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Sample records for chronic intractable pain

  1. [Indication and usage of opioids except morphine for chronic non-malignant intractable pain].

    PubMed

    Saeki, Shigeru

    2008-11-01

    Indication and usage of opioids except morphine for chronic non-malignant intractable pain were reviewed. In Japan, other than morphine, we can use only two opioids, codeine phosphate (codeine), and dihydrocodeine phosphate (dihydrocodeine) for non-malignant pain management according to medical insurance system. But in western countries sustained-release opioids such as MS contine, transdermal fentanyl, oxycontin were used for the management of non-malignant chronic pain. The WHO ladder for cancer management should also be used for the management of non-malignant pain. Initial dose of codeine is 60 mg x day(-1) and the dosage should be increased or decreased according to pain intensity, patients' general condition and age. In most cases pain is controlled at the dose of 80-310 mg x day(-1). If pain intensity does not decrease or change, codeine should be changed to morphine. In our clinic, starting dose of codeine was 40-480 mg x day(-1) (average dose: 107.8 mg x day(-1)), maximum dose was 60-1280 mg x day (average dose: 310 mg x day(-1)). Average period for administration of codeine was 294.4 days. Dihydrocodeine has twice analgesic efficacy compared to codeine. The initial dose is the same as codeine. We hope that sustained release opioids such as transdermal fentanyl, oxycontin, tramadol etc will be used in Japan for management of non-malignant chronic pain in the near future. PMID:19039961

  2. Treatment of acute or chronic severe, intractable pain and other intractable medical problems associated with unrecognized viral or bacterial infection: Part I.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1990-01-01

    In many cases of chronic intractable pain without any discernible causes, when both Western medical treatment and acupuncture treatment failed to eliminate the pain, this pain is often due to the unrecognized presence of viral or bacterial infection. Even effective anti-viral or bacterial agents often fail to eliminate or inhibit the infection, as these drugs may also fail to reach the most painful area where often unrecognizable circulatory disturbances co-exist. Using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Molecular Identification Method, we were able to localize substance P and thromboxane B2 (a good indicator of the presence and degree of circulatory disturbances) in the painful area along with virus or bacteria. Based on the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test localization method for specific substances or microbes, the author has successfully treated cases of chronic intractable pain by the combination of anti-viral or bacterial agents with either manual acupuncture, electro-acupuncture or transcutaneous electrical stimulation through a pair of surface electrodes. Among a variety of infections, the most common cause of severe intractable pain was herpes simplex virus, and the most common bacterial cause of intractable pain of moderate degree was campylobacter. In addition, chlamydia was a very common cause of mild intractable pain. When peripheral nerve fibers are hypersensitive from nerve injury due to viral infection, in addition to the drug therapy for infection, use of Vitamin B1 25 mg., 2 times a day for an average adult often accelerates recovery time. As an anti-viral agent for the herpes virus family, the author found that EPA (Omega 3 fish oil, Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid, C20:5 omega 3), at doses between 180 mg. and 350 mg (depending upon body weight) 4 times a day for 2 to 6 weeks, without prescribing the common anti-viral agent Acyclovir, often eliminated the symptoms due to viral infection including all well-known types of the herpes virus, such as herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus are usually not associated with intractable severe pain, but they are often associated with a recurrent burning or itching sensation and they can cause intractable frequent muscle twitching. Viruses belonging to the herpes family almost always exist between the midline of one side of the spinal cord and the midline of the front of the body where these nerves from the spinal cord end and the same virus is localized only on one side of the body at the same spinal level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1973580

  3. Intractable pain with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C. P.; Evans, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    This study examines retrospectively the cause, clinical features, natural history and results of treatment of intractable pain associated with breast cancer in 210 patients. The three chief types of pain were that due to skeletal metastases or brachial plexus neuropathy and pain of psychogenic origin. Onset at the time of cancer diagnosis characterized the psychogenic pain, whereas pain from metastases first occurred after a median latency of 3.7 years. Treatment was custom-tailored to the specific patient and pain problem, with several factors taken into account. The onset of intractable pain due to metastatic disease indicated a short survival (median, 9 months). PMID:6277445

  4. Intractable pain--the present position.

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, S.

    1981-01-01

    The broad changes that have occurred in the treatment of intractable pain are considered. There is a new understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain pathways and pain appreciation. Thus gate control theory, the spinal laminae, and the descending inhibitory pain pathway through the raphe nuclei are discussed in relation to the recent discovery of the opioid (enkephalin) systems. Out of this arises the stimulation methods of pain relief--transcutaneous neural stimulation, periaqueductal stimulation, and acupuncture. These are valuable in patients with a normal expectation of life. For patients with a shortened expectation of life other methods, especially destructive ones, are valuable (though in all types of chronic pain drug therapy is still the most used method). Basic changes in techniques and the equipment used to bring this about are detailed broadly. In particular, the use of the image intensifier X-ray machine and the stimulation and destruction available from the modern lesion generator when used in combination provide accuracy and safety. Techniques and methods are constantly altering and examples of this are given. All this costs money in time, personnel, and equipment; the costings of the Liverpool Centre for Pain Relief are given. Finally, the Pain Relief Foundation is in being in Liverpool in the grounds of Walton Hospital. This has been made possible by a large 'seed' donation by the Wolfson Foundation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6894676

  5. Fundoplication in chronic intractable cough

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Airway reflux is a common cause of chronic cough and this is often refractory to medical therapy. Surgery in the form of Nissen fundoplication has been highly successful in the treatment of the classic reflux symptoms of heartburn and dyspepsia. There is a paucity of data regarding response to fundoplication in patients presenting with chronic cough. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of patients from the Hull Cough Clinic who had undergone Nissen fundoplication over the past 6 years. Demographic details, duration of symptoms, presence of other symptoms, results of oesophageal studies, outcome and complications were recorded. Patients were contacted by post and asked to complete a questionnaire detailing current symptoms. In a subgroup with continued troublesome cough 24 hour pharyngeal pH measurements were undertaken. Results Forty seven patients underwent fundoplication. The average duration of pre-operative cough was 8 years. Gastro intestinal symptoms were present in the majority. In 30 (64%) patients a positive response to treatment was recorded. Mild dysphagia or bloating was seen in 18 patients following surgery. Four patients needed repeat surgical intervention for modification of fundoplication. One patient developed aspiration pneumonia eight weeks following surgery and died of a myocardial infarction. Two thirds of patients with persisting cough had evidence of airway reflux on pharyngeal pH monitoring. Conclusion In these patients with intractable cough a long term response rate of 63% represents a useful therapeutic option. Treatment failure is more frequent than for classic peptic symptoms and may be related to persistent gaseous reflux. PMID:22812601

  6. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Chronic Pain Information Page Synonym(s): Pain - Chronic Condensed from Pain: ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Chronic Pain? While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered ...

  7. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  8. Low back pain - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  9. Intractable colitis associated with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Akira; Yamashita, Kentaro; Endo, Takao; Ikeda, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh

    2006-11-01

    The case of a 20-year-old Japanese man, diagnosed as having autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), who was being treated with corticosteroids for intractable unclassified colitis, is described. He died from multiple organ failure following disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. He was diagnosed as an index case of CGD when 2 years old, was inoculated against VZV at the age of 5 years and had had an unremarkable course for 19 years. He was admitted to hospital because of a third episode of recurrent bloody diarrhoea. Clinical remission for each episode was achieved by intravenous corticosteroid therapy. Unclassified colitis associated with CGD was diagnosed based on a colonic biopsy demonstrating characteristic macrophages with lipofuscin deposits. From a treatment viewpoint, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be differentiated from secondary IBD occurring in CGD, in which immunosuppressive drugs including corticosteroids, still the mainstay of IBD treatment, should be avoided. PMID:17030921

  10. Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ≥1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice. PMID:23515887

  11. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  12. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Eun; Choi, Jung Hyun; Park, Hue Jung; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4–5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief. PMID:26761032

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Eun; Choi, Jung Hyun; Park, Hue Jung; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX(®), Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4-5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief. PMID:26761032

  15. Retrograde Epidural Catheter Relieves Intractable Sacral Pain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchir; Shodhan, Shivam; Hosny, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Pain caused by tumor infiltration of the sacral area remains a major clinical challenge. Patients with poor pain control despite comprehensive medical management may be treated with neuraxial techniques such as continuous epidural or spinal anesthetic. We report a case in which a patient with metastatic breast cancer experienced inadequate pain relief after multiple intravenous pain management regimens as well as intrathecal (IT) drug delivery. The concentration of local anesthetics delivered via the IT catheter was limited due to the patient's baseline motor weakness which would be exacerbated with higher concentrations of local anesthetics. Thus, a decision was made to insert an epidural catheter via a retrograde technique to provide the patient with a "band of anesthesia" which would provide profound sensory blockade without concomitant motor weakness. Pain refractory to other modalities of pain control was successfully treated with the epidural technique. PMID:27162431

  16. Retrograde Epidural Catheter Relieves Intractable Sacral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchir; Shodhan, Shivam; Hosny, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Pain caused by tumor infiltration of the sacral area remains a major clinical challenge. Patients with poor pain control despite comprehensive medical management may be treated with neuraxial techniques such as continuous epidural or spinal anesthetic. We report a case in which a patient with metastatic breast cancer experienced inadequate pain relief after multiple intravenous pain management regimens as well as intrathecal (IT) drug delivery. The concentration of local anesthetics delivered via the IT catheter was limited due to the patient's baseline motor weakness which would be exacerbated with higher concentrations of local anesthetics. Thus, a decision was made to insert an epidural catheter via a retrograde technique to provide the patient with a “band of anesthesia” which would provide profound sensory blockade without concomitant motor weakness. Pain refractory to other modalities of pain control was successfully treated with the epidural technique.

  17. Employees with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  18. Sphenopalatine ganglion electrical nerve stimulation implant for intractable facial pain.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan G

    2015-01-01

    Persistent idiopathic facial pain can be extremely difficult and significantly challenging to manage for the patient and the clinician. Pharmacological treatment of these painful conditions is not always successful. It has been suggested that the autonomic reflex plays an important role in the pathophysiology of headaches and facial neuralgia. The key structure in the expression of cranial autonomic symptoms is the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), also known as the pterygopalatine ganglion. The role of the SPG in the pathophysiology of headaches and facial pain has become clearer in the past decade. In this case report, we describe a 30 year-old woman with insidious onset of right facial pain. She was suffering from daily pain for more than 9 years prior to her visit at the pain clinic. Her pain was constant with episodic aggravation without a predisposing trigger factor. The patient was evaluated by multiple different specialties and tried multimodal therapy, which included antiepileptic medications, with minimal pain relief. A SPG block using short-acting local anesthetic provided significant temporary pain relief. The second and third attempt of SPG block using different local anesthetic medications demonstrated the same responses. After a thorough psychological assessment and ruling out the presence of a correctable cause for the pain, we decided to proceed with SPG electrical neuromodulation. The patient reported significant pain relief during the electrical nerve stimulation trial. The patient underwent a permanent implant of the neurostimulation electrode in the SPG region. The patient was successfully taken off opioid medication and her pain was dramatically responsive during a 6 month follow-up visit. In this article we describe the SPG nerve stimulation and the technical aspect of pterygopalatine fossa electrode placement. The pterygoplatine fossa is an easily accessible location. This case report will be encouraging for physicians treating intractable facial pain by demonstrating a novel therapeutic option. This report shows a minimally invasive approach to the SPG. PMID:26000687

  19. Fighting Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches, jaw pain (TMJ), earache, toothache, sore throat, sinus pain, facial numbness Muscles and Bones: Arthritis, back pain, bone pain from spread of cancer, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome Neurologic: "Phantom limb" pain ...

  20. [Management of intractable cancer pain: from intrathecal morphine to cell allograft].

    PubMed

    Lazorthes, Y; Sallerin, B; Verdie, J C; Sol, J C; Duplan, H; Tkaczuk, J; Tafani, M; Bastide, R; Bes, J C

    2000-11-01

    The durable effectiveness of intrathecal morphine administration is well established for the management of intractable cancer pain, after failure of systemic opioids, secondary to the persistence of non-reversible undesirable side effects. Many patients are referred to late in the disease course. This conservative method to control pain of malignant origin must not be reserved for last resort treatment for terminal patients. Intra-cerebro-ventricular morphine administration is a very effective and generally safe method for controlling intractable cancer pain. Because of the chronic implantation of an intra-ventricular catheter this method is somewhat invasive. Its indications remain a simple and effective alternative when the topography of nociceptive pain is diffuse or cephalic. In clinical practice, intrathecal and/or intra-cerebro-ventricular administration of opioids is limited by cost, the need for specialized maintenance and mechanical malfunctions if implantable drug delivery systems, or by the risk of bacterial contamination and ambulatory constraints when repeated daily injections via an intrathecal access port are used. To answer these limitations, cell therapy using intrathecal chromaffin cell allograft is a promising approach for the management of cancer pain refractory to traditional drug therapy and pain lesion surgery. The basic rationale and preclinical studies on experimental pain models have enabled starting prospective clinical trials. Prior to transplantation, handling and preparation of the chromaffin tissue is critical for allograft viability. The initial results of clinical trials with human chromaffin cell grafts from intractable cancer pain have reported long-lasting pain relief, in correlation with met-enkephalin release into the CSF. Convincing evidence will require controlled studies. The limitations of this innovative cell therapy and especially the lack of human adrenal gland availability point to the need for new sources of cells. Perspectives include xenogenic or engineered cell lines. PMID:11084478

  1. What Is Chronic Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACPA Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  2. American Chronic Pain Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACPA Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  3. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... you relax, such as meditation, tai chi, and yoga. It can also help decrease stress. Lifestyle changes ... my pain? What about alternative therapies, such as yoga, massage or acupuncture? Is it safe for me ...

  4. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of intractable pain.

    PubMed

    Levy, Robert M

    2003-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) plays an important role in the treatment of chronic pain when other less invasive treatment modalities have been exhausted. DBS is an apparently safe and effective treatment option for a select group of patients. Further research into the mechanisms of pain relief by DBS and careful prospective outcomes studies should help to define better the optimal techniques for DBS and clarify which patient populations may be best helped by this interventional procedure. PMID:14567140

  5. Preventing chronic postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Reddi, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is common. Nerve injury and inflammation promote chronic pain, the risk of which is influenced by patient factors, including psychological characteristics. Interventional trials to prevent chronic postoperative pain have been underpowered with inadequate patient follow-up. Ketamine may reduce chronic postoperative pain, although the optimum treatment duration and dose for different operations have yet to be identified. The evidence for gabapentin and pregabalin is encouraging but weak; further work is needed before these drugs can be recommended for the prevention of chronic pain. Regional techniques reduce the rates of chronic pain after thoracotomy and breast cancer surgery. Nerve-sparing surgical techniques may be of benefit, although nerve injury is not necessary or sufficient for chronic pain to develop. PMID:26620149

  6. Coping with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cart JOIN APA About APA Topics Publications & Databases Psychology Help Center News & Events Science Education Careers Membership Home // Psychology Help Center // Coping with chronic pain EMAIL PRINT ...

  7. Somatization and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Birket-Smith, M

    2001-10-01

    The experience of pain is related not only to tissue damage and physical illness, but also to mental phenomena including depression, anxiety and somatization. Somatization is common among chronic pain patients and presents special problems in management and treatment. Somatoform patients are often given inappropriate diagnoses, treated for non-existent depressive disorders, and exposed to multiple, superfluous investigations. Psychological models of chronic pain and somatization are presented, and treatment issues including psychotherapy and the use of antidepressants are discussed. PMID:11683662

  8. Levorphanol, Methadone, and the Management of Intractable Chronic Pain: An Interview with Kerry Schmidt, BA,MBA; Jack P. McNulty, MD,FACP; and George B. Muller, RPh.

    PubMed

    Vail, Jane

    2006-01-01

    For former National Football League player Kerry Schmidt, BA,MBA, chronic pain is a part of everyday life. To repair sports-related trauma sustained during his 6-year career as a defensive back, Schmidt has undergone 24 major orthopedic surgeries over the past three decades and will undergo two or three additional procedures to repair his lower back. Now a sports reporter, a syndicated sports columnist, and a business owner, Schmidt says his pain at times has rated a 10-plus on a 10-point pain scale. Schmidt recently took control of his constant discomfort. After he consulted with Jack P. McNulty, MD,FACP, a specialist in the management of chronic pain, who collaborated with George B. Muller, RPh, a compounding pharmacist, Schmidt found relief with no adverse effects from the seldom-prescribed drug levorphanol. PMID:23974121

  9. Technology for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyi; Seymour, Ben

    2014-09-22

    Technology developed for chronic pain management has been fast evolving and offers new stand-alone prospects for the diagnosis and treatment of pain, rather than simply addressing the limitations of pharmacology-based approaches. There are two central challenges to be tackled: developing objective measures that capture the subjectivity of pain experience, and providing technology-based interventions that offer new approaches for pain management. Here we highlight recent developments that hold promise in addressing both of these challenges. PMID:25247372

  10. Evolving patterns of spinal cord stimulation in patients implanted for intractable low back and leg pain.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Ashwini; Cameron, Tracy; Barolat, Giancarlo

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the programming strategies used in patients with intractable low-back pain treated with epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) utilizing paddle electrodes and a radio frequency (RF) stimulator. Programming strategies were examined in a group of patients implanted with a 16-contact paddle electrode and a dual channel RF receiver to treat chronic low-back pain. Baseline data included previous surgical history information, leg and low back pain severity and characteristics, and routine demographic information. Outcome measurements included the visual analog scale (VAS) (1), patient pain relief rating scale, and programming parameters. Patients rated their pain relief on a 5-point scale where 4 = excellent, 3 = good, 2 = fair, 1 = poor and 0 = none. Success was determined to be a pain relief score of "fair" or above. Data were collected during patient visits or by mail, at approximately 6, 12, and 24 months, postoperatively. Immediate postop data were available in 16 patients, 6-month data in 21 patients, 1-year data in 20 patients, and 2-year data in 10 patients, and analyzed for the purposes of examining programming strategies. The most common location for the tip of the electrode (lead) was found to be in the middle of the 8th thoracic vertebrae (N = 26). At the immediate postop assessment, the majority of cathodes were activated in the upper half of T9. By the 6-month follow-up, the majority of cathodes had shifted to the bottom of T9 and top of T10. Overall 88% of cathode locations were changed at one or more study visits. At 2 years, 86% of the programs used four or more active contacts. At 6 months, 83% of the patients reported that the therapy was a success, at 1 year, success was 94%, and by 2 years, success was 75%. Both SCS and chronic pain are dynamic processes. Complex pain patterns, such as the ones of patients who have pain in the low back and in one or both lower extremities, require a high degree of flexibility in the implanted SCS system. The system must provide the capability to redirect the current electronically over at least two segments of the spinal canal, to electronically steer the current in a medio-lateral direction, and to activate multiple electrical contacts simultaneously. The willingness and ability to provide extensive reprogramming in the long term follow-up is also of the utmost importance. Pain and its treatment with SCS is a dynamic process. PMID:22150814

  11. Management of intractable pain in adiposis dolorosa with intravenous administration of lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Iwane, T; Maruyama, M; Matsuki, M; Ito, Y; Shimoji, K

    1976-01-01

    Intractable pain in a patient with adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease) was treated by IV administration of lidocaine (200 to 400 mg). Relief was maximum 20 minutes after the end of drug infusion and persisted for over 10 hours. Toxicity was minimal. Slow EEG waves which appeared during drug administration disappeared within 20 minutes. PMID:943987

  12. Veterans and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Summary points 1. Musculoskeletal problems are the commonest reason for medical discharge in all the British armed forces. By definition, these problems are chronic and resistant to treatment. 2. Pain is also common in veterans who have experienced severe injuries (polytrauma), often accompanied by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) orpostconcussive syndrome. 3. In veterans seeking treatment for chronic pain, PTSD is common. There is also evidence for elevated levels of alcohol misuse in veterans who have been deployed to conflict. However, most veterans do not have pain, PTSD or alcohol problems. 4. Pain clinicians would benefit from training in meeting veterans’ needs, in order to promote their engagement and successful treatment. This should include countering stereotypes, information about the military and support for the assessment and onward referral of PTSD and alcohol problems. PMID:26516504

  13. Veterans and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    1. Musculoskeletal problems are the commonest reason for medical discharge in all the British armed forces. By definition, these problems are chronic and resistant to treatment. 2. Pain is also common in veterans who have experienced severe injuries (polytrauma), often accompanied by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) orpostconcussive syndrome. 3. In veterans seeking treatment for chronic pain, PTSD is common. There is also evidence for elevated levels of alcohol misuse in veterans who have been deployed to conflict. However, most veterans do not have pain, PTSD or alcohol problems. 4. Pain clinicians would benefit from training in meeting veterans' needs, in order to promote their engagement and successful treatment. This should include countering stereotypes, information about the military and support for the assessment and onward referral of PTSD and alcohol problems. PMID:26516504

  14. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rosevelt

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in June 1979, over 500 patients have been treated at the King/Drew Pain Center in Los Angeles. Based upon the treatment and observations of this patient group, this paper describes the psychologic aspects in patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain, low back pain, phantom limb pain, chest pain, and arthritic pain. PMID:6864816

  15. Eosinophilic meningitis: cause of a chronic pain syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, P D; Corbett, A J; Pryor, D S; Garrick, R

    1990-01-01

    Three tourists developed eosinophilic meningitis after visiting the Fijian Islands. Two had a severe and long lasting illness with chronic intractable pain. In one patient electrophysiological studies and MRI scan of the brain were abnormal and provided evidence of both radicular and cerebral parenchymal involvement by the most likely causative agent, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Images PMID:2246659

  16. Chronic Pain: Where the Body Meets the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is one of the most intractable clinical problems faced by clinicians and can be devastating for patients. Central pain amplification is perceived pain that cannot be fully explained on the basis of somatic or neuropathic processes and is due to physiologic alterations in pain transmission or descending pain modulatory pathways. In any individual, central pain amplification may complicate nociceptive or neuropathic pain. Furthermore, patients with somatic symptom disorders may have alterations in their psychological or behavioral responses to pain that contribute significantly to the clinical presentation. Genetic, physiologic, and psychological factors associated with central pain amplification are beginning to be understood. One important contributor to chronic pain is perceived stress and stress response systems. We and others have shown a complex relationship between the physiologic stress response and chronic pain symptoms. Unfortunately, treatments for chronic pain are woefully inadequate and often worsen clinical outcomes. Developing new treatment strategies for patients with chronic pain is of utmost urgency. This essay provides a framework for thinking about chronic pain and developing new treatment approaches. PMID:26330672

  17. [Ultrasound-guided Sciatic Nerve Block (Pulsed Radiofrequency) for Intractable Cancer Pain Caused by Sacral Bone Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Hyoda, Akira; Kuwamura, Ayumu; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of successful pulsed radiofrequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve for intractable cancer pain caused by sacral bone metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. A 57-year-old man who suffered from intractable left femoral pain was diagnosed with cancer metastasis to the sacral bone and lumbar spine. Oral oxycodone relieved the pain at rest but he could not walk or remain sitting due to the pain during exercise. Oxycodone rescue or increase did not relieve the pain, but induced drowsiness. Given that sciatic nerve block with mepivacaine was effective, we performed pulsed radiofrequency with ultrasound guidance twice. Pulsed radiofrequency relieved the left femoral pain and he could sit for hours and walk uneventfully. Our finding suggest that ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency of the sciatic nerve effectively relieves intractable left femoral pain caused by sacral bone metastasis. PMID:26437562

  18. Chronic motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain: correlations between pain relief and functional imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Sol, J C; Casaux, J; Roux, F E; Lotterie, J A; Bousquet, P; Verdié, J C; Mascott, C; Lazorthes, Y

    2001-01-01

    Chronic motor cortex stimulation (CMCS) has provided satisfactory control of pain in patients with central or trigeminal neuropathic pain. We used this technique in 3 patients with intractable phantom limb pain after upper limb amputation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) correlated to anatomical MRI permitted frameless image guidance for electrode placement. Pain control was obtained for all the patients initially and the relief was stable in 2 of the 3 patients at 2 year follow-up. CMCS can be used to relieve phantom limb pain. fMRI data are useful in assisting the neurosurgeon in electrode placement for this indication. PMID:12378072

  19. Effects of Kamishoyosan, a Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine, on Pain Conditions in Patients with Intractable Persistent Dentoalveolar Pain Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Young-Chang P.; Makino, Izumi; Aono, Shuichi; Yasui, Hiromichi; Isai, Hideya; Nishihara, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kawai, Takashi; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Inoue, Shinsuke; Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    There are patients who suffer from persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder (PDAP) which is a pain of the teeth, either dentoalveolar pain or nonodontogenic toothache, and its cause has not yet been identified. An effective intervention for PDAP has not yet been established. Interventions for patients with PDAP are generally pharmacological treatments such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and pregabalin. However, these medicines are not always effective for patients. The pain disorder in the orofacial region including temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and PDAP was effectively treated with our original exercise therapy. However, we did observe some intractable cases of PDAP even when our original exercise therapy was used. This paper presents our findings in which Kamishoyosan improved the pain intensity in 14 out of 15 PDAP patients refractory to our original exercise therapy. PMID:26495024

  20. Chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Lakha, S. Fatima; Ou, Ting; Louffat, Ada; Yegneswaran, Balaji; Umana, Margarita; Cohodarevic, Tea; Nicholson, Keith; Deshpande, Amol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics of patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) prescribed opioids by community physicians and referred to a tertiary pain clinic. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting A tertiary care, hospital-based pain clinic in Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 455 consecutive patients newly referred to the pain clinic by community physicians. Main outcome measures Data on demographic characteristics, pain ratings, and medication intake were obtained using standardized collection forms and retrospective chart review. Patients were classified by diagnosis: group 1 patients had biomedical disorders only, group 2 patients had biomedical disorders and psychological factors, and group 3 patients had psychological factors only. Patients were also categorized based on opioid use: no opioid use (NOU); low opioid use (LOU), with a daily morphine-equivalent dosage (MED) of 200 mg or less; or high opioid use (HOU), with a daily MED of more than 200 mg. Results In the general study population, 63% of patients were taking opioids, with 1 in 5 exceeding an MED of 200 mg daily. In group 1, 59% of patients used opioids and 10% had HOU; 66% of patients in groups 2 and 3 were taking opioids, with 21% and 26% classified as having HOU. The mean (SD) daily MED for groups 2 and 3 HOU patients combined was significantly higher than that of group 1 HOU patients: 575.7 (472.9) mg/d versus 284.9 (74.6) mg/d, respectively. Men were twice as likely as women to have HOU; Canadian-born patients were 3 times as likely as foreign-born patients to have HOU. Psychoactive drugs were coprescribed in 61% of LOU patients and 76% of HOU patients. Greater opioid use was associated with group 2 and 3 diagnoses, male sex, Canadian-born origin, and high pain scores. Conclusion Our results indicate that male, Canadian-born CNCP patients presenting with psychological morbidity or comorbidity and reporting higher pain severity ratings were more likely to receive opioids. Additionally, many CNCP patients referred to our tertiary care pain clinic were receiving opioids in excess of a 200-mg/d MED. More studies are needed to determine which factors lead to high-dose opioid prescribing in a subset of this CNCP population. PMID:21402957

  1. Control, culture and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bates, M S; Rankin-Hill, L

    1994-09-01

    In the past decade, the literature on chronic pain shows an increasing interest in the relationship between patients' locus of control (LOC) beliefs and their responses to the chronic pain experience [1-5]. However, few of these studies assess the relationships between ethnic or cultural background and LOC style in the chronic pain experience--despite research suggesting that culture affects chronic pain responses [6-8]. This report of two quantitative and qualitative research projects among chronic pain sufferers in New England and in Puerto Rico, shows significant relationships between patients' LOC style and variations in reported chronic pain intensity and responses. Our studies also demonstrate a relationship between LOC style and ethnic or cultural background and an interaction between LOC style and cultural identity in variations in reported pain intensity. In addition, we found intra-ethnic/cultural-group variations in the pain experience related to LOC style. In these chronic pain populations, the qualitative data further suggests that LOC style may not be a permanent, unchanging characteristic or cognitive interpretation. Instead, an individual's LOC style may be altered by the chronic pain experience and such a style may change at various stages in the chronic pain 'career'. These studies also show that in many ethnic/cultural groups, an increased sense of control may contribute to an increased ability to cope successfully with the chronic pain experience. In light of these findings, we suggest that it may be possible to alter a patient's sense of control through the development of deliberate culturally appropriate and personally relevant programs designed to help the patients establish a sense of control over their lives and their pain. PMID:7973863

  2. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable chronic migraine headache: ONSTIM feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Joel R; Dodick, David W; Silberstein, Stephen D; McCarville, Sally; Sun, Mark; Goadsby, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medically intractable chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling illness characterized by headache ?15 days per month. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, blinded, controlled feasibility study was conducted to obtain preliminary safety and efficacy data on occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) in CM. Eligible subjects received an occipital nerve block, and responders were randomized to adjustable stimulation (AS), preset stimulation (PS) or medical management (MM) groups. Results: Seventy-five of 110 subjects were assigned to a treatment group; complete diary data were available for 66. A responder was defined as a subject who achieved a 50% or greater reduction in number of headache days per month or a three-point or greater reduction in average overall pain intensity compared with baseline. Three-month responder rates were 39% for AS, 6% for PS and 0% for MM. No unanticipated adverse device events occurred. Lead migration occurred in 12 of 51 (24%) subjects. Conclusion: The results of this feasibility study offer promise and should prompt further controlled studies of ONS in CM. PMID:20861241

  3. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Łuczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; Główka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg−1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg−1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL−1 and 235.7 ng·mL−1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL−1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

  4. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate in the treatment of intractable chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoyu; Li, Shaoguang

    2014-01-01

    In a significant proportion of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, resistance to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors develops due to acquisition of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations and insensitivity of leukemia stem cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (formerly called homoharringtonine) is a natural alkaloid that inhibits protein synthesis and induces cell death. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate has been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who failed to respond to multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors and/or acquired the BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. In this review, we discuss the use and effectiveness of omacetaxine mepesuccinate in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, with coverage of its pharmacology, mode of action, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that omacetaxine mepesuccinate will be beneficial to many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who do not respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:24516334

  5. Bilateral Thoracoscopic Splanchnotomy to Alleviate Pain in Chronic Pancreatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Bosanquet, David C; Wilcox, Christopher R M; Rasheed, Ashraf

    2016-03-01

    Chronic intractable pain is a common problem in severe pancreatic disease. Bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnotomy, a thoracoscopic neurotomy of the splanchnic nerves, is rarely performed but may provide significant pain relief in these patients. We present a safe strategy that uses prone positioning and two thoracoscopic ports for either hemithorax, permitting easy exposure and simple dissection of the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves. In our experience, this technique provides excellent pain relief with a minimal postoperative stay and few postoperative adverse events. This intervention has the potential to reduce dependency on opioid agents and improve quality of life in carefully selected patients. PMID:26897240

  6. Intractable Facial Pain and Numb Chin due to Metastatic Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Foad; Luke, Whitney; Elahi, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The etiologies of facial pain are innumerable, thus facial pain misdiagnosis and resultant mismanagement is common. Numb chin syndrome presents with hypoesthesia and/or anesthesia in the dermatomal distribution of the inferior alveolar or the mental nerve. In this case report, we will discuss a case of intractable facial pain in a 57-year-old male with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma who was initially misdiagnosed and treated as trigeminal neuralgia. During clinical examination, the loss of sensation in the inferior alveolar nerve distribution was identified and led to the diagnosis of mandibular metastasis. The details of the clinical presentation will be discussed in the context of accurate identification and diagnosis. Focal radiation to the metastatic location along with sphenopalatine ganglion radiofrequency ablation and medication management provided significant pain relief. This case report provides additional information to the current medical knowledge and it enhances the clinical vigilance of the clinicians when they encounter similar cases. We concluded that patients with a history of neoplasms who present with atypical symptoms of facial pain should undergo further investigation with advanced imaging. Targeted treatment based on an accurate diagnosis is the foundation of pain management. PMID:25606033

  7. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2015-02-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications. PMID:25681114

  8. Injections of botulinum toxin type a produce pain alleviation in intractable trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Allam, Nasser; Brasil-Neto, Joaquim P; Brown, Gilberto; Tomaz, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    To report the effects of local injections of botulinum toxin type A regarding pain relief and long-term control in a patient with intractable trigeminal neuralgia. The patient was a 75-year-old man with trigeminal neuralgia in the left hemifacial region. His pain was unbearable and could not be controlled by carbamazepine, amitriptyline, or blocked by infiltration of a glycerol solution or phenol. The authors evaluated pain intensity, quality, and location using a Visual Analog Scale to establish the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injections. Two units of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) were subcutaneously injected once in eight points distributed along the territory of V1 and V2. Visual Analog Scores were measured at baseline and at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after treatment. The authors also examined the patient's general condition and daily life activities. The Visual Analog values were, respectively, 82, 54, 25, 25, and 45 mm at each follow-up examination. No side effects were observed on the site of injection and on the patient's clinical state. The authors have been able to reduce trigeminal neuralgia pain with botulinum toxin type A injections in the V1, V2 territory during all the period of study, as well as to withdraw all medication. Interestingly, there was concomitant reduction of pain also in V3, which was not injected. PMID:15722812

  9. Can Chronic Pain Be Prevented?

    PubMed

    Badiola, Ignacio J

    2016-06-01

    All chronic pain begins at some discrete point in time. Significant strides in the understanding of mechanisms and risk factors associated with the transition from a new, or acute, pain experience to a chronic pain condition have been made over the past 20 years. These insights provide the hope of one day being able to modify or even halt this pathophysiologic progression. This article reviews some of the current knowledge of this transition as well as the evidence currently available to best prevent and treat it using persistent surgical pain as a model. PMID:27208712

  10. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097

  11. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  12. Epigenetic regulation of chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lingli; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain arising from peripheral inflammation and tissue or nerve injury is a common clinical symptom. Although intensive research on the neurobiological mechanisms of chronic pain has been carried out during previous decades, this disorder is still poorly managed by current drugs such as opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Inflammation-, tissue injury-, and/or nerve injury-induced changes in gene expression in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord dorsal horn, and pain-associated brain regions are thought to participate in chronic pain genesis; however, how these changes occur is still elusive. Epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation and covalent histone modifications control gene expression. Recent studies have shown that peripheral noxious stimulation changes DNA methylation and histone modifications and that these changes may be related to the induction of pain hypersensitivity under chronic pain conditions. This review summarizes the current knowledge and progress in epigenetic research in chronic pain and discusses the potential role of epigenetic modifications as therapeutic antinociceptive targets in this disorder. PMID:25942533

  13. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women.

