aim was to review molecular studies using microdialysis for the investigation of human chronic muscle pain, ie, chronic masticatory muscle pain, chronic trapezius myalgia, chronic whiplash-associated disorders, and chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia syndrome. Several studies clearly showed elevated levels of serotonin, glutamate, lactate, and pyruvate in localized chronic myalgias and may be potential biomarkers. These results indicate that peripheral muscle alterations are parts of the activated pain mechanisms in common chronic pain conditions. Muscle alterations have been reported in fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic widespread pain, but more studies are needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. For other substances, results are inconclusive across studies and patient groups. PMID:24966693

  9. [Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain with neuropathic component at Parakou in northern Benin in 2012].

    PubMed

    Adoukonou, T; Gnonlonfoun, D; Kpozehouen, A; Adjien, C; Tchaou, B; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Adechina, H; Covi, R; Houinato, D

    2014-11-01

    The burden of chronic and neuropathic pain is high making it an important public health problem. The epidemiology is not well known in the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component at Tititou in Parakou in northeastern Benin. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to 31 May 2012 and included 2314 people in a door-to-door survey. Chronic pain was defined as pain occurring for more than three months. Neuropathic pain was assessed with the DN4 score. A neurological exam was performed by a young physician for all people with chronic pain. During the interview, sociodemographic data, past medical history, weight and height were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the main associated factors. Among the 2314 people included in this survey, 49.7% were male. The mean age was 32.3 ± 13.1 years. Nine hundred seven reported pain occurring for more than 3 months. The prevalence of chronic pain was 39.2% (CI95%: 29.3-34.7). It was more frequent in females, older people, among diabetics, people with a history of any surgery, stroke, brain trauma, and alcoholism. The prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component was 6.3% (CI95%: 5.0-7.9). The main associated factors were age, matrimonial status, professional occupation, body mass index, diabetes, history of zoster, history of any surgery, brain trauma. People with neuropathic pain often reported pain with burning (87.6%), prickling (82.8%), numbness (66.9%), tingling (63.4%), and lightning pain (48.3%). The main locations were the lower limbs and low back pain. This study suggested the high frequency of chronic neuropathic pain in the general population in Parakou compared with rates reported in western countries. PMID:25444451

  10. The role of tramadol ER in the treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M T

    2009-10-01

    Despite its high prevalence, chronic pain is suboptimally treated in approximately one half of affected patients. Failure to recognise and manage comorbid physical and psychosocial impairments may contribute to the perpetuation of chronic pain. Knowledge of the potential advantages and disadvantages of available analgesic medications will permit informed selection of the appropriate medication for the individual chronic pain patient. Ultimate therapeutic goals will also influence analgesic medication selection. For the patient with chronic pain requiring analgesic treatment for an extended period of time, long-acting analgesics are recommended. Theoretically, these agents will provide sustained analgesia by minimising the end-of-dose pain that is often seen with short-acting medications, with improved patient convenience and a potential for reduced risk of adverse events. The extended-release formulation of tramadol (tramadol ER) has proven efficacy in chronic pain conditions such as osteoarthritis and low back pain, as well as a favourable tolerability profile. In addition, tramadol ER has been shown in clinical trials to improve pain-related sleep disturbances and physical function in patients with chronic pain from osteoarthritis and low back pain. PMID:19769710

  11. mTOR Kinase: A Possible Pharmacological Target in the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, Paola; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a major public health problem worldwide. Current pharmacological treatments for chronic pain syndromes, including neuropathic pain, are only partially effective, with significant pain relief achieved in 4060% of patients. Recent studies suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and downstream effectors may be implicated in the development of chronic inflammatory, neuropathic, and cancer pain. The expression and activity of mTOR have been detected in peripheral and central regions involved in pain transmission. mTOR immunoreactivity was found in primary sensory axons, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and in dorsal horn neurons. This kinase is a master regulator of protein synthesis, and it is critically involved in the regulation of several neuronal functions, including the synaptic plasticity that is a major mechanism leading to the development of chronic pain. Enhanced activation of this pathway is present in different experimental models of chronic pain. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity turned out to have significant antinociceptive effects in several experimental models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We will review the main evidence from animal and human studies supporting the hypothesis that mTOR may be a novel pharmacological target for the management of chronic pain. PMID:25685786