    PubMed

    Speer, Linda M; Mushkbar, Saudia; Erbele, Tara

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is defined as persistent, noncyclic pain perceived to be in structures related to the pelvis and lasting more than six months. Often no specific etiology can be identified, and it can be conceptualized as a chronic regional pain syndrome or functional somatic pain syndrome. It is typically associated with other functional somatic pain syndromes (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome, nonspecific chronic fatigue syndrome) and mental health disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). Diagnosis is based on findings from the history and physical examination. Pelvic ultrasonography is indicated to rule out anatomic abnormalities. Referral for diagnostic evaluation of endometriosis by laparoscopy is usually indicated in severe cases. Curative treatment is elusive, and evidence-based therapies are limited. Patient engagement in a biopsychosocial approach is recommended, with treatment of any identifiable disease process such as endometriosis, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, and comorbid depression. Potentially beneficial medications include depot medroxyprogesterone, gabapentin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists with add-back hormone therapy. Pelvic floor physical therapy may be helpful. Behavioral therapy is an integral part of treatment. In select cases, neuromodulation of sacral nerves may be appropriate. Hysterectomy may be considered as a last resort if pain seems to be of uterine origin, although significant improvement occurs in only about one-half of cases. Chronic pelvic pain should be managed with a collaborative, patient-centered approach. PMID:26926975

  14. Counseling the Chronic Pain Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the provision of counseling services for chronic pain patients within comprehensive, multifaceted treatment program. Describes the counseling process, including orientation, evaluation, and clarification of client concerns. Cites the use of coping techniques such as relaxation training, biofeedback training, and pain coping skills. (RC)

  15. Chronic Pain and Exercise Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raithel, Kathryn Simmons

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)

  16. Palliative Sedation and What Constitutes Active Dying: A Case of Severe Progressive Dystonia and Intractable Pain.

    PubMed

    Strand, Jacob J; Feely, Molly A; Kramer, Neha M; Moeschler, Susan M; Swetz, Keith M

    2016-05-01

    We present the case of a 34-year-old woman with Klippel-Feil syndrome who developed progressive generalized dystonia of unclear etiology, resulting in intractable pain despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions. Ultimately, palliative sedation was required to relieve suffering. Herein, we describe ethical considerations including defining sedation, determining prognosis in the setting of an undefined neurodegenerative condition, and use of treatments that concurrently might prolong or alter end-of-life trajectory. We highlight pertinent literature and how it may be applied in challenging and unique clinical situations. Finally, we discuss the need for expert multidisciplinary involvement when implementing palliative sedation and illustrate that procedures and rules need to be interpreted to deliver optimal patient-centered plan of care. PMID:25487783

  17. The pain management approach to chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D

    1987-05-01

    Chronic pelvic pain remains a difficult management problem that is often refractory to traditional medical or surgical therapy. The pain management center approach used successfully for the treatment of cancer pain and headache can be adapted to the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. The results of this pilot study suggest that the multidisciplinary techniques of pain management promise to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:2439689

  18. Spinal Cauda Equina Stimulation for Alternative Location of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Intractable Phantom Limb Pain Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pil Moo; So, Yun; Park, Jung Min; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kim, Jae Hun

    2016-04-01

    Phantom limb pain is a phenomenon in which patients experience pain in a part of the body that no longer exists. In several treatment modalities, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been introduced for the management of intractable post-amputation pain. A 46-year-old male patient complained of severe ankle and foot pain, following above-the-knee amputation surgery on the right side amputation surgery three years earlier. Despite undergoing treatment with multiple modalities for pain management involving numerous oral and intravenous medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency (RF) treatment, the effect duration was temporary and the decreases in the patient's pain score were not acceptable. Even the use of SCS did not provide completely satisfactory pain management. However, the trial lead positioning in the cauda equina was able to stimulate the site of the severe pain, and the patient's pain score was dramatically decreased. We report a case of successful pain management with spinal cauda equina stimulation following the failure of SCS in the treatment of intractable phantom limb pain. PMID:27103968

  19. Spinal Cauda Equina Stimulation for Alternative Location of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Intractable Phantom Limb Pain Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pil Moo; So, Yun; Park, Jung Min; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Phantom limb pain is a phenomenon in which patients experience pain in a part of the body that no longer exists. In several treatment modalities, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been introduced for the management of intractable post-amputation pain. A 46-year-old male patient complained of severe ankle and foot pain, following above-the-knee amputation surgery on the right side amputation surgery three years earlier. Despite undergoing treatment with multiple modalities for pain management involving numerous oral and intravenous medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency (RF) treatment, the effect duration was temporary and the decreases in the patient's pain score were not acceptable. Even the use of SCS did not provide completely satisfactory pain management. However, the trial lead positioning in the cauda equina was able to stimulate the site of the severe pain, and the patient's pain score was dramatically decreased. We report a case of successful pain management with spinal cauda equina stimulation following the failure of SCS in the treatment of intractable phantom limb pain. PMID:27103968

  20. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Descalzi, Giannina; Ikegami, Daigo; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Nestler, Eric; Zachariou, Venetia; Narita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic and inflammatory pain promote a large number of persisting adaptations at the cellular and molecular level, allowing tissue or nerve damage, even if only transient, to elicit changes in cells that contribute to the development of chronic pain and associated symptoms. There is evidence that injury-induced changes in chromatin structure drive stable changes in gene expression and neural function, which may cause several symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, anxiety, and depression. Recent findings on epigenetic changes in the spinal cord and brain during chronic pain may guide fundamental advances in new treatments. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic regulation in the nervous system and then discuss the still-limited literature that directly implicates epigenetic modifications in chronic pain syndromes. PMID:25765319

  1. Chest Pain, Chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... an anti-inflammatory medicine to relieve the pain. Heat may also help. See your doctor if the pain doesn't get better with these treatments. No 4. Do physical activities, emotional stress or extreme temperatures cause a feeling of pressure ...

  2. Chronic leg pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Werner, Brian C; Starman, Jim S; Gwathmey, F Winston; Carson, Eric W; Wilder, Robert P; Diduch, David R

    2015-06-01

    Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management. Although most of these chronic problems are treated nonsurgically, some patients require operative intervention. For each condition listed above, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management option, and outcomes are discussed in turn. PMID:25157051

  3. Pharmacologic management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Dong Eon

    2010-06-01

    Chronic pain is a multifactorial condition with both physical and psychological symptoms, and it affects around 20% of the population in the developed world. In spite of outstanding advances in pain management over the past decades, chronic pain remains a significant problem. This article provides a mechanism- and evidence-based approach to improve the outcome for pharmacologic management of chronic pain. The usual approach to treat mild to moderate pain is to start with a nonopioid analgesic. If this is inadequate, and if there is an element of sleep deprivation, then it is reasonable to add an antidepressant with analgesic qualities. If there is a component of neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia, then a trial with one of the gabapentinoids is appropriate. If these steps are inadequate, then an opioid analgesic may be added. For moderate to severe pain, one would initiate an earlier trial of a long term opioid. Skeletal muscle relaxants and topicals may also be appropriate as single agents or in combination. Meanwhile, the steps of pharmacologic treatments for neuropathic pain include (1) certain antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), calcium channel alpha(2)-delta ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin) and topical lidocaine, (2) opioid analgesics and tramadol (for first-line use in selected clinical circumstances) and (3) certain other antidepressant and antiepileptic medications (topical capsaicin, mexiletine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists). It is essential to have a thorough understanding about the different pain mechanisms of chronic pain and evidence-based multi-mechanistic treatment. It is also essential to increase the individualization of treatment. PMID:20556211

  4. Pharmacologic Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hue Jung

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a multifactorial condition with both physical and psychological symptoms, and it affects around 20% of the population in the developed world. In spite of outstanding advances in pain management over the past decades, chronic pain remains a significant problem. This article provides a mechanism- and evidence-based approach to improve the outcome for pharmacologic management of chronic pain. The usual approach to treat mild to moderate pain is to start with a nonopioid analgesic. If this is inadequate, and if there is an element of sleep deprivation, then it is reasonable to add an antidepressant with analgesic qualities. If there is a component of neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia, then a trial with one of the gabapentinoids is appropriate. If these steps are inadequate, then an opioid analgesic may be added. For moderate to severe pain, one would initiate an earlier trial of a long term opioid. Skeletal muscle relaxants and topicals may also be appropriate as single agents or in combination. Meanwhile, the steps of pharmacologic treatments for neuropathic pain include (1) certain antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), calcium channel α2-δ ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin) and topical lidocaine, (2) opioid analgesics and tramadol (for first-line use in selected clinical circumstances) and (3) certain other antidepressant and antiepileptic medications (topical capsaicin, mexiletine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists). It is essential to have a thorough understanding about the different pain mechanisms of chronic pain and evidence-based multi-mechanistic treatment. It is also essential to increase the individualization of treatment. PMID:20556211

  5. Chronic Pain Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take, ask your doctor or your pharmacist. Acetaminophen Acetaminophen (one brand name: Tylenol) helps many kinds of ... over-the-counter and prescription pain medicines have acetaminophen in them. If you're not careful, you ...

  6. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Hans; De Zutter, Eline; De Muynck, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. PMID:26664155

  7. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    PubMed Central

    Verstraelen, Hans; De Zutter, Eline; De Muynck, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. PMID:26664155

  8. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Prasert, Romchat; Paungmali, Aatit; Boontha, Kritsana

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses. The pain measures were assessed over the cervical spine and at a remote site, the tibialis anterior muscle. Results Elders with chronic neck pain had lower pressure pain threshold over the articular pillar of C5-C6 and decreased cold pain thresholds over the cervical spine and tibialis anterior muscle when compared with controls (p < 0.05). There were no between group differences in heat pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses (p > 0.05). Conclusion The presence of pain hypersensitivity in elderly women with chronic neck pain appears to be dependent on types of painful stimuli. This may reflect changes in the peripheral and central nervous system with age. PMID:26039149

  9. Microendoscopy-guided percutaneous cordotomy for intractable pain: case series of 24 patients.

    PubMed

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Lopez, William Omar Contreras; de Oliveira, Ywzhe Sifuentes Almeida; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to show that microendoscopic guidance using a double-channel technique could be safely applied during percutaneous cordotomy and provides clear real-time visualization of the spinal cord and surrounding structures during the entire procedure. METHODS Twenty-four adult patients with intractable cancer pain were treated by microendoscopic-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) cordotomy using the double-channel technique under local anesthesia. A percutaneous lateral puncture was performed initially under fluoroscopy guidance to localize the target. When the subarachnoid space was reached by the guiding cannula, the endoscope was inserted for visualization of the spinal cord and surrounding structures. After target visualization, a second needle was inserted to guide the RF electrode. Cordotomy was performed by a standard RF method. RESULTS The microendoscopic double-channel approach provided real-time visualization of the target in 91% of the cases. The other 9% of procedures were performed by the single-channel technique. Significant analgesia was achieved in over 90% of the cases. Two patients had transient ataxia that lasted for a few weeks until total recovery. CONCLUSIONS The use of percutaneous microendoscopic cordotomy with the double-channel technique is useful for specific manipulations of the spinal cord. It provides real-time visualization of the RF probe, thereby adding a degree of safety to the procedure. PMID:26230468

  10. Management of chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Benjamin-Pratt, A R; Howard, F M

    2010-10-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common complaint of women presenting for gynecologic and primary care. Evaluation of CPP requires obtaining a careful history including not only obstetrical and gynecologic information but also screening for gastrointestinal, urologic, musculoskeletal, and neurological disorders. A detailed physical examination is also necessary. Management of CPP depends largely on the cause. Gynecologic causes include endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, adhesive disease, pelvic congestion syndrome, ovarian retention syndrome, ovarian remnant syndrome, adenomyosis, and leiomyomas. Some non-gynecologic causes are interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, pelvic floor tension myalgia, and abdominal myofascial pain syndrome. Treatments may be directed toward specific causes or may be targeted to general pain management. The most effective therapy may involve using both approaches. The diagnosis and treatment of each of the above disorders, and the management of CPP itself, is discussed. PMID:20938429

  11. Managing chronic pain in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kawi, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    At least 100 million adults in the United States are afflicted with chronic pain. Nurse practitioners and other providers are often challenged by the complexity of chronic pain management. This article discusses systematic strategies to facilitate safe, efficient, satisfactory, and quality care of patients with chronic pain in primary care. PMID:26886269

  12. Glial Cells and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    GOSSELIN, ROMAIN-DANIEL; SUTER, MARC R.; JI, RU-RONG; DECOSTERD, ISABELLE

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, the control of pain exerted by glial cells has emerged as a promising target against pathological pain. Indeed, changes in glial phenotypes have been reported throughout the entire nociceptive pathway, from peripheral nerves to higher integrative brain regions and pharmacological inhibition of such glial reactions reduces the manifestation of pain in animal models. This complex interplay between glia and neurons relies on various mechanisms depending both on glial cell types considered (astrocytes, microglia, satellite cells or Schwann cells), the anatomical location of the regulatory process (peripheral nerve, spinal cord or brain) and the nature of the chronic pain paradigm. Intracellularly, recent advances have pointed out to the activation of specific cascades, such as mitogen associated protein kinases (MAPK) in the underlying processes behind glial activation. In addition, given the large number of functions accomplished by glial cells, various mechanisms might sensitize nociceptive neurons including a release of pronociceptive cytokines and neurotrophins or changes in neurotransmitter scavenging capacity. The authors review the conceptual advances made in the recent years about the implication of central and peripheral glia in animal models of chronic pain and discuss the possibility to translate it into human therapies in the future. PMID:20581331

  13. Clinical management of chronic TMD pain.

    PubMed

    Miller, D B

    1998-01-01

    Chronic Pain extracts a "penalty" on society now estimated to be well in excess of $100 million per year. The "penalty" that Chronic Pain extracts from its victims is incalculable. Chronic Pain is a major component of Temporomandibular Disorders. The current neurological theory of the mechanism of chronic TMD pain is explored along with the current modes of treatment. Pharmacological management of Chronic Pain in a clinical setting is outlined. Dentists are involved in pain management on a daily basis. Dentists treat pain both prophylacticly and in response to specific patient symptoms. Most dental treatment involves some type of pain management. We, dentists, have become very adept at managing acute pain. We have much greater difficulty managing chronic pain. The word "pain" derives from the Greek word for penalty, and appeared to them to be a "penalty" inflicted by the gods. In 1984, Bonica estimated that one-third of all Americans suffered from some kind of chronic pain at a "penalty" to society of $65 Billion annually in medical expenses and lost wages and productivity. This figure is certainly much greater now. Chronic pain can be a very complex problem that can require a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Chronic pain in the dental setting is most frequetly caused by prolonged Temporomandibular Disorders. PMID:10613132

  14. Peripheral and Neuraxial Chemical Neurolysis for the Management of Intractable Lower Extremity Pain in a Patient with Terminal Cancer.

    PubMed

    De Pinto, Mario; Naidu, Ramana K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 74-year-old man with Stage IV metastatic, multifocal, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (T2b, N1, M1, G4) invading the proximal area of the left lower extremity and resulting in intractable neuropathic pain along the distribution of the femoral nerve. He described the pain as being so severe to cause inability to ambulate without assistance or to sleep in a supine or prone position. After a spinal cord stimulation trial and a trial of intrathecal (IT) hydromorphone, both performed at an outside institution, had failed to achieve adequate pain relief, we decided to perform a femoral nerve chemical neurolysis with phenol under ultrasound (US) guidance. The intervention provided 6 months of almost complete pain relief. With the tumor spreading in girth distally and proximally to the scrotal and pelvic areas as well as to the lungs, and pain returning back to baseline, we proceeded with a second femoral nerve chemical neurolysis. Unfortunately we were not able to achieve adequate pain relief. Therefore we opted to proceed with a diagnostic injection of local anesthetic under fluoroscopic guidance at the left L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots level. This intervention provided 100% pain relief and was followed, a few days later, by chemical neurolysis with phenol 3%. The patient reported complete pain relief with the procedure and no sensory-motor related side effects or complications. He was able to enjoy the last 6 weeks of life with his wife and family, pain-free. With this report we add to the limited literature available regarding the management of intractable cancer pain with chemical neurolysis in and around the epidural space. PMID:26218956

  15. Intracranial Chronic Subdural Hematoma Presenting with Intractable Headache after Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myungsoo

    2015-01-01

    Postdural punctural headache (PDPH) following spinal anesthesia is due to intracranial hypotension caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, and it is occasionally accompanied by an intracranial hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, an intracranial chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) presenting with an intractable headache after a cervical epidural steroid injection (ESI) has not been reported. A 39-year-old woman without any history of trauma underwent a cervical ESI for a herniated nucleus pulposus at the C5-6 level. One month later, she presented with a severe headache that was not relieved by analgesic medication, which changed in character from being positional to non-positional during the preceding month. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a CSDH along the left convexity. Emergency burr-hole drainage was performed and the headache abated. This report indicates that an intracranial CSDH should be considered a possible complication after ESI. In addition, the event of an intractable and changing PDPH after ESI suggests further evaluation for diagnosis of an intracranial hematoma. PMID:26361532

  16. Chronic bilateral thalamic stimulation: a new therapeutic approach in intractable Tourette syndrome. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Temel, Yasin; Boon, Peter; Vreeling, Fred; Colle, Henry; Hoogland, Govert; Groenewegen, Henk J; van der Linden, Chris

    2003-12-01

    Based on the results of thalamotomies described by Hassler in 1970, the authors performed bilateral thalamic high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in three patients with intractable Tourette syndrome (TS). In this report they describe the long-term effects. Three male patients (42, 28, and 45 years of age) had manifested motor and vocal tics since early childhood. The diagnosis of TS was made according to the criteria of the Tourette Syndrome Classification Study Group. Any drug or alternative treatment had been either ineffective or only temporarily effective in all three patients. There was no serious comorbidity. The target for stimulation was chosen at the level of the centromedian nucleus, substantia periventricularis, and nucleus ventrooralis internus. After 2 weeks of test stimulation, the pulse generators were implanted. After a follow-up period of 5 years in the patient in Case 1, 1 year in the patient in Case 2, and 8 months in the patient in Case 3, all major motor and vocal tics had disappeared and no serious complications had occurred. When stimulation was applied at the voltage necessary to achieve an optimal result on the tics, a slight sedative effect was noted in all three patients. In the patients in Cases 1 and 3 there were stimulation-induced changes in sexual behavior. Chronic thalamic HFS may be an effective and safe treatment for medically intractable TS in adult patients. Unwanted stimulation-induced side effects may occur. PMID:14705742

  17. The prevalence of chronic pain in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Schopflocher, Donald; Taenzer, Paul; Jovey, Roman

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While chronic pain appears to be relatively common, published population prevalence estimates have been highly variable, partly due to differences in the definition of chronic pain and in survey methodologies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Canada using clear case definitions and a validated survey instrument. METHODS: A telephone survey was administered to a representative sample of adults from across Canada using the same screening questionnaire that had been used in a recent large, multicountry study conducted in Europe. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain prevalence for adults older than 18 years of age was 18.9%. This was comparable with the overall mean reported using identical survey questions and criteria for chronic pain used in the European study. Chronic pain prevalence was greater in older adults, and females had a higher prevalence at older ages compared with males. Approximately one-half of those with chronic pain reported suffering for more than 10 years. Approximately one-third of those reporting chronic pain rated the intensity in the very severe range. The lower back was the most common site of chronic pain, and arthritis was the most frequently named cause. CONCLUSIONS: A consensus is developing that there is a high prevalence of chronic pain within adult populations living in industrialized nations. Recent studies have formulated survey questions carefully and have used large samples. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of Canadian adults continue to live with chronic pain that is longstanding and severe. PMID:22184555

  18. Alexithymia in Chronic Pain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Tella, Marialaura; Castelli, Lorys

    2016-07-01

    This review proposes a critical discussion of the recent studies investigating the presence of alexithymia in patients suffering from different chronic pain (CP) conditions. The term CP refers to pain that persists or progresses over time, while alexithymia is an affective dysregulation, largely observed in psychosomatic diseases. Overall, the examined studies showed a high prevalence of alexithymia, especially difficulties in identifying feelings, in all the different CP conditions considered. However, the association between alexithymia and pain intensity was not always clear and in some studies this relationship appeared to be mediated by negative effect, especially depression. The role of alexithymia in CP should be clarified by future studies, paying particular attention to two aspects: the use of additional measures, in addition to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, to assess alexithymia, and the analysis of the potential differences in the evolution of different CP conditions with reference to the presence or absence of alexithymia. PMID:27215759

  19. [On the Differential Diagnosis of Intractable Psychogenic Chronic Cough: Neuropathic Larynx Irritable - Gabapentin's Antitussive Action].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, U; Ossowski, A; Schubert, M; Gall, H; Steinkamp, I; Richter, L E; Khalil-Boutros, Y; Nefedev, A; Kuhlmann, R

    2015-10-01

    We present the case of a 76 year old female inpatient who suffered from a chronic intractable cough which arose simultaneously to a severe major depression and was secondary to an exorbitant psychological distress. Chronic cough had never been experienced before and was initially considered to have a mere psychogenic origin since a comprehensive and guideline-based diagnostic screening did not reveal any underlying somatic cause. However, several factors cast doubt on the solitary psychic genesis of the chronic cough: i) occurrence immediately after a penetrant cold, ii) embedding in other complaints of laryngeal hyperreagibility (larynx irritable), such as persistent globus pharyngeus sensation, throat clearing and episodic dysphonia, iii) first occurrence on old life, iv) erupting from sleep as well, v) persistence despite remission of the major depression, and v) no sustaining benefit from specific psychotherapy and speech therapy. Therefore, diagnostics were extended to apparative tools for objective evaluation of swallowing by using fiberoptic videoendoscopic (FEES) and videofluoroscopic (VFS) techniques, which revealed signs of laryngeal neuropathy but without evidence of penetration or aspiration. A co-existing small goiter and an impaired glucose tolerance along with a putative intracellular vitamin B12 or folate deficiency (as indirectly derived from an apparent hyperhomocysteinemia) were assumed to be responsible for the neuropathy and underwent specific treatments. The impaired glucose tolerance and putative vitamin deficit were compatible with a distal symmetric sensorimotoric, even subclinical polyneuropathy of the lower extremities. The larynx irritable improved under gabapentin being confirmed by drug removals several times, and finally calmed down almost completely under gabapentin, which was in line with the scant literature of this topic. Re-examination of the larynx per FEES nine months later showed no deficits any more under the well-tolerated treatment (gabapentin, levothyroxine, vitamin B12 and folic acid substitution, weight reduction and physical training). All in all, the larynx irritable as well as the chronic cough were most probably induced by a laryngeal neuropathy and were not solely of psychic origin. Due to good treatment options a larynx irritable should be regularly taken into consideration of the investigation of intractable chronic cough. Therefore, an apparative evaluation of deglutition is recommended in the diagnostic toolbox of chronic cough - even if embedded in a psychiatric disorder or distress - before diagnosing a sole psychic origin. An hypothetical scheme of the development of a larynx irritable caused by neuropathic and non-neuropathic ("nociceptive") conditions is proposed. PMID:26588720

  20. Safely Managing Chronic Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Chronic Pain Safely Managing Chronic Pain Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Helping ... can help, as well. The Two Faces of Pain: Acute and Chronic What is pain? The International ...

  1. Subacute and chronic electrical stimulation of the hippocampus on intractable temporal lobe seizures: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Velasco, A L; Velasco, M; Velasco, F; Menes, D; Gordon, F; Rocha, L; Briones, M; Márquez, I

    2000-01-01

    Recent animal experiments show that the application of an electrical stimulus to the amygdala or hippocampus following the kindling stimulus produced a significant and long-lasting suppressive effect on this experimental model of epilepsy. This is a preliminary report on the development of a surgical neuromodulatory procedure by chronic electrical stimulation of the hippocampus (CHCS) for control of intractable temporal lobe seizures in patients in whom anterior temporal lobectomy is not advisable, i.e., patients with bilateral temporal foci or a unilateral focus spreading to surrounding cerebral regions of the dominant hemisphere. This work was divided in two main consecutive stages. In the first stage, we demonstrated that subacute hippocampal stimulation (SAHCS) blocks intractable temporal lobe epileptogenesis with no additional damage to the stimulated tissue, and in a second stage, we attempt to demonstrate that CHCS may produce a sustained, long-lasting antiepileptic condition without additional undesirable effects on language and memory. In addition, taking advantage of this unique and ethically permissible situation, we attempt to determine whether or not the antiepileptic effects of SAHCS and CHCS are due to inhibition of the stimulation of hippocampal tissue by means of a number of electrophysiological, single photon computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion, and autoradiographic techniques.SAHCS during 3-4 weeks prior to anterior temporal lobectomy applied to a critical area located either at the anterior Pes hippocampus close to the amygdala or at the parahippocampal gyrus close to the entorhinal cortex abolished clinical seizures and significantly decreased the number of interictal spikes at focus after 5-6 days. Microscopy analysis of the stimulated tissue showed no evident histopathological differences between stimulated vs. non-stimulated hippocampal tissues. Additionally, CHCS persistently blocked temporal lobe epileptogenesis for 3-4 months with no apparent additional undesirable effects on short memory. Also, inhibition of the stimulated hippocampus seems to be one of the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial antiepileptic effects of SAHCS and CHCS. This was revealed by increased threshold and decreased duration of the afterdischarges induced by hippocampal stimulation, flattening of the hippocampal-evoked response recovery cycles, SPECT hypoperfusion of the hippocampal region, and increased hippocampal benzodiazepine receptor binding. Future studies increasing the number and time of follow-up of patients under hippocampal stimulation are necessary before considering CHCS a reliable procedure for controlling intractable temporal lobe seizures. PMID:11036183

  2. Chronic pain after open inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Nikkolo, Ceith; Lepner, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Following the widespread use of mesh repairs, recurrence rates after inguinal hernia surgery have become acceptable and focus has shifted from recurrence to chronic pain. Although pain can be controlled with analgesics, chronic postsurgical pain is a major clinical problem, which can significantly influence the patient's quality of life. The rate of chronic pain after inguinal hernia mesh repair can reach 51.6%. The reasons for posthernioplasty chronic pain are often unclear. It has been linked to nerve injury and nerve entrapment, but there is also association between the rate of chronic pain and the type of mesh used for hernia repair. As there are >160 meshes available in the market, it is difficult to choose a mesh whose usage would result in the best outcome. Different mesh characteristics have been studied, among them weight of mesh has probably gained the most attention. The choice of adequate therapy for chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair is controversial. The European Hernia Society recommends that a multidisciplinary approach at a pain clinic should be considered for the treatment of chronic postoperative pain. Although surgical treatment of chronic posthernioplasty pain is limited because of the lack of relevant research data, resection of entrapped nerves, mesh removal in the case of mesh related pain or removal of fixation sutures can be beneficial for the patient with severe pain after inguinal hernia surgery. One drawback of published studies is the lack of consensus over definition of chronic pain, which makes it complicated to compare the results of different studies and to conduct meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Therefore, a uniform definition of chronic pain and its best assessment methods should be developed in order to conduct top quality multicenter randomized trials. Further research to develop meshes with optimal parameters is of vital importance and should be encouraged. PMID:26567717

  3. Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.

    2011-08-01

    We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ≈ 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.

  4. Managing your chronic back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. ...

  5. Pain Characteristics and Pain Catastrophizing in Incarcerated Women with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Darnall, Beth D.; Sazie, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain in incarcerated women is understudied and poorly described. Study objectives were to describe pain characteristics, correlates, and predictors in a convenience sample of incarcerated women with chronic pain. A survey packet that included the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF) and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was distributed to all inmates at a state prison for women. Those who self-identified as having chronic pain ≥4 on a 0–10 numeric rating scale were invited to complete the survey. Demographics and medical and psychiatric diagnoses were abstracted by chart review. Participants (N=159) rated their current and average pain intensity as severe. Pain catastrophizing was found to predict average pain intensity and level of pain-related interference in functioning. Pain catastrophizing is treatable with behavioral intervention in the general population. Findings suggest that pain catastrophizing may be an important target for research and treatment in incarcerated women with chronic pain. PMID:22643606

  6. Hydrocodone bitartrate for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, L; Atluri, S; Kaye, A M; Kaye, A D

    2015-07-01

    Hydrocodone bitartrate is the most commonly used drug for acute and chronic pain in the U.S. with over 135 million prescriptions in 2012. The U.S. is the primary consumer of hydrocodone, using 99% of the global supply for 4.4% of the global population. With its easy availability and abuse patterns, hydrocodone has been touted as a primary driver of opioid-related abuse and misuse. There are no clinical efficacy studies of hydrocodone in short-acting form in combination with acetaminophen or ibuprofen in chronic pain. Hydrocodone has been approved with two long-term formulations since 2014. The FDA has rescheduled hydrocodone from Schedule III to Schedule II which went into effect on October 6, 2014, along with a limit on added acetaminophen of 325 mg for each dose of hydrocodone. This review examines the evolution of hydrocodone into a common and yet controversial drug in the U.S. with its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and efficacy. PMID:26261844

  7. Chronic Pain in the Classroom: Teachers' Attributions about the Causes of Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.…

  8. Chronic pain: a non-use disease.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; van Dam, A C

    2007-01-01

    One of the major problems in modern medicine is to find remedies for the group of people with chronic pain syndromes. Low back pain is one of the most frequent syndromes and perhaps the most invalidating of all of them. Chronic pain seems to develop through several pathways affecting the spinal cord and the brain: (1) neuro-anatomical reorganisation, (2) neuro-physiological changes, and (3) activation of glia cells (immune reaction in the central nervous system). Although all of these pathways seem to provide a (partial) plausible explanation for chronic pain, treatments influencing these pathways often fail to alleviate chronic pain patients. This could be because of the probability that chronic pain develops by all three mechanisms of disease. A treatment influencing just one of these mechanisms can only be partially successful. Other factors that seem to contribute to the development of chronic pain are psychosocial. Fear, attention and anxiety are part of the chronic pain syndrome being cause or consequence. The three pathways and the psycho-emotional factors constitute a psycho-neuro-immunological substrate for chronic pain syndromes; a substrate which resembles the substrate for phantom pain and functional invalidity after stroke. Both phantom pain and functional invalidity are considered non-use syndromes. The similarity of the substrate of both these two neurological disorders and chronic pain makes it reasonable to consider chronic pain a non-use disease (the hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we developed a "paradoxal pain therapy". A therapy which combines the constraint induced movement therapy and strategies to dissociate pain from conditioning factors like fear, anxiety and attention. The aim of the therapy is to establish a behaviour perpendicular on the pathological pain-behaviour. Clinically, the treatment seems promising, although we just have preliminary results. Further clinical and laboratory studies are needed to measure eventual changes at neuro-anatomical and neuro-psychological level using modern neuro-imaging instruments (PET, SPECT, fMRI). Randomised clinical trials should be carried out to test our hypothesis for all-day use in clinical practice. The hypothesis: chronic pain is a non-use disease produced by psycho-emotional factors like fear, attention and anxiety. Optimal treatment should be based on physiological use, and dissociation of pain and the mentioned psycho-emotional factors. Paradoxal pain therapy could serve these treatment conditions. PMID:17071012

  9. Chronic stress in myofascial pain patients.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, Marc; Keller, Livia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Although myofascial pain has often been described as being associated with psychosocial stress, detailed evidence in support of this assumption, either from standardized clinical examination or from validated chronic stress questionnaires, is absent. The hypothesis of the present study was that some stressors lead to higher scores in patients suffering from chronic myofascial pain than in pain-free controls and in patients suffering from chronic facial pain. One hundred and fifty subjects were included in the study, and depending on clinical findings, divided into three groups: exclusively chronic myofascial pain group, controls with chronic facial pain but without temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and controls without pain or TMD. Chronic stress was assessed on nine subscales by use of a validated questionnaire. Myofascial pain patients have a significantly higher stress score for "social isolation" than pain-free controls (t-test, p = 0.003). However, they do not have higher scores than patients suffering from facial pain (t test, p = 0.169). Thus, the hypothesis of this study could not be completely rejected. PMID:19705168

  10. Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ian; Hah, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean; Ottestad, Einar; Kong, Jiang Ti; Lahidji, Sam; Tawfik, Vivianne; Younger, Jarred; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients following a variety of surgeries develop chronic postsurgical pain. Reducing chronic postoperative pain is especially important to reconstructive surgeons because common operations such as breast and limb reconstruction have even higher risk for developing chronic postsurgical pain. Animal studies of posttraumatic nerve injury pain demonstrate that there is a critical time frame before and immediately after nerve injury in which specific interventions can reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic neuropathic pain behaviors–so called “preventative analgesia.” In animal models, perineural local anesthetic, systemic intravenous local anesthetic, perineural clonidine, systemic gabapentin, systemic tricyclic antidepressants, and minocycline have each been shown to reduce pain behaviors days to weeks after treatment. The translation of this work to humans also suggests that brief perioperative interventions may protect patients from developing new chronic postsurgical pain. Recent clinical trial data show that there is an opportunity during the perioperative period to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain. The surgeon, working with the anesthesiologist, has the ability to modify both early and chronic postoperative pain by implementing an evidence-based preventative analgesia plan. PMID:23463498

  11. Counseling Adult Clients Experiencing Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Stephanie T.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for…

  12. Counseling Adult Clients Experiencing Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Stephanie T.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for

  13. Chronic Pain Patients: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lori T.

    Chronic pain syndrome appears to have certain dimensions which make it unique as a disabling condition. When pain persists, the resulting anxiety and depression, others' reactions to the patient's sick role behaviors, and situational variables such as disability benefits may all contribute to the pain syndrome and complicate the rehabilitation…

  14. Intrathecal drug administration in chronic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ver Donck, Ann; Vranken, Jan H; Puylaert, Martine; Hayek, Salim; Mekhail, Nagy; Van Zundert, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Chronic pain may recur after initial response to strong opioids in both patients with cancer and patients without cancer or therapy may be complicated by intolerable side effects. When minimally invasive interventional pain management techniques also fail to provide satisfactory pain relief, continuous intrathecal analgesic administration may be considered. Only 3 products have been officially approved for long-term intrathecal administration: morphine, baclofen, and ziconotide. The efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide for the management of patients with severe chronic refractory noncancer pain was illustrated in 3 placebo-controlled trials. A randomized study showed this treatment option to be effective over a short follow-up period for patients with pain due to cancer or AIDS. The efficacy of intrathecal opioid administration for the management of chronic noncancer pain is mainly derived from prospective and retrospective noncontrolled trials. The effect of intrathecal morphine administration in patients with pain due to cancer was compared with oral or transdermal treatment in a randomized controlled trial, which found better pain control and fewer side effects with intrathecal opioids. Other evidence is derived from cohort studies. Side effects of chronic intrathecal therapy may either be technical (catheter or pump malfunction) or biological (infection). The most troublesome complication is, however, the possibility of granuloma formation at the catheter tip that may induce neurological damage. Given limited studies, the evidence for intrathecal drug administration in patients suffering from cancer-related pain is more compelling than that of chronic noncancer pain. PMID:24118774

  15. The experience of chronic nonmalignant pain.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, L S; Ferrell, B R; McCaffery, M

    1994-07-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of 204 persons with chronic nonmalignant pain who were members of a national self-help organization. The survey evaluated the organization, explored the perceived effect of pain on quality of life, and assessed experiences with and perceptions of health-care providers. Response rate was 40%. Of survey respondents, 50% reported inadequate pain relief. Respondents identified depression as one of the worst problems caused by their chronic pain: 50% reported that they had considered suicide due to feelings of hopelessness associated with their pain, 51% reported taking only as much medication as prescribed, and 44% reported taking less medication than prescribed. Further investigation is needed to describe the personal impact of chronic nonmalignant pain. PMID:7963783

  16. Chronic pain and suicide: understanding the association.

    PubMed

    Hooley, Jill M; Franklin, Joseph C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain conditions are associated with an elevated risk for suicide. Of particular importance is the question of why pain conditions might be linked to increased suicide risk. We discuss the association between chronic pain and psychological pain, particularly in the context of depression, and the use of suicide as an attempt to escape from what is perceived as unbearable suffering. We also consider the role that chronic pain may play in increasing the capacity for suicide. Bridging across research areas and drawing on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, we suggest that chronic pain may facilitate the development of a key risk factor for suicide: fearlessness about death. Given that chronic pain can lead to (and be exacerbated by) depression, engender hopelessness, facilitate a desire for escape through death, and erode the natural fear of dying, clinicians must be aware of psychological processes that can combine to create elevated suicide risk in patients with chronic pain, and they should also assess and treat suicide risk factors in these patients. PMID:24916035

  17. Opioids in chronic noncancer pain: More faces from the crowd

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C Peter N

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) remains very controversial. There are several randomized controlled trials, mostly in neuropathic pain, reporting efficacy and safety in the short term, but more long-term data are needed. Randomized controlled trials may be limited in providing data about the patients who benefit from often high-dose opioids over the long term. The present article provides details of these patients and adds to a previous case series. METHODS: The present article contains 17 case reports of 11 CNCP conditions (followed to 2011) selected to illustrate specific issues from a survey of 84 patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids and followed every three months for a median of 11 years. The previous published survey of this group reported outcomes of pain severity, adverse effects, pain relief, satisfaction, mood, problematic opioid use, tolerance, physical dependency, functional status, health-related quality of life (HRQL), immune status and sexual function. The outcome measures for that study included a numerical rating scale for pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory Interference Scale, the Pain Disability Index and, for HRQL, the Short-Form Health Survey 12 version 2. Most patients in the total sample reported 50% or greater relief and a moderate improvement in disability. Scores for functional status and HRQL were not severely affected. Problematic use, tolerance and serious adverse effects, including constipation, were not major issues. These selected patient reports were chosen, not to illustrate optimal results, but rather important aspects of the diagnoses, opioids and doses, the paucity of intolerable adverse effects, particular issues (concurrent addiction history, bipolar disorder and combination therapy), disease-specific and other outcomes and duration of follow-up with complex pain problems. RESULTS: Opioids were found to be safe and useful in the long term for these particular patients, as well as in the larger group from which they originated. INTERPRETATION: These 17 reports of patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids with some success over many years puts a face on more of the participants in the larger survey of 84 subjects, suggesting that this approach is effective and safe for some patients over many years. PMID:22891192

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Falowski, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a commonly performed procedure and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain since the early 1970s. A review of the literature was performed utilizing the PubMed database evaluating the use of DBS in the treatment of various pain syndromes. Literature over the last 30 years was included with a focus on those articles in the last 10 years dealing with pain conditions with the highest success as well as the targets utilized for treatment. DBS carries favorable results for the treatment of chronic pain, especially when other methods have not been successful such as medications, conservative measures, and extracranial procedures. Various chronic pain conditions reported in the literature respond to DBS including failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), phantom limb pain, and peripheral neuropathic pain with a higher response rate for those with nociceptive pain compared to neuropathic pain. Cephaligias have promising results, with cluster headaches carrying the best success rates. DBS plays a role in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. Although considered investigational in the USA, it carries promising success rates in a recalcitrant patient population. PMID:26049773