  12. Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Franco; Palermo, Sara; Costa, Tommaso; Torta, Riccardo; Duca, Sergio; Vercelli, Ugo; Geminiani, Giuliano; Torta, Diana M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter) and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain. We used network decomposition to investigate whether different kinds of chronic pain are associated with a common or specific set of altered networks. Representational similarity techniques, network decomposition and model-based clustering were employed: i) to verify the presence of a core set of brain areas commonly modified by chronic pain; ii) to investigate the involvement of these areas in a large-scale network perspective; iii) to study the relationship between altered networks and; iv) to find out whether chronic pain targets clusters of areas. Our results showed that chronic pain causes both core and pathology-specific gray matter alterations in large-scale networks. Common alterations were observed in the prefrontal regions, in the anterior insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, post- and pre-central gyri and inferior parietal lobule. We observed that the salience and attentional networks were targeted in a very similar way by different chronic pain pathologies. Conversely, alterations in the sensorimotor and attention circuits were differentially targeted by chronic pain pathologies. Moreover, model-based clustering revealed that chronic pain, in line with some neurodegenerative diseases, selectively targets some large-scale brain networks. Altogether these findings indicate that chronic pain can be better conceived and studied in a network perspective. PMID:24936419

  13. [Interventions based on mindfulness for the elderly chronic pain: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Decker, Emmanuelle; Philippot, Pierre; Bourgey-Trouillet, Marion; Blain, Hubert; Trouillet, Raphal

    2015-06-01

    The chronic pain-bio-psycho-social phenomenon would index a transition between a pain alarm and a pain disease, with reshaping of the inhibitive brain areas and a takeover of psychological factors on the modulatory systems. The current treatment of elders' chronic pain suffers from many limits, and this article addresses this issue by discussing a new and innovative non-pharmacological intervention (mindfulness therapy) to reduce consequences of chronic pain in daily-life. Mindfulness therapy mainly targets two transdiagnostic mental processes - avoidance and self-centered ruminations - which leads to emotional dysregulation in chronic pain patients. Although many studies documented the beneficial effect of mindfulness therapy on psychological symptoms in adults, there is still a lack of studies testing the effect of mindfulness therapy on emotional regulation and psychological symptoms in elderly population with chronic pain. It is therefore necessary to investigate therapeutic efficacy with this population. In conclusion, we formulate several lines of research to test the hypothesis that the effect of the mindfulness therapy on targeted processes would improve elders' ability to cope with chronic pain and would reduce disturbances associated with chronic pain. PMID:26103106

  14. The shared neuroanatomy and neurobiology of comorbid chronic pain and PTSD: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Scioli-Salter, Erica R; Forman, Daniel E; Otis, John D; Gregor, Kristin; Valovski, Ivan; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are disabling conditions that affect biological, psychological, and social domains of functioning. Clinical research demonstrates that patients who are affected by chronic pain and PTSD in combination experience greater pain, affective distress, and disability than patients with either condition alone. Additional research is needed to delineate the interrelated pathophysiology of chronic pain and PTSD, with the goal of facilitating more effective therapies to treat both conditions more effectively; current treatment strategies for chronic pain associated with PTSD have limited efficacy and place a heavy burden on patients, who must visit various specialists to manage these conditions separately. This article focuses on neurobiological factors that may contribute to the coprevalence and synergistic interactions of chronic pain and PTSD. First, we outline how circuits that mediate emotional distress and physiological threat, including pain, converge. Secondly, we discuss specific neurobiological mediators and modulators of these circuits that may contribute to chronic pain and PTSD symptoms. For example, neuropeptide Y, and the neuroactive steroids allopregnanolone and pregnanolone (together termed ALLO) have antistress and antinociceptive properties. Reduced levels of neuropeptide Y and ALLO have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both chronic pain and PTSD. The potential contribution of opioid and cannabinoid system factors also will be discussed. Finally, we address potential novel methods to restore the normal function of these systems. Such novel perspectives regarding disease and disease management are vital to the pursuit of relief for the many individuals who struggle with these disabling conditions. PMID:24806468

  15. Structural Brain Changes in Chronic Pain Reflect Probably Neither Damage Nor Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Niemeier, Andreas; Ihle, Kristin; Ruether, Wolfgang; May, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain appears to be associated with brain gray matter reduction in areas ascribable to the transmission of pain. The morphological processes underlying these structural changes, probably following functional reorganisation and central plasticity in the brain, remain unclear. The pain in hip osteoarthritis is one of the few chronic pain syndromes which are principally curable. We investigated 20 patients with chronic pain due to unilateral coxarthrosis (mean age 63.259.46 (SD) years, 10 female) before hip joint endoprosthetic surgery (pain state) and monitored brain structural changes up to 1 year after surgery: 68 weeks, 1218 weeks and 1014 month when completely pain free. Patients with chronic pain due to unilateral coxarthrosis had significantly less gray matter compared to controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insular cortex and operculum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex. These regions function as multi-integrative structures during the experience and the anticipation of pain. When the patients were pain free after recovery from endoprosthetic surgery, a gray matter increase in nearly the same areas was found. We also found a progressive increase of brain gray matter in the premotor cortex and the supplementary motor area (SMA). We conclude that gray matter abnormalities in chronic pain are not the cause, but secondary to the disease and are at least in part due to changes in motor function and bodily integration. PMID:23405082

  16. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of…

  17. Primary Care Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Veterans: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs…

  18. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

  19. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional

  20. Primary Care Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Veterans: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs

  1. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of

  2. Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

  3. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…

  4. Acupuncture May Be Helpful for Chronic Pain: A Meta-Analysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... May Be Helpful for Chronic Pain: A Meta-Analysis Share: acupuncture.jpg © BananaStock A recent NCCAM-funded ... trials on acupuncture for chronic pain, conducted an analysis of individual patient data from 29 high-quality ...

  5. An Exploration of Positive Identity Development in Women Living with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Hillary; Alderson, Kevin; Collins, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    We explored the concept of living positively with chronic pain using a mixed-methods design that relied primarily on hermeneutic phenomenology. Ten women described their experiences of developing a positive identity while contending with chronic pain. Throughout their journeys, the women interviewed experienced a number of key themes including:…

  6. How Does Pain Localization Affect Physical Functioning, Emotional Status and Independency in Older Adults with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Ya?ci, Nesrin; Duymaz, Tomris; Cavlak, U?ur

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to show the impact of chronic musculoskeletal pain of the spinal column and lower extremities on physical functioning, emotional status, and independency in older adults. [Subjects] In this cross-sectional study, 258 older adults (mean age, 71.985.86?years, 50.8% males, 49.2% females) living in their own residences were evaluated. [Methods] Pain intensity was analyzed using a visual analogue scale. Physical functioning was evaluated with the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and a Six-Minute Walk Test. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to determine emotional status. The independency in daily living of the participants was evaluated using the Lawton Brody IADL Scale. All participants were divided into two groups in accordance with the pain localization: the (1) spinal pain and (2) lower extremity pain groups. [Results] When the pain scores were compared, no significant differences between the two groups were found. The same results were found in terms of TUG scores. The spinal pain group had higher scores in terms of aerobic capacity than the lower extremity pain group. [Conclusion] The results indicate that chronic musculoskeletal pain in the lower extremities decreased aerobic capacity much more than spinal pain in older adults. PMID:25202178

  7. Chronic pain effect on body schema and neuropsychological performance in athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thurm, Bianca E; Matoso, Amanda; Diaz, Ana C; Paschoalini, Carolina; Neves, Elayne; Tuunelis, Raquel; Kiyomoto, Henry Dan; Gama, Eliane F