  19. Satisfaction With Chronic Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Amirzadeh, Kimia; Mohabbati, Vahid; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of chronic pain (CP) on physical function and emotional and mental health of individuals, families, and community are well established. No adequate research is conducted in this field in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of CP, types of treatments used for CP and patients’ satisfaction with the CP treatments in an Iranian urban population. Patients and Methods: In the current study, CP was investigated using the international CP questionnaire administered to 1,050 adults living in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions used to evaluate the effects of CP on the studied population including the prevalence of CP, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CP, and participants’ satisfaction with CP treatments. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In the current study, 6.95% of the 1,050 subjects willing to participate in the study had CP for more than six months. According to the results, 54% of the subjects with CP used analgesics, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and narcotic analgesics. Besides, 37% of the subjects used other pain relief methods such as traditional medicine and acupuncture. The results also showed an acceptable rate of satisfaction with treatments. Conclusions: The number of subjects with CP proved it as a prevalent problem in the study population. Furthermore, characteristics and associations of those experiencing CP demonstrated that it might have significant negative health and psychosocial outcomes in this group. The problem was found significant enough to consider special health programs to prevent and manage CP in urban population of Shiraz. PMID:26473099

  20. Intravenous lidocaine for the treatment of intractable pain of adiposis dolorosa.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L

    1982-01-01

    Adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease) is a syndrome of painful adipose tissue which occurs most often in post-menopausal women and is associated with obesity, asthenia, and emotional disturbances. The etiology is uncertain, but is probably multifactorial. Numerous treatments to relieve the pain have generally been unsuccessful. A patient with adiposis dolorosa was treated with intravenous infusions of lidocaine over a two-year period. Relief from pain lasted from two to 12 months after each infusion. A single-blind placebo infusion did not relieve the pain. Lidocaine infusions did not relieve the pain of diabetic neuropathy or of angina in this patient. The mechanism of relief of pain of adiposis dolorosa by lidocaine is uncertain, but previously reported central effects of lidocaine suggest that alterations in the central nervous system may be responsible. PMID:7129748

  1. Chronic low back pain: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Last, Allen R; Hulbert, Karen

    2009-06-15

    Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal source; or (4) back pain associated with another specific spinal cause. For patients who have back pain associated with radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, or another specific spinal cause, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography may establish the diagnosis and guide management. Because evidence of improved outcomes is lacking, lumbar spine radiography should be delayed for at least one to two months in patients with nonspecific pain. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first-line medications for chronic low back pain. Tramadol, opioids, and other adjunctive medications may benefit some patients who do not respond to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Acupuncture, exercise therapy, multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, massage, behavior therapy, and spinal manipulation are effective in certain clinical situations. Patients with radicular symptoms may benefit from epidural steroid injections, but studies have produced mixed results. Most patients with chronic low back pain will not benefit from surgery. A surgical evaluation may be considered for select patients with functional disabilities or refractory pain despite multiple nonsurgical treatments. PMID:19530637

  2. Male chronic pelvic pain: An update

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome collectively referred to as urologic CPPS (UCPPS) is defined by the absence of identifiable bacterial infection as a cause for the chronic pain and urinary symptoms. Methods: A PubMed search of all recent relevant articles using the keywords/phrases: CPPS, CPPS, and male pelvic pain, was conducted. Results: CPPS has a high worldwide prevalence and its negative impact on quality of life compares with or exceeds common chronic morbidities. Triggers include certain comestibles as well as psychosocial factors that promote catastrophizing and illness focused behavior. Several validated tools are currently available to help diagnose and direct targeted therapy. Treatment should begin with the most simple and least invasive based on the presenting clinical phenotype. Conclusions: Although no gold-standard treatment exists, a multidisciplinary approach with multimodal therapy gives the UCPPS patient the best chance of symptom relief. PMID:26941492

  3. Deep brain stimulation for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Boccard, Sandra G J; Pereira, Erlick A C; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical intervention popularised in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, and also reported to improve symptoms of epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorders and cluster headache. Since the 1950s, DBS has been used as a treatment to relieve intractable pain of several aetiologies including post stroke pain, phantom limb pain, facial pain and brachial plexus avulsion. Several patient series have shown benefits in stimulating various brain areas, including the sensory thalamus (ventral posterior lateral and medial), the periaqueductal and periventricular grey, or, more recently, the anterior cingulate cortex. However, this technique remains "off label" in the USA as it does not have Federal Drug Administration approval. Consequently, only a small number of surgeons report DBS for pain using current technology and techniques and few regions approve it. Randomised, blinded and controlled clinical trials that may use novel trial methodologies are desirable to evaluate the efficacy of DBS in patients who are refractory to other therapies. New imaging techniques, including tractography, may help optimise electrode placement and clinical outcome. PMID:26122383

  4. Chronic perianal pain: an unsolved problem.

    PubMed Central

    Neill, M E; Swash, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with chronic anal pain of obscure origin are described. This syndrome is ill-defined and treatment is unsatisfactory. There is a high incidence of sciatica and of damage to the pelvic floor musculature, but although the pain has features consistent with a neuralgia, its cause is unknown. PMID:7069679

  5. Intractable pain: a neglected area of medical education in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Marcer, D; Deighton, S

    1988-01-01

    Unease over the previous management of 67 patients referred for treatment to 3 pain relief clinics led us to investigate the current state of education in pain and pain control in the UK. Twenty-seven medical schools provided data which revealed; (i) in 4 schools no teaching whatsoever is given in these subjects; (ii) in the remainder it is accorded an average of 3.5 hours during the 5 year course, with little evidence of multidisciplinary teaching; (iii) only 10 schools (37%) regularly set questions on pain control in formal examinations. A survey of 219 general practitioners revealed a wide-ranging lack of knowledge about the facilities and approach to treatment at their local pain relief clinic. These findings have wide reaching implications for medical education. At the undergraduate level they demonstrate a need for more multidisciplinary teaching and practical experience in specialist units. Thereafter specialists in pain control must enable practising doctors to keep abreast of new developments. This may require them to devote more time writing for a non-specialist audience and devising short, postgraduate courses. PMID:3221366

  6. Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Peripheral Nervous System Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major health concern affecting 80 million Americans at some time in their lives with significant associated morbidity and effects on individual quality of life. Chronic pain can result from a variety of inflammatory and nerve damaging events that include cancer, infectious diseases, autoimmune-related syndromes and surgery. Current pharmacotherapies have not provided an effective long-term solution as they are limited by drug tolerance and potential abuse. These concerns have led to the development and testing of gene therapy approaches to treat chronic pain. The potential efficacy of gene therapy for pain has been reported in numerous pre-clinical studies that demonstrate pain control at the level of the spinal cord. This promise has been recently supported by a Phase-I human trial in which a replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector was used to deliver the human pre-proenkephalin (hPPE) gene, encoding the natural opioid peptides met- and leu-enkephalin (ENK), to cancer patients with intractable pain resulting from bone metastases (Fink et al., 2011). The study showed that the therapy was well tolerated and that patients receiving the higher doses of therapeutic vector experienced a substantial reduction in their overall pain scores for up to a month post vector injection. These exciting early clinical results await further patient testing to demonstrate treatment efficacy and will likely pave the way for other gene therapies to treat chronic pain. PMID:22668775

  7. The use of cannabinoids in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Timothy David; Osborn, Hannah Louise

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 56-year-old man who developed chronic pain following the excision of a facial cancer that was poorly controlled despite multiple analgesic medications. Following the starting of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) his pain control was greatly improved and this had a huge impact on his quality of life. We also managed to significantly reduce his doses of opioid analgesia and ketamine. We review the current literature regarding the medicinal use of cannabinoids, with an emphasis on chronic pain, in an attempt to clarify their role and how to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. PMID:23893276

  8. The use of cannabinoids in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Timothy David; Osborn, Hannah Louise

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 56-year-old man who developed chronic pain following the excision of a facial cancer that was poorly controlled despite multiple analgesic medications. Following the starting of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) his pain control was greatly improved and this had a huge impact on his quality of life. We also managed to significantly reduce his doses of opioid analgesia and ketamine. We review the current literature regarding the medicinal use of cannabinoids, with an emphasis on chronic pain, in an attempt to clarify their role and how to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. PMID:23893276

  9. TMD and chronic pain: A current view

    PubMed Central

    Furquim, Bruno D'Aurea; Flamengui, Lívia Maria Sales Pinto; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This review aims at presenting a current view on the physiopathologic mechanisms associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). While joint pain is characterized by a well-defined inflammatory process mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin, chronic muscle pain presents with enigmatic physiopathologic mechanisms, being considered a functional pain syndrome similar to fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Central sensitization is the common factor unifying these conditions, and may be influenced by the autonomic nervous system and genetic polymorphisms. Thus, TMDs symptoms should be understood as a complex response which might get worse or improve depending on an individual's adaptation. PMID:25741834

  10. Pharmacogenetics of Chronic Pain and Its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sv?tlk, Svatopluk; Hronov, Karolna; Bakhouche, Hana; Matoukov, Olga; Slana?, Ond?ej

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact of genetic variability of drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, receptors, and pathways involved in chronic pain perception on the efficacy and safety of analgesics and other drugs used for chronic pain treatment. Several candidate genes have been identified in the literature, while there is usually only limited clinical evidence substantiating for the penetration of the testing for these candidate biomarkers into the clinical practice. Further, the pain-perception regulation and modulation are still not fully understood, and thus more complex knowledge of genetic and epigenetic background for analgesia will be needed prior to the clinical use of the candidate genetic biomarkers. PMID:23766564

  11. The association between chronic pain and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Okifuji, Akiko; Hare, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain complaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also review the relationship between obesity and pain response to noxious stimulation in animals and humans. Based upon the existing research, we present several potential mechanisms that may link the two phenomena, including mechanical/structural factors, chemical mediators, depression, sleep, and lifestyle. We discuss the clinical implications of obesity and pain, focusing on the effect of weight loss, both surgical and noninvasive, on pain. The literature suggests that the two conditions are significant comorbidities, adversely impacting each other. The nature of the relationship however is not likely to be direct, but many interacting factors appear to contribute. Weight loss for obese pain patients appears to be an important aspect of overall pain rehabilitation, although more efforts are needed to determine strategies to maintain long-term benefit. PMID:26203274

  12. Promethazine use among chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Kara L.; Shapiro, Brad J.; Coffa, Diana; Novak, Scott P.; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Concomitant use of opioids and promethazine has been reported in various subpopulations, including methadone maintenance patients, injection drug users, and at-risk teenagers. Promethazine is thought to potentiate the “high” from opioids. However, to date, the prevalence of promethazine use has not been determined among patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Methods Urine samples from 921 patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain were analyzed for promethazine. Demographic data, toxicology results, and opioid prescription information were obtained through medical record abstraction. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with promethazine use with bivariable and multivariable statistics. Results The prevalence of promethazine-positive urine samples among chronic pain patients was 9%. Only 50% of promethazine-positive patients had an active prescription for promethazine. Having benzodiazepine-positive urine with no prescription for a benzodiazepine was statistically associated with promethazine use. Also, having a prescription for methadone for pain or being in methadone maintenance for the treatment of opioid dependence were both statistically associated with promethazine use. Chronic pain patients prescribed only a long-acting opioid were more likely to have promethazine-positive urines than patients prescribed a short-acting opioid. Conclusions The study provides compelling evidence of significant promethazine use in chronic pain patients. Promethazine should be considered as a potential drug of abuse that could cause increased morbidity in opioid-using populations. PMID:25754939

  13. Glia and pain: Is chronic pain a gliopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Berta, Temugin; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Activation of glial cells and neuro-glial interactions are emerging as key mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Accumulating evidence has implicated 3 types of glial cells in the development and maintenance of chronic pain: microglia and astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), and satellite glial cells of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Painful syndromes are associated with different glial activation states: (1) glial reaction (ie, upregulation of glial markers such as IBA1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and/or morphological changes, including hypertrophy, proliferation, and modifications of glial networks); (2) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways; (3) upregulation of adenosine triphosphate and chemokine receptors and hemichannels and downregulation of glutamate transporters; and (4) synthesis and release of glial mediators (eg, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases) to the extracellular space. Although widely detected in chronic pain resulting from nerve trauma, inflammation, cancer, and chemotherapy in rodents, and more recently, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy in human beings, glial reaction (activation state 1) is not thought to mediate pain sensitivity directly. Instead, activation states 2 to 4 have been demonstrated to enhance pain sensitivity via a number of synergistic neuro-glial interactions. Glial mediators have been shown to powerfully modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission at presynaptic, postsynaptic, and extrasynaptic sites. Glial activation also occurs in acute pain conditions, and acute opioid treatment activates peripheral glia to mask opioid analgesia. Thus, chronic pain could be a result of “gliopathy,” that is, dysregulation of glial functions in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances and discuss remaining questions. PMID:23792284

  14. Medical management for intractable pain arising from primary sjögren syndrome involving both brain and spinal cord: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Moo; Han, Kyu Yong; Kwon, Oh Pum

    2014-08-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome, which involves lesions in both the brain and spinal cord, is rarely reported. Related symptoms, such as intractable pain due to central nervous system involvement, are very rare. A 73-year-old woman diagnosed with primary Sjögren syndrome manifested with subacute encephalopathy and extensive transverse myelitis. She complained of severe whole body neuropathic pain. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a non-enhancing ill-defined high intensity signal involving the posterior limb of the both internal capsule and right thalamus on a T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image. Additionally, multifocal intramedullary ill-defined contrast-enhancing lesion with cord swelling from the C-spine to L-spine was also visible on the T2-weighted image. Her intractable pain remarkably improved after administration of concomitant oral doses of gabapentin, venlafaxine, and carbamazepine. PMID:25229038

  15. Physical modalities in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Rakel, Barbara; Barr, John O

    2003-09-01

    The following conclusions can be made based on review of the evidence: There is limited but positive evidence that select physical modalities are effective in managing chronic pain associated with specific conditions experienced by adults and older individuals. Overall, studies have provided the most support for the modality of therapeutic exercise. Different physical modalities have similar magnitudes of effects on chronic pain. Therefore, selection of the most appropriate physical modality may depend on the desired functional outcome for the patient, the underlying impairment, and the patient's preference or prior experience with the modality. Certain patient characteristics may decrease the effectiveness of physical modalities, as has been seen with TENS. These characteristics include depression, high trait anxiety, a powerful others locus of control, obesity, narcotic use, and neuroticism. The effect on pain by various modalities is generally strongest in the short-term period immediately after the intervention series, but effects can last as long as 1 year after treatment (e.g., with massage). Most research has tested the effect of physical modalities on chronic low back pain and knee OA. The effectiveness of physical modalities for other chronic pain conditions needs to be evaluated more completely. Older and younger adults often experience similar effects on their perception of pain from treatment with physical modalities. Therefore, use of these modalities for chronic pain in older adults is appropriate, but special precautions need to be taken. Practitioners applying physical modalities need formal training that includes the risks and precautions for these modalities. If practitioners lack formal training in the use of physical modalities, or if modality use is not within their scope of practice, it is important to consult with and refer patients to members of the team who have this specialized training. Use of a multidisciplinary approach to chronic pain management is of value for all adults and older individuals in particular [79-81]. Historically, physical therapists have been trained to evaluate and treat patients with the range of physical modalities discussed in this article. Although members of the nursing staff traditionally have used some of these modalities (e.g. some forms of heat or cold and massage), increasing numbers of nurses now are being trained to apply more specialized procedures (e.g., TENS). Healthcare professionals must be knowledgeable about the strength of evidence underlying the use of physical modalities for the management of chronic pain. Based on the limited research evidence available (especially related to assistive devices, orthotics, and thermal modalities), it often is difficult to accept or exclude select modalities as having a potential role in chronic pain management for adults and older individuals. Improved research methodologies are needed to address physical modality effectiveness better. PMID:14567204

  16. Surgical Treatment for Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    The source of chronic pelvic pain may be reproductive organ, urological, musculoskeletal - neurological, gastrointestinal, or myofascial. A psychological component almost always is a factor, whether as an antecedent event or presenting as depression as result of the pain. Surgical interventions for chronic pelvic pain include: 1) resection or vaporization of vulvar/vestibular tissue for human papillion virus (HPV) induced or chronic vulvodynia/vestibulitis; 2) cervical dilation for cervix stenosis; 3) hysteroscopic resection for intracavitary or submucous myomas or intracavitary polyps; 4) myomectomy or myolysis for symptomatic intramural, subserosal or pedunculated myomas; 5) adhesiolysis for peritubular and periovarian adhesions, and enterolysis for bowel adhesions, adhesiolysis for all thick adhesions in areas of pain as well as thin ahesions affecting critical structures such as ovaries and tubes; 6) salpingectomy or neosalpingostomy for symptomatic hydrosalpinx; 7) ovarian treatment for symptomatic ovarian pain; 8) uterosacral nerve vaporization for dysmenorrhea; 9) presacral neurectomy for disabling central pain primarily of uterine but also of bladder origin; 10) resection of endometriosis from all surfaces including removal from bladder and bowel as well as from the rectovaginal septal space. Complete resection of all disease in a debulking operation is essential; 11) appendectomy for symptoms of chronic appendicitis, and chronic right lower quadrant pain; 12) uterine suspension for symptoms of collision dyspareunia, pelvic congestion, severe dysmenorrhea, cul-desac endometriosis; 13) repair of all hernia defects whether sciatic, inguinal, femoral, Spigelian, ventral or incisional; 14) hysterectomy if relief has not been achieved by organ-preserving surgery such as resection of all endometriosis and presacral neurectomy, or the central pain continues to be disabling. Before such a radical step is taken, MRI of the uterus to confirm presence of adenomyosis may be helpful; 15) trigger point injection therapy for myofascial pain and dysfunction in pelvic and abdominal muscles. With application of all currently available laparoscopic modalities, 80% of women with chronic pelvic pain will report a decrease of pain to tolerable levels, a significant average reduction which is maintained in 3-year follow-up. Individual factors contributing to pain cannot be determined, although the frequency of endometriosis dictates that its complete treatment be attempted. The beneficial effect of uterosacral nerve ablation may be as much due to treatment of occult endometriosis in the uterosacral ligaments as to transection of the nerve fibers themselves. The benefit of the presacral neurectomy appears to be definite but strictly limited to midline pain. Appendectomy, herniorraphy, and even hysterectomy are all appropriate therapies for patients with chronic pelvic pain. Even with all laparoscopic procedures employed, fully 20% of patients experience unsatisfactory results. In addition, these patients are often depressed. Whether the pain contributes to the depression or the depression to the pain is irrelevant to them. Selected referrals to an integrated pain center with psychologic assistance together with judicious prescription of antidepressant drugs will likely benefit both women who respond to surgical intervention and those who do not. A maximum surgical effort must be expended to resect all endometriosis, restore normal pelvic anatomy, resect nerve fibers, and treat surgically accessible disease. In addition, it is important to provide patients with chronic pelvic pain sufficient psychologic support to overcome the effects of the condition, and to assist them with underlying psychologic disorders. PMID:9876726

  17. Chronic pain management in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, F; Valensise, H; Sacco, M; Allegri, M

    2014-02-01

    During pregnancy most of women will experience some kind of pain, either as a result of a pre-existing condition (low back pain, headache, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis) or as a direct consequence of pregnancy (weight gain, postural changes, pelvic floor dysfunction, hormonal factors). However, chronic pain management during pregnancy and lactation remains a challenge for clinicians and pregnant women are at risk of undertreatment for painful conditions, because of fear about use of drugs during pregnancy. Few analgesic drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but studies in pregnant women are not available for most of pain medications. The aim of this paper is to review the safety profile in pregnancy or lactation of the commonly prescribed pain medications and non-pharmacological treatments. In addition to the conventional classifications from the Food and Drug Administration and the American Academy of Paediatrics, authors analyzed the currently available clinical data from literature. PMID:23857445

  18. Referring patients with chronic noncancer pain to pain clinics

    PubMed Central

    Lakha, S. Fatima; Yegneswaran, Balaji; Furlan, Julio C.; Legnini, Veronica; Nicholson, Keith; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the factors associated with FPs’ referrals of patients with chronic noncancer pain to a tertiary care pain clinic. Design A questionnaire-based survey; data were analyzed using univariate methods. Setting A tertiary care pain clinic in Toronto, Ont. Participants All FPs who referred patients to the clinic between 2002 and 2005. Main outcome measures Variables explored included FPs’ sex, age, and ethnic background, ethnicity of patient groups seen, and FPs’ rationale or barriers influencing referrals to specialized pain clinics. Results The response rate was 32% (47 of 148 FPs). There were no statistically significant differences between respondents and non-respondents in sex, age, duration of practice, and university of graduation, or between the variables of interest and the referral patterns of those who did respond. The mean age of respondents was 50 years; 47% of the FPs identified themselves as Canadian; and one-third of the respondents indicated that they referred more than 30 patients to pain clinics each year. The 3 most frequently cited reasons prompting referral to pain clinics were requests for nerve blocks or other injections, desire for the expertise of the program, and concerns about opioids; the 3 most prevalent barriers were long waiting lists, patient preference for other treatments, and distance from the clinic. Conclusion Although the results of our survey of FPs identify certain barriers to and reasons for referring patients to pain clinics, the results cannot be generalized owing to the small sample of FPs in our study. Larger studies of randomly selected FPs, who might or might not refer patients to pain clinics, are needed to provide a better understanding of chronic noncancer pain management needs at the primary care level. PMID:21402954

  19. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…

  20. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute

  1. Chronic Low Back Pain: A Personal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Paul E.

    1989-01-01

    Sooner or later, all family physicians will face patients with chronic low back pain. This disorder does not result from the same causes and does not respond to the same treatment as acute back pain. A thorough assessment is the key to efficient treatment and should include data about familial, social, and occupational environments. The treatment should be multimodal and tailored to the patient's type of personality and to the causes of the syndrome. PMID:21249069

  2. The pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary E; Watson, C Peter N

    2006-01-01

    The past two decades have contributed a large body of preclinical work that has assisted in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic pain. In this context, it has been recognized that effective treatment of pain is a priority and that treatment often involves the use of one or a combination of agents with analgesic action. The current review presents an evidence-based approach to the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. Medline searches were done for all agents used as conventional treatment in chronic pain. Published papers up to June 2005 were included. The search strategy included randomized, controlled trials, and where available, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further references were found in reference sections of papers located using the above search strategy. Agents for which there were no controlled trials supporting efficacy in treatment of chronic pain were not included in the present review, except in cases where preclinical science was compelling, or where initial human work has been positive and where it was thought the reader would be interested in the scientific evidence to date. PMID:16511612

  3. The pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a review.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Mary E; Watson, C Peter N

    2006-01-01

    The past two decades have contributed a large body of preclinical work that has assisted in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic pain. In this context, it has been recognized that effective treatment of pain is a priority and that treatment often involves the use of one or a combination of agents with analgesic action. The current review presents an evidence-based approach to the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. Medline searches were done for all agents used as conventional treatment in chronic pain. Published papers up to June 2005 were included. The search strategy included randomized, controlled trials, and where available, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further references were found in reference sections of papers located using the above search strategy. Agents for which there were no controlled trials supporting efficacy in treatment of chronic pain were not included in the present review, except in cases where preclinical science was compelling, or where initial human work has been positive and where it was thought the reader would be interested in the scientific evidence to date. PMID:16511612

  4. The cortical rhythms of chronic back pain.

    PubMed

    Baliki, Marwan N; Baria, Alex T; Apkarian, A Vania

    2011-09-28

    Chronic pain is maladaptive and influences brain function and behavior by altering the flow and integration of information across brain regions. Here we use a power spectral analysis to investigate impact of presence of chronic pain on brain oscillatory activity in humans. We examine changes in BOLD fluctuations, across different frequencies, in chronic back pain (CBP) patients (n = 15) as compared to healthy controls (n = 15) during resting-state fMRI. While healthy subjects exhibited a specific, frequency band-dependent, large-scale neural organization, patients showed increased high-frequency BOLD oscillations (0.12-0.20 Hz) circumscribed mainly to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and parts of the default mode network. In the patients a correlation analysis related the mPFC aberrant BOLD high-frequency dynamics to altered functional connectivity to pain signaling/modulating brain regions, thus linking BOLD frequency changes to function. We also found that increased frequency fluctuations within the mPFC were temporally synchronous with spontaneous pain changes in patients during a pain-rating task. These observations provide novel insights about the nature of CBP, identifying how it disturbs the resting brain, and link high-frequency BOLD oscillations to perception. PMID:21957259

  5. Nurse case management program of chronic pain patients treated with methadone.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Louise; Pereira, John Xavier; Shir, Yoram

    2007-09-01

    Methadone treatment in chronic pain patients is still limited owing to misconceptions about addiction, safety, and its unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Nevertheless, patients with chronic noncancer pain are frequently treated with methadone at our Pain Centre either as the first opioid of choice, for specific pain conditions, or as a second-line opioid in patients developing tolerance or intractable side effects with other opioids. The aim of this study was to examine whether a nurse case management program of chronic pain patients treated with methadone is feasible and safe in trying to improve patients' care in an ambulatory setting. This program consisted of three phases: initial primary education session, telephone follow-up during methadone titration, and a subsequent maintenance period. The nurse case manager functioned autonomously and when required reported to and consulted the physician. The study included 75 subjects and was done over a nine-month period by completing follow-up questionnaires for every call. Of a total of 194 recorded calls, 41% were unscheduled. Forty-four percent of phone calls resulted in a methadone increase and 11% led to a decrease or cessation of methadone. No patients developed serious morbidity or mortality. Fifty-seven percent of patients were either satisfied or very satisfied with their treatment. A nurse-led case management program of methadone in chronic pain patients can improve patient care in an ambulatory setting. PMID:17723930

  6. Difficult Cases of Pain and Nonpain Symptoms in Intractable Spinal Infections: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Molly L.; Havyer, Rachel D. A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Swetz, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    In the modern age of advanced surgical techniques and pharmacologic management, bacterial spinal infections (SIs) can be managed (either eradicated or suppressed) in many hosts. However, the optimal management of SIs may be limited by patient comorbidities, which do not allow for surgical management, or limited by antimicrobial options due to side effects, toxicities, or emerging drug resistance. In these settings, frank and honest discussion regarding risks and benefits of treatment should be pursued, including that the SI may be a terminal illness. In this case series, we present 3 patients who had bacterial SIs whose treatments were limited by the above-mentioned factors. Furthermore, each case presented challenges regarding optimal medical management of somatic and neuropathic pain associated with the SI. PMID:22144661

  7. Beyond pain: modeling decision-making deficits in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hess, Leonardo Emanuel; Haimovici, Ariel; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Montoya, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Risky decision-making seems to be markedly disrupted in patients with chronic pain, probably due to the high cost that impose pain and negative mood on executive control functions. Patients' behavioral performance on decision-making tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is characterized by selecting cards more frequently from disadvantageous than from advantageous decks, and by switching often between competing responses in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). In the present study, we developed a simple heuristic model to simulate individuals' choice behavior by varying the level of decision randomness and the importance given to gains and losses. The findings revealed that the model was able to differentiate the behavioral performance of patients with chronic pain and HCs at the group, as well as at the individual level. The best fit of the model in patients with chronic pain was yielded when decisions were not based on previous choices and when gains were considered more relevant than losses. By contrast, the best account of the available data in HCs was obtained when decisions were based on previous experiences and losses loomed larger than gains. In conclusion, our model seems to provide useful information to measure each individual participant extensively, and to deal with the data on a participant-by-participant basis. PMID:25136301

  8. Pain, Catastrophizing, and Depression in Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jong Kyou

    2013-01-01

    Persistent and disabling pain is the hallmark of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, disease severity (as measured by objective indexes such as those that use radiography or serology) is only marginally related to patients' reports of pain severity, and pain-related presentation can differ widely among individuals with CP/CPPS. Increasing evidence in support of the biopsychosocial model of pain suggests that cognitive and emotional processes are crucial contributors to inter-individual differences in the perception and impact of pain. This review describes the growing body of literature relating depression and catastrophizing to the experience of pain and pain-related sequelae in CP/CPPS. Depression and catastrophizing are consistently associated with the reported severity of pain, sensitivity to pain, physical disability, poor treatment outcomes, and inflammatory disease activity and potentially with early mortality. A variety of pathways, from cognitive to behavioral to neurophysiological, seem to mediate these deleterious effects. Collectively, depression and catastrophizing are critically important variables in understanding the experience of pain in patients with CP/CPPS. Pain, depression, and catastrophizing might all be uniquely important therapeutic targets in the multimodal management of a range of such conditions. PMID:23869268

  9. Imaging Brain Mechanisms in Chronic Visceral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Hong, Jui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity and connectivity, as well as in grey and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25789437

  10. Experimental pain responses in children with chronic pain and in healthy children: How do they differ?

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie CI; Evans, Subhadra; Seidman, Laura C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extant research comparing laboratory pain responses of children with chronic pain with healthy controls is mixed, with some studies indicating lower pain responsivity for controls and others showing no differences. Few studies have included different pain modalities or assessment protocols. OBJECTIVES: To compare pain responses among 26 children (18 girls) with chronic pain and matched controls (mean age 14.8 years), to laboratory tasks involving thermal heat, pressure and cold pain. Responses to cold pain were assessed using two different protocols: an initial trial of unspecified duration and a second trial of specified duration. METHODS: Four trials of pressure pain and of thermal heat pain stimuli, all of unspecified duration, were administered, as well as the two cold pain trials. Heart rate and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and after completion of the pain tasks. RESULTS: Pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ between children with chronic pain and controls for the unspecified trials. For the specified cold pressor trial, 92% of children with chronic pain completed the entire trial compared with only 61.5% of controls. Children with chronic pain exhibited a trend toward higher baseline and postsession heart rate and reported more anxiety and depression symptoms compared with control children. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual factors related to the fixed trial may have exerted a greater influence on pain tolerance in children with chronic pain relative to controls. Children with chronic pain demonstrated a tendency toward increased arousal in anticipation of and following pain induction compared with controls. PMID:22518373

  11. Family-oriented Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgens, Alletta Jervey

    1979-01-01

    Describes the outcome of a short-term, family-centered, behavioral approach to chronic pain at the University of Minnesota Hospitals. Family members were taught operant conditioning techniques which rewarded nonpain-oriented behavior in patients. By treating the total family, 75 percent of the patients and families were able to lead satisfactory…

  12. Hypnotic Approaches for Chronic Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

  13. Abnormal Pain Modulation in Patients with Spatially Distributed Chronic Pain: Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Staud, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Many chronic pain syndromes including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine headache, chronic back pain, and complex regional pain syndrome are associated with hypersensitivity to painful stimuli and with reduced endogenous pain inhibition. These findings suggest that modulation of pain-related information may be related to the onset and/or maintenance of chronic pain. Although pain sensitivity and pain inhibition are normally distributed in the general population, they are not useful as reliable predictors of future pain. The combination of heightened pain sensitivity and reduced pain-inhibition, however, appears to predispose individuals to greater risk for increased acute clinical pain (e.g., postoperative pain). It is unknown at this time whether such pain processing abnormalities may also place individuals at increased risk for chronic pain. Psychophysical methods, including heat sensory and pressure pain testing have become increasingly available and can be used for the evaluation of pain sensitivity and pain inhibition. However, long-term prospective studies in the general population are lacking which could yield insight into the role of heightened pain sensitivity and pain disinhibition for the development of chronic pain disorders like fibromyalgia. PMID:19647141

  14. Persistence behavior of chronic low back pain patients in an acute pain situation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A J; Brands, A M

    1986-01-01

    The test behavior of 24 chronic low back pain patients was compared with the behavior of 24 healthy control Ss., matched for age and sex, in an experimental, acute pain situation (cold pressor-test). Chronic low back pain patients showed poorer persistence behavior and reported more pain. Thus, elements of typical chronic low back pain behavior were also present in an acute pain situation. These findings are discussed within the framework of stimulus-generalization theory. In addition, the effect of different coping strategies on pain tolerance was reconfirmed. The chronic low back pain group and the control group did not cope differently. PMID:2942681

  15. Chronic Pain and PTSD: A Guide for Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Pain and PTSD: A Guide for Patients PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here Chronic Pain and PTSD: A Guide for Patients Public This section is ...

  16. Art Therapy for Chronic Pain: Applications and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angheluta, Anne-Marie; Lee, Bonnie K.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is acknowledged as a phenomenological experience resulting from biological, psychological, and social interactions. Consequently, treatment for this complex and debilitating health phenomenon is often approached from multidisciplinary and biopsychosocial perspectives. One approach to treating chronic pain involves implementing…

  17. Nerve Block Technique Might Help Ease Chronic Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A procedure that uses radio waves to treat chronic low back pain provided long- ... back pain, he said. The idea of using radio waves to treat back pain has been around for ...

  18. [Stress and chronic pain: An endocrine perspective].