    2013-04-01

    The ability to recognize the body parts blindfolded is called body schema. Chronic pain disrupts cognitive function and could lead to an altered body schema. Commonly competitive athletes have chronic pain, but still train and compete. The goal of this study was to assess the body schema of competitive athletes with chronic pain. Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire. To assess the body schema, the Image Marking Procedure was used to assess the capacity of the participants to project their bodies in space. Neuropsychological performance was assessed with the Grooved Pegboard Test. There was no difference in body schema between groups; neuropsychological performance indicated better scores in the athlete group. This study showed that despite chronic pain, the athlete group presented unaltered body schema and better neuropsychological performance, perhaps explained by self-selection. PMID:24032329

  8. Identification and Management of Chronic Pain in Primary Care: a Review.

    PubMed

    Mills, Sarah; Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pain is a common, complex, and challenging condition, where understanding the biological, social, physical and psychological contexts is vital to successful outcomes in primary care. In managing chronic pain the focus is often on promoting rehabilitation and maximizing quality of life rather than achieving cure. Recent screening tools and brief intervention techniques can be effective in helping clinicians identify, stratify and manage both patients already living with chronic pain and those who are at risk of developing chronic pain from acute pain. Frequent assessment and re-assessment are key to ensuring treatment is appropriate and safe, as well as minimizing and addressing side effects. Primary care management should be holistic and evidence-based (where possible) and incorporates both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, including psychology, self-management, physiotherapy, peripheral nervous system stimulation, complementary therapies and comprehensive pain-management programmes. These may either be based wholly in primary care or supported by appropriate specialist referral. PMID:26820898

  9. Treating Chronic Pain in Veterans Presenting to an Addictions Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Haas, Elizabeth; Czyz, Ewa; Webster, Linda; Sorrell, John T.; Chermack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. The pharmacological treatment of pain is complicated in individuals with substance use disorders because of the potential for abuse and diversion of many prescription pain medications. One potential approach is to use a combination of cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based strategies…

  10. Treating Chronic Pain in Veterans Presenting to an Addictions Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Haas, Elizabeth; Czyz, Ewa; Webster, Linda; Sorrell, John T.; Chermack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. The pharmacological treatment of pain is complicated in individuals with substance use disorders because of the potential for abuse and diversion of many prescription pain medications. One potential approach is to use a combination of cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based strategies

  11. Multi-dimensionality of chronic pain of the oral cavity and face

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain in its broadest definition can affect up to 7% of the population. Its diagnosis and initial management falls between dentists and doctors and in the secondary care sector among pain physicians, headache neurologists and oral physicians. Chronic facial pain is a long term condition and like all other chronic pain is associated with numerous co-morbidities and treatment outcomes are often related to the presenting co-morbidities such as depression, anxiety, catastrophising and presence of other chronic pain which must be addressed as part of management . The majority of orofacial pain is continuous so a history of episodic pain narrows down the differentials. There are specific oral conditions that rarely present extra orally such as atypical odontalgia and burning mouth syndrome whereas others will present in both areas. Musculoskeletal pain related to the muscles of mastication is very common and may also be associated with disc problems. Trigeminal neuralgia and the rarer glossopharyngeal neuralgia are specific diagnosis with defined care pathways. Other trigeminal neuropathic pain which can be associated with neuropathy is caused most frequently by trauma but secondary causes such as malignancy, infection and auto-immune causes need to be considered. Management is along the lines of other neuropathic pain using accepted pharmacotherapy with psychological support. If no other diagnostic criteria are fulfilled than a diagnosis of chronic or persistent idiopathic facial pain is made and often a combination of antidepressants and cognitive behaviour therapy is effective. Facial pain patients should be managed by a multidisciplinary team. PMID:23617409

  12. The association among neighborhood socioeconomic status, race and chronic pain in black and white older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.