    PubMed

    Cuatrecasas Cambra, Guillem

    2009-08-01

    Chronic stress, understood as a disturbance of the body homeostasis, is partially driven by many hormonal pathways. Prolactine, TSH (Thyrotropin), vasopresin, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone), and GH (Growth Hormone) have been involved in many stress reactions. In acute stress, there are many evidences for the increased both cathecolaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In chronic conditions, these hyperactivations are controversial and some cases may present a true hypoadrenalism. There is no evidence that treating such androgen/glucocorticoids deficiency may relief chronic pain processes such as fibromyalgia. However, treating somatotroph axis dysfunctions (somatostatin, GH/IGF1 [growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1]) with recombinant GH in carefully seleccioned subgroups of fibromyalgic syndrome, offers us an in-vivo model of the capacity of some hormones to modulate pain. PMID:21794652

  19. Chronic pain epidemiology – where do lifestyle factors fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524

  20. [Chronic pancreatitis: nutrition and pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Mössner, J

    1998-11-11

    Therapy of chronic pancreatitis rests on five arms: Avoidance of alcohol, treatment of pain, replacement therapy for exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and adequate nutrition. Alcohol withdrawal improves pain and the patient's compliance. It also seems to retard the chronic inflammatory process. Therapy of pain depends on the pathomechanism of pain. There is a lack of prospective, controlled studies comparing various treatment regimens. Thus, treatment options are partly dependent on the experience of the physician taking care of the patient and include i.e. for pseudocysts: surgical vs percutaneous or endoscopic drainage; for stenosis of the main pancreatic duct close to the papilla: surgical vs endoscopic drainage (stents); for distal bile duct stenosis: endoscopic stents vs biliodigestive anastomosis vs pancreatic head resection; for pancreatic stones: extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy followed by endoscopic stone extraction vs surgery (pancreaticojejunostomy), finally for inflammatory tumor of the pancreatic head combined with pain with or without compression of the distal bile duct or duodenum: duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection vs Whipple resection. Patients with pain resistant to medical treatment may be candidates for a transcutaneous blockade of the plexus coeliacus or for epidural nerve blockade before one choses a surgical procedure. Application of pancreatic enzymes does not seem to have a major beneficial effect on pancreatic pain. Modification of nutrition has become less restrictive. Thanks to improved substitution with acid resistant porcine pancreatic extracts with high lipase activity, fat restriction is no longer of paramount importance. However, supply with sufficient calories is still difficult due to pain, inadequate compliance and hypermetabolism. PMID:9857767

  1. How to measure chronic pain: New concepts.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, Fausto; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2015-02-01

    The assessment of chronic pain and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions requires the use of multidimensional qualitative and health-related quality of life instruments, but there is still little agreement concerning what these may be or which approach to adopt. Increasing focus on patient-reported outcomes in medicine has had the positive effect of giving prominence to the views and experiences of patients with chronic pain, and the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approach allows patients' symptoms to be assessed in their natural environment in real time without the need for recall. Computerised EMA symptom diaries are now generally regarded as the 'gold standard' in the field of pain medicine, and they have recently attracted increasing attention as an essential component of health-care monitoring systems based on the information and communication technology. A web/Internet-based diary and patient terminal seem to provide a ubiquitous, easy-to-use and cost-efficient solution for patient-centred data acquisition. In addition, telemonitoring is increasingly seen as an effective means of supporting shared decision-making as it can inform patients about typical symptoms, treatment options and prognosis, and it is widely accepted as an additional source of information. This article reviews some of the instruments used to assess chronic pain, including newly developed and well-established validated multidimensional instruments and health-care monitoring systems based on information and communication technology, and it discusses their advantages and limitations. PMID:26267010

  2. Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-05-01

    The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

  3. PAIN INTENSITY MODERATES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND PAIN INTERFERENCE IN CHRONIC OROFACIAL PAIN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A.; Geiger, Paul J.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Study Context Chronic pain is associated with increased interference in daily functioning that becomes more pronounced as pain intensity increases. Based on previous research showing that older adults maintain well-being in the face of pain as well as or better than their younger counterparts, the current study examined the interaction of age and pain intensity on interference in a sample of chronic orofacial pain patients. Methods Data were obtained from the records of 508 chronic orofacial pain patients being seen for an initial evaluation from 2008 to 2012. Collected data included age (range: 18–78) and self-reported measures of pain intensity and pain interference. Bivariate correlations and regression models were used to assess for statistical interactions. Results Regression analyses revealed that pain intensity positively predicted pain interference (R2 = .35, B = 10.40, SE = 0.62, t(507) = 16.70, p < .001). A significant interaction supported the primary hypothesis that aging was associated with reduced interference at high levels of pain intensity (ΔR2 = .01, B = −1.31, SE = 0.63, t(505) = −2.90, p = .04). Conclusion At high levels of pain intensity, interference decreased with age, although the age by pain intensity interaction effect was small. This evidence converges with aging theories, including socioemotional selectivity theory, which posits that as people age, they become more motivated to maximize positive emotions and minimize negative ones. The results highlight the importance of studying the mechanisms older adults use to successfully cope with pain. PMID:26214102

  4. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A number of psychosocial factors have been associated with the onset, exacerbation and/or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of vulnerability, reinforcement, and modeling. We compared 222 adolescents with chronic pain and no documented physiological etiology (headache, back, limb and abdominal pain) with 148 controls and their (respectively 183 vs. 127) parents. Analyses showed that adolescents with chronic pain are more vulnerable in terms of neuroticism, negative fear of failure, and (less) experienced social acceptance. Contrary to our expectations, the chronic pain group experienced less reinforcement for their pain behavior by both parents and peers than the control group. While the number of pain models was higher in the chronic pain group, no differences were found between their parents and those of the adolescents without chronic pain in pain experience, pain parameters, and pain coping. Regression analyses on the contribution of psychosocial factors to chronic pain and its parameters sustained the positive relation between vulnerability, (less) pain reinforcement, pain models and coping with pain. Furthermore, we also found evidence that gender differences have to be taken into account. PMID:12507698

  6. Biopsychosocial Approach to Assessing and Managing Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care. PMID:26614718

  7. Subarachnoid midazolam: histologic study in rats and report of its effect on chronic pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Schoeffler, P; Auroy, P; Bazin, J E; Taxi, J; Woda, A

    1991-01-01

    Subarachnoid administration via a catheter of a water-soluble benzodiazepine, midazolam, was tested in the control of cancer pain. First, the lack of its toxicity during constant subarachnoid administration (50 micrograms per day) was assessed in the rat. After 15 days of treatment, a histologic examination of the spinal cord revealed the same amount of fibrosis, infiltration, and deformation in the control group (n = 14), which had received only saline, as in the test group (n = 18), treated with subarachnoid midazolam. Therefore, the histologic changes observed in the spinal cord probably are related to the presence of the catheter. After these results, a mixture of 2 mg midazolam and a variable dose of subarachnoid morphine was injected in two patients presenting chronic neoplastic pain resistant to high doses of morphine. In these two cases, the addition of midazolam appeared to be effective in controlling intractable neoplastic pain. PMID:1772817

  8. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  9. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27208716

  10. Chronic Pain and the Opioid Conundrum.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Opioids prescribed for chronic cancer and noncancer pain have been embroiled in public policy debates as to effectiveness and potential for contributing to society's problem with misuse, addiction, and overdose mortality. The conundrum of opioid prescribing is to determine who will most likely benefit from opioids and how medical practitioners may safely provide chronic opioid therapy, while also identifying patients who are unlikely to benefit or could divert illicit pharmaceuticals into society. Risk assessment and monitoring are essential to meet the standard of care, as is compliance with federal controlled substances law as well as state regulations. PMID:27208714

  11. Chronic pain management: legal and licensure issues.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Legal and licensure issues are an inevitable aspect of treating patients with chronic pain. Clinicians need to ensure compliance with state medical board and federal guidelines. Prescription drug abuse continues to be a significant problem. Despite the legalization of medical marijuana in some states, there is currently no medical indication for prescribing marijuana; the exceptions are dronabinol and nabilone. These are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and dronabinol also is approved for anorexia in patients with AIDS or cancer. Other legal issues concern establishment of chronic pain as a basis for disability status. Clinicians often are asked to provide a letter or assessment, such as a functional capacity evaluation, for documenting disability. Referral to a physical medicine and rehabilitation subspecialist or physical therapist for this evaluation should be considered. Balancing legal and licensure issues with the best interests of the patient can be challenging for clinicians. PMID:25970871

  12. Pain and the brain: Specificity and plasticity of the brain in clinical chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Apkarian, A.V.; Hashmi, J.A.; Baliki, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    We review recent advances in brain imaging in humans, concentrating on advances in our understanding of the human brain in clinical chronic pain. Understanding regarding anatomical and functional reorganization of the brain in chronic pain is emphasized. We conclude by proposing a brain model for the transition of the human from acute to chronic pain. PMID:21146929

  13. Chronic Pain, Chronic Opioid Addiction: a Complex Nexus.

    PubMed

    Salsitz, Edwin A

    2016-03-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in the prescribing of opioids, with associated increases in opioid addiction and overdose deaths. This article reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and risk of developing an opioid use disorder (OUD) in those patients treated with chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Rates of development of OUD range from 0-50 %, and aberrant drug related behaviors (ADRBs) are reported to be 20 %. Health care providers must properly assess, screen, and carefully monitor patients on COT utilizing evidence-based tools. PMID:26602212

  14. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Endometriosis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Triolo, Onofrio; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Sturlese, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) could be considered nowadays a deep health problem that challenges physicians all over the world. This because its aetiology is still unclear, the course of the disease could vary a lot among different patients and through time in the same patient, and the response to treatments is not every time successful. Among women who underwent laparoscopy for CPP, endometriosis is found in about 1/3 of the cases, while only 25% of women with histological confirmed endometriosis are asymptomatic. A wide range of variables may exert their influence on the resulting pain syndrome in endometriosis; for example, score according to American society for reproductive medicine (rASRM), size of the sub-peritoneal and pelvic wall implants, Douglas obliteration, previous surgery. It is widely accepted nowadays that central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) seems to influence each other and this interconnection play a key role in pain modulation. Moreover, the phenomena induced by endometriosis in the pelvis, including the breakdown of peritoneal homeostasis and the induction of the production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines, are responsible of altered innervations and modulation of pain pathways in these patients. There are many proposed medical and surgical approach to treat this painful syndrome, although there is necessity of more efforts to create new non-invasive strategies that set a more accurate diagnosis of the causes of endometriotic-related CPP, and therefore facilitate its eradication. PMID:23671540

  15. Altered Central Sensitization and Pain Modulation in the CNS in Chronic Joint Pain.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Skou, Sren T; Nielsen, Thomas A; Petersen, Kristian K

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain disorders are the second largest contributor to global disability underlining the significance of effective treatments. However, treating chronic musculoskeletal pain, and chronic joint pain (osteoarthritis (OA)) in particular, is challenging as the underlying peripheral and central pain mechanisms are not fully understood, and safe and efficient analgesic drugs are not available. The pain associated with joint pain is highly individual, and features from radiological imaging have not demonstrated robust associations with the pain manifestations. In recent years, a variety of human quantitative pain assessment tools (quantitative sensory testing (QST)) have been developed providing new opportunities for profiling patients and reaching a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic joint pain. As joint pain is a complex interaction between many different pain mechanisms, available tools are important for patent profiling and providing the basic knowledge for development of new drugs and for developing pain management regimes. PMID:26026770

  16. New treatments for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810

  17. Neuroimmune interactions in itch: Do chronic itch, chronic pain, and chronic cough share similar mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Itch and pain are closely related but also clearly distinct sensations. Pain is known to suppress itch, while analgesics such as morphine can provoke itch. However, in pathological and chronic conditions, pain and itch also have similarities. Dysfunction of the nervous system, as manifested by neural plastic changes in primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (peripheral sensitization) and spinal cord and brain stem neurons in the central nervous system (central sensitization) will result in chronic pain and itch. Importantly, these diseases also result from immune dysfunction, since inflammatory mediators can directly activate or sensitize nociceptive and pruriceptive neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system, leading to pain and itch hypersensitivity. In this mini-review, I discuss the roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel, and Nav1.7 sodium channel in regulating itch and inflammation, with special emphasis of neuronal TLR signaling and the interaction of TLR7 and TRPA1. Chronic pain and chronic itch are debilitating diseases and dramatically impact the life quality of patients. Targeting TLRs for the control of inflammation, neuroinflammation (inflammation restricted in the nervous system), and hyperexcitability of nociceptors and pruriceptors will lead to new therapeutics for the relief of chronic pain and chronic itch. Finally, given the shared mechanisms among chronic cough, chronic pain, and chronic itch and the demonstrated efficacy of the neuropathic pain drug gabapentin in treating chronic cough, novel therapeutics targeting TRPA1, Nav1.7, and TLRs may also help to alleviate refractory cough via modulating neuron-immune interaction. PMID:26351759

  18. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Bushnell, M. Catherine; Čeko, Marta; Low, Lucie A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind–body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states — important components of mind–body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569

  19. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, M Catherine; Ceko, Marta; Low, Lucie A

    2013-07-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind-body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states - important components of mind-body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569

  20. Current understanding of the neuropathophysiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn; Pongprasobchai, Supot

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The main symptom of patients with CP is chronic and severe abdominal pain. However, the pathophysiology of pain in CP remains obscure. Traditionally, researchers believed that the pain was caused by anatomical changes in pancreatic structure. However, treatment outcomes based on such beliefs are considered unsatisfactory. The emerging explanations of pain in CP are trending toward neurobiological theories. This article aims to review current evidence regarding the neuropathophysiology of pain in CP and its potential implications for the development of new treatments for pain in CP. PMID:26600977

  1. [Chronic pain: medico-biologic and sotsio-economic aspects].

    PubMed

    Iakhno, N N; Kukushkin, M L

    2012-01-01

    In this article the role of neurobiological, psychological and social factors in pathogenesis of chronic pain is analyzed. The chronic pain is considered not as a symptom of damage of tissue and as independent illness due to non-adequate neuroplasticity of systems involved into regulation of pain sensitivity. The major role in development and maintenance of chronic pain is devoted to the primary genetically determined and/or secondary disturbance of interaction between nociceptive and antinociceptive systems at various levels--from peripheral neuron to central structures--that provides pain perception and painful behaviour development. PMID:23210173

  2. Chronic Pain: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Chronic Pain Chronic Pain: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Symptoms Chronic pain is often defined as any pain lasting more ...

  3. Treating Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Review of the Research for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Summary – Apr. 16, 2012 Treating Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Review of the Research for Women Formats ... assistant. Understanding Your Condition What is chronic pelvic pain? Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is ongoing pain in ...

  4. Chronic Low Back Pain: Toward an Integrated Psychosocial Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Jenny; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Integrated six dimensions of chronic low back pain (pain intensity, functional disability, attitudes toward pain, pain coping strategies, depression, illness behavior) to provide multidimensional patient profile. Data from 100 patients revealed presence of three distinct patient groups: patients who were in control, patients who were depressed and…

  5. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  6. Intractable Pruritus After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Deborah A; Jaffee, Kenneth M; Kundu, Anjana

    2009-01-01

    Background: This report describes a young woman with incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and intractable pruritus involving her dorsal forearm. Method: Case report. Findings: Anatomic distribution of the pruritus corresponded to the dermatomal distribution of her level of spinal cord injury and vertebral fusion. Symptoms were attributed to the spinal cord injury and possible cervical root injury. Pruritus was refractory to all treatments, including topical lidocaine, gabapentin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, intravenous Bier block, stellate ganglion block, and acupuncture. Conclusions: Further understanding of neuropathic pruritus is needed. Diagnostic workup of intractable pruritus should include advanced imaging to detect ongoing nerve root compression. If diagnostic studies suggest radiculopathy, epidural steroid injection should be considered. Because the autonomic nervous system may be involved in complex chronic pain or pruritic syndromes, sympatholysis via such techniques as stellate ganglion block might be effective. PMID:19777867

  7. Cyberhugs: creating a voice for chronic pain sufferers through technology.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karin L

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined. PMID:23276258

  8. Duloxetine in the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Howard S; Smith, Eric J; Smith, Benjamin R

    2012-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is among the most frequent painful complaints that healthcare providers address. The bulk of these complaints are chronic low back pain and chronic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the United States. It is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by a loss of cartilage, and occurs most often in older persons. The management of osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain may involve both nonpharmacologic (eg, weight loss, resistive and aerobic exercise, patient education, cognitive behavioral therapy) and pharmacologic approaches. Older adults with severe osteoarthritis pain are more likely to take analgesics than those with less severe pain. The pharmacologic approaches to painful osteoarthritis remain controversial, but may include topical as well as oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, duloxetine, and opioids. The role of duloxetine for musculoskeletal conditions is still evolving. PMID:22767991

  9. Medical marijuana use for chronic pain: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Garth T

    2012-01-01

    Questions from patients about medical marijuana use for chronic pain are becoming more common. The information in this report will help patients understand the potential risks and benefits of using this substance for painful conditions. PMID:22448949

  10. Seniors and Chronic Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Seniors and Chronic Pain Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table ... the role of pain self-management can help seniors reduce or eliminate this condition. Questions to Ask ...

  11. Chronic pain assessment: A seven-factor model

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Megan A; Tripp, Dean A; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Davidson, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many measures assessing related dimensions of the chronic pain experience (eg, pain severity, pain coping, depression, activity level), but the relationships among them have not been systematically established. OBJECTIVE: The present study set out to determine the core dimensions requiring assessment in individuals with chronic pain. METHODS: Individuals with chronic pain (n=126) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Chronic Pain Coping Index, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form, Pain Disability Index and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. RESULTS: Before an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the nine chronic pain measures, EFAs were conducted on each of the individual measures, and the derived factors (subscales) from each measure were submitted together for a single EFA. A seven-factor model best fit the data, representing the core factors of pain and disability, pain description, affective distress, support, positive coping strategies, negative coping strategies and activity. CONCLUSIONS: Seven meaningful dimensions of the pain experience were reliably and systematically extracted. Implications and future directions for this work are discussed. PMID:18719712

  12. Toward a model of the pathogenesis of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, R H; Hetzel, R D; Banks, S M

    1999-07-01

    There is widespread agreement that chronic pain develops from, and is maintained by, a combination of neurobiological, psychological, and social factors. Nevertheless, few comprehensive models have been proposed that present specific testable predictions about how these factors interact. We propose a vulnerability-diathesis-stress model of the pathogenesis of chronic pain. This model is based on diathesis-stress models of psychopathology and on the results of recent research on psychosocial aspects of chronic pain. The goals of research on chronic pain are to understand its pathogenesis, improve its treatment, and prevent its development. To achieve these goals, prospective studies of the development and maintenance of chronic pain are needed. The vulnerability-diathesis-stress model can serve as a basis for designing and analyzing studies of the interaction among biological, psychological, and social risk factors for chronic pain. PMID:10498785

  13. Programmable intrathecal pumps for the management of chronic pain: recommendations for improved efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The management of chronic pain can be very challenging. Often, physicians employ intrathecal (IT) drug delivery systems as a last resort to relieve intractable pain. The system consists of an implantable pump that stores and delivers medication through a catheter to the IT space. Programmability is achieved by positioning an external devise over the implanted pump to change the mode of drug delivery. The innovations in programmable IT drug delivery systems are expanding more rapidly than ever before. Unfortunately, the rapid expansion is accompanied by a lack of prospective randomized trials examining these new options. In an effort to improve results and reduce side effects, publications by experts or expert consensus panels provide guidance for the community. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of high interest topics in recent publications. PMID:25336986

  14. Pain and Personality: Do Individuals with Different Forms of Chronic Pain Exhibit a Mutual Personality?

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sylvia M; Burke, Lucinda A; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2016-04-01

    The role of personality in the experience of chronic pain is a growing field, with endless debate regarding the existence of a "pain personality". This study aims to compare different chronic pain types and consolidate the existence of a common personality. Thirty-two females with chronic orofacial pain and 37 age-matched healthy females were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Chronic pain subjects had either trigeminal neuropathy (neuropathic pain) or temporomandibular disorders (nociceptive pain). This study revealed that individuals with different chronic pain types exhibit a mutual personality profile encompassing significantly higher scores in Harm Avoidance and significantly lower scores in Self-Directedness when compared to healthy subjects. In fact, this combination is associated with Cluster C personality disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals that irrespective of type, chronic pain may be associated with Cluster C personality disorders. Indeed, there has never been empirical evidence in the past to suggest that chronic pain as an overall concept is associated with any particular personality disorders. Therefore, a potential future avenue of chronic pain treatment may lie in targeting particular personality aspects and shift the target of pain-relieving treatments from sensory and psychologically state focused to psychologically trait focused. PMID:25858277

  15. Treatment for Chronic Pain in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-07

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  16. Physical Activity and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086

  17. Cognitive processes in comorbid poor sleep and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Byers, Haley D; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Thorn, Beverly E

    2016-04-01

    We examined the unique and shared contributions of pain catastrophizing, cognitive pre-sleep arousal, and somatic pre-sleep arousal, to the prediction of insomnia severity in chronic pain. Forty-eight adults with chronic pain completed self-report measures of these study variables, health, and mood. Hierarchical regression showed that pain catastrophizing accounted for unique variance in insomnia severity, independent of pain intensity, depression, restless legs symptoms, and demographics. However, when cognitive and somatic pre-sleep arousal were also taken into account, the significance of cognitive pre-sleep arousal rendered pain catastrophizing non-significant. We identify research and clinical implications of this study. PMID:26458949

  18. Chronic pain management in older people.

    PubMed

    Helme, R D

    2001-01-01

    Successful management of chronic pain in older people is dependent on a careful history and physical examination as it is in young adults. However, detailed attention must also be paid to the effects of co-morbidity on the pain and its treatment, on communication strategies with patients who often have sight and hearing impediments, and on the feasible range of functional outcomes for each patient. Drug interactions are common in older people as they take more medications and have reduced ability to clear most analgesic and adjuvant medications. This suggests a larger than usual role for non-pharmacological management strategies. However, simple analgesics and narcotics are safe to use in older people without overt liver and renal disease, providing the lowest dose compatible with functional improvement is sought; the goal of therapy is to maintain optimum function rather than cure the pain. In general the outcome is positive for both the patient and the practitioner as patients usually respond to medical, physical, psychosocial and cognitive behavioural programmes as well as young adults if given an appropriate milieu, adequate time and empathy. PMID:11798215

  19. The Relationship between Strategies of Coping and Perception of Pain in Three Chronic Pain Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)

  20. Chronic Pain in Adolescence: Parental Responses, Adolescent Coping, and their Impact on Adolescent's Pain Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Claar, Robyn Lewis; Logan, Deirdre L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine relations among parental responses, adolescent pain coping, and pain behaviors in adolescents with chronic pain. Methods This study included 217 adolescents (12–17 years) evaluated at a multidisciplinary pain clinic and their parents. Adolescents completed measures assessing their pain, pain coping responses, functional disability, and somatic symptoms. Parents reported on their responses to their adolescent's pain. Results Passive and active coping interacted with parental protective behavior to predict adolescents’ pain behaviors. Contrary to expectations, among adolescents who reported infrequent use of passive or active coping strategies, higher levels of parental protective behavior were associated with higher levels of disability and somatic symptoms. Discussion Among adolescents who report infrequent use of passive and active coping responses, parental protective responses to pain may inadvertently promote greater disability and symptom complaints. Parental responses to pain may be an important target to treat adolescent chronic pain. PMID:18375447

  1. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667

  2. Is number sense impaired in chronic pain patients?

    PubMed Central

    Wolrich, J.; Poots, A. J.; Kuehler, B. M.; Rice, A. S. C.; Rahman, A.; Bantel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in imaging have improved our understanding of the role of the brain in painful conditions. Discoveries of morphological changes have been made in patients with chronic pain, with little known about the functional consequences when they occur in areas associated with ‘number-sense’; thus, it can be hypothesized that chronic pain impairs this sense. Methods First, an audit of the use of numbers in gold-standard pain assessment tools in patients with acute and chronic pain was undertaken. Secondly, experiments were conducted with patients with acute and chronic pain and healthy controls. Participants marked positions of numbers on lines (number marking), before naming numbers on pre-marked lines (number naming). Finally, subjects bisected lines flanked with ‘2’ and ‘9’. Deviations from expected responses were determined for each experiment. Results Four hundred and ninety-four patients were audited; numeric scores in the ‘moderate’ and ‘severe’ pain categories were significantly higher in chronic compared with acute pain patients. In experiments (n=150), more than one-third of chronic pain patients compared with 1/10th of controls showed greater deviations from the expected in number marking and naming indicating impaired number sense. Line bisection experiments suggest prefrontal and parietal cortical dysfunction as cause of this impairment. Conclusions Audit data suggest patients with chronic pain interpret numbers differently from acute pain sufferers. Support is gained by experiments indicating impaired number sense in one-third of chronic pain patients. These results cast doubts on the appropriateness of the use of visual analogue and numeric rating scales in chronic pain in clinics and research. PMID:25082664

  3. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Co-occurring Depression and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Poleshuck, Ellen L.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Cort, Natalie; Hoffman-King, Debra; Cerrito, Beth; Rosario-McCabe, Luis A.; Giles, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Up to 37% of individuals experience chronic pain during their lifetimes. Approximately one-fourth of primary care patients with chronic pain also meet criteria for major depression. Many of these individuals fail to receive psychotherapy or other treatment for their depression; moreover when they do, physical pain is often not addressed directly. Women, socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, African Americans and Latinos all report higher rates of pain and depression compared to other groups. This article describes a version of Interpersonal Psychotherapy tailored for patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression and Pain (IPT-P). While IPT-P potentially could be delivered to many different patient populations in a range of clinical settings, this article focuses on its delivery within primary care settings for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Adaptations include a brief 8-session protocol that incorporates strategies for anticipating barriers to psychotherapy, accepting patients conceptualization of their difficulties, encouraging patients to consider the impact of their pain on their roles and relationships, emphasizing self-care, incorporating pain management techniques, and flexible scheduling. In addition, IPT-P is designed as an adjunct to usual medical pain treatment, and seeks to engage non-treatment seeking patients in psychotherapy by focusing on accessibility and relevance of the intervention to concerns common among patients with pain. Identifying patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain and offering IPT-P as a treatment option has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for individuals with depression and chronic pain. PMID:21191470

  4. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  5. Mechanism of Chronic Pain in Rodent Brain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pei-Ching

    Chronic pain is a significant health problem that greatly impacts the quality of life of individuals and imparts high costs to society. Despite intense research effort in understanding of the mechanism of pain, chronic pain remains a clinical problem that has few effective therapies. The advent of human brain imaging research in recent years has changed the way that chronic pain is viewed. To further extend the use of human brain imaging techniques for better therapies, the adoption of imaging technique onto the animal pain models is essential, in which underlying brain mechanisms can be systematically studied using various combination of imaging and invasive techniques. The general goal of this thesis is to addresses how brain develops and maintains chronic pain in an animal model using fMRI. We demonstrate that nucleus accumbens, the central component of mesolimbic circuitry, is essential in development of chronic pain. To advance our imaging technique, we develop an innovative methodology to carry out fMRI in awake, conscious rat. Using this cutting-edge technique, we show that allodynia is assoicated with shift brain response toward neural circuits associated nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex that regulate affective and cognitive component of pain. Taken together, this thesis provides a deeper understanding of how brain mediates pain. It builds on the existing body of knowledge through maximizing the depth of insight into brain imaging of chronic pain.

  6. Role of Alternative Therapies for Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin; Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin; Asgerally, Abbas; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain. This review examines alternative and complimentary therapies, which can be incorporated as part of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. In the present investigation, literature from articles indexed on PubMed was evaluated including topics of alternative therapies, complimentary therapies, pain psychology, biofeedback therapy, physical exercise therapies, acupuncture, natural and herbal supplements, whole-body cryotherapy, and smartphone technologies in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. This review highlights the key role of psychology in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be the most impactful while biofeedback therapy has also been shown to be effective for chronic pain. Exercise therapy has been shown to be effective in short-, intermediate-, and long-term pain states. When compared to that in sham controls, acupuncture has shown some benefit for neck pain immediately after the procedure and in the short term and improvement has also been demonstrated in the treatment of headaches. The role of smartphones and whole-body cryotherapy are new modalities and further studies are needed. Recent literature suggests that several alternate therapies could play a role in the treatment of chronic pain, supporting the biopsychosocial model in the treatment of pain states. PMID:27038968

  7. Opioid Pharmacotherapy for Chronic Noncancer Pain: The American Experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chronic noncancer pain is a significant and growing public health challenge in the United States. Lacking effective alternative interventions for effective chronic noncancer pain management, many physicians have turned to opioid pharmacotherapy. Increased opioid prescribing brings not only gains in therapeutic benefit but also a higher incidence of adverse drug events including increased medication misuse and opioid related mortality. Currently the United States must confront the dual problems of widespread undertreated chronic noncancer pain and a prescription opioid abuse crisis. Withholding pain relieving drugs from patients in need is unjustifiable, yet drug diversion, abuse and adverse drug events have become major social as well as medical problems. At the heart of this crisis is the lack of definitive evidence about the risk to benefit ratio of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain both on an individual case and on a population basis. This article describes the extent and severity of the American chronic noncancer pain problem and the history of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain in the United States. It then discusses the concept of evidence based practice and reviews current evidence supporting opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain as well as adverse drug events related to opioid pharmacotherapy including misuse and abuse. Finally, it considers the conflict of providing pain relief versus protecting society and reviews steps that governmental agencies, industry and others are taking to contain and ultimately resolve the problems of excessive prescribing and conflicting priorities. PMID:23342201

  8. Mazes, conflict, and paradox: tools for understanding chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cary A

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an argument for framing chronic pain within a complex adaptive systems (CAS) paradigm. The first aim of this article is to demonstrate how chronic pain can be framed as a CAS and how paradox, one of the core characteristics of a CAS, exists within the chronic pain experience. The second aim is to illustrate how paradox exists at multiple levels within the health care encounter and ongoing experience of chronic pain. Finally, the article will use the example of interactions at the patient/clinician level to illustrate how health care workers' efforts to deal with issues emergent from the range of paradoxes have for the most part been ineffective, and at times harmful, to persons experiencing chronic pain. This article uses the example of chronic pain to explore how the manner in which health care providers and patients recognize and deal with paradoxes can either worsen the pain experience or help generate creative new ways to manage the chronic pain condition. The CAS principles discussed in this article hold application across a range of chronic conditions for which a traditional biomedical paradigm proves insufficient. PMID:19298361

  9. Use and abuse of opioid analgesics in chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, B.

    1993-01-01

    Primary care physicians are frequently required to treat patients with chronic debilitating pain. Opioid analgesics can successfully manage chronic pain. To prescribe opioid analgesics effectively, physicians must identify appropriate patients. Several methods can be used to identify and distinguish appropriate patients, addicted patients, and for-profit drug seekers. PMID:8097128

  10. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  11. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  12. Chronic Pain and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Knoerl, Robert; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Weisberg, James

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to treat chronic pain; however, more information is needed about what are the most efficacious dose and delivery methods. The aims of this review were to determine (a) which CBT doses, delivery methods, strategies, and follow-up periods have been explored in recent intervention studies of individuals with chronic pain and (b) whether the outcomes described in the selected studies were consistent with recommendations by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials. The CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published from 2009 to 2015 testing CBT for adults with chronic pain. Thirty-five studies were included in this review. Results revealed that CBT reduced pain intensity in 43% of trials, the efficacy of online and in-person formats were comparable, and military veterans and individuals with cancer-related chronic pain were understudied. PMID:26604219

  13. Chronic pain and pain-related disability across psychiatric disorders in a clinical adolescent sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who suffer from psychiatric disorders are burdened with a high prevalence of chronic illnesses and pain, but evidence on pain prevalence among adolescents with psychiatric disorders is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and location of self-reported chronic pain and pain-related disability in adolescent psychiatric patients. Methods This study was part of the larger Health Survey administered at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) at St. Olav’s University Hospital, in Trondheim, Norway. All patients aged 13–18 years who visited the CAP clinic at least once between February 15, 2009 and February 15, 2011 were invited to participate. A total of 717 (43.5% of eligible/invited patients) participated; of these, 566 were diagnosed with one or more psychiatric disorders. The adolescents completed a questionnaire, which included questions about pain and pain-related disability. Clinical diagnoses were classified by a clinician according to International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision criteria. Results In adolescents with psychiatric disorders, 70.4% reported chronic pain, and 37.3% experienced chronic pain in three or more locations (multisite pain). Chronic musculoskeletal pain was the most prevalent type of pain (57.7%). Pain-related disability was found in 22.2% of the sample. The frequency of chronic pain and multisite pain increased with age, and girls reported a higher frequency of chronic pain, multisite pain and pain-related disability than boys did. There was an increased risk of chronic pain among adolescents with mood or anxiety disorders versus those with hyperkinetic disorders, yet this was not present after adjusting for sex. Comorbidity between hyperkinetic and mood or anxiety disorders involved an increased risk of pain-related disability. Conclusions In this study, seven out of 10 adolescents with psychiatric disorders reported chronic pain. These findings indicate the importance of early detection of chronic pain in adolescents with psychiatric disorders, to provide targeted treatment and reduce poor long-term outcomes. PMID:24139217

  14. [Treatment of constipation in chronic pain patients].

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of chronic pain, whether of cancer or noncancer origin, frequently involves the use of opioids. Delay in GI transit and constipation are the most common and often disabling side effects of opioid analgesics. Many treatments involving laxatives and prokinetic drugs have been explored to circumvent opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, but the outcome has in general been unsatisfactory. Specific antagonism of peripheral opioid receptors offers a more rational approach to the management of the adverse actions of opioid analgesics in the gut. This goal is currently addressed by the use of opioid receptor antagonists with limited absorption such as oral naloxone and by the development of peripheral opioid receptor antagonists such as methylnaltrexone and alvimopan. These drugs hold considerable promise in preventing constipation due to treatments with opioids, whereas the analgesic action of opioids remains unabated. PMID:23905405

  15. Pathological and protective roles of glia in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, Erin D.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2009-01-01

    Glia have emerged as key contributors to pathological and chronic pain mechanisms. On activation, both astrocytes and microglia respond to and release a number of signalling molecules, which have protective and/or pathological functions. Here we review the current understanding of the contribution of glia to pathological pain and neuroprotection, and how the protective, anti-inflammatory actions of glia are being harnessed to develop new drug targets for neuropathic pain control. Given the prevalence of chronic pain and the partial efficacy of current drugs, which exclusively target neuronal mechanisms, new strategies to manipulate neuronglia interactions in pain processing hold considerable promise. PMID:19096368

  16. Chronic neuropathic pain in SCI: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Felix, Elizabeth Roy

    2014-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain develops in approximately 40% of people after a spinal cord injury (SCI) and is notoriously difficult to treat. Because of the frequent presence of more than one pain type and the complex mechanisms and symptoms associated with pain in individuals with SCI, a thorough evaluation is important. This review includes an overview of the most recent guidelines for evaluating and classifying pain, suggestions for standardizing outcome measures for clinical use, and a review of the positive and negative evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to consider when treating individuals with SCI and chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25064788

  17. Pain volatility and prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A 1 standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain. PMID:26302337

  18. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Buenaver, Luis F.; Coryell, Virginia T.; Smith, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the literature on cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in patients with comorbid insomnia and chronic pain. An empirical rationale for the development of CBT-I in chronic pain is provided. The six randomized controlled trials in this area are described and contrasted. The data suggest that CBT-I for patients with comorbid insomnia and chronic pain produces clinically meaningful improvements in sleep symptoms. Effects on pain are inconsistent, but tend to favor functional measures over pain severity. Hybrid interventions for insomnia and pain have demonstrated feasibility, but larger trials must be conducted to determine efficacy relative to CBT-I alone. Future efforts should employ more comprehensive assessments of pain and psychosocial factors. PMID:25477769

  20. Outcome of continuous intrathecal opioid therapy for management of chronic pain in Iranian veterans of the imposed Iraq- Iran war.

    PubMed

    Godsi, Seyed Mohammad; Saadatniaki, Asadollah; Aghdashi, Mir Moussa; Firoozabadi, Nayereh Khodashenas; Dadkhah, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Among patients with chronic unrelieved pain, war veterans of eight years long Iraq - Iran war deserve especial attention. They not only suffer from severe intractable pain but also should bear some intangible consequences of unrelieved pain and severe disability. This perspective study reviews the outcome of implantation of intrathecal opioid pumps in these patients. Ten war veterans (mean age 43.36) with chronic nonmalignant pain included in this perspective study. Medical records reviewed to identify pain diagnosis, medication intake prior to implantation, details of the intrathecal opioid trial and date of implantation, surgical and technical complications. Outcome measures were global pain relief, physical activity levels, intrathecal opioid side effects, medication consumption and patient satisfaction. Overall pain relief at the time of study was 60%. Mean pain relief was 53%. A majority of patients reported improvements in physical activity levels and were satisfied with this type of therapy. Impotence and constipation were two most common pharmacological side effects. No surgical complication reported. The study showed that this type of therapy in Iranian war veterans improved analgesia, increased self-report physical activity levels and in spite of high incidence of pharmacological side effects, most of the patients were satisfied with this type of therapy. These results are comparable to those of previous studies in this field. PMID:21960079

  1. Ketamine for chronic pain: risks and benefits

    PubMed Central

    Niesters, Marieke; Martini, Christian; Dahan, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The anaesthetic ketamine is used to treat various chronic pain syndromes, especially those that have a neuropathic component. Low dose ketamine produces strong analgesia in neuropathic pain states, presumably by inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor although other mechanisms are possibly involved, including enhancement of descending inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects at central sites. Current data on short term infusions indicate that ketamine produces potent analgesia during administration only, while three studies on the effect of prolonged infusion (4–14 days) show long-term analgesic effects up to 3 months following infusion. The side effects of ketamine noted in clinical studies include psychedelic symptoms (hallucinations, memory defects, panic attacks), nausea/vomiting, somnolence, cardiovascular stimulation and, in a minority of patients, hepatoxicity. The recreational use of ketamine is increasing and comes with a variety of additional risks ranging from bladder and renal complications to persistent psychotypical behaviour and memory defects. Blind extrapolation of these risks to clinical patients is difficult because of the variable, high and recurrent exposure to the drug in ketamine abusers and the high frequency of abuse of other illicit substances in this population. In clinical settings, ketamine is well tolerated, especially when benzodiazepines are used to tame the psychotropic side effects. Irrespective, close monitoring of patients receiving ketamine is mandatory, particularly aimed at CNS, haemodynamic, renal and hepatic symptoms as well as abuse. Further research is required to assess whether the benefits outweigh the risks and costs. Until definite proof is obtained ketamine administration should be restricted to patients with therapy-resistant severe neuropathic pain. PMID:23432384

  2. Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283

  3. Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n = 243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium × phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p = 0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium × phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p = 0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium × phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957

  4. Fear of Pain as a Prognostic Factor in Chronic Pain: Conceptual Models, Assessment, and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Hilary D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a pervasive health care issue affecting over 50 million Americans and costing more than $100 billion dollars annually in lost productivity and health care costs. As a financially and emotionally taxing condition, the families and friends of people with chronic pain, as well as society at large, are affected. Current theory supports the role of biological, psychological, and environmental factors in the etiology, exacerbation, and maintenance of chronic pain. Recently, the specific role of pain-related fear in pain experience has received increasing attention. This article summarizes current understanding of the role of pain-related fear in the onset of acute pain incidents, the transition of acute pain to chronic, and the pain severity and disability of patients with ongoing chronic pain conditions. Treatments demonstrated to reduce pain-related fear are presented, evidence demonstrating their efficacy at reducing disability and pain severity are summarized, and recent criticisms of the fear-avoidance model and future directions are considered. PMID:20425197

  5. Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2015-08-01

    Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. PMID:26040835

  6. Analgesics as Reinforcers with Chronic Pain: Evidence from Operant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  7. Management of chronic pain in osteoporosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP. PMID:27099529

  8. Management of chronic pain in osteoporosis: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP. PMID:27099529

  9. Analgesics as reinforcers with chronic pain: Evidence from operant studies.

    PubMed

    Ewan, Eric E; Martin, Thomas J

    2013-12-17

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  10. Spinal cord stimulation and the relief of chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Koeze, T H; Williams, A C; Reiman, S

    1987-01-01

    Twenty six patients who had received spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain were evaluated by videotaped structured interviews with staff not directly involved in the patients' care. In addition estimates of pain relief were obtained from clinicians involved in the patients' care and from close relatives and friends. Information about lifestyles and drug usage was also collected and correlated with pain relief. At the time of the interviews half of the patients were receiving 50% or better relief of their pain. PMID:3500999

  11. Could Stress Contribute to Pain-Related Fear in Chronic Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to predict pain based on internal or external cues constitutes a fundamental and highly adaptive process aimed at self-protection. Pain-related fear is an essential component of this response, which is formed by associative and instrumental learning processes. In chronic pain, pain-related fear may become maladaptive, drive avoidance behaviors and contribute to symptom chronicity. Pavlovian fear conditioning has proven fruitful to elucidate associative learning and extinction involving aversive stimuli, including pain, but studies in chronic pain remain scarce. Stress demonstrably exerts differential effects on emotional learning and memory processes, but this has not been transferred to pain-related fear. Within this perspective, we propose that stress could contribute to impaired pain-related associative learning and extinction processes and call for interdisciplinary research. Specifically, we suggest to test the hypotheses that: (1) extinction-related phenomena inducing a re-activation of maladaptive pain-related fear (e.g., reinstatement, renewal) likely occur in everyday life of chronic pain patients and may alter pain processing, impair perceptual discrimination and favor overgeneralization; (2) acute stress prior to or during acquisition of pain-related fear may facilitate the formation and/or consolidation of pain-related fear memories; (3) stress during or after extinction may impair extinction efficacy resulting in greater reinstatement or context-dependent renewal of pain-related fear; and (4) these effects could be amplified by chronic stress due to early adversity and/or psychiatric comorbidity such depression or anxiety in patients with chronic pain. PMID:26733831

  12. Systematic mechanism-orientated approach to chronic pancreatitis pain.

    PubMed

    Bouwense, Stefan A W; de Vries, Marjan; Schreuder, Luuk T W; Olesen, Søren S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H G

    2015-01-01

    Pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) shows similarities with other visceral pain syndromes (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease and esophagitis), which should thus be managed in a similar fashion. Typical causes of CP pain include increased intrapancreatic pressure, pancreatic inflammation and pancreatic/extrapancreatic complications. Unfortunately, CP pain continues to be a major clinical challenge. It is recognized that ongoing pain may induce altered central pain processing, e.g., central sensitization or pro-nociceptive pain modulation. When this is present conventional pain treatment targeting the nociceptive focus, e.g., opioid analgesia or surgical/endoscopic intervention, often fails even if technically successful. If central nervous system pain processing is altered, specific treatment targeting these changes should be instituted (e.g., gabapentinoids, ketamine or tricyclic antidepressants). Suitable tools are now available to make altered central processing visible, including quantitative sensory testing, electroencephalograpy and (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. These techniques are potentially clinically useful diagnostic tools to analyze central pain processing and thus define optimum management approaches for pain in CP and other visceral pain syndromes. The present review proposes a systematic mechanism-orientated approach to pain management in CP based on a holistic view of the mechanisms involved. Future research should address the circumstances under which central nervous system pain processing changes in CP, and how this is influenced by ongoing nociceptive input and therapies. Thus we hope to predict which patients are at risk for developing chronic pain or not responding to therapy, leading to improved treatment of chronic pain in CP and other visceral pain disorders. PMID:25574079

  13. Announcing the CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Houry, Debra; Baldwin, Grant

    2016-06-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for primary care providers who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. The guideline addresses: (a) when to initiate or continue opioids for chronic pain; (b) opioid selection, dosage, duration, follow-up, and discontinuation; and (c) assessing risk and addressing harms of opioid use. This guideline is intended to improve communication between providers and patients about the risks and benefits of opioid therapy for chronic pain, improve the safety and effectiveness of pain treatment, and reduce the risks associated with long-term opioid therapy, including abuse, dependence, overdose, and death (Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain - United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65:1-49. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6501e1.). PMID:27178083

  14. The pain of chronic pancreatitis: a persistent clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The pain of chronic pancreatitis represents a major challenge to those working in the field, including pain specialists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. This article describes the different aetiologies of chronic pancreatitis and lists the models for the pathogenesis of pain, including novel ideas such as the role of the immune system in the modulation of pain. The patient profile in chronic pancreatitis is discussed along with the social impact of the disease in relation to alcohol misuse. The range of treatment strategies including medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches are evaluated. Common analgesic regimes and their limitations are reviewed. The pain of chronic pancreatitis remains refractory to effective treatment in many cases and further study and understanding of the underlying pathophysiology are required. PMID:26516493

  15. Connecting parents of children with chronic pain through art therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pielech, Melissa; Sieberg, Christine B.; Simons, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To help address the unique needs of parents of children with chronic pain, a four module, parent-only, group art therapy curriculum was designed and implemented within an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation treatment program. We evaluated perceived satisfaction and helpfulness of the group intervention. Methods Fifty-three parents of children experiencing chronic pain enrolled in a day hospital interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program participated. The voluntary parent art therapy group was offered one time per week for one hour. Participants completed a measure of satisfaction, helpfulness, and perceived social support at the end of each group session. Results Parents enjoyed participating in the group, agreed that they would try art therapy again, and found it to be a helpful, supportive, and validating experience. Conclusions Initial results are promising that group art therapy is an appropriate and helpful means of supporting parents of children with chronic pain during interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation. PMID:24563827

  16. Recognizing Myofascial Pelvic Pain in the Female Patient with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, PMID:22862153

  17. Pain-QuILT: Clinical Feasibility of a Web-Based Visual Pain Assessment Tool in Adults With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhare, Dinesh; Stinson, Jennifer N; Henry, James L

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a prevalent and debilitating problem. Accurate and timely pain assessment is critical to pain management. In particular, pain needs to be consistently tracked over time in order to gauge the effectiveness of different treatments. In current clinical practice, paper-based questionnaires are the norm for pain assessment. However, these methods are not conducive to capturing or tracking the complex sensations of chronic pain. Pain-QuILT (previously called the Iconic Pain Assessment Tool) is a Web-based tool for the visual self-report and tracking of pain (quality, intensity, location, tracker) in the form of time-stamped records. It has been iteratively developed and evaluated in adolescents and adults with chronic pain, including usability testing and content validation. Clinical feasibility is an important stepping-stone toward widespread implementation of a new tool. Our group has demonstrated Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility in the context of a pediatric chronic pain clinic. We sought to extend these findings by evaluating Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility from the perspective of adults with chronic pain, in comparison with standard paper-based methods (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Objective The goal of our study was to assess Pain-QuILT for (1) ease of use, (2) time for completion, (3) patient preferences, and (4) to explore the patterns of self-reported pain across the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI. Methods Participants were recruited during a scheduled follow-up visit at a hospital-affiliated pain management and physical rehabilitation clinic in southwestern Ontario. Participants self-reported their current pain using the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI (randomized order). A semistructured interview format was used to capture participant preferences for pain self-report. Results The sample consisted of 50 adults (54% female, 27/50) with a mean age of 50 years. Pain-QuILT was rated as significantly easier to use than both the MPQ and BPI (P<.01) and was also associated with the fewest difficulties in completion. On average, the time to complete each tool was less than 5 minutes. A majority of participants (58%, 29/50) preferred Pain-QuILT for reporting their pain over alternate methods (16%, 8/50 for MPQ; 14%, 7/50 for BPI; 12%, 6/50 for “other”). The most commonly chosen pain descriptors on MPQ were matched with Pain-QuILT across 91% of categories. There was a moderate-to-high correlation between Pain-QuILT and BPI scores for pain intensity (r=.70, P<.01). Conclusions The results of this clinical feasibility study in adults with chronic pain are consistent with our previously published pediatric findings. Specifically, data indicate that Pain-QuILT is (1) easy to use, (2) quick to complete, (3) preferred by a majority of patients, and (4) correlated as expected with validated pain measures. As a digital, patient-friendly method of assessing and tracking pain, we conclude that Pain-QuILT has potential to add significant value as one standard component of chronic pain management. PMID:24819478

  18. [Psychological assessment and psychotherapy for chronic pain in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mattenklodt, P; Leonhardt, C

    2015-08-01

    Systematic reviews of psychosocial assessment and effectiveness of psychotherapy for chronic pain syndromes in older patients are rare. However, it is of particular importance to consider the psychosocial aspects of elderly people with chronic pain. This narrative review describes recommended German-language assessments of the psychosocial dimensions of pain and summarizes existing studies of psychological therapy approaches for chronic pain in old age. Effective psychometric instruments are available for the assessment of cognitive function, pain-specific attitudes, depression, fear of falling, interpersonal processes and social activities, pain management, pain acceptance, disability, psychological well-being, and quality of life. Further experience with the use of these instruments with cognitively impaired or geriatric patients is required. The efficacy of age-adapted cognitive behavioral therapy and multimodal therapy for older patients has been documented. However, there is often a lack of supporting documentation about important result parameters (e.g., quality of life, functioning in everyday life, or pain acceptance). Overall, chronic pain in elderly people requires a biopsychosocial-spiritual model of pain. More attention should be given in research and daily practice to religiosity/spirituality as a possible means of coping, while mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapies should be further explored. PMID:26024645

  19. Adult attachment and approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicole E; Meredith, Pamela J; Strong, Jenny; Donohue, Genevieve F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The way in which individuals with chronic pain habitually approach activity engagement has been shown to impact daily functioning, with both avoidance of one’s daily activities and overactivity (activity engagement that significantly exacerbates pain) associated with more pain, higher levels of physical disability and poorer psychological functioning. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the development of maladaptive habitual approaches to activity engagement in chronic pain by applying an attachment theory framework. METHODS: A sample of 164 adults with chronic pain completed selfreport measures of attachment, approach to activity and pain cognitions. Mediation analyses were undertaken to examine the direct association between attachment variables and maladaptive approaches to activity, and to test for the mediating role of pain cognitions (catastrophizing and thought suppression). RESULTS: Results demonstrated that higher levels of secure attachment were associated with lower levels of activity avoidance, which was fully mediated by lower levels of pain catastrophizing; higher levels of preoccupied or fearful attachment were directly associated with higher levels overactivity; higher levels of preoccupied attachment were associated with higher levels of activity avoidance, which was partially mediated by higher levels of pain catastrophizing; and higher levels of fearful attachment were indirectly associated with higher levels of activity avoidance through higher levels of catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide preliminary support for the suggestion that insecure attachment may be a source of vulnerability to the development of disabling activity patterns in chronic pain. PMID:25337857

  20. Pharmacologic Management of Upper Extremity Chronic Nerve Pain.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of pain is a complex process that requires a team approach. This article provides an overview of the pharmaceutical treatments available. It gives providers treating upper extremity disorders more tools to treat their patients with chronic pain. Another goal is to improve hand providers' understanding of the medications their pain colleagues prescribe in shared patients. Pharmaceuticals are an important component in the treatment of chronic pain and opioids are often not a good solution. Knowing what other medications are available can improve the care for these challenging patients. PMID:26611389

  1. Nociceptor Sensitization Depends on Age and Pain Chronicity123

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral inflammation causes mechanical pain behavior and increased action potential firing. However, most studies examine inflammatory pain at acute, rather than chronic time points, despite the greater burden of chronic pain on patient populations, especially aged individuals. Furthermore, there is disagreement in the field about whether primary afferents contribute to chronic pain. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the contribution of nociceptor activity to the generation of pain behaviors during the acute and chronic phases of inflammation in both young and aged mice. We found that both young (2 months old) and aged (>18 months old) mice exhibited prominent pain behaviors during both acute (2 day) and chronic (8 week) inflammation. However, young mice exhibited greater behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli than their aged counterparts. Teased fiber recordings in young animals revealed a twofold mechanical sensitization in C fibers during acute inflammation, but an unexpected twofold reduction in firing during chronic inflammation. Responsiveness to capsaicin and mechanical responsiveness of A-mechanonociceptor (AM) fibers were also reduced chronically. Importantly, this lack of sensitization in afferent firing during chronic inflammation occurred even as these inflamed mice exhibited continued behavioral sensitization. Interestingly, C fibers from inflamed aged animals showed no change in mechanical firing compared with controls during either the acute or chronic inflammatory phases, despite strong behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli at these time points. These results reveal the following two important findings: (1) nociceptor sensitization to mechanical stimulation depends on age and the chronicity of injury; and (2) maintenance of chronic inflammatory pain does not rely on enhanced peripheral drive. PMID:26866058

  2. [Diagnostics and therapy of chronic pain following hernia operation].

    PubMed

    Berger, D

    2014-02-01

    The frequency of chronic pain after hernia repair is currently much higher than the recurrence rate. For inguinal hernias it has been shown that mesh-based techniques are comparable to mesh-free techniques concerning chronic pain. Risk factors could be clearly identified for inguinal hernia repair and include open repair, meshes with small pores, mesh fixation with sutures or tacks, pre-existing pain and severe pain during the early postoperative period. The last two risk factors are also important for incisional hernias. For laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, the width (> 10 cm) of the gap seems to correlate with chronic pain. The diagnostic measures are restricted to the identification of a segmental problem in terms of nerve entrapment which can be blocked by local anesthesia or definite neurectomy. In some cases of chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair removal of the mesh will be advisable. After incisional hernia repair a segmental involvement is rarely seen. Localized pain may be induced by stay sutures which can be removed. Mesh removal is, however, a complex procedure especially after open repair resulting in hernia recurrence and therefore represents a salvage technique. The prophylaxis of chronic pain is therefore of utmost importance as is the identification of patients at risk which is now possible. These patients for example with inguinal hernias should be treated laparoscopically with an adequate technique including meshes with big pores and without fixation or fixation with glue only. PMID:24435831

  3. Positive emotions and brain reward circuits in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Navratilova, Edita; Morimura, Kozo; Xie, Jennifer Y; Atcherley, Christopher W; Ossipov, Michael H; Porreca, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is an important public health problem that negatively impacts the quality of life of affected individuals and exacts enormous socioeconomic costs. Chronic pain is often accompanied by comorbid emotional disorders including anxiety, depression, and possibly anhedonia. The neural circuits underlying the intersection of pain and pleasure are not well understood. We summarize recent human and animal investigations and demonstrate that aversive aspects of pain are encoded in brain regions overlapping with areas processing reward and motivation. We highlight findings revealing anatomical and functional alterations of reward/motivation circuits in chronic pain. Finally, we review supporting evidence for the concept that pain relief is rewarding and activates brain reward/motivation circuits. Adaptations in brain reward circuits may be fundamental to the pathology of chronic pain. Knowledge of brain reward processing in the context of pain could lead to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of emotional aspects of pain and comorbid conditions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1646-1652, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26788716

  4. Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... even death itself." Today, pain has become the universal disorder, a serious and costly public health issue, ... pain is confined to a given period of time and severity. In some rare instances, it can ...

  5. Novel polymeric bioerodable microparticles for prolonged-release intrathecal delivery of analgesic agents for relief of intractable cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Han, Felicity Y; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Lam, Ai-Leen; Whittaker, Andrew K; Smith, Maree T

    2015-07-01

    Intractable cancer-related pain complicated by a neuropathic component due to nerve impingement is poorly alleviated even by escalating doses of a strong opioid analgesic. To address this unmet medical need, we developed sustained-release, bioerodable, hydromorphone (potent strong opioid)- and ketamine (analgesic adjuvant)-loaded microparticles for intrathecal (i.t.) coadministration. Drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water method with evaporation. Encapsulation efficiency of hydromorphone and ketamine in PLGA (50:50) microparticles was 26% and 56%, respectively. Microparticles had the desired size range (20-60 μm) and in vitro release was prolonged at ≥28 days. Microparticles were stable for ≥6 months when stored refrigerated protected from light in a desiccator. Desirably, i.t. injected fluorescent dye-labeled PLGA microparticles in rats remained in the lumbar region for ≥7 days. In a rat model of neuropathic pain, i.t. coinjection of hydromorphone- and ketamine-loaded microparticles (each 1 mg) produced analgesia for 8 h only. Possible explanations include inadequate release of ketamine and/or hydromorphone into the spinal fluid, and/or insufficient ketamine loading to prevent development of analgesic tolerance to the released hydromorphone. As sub-analgesic doses of i.t. ketamine at 24-48 h intervals restored analgesia on each occasion, insufficient ketamine loading appears problematic. We will investigate these issues in future work. PMID:25990226

  6. Reduced acute nociception and chronic pain in Shank2-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Oh, Seog-Bae; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a debilitating mental illness and social issue. Autism spectrum disorder patients suffer from social isolation, cognitive deficits, compulsive behavior, and sensory deficits, including hyposensitivity to pain. However, recent studies argued that autism spectrum disorder patients show physiological pain response and, in some cases, even extremely intense pain response to harmless stimulation. Recently, Shank gene family was reported as one of the genetic risk factors of autism spectrum disorder. Thus, in this study, we used Shank2(-) (/) (-) (Shank2 knock-out, KO) mice to investigate the controversial pain sensitivity issue and found that Shank2 KO mice showed reduced tactile perception and analgesia to chronic pain. PMID:27145803

  7. Effectiveness of an interdisciplinary pain management program for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Kames, L D; Rapkin, A J; Naliboff, B D; Afifi, S; Ferrer-Brechner, T

    1990-04-01

    Chronic pelvic pain has rarely been discussed in the pain management literature, although it is extremely common in general gynecological practice and often refractory to traditional medical and surgical therapy. A chronic pelvic pain program was developed to offer an alternative treatment approach for women for whom standard gynecological procedures were inappropriate or unsuccessful. Sixteen subjects completed the full 6-8 week interdisciplinary program, which included both somatic and behavioral therapies. Compared to a waiting list control the results showed a dramatic decrease in reported levels of pain following treatment. Anxiety and depression also decreased and psychosocial functioning improved, including return to work, increased social activities, and improved sexual activity. The outcome suggests that the interdisciplinary pain management approach is effective for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:2352765

  8. Study Suggests Brain Is Hard-Wired for Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... the study and professor of physiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. Chronic pain affects nearly 100 million Americans and costs the United States up to $635 billion per ...

  9. Spontaneous Chronic Pain After Experimental Thoracotomy Revealed by Conditioned Place Preference: Morphine Differentiates Tactile Evoked Pain From Spontaneous Pain.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Strichartz, Gary R

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain after surgery limits social activity, interferes with work, and causes emotional suffering. A major component of such pain is reported as resting or spontaneous pain with no apparent external stimulus. Although experimental animal models can simulate the stimulus-evoked chronic pain that occurs after surgery, there have been no studies of spontaneous chronic pain in such models. Here the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to reveal resting pain after experimental thoracotomy. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a thoracotomy with 1-hour rib retraction, resulting in evoked tactile hypersensitivity, previously shown to last for at least 9 weeks. Intraperitoneal injections of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or gabapentin (40 mg/kg) gave equivalent 2- to 3-hour-long relief of tactile hypersensitivity when tested 12 to 14 days postoperatively. In separate experiments, single trial CPP was conducted 1 week before thoracotomy and then 12 days (gabapentin) or 14 days (morphine) after surgery, followed the next day by 1 conditioning session with morphine or gabapentin, both versus saline. The gabapentin-conditioned but not the morphine-conditioned rats showed a significant preference for the analgesia-paired chamber, despite the equivalent effect of the 2 agents in relieving tactile allodynia. These results show that experimental thoracotomy in rats causes spontaneous pain and that some analgesics, such as morphine, that reduce evoked pain do not also relieve resting pain, suggesting that pathophysiological mechanisms differ between these 2 aspects of long-term postoperative pain. Perspective: Spontaneous pain, a hallmark of chronic postoperative pain, is demonstrated here in a rat model of experimental postthoracotomy pain, further validating the use of this model for the development of analgesics to treat such symptoms. Although stimulus-evoked pain was sensitive to systemic morphine, spontaneous pain was not, suggesting different mechanistic underpinnings. PMID:26116369

  10. Burdensome problems of chronic musculoskeletal pain and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    According to a recent survey, about 15 % of the Japanese population suffers from moderate-severe chronic musculoskeletal pain persisting for at least 6 months. Social factors and related psychological factors (including depression) thus appear to greatly affect chronic musculoskeletal pain. This suggests the need for measures that take these factors into account. Treatment for musculoskeletal pain at present is generally based on a biomedical model that has been used for many years in this field, and modern medical imaging technologies have been a high priority to support this model and treatment strategy. Under the concept of the biomedical model, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, channel blockers and opioid analgesics are generally used as pharmacotherapy to alleviate chronic pain. However, these drugs are commonly associated with problems such as adverse effects, drug dependency and drug abuse, and they must be used with care. Surgery may also be effective in treating certain diseases, but studies have shown that many patients suffer residual chronic pain even after such treatment. Besides, exercise therapy has been found to be effective in treating many different types of chronic pain. Lately, various countries have been launching interdisciplinary pain centers that use a multidisciplinary approach to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Treatment in these centers is provided by a team of specialists in anesthesiology, psychiatry and orthopedics as well as the relevant paramedical professionals. The therapeutic strategy is based on a cognitive-behavioral approach, and patients are taught about methods for restoring physical function and coping with pain, mostly with drugs and exercise therapy, so that any pain present does not impair function and the patient can reintegrate into society. PMID:26260256

  11. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level III evidence). Conclusion Future guidelines should be based on systematic review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of smoked cannabis. Further research is needed on the effectiveness and long-term safety of smoked cannabis compared with pharmaceutical cannabinoids, opioids, and other standard analgesics. PMID:25500598

  12. Autoantibody pain.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    As autoantibodies bind to target tissues, Fc-region dependent inflammation can induce pain via mediators exciting nociceptors. But recently another possibility has emerged, where autoantibody binding to nociceptors can directly cause pain, without inflammation. This is thought to occur as a result of Fab-region mediated modification of nerve transduction, transmission, or neuropeptide release. In three conditions, complex regional pain syndrome, anti-voltage gated potassium channel complex autoimmunity, and chronic fatigue syndrome, all associated with no or only little inflammation, initial laboratory-, and clinical trial-results have suggested a potential role for autoantibody-mediated mechanisms. More research assessing the pathogenic roles of autoantibodies in these and other chronic pain conditions is required. The concept of autoantibody-mediated pain offers hope for the development of novel therapies for currently intractable pains. PMID:26883460

  13. Neuromodulation in Male Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Rationale and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    This review explores the treatment of male chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (i.e., chronic prostatitis) through the use of neuromodulation, which is the electrical stimulation of the nervous system. Neuromodulation has been used for the treatment of chronic pain for decades, and this review will examine the theory and use of neuromodulation and the various techniques available for the treatment of CPPS. Because of limited published research, much of the data presented will not be explicitly for male CPPS, but will be extrapolated from other chronic pelvic pain studies where neuromodulation has been used. Although several types of neuromodulation techniques are currently available for chronic pelvic pain conditions, none are considered standard therapies for treating CPPS. Despite the limited evidence, neuromodulation appears to provide benefits for some patients with CPPS. The improvement of urinary symptoms is more clearly defined than improvements in pain, but at least a subset of patients in most of the published studies and case series derive some benefit in the short term, and limited evidence suggests that long-term improvement of symptoms is possible. The debate about the pathophysiology of pelvic pain syndromes continues and the mechanism of action of neuromodulation on urinary and pain symptoms has yet to be defined. The fuller understanding of both will inform the evidence basis of using neuromodulation for male CPPS. PMID:23619478

  14. [Biofeedback therapy in a traumatised migrant with chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Morina, Naser; Mller, J

    2010-07-28

    We report on a 40-year-old Kurdish patient, who was imprisoned for six years for political reasons. The patient suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid chronic pain. For a better pain management the patient was treated initially using biofeedback therapy. The intervention showed good effects on pain. Medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan and course of therapy are described. PMID:20715008

  15. Psychological and Behavioral Dynamics in Chronic Atypical Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Baile, Walter F.; Myers, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss the relationship between atypical facial pain and psychiatric disturbance. They present contemporary viewpoints and describe four cases that illustrate underlying psychodynamic mechanisms associated with pain in patients who had undergone various dental procedures and other treatments without success. They identify factors which might lead to the early detection of underlying psychological problems and discuss the role of learning, the family system and other factors in producing a chronic pain syndrome. PMID:3465263

  16. Management of chronic pain with chronic opioid therapy in patients with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs), whether active or in remission, are often encountered in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Clinicians are challenged when managing chronic pain while facing substance abuse issues during the course of chronic opioid therapy (COT). Further, the interrelated behavioral symptomatology of addiction and chronic pain suggests that if one disorder is untreated, effective treatment of the other in not possible. Incomplete understanding of the overlapping presentations of the two disorders, coupled with insufficient management of both conditions, leads to undertreated pain and premature discharge of SUD patients from pain treatment. In order to achieve pain relief and optimal functionality, both conditions need to be carefully managed. This paper reviews the prevalence of SUDs in chronic pain patents; the overlapping presentation of the two disorders; risk factors and stratification for addiction; identification of addiction in the chronic pain population; and suggestions for treating patients with COT, with an emphasis on relapse prevention. With appropriate assessment and treatment, COT for chronic pain patients with a history of SUD can be successful, leading to improved functionality and quality of life. PMID:24341916

  17. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…

  18. Hernias as a Cause of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women

    PubMed Central

    Echeverri, Juan Diego Villegas

    2006-01-01

    Background: Chronic pelvic pain in women due to hernias may be misdiagnosed by practicing clinicians. These fascial defects, their symptoms, physical findings, and proper treatment must be known in order to help women experiencing this form of chronic pelvic pain. Methods: All procedures were performed by the primary author using standard laparoscopic tension-free mesh techniques. Results: The study included 264 patients referred to a chronic pelvic pain clinic, who underwent 386 laparoscopic surgical repairs of hernial defects. Ninety percent of the patients underwent concomitant procedures appropriate for their multiple pain generators. Length of follow-up is 1.53 years (range, 2 months to 5.5 years). Evaluation of patients’ pain component from the repaired hernia was recorded. There have been no recurrences. One persistent ilioinguinal neuropathy from an inguinal hernia repair (.4%) has occurred. All other patients received relief of their hernia pain (99.6%). Four complications from concomitant surgeries (1.5%) are reported. Conclusions: Laparoscopic treatment of hernia pain in women is effective in relieving chronic pain and has a low recurrence and complication rate in the hands of experienced laparoscopists. PMID:16882422

  19. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is

  20. Feldenkrais method empowers adults with chronic back pain.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Judith Dianne; Williams, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of 11 adults attending Awareness Through Movement lessons in the Feldenkrais Method to manage chronic-episodic back pain. Semistructured interviews were analyzed. The results suggest improving self-efficacy through somatic education and awareness potentially offers a way forward given the back pain epidemic. PMID:24722612

  1. Strategies for Coping with Stress and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve Rogge

    This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal

  2. Strategies for Coping with Stress and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve Rogge

    This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…

  3. A New Perspective of Neuromyopathy to Explain Intractable Pancreatic Cancer Pains; Dry Needling as an Effective Adjunct to Neurolytic Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Lakshmi; Phanse, Sushama; Pai, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    We present a new perspective of neuromyopathy in pancreatic cancer pain (PCP) referral to bodywall; proposal of new rationale to include ultrasound guided dry needling (USGDN) of body wall muscles as an effective adjunct to neurolytic coeliac plexus block (NCPB) or splanchnic nerve radiofrequency ablation (SRF) for comprehensive interventional management. Methods: PCP response to SRF in 2 patients and NCPB in 3 patients was documented on numerical rating scale (NRS) on post procedure days 3 and 15. If the residual pain was >5 NRS on day 15, USGDN of abdominal and back muscles was started on a thrice weekly basis. The response to USGDN documented on day 30 after approximately 6 sessions of DN, showed a significant pain reduction (0-2 NRS) with 50% reduction of pre-treatment opioid consumption. This was sustained at 6 months or till their demise. Convergence of visceral and somatic nerves at the dorsal horn (viscerosomatic neurons) causes referral of visceral pain to the back and abdominal muscles. This leads to formation of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the muscles which sets up a parallel network of sensitized peripheral and central motor nociceptive processing (neuromyopathy). USGDN specifically addressed the MTrPs that develop as an epiphenomenon of self-perpetuating neuromyopathy while SRF/NCPB, analgesics and neuromodulators could address only visceral nociceptive afferents (pain mediated through celiac plexus) which forms a meagre 10% of the total spinal cord afferent input. Thus, we conclude that combination of neuromyopathy and viscerosomatic convergence in PCP indicate a specific role for DN as an adjunct to SRF/NCPB in our patients PMID:26962286

  4. Common and unique associated factors for medically unexplained chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue☆

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, J.; Tomenson, B.; Chew-Graham, C.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Jackson, J.; Littlewood, A.; Creed, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. Methods We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Results Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N = 93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N = 125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. Discussion This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. PMID:26652592

  5. Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN): A multimodal, multisite, brain-imaging repository for chronic somatic and visceral pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Liu, Cathy; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; dos Santos, Ivani R; Alaverdyan, Mher; Woodworth, Davis; Gupta, Arpana; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-01-01

    The Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN) repository (painrepository.org) is a newly created NIH (NIDA/NCCAM) funded neuroimaging data repository that aims to accelerate scientific discovery regarding brain mechanisms in pain and to provide more rapid benefits to pain patients through the harmonization of efforts and data sharing. The PAIN Repository consists of two components, an Archived Repository and a Standardized Repository. Similar to other 'open' imaging repositories, neuroimaging researchers can deposit any dataset of chronic pain patients and healthy controls into the Archived Repository. Scans in the Archived Repository can be very diverse in terms of scanning procedures and clinical metadata, complicating the merging of datasets for analyses. The Standardized Repository overcomes these limitations through the use of standardized scanning protocols along with a standardized set of clinical metadata, allowing an unprecedented ability to perform pooled analyses. The Archived Repository currently includes 741 scans and is rapidly growing. The Standardized Repository currently includes 433 scans. Pain conditions currently represented in the PAIN repository include: irritable bowel syndrome, vulvodynia, migraine, chronic back pain, and inflammatory bowel disease. Both the PAIN Archived and Standardized Repositories promise to be important resources in the field of chronic pain research. The enhanced ability of the Standardized Repository to combine imaging, clinical and other biological datasets from multiple sites in particular make it a unique resource for significant scientific discoveries. PMID:25902408

  6. Chronic pain management strategies used by low income overweight Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787

  7. The Putative Role of Viruses, Bacteria, and Chronic Fungal Biotoxin Exposure in the Genesis of Intractable Fatigue Accompanied by Cognitive and Physical Disability.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Patients who present with severe intractable apparently idiopathic fatigue accompanied by profound physical and or cognitive disability present a significant therapeutic challenge. The effect of psychological counseling is limited, with significant but very slight improvements in psychometric measures of fatigue and disability but no improvement on scientific measures of physical impairment compared to controls. Similarly, exercise regimes either produce significant, but practically unimportant, benefit or provoke symptom exacerbation. Many such patients are afforded the exclusionary, non-specific diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome if rudimentary testing fails to discover the cause of their symptoms. More sophisticated investigations often reveal the presence of a range of pathogens capable of establishing life-long infections with sophisticated immune evasion strategies, including Parvoviruses, HHV6, variants of Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Other patients have a history of chronic fungal or other biotoxin exposure. Herein, we explain the epigenetic factors that may render such individuals susceptible to the chronic pathology induced by such agents, how such agents induce pathology, and, indeed, how such pathology can persist and even amplify even when infections have cleared or when biotoxin exposure has ceased. The presence of active, reactivated, or even latent Herpes virus could be a potential source of intractable fatigue accompanied by profound physical and or cognitive disability in some patients, and the same may be true of persistent Parvovirus B12 and mycoplasma infection. A history of chronic mold exposure is a feasible explanation for such symptoms, as is the presence of B. burgdorferi. The complex tropism, life cycles, genetic variability, and low titer of many of these pathogens makes their detection in blood a challenge. Examination of lymphoid tissue or CSF in such circumstances may be warranted. PMID:26081141

  8. Mania reduces perceived pain intensity in patients with chronic pain: preliminary evidence from retrospective archival data

    PubMed Central

    Boggero, Ian A; Cole, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bipolar disorder is associated with poor pain outcomes, but the extant literature has not taken into account how mania or hypomania – a central feature of bipolar disorders – influences pain intensity. The objective of this study was to describe whether patients recalled experiencing reduced pain intensity during manic or hypomanic episodes. Design and setting This study used a retrospective design using archival data from patient’s medical records. Subjects A total of 201 patients with chronic pain with bipolar I (39.6%) or bipolar II (60.4%) disorder who were undergoing a psychological evaluation for an interventional pain procedure were included in this study. Methods Patients underwent a semistructured interview where they were asked if they recalled reductions in pain intensity during their most recent manic or hypomanic episode. The proportion of patients who responded “yes” versus “no” to this question was the primary outcome variable. Results Results reveal that 64.2% of patients recalled experiencing a reduction in pain intensity during their most recent manic or hypomanic episode. Conclusion Perceptions of reduced pain intensity during mania or hypomania may contribute to a cycle of increased activity during manic episodes, which may increase pain over time. It may also lead to false-positive findings on spinal cord stimulator trials and diagnostic pain blocks, among other interventional pain procedures. The preliminary findings of this study highlight the clinical importance of assessing for bipolar disorders in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27099527

  9. Low mindfulness predicts pain catastrophizing in a fear-avoidance model of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Robert; Rees, Clare; Preece, Minette; Schütze, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between persistent pain and self-directed, non-reactive awareness of present-moment experience (i.e., mindfulness) was explored in one of the dominant psychological theories of chronic pain - the fear-avoidance model[53]. A heterogeneous sample of 104 chronic pain outpatients at a multidisciplinary pain clinic in Australia completed psychometrically sound self-report measures of major variables in this model: Pain intensity, negative affect, pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, pain hypervigilance, and functional disability. Two measures of mindfulness were also used, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale [4] and the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire [1]. Results showed that mindfulness significantly negatively predicts each of these variables, accounting for 17-41% of their variance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that mindfulness uniquely predicts pain catastrophizing when other variables are controlled, and moderates the relationship between pain intensity and pain catastrophizing. This is the first clear evidence substantiating the strong link between mindfulness and pain catastrophizing, and suggests mindfulness might be added to the fear-avoidance model. Implications for the clinical use of mindfulness in screening and intervention are discussed. PMID:19944534

  10. New Developments in the Psychological Management of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Morley, Stephen; Williams, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    After reviewing how psychological treatment for chronic pain comes to have its current form, and summarizing treatment effectiveness, we explore several areas of development. We describe third wave therapies, such as mindfulness; we discuss what the research literature aggregated can tell us about what trials are more useful to conduct; and we outline some areas of promise and some failures to deliver on promise. The article is drawn together using the framework of the normal psychology of pain, identifying some of its most important implications for improving life for people with chronic pain. PMID:26174216

  11. Current Concepts of Pelvic Congestion and Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is a common and disabling illness caused by numerous organic pathologies usually accompanied by varying psychological dysfunctions. Many patients may receive misdiagnosis, misdirected therapies, or do not seek help at all. Pelvic congestion may be responsible for pain in patients without more common diseases, such as endometriosis and pelvic adhesions, among others. Our view of this condition is evolving. In the United States, this medical condition remains controversial. More recent research from the United Kingdom has caused a fresh look at the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain produced by pelvic congestion. Potentially, many patients may benefit from a reconsideration of this approach. PMID:11394421

  12. Conceptualizing and Treating Comorbid Chronic Pain and PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Gallinati, Jessica L.; Clark, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the rationale for concurrent, evidence-based treatment of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To meet this end, we review pertinent definitions and extant theories related to the two conditions and their correlations with each other. We then synthesize theoretical components into a proposal of a comprehensive conceptual framework for understanding the relationship and clinical complexity of overlapping chronic pain and PTSD. We conclude with an example of an integrated treatment model designed specifically to address a fundamental factor associated with pain and PTSD: avoidance. PMID:23819047

  13. New Developments in the Psychological Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Stephen; Williams, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing how psychological treatment for chronic pain comes to have its current form, and summarizing treatment effectiveness, we explore several areas of development. We describe third wave therapies, such as mindfulness; we discuss what the research literature aggregated can tell us about what trials are more useful to conduct; and we outline some areas of promise and some failures to deliver on promise. The article is drawn together using the framework of the normal psychology of pain, identifying some of its most important implications for improving life for people with chronic pain. PMID:26174216

  14. Chronic pain: the burden of disease and treatment innovations.

    PubMed

    Monti, S; Caporali, R

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are the most frequent cause of chronic pain and affect around 1 in 5 adults in Europe. When chronic pain occurs, it becomes disease itself, with substantial clinical, social and economic impact. Efficacy and tolerability problems are encountered with all therapeutic strategies available to treat musculoskeletal pain. This often limits effective analgesia and patients' long term compliance, with the result that chronic pain is persistently underestimated and undertreated. Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic that has been recently commercialized for the treatment of chronic pain. This new molecule, by combining two distinct mechanisms of action, μ-opioid receptor agonism (MOR) and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (NRI), introduces a new pharmacological class called MOR-NRI. Several studies demonstrated promising results in the management of both nociceptive and neuropathic pain and good tolerability profile, particularly concerning side effects, compared to traditional opioids. This novel analgesic represents a possible therapeutic option also in the rheumatologic field, particularly in the treatment of osteoarthritis and low back pain. PMID:26492961