    2007-01-01

    The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920

  13. End-of-dose pain in chronic pain: does it vary with the use of different long-acting opioids?

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael; Richarz, Ute

    2014-11-01

    A large percentage of patients with chronic pain on around-the-clock (ATC) opioids may experience increased pain occurring at the end of a scheduled dose, also known as end-of-dose pain. Despite the significant prevalence and impact of end-of-dose pain in patients using extended-release (ER) opioids, there are no detailed analyses examining how the frequency of end-of-dose pain is linked to the formulations of long-acting opioids. Consequently, we performed a systematic review to evaluate how many published studies on patients with chronic cancer or noncancer pain identified end-of-dose pain. As only a few studies mentioned end-of-dose pain explicitly, we used breakthrough pain (BTP) as a surrogate parameter. We determined if any opioid formulation had a greater association with the frequency of BTP, the use of rescue medication for BTP, and the frequency of end-of-dose pain. Of the 39 studies entered in the final analysis, 14 studies across different formulations showed that ER opioids were effective in the prevention of BTP. The opioids most frequently studied were hydromorphone (26%), followed by morphine (23%), and transdermal buprenorphine (23%). Only 5% of the studies used immediate-release preparations. Overall, most studies showed that patients using ER preparations experienced fewer episodes of BTP compared with patients on placebo or an active comparator. This could reflect the favorable duration of action of these opioids compared with short-acting formulations. Future studies should examine the incidence of end-of-dose pain and use of rescue medicine in a longitudinal manner in patients with chronic pain taking short- vs. long-acting ATC opioids. PMID:24373184

  14. Diagnostic use of infrared thermography in a patient with chronic pain following electrocution: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Survival after severe electrocution is uncommon but chronic pain after such trauma is rare. We present a case report of an individual in whom the only modality providing objective evidence of pain related injury was infrared thermography. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre with severe pain in her left hand and foot following electrocution. All previous clinical and neurological testing had been normal. Infrared thermography demonstrated a significant reduction in temperature in the regions affected on her left hand and foot. Pain was reduced with the use of pregabalin but without changes to thermal differences in the affected limbs. Conclusion It would appear from this case report that infrared thermography may be of use in the documentation of abnormalities associated with chronic pain following survival after electrocution. Pregabalin may be of benefit in pain reduction after electrocution.

  15. Yoga attitudes in chronic low back pain: Roles of catastrophizing and fear of movement.

    PubMed

    Combs, Martha A; Thorn, Beverly E

    2015-08-01

    Chronic low back pain is a significant public health problem and, although underused, yoga may be an effective complementary treatment. The current study examined associations of pain catastrophizing and fear of movement with attitudes toward yoga in adults with chronic low back pain. Participants completed three quantitative questionnaires assessing specific constructs: beliefs about yoga, fear of movement, and pain catastrophizing. A semi-structured in-person interview was then conducted to obtain specific pain-related information. Hierarchical regression and mediational analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with the fear-avoidance model of chronic pain, catastrophizing and fear of movement were negatively associated with yoga attitudes. Specifically, fear of movement was a mediator between catastrophizing and attitudes toward yoga. Individuals with higher levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement may be less likely to consider a pain treatment involving physical movement. PMID:26256134

  16. Physical exercise as non-pharmacological treatment of chronic pain: Why and when.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Kirsten R; Golightly, Yvonne M

    2015-02-01

    Chronic pain broadly encompasses both objectively defined conditions and idiopathic conditions that lack physical findings. Despite variance in origin or pathogenesis, these conditions are similarly characterized by chronic pain, poor physical function, mobility limitations, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, and they are treated alone or in combination by pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches, such as physical activity (aerobic conditioning, muscle strengthening, flexibility training, and movement therapies). Physical activity improves general health, disease risk, and progression of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. When applied to chronic pain conditions within appropriate parameters (frequency, duration, and intensity), physical activity significantly improves pain and related symptoms. For chronic pain, strict guidelines for physical activity are lacking, but frequent movement is preferable to sedentary behavior. This gives considerable freedom in prescribing physical activity treatments, which are most successful when tailored individually, progressed slowly, and account for physical limitations, psychosocial needs, and available resources. PMID:26267006

  17. Predictive validity of behavioural animal models for chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Odd-Geir

    2011-01-01

    Rodent models of chronic pain may elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms and identify potential drug targets, but whether they predict clinical efficacy of novel compounds is controversial. Several potential analgesics have failed in clinical trials, in spite of strong animal modelling support for efficacy, but there are also examples of successful modelling. Significant differences in how methods are implemented and results are reported means that a literature-based comparison between preclinical data and clinical trials will not reveal whether a particular model is generally predictive. Limited reports on negative outcomes prevents reliable estimate of specificity of any model. Animal models tend to be validated with standard analgesics and may be biased towards tractable pain mechanisms. But preclinical publications rarely contain drug exposure data, and drugs are usually given in high doses and as a single administration, which may lead to drug distribution and exposure deviating significantly from clinical conditions. The greatest challenge for predictive modelling is, however, the heterogeneity of the target patient populations, in terms of both symptoms and pharmacology, probably reflecting differences in pathophysiology. In well-controlled clinical trials, a majority of patients shows less than 50% reduction in pain. A model that responds well to current analgesics should therefore predict efficacy only in a subset of patients within a diagnostic group. It follows that successful translation requires several models for each indication, reflecting critical pathophysiological processes, combined with data linking exposure levels with effect on target. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21371010

  18. Risk factors associated with chronic low back pain in Syria

    PubMed Central

    Alhalabi, Mohammad Salem; Alhaleeb, Hassan; Madani, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify risk factors associated with chronic low back pain (C-LBP) in Syria. Materials and Methods: We conducted the study in a busy outpatient neurology clinic in Damascus city from October 2011 to August 2012. We enrolled all eligible adults presenting with C-LBP along with those who denied any back pain as a controls. We considered C-LBP any LBP lasting over 3 months. We developed our own questionnaire. A clinical nurse interviewed each person and filled in the results. Results: We had a total of 911 subjects; 513 patients and 398 controls. We found that C-LBP increased with age. Having a sibling with C-LBP was a strong predictor of C-LBP. In women obesity, but not overweight, was a risk factor. Number of children was a risk factor for mothers. Higher level of education decreased the chance of C-LBP in women. Sedentary job increased the risk of C-LBP. Conclusion: This study sheds some light on risk factors for C-LBP in our population and might help find possible preventive measures. PMID:26629465

  19. [Chronic upper abdominal pain: Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Between 20% and 40% of the population have chronic or recurrent upper abdominal pain, frequently in combination with other dyspeptic symptoms. In about 50% of patients, who visit a doctor because of these complaints, symptoms are caused by an organic disease, whereas the other patients suffer from functional disturbances. Currently, the Rome III-criteria are established for diagnosis of functional dyspepsia. They request epigastric pain burning, bothersome postprandial fullness and/or early satiety and absence of structural disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. These criteria need to have been fulfilled for the previous 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months before diagnosis. For exclusion of organic disease performance of an upper endoscopy is required. Some experts also recommend to investigate routine laboratory parameters and to perform an abdominal ultrasound investigation. Only in young patients who present with typical and moderate symptoms and have no alarm symptoms, probatory therapy without previous technical investigations and, thus, without final establishment of the diagnosis, may be considered. If they do not respond adequately within 4 weeks, these patients also have to undergo further diagnostic testing. Therapeutic options for functional dyspepsia are limited. They include the clear explanation of the diagnosis, consideration of factors that trigger or ameliorate symptoms and application of drugs such as certain herbal remedies, acid suppressing drugs and/or prokinetics. PMID:25970409

  20. Predictors of Chronic Abdominal Pain Affecting the Well-Being of Children in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Spee, Leo A.A.; Leeuwen, Yvonne Lisman-van; Benninga, Marc A.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Abdominal pain is a frequent symptom among children but is rarely associated with organic disease. Although it may persist for years, no factors have been identified that predict its prognosis. Our aim was to determine whether patient characteristics at initial consultation can predict chronic abdominal pain severe enough to influence the child’s well-being at 1 year of follow-up. METHODS We conducted this prospective cohort study in primary care, including consecutive children aged 4 to 17 years seen for abdominal pain by their family physician. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors that predicted chronic abdominal pain 1 year later. Discriminative ability of identified predictors was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and explained variance. RESULTS The risk of having chronic abdominal pain at 1 year of follow-up was 37.1% in the cohort overall. Increasing age, waking up at night with pain, high levels of other somatic complaints, and chronic abdominal pain at baseline independently predicted chronic abdominal pain at 1 year. These predictors had a poor to moderate discriminative ability, however; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was only 0.69, and the predictors collectively explained only