  15. Central changes associated with chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Brawn, Jennifer; Morotti, Matteo; Zondervan, Krina T.; Becker, Christian M.; Vincent, Katy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a significant public health problem with 1 million affected women in the UK. Although many pathologies are associated with CPP, the pain experienced is often disproportionate to the extent of disease identified and frequently no pathology is found (chronic pelvic pain syndrome). The central nervous system (CNS) is central to the experience of pain and chronic pain conditions in general are associated with alterations in both the structure and function of the CNS. This review describes the available evidence for central changes in association with conditions presenting with CPP. METHODS A detailed literature search was performed to identify relevant papers, however, this is not a systematic review. RESULTS CPP is associated with central changes similar to those identified in other pain conditions. Specifically these include, alterations in the behavioural and central response to noxious stimulation, changes in brain structure (both increases and decreases in the volume of specific brain regions), altered activity of both the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS The evidence reviewed in this paper demonstrates that CPP is associated with significant central changes when compared with healthy pain-free women. Moreover, the presence of these changes has the potential to both exacerbate symptoms and to predispose these women to the development of additional chronic conditions. These findings support the use of adjunctive medication targeting the CNS in these women. PMID:24920437

  16. Locus of control patterns in headaches and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; López-Jiménez, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The six-cluster solution was optimal. The patterns observed coincided with: the believer in control; the yea-sayer; the pure chance; the pure internal; the pure professional; and the nay-sayer clusters. The double external or type VI clusters were not observed. Clusters could be classified from the best to the worst adjustment to chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the empirical validity of the theoretical model of LOC patterns proposed in 1982 by Wallston and Wallston among a chronic pain population. The analysis of patterns provides more accurate information regarding the adjustment to pain compared with analysis of the LOC factors separately. PMID:23936894

  17. Laparoscopic Inguinal Exploration and Mesh Placement for Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christina; Allaire, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Chronic pelvic pain affects 15% of women. Our objective was to evaluate empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration and mesh placement in this population. Methods: Retrospective cohort with follow-up questionnaire of women with lateralizing chronic pelvic pain (right or left), ipsilateral inguinal tenderness on pelvic examination, no clinical hernia on abdominal examination, and ipsilateral empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration with mesh placement (2003–2009). Primary outcome was pain level at the last postoperative visit. Secondary outcomes were pain level and SF-36 scores from the follow-up questionnaire. Results: Forty-eight cases met the study criteria. Surgery was done empirically for all patients, with only 7 patients (15%) found to have an ipsilateral patent processus vaginalis (shallow peritoneal dimple or a deeper defect (occult hernia)). Of 43 cases informative for the primary outcome, there was pain improvement in 15 patients (35%); pain improvement then return of the pain in 18 patients (42%); and pain unchanged in 9 patients (21%) and worse in 1 patient (2%). Improvement in pain was associated with a positive Carnett's test in the ipsilateral abdominal lower quadrant (P = .024). Thirteen patients returned the questionnaire (27%), and the pain was now described as improved in 9 patients (69%), unchanged in 4 patients (31%), and worse in none. Three SF-36 subscales showed improvement (physical functioning, social functioning, and pain). Conclusion: In select women with chronic pelvic pain, empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration and mesh placement results in moderate improvement in outcome. A positive Carnett's test in the ipsilateral abdominal lower quadrant is a predictor of better outcome. PMID:23743375

  18. Early Life Course Pathways of Adult Depression and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.

    2013-01-01

    Applying cumulative inequality theory, this study examines the extent to which childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal depression increase the risk of major depression and chronic pain in U.S. working-aged adults. Further, I assess whether low socioeconomic status amplifies the risk of adult depression and/or pain. Using data from the 2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=4339), I find that socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal depression during youth increases the risk of adult depression and/or chronic pain. The probability of having chronic pain increases in magnitude over the life course for adults whose parents have lower educational attainment relative to those with more highly educated parents. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances are not completely explained by adulthood socioeconomic status indicators. These findings help illustrate the far-reaching influence of childhood context on adult physical and mental health. PMID:23426854

  19. Minimally invasive therapies for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Salim A; Fariello, Jennifer Y; Whitmore, Kristene

    2010-07-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common problem among men and women worldwide. It is a symptoms-complex term for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in women and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. Patients often present with a combination of lower urinary tract symptoms with pelvic pain and sexual dysfunction. No gold standard exists for diagnosis or treatment of CPPS. The diagnosis is often challenging and is determined by elimination. Multiple treatment modalities exist, ranging from physical therapy to surgery. We discuss minimally invasive therapies for treatment of this complex of symptoms. Although data suggest reasonable efficacy of several medications, multimodal therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. We review the following minimally invasive therapeutic modalities: dietary modifications, physical therapy, mind-body therapies, medical therapy, intravesical therapies, trigger point injections, botulinum toxin injections to the pelvic floor, and neuromodulation. We report data supporting their use and efficacy and highlight the limitations of each. PMID:20449696

  20. Opioids for managing chronic non-malignant pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Midmer, Deana

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence on safe and effective prescribing of opioids for chronic non-malignant pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the terms “opioid effectiveness” and “adverse effects.” There is strong evidence that opioids are effective for both nociceptive and neuropathic pain, but limited evidence that they are effective for pain disorder. There is little information on their effectiveness at high doses or on the adverse effects of high doses. MAIN MESSAGE Opioids should be initiated after an adequate trial of acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for nociceptive pain and of tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain. Patients should be asked to sign treatment agreements and to give informed consent to treatment. Patients should experience a graded analgesic response with each dose increase. Titrate doses of immediate-release opioids slowly upward until pain reduction is achieved, and then switch patients to controlled-release opioids. Most patients with chronic non-malignant pain can be managed with<300 mg/d of morphine (or equivalent). CONCLUSION Opioids are safe and effective for managing chronic pain. PMID:17279219

  1. Opioid dependence and addiction during opioid treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Jane C; LaForge, K Steven

    2007-06-01

    Throughout the long history of opioid drug use by humans, it has been known that opioids are powerful analgesics, but they can cause addiction. It has also been observed, and is now substantiated by multiple reports and studies, that during opioid treatment of severe and short-term pain, addiction arises only rarely. However, when opioids are extended to patients with chronic pain, and therapeutic opioid use is not confined to patients with severe and short-lived pain, compulsive opioid seeking and addiction arising directly from opioid treatment of pain become more visible. Although the epidemiological evidence base currently available is rudimentary, it appears that problematic opioid use arises in some fraction of opioid-treated chronic pain patients, and that problematic behaviors and addiction are problems that need to be addressed. Since the potentially devastating effects of addiction can substantially offset the benefits of opioid pain relief, it seems timely to reexamine addiction mechanisms and their relevance to the practice of long-term opioid treatment for pain. This article reviews the neurobiological and genetic basis of addiction, its terminology and diagnosis, the evidence on addiction rates during opioid treatment of chronic pain and the implications of biological mechanisms in formulating rational opioid treatment regimes. PMID:17482363

  2. Systematic review of chronic pain in persons with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velvin, G; Bathen, T; Rand-Hendriksen, S; Geirdal, A Ø

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on chronic pain in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS), critically appraising and synthesizing relevant literature. A systematic review was conducted by searching the published literature databases using available medical, physical, psychological, social databases and other sources. All studies that addressed pain in MFS, published in peer-reviewed journals were assessed. Of 351 search results, 18 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. All studies were cross-sectional and quantitative; no randomized controlled trials or intervention studies were found. Most studies had small sample sizes, low response rates and mainly dealt with other aspects of the diagnosis than pain. Only one article dealt mainly with pain. The research on chronic pain in MFS is limited in size and quality. Despite these limitations, studies describe that the prevalence of pain in patients with MFS is high, varying from 47 to 92% and affecting several anatomic sites. In addition, chronic pain limits daily function and few studies describe treatment options for pain in patients with MFS. Research is needed to obtain more evidence-based knowledge for developing more appropriate rehabilitation programs for people with MFS. PMID:26607862

  3. Preventing Chronic Pain following Acute Pain: Risk Factors, Preventive Strategies, and their Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    McGreevy, Kai; Bottros, Michael M.; Raja, Srinivasa N.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in the United States. The transition from acute to persistent pain is thought to arise from maladaptive neuroplastic mechanisms involving three intertwined processes, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, and descending modulation. Strategies aimed at preventing persistent pain may target such processes. Models for studying preventive strategies include persistent post-surgical pain (PPP), persistent post-trauma pain (PTP) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Such entities allow a more defined acute onset of tissue injury after which study of the long-term effects is more easily examined. In this review, we examine the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment strategies for the prevention of chronic pain using these models. Both pharmacological and interventional approaches are described, as well as a discussion of preventive strategies on the horizon. PMID:22102847

  4. [Chronic low back pain and abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Zúñiga Cedó, E; Vico Besó, L

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm has a population prevalence of 2-5% and mortality in case of rupture of 80%. Up to 91% of cases is accompanied with low back pain, so it is important to include aortic aneurysm in the differential diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Low back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultions in Services Emergency Hospital Emergency and Primary Care Services, with an estimated 80% of population having spinal pain at some point in their lives, with 90% of them having a benign course. PMID:24095169

  5. Challenges in drug discovery for overcoming 'dysfunctional pain': an emerging category of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    'Dysfunctional pain', a type of chronic pain, is associated with a broad range of clinical disorders, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis. It is emerging as a serious issue due to the negative impact of inexplicable pain on quality of life, lack of effective therapies and health care cost. Although drug discovery efforts in pain research have so far focused primarily on inflammatory and neuropathic pain, this editorial attracts attention to dysfunctional pain research and discusses a possible fundamental framework for tackling this difficult issue. While dysfunctional pain is characterized by chronic widespread or regional pain symptoms and occurrence of pain amplification, underlying pathophysiologies remain to be identified. Thus, a pivotal step in future research would be the exploration of pathophysiological pathways, such as relevant molecular networks, which are responsible for dysfunctional pain. Utilization of developing technologies paves the way for the identification of underlying pathophysiologies and the development of effective drugs which would eventually solve the clinical issues associated with dysfunctional pain. PMID:26160648

  6. The role of sodium channels in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Simon R; Luo, Songjiang; Henry, Michael A

    2012-08-01

    Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in sodium channel expression and localization in chronic inflammation and nerve injury in animal and human tissues. We conclude by discussing the role that myelination plays in organizing and maintaining sodium channel clusters at nodes of Ranvier in normal development and how inflammatory processes or nerve injury alter the characteristics of such clusters. Based on these findings, we suggest that chronic pain may in part result from partial demyelination of axons during chronic injury, which creates aberrant sodium channel clusters that serve as sites of ectopic sensitivity or spontaneous activity. PMID:22806363

  7. THE ROLE OF SODIUM CHANNELS IN CHRONIC PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Simon R.; Luo, Songjiang; Henry, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in sodium channel expression and localization in chronic inflammation and nerve injury in animal and human tissues. We conclude by discussing the role that myelination plays in organizing and maintaining sodium channel clusters at nodes of Ranvier in normal development and how inflammatory processes or nerve injury alter the characteristics of such clusters. Based on these findings, we suggest that chronic pain may in part result from partial demyelination of axons during chronic injury, which creates aberrant sodium channel clusters that serve as sites of ectopic sensitivity or spontaneous activity. PMID:22806363

  8. Chronic pain as a variant of depressive disease: the pain-prone disorder.

    PubMed

    Blumer, D; Heilbronn, M

    1982-07-01

    Review of the literature shows that the common syndrome of chronic pain of uncertain origin appears to be perpetuated by central mechanisms. No plausible neurological theory has been proposed. While the alternative concept of chronic pain as a psychogenic disorder has remained a vague entity, there is strong support to view chronic pain as the prime expression of a muted depressive state. This form of masked depression, however, tends to be associated with a number of characteristic traits. Our studies of patients with chronic pain have led to the identification of a well defined psychobiological disorder with characteristic clinical, psychodynamic, biographic, and genetic features. This syndrome is termed the pain-prone disorder and is viewed as a variant of depressive disease. It proves a distinct entity when compared with a group of patients whose pain can be related to a well defined somatic disease. The chronicity of the disorder appears partially related to the practice of protracted, costly, and futile physical procedures, focusing on a phantom peripheral source of the pain-- a practice commonly pursued by patients and physicians. Recognition of the disorder allows for early, rational, and more effective treatment approaches. PMID:7086394

  9. Improving the quality of pain treatment by a tailored pain education programme for cancer patients in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    de Wit, R; van Dam, F; Loonstra, S; Zandbelt, L; van Buuren, A; van der Heijden, K; Leenhouts, G; Duivenvoorden, H; Huijer Abu-Saad, H

    2001-01-01

    Educational interventions, aiming to increase patients' knowledge and attitude regarding pain, can affect pain treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Pain Education Programme (PEP), on adequacy of pain treatment, and to describe characteristics predicting change in adequacy. The PEP consists of a multi-method approach in which patients are educated about the basic principles regarding pain, instructed how to report pain in a pain diary, how to communicate about pain, and how to contact healthcare providers. The effects of the PEP were evaluated taking into consideration the lack of well-established outcome measures to evaluate adequacy of pain treatment, the lack of long-term follow-up, and the influence of missing data.A prospective, randomized study was utilized in which 313 chronic cancer patients were followed-up until 8 weeks postdischarge. Adequacy of pain treatment was evaluated by means of the Amsterdam Pain Management Index (APMI), consisting of an integrated score of patients' Present Pain Intensity, Average Pain Intensity, and Worst Pain Intensity, corrected for patients' Tolerable Present Pain, with the analgesics used by the patient. At pretest, 60% of the patients in the hospital were treated inadequately for their pain. Postdischarge, the control group patients were significantly more inadequately treated at 2 weeks after discharge (56% vs 41%), at 4 weeks after discharge (62% vs 42%) and at 8 weeks after discharge (57% vs 51%) than the intervention group patients. While the level of inadequacy in the control groups remained relatively stable at all assessment points, a slight increase in the percentage of patients being treated inadequately was found in the intervention group patients over time. A beneficial effect of the PEP was found for patients both with and without district nursing. Variables predicting an improvement in adequacy of pain treatment consisted of the PEP, the APMI score at baseline, patients' level of physical functioning, patients' level of social functioning, the extent of adherence to pain medication, patients' pain knowledge, and the amount of analgesics used. These findings suggest that quality of pain treatment in cancer patients with chronic pain can be enhanced by educating patients about pain and improving active participation in their own pain treatment. The benefit from the PEP, however, decreases slightly over time, pointing at a need for ongoing education. PMID:11558980

  10. Overactivity in chronic pain: is it a valid construct?

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicole Emma; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Overactivity is a frequently used term in chronic pain literature. It refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals engage in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain, resulting in periods of incapacity. Overactivity, as a construct, has been derived solely from patients' self-reports, raising concerns about the legitimacy of the construct. Self-reported overactivity reflects an individual's “belief,” collected retrospectively, that their earlier activity levels have resulted in increased levels of pain. This may be different to an individual actually engaging in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain. In this study, a 5-day observational study design was used to investigate the validity of overactivity as a construct by examining the relationship between a self-report measure of overactivity, patterns of pain, and objectively measured physical activity over time. A sample of 68 adults with chronic pain completed a questionnaire investigating self-reported habitual engagement in overactivity and activity avoidance behaviour, before commencing 5 days of data collection. Over the 5-day period, participants wore an activity monitor and recorded their pain intensity 6 times a day using a handheld computer. Associations were found between (1) high levels of pain and both high overactivity and high avoidance, (2) high levels of overactivity and more variation in pain and objective activity across days, and (3) high levels of overactivity and the reoccurrence of prolonged activity engagement followed by significant pain increases observed in data sets. These results offer some preliminary support for the validity of overactivity as a legitimate construct in chronic pain. PMID:26067583

  11. Influence of pro-algesic foods on chronic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian Edwin

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines current knowledge about putative "pro-algesic" dietary components, and discusses whether limiting the intake of these substances can help improve chronic pain. Although there is a common impression that numerous food components, natural and synthetic, can cause or worsen pain symptoms, very few of these substances have been investigated. This article focuses on four substances, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, arachidonic acid, and caffeine, where research shows that overconsumption may induce or worsen pain. For each substance, the mechanism whereby it may act to induce pain is examined, and any clinical trials examining the effectiveness of reducing the intake of the substance discussed. While all four substances are associated with pain, decreased consumption of them does not consistently reduce pain. PMID:26900907

  12. Halt the Hurt! Dealing with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... says Dr. Sean Mackey, who heads Stanford University’s neuroscience and pain lab. “Some differences involve our personality ... on a moonlit beach. Go listen to some music you never listened to before. Do something that’s ...

  13. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture.

    PubMed

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor. PMID:25537694

  14. Microglia disrupt mesolimbic reward circuitry in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J; Murphy, Niall P; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  15. Microglia Disrupt Mesolimbic Reward Circuitry in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anna M. W.; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J.; Murphy, Niall P.; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C.; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  16. Fear of pain and movement in a patient with musculoskeletal chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Raudenska, Jaroslava; Javurkova, Alena; Kozak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Pain-related fear may pose a serious barrier in the management of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, resulting in severe functional impairment in many cases. The paper describes the cognitive-behavioural therapy of a patient with a specific phobia (fear of pain and movement). The principal objective of the therapy was to educate the patient in strategies and skills to manage his fear and to verify the effect of the therapy. Both group and individual therapy was used. Group multimodal therapy of pain was provided by an interdisciplinary team of health care providers, specialising in pain management (psychotherapist, doctors and physiotherapists). The programme was based on operant therapy principles and included pacing and graded exercising and walking, relaxation, group education about ergonomics, and fear and pain relapse prevention. Reduction in the fear of pain and movement was achieved, and social bonds and physical and social activities improved after the psychotherapy, while the results were stable for two years. PMID:24378448

  17. Serum Cotinine and Chronic Pain: NHANES 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R Constance

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be the leading preventable risk factor for many diseases and has the potential to be a risk factor for chronic pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of chronic pain with smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and non-smoking using serum cotinine (and self-report of living with someone who smokes in the home) to identify the tobacco exposure groups. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 was used for this study. Participants were queried about pain duration and had serum cotinine levels determined during the course of the NHANES examination/survey. Participants, ages 20 years and above, with complete data on chronic pain, cotinine level, sex, race/ethnicity, and responses concerning living with someone who smoked in the home were included in the study (n=4429). Results The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco smoke exposure on chronic pain was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.59; p=0.0220) for participants with a serum cotinine level >10 ng/mg (smokers) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. For individuals with a serum cotinine level >0.011 ng/mg to 10 ng/mg who identified as living with someone who smoked in the home, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.65; p=0.6785) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. Conclusion Chronic pain is a complex situation with many factors affecting it. Similarly, smoking is a complex addiction. The interplay of chronic pain and cotinine levels in this study were significant. PMID:26835515

  18. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain. PMID:25931693

  19. Chronic preoperative pain and psychological robustness predict acute postoperative pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, J; Thornton, A J; Scott, N W; Marfizo, S; Powell, R; Johnston, M; Wells, M; Heys, S D; Thompson, A M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated preoperative and surgical risk factors for acute postoperative pain after surgery for breast cancer. We investigated demographic, psychological, pain-related and surgical risk factors in women undergoing resectional surgery for breast cancer. Methods: Primary outcomes were pain severity, at rest (PAR) and movement-evoked pain (MEP), in the first postoperative week. Results: In 338 women undergoing surgery, those with chronic preoperative pain were three times more likely to report moderate to severe MEP after breast cancer surgery (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.45–6.99). Increased psychological ‘robustness', a composite variable representing positive affect and dispositional optimism, was associated with lower intensity acute postoperative PAR (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48–0.82) and MEP (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54–0.93). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and intraoperative nerve division were associated with reduced postoperative pain. No relationship was found between preoperative neuropathic pain and acute pain outcomes; altered sensations and numbness postoperatively were more common after axillary sample or clearance compared with SLNB. Conclusion: Chronic preoperative pain, axillary surgery and psychological robustness significantly predicted acute pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer. Preoperative identification and targeted intervention of subgroups at risk could enhance the recovery trajectory in cancer survivors. PMID:22850552

  20. Mother-child concordance for pain location in a pediatric chronic pain sample

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lindsay F.; Seidman, Laura C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.

    2013-01-01

    Body maps have long been used to assess pain location in adult and pediatric chronic pain patients. Assessing agreement between parent and child reports of pain location using such maps may help establish a unified picture of children’s pain experience. However, few studies have examined the extent of agreement between mothers and children on the location of the child’s pain. Using kappa coefficients and other determinants of the magnitude of kappa we assessed mother-child concordance in pain location using body maps with 21 standardized areas in 41 children with chronic pain (65.9% female, mean age = 14.60) and their mothers. The highest level of agreement was found for the abdominal region; agreement for the head region was moderate and not superior to the other body areas. Approximately half of the body map areas yielded poor to fair mother-child agreement, while the other half yielded moderate or better agreement. There was more agreement between mothers and sons than between mothers and daughters on the total number of body areas considered painful, but there were no effects of pubertal status, race, and ethnicity on agreement. Our results are consistent with previous studies indicating that parent assessments of children’s pain do not necessarily mimic their child’s report. Future research should test additional psychosocial factors that may contribute to parent-child discordance regarding the location of the child’s pain. PMID:26413192

  1. Schistosomiasis as a Cause of Chronic Lower Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Tom J.

    1995-01-01

    Background: Chronic intestinal schistosomiasis is rare in the United Kingdom. The symptoms are nonspecific and may mimic several other gastrointestinal conditions. We present a case of chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a West Indian woman presenting to a genitourinary clinic. Case: The patient presented with chronic lower abdominal pain and dysuria. A sexually transmitted disease (STD) screen was negative and midstream urine cultures were sterile. A rectal biopsy revealed a non-necrotizing granulomatous reaction around the ova of Schistosoma. Her symptoms resolved with anti-schistosomiasis therapy. Conclusion: This case illustrates that physicians should be aware of chronic schistosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdominal pain in women who have come from or visited areas where schistosomiasis is endemic. PMID:18475400

  2. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities. PMID:17965769

  3. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index

  4. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  5. How do neuroanatomical changes in individuals with chronic pain result in the constant perception of pain?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Luke A; Di Pietro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    Since the advent of anatomical brain imaging analysis techniques, numerous reports have shown altered regional brain anatomy in individuals with various chronic pain conditions. While early reports of increased regional brain volumes in taxi drivers and pianists were simply interpreted as responses to excessive use, the mechanisms responsible for anatomical changes associated with chronic pain are not so straightforward. The main aim of this paper is to explore the potential underlying cellular changes responsible for change in gross brain anatomy in individuals with chronic pain, in particular pain following nervous system damage. Determining the basis of these changes may provide a platform for development of targeted, personalized and ultimately more effective treatment regimens. PMID:26997246

  6. Neuropathic pain as part of chronic widespread pain: environmental and genetic influences

    PubMed Central

    Momi, Sukhleen K.; Fabiane, Stella Maris; Lachance, Genevieve; Livshits, Gregory; Williams, Frances M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) has complex aetiology and forms part of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Recent evidence suggests a higher frequency of neuropathic pain features in those with CWP than previously thought. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neuropathic pain features in individuals with CWP and to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on neuropathic pain in CWP. Validated questionnaires (the London Fibromyalgia Screening Study questionnaire and PainDETECT questionnaire) were used to classify twins as having CWP and neuropathic pain, respectively. The prevalence of CWP was 14.7% (n = 4324), and of the 1357 twins invited to complete neuropathic pain screening, 15.9% of those having CWP demonstrated features of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was found to be heritable (A = 37%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 23%-50%) with unique environmental factors accounting for 63% (95% CI: 49%-79%) of the variance. Heritability of neuropathic pain and CWP were found to be correlated, 0.54 (95% CI: 0.42-0.65). Increasing age, raised body mass index, female gender, and smoking were all risk factors for neuropathic pain (P < 0.05), and CWP (P < 0.05). High socioeconomic status showed negative correlation with neuropathic pain (P = 0.003) and CWP (P = 0.001). Bivariate analysis of the 2 pain traits revealed that genetic predisposition to neuropathic pain is shared with that for CWP. This is the first study to provide formal heritability estimates for neuropathic pain in CWP. The findings suggest that at least some of the genetic factors underlying the development of neuropathic pain and CWP are the same. PMID:26121255

  7. Coanalgesics for chronic pain therapy: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bair, Matthew J; Sanderson, Tamara R

    2011-11-01

    Chronic pain is inadequately treated in many patients, which has led clinicians and researchers to investigate new indications for existing medications with pain-relieving or adjuvant properties. These medications are known as coanalgesics. This review provides an evidence-based overview of select coanalgesics that are used in clinical practice for a variety of neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain disorders. The coanalgesics include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antispasmodic agents. An update on emergent treatments and uses is also presented. The goals of this article are to highlight coanalgesic treatment options that are currently available for patients with chronic pain as well as provide guidelines for their use in clinical practice. PMID:22104463

  8. Snoezelen: its potential for people with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Schofield, P

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the application of a new form of chronic pain management which is currently under investigation by the writer as a PhD study with the University of Wales, Cardiff, UK. The study was initiated by the writer whilst working as a Senior Nurse Specialist in pain management. It is anticipated that the results of the study will be available by 1996. The concept of the Snoezelen will be discussed. Snoezelen has been used by many centres for the care of individuals with learning disabilities. The paper will also describe the Snoezelen centre based in Chesterfield, UK and some of the experiences that are available. Finally, the rationale behind the application of a strategy for the management of individuals experiencing chronic pain will be discussed relating to some of the appropriate literature. As a result of this study several pain clinics are interested in looking at the use of some of the concepts. PMID:9439265

  9. Current gene therapy using viral vectors for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Guedon, Jean-Marc G; Wu, Shaogen; Zheng, Xuexing; Churchill, Caroline C; Glorioso, Joseph C; Liu, Ching-Hang; Liu, Shue; Vulchanova, Lucy; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Kinchington, Paul R; Goins, William F; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Hao, Shuanglin

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of chronic pain and the challenges of pharmacotherapy highlight the importance of development of new approaches to pain management. Gene therapy approaches may be complementary to pharmacotherapy for several advantages. Gene therapy strategies may target specific chronic pain mechanisms in a tissue-specific manner. The present collection of articles features distinct gene therapy approaches targeting specific mechanisms identified as important in the specific pain conditions. Dr. Fairbanks group describes commonly used gene therapeutics (herpes simplex viral vector (HSV) and adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)), and addresses biodistribution and potential neurotoxicity in pre-clinical models of vector delivery. Dr. Tao group addresses that downregulation of a voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.2) contributes to the maintenance of neuropathic pain. Alleviation of chronic pain through restoring Kv1.2 expression in sensory neurons is presented in this review. Drs Goins and Kinchington group describes a strategy to use the replication defective HSV vector to deliver two different gene products (enkephalin and TNF soluble receptor) for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia. Dr. Hao group addresses the observation that the pro-inflammatory cytokines are an important shared mechanism underlying both neuropathic pain and the development of opioid analgesic tolerance and withdrawal. The use of gene therapy strategies to enhance expression of the anti-pro-inflammatory cytokines is summarized. Development of multiple gene therapy strategies may have the benefit of targeting specific pathologies associated with distinct chronic pain conditions (by Guest Editors, Drs. C. Fairbanks and S. Hao). PMID:25962909

  10. INSOMNIA IN CHRONIC DISABLING MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN DISORDERS IS INDEPENDENT OF PAIN AND DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Asih, Sali; Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G.; Brede, Emily; Gatchel, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Insomnia is frequently experienced by patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal disorders, but is often seen as simply a symptom of pain or depression, and not as an independent disorder. Compared to those who experience only chronic pain, patients with both chronic pain and insomnia report higher pain intensity, more depressive symptoms, and greater distress. However, insomnia has not yet been systematically studied in a chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. PURPOSES This study assessed the prevalence and severity of patient-reported insomnia, as well as the relationship among insomnia, pain intensity, and depressive symptoms, in a chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING A retrospective study of prospectively captured data. PATIENT SAMPLE A consecutive cohort of 326 chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability patients (85% with spinal injuries) entered a functional restoration treatment program. All patients signed a consent form to participate in this protocol. OUTCOME MEASURES Insomnia was assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), a validated patient-report measure of insomnia symptoms. Four patient groups were formed: No Clinically Significant Insomnia (score 0–7); Sub-Threshold Insomnia (score 8–14); Moderate Clinical Insomnia (score 15–21); and Severe Clinical Insomnia (score 22–28). Three patterns of sleep disturbance were also evaluated: Early, Middle, and Late Insomnia. Additional validated psychosocial patient-report data were collected, including the Pain Visual Analog Scale (PVAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ). METHODS Patients completed a standard psychosocial assessment battery upon admission to the functional restoration program. The program included a quantitatively-directed exercise process in conjunction with a multimodal disability management approach. The four insomnia groups were compared on demographic and psychosocial variables. The shared variances among insomnia, depression, and pain were determined by partial correlational analyses. The writing of this article was supported in part by Grant 1K05 MH 71892 from NIH, focusing on evidence-based assessment and treatment approaches to musculoskeletal pain and the monitoring of valid outcomes. None of the authors involved in this study had a conflict of interest. RESULTS The presence of No Clinically Significant Insomnia, Sub-threshold Insomnia, Moderate Clinical Insomnia and Severe Clinical Insomnia was found in 5.5%, 21.2%, 39.6%, and 33.7% of the cohort, respectively. More than 70% of patients reported moderate to severe insomnia symptoms, which is a considerably higher prevalence than found in most patient cohorts studied previously. A step-wise pattern was found, in which Severe Clinical Insomnia patients reported the highest pain, the most severe depressive symptoms, and the greatest disability. The Severe Clinical Insomnia patients also reported a higher number of sleep disturbance types (Early, Middle, and Late insomnia) than the other 3 groups. In fact, 62.9% of them reported all 3 disturbance types. Although correlations were found between insomnia and depressive symptoms, and between insomnia and pain, the shared variances were small (12.9% and 3.6%, respectively), indicating that depression and pain are separate constructs from insomnia. CONCLUSION This research indicates that insomnia is a significant and pervasive problem in a chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. Most importantly, although insomnia has traditionally been assumed to be simply a symptom of pain or depression, the findings of the present study reveal that it is a construct relatively independent from both pain and depression. Specific insomnia assessment and treatment is therefore recommended for this chronic musculoskeletal pain with disability population. PMID:24333458

  11. Overtreating chronic back pain: time to back off?

    PubMed

    Deyo, Richard A; Mirza, Sohail K; Turner, Judith A; Martin, Brook I

    2009-01-01

    Chronic back pain is among the most common patient complaints. Its prevalence and impact have spawned a rapidly expanding range of tests and treatments. Some of these have become widely used for indications that are not well validated, leading to uncertainty about efficacy and safety, increasing complication rates, and marketing abuses. Recent studies document a 629% increase in Medicare expenditures for epidural steroid injections; a 423% increase in expenditures for opioids for back pain; a 307% increase in the number of lumbar magnetic resonance images among Medicare beneficiaries; and a 220% increase in spinal fusion surgery rates. The limited studies available suggest that these increases have not been accompanied by population-level improvements in patient outcomes or disability rates. We suggest a need for a better understanding of the basic science of pain mechanisms, more rigorous and independent trials of many treatments, a stronger regulatory stance toward approval and post-marketing surveillance of new drugs and devices for chronic pain, and a chronic disease model for managing chronic back pain. PMID:19124635

  12. Balneotherapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kesiktas, Nur; Karakas, Sinem; Gun, Kerem; Gun, Nuran; Murat, Sadiye; Uludag, Murat

    2012-10-01

    A large number of treatments were used for patients with chronic low back pain. Frequent episodes have been reported very high. Although balneotherapy was found effective in this disease, there are not well-designed studies. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of balneotherapy versus physical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain. Exercise was added to both treatment programs. Sixty patients with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. Physical modalities plus exercise were applied to group 1, and group 2 was received balneotherapy plus exercise for ten sessions. The following parameters were measured: visual analogue scale at rest and movement for pain, paracetamol dose, manual muscle test for lumber muscles, modified Schoeber' test, Oswestry disability index, and Short-Form 36 at the beginning and end of the therapies and at the 3 months follow-up. The statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 10.0 program. Both groups achieved significant improvements within themselves. But balneotherapy groups were improved at back extensor muscle test (P < 0.05), modified Schoeber's test (P < 0.03), Oswestry disability index, and the some scores of SF 36 (energy vitality, social function, role limitations related to physical problems, and general health P < 0.05). Balneotherapy combined with exercise therapy had advantages than therapy with physical modalities plus exercise in improving quality of life and flexibility of patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:21960048

  13. Chronic sacroiliac joint pain: fusion versus denervation as treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Bryan; Norvell, Daniel C.; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review Objective: To compare the safety and effectiveness of fusion versus denervation for chronic sacroiliac joint pain after failed conservative management. Summary of background: Methods of confirming the sacroiliac joint as a pain source have been extensively studied and reported in the literature. After confirmation of the origin of the pain by positive local anesthetic blocks, chronic sacroiliac joint pain is usually managed with a combination of medication, physical therapies, and injections. We have chosen to compare two alternative treatments for sacroiliac pain that was refractory to conservative therapies. Methods: A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2010. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating fusion or denervation for chronic sacroiliac joint pain after failed conservative management. Studies involving only conservative treatment or traumatic onset of injury were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: We identified eleven articles (six fusion, five denervation) meeting our inclusion criteria. The majority of patients report satisfaction after both treatments. Both treatments reported mean improvements in pain and functional outcome. Rates of complications were higher among fusion studies (13.7%) compared to denervation studies (7.3%). Only fusion studies reported infections (5.3%). No infections were reported among denervation patients. The evidence for all findings were very low to low; therefore, the relative efficacy or safety of one treatment over another cannot be established. Conclusions: Sacroiliac joint fusion or denervation can reduce pain for many patients. Whether a true arthrodesis of the joint is achieved by percutaneous techniques is open to question and whether denervation of the joint gives durable pain relief is not clear. Further comparative studies of these two techniques may provide the answers. PMID:22956926

  14. IL-17 is not essential for inflammation and chronic pelvic pain development in an experimental model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motrich, Ruben D; Breser, María L; Sánchez, Leonardo R; Godoy, Gloria J; Prinz, Immo; Rivero, Virginia E

    2016-03-01

    Pain and inflammation in the absence of infection are hallmarks in chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) patients. The etiology of CP/CPPS is unclear, and autoimmunity has been proposed as a cause. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) models have long been used for studying CP/CPPS. Herein, we studied prostate inflammation induction and chronic pelvic pain development in EAP using IL-12p40-KO, IL-4-KO, IL-17-KO, and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. Prostate antigen (PAg) immunization in C57BL/6 mice induced specific Th1 and Th17 immune responses and severe prostate inflammation and cell infiltration, mainly composed of CD4 T cells and macrophages. Moreover, chronic pelvic pain was evidenced by increased allodynia responses. In immunized IL-17-KO mice, the presence of a prominent PAg-specific Th1 immune response caused similar prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. Furthermore, markedly high PAg-specific Th1 immune responses, exacerbated prostate inflammation, and chronic pelvic pain were detected in immunized IL-4-KO mice. Conversely, immunized IL-12p40-KO mice developed PAg-specific Th2 immune responses, characterized by high IL-4 secretion and neither infiltration nor damage in the prostate. As observed in wild-type control animals, IL12p40-KO mice did not evidence tactile allodynia responses. Our results suggest that, as in patients, chronic pelvic pain is a consequence of prostate inflammation. After PAg immunization, a Th1-associated immune response develops and induces prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. The absence of Th1 or Th2 cytokines, respectively, diminishes or enhances EAP susceptibility. In addition, IL-17 showed not to be essential for pathology induction and chronic pelvic pain development. PMID:26882345

  15. Behavioral and Psychosocial Factors in Chronic Craniofacial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fricton, James R.

    1985-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain have a multifactoral problem that exhibits both physical and psychosocial symptoms. Evaluation includes determination of the physical diagnosis and psychosocial contributing factors on an equal and integrated basis. Contributing factors include any factor that plays a role in initiation and perpetuation or results from and thus, complicates the problem. Management follows with both reduction of contributing factors and treatment of the diagnosis. Contributing factors are classified as biological, behavioral, social, cognitive, emotional, and environmental. Individual factors in each group for chronic craniofacial pain are reviewed. PMID:3857877

  16. New Chronic Pain Treatments in the Outpatient Setting: Review Article.

    PubMed

    Grandhe, R; Souzdalnitski, D; Gritsenko, K

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is an issue encountered by many health care providers in their routine clinical practice. In addition to generalized patient suffering, this condition has significant clinical, psychological, and socioeconomic impact due to its widespread occurrence. The landscape of chronic pain management has been changing rapidly with an array of treatment innovations, better understanding of established therapies, and care coordination across specialties. In this article, we have reviewed emerging new modalities as well as transformation of established therapies by interventional, pharmacologic, rehabilitative, psychological, complimentary, and interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:27038972

  17. An Overview of Pharmacologic Management of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Beal, Benjamin R; Wallace, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain can be challenging to manage and historically providers have relied on opiates to treat pain. Recent studies have brought into question the safety and efficacy of chronic opiate therapy in the noncancer population. There is a vast amount of literature to support the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical agents, cannabinoids, and botulinum toxin either in conjunction with or in lieu of opioids. Intrathecal drug delivery systems can deliver some of these medications directly to their primary site of action while minimizing the side effects seen with systemic administration. PMID:26614720

  18. Emotional Disturbance and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Charles P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Patients high in alientation and distrust may be poor compliers. Because only the somatic concern dimension predicted outcome, a single scale that measures this characteristic may be sufficient for effective identification of the potential good v poor responders to conservative treatment of low back pain. (Author)

  19. Functional and chronic anorectal and pelvic pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Trabuco, Emanuel

    2008-09-01

    Several organic and functional disorders of the urinary bladder, reproductive tract, anorectum, and the pelvic floor musculature cause pelvic pain. This article describes functional disorders in which chronic pelvic and anorectal pain cannot be explained by a structural or other specified pathology. Currently, these functional disorders are classified into urogynecologic conditions or cystitis and painful bladder syndrome, anorectal disorders, and the levator ani syndrome. Although nomenclature suggests that these conditions are distinct, there is considerable overlap of their symptoms and these disorders have much in common. PMID:18794003

  20. Activation of Corticostriatal Circuitry Relieves Chronic Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R.; Eberle, Sarah E.; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050

  1. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bryan D; Threlkeld, Brooke M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345

  2. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345

  3. Dynorphin A analogs for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sara M; Lee, Yeon Sun; Hruby, Victor J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pain is one of the most ubiquitous diseases in the world, but treatment is difficult with conventional methods, due to undesirable side effects of treatments and unknown mechanisms of pathological pain states. The endogenous peptide, dynorphin A has long been established as a target for the treatment of pain. Interestingly, this unique peptide has both inhibitory (opioid in nature) and excitatory activities (nonopioid) in the CNS. Both of these effects have been found to play a role in pain and much work has been done to develop therapeutics to enhance the inhibitory effects. Here we will review the dynorphin A compounds that have been designed for the modulation of pain and will discuss where the field stands today. PMID:26824470

  4. The promise and challenge of virtual gaming technologies for chronic pain: the case of graded exposure for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Trost, Zina; Zielke, Marjorie; Guck, Adam; Nowlin, Liza; Zakhidov, Djanhangir; France, Christopher R; Keefe, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been successfully applied to acute pain interventions and recent reviews have suggested their potential utility in chronic pain. The current review highlights the specific relevance of VR interactive gaming technologies for pain-specific intervention, including their current use across a variety of physical conditions. Using the example of graded-exposure treatment for pain-related fear and disability in chronic low back pain, we discuss ways that VR gaming can be harnessed to optimize existing chronic pain therapies and examine the potential limitations of traditional VR interfaces in the context of chronic pain. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on VR-mediated applications in chronic pain. PMID:25971643

  5. The impact of chronic low back pain on older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Thomas E.; Weiner, Debra K.; Lieber, Susan J.; Slaboda, Jill; Boston, J. Robert

    2007-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common, poorly understood, and potentially disabling chronic pain conditions from which older adults suffer. Many older adults remain quite functional despite CLBP, and because age-related comorbidities often exist independently of pain (e.g., medical illnesses, sleep disturbance, mobility difficulty), the unique impact of CLBP is unknown. We conducted this research to identify the multidimensional factors that distinguish independent community dwelling older adults with CLBP from those that are pain-free. Three hundred twenty cognitively intact participants (162 with ≥ moderate pain for ≥ 3 months, and 158 pain-free) underwent comprehensive assessment of pain severity, medical comorbidity (illnesses, body mass index, medications), severity of degenerative disc and facet disease, lumbar flexion, psychological constructs (self-efficacy, mood, overall mental health), and self-reported as well as performance-based physical function. Significant differences were ascertained for all 22 measures. Discriminant function analysis revealed that eight measures uniquely maximized the separation between the two groups (self-reported function with the Functional Status Index and the SF-36, performance-based function with repetitive trunk rotation and functional reach, mood with the Geriatric Depression Scale, comorbidity with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and BMI, and severity of degenerative disc disease). These results should help to guide investigators that perform studies of CLBP in older adults and practitioners that want an easily adaptable battery for use in clinical settings. PMID:17317008

  6. Unravelling the complexity of muscle impairment in chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Falla, D

    2004-08-01

    Exercise interventions are deemed essential for the effective management of patients with neck pain. However, there has been a lack of consensus on optimal exercise prescription, which has resulted from a paucity of studies to quantify the precise nature of muscle impairment, in people with neck pain. This masterclass will present recent research from our laboratory, which has utilized surface electromyography to investigate cervical flexor muscle impairment in patients with chronic neck pain. This research has identified deficits in the motor control of the deep and superficial cervical flexor muscles in people with chronic neck pain, characterized by a delay in onset of neck muscle contraction associated with movement of the upper limb. In addition, people with neck pain demonstrate an altered pattern of muscle activation, which is characterized by reduced deep cervical flexor muscle activity during a low load cognitive task and increased activity of the superficial cervical flexor muscles during both cognitive tasks and functional activities. The results have demonstrated the complex, multifaceted nature of cervical muscle impairment, which exists in people with a history of neck pain. In turn, this has considerable implications for the rehabilitation of muscle function in people with neck pain disorders. PMID:15245706

  7. [Mechanisms by which acute orofacial pain becomes chronic].

    PubMed

    Cahana, A; Forster, A

    2006-06-01

    Pain is a complex, multidimensional experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, cognitive, emotional and motivational dimensions. These dimensions in the orofacial region have particular expression since the face and mouth have special biological, emotional and psychological meaning to each individual. Orofacial pain is frequent. Epidemiological studies reveal a high prevalence of severe pain in syndromes such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD), burning mouth syndrome and toothaches, as well as an important role of psychosocial influences, contributing to the persistence of these syndromes. Many of the difficulties experienced by clinicians with the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic orofacial pain stem from a lack of recognition and understanding of these complex conditions, the various intricate bio-psycho-social interactions and the neurobiology behind the chronicisation of acute pain. This text strives to review the important advances and insights into the peripheral processes by which noxious stimuli activates or modulates nociceptive afferent input into the brainstem, the neural pathways in the brainstem and higher levels of the trigeminal (V) somatosensory system and the mechanisms involved in the plasticity of nociceptive transmission. We shall link this knowledge to clinical correlates and suggest a therapeutic approach in acute orofacial pain, in the attempt to avoid the development of chronic pain. PMID:16804482

  8. Commonalities between pain and memory mechanisms and their meaning for understanding chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Price, Theodore J; Inyang, Kufreobong E

    2015-01-01

    Pain sensing neurons in the periphery (called nociceptors) and the central neurons that receive their projections show remarkable plasticity following injury. This plasticity results in amplification of pain signaling that is now understood to be crucial for the recovery and survival of organisms following injury. These same plasticity mechanisms may drive a transition to a non-adaptive chronic pain state if they fail to resolve following the termination of the healing process. Remarkable advances have been achieved in the past two decades in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie pain plasticity following injury. The mechanisms bear a striking resemblance to molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes in other brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Here those mechanisms, their commonalities and subtle differences, will be highlighted and their role in causing chronic pain will be discussed. Arising from these data is the striking argument that chronic pain is a disease of the nervous system, which distinguishes this phenomena from acute pain that is frequently a symptom alerting the organism to injury. This argument has important implications for the development of disease modifying therapeutics. PMID:25744681

  9. The relationship of demographic and psychosocial variables to pain-related outcomes in a rural chronic pain population

    PubMed Central

    Day, Melissa A.; Thorn, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    Rural residency and low socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased likelihood of chronic pain. Other demographics are also differentially associated with the experience of pain. This study examines the relations between demographic and pain-related variables in a virtually unstudied population of rural Alabama chronic pain patients. One-hundred-and-fifteen patients completed validated measures of pain catastrophizing, depression, pain intensity, pain interference, perceived disability, and life satisfaction. Average age of study participants was 52-years, 79% were female, 74% were African-American, 72% reported annual income between 00,000-12,999, and 61% were unemployed. Although average years of reported education was 12.26, reading level percentile (primary literacy indicant) was 17.33. Cross-sectional multivariate and univariate analyses were conducted to examine associations among demographic and psychosocial variables in relation to various pre-treatment pain-related variables. The mediating role of pain catastrophizing and depression was investigated. Results indicate that race was significantly associated with pain intensity and pain interference, such that African-Americans reported higher scores than White-Americans. Pain catastrophizing was uniquely associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and perceived disability; depression was uniquely associated with pain interference, and life satisfaction. Pain catastrophizing mediated the relation between primary literacy and pain intensity; age effects were differentially mediated by either pain catastrophizing or depression. These analyses provide insight into the specific demographic and psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in a low-literacy, low-SES rural population. PMID:20817401

  10. Vasculitis presenting as chronic unilateral painful leg swelling.

    PubMed

    Nash, P; Fryer, J; Webb, J

    1988-06-01

    We describe 2 patients who presented with chronic painful indurated swelling of one lower limb, thought at the time of referral to be due to chronic venous insufficiency. Reassessment because of marked periostitis of the tibia and fibula as well as laboratory indices consistent with an inflammatory process revealed acute necrotizing arteritis in one patient and granulomatous arteritis in the other. Clinicians should be aware of this unusual presentation of treatable vasculitic diseases. PMID:3418625

  11. The Use of Botulinum Toxins for Chronic Pain and Headaches.

    PubMed

    Argoff, Charles E.

    2003-11-01

    The use of botulinum toxin in the management of various neurologic and non-neurologic disorders has grown considerably over the past decade. At the same time, new information regarding the mechanism of action of these toxins has evolved allowing for a greater understanding of the versatility of these agents. Although two types of botulinum toxin (type A Botox and type B Myobloc ) are commercially available in the US, most studies of the use of these toxins for the management of chronic pain and headache have been completed with type A. Data from open-label and retrospective studies as well as clinical practice suggest as strongly as possible that there is a role for these agents, especially Botox, in the management of several chronic headache disorders, including chronic migraine, chronic tension-type, cervicogenic, and cluster headache. Emerging data regarding the use of these agents for so-called "analgesic-rebound" headache also appear impressive; however, as of yet, no multicenter, randomized, controlled studies for any headache type have been published that confirm the results seen in noncontrolled studies. Nevertheless, the benefit that some patients experience from this agent is impressive, and this drug appears for many to modify the disorder in a very positive manner. In a similar fashion, data for other pain states are often restricted to open-label and case study approaches; however, clinical experience and some of the available studies (even small controlled studies) suggest a role for the toxins in the management of various chronic pain states, such as myofascial pain, low back pain, and neuropathic pain. One of the greatest challenges ahead for all interested in this area is confirming the benefit seen clinically through appropriately designed multicenter, randomized, controlled studies. PMID:14516525

  12. Anti-oppressive practices with chronic pain sufferers.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Judy E

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain and (dis)Ability leaves one struggling for normalcy, trying to make sense out of the fundamental operations of one's body, the meaning of suffering, and the social construction of wellness (Jackson, 2002; MacDonald, 2000; Oliver, 1996; Thomas, 1999; Wendell, 1996). Social work and other helping professions need to find ways to learn from sufferers, to listen to their stories, deriving insight from their knowledge, in order to more effectively attend to their health care needs. Findings from a doctoral dissertation using a narrative "testimonial" methodology, framed within a postmodern anti-oppressive ideology, will be presented. This research listened to the stories of women in, or retired from, the helping professions, who are sufferers of chronic pain, specifically attending to their experiences of living with chronic pain, dealing with the medical system, and the relationship of their pain and (dis)Ability with their helping roles. Six sufferers participated-two physicians, two nurses, and two social workers-providing a cross-disciplinary lens to both their personal and work experiences. The guiding research question was, "How can the stories of women in the helping professions, who are sufferers of chronic pain and (dis)Ability, inform an anti-oppressive approach to social work practice in working with sufferers?" A close read is provided into the sufferers' professional storying, including their insights, reflections, and critiques of health services. An anti-oppressive model of social work is highlighted, extrapolated from participants' storied practices and collaborative visions for best practices in working with chronic pain sufferers. PMID:18956505

  13. Early maladaptive schema factors, chronic pain and depressiveness: a study with 271 chronic pain patients and 331 control participants.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom; Saariaho, Anita; Karila, Irma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain and depression are coexisting entities with high simultaneous prevalence. Both are linked with early adversities. Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) can be seen as a reflection of these adversities. EMSs extensively indicate underlying psychic patterns and provide a good opportunity to detect covert processes and psychic shapes (latent factors), which create the basis of how people rate their schemas. The purpose of this study was to explore these latent, higher order schema factors (SF) and to find out how they are associated with pain intensity or depression in chronic pain patients and a control sample. The study subjects consisted of 271 first-visit pain patients and 331 control participants. Sociodemographic and pain data were gathered by questionnaire; 18 EMSs were measured with the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form) and depressiveness was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, Version II. Exploratory factor and regression analyses were used. The chronic pain patient group showed two SFs. The first SF showed a shameful, defective, socially isolated, failure, emotionally inhibited, deprived, submissive and resigned pattern. The second SF showed a demanding, approval seeking, self-sacrificing and punitive pattern. SF1 predicted more than half of the depressiveness in the pain patient sample. A three-factor structure was found in the control sample, and SFs 1 and 3 together predicted almost one-third of depressiveness. The pain patient and the control groups had a different, higher order factor structure. We assume that SF1 in the pain patients reflected a rather serious, undefined early psychic trauma and was also associated with their depressiveness. PMID:21210495

  14. Understanding Help Seeking for Chronic Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jinks, Clare; Ong, Bie Nio

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis-related joint pain is prevalent and potentially disabling. United Kingdom clinical guidelines suggest that patients should be supported to self-manage in primary care settings. However, the processes and mechanisms that influence patient consultation decisions for joint pain are not comprehensively understood. We recruited participants (N = 22) from an existing longitudinal survey to take part in in-depth interviews and a diary study. We found that consultation decisions and illness actions were ongoing social processes. The need for and benefits of consulting were weighed against the value of consuming the time of a professional who was considered an expert. We suggest that how general practitioners manage consultations influences patient actions and is part of a broader process of defining the utility and moral worth of consulting. Recognizing these factors will improve self-management support and consultation outcomes. PMID:24970250

  15. Chronic Low Back Pain: Perception and Coping With Pain in the Presence of Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, Antonella; Poli, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    This retrospective study investigated the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on pain perception and coping with pain in tertiary pain clinic patients, 427 treated for chronic low back pain (CLBP) and 629 for other forms of chronic pain (CG). No differences in psychosomatic dimensions were found between the two groups, but Italian Pain Questionnaire dimensions and intensity scores (t = 7.35; p < 0.0001) were higher in CLBP than in CG subjects. According to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, CLBP patients also had a higher prevalence of lifetime major depressive episodes (χ2 = 4.96; p < 0.05), dysthymic disorder (χ2 = 4.64; p < 0.05), suicide risk (χ2 = 10.43; p < 0.01), and agoraphobia (χ2 = 6.31; p < 0.05) than CG patients did. The Multidimensional Pain Inventory showed a close association between CLBP and both agoraphobia (χ2 = 3.74; p < 0.05) and dysfunctional coping style (χ2 = 8.25; p < 0.01), which increased disability. Both agoraphobia and lifetime depression were associated with an overall increase in dimensions and pain intensity in CLBP, but not in CG. PMID:26153889

  16. Pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in chronic low back pain and depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Rogério Sarmento; de Macedo, Bárbara Gazolla; Amaral, Tammy da Silva; Gomes, Henrique de Alencar; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Rocha, Fábio Lopes

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which 193 individuals with chronic low back pain were included. The presence of depression was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, using a cutoff validated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The intensity and quality of pain in the groups with and without depression were assessed by the McGill Questionnaire. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia was applied to assess fear of movement. With respect to quality of life, the Medical Outcomes Study 36 was used. The statistical significance level was set at p <0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was 32.1%. The group with depression had worse scores in relation to pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life (physical functioning, rolephysical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health. CONCLUSION: Patients with low back pain and depression had higher pain intensity, greater fear of movement and poorer quality of life. Level of Evidence III, Cross-sectional PMID:24453639

  17. When treating the pain is not enough: a multidisciplinary approach for chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Saulino, Caroline; Clark, Shannon; Bugenski, Mary; Eshelman, Anne; Eisenstein, David

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is related to psychological distress and interference in daily activities; however, CPP is not as extensively researched as other forms of chronic pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among pain, psychological distress, and functional impairment in patients with CPP. There were chart reviews conducted of 107 female patients who completed a psychiatric evaluation at a specialty, CPP clinic as a part of a multidisciplinary evaluation. Results suggest that psychological distress and impairment in daily activities are common in CPP patients. Most areas of functional impairment were not associated with pain variables. Rather, several forms of functional impairment were related to higher levels of depression and anxiety. Results from this study suggest the possibility that psychiatric symptoms are contributing to functional impairment in this population. These findings highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the evaluation and treatment of CPP patients to help decrease functional impairment in these patients. PMID:25941014

  18. The need for knowledge translation in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James L

    2008-01-01

    One in five Canadians suffers from some form of persistent or chronic pain. The impact on individual lives, families and friends, the health services sector and the economy is huge. Reliable evidence is available that the burden of persistent pain can be markedly reduced when available knowledge is applied. Bridging the quality chasm between chronic pain and the care process will require a unique confluence of opinion from all stakeholders committed within a focused community of practice to address the impact of pain. Various levels of success in this regard have been demonstrated when there is exchange, synthesis and ethically sound application of research findings within a complex set of interactions among researchers and knowledge users. It is now critical to accelerate the capture of the benefits of research for Canadians through improved health, more effective and responsive services and products, and a strengthened health care system to bring about health reform and health care reform across Canada as it pertains to the one in five Canadians living with chronic, disabling pain. The overarching outcome of such an initiative needs to be promoted to sustain a balanced portfolio of curiosity-and needs-based research, which along with existing knowledge, can be mobilized and applied for the benefit of Canadians, the health care system and the economy. PMID:19225603

  19. Coping Constructs Related to College Students with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda J.; Sherman, Amanda L.; Grigsby, Megan E.; Croft, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative research study involved in-depth interviews with 22 participants enrolled in a private Midwestern university. Each participant reported living with a respective chronic pain syndrome while also being a full-time student. Our semi-structured, interviews centered around the constructs of physical, social,…

  20. Incidence and Risk Factors for Chronic Anterior Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Kusnezov, Nicholas; Watts, Nathaniel; Belmont, Philip J; Orr, Justin D; Waterman, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is a common clinical entity, more so in the active individual. The incidence and risk factors, however remain unexplored. We investigated the correlation of demographic and occupational risk factors as well as the incidence of chronic anterior knee pain in an active military population. We performed a retrospective review of all U. S. Military active duty service members with the diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae, representative of the clinical syndrome of chronic anterior knee pain, between 2006 and 2012 using the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database. The demographic and occupation risk factors were categorized and the subgroup and overall incidence rates were determined via multivariable analysis. A total of 42,040 cases of chondromalacia patellae were identified in an at-risk population of 9,723,449, corresponding to an incidence rate of 4.32 cases per 1,000 person-years. Increasing chronological age, female sex, Black race, junior enlisted rank, and primary ground forces (Marines and Army) significantly correlated with an increased risk for chronic anterior knee pain. This study is the first report of incidence and risk factors for chondromalacia patellae in a large athletic population. We determined that sex, age, race, branch of service, and rank all correlated with the incidence of chondromalacia patellae in an active population. PMID:26166427

  1. Treatment of a Case Example with PTSD and Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary reviews the case of GH, a survivor of a road traffic collision, who has chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The case formulation, assessment strategy, and treatment plan are informed by the relevant experimental literature and empirically supported treatments using a cognitive behavioral perspective. Given this…

  2. Sex Differences in the Presentation of Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Christine E.; Cassisi, Jeffrey E.; Ferraresi, Laurette M.; Lofland, Kenneth R.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2002-01-01

    Sex differences in 351 patients with chronic low back pain were examined. Biological, psychological, and psychosocial factors were considered. Sex differences in adaptive functioning were consistent with traditional gender roles. Significant interactions were found for sex and employment status, and sex and marital status. Retired women reported…

  3. Chronic Pain and Depression: Does the Evidence Support a Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Turner, Judith A.

    1985-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the relevant literature provides some support for an association between depression and chronic pain. Common conceptual and methodological problems are discussed. Current biological and psychological models of the mechanisms by which the two syndromes may interact are summarized, and suggestions are made for future

  4. [Working women with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a case series].

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Hernández, Cecilia Andrea; Contreras-Estrada, Mónica Isabel; Soltero-Avelar, Ruben

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the experience of working women suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain, using a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. The technique drew on in-depth interviews with five working women that presented to the orthopedics and neurosurgery departments of a hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico, with a complaint of musculoskeletal pain for more than six months. The study showed that the women felt rejection, segregation, discrimination, lack of support at the workplace, and feelings of frustration and powerlessness related to their health condition. The women also perceived as a barrier the lack of efficiency in disability proceedings and job reintegration or relocation. Financial and family responsibilities were their main reason for continuing to work despite their chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:26735388

  5. Male Pelvic Pain: Beyond Urology and Chronic Prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Potts, Jeannette M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in men has often been misdiagnosed as prostatitis. After excluding serious or acute urological, neurological or colorectal conditions, it is essential to approach these patients with a much more comprehensive criteria. Thoughtful interview and methodical physical examination can very often reveal pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, Myofascial pain syndromes, Functional Somatic Syndrome/Central Sensitization Syndromes and/or psychosocial distress. One must be aware that many of these syndromes frequently overlap. Acknowledgement of these conditions and validation of both their physical and psychological distress is paramount to creating trust and confidence in the patient. These are the cornerstones for empowerment and self-care required in the management of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:26717951

  6. [Diagnostics and minimally invasive therapy for chronic low back pain].

    PubMed

    Rauschmann, M A; Warzecha, J; Arabmotlagh, M; Mayer, A; V Stechow, D

    2004-12-01

    Chronic low back pain is one of the most frequent causes for seeking medical help in Germany. Many factors play a causal role in its pathogenesis. This is where the dilemma resides in narrowing down the diagnosis and deciding on subsequent therapeutic intervention. There is overall agreement on the concept of when it is expedient to initiate further diagnostic measures. With the exception of clear pathomorphological findings and the presence of cardinal symptoms or warning signs, so-called "red flags", primary back pain should not be subjected to any specific diagnostic tests and therapy during the first 3 months. We present well-established techniques for blockade, discography, and minimally invasive treatment options such as cryotherapy, procedures for thermal ablation, and intradiscal electrotherapy. Vertebroplasty, currently a frequently applied method, is also included in the discussion of minimally invasive treatment for chronic low back pain. PMID:15004745

  7. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Psychological Therapies for Children With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Lauren; Palermo, Tonya M.; de C Williams, Amanda C; Lau, Jennifer; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives?This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of psychological therapies for management of chronic pain in children.?Methods?Randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions treating children (<18 years) with chronic pain conditions including headache, abdominal, musculoskeletal, or neuropathic pain were searched for. Pain symptoms, disability, depression, anxiety, and sleep outcomes were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed and quality of the evidence was rated using GRADE.?Results?35 included studies revealed that across all chronic pain conditions, psychological interventions reduced pain symptoms and disability posttreatment. Individual pain conditions were analyzed separately. Sleep outcomes were not reported in any trials. Optimal dose of treatment was explored. For headache pain, higher treatment dose led to greater reductions in pain. No effect of dosage was found for other chronic pain conditions.?Conclusions?Evidence for psychological therapies treating chronic pain is promising. Recommendations for clinical practice and research are presented. PMID:24602890

  8. A Virtual Reality Game for Chronic Pain Management: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weina; Choo, Amber; Gromala, Diane; Shaw, Chris; Squire, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Although Virtual Reality (VR) applications have been shown to reduce many forms of acute pain, such research of VR applications and their effects on chronic pain is still at its infancy. In this study, we designed a VR game Cryoslide, and examined its analgesic effect on chronic pain patients, its end users, in a clinical setting. In this randomized, controlled crossover clinical study of 20 chronic pain patients, Cryoslide significantly reduced perceived pain compared to the baseline and the control group. The results demonstrate that Cryoslide can be effectively used as an analgesic intervention for chronic pain management to lessen pain intensity during short-term symptom spikes. PMID:27046570

  9. Pain Self-Management in HIV-infected Individuals with Chronic Pain: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Walcott, Melonie; Kerns, Robert; Bair, Matthew J.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Turan, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic pain in individuals with HIV is a common, impairing condition. Behavioral interventions for chronic pain specifically tailored to this population have yet to be developed. We assert that understanding self-management strategies already used by persons living with these conditions is an essential first step, and is the objective of this investigation. Design We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative data from 25 in-depth interviews with individuals with HIV and chronic pain. Results The primary pain self-management strategies articulated by participants were: physical activity; cognitive and spiritual strategies; spending time with family and friends and social support; avoidance of physical/social activity; medication-centric pain management; and substance use. Conclusions Some of these strategies may be viewed as beneficial and overlap with known HIV self-management strategies (cognitive strategies), whereas others may have negative health consequences (substance use). Interventions that incorporate healthy self-management strategies may be particularly effective in improving both HIV and pain outcomes. PMID:25645646

  10. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: new etiologic insights and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-10-28

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: a recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle--a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

  11. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: New etiologic insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274

  12. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Maher, C G

    2004-01-01

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future. PMID:15062718

  13. A Brain Signature to Differentiate Acute and Chronic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yifei; Wang, Yuzheng; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The transition from acute pain to chronic pain entails considerable changes of patients at multiple levels of the nervous system and in psychological states. An accurate differentiation between acute and chronic pain is essential in pain management as it may help optimize analgesic treatments according to the pain state of patients. Given that acute and chronic pain could modulate brain states in different ways and that brain states could greatly shape the neural processing of external inputs, we hypothesized that acute and chronic pain would show differential effects on cortical responses to non-nociceptive sensory information. Here by analyzing auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) to pure tones in rats with acute or chronic pain, we found opposite influences of acute and chronic pain on cortical responses to auditory inputs. In particular, compared to no-pain controls, the N100 wave of rat AEPs was significantly enhanced in rats with acute pain but significantly reduced in rats with chronic pain, indicating that acute pain facilitated cortical processing of auditory information while chronic pain exerted an inhibitory effect. These findings could be justified by the fact that individuals suffering from acute or chronic pain would have different vigilance states, i.e., the vigilance level to external sensory stimuli would be increased with acute pain, but decreased with chronic pain. Therefore, this auditory response holds promise of being a brain signature to differentiate acute and chronic pain. Instead of investigating the pain system per se, the study of pain-induced influences on cortical processing of non-nocicpetive sensory information might represent a potential strategy to monitor the progress of pain chronification in clinical applications. PMID:27199727

  14. Change in Suicidal Ideation Following Interdisciplinary Treatment of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, John; Wilson, Keith G.; Henderson, Peter R.; McWilliams, Lachlan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine suicidal ideation in individuals with chronic pain, especially change in suicidal thinking following interdisciplinary treatment. Methods Consecutive patients (n = 250) admitted to a 4-week, group-based chronic pain management program completed measures of pain intensity, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, overall distress, pain catastrophizing, self-perceived burden, and suicidal ideation at pre- and post-treatment. Results Before treatment, 30 (12.0%) participants were classified as having a high level of suicidal ideation, 56 (22.4%) had a low level of suicidal ideation, and 164 (65.6%) reported none. Following treatment, there was a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and improvements in all other outcomes, but there were still some individuals with high (n = 22, 8.8%) or low (n = 28, 11.2%) levels at discharge. Patients with high suicidal ideation at baseline differed from those with no suicidal thinking on pre- and post-treatment measures of depression, distress, catastrophizing, and self-perceived burden, but not on pain intensity or functional limitations. Patients high in suicidal ideation endorsed greater pain catastrophizing and self-perceived burden than those low in suicidal thinking. Sustained suicidal ideation after treatment was associated with higher baseline levels of suicidal thinking and self-perceived burden to others, as well as a more limited overall response to treatment. Discussion Suicidal ideation was common in individuals with chronic pain, although mostly at a low level. Interdisciplinary treatment may result in reduced suicidal thinking; however, some patients continue to express thoughts of self-harm. Future studies could examine processes of change and interventions for treatment-resistant suicidal concerns. PMID:24281291

  15. Pain intensity, disability and depression in individuals with chronic back pain1

    PubMed Central

    Garbi, Márcia de Oliveira Sakamoto Silva; Hortense, Priscilla; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; da Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli; Castanho, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to measure the pain intensity, identify the disability and depression levels in people with chronic back pain and to correlate these variables. A cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken at the Pain Treatment Clinic of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto Hospital das Clínicas, between February and June 2012, after receiving approval from the Ethics Committee at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing. METHOD: sixty subjects with chronic back pain participated. The instruments used were: the 11-point Numerical Category Scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. To analyze the data, the arithmetic means, standard deviations and Spearman's correlation coefficient were calculated. RESULTS: the findings show that the participants presented high pain, disability and depression levels. The correlation between pain intensity and disability and between pain intensity and depression was positive and weak and, between disability and depression, positive and moderate. CONCLUSION: the study variables showed moderate and weak indices and the mutual correlations were positive. PMID:25296139

  16. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain – relation to pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate pain intensity, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction in patients with injury-related chronic pain and to analyze differences in these variables regarding gender. Methods Questionnaires addressing pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]), anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression [HAD] scale), posttraumatic stress (impact of event scale), disability (disability rating index, and life satisfaction [LiSat-11]) were answered by 160 patients at assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden). Results High level of pain intensity was scored on the VAS (mean value 64.5 ± 21.1 mm) together with high levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Activity limitations in everyday life and decreased life satisfaction were reported, especially on the items physical health and psychological health. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant association between low scores on the overall life satisfaction on LiSat-11 and high scores on HAD-depression (odds ratio = 1.141, confidence interval 1.014–1.285). Few gender differences were found. Conclusion These findings highlight the value of a broad screening in patients with injury-related chronic pain with respect to the relationship of life satisfaction with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and disability. In addition, these findings support the biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat these patients optimally. PMID:22128253

  17. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Other Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Muhammad B.

    2012-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild. PMID:22191024

  18. Chronic perineal pain: current pathophysiological aspects, diagnostic approaches and treatment.

    PubMed

    Andromanakos, Nikolaos P; Kouraklis, Grigorios; Alkiviadis, Kostakis

    2011-01-01

    Chronic perineal pain is the anorectal and perineal pain without underlying organic disease, anorectal or endopelvic, which has been excluded by careful physical examination, radiological and endoscopic investigations. A variety of neuromuscular disorders of the pelvic floor lead to the different pathological conditions such as anorectal incontinence, urinary incontinence and constipation of obstructed defecation, sexual dysfunction and pain syndromes. The most common functional disorders of the pelvic floor muscles, accompanied by perineal pain are levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax, myofascial syndrome and coccygodynia. In the diagnosis of these syndromes, contributing to a thorough history, physical examination, selected specialized investigations and the exclusion of organic disease with proctalgia is carried out. Accurate diagnosis of the syndromes helps in choosing an appropriate treatment and in avoiding unnecessary and ineffective surgical procedures, which often are performed in an attempt to alleviate the patient's symptoms. PMID:21079515

  19. Critical role of nociceptor plasticity in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Reichling, David B.; Levine, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The transition from acute to chronic pain states may be the most important challenge in research to improve clinical treatment of debilitating pain. We describe a recently identified mechanism of neuronal plasticity in primary afferent nociceptive nerve fibers (nociceptors) by which an acute inflammatory insult or environmental stressor can trigger long-lasting hypersensitivity of nociceptors to inflammatory cytokines. This phenomenon, “hyperalgesic priming,” depends on the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCε) and a switch in intracellular signaling pathways that mediate cytokine-induced nociceptor hyperexcitability. We discuss the impact of this discovery on our understanding of, and ultimately our ability to treat, a variety of enigmatic and debilitating pain conditions, including those associated with repetitive-injury, and generalized pain conditions like fibromyalgia. PMID:19781793

  20. Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of pain as a recurrent symptom in children is known to be high, but little is known about children with high impairment from chronic pain seeking specialized treatment. The purpose of this study was the precise description of children with high impairment from chronic pain referred to the German Paediatric Pain Centre over a 5-year period. Methods Demographic variables, pain characteristics and psychometric measures were assessed at the first evaluation. Subgroup analysis for sex, age and pain location was conducted and multivariate logistic regression applied to identify parameters associated with extremely high impairment. Results The retrospective study consisted of 2249 children assessed at the first evaluation. Tension type headache (48%), migraine (43%) and functional abdominal pain (11%) were the most common diagnoses with a high rate of co-occurrence; 18% had some form of musculoskeletal pain disease. Irrespective of pain location, chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors was diagnosed frequently (43%). 55% of the children suffered from more than one distinct pain diagnosis. Clinically significant depression and general anxiety scores were expressed by 24% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Girls over the age of 13 were more likely to seek tertiary treatment compared to boys. Nearly half of children suffered from daily or constant pain with a mean pain value of 6/10. Extremely high pain-related impairment, operationalized as a comprehensive measure of pain duration, frequency, intensity, pain-related school absence and disability, was associated with older age, multiple locations of pain, increased depression and prior hospital stays. 43% of the children taking analgesics had no indication for pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Children with chronic pain are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as they often have two or more different pain diagnoses, are prone to misuse of analgesics and are severely impaired. They are at increased risk for developmental stagnation. Adequate treatment and referral are essential to interrupt progression of the chronic pain process into adulthood. PMID:22591492

  1. Chronic Pain in People with an Intellectual Disability: Under-Recognised and Under-Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, B. E.; Daly, P.; Smyth, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the nature, prevalence and impact of chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability (ID) based on carer report. Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to 250 care-givers and 157 responses were received (63%). Results: Chronic pain was reported in 13% of the sample (n = 21), 6.3% had pain in two sites and 2% had pain in…

  2. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Persons with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Marini, Irmo; Baker, Jeff; Buck, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-five persons receiving treatment for chronic pain were surveyed using the Spirituality and Chronic Pain Survey (SCPS). The survey included a pain assessment, a spiritual/religious practices assessment, and questions related to spiritual/religious beliefs and attitudes. Most participants reported experiencing constant, higher-level pain. The…

  3. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Persons with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Marini, Irmo; Baker, Jeff; Buck, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-five persons receiving treatment for chronic pain were surveyed using the Spirituality and Chronic Pain Survey (SCPS). The survey included a pain assessment, a spiritual/religious practices assessment, and questions related to spiritual/religious beliefs and attitudes. Most participants reported experiencing constant, higher-level pain. The

  4. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; Farrar, John T; Fillingim, Roger B; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J; Raja, Srinivasa N; Robinson, James P; Woolf, Clifford J; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (ie, surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic or noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials. PMID:25887465

  5. Approach to the active patient with chronic anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Alfred; Ruiz, Devin; Dodson, Christopher C; Frederick, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis and management of chronic anterior knee pain in the active individual can be frustrating for both the patient and physician. Pain may be a result of a single traumatic event or, more commonly, repetitive overuse. "Anterior knee pain," "patellofemoral pain syndrome," and "chondromalacia" are terms that are often used interchangeably to describe multiple conditions that occur in the same anatomic region but that can have significantly different etiologies. Potential pain sources include connective or soft tissue irritation, intra-articular cartilage damage, mechanical irritation, nerve-mediated abnormalities, systemic conditions, or psychosocial issues. Patients with anterior knee pain often report pain during weightbearing activities that involve significant knee flexion, such as squatting, running, jumping, and walking up stairs. A detailed history and thorough physical examination can improve the differential diagnosis. Plain radiographs (anteroposterior, anteroposterior flexion, lateral, and axial views) can be ordered in severe or recalcitrant cases. Treatment is typically nonoperative and includes activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, supervised physical therapy, orthotics, and footwear adjustment. Patients should be informed that it may take several months for symptoms to resolve. It is important for patients to be aware of and avoid aggravating activities that can cause symptom recurrence. Patients who are unresponsive to conservative treatment, or those who have an underlying systemic condition, should be referred to an orthopedic surgeon or an appropriate medical specialist. PMID:22508250

  6. Meaning out of chaos: a way to understand chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bullington, Jennifer; Nordemar, Rolf; Nordemar, Kristina; Sjöström-Flanagan, Charlotte

    2003-12-01

    Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon lying at the intersection between biology and culture. The modern understanding of pain takes into account emotional, psychological, socio-political and existential aspects of pain as well as physiological, anatomical factors. Our aim in this study was to deepen the understanding of psychosocial, existential aspects of pain and to discuss how clinicians can better understand and treat patients with chronic pain. A focus group was formed consisting of a researcher and a group of clinicians (n = 3) with various backgrounds working at a specialized pain clinic. The group met once a month during a 6-month period. Questions concerning the life-world of the pain patient as well as inquiries into the conditions for 'the good clinical encounter' were investigated. The results of this study consist of a systematization of the data (focus group meetings) collected and analysed in a collaborative effort between the researcher and group participants. The findings are presented in terms of themes. The main metaphor used to describe the path from the seeking of medical help to successful rehabilitation was order out of chaos. Ordering chaos was a process moving from diagnosis through a phase of heightened self-awareness towards responsibility-taking on the part of the patient. Related themes presented, illustrated and discussed in the paper concern problems of linkage, the role of flexibility and creativity in the healing process and the kind of clinical encounter conducive for the journey from chaos to the creation of new meaning. PMID:14629634

  7. Sacral perineural cyst presenting as chronic perineal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Chopra, S; Bagaria, H; Mathur, P P S

    2002-12-01

    We present an interesting case of sacral perineural cyst which caused chronic perineal pain. Perineural cyst is relatively rare, especially the sacral region. Chronic perineural pain is an often encountered problem that is difficult to evaluate and sacral perineural cyst may be the etiology of chronic perineal pain in many instances. PMID:12577111

  8. Pain neurophysiology education improves cognitions, pain thresholds, and movement performance in people with chronic whiplash: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Truijen, Steven; Craps, Julie; Van den Keybus, Nick; Paul, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    Chronic whiplash is a debilitating condition characterized by increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, maladaptive illness beliefs, inappropriate attitudes, and movement dysfunctions. Previous work in people with chronic low back pain and chronic fatigue syndrome indicates that pain neurophysiology education is able to improve illness beliefs and attitudes as well as movement performance. This single-case study (A-B-C design) with six patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) was aimed at examining whether education about the neurophysiology of pain is accompanied by changes in symptoms, daily functioning, pain beliefs, and behavior. Periods A and C represented assessment periods, while period B consisted of the intervention (pain neurophysiology education). Results showed a significant decrease in kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), the passive coping strategy of resting (Pain Coping Inventory), self-rated disability (Neck Disability Index), and photophobia (WAD Symptom List). At the same time, significantly increased pain pressure thresholds and improved pain-free movement performance (visual analog scale on Neck Extension Test and Brachial Plexus Provocation Test) were established. Although the current results need to be verified in a randomized, controlled trial, they suggest that education about the physiology of pain is able to increase pain thresholds and improve pain behavior and pain-free movement performance in patients with chronic WAD. PMID:21328162

  9. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review on Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used analgesic worldwide and recommended as first-line treatment in all pain conditions by WHO. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the efficacy of acetaminophen when used for chronic pain conditions. Applying three broad search strategies for acetaminophen use in chronic pain in both Embase and PubMed, 1551 hits were obtained. After cross-reference searches of both trials and 38 reviews, seven studies comparing acetaminophen in continuous dosing regimens of more than 2 weeks with placebo were included. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. All studies were conducted in patients with hip- or knee osteoarthritis and six of seven studies had observation periods of less than 3 months. All included studies showed no or little efficacy with dubious clinical relevance. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of acetaminophen treatment in patients with chronic pain conditions. Assessment of continuous efficacy in the many patients using acetaminophen worldwide is recommended. PMID:26572078

  10. [Is capsule endoscopy useful in children with chronic abdominal pain?].

    PubMed

    Argüelles-Arias, F; Argüelles Martín, F; Caunedo Alvarez, A; Sánchez Yagüe, A; Romero Vázquez, J; García Montes, M J; Rodríguez-Téllez, M; Pellicer Bautista, F J; Herrerías Gutiérrez, J M

    2007-10-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is highly prevalent in school-aged children and is one of the most frequent disorders in our environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of capsule endoscopy (CE) in patients with chronic abdominal pain. Sixteen patients (nine boys and seven girls), aged between 5 and 16 years old, with chronic abdominal pain for at least 12 months were studied. In all patients the results of hemograms, biochemical investigations, urine sediment test, Helicobacter pylori breath test and celiac serology were normal. In all children, gastroscopy, small bowel follow-through, abdominal ultrasound and colonoscopy were normal. All patients received CE by mouth. In 43.75 % of the patients studied (7/16), the capsule showed evidence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, mainly located in the ileum. In one girl, oxyuriasis was observed in the cecum and in another girl aphthous lesions were observed in the ileum. These lesions suggested small bowel Crohn's disease. CE mainly showed images compatible with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, with unknown clinical significance. Consequently, we conclude that CE does not provide useful information in patients with abdominal pain without other symptoms. PMID:17949651

  11. Chronic low back pain among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo D; Fassa, Anaclaudia G; Faria, Neice M X; Fiori, Nadia S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite tobacco farming involving intensive manual labor, chronic low back pain (CLBP) prevalence and associated factors are unknown among this occupational group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in southern Brazil. A random sample of tobacco farmers was interviewed. Socioeconomic and individual characteristics, occupational tasks, workloads, and comorbidities were investigated. Chronic low back pain prevalence was described in relation to independent variables, and associations were examined with Poisson regression. Results: Chronic low back pain prevalence was 8·4%. Increasing age, rearing two or more species of livestock (PR 1·65), exposure to tasks that require heavy physical exertion (PR 2·00), working in awkward postures (PR 1·36), green tobacco sickness (GTS) (PR 1·63), pesticide poisoning (PR 2·37), and minor psychiatric disorders (PR 2·55) were associated with CLBP. Conclusions: This study found that CLBP is a relevant health problem among tobacco farmers and highlights understudied risk factors such as pesticide poisoning and GTS. Policies to minimize exposure to physiological and chemical workloads in tobacco planting to prevent CLBP are needed. Health professionals should be trained to diagnose and prevent acute low back pain episodes and thus prevent/minimize limitations and disabilities due to CLBP. PMID:25633930

  12. History of physical and sexual abuse in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D; Darke, L L; Stampler, F M; Naliboff, B D

    1990-07-01

    The history of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood was assessed in 31 women with chronic pelvic pain, 142 women with chronic pain in other locations, and 32 controls. Thirty-nine percent of patients with chronic pelvic pain had been physically abused in childhood. This percentage was significantly greater than that observed in other chronic-pain patients (18.4%) or controls (9.4%), though the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse did not differ among the groups (19.4, 16.3, and 12.5%, respectively). Abuse in adulthood was less common and was not significantly more likely to have occurred in patients with chronic pelvic pain than in other chronic-pain patients or controls. These data suggest that pelvic pain is unlikely to be specifically and psychodynamically related to sexual abuse but that the pernicious nature of abuse, whether physical or sexual, may promote the chronicity of painful conditions. PMID:2359571

  13. Pain syndromes, disability, and chronic disease in childhood.

    PubMed

    Malleson, P N

    1991-10-01

    Childhood disability and chronic disease are common, and their prevalence is increasing as children survive with conditions that were previously fatal. It is important that physicians in training learn about disability and handicap, and the functioning of multidisciplinary teams to manage these problems. Chronic ill-health is often very expensive to manage, and some serious and creative thinking about the best way to fund such health care is urgently needed. Pediatric rheumatologists are involved with the care of many children with chronic and recurrent musculoskeletal pain; however, they have not perhaps focused enough research effort on the investigation of pain and its management. Whether reflex neurovascular dystrophy, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome are part of a disease continuum is unclear, but it seems probable that psychosocial problems are often important contributing factors in all three conditions. Immunoglobulin subclass deficiencies are being increasingly delineated, occurring in chronic fatigue syndrome as well as many other disease states. Their clinical relevance still remains, for the most part, uncertain. Short stature occurs in many chronic illnesses, and the role of growth hormone treatment in these conditions is beginning to be investigated. PMID:1836344

  14. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Richards, Emily A; Olausson, Håkan; Catherine Bushnell, M

    2016-01-01

    Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  15. Carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbamazepine is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Objectives Evaluation of analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain management (except headaches). Search methods Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of carbamazepine in acute, chronic or cancer pain were identified, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, SIGLE and Cochrane CENTRAL to June 2010, reference lists of retrieved papers, and reviews. Selection criteria RCTs reporting the analgesic effects of carbamazepine. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted results and scored for quality. Numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from dichotomous data for effectiveness, adverse effects and adverse event withdrawal. Issues of study quality, size, duration, and outcomes were examined. Main results Fifteen included studies (12 cross-over design; three parallel-group) with 629 participants. Carbamazepine was less effective than prednisolone in preventing postherpetic neuralgia following acute herpes zoster (1 study, 40 participants). No studies examined acute postoperative pain. Fourteen studies investigated chronic neuropathic pain: two lasted eight weeks, others were four weeks or less (mean 3 weeks, median 2 weeks). Five had low reporting quality. Ten involved fewer than 50 participants; mean and median maximum treatment group sizes were 34 and 29. Outcome reporting was inconsistent. Most placebo controlled studies indicated that carbamazepine was better than placebo. Five studies with 298 participants provided dichotomous results; 70% improved with carbamazepine and 12% with placebo. Carbamazepine at any dose, using any definition of improvement was significantly better than placebo (70% versus 12% improved; 5 studies, 298 participants); relative benefit 6.1 (3.9 to 9.7), NNT 1.7 (1.5 to 2.0). Four studies (188 participants) reporting outcomes equivalent to 50% pain reduction or more over baseline had a similar NNT. With carbamazepine, 66% of participants experienced at least one adverse event, and 27% with placebo; relative risk 2.4 (1.9 to 3.1), NNH 2.6 (2.1 to 3.5). Adverse event withdrawals occurred in12 of 323 participants (4%) with carbamazepine and 0 of 310 with placebo. Serious adverse events were not reported consistently; rashes were associated with carbamazepine. Five deaths occurred in patients on carbamazepine, with no obvious drug association. Authors conclusions Carbamazepine is effective in chronic neuropathic pain, with caveats. No trial was longer than four weeks, of good reporting quality, using outcomes equivalent to at least moderate clinical benefit. In these circumstances, caution is needed in interpretation, and meaningful comparison with other interventions is not possible. PMID:21249671

  16. Association of Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis With Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Pamela; Khachikyan, Izabella; Sinaii, Ninet; Ortiz, Robin; Shah, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sensitization, myofascial trigger points, and quality of life in women with chronic pelvic pain with and without endometriosis. Methods A cross-sectional prospective study of women aged 18 to 50 with pain suggestive of endometriosis and healthy, pain-free volunteers without history of endometriosis. Patients underwent a physiatric neuro-musculoskeletal assessment of clinical signs of sensitization and myofascial trigger points in the abdominopelvic region. Pain symptoms, psychosocial, and quality-of-life measures were also assessed. All pain participants underwent laparoscopic excision of suspicious lesions to confirm endometriosis diagnosis by histologic evaluation. Results Patients included 18 with current, biopsy-proven endometriosis, 11 with pain only, and 20 healthy volunteers. The prevalence of sensitization as measured by regional allodynia and hyperalgesia was similar in both pain groups (83% and 82%) but much lower among healthy volunteers (15%, p<0.001). Nearly all women with pain had myofascial trigger points (94% and 91%). Adjusting for study group, those with high anxiety (OR=1.05, 95% CI:1.0041.099; p=0.031) and depression (OR=1.06, 95% CI:1.0051.113; p=0.032) scores were more likely to have sensitization. Pain patients with any history of endometriosis had the highest proportion of sensitization compared to the others (87% v 67% v 15%; p<0.001). Adjusting for any history of endometriosis, those with myofascial trigger points were most likely sensitized (OR=9.41, 95% CI:1.7750.08, p=0.009). Conclusions Sensitization and myofascial trigger points were common in women with pain regardless of whether they had endometriosis at surgery. Those with any history of endometriosis were most likely to have sensitization. Traditional methods of classifying endometriosis-associated pain based on disease, duration, and anatomy are inadequate and should be replaced by a mechanism-based evaluation, as our study illustrates. PMID:25730237

  17. Using Chronic Pain Outcomes Data to Improve Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neel; Inturrisi, Charles E; Horn, Susan D; Witkin, Lisa R

    2016-06-01

    Standardization of care that is derived from analysis of outcomes data can lead to improvements in quality and efficiency of care. The outcomes data should be validated, standardized, and integrated into ongoing patient care with minimal burden on the patient and health care team. This article describes the organization and workflow of a chronic pain clinic registry designed to collect and analyze patient data for quality improvement and dissemination. Future efforts in using mobile technology and integrating patient-reported outcome data in the electronic health records have the potential to offer new and improved models of comprehensive pain management. PMID:27208717

  18. Complementary and alternative medications for chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Leong, Fah Che

    2014-09-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is common, but rarely cured, thus patients seek both second opinions and alternative means of controlling their pain. Complementary and alternative medicine accounts for 11.2% of out-of-pocket medical expenditures for adults for all conditions in the United States. Although there are many treatments, rigorous testing and well-done randomized studies are lacking. Dietary changes and physical modalities such as physical therapy have often been included in the category of alternative medicine, but their use is now considered mainstream. This article concentrates on other sources of alternative and complementary medicine, such as dietary supplementation and acupuncture. PMID:25155128

  19. Effects of Pain Acceptance and Pain Control Strategies on Physical Impairment in Individuals with Chronic Low Back Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowles, Kevin E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Gross, Richard T.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Mouse, Angela; Bates, Mick; Gallimore, Paula; McCall, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial treatments for chronic pain are effective. There is a need, however, to understand the processes involved in determining how these treatments contribute to behavior change. Control and acceptance strategies represent two potentially important processes involved in treatment, although they differ significantly in approach. Results from…

  20. Chronic pain management in the active-duty military

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

    2012-06-01

    As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

  1. A Comparative Study Between Longitudinal Pancreacticojejunostomy v/s Lateral Pancreaticogastrostomy as a Drainage Procedure for Pain Relief in Chronic Pancreatitis Done in a Tertiary Referral Centre of Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Halder, Shyamal Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Bhar, Partha; Das, Cinjini; Pandey, Pranjal; Rakshit, Krishna Pada; Pachaury, Anadi

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammation of pancreas that leads to progressive fibrosis of pancreatic parenchyma. Commonest indication of surgery in chronic pancreatitis is intractable pain. Choice of procedure depends upon the main pancreatic duct (MPD) morphology. Decompression is useful in dilated and obstructed ducts. Traditional form of decompression is construction of a pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis (LPJ). Another method to achieve ductal decompression is by a pancreaticogastrostomy (LPG) and this study will try to evaluate its effectiveness against pancreaticojejunostomy. To compare the effectiveness of LPG and LPJ in relieving intractable abdominal pain in patients with CP and their respective post-operative complications. This prospective study was done over a period of 4 years from Jan 2007 to Dec 2010 at IPGME & R (SSKM), a tertiary hospital of eastern India. Patients with diagnosis of CP with or without duct calculi and MPD diameter ≥7 mm with intractable pain were included. 70 patients were randomly allocated for LPJ and LPG operation by lottery method. Study tools were questionnaires, blood and radiological investigations and standard instruments for open surgery. The patients were prospectively analyzed for duration of surgery and hospital stay, operative/postoperative complications and assessment of postoperative pain relief. Pain relief was assessed as complete (no analgesic requirement), satisfactory (tolerable pain with normal daily activities) and unsatisfactory (hospitalization, narcotics or hampered daily activities). 1. Operative time was shorter in LPG than LPJ (Median 85 vs. 110 min). 2. Incidence of ileus was lesser in LPG group (p = .054). Other complications were comparable in both groups. 3. LPG was associated with shorter duration of hospital stay (Mean 6 vs. 8 days). 4. Pain relief was comparable in LPG and LPJ. LPG is a good alternative to LPJ for CP. PMID:26139966

  2. [Current topics in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain from different causes: preface and comments].

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2010-11-01

    Neuropathic pain, as a chronic intractable pain, is well known to be difficult in prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Especially, neuropathic pain from different causes has each characteristics for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. These include post-herpetic pain, persistent chronic pain following traffic accident, pain after peripheral nerve injury in venipuncture, phantom limb pain originating from dysfunction of the primary motor cortex, pain from failed back surgery syndrome, and diabetic neuropathy, and are helpful for understanding prevention, diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:21077299

  3. Evaluating Snoezelen for relaxation within chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Pat

    This experimental study investigated the use of Snoezelen - a sensory environment purported to produce relaxation - against traditional relaxation within the pain clinic setting. The variables measured included pain, anxiety, depression, coping, self-efficacy and disability. Assessments were carried out at three time intervals on a range of symptoms designed to reflect the multidimensional nature of the chronic pain experience, including pain intensity and quality, anxiety, depression, coping, confidence and quality of life. The experimental group experienced significant reductions in pain (sensory score P=0.002), and an improvement in self-efficacy (P=0.02) and sickness impact for the following scales: physical (P=0.009), psychosocial (P=0.009), recreation (P=0.001), sleep (P=0.001) and sickness impact total (P=0.001). The control group experienced significant improvements in sickness impact scales of psychosocial (P=0.05), sleep (P=0.01) and sickness impact total (P=0.004). The findings suggest that Snoezelen environments are as effective as, if not slightly better than, teaching relaxation within the traditional pain clinic environment for this group of patients. PMID:12131831

  4. Influence of work-related psychosocial factors on the prevalence of chronic pain and quality of life in patients with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Working is a common cause of chronic pain for workers. However, most of them need to continue working despite the pain in order to make a living unless they get a sick leave or retirement. We hypothesised that the therapeutic effect of vocational rehabilitation may depend on psychosocial factors related to the workplace. To test this hypothesis, we examined the association of work-related psychosocial factors with the prevalence of chronic pain or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among workers with chronic pain. Methods We examined 1764 workers aged 20–59 years in the pain-associated cross-sectional epidemiological survey in Japan. The outcomes were (1) chronic pain prevalence among all workers and (2) low Euro QoL (EQ-5D <0.76; mean value of the current study) prevalence among workers with chronic pain according to the degree of workplace social support and job satisfaction. Workplace social support and job satisfaction were measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression model including age, sex, smoking, exercise, sleep time, work hours, body mass index, personal consumption expenditure, intensity of pain and the presence of severe depressive symptoms. Results Chronic pain prevalence was higher among males reporting job dissatisfaction compared with those reporting job satisfaction. No difference was observed among women. Chronic pain prevalence did not differ between workers of either sex reporting poor workplace social support compared with those reporting sufficient support. Among workers with chronic pain, low HRQoL was more frequent in those reporting job dissatisfaction. Similarly, low HRQoL was more frequent in patients with chronic pain reporting poor social support from supervisors or co-workers compared with patients reporting sufficient support. Conclusions Work-related psychosocial factors are critical for HRQoL in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27113235

  5. Systematic review of dexketoprofen in acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Barden, Jodie

    2008-01-01

    Background Dexketoprofen, an NSAID used in the management of acute and chronic pains, is licensed in several countries but has not previously been the subjected of a systematic review. We used published and unpublished information from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of dexketoprofen in painful conditions to assess evidence on efficacy and harm. Methods PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched for RCTs of dexketoprofen for pain of any aetiology. Reference lists of retrieved articles and reviews were also searched. Menarini Group produced copies of published and unpublished studies (clinical trial reports). Data were abstracted into a standard form. For studies reporting results of single dose administration, the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief was derived and used to calculate the relative benefit (RB) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief compared with placebo. Results Thirty-five trials were found in acute pain and chronic pain; 6,380 patients were included, 3,381 receiving dexketoprofen. Information from 16 trials (almost half the total patients) was obtained from clinical trial reports from previously unpublished trials or abstracts. Almost all of the trials were of short duration in acute conditions or recent onset pain. All 12 randomised trials that compared dexketoprofen (any dose) with placebo found dexketoprofen to be statistically superior. Five trials in postoperative pain yielded NNTs for 12.5 mg dexketoprofen of 3.5 (2.7 to 4.9), 25 mg dexketoprofen of 3.0 (2.4 to 3.9), and 50 mg dexketoprofen of 2.1 (1.5 to 3.5). In 29/30 active comparator trials, dexketoprofen at the dose used was at least equivalent in efficacy to comparator drugs. Adverse event withdrawal rates were low in postoperative pain and somewhat higher in trials of longer duration; no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Dexketoprofen was at least as effective as other NSAIDs and paracetamol/opioid combinations. While adverse event withdrawal was not different between dexketoprofen and comparator analgesics, the different conditions and comparators studies precluded any formal analysis. Exposure was limited, and no conclusions could be drawn about safety in terms of serious adverse events like gastrointestinal bleeding or cardiovascular events. PMID:18976451

  6. Report of a patient with chronic intractable autoimmune hemorrhaphilia due to anti-factor XIII/13 antibodies who died of hemorrhage after sustained clinical remission for 3 years.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Takeshi; Souri, Masayoshi; Takada, Koji; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakata, Soichi; Ichinose, Akitada

    2015-06-01

    Although the incidence of autoimmune hemorrhaphilia due to anti-Factor XIII (FXIII, not FVIII or FXII to avoid confusion) antibodies (AH13) or hemorrhagic "acquired FXIII deficiency due to anti-FXIII autoantibodies" was previously considered rare, it has been on the increase in the twenty-first century, at least in Japan. An 83-year-old woman with an unexplained hemorrhage was admitted to our hospital for intramuscular hematoma and severe anemia. Her FXIII activity was reduced to 10 % of normal; since FXIII inhibitors and anti-FXIII-A subunit autoantibodies were detected, she was definitively diagnosed with AH13. Despite developing cardiac tamponade due to pericardial hemorrhage, she clinically recovered from AH13 after hemostatic therapy with FXIII-concentrates and immunosuppressive treatment with rituximab and cyclophosphamide. However, her FXIII activity remained low and she died of hemorrhage 3.5 years after admission. AH13 patients should be monitored for a prolonged period, as this disease is very likely a chronic intractable hemorrhagic disorder. PMID:25663511

  7. Racial differences in the physical and psychosocial health among black and white women with chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ndao-Brumblay, S. Khady; Green, Carmen R.

    2005-01-01

    Gender-based differences in pain epidemiology, pain threshold, attitudes toward pain management, coping styles and social roles are well described, yet little is known about the chronic pain experience in women or the role race plays. A retrospective analysis of self-reported data using a secondary clinical database was performed to elucidate the relationship between race and pain severity, depression, physical disability, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as affective distress in women with chronic pain. White (n=1,088) and black (n=104) adult women were compared based on their responses to the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Disability Index, Posttraumatic Chronic Pain Test and items from the West-Haven Yale Multidisciplinary Pain Inventory. After accounting for sociodemographic, medical, psychological and physical confounders, there was no significant race effect for pain severity or affective distress. However, black women with chronic pain experience more physical impairments than white women with chronic pain (beta = 4.622; p<0.005). Except for the family/home responsibilities, similar differences were found on all PDI subscales. We also found that disability mediates the race-depression relationship such that black women are comparatively more vulnerable to depression as a result of higher disability. Due to the economic, social and emotional impact that disability has on women with chronic pain and their families, these findings have significant implications for chronic pain research as well as its management in black women. PMID:16353658

  8. Pain, power and patience - A narrative study of general practitioners' relations with chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic pain patients are common in general practice. In this study "chronic pain" is defined as diffuse musculoskeletal pain not due to inflammatory diseases or cancer. Effective patient-physician relations improve treatment results. The relationship between doctors and chronic pain patients is often dysfunctional. Consultation training for physicians and medical students can improve the professional ability to build effective relations, but this demands a thorough understanding of the problems in the relation. Several studies have defined the issues that frequently cause problems, but few have described the process. The aim of this study was to understand and illustrate what GPs' experience in contact with chronic pain patients and what works and does not work in these consultations. Methods Our theoretical perspective is constructivist, based upon the relativist view that individuals construct realities to understand and navigate the world. Five Swedish General Practitioners (GPs), two male and three female, were interviewed and asked to tell a story about a difficult encounter with a chronic pain patient. Tapes of the interviews were transcribed and analysed using narrative analysis. Three GPs told narratives suited for our analytic tools and these were included in the final results. Results Each narrative highlights a certain dilemma and a strategy. The dilemmas were: power game; good intentions that fail when a patient is persuaded against her own conviction; persuasion of the unwilling; transferred tiredness; distrust and dissociation from the patient. Professional strategies of listening, encouraging and teamwork were central to handling difficult situations. Conclusions The narratives show that GP's consultations with chronic pain patients sometimes are characterized by conflicts and difficult situations. They are facilitated by methods such as active listening and teamwork, but still may remain hard to handle. This has not before been studied among Swedish GPs. Narratives based on experience are known to be successful in education and this study suggest how narratives can serve as a training of consultation for medical students, but also in Continuing Professional Development groups for experienced doctors in practice. PMID:21575158

  9. The impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Faunce, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Singers participated in nine 30-minute sessions of small group singing, while comparisons listened to music while exercising. A short form of The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after selected singing sessions to assess whether singing produced short-term elevations in mood. Results indicated that pre to post difference scores were significantly different between singing and control groups for only one of the 15 mood variables (i.e., uneasy). To test the longer term impacts of singing the Profile of Mood States, Zung Depression Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Pain Rating Self-Statement, and Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered immediately before and after the singing sessions. All inventories other than the POMS were re-administered 6 months later. One-way ANCOVAs indicated that participants who attended the singing sessions showed evidence of postintervention improvements in active coping, relative to those who failed to attend, when preintervention differences in active coping were controlled for. While the singing group showed marked improvements from pre to postintervention on all mood, coping, and perceived pain variables, these improvements were also observed among comparison participants. The results of this study suggest that active singing may have some benefits, in terms of enhancing active coping, though the limitations of the study and small effect sizes observed suggest that further research is required to fully explore such effects. PMID:15327342

  10. [Chronic anoperineal pain: diagnosis and strategy for evaluation].

    PubMed

    Bauer, P

    2004-07-01

    Chronic anoperineal pain may result from diverse causes; a precise and painstaking diagnostic approach is necessary to avoid inappropriate treatments which may aggravate the situation. Advances in imaging and neurophysiologic testing have improved the ability to diagnose and differentiate coccydynia, pudendal neuralgia, and the pyriformis muscle syndrome. Other etiologies including anismus, the descending perineum syndrome, and the levator ani syndrome are discussed as well as psychologic ans somatic interactions. PMID:15467476

  11. Chronic Pain in a Couples Context: A Review and Integration of Theoretical Models and Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Michelle T.; Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the social context of chronic pain conditions. The purpose of this article is to provide an integrated review of the evidence linking marital functioning with chronic pain outcomes including pain severity, physical disability, pain behaviors, and psychological distress. We first present an overview of existing models that identify an association between marital functioning and pain variables. We then review the empirical evidence for a relationship between pain variables and several marital functioning variables including marital satisfaction, spousal support, spouse responses to pain, and marital interaction. On the basis of the evidence, we present a working model of marital and pain variables, identify gaps in the literature, and offer recommendations for research and clinical work. Perspective The authors provide a comprehensive review of the relationships between marital functioning and chronic pain variables to advance future research and help treatment providers understand marital processes in chronic pain. PMID:16750794

  12. Exercise in the Management of Chronic Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dreisinger, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic back pain is one of the most common and expensive medical conditions facing today's population. Its costs are estimated to be as much as $100 billion in the United States alone. Causation is poorly understood and healthcare providers share little common language concerning this pain. In addition, costly medical diagnostic tests are performed that do little to inform treatment. In the era of evidence-based medicine, back pain healthcare providers must find better ways to communicate with one another. Methods The key to better communication is measurement within the context of an evidence-based, protocol-driven clinical rehabilitation model. Measurement is the key to better communication among providers treating spinal pain. Measurement means acquiring both patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and clinician-based outcomes (CBOs). Results Musculoskeletal strengthening of the lumbar and cervical extensors has been shown to significantly reduce pain and provide successful clinical results for patients suffering from chronic back and neck pain. Lumbar strengthening has been successful because it is a safe exercise, it is prescribed based on pretreatment evaluation, and it provides objective measurements. Conclusion Without measurement, clinical results rely more on opinion than on objectively prescribed courses of treatment. Although indirect measures (PROs) are typically presented in clinical papers and clinical reviews, they are not often used in normal physical therapy practices. Adding direct patient-performance measures (CBOs) creates a much clearer clinical picture. The key to understanding the value of clinical practice and its predictable impact on patient treatment is objective measurement. PMID:24688341

  13. Occupational Therapy Interventions in Chronic Pain--A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hesselstrand, Malin; Samuelsson, Kersti; Liedberg, Gunilla

    2015-12-01

    The use of interventions based on the best available evidence in occupational therapy is essential, and evaluation of research is part of an evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of studies describing and evaluating the effects of occupational therapy interventions on chronic pain. A systematic review of studies with diverse designs was carried out. A quality assessment was conducted, and the level of evidence was defined using the Research Pyramid Model. Of 19 included studies, three received the highest evidence level, and three were considered to be of high quality. The clinical recommendations that can be derived from this study are the following: occupational therapy interventions should start from the identified needs of the person with chronic pain; no support exists for the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback training as a supplement, more studies are needed to confirm this result; the efficacy of instructions on body mechanics was significant during work-hardening treatment; and occupational therapists need to perform and present more clinical studies of high quality and high-evidence level to build up a trustworthy arsenal of evidence-based interventions, for example, in persons with chronic pain. PMID:26076994

  14. Perceived Early Childhood Family Influence, Perceived Pain Self-Efficacy, and Chronic Pain Disability: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kate R. M.; Watts, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them…

  15. Perceived Early Childhood Family Influence, Perceived Pain Self-Efficacy, and Chronic Pain Disability: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kate R. M.; Watts, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them

  16. Patients With Chronic Pelvic Pain: Endometriosis or Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome share similar symptoms. Interstitial cystitis was once considered rare, but it is now recognized as more common than previously thought. This review examines evidence that patients presenting with symptoms typically attributed to endometriosis or with unresolved pelvic pain after treatment for endometriosis may, in fact, have interstitial cystitis, and suggests approaches for appropriate diagnosis. Methods: A MedLine search using “chronic pelvic pain,” “endometriosis,” “interstitial cystitis,” and “bladder origin pain” as key words was performed for the most recent English-language articles. Additional references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each publication. Discussion: The symptoms of endometriosis and inter-stitial cystitis frequently overlap, and these 2 conditions may even coexist in the same patient. In cases of unresolved endometriosis and persistent pelvic pain, patients may have interstitial cystitis. A variety of tools are available to aid in identifying interstitial cystitis. Conclusion: Gynecologists should be alert to the possible presence of interstitial cystitis in patients who present with chronic pelvic pain typical of endometriosis. PMID:17761077

  17. Sex differences in the stability of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) among patients with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Martel, MO; Wasan, AD; Edwards, RR

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the temporal stability of conditioned pain modulation (CPM), formerly termed diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), among a sample of patients with chronic pain. The study also examined the factors that might be responsible for the stability of CPM. Design & subjects, and methods In this test-retest study, patients underwent a series of standardized psychophysical pain testing procedures designed to assess CPM on two separate occasions (i.e., baseline, follow-up). Patients also completed self-report measures of catastrophizing (PCS) and negative affect (NA). Results Overall, results provided evidence for the stability of CPM among patients with chronic pain. Results, however, revealed considerable sex differences in the stability of CPM. For women, results revealed a significant test-retest correlation between baseline and follow-up CPM scores. For men, however, the test-retest correlation between baseline and follow-up CPM scores was not significant. Results of a Fisher’s Z-test revealed that the stability of CPM was significantly greater for women than for men. Follow-up analyses revealed that the difference between men and women in the stability of CPM could not be accounted for by any demographic (e.g., age) and/or psychologic factors (PCS, NA). Conclusions Our findings suggest that CPM paradigms possess sufficient reliability to be incorporated into bedside clinical evaluation of patients with chronic pain, but only among women. The lack of CPM reproducibility/stability observed among men places limits on the potential use of CPM paradigms in clinical settings for the assessment of men’s endogenous pain-inhibitory function. PMID:23924369

  18. Chronic pain disorders in HIV primary care: clinical characteristics and association with healthcare utilization.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jocelyn M; So, Eric; Jebakumar, Jebakaran; George, Mary Catherine; Simpson, David M; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is common in HIV, but incompletely characterized, including its underlying etiologies, its effect on healthcare utilization, and the characteristics of affected patients in the HIV primary care setting. These data are needed to design and justify appropriate clinic-based pain management services. Using a clinical data warehouse, we analyzed one year of data from 638 patients receiving standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy in a large primary care HIV clinic, located in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. We found that 40% of patients carried one or more chronic pain diagnoses. The most common diagnoses were degenerative musculoskeletal disorders (eg, degenerative spinal disease and osteoarthritis), followed by neuropathic pain and headache disorders. Many patients (16%) had multiple chronic pain diagnoses. Women, older patients, and patients with greater burdens of medical illness, and psychiatric and substance use comorbidities were disproportionately represented among those with chronic pain diagnoses. Controlling for overall health status, HIV patients with chronic pain had greater healthcare utilization including emergency department visits and radiology procedures. In summary, our study demonstrates the high prevalence of chronic pain disorders in the primary care HIV clinic. Colocated interventions for chronic pain in this setting should not only focus on musculoskeletal pain but also account for complex multifaceted pain syndromes, and address the unique biopsychosocial features of this population. Furthermore, because chronic pain is prevalent in HIV and associated with increased healthcare utilization, developing clinic-based pain management programs could be cost-effective. PMID:26683238

  19. Perception of fault in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    DeGood, D E; Kiernan, B

    1996-01-01

    The beliefs and expectancies of chronic pain patients have been shown to be critical cognitive facilitators or impediments to the recovery process. In the present study patients presenting to an outpatient pain center were classified according to their response to the questionnaire item "Who do you think is at fault for your pain?". Patients were then grouped according to the responses 'employer', 'other', or 'no one'. The resulting 3 groups of patients did not differ in current pain intensity or activity limitation, but the fault conditions, relative to the no-fault patients, reported greater concurrent mood distress and behavioral disturbance, as well as poorer response to past treatments, and lessor expectations of future benefits. The negative effects were more pronounced in the Employer-Fault group, than for the Other-Fault group (primarily 'doctors' and 'other drivers'). On balance, the present data suggest that attribution of blame may be an under-recognized cognitive correlate of pain behavior, mood disturbance, and poor response to treatment. PMID:8867258

  20. Differential changes in functional disability and pain intensity over the course of psychological treatment for children with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lynch-Jordan, Anne M.; Sil, Soumitri; Peugh, James; Cunningham, Natoshia; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting for treatment of chronic pain often believe that pain reduction must be achieved before returning to normal functioning. However, treatment programs for chronic pain typically take a rehabilitative approach, emphasizing decreasing pain-related disability first with the expectation that pain reduction will follow. This information is routinely provided to patients, yet no studies have systematically examined the actual trajectories of pain and disability in a clinical care setting. In this study of youth with chronic pain (N = 94, 8 to 18 years), it was hypothesized that 1) functional disability and pain would decrease over the course of psychological treatment for chronic pain and 2) functional disability would decrease more quickly than pain intensity. Participants received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain management (M = 5.6 sessions) plus standard medical care. The Functional Disability Inventory and a Numeric Rating Scale of average pain intensity were completed by the child at every CBT session. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to examine the longitudinal trajectories of disability and pain. Standardized estimates of the slopes of change were obtained to test differences in rates of change between pain and disability. Results showed an overall significant decline in functional disability over time. Although pain scores reduced slightly from pretreatment to posttreatment, the longitudinal decline over treatment was not statistically significant. As expected, the rate of change of disability was significantly more rapid than pain. Evidence for variability in treatment response was noted, suggesting the need for additional research into individual trajectories of change in pediatric pain treatment. PMID:24954165

  1. Preclinical Pharmacological Approaches in Drug Discovery for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Garth T; Pomonis, James D; Kennedy, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, animal behavioral models, particularly those used in pain research, have been increasingly scrutinized and criticized for their role in the poor translation of novel pharmacotherapies for chronic pain. This chapter addresses the use of animal models of pain used in drug discovery research. It highlights how, when, and why animal models of pain are used as one of the many experimental tools used to gain better understanding of target mechanisms and rank-order compounds in the iterative process of establishing structure-activity relationship. Together, these models help create an "analgesic signature" for a compound and inform the indications most likely to yield success in clinical trials. In addition, the authors discuss some often underappreciated aspects of currently used (traditional) animal models of pain, including simply applying basic pharmacological principles to study design and data interpretation as well as consideration of efficacy alongside side effect measures as part of the overall conclusion of efficacy. This is provided to add perspective regarding current efforts to develop new models and endpoints both in rodents and in larger animal species as well as assess cognitive and/or affective aspects of pain. Finally, the authors suggest ways in which efficacy evaluation in animal models of pain, whether traditional or new, might better align with clinical standards of analysis, citing examples where applying effect size and number needed to treat estimations to animal model data suggest that the efficacy bar often may be set too low preclinically to allow successful translation to the clinical setting. PMID:26920017

  2. [Clinical characteristics of pain in chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Coget, J M; Millien, J P

    1992-01-01

    Since the report of the 1st International Conference of Phlebology at Chambéry, devoted to venous pain, the subject has scarcely attracted attention apart from the meeting of the Benelux Society of Phlebology devoted to "pain in the legs". Pain due to superficial venous insufficiency has scarcely changed in nature for 30 years and remains one of the major presenting symptoms in phlebology. Acute or chronic, punctate or diffuse, modifications in this functional symptomatology have been accentuated, or have varied in their aspects under the influence of certain fashions or certain habits of modern life, i.e.: sedentary behaviour, underfloor heating, the use of oral contraceptives or of menopausal hormone replacement therapy. However, the distribution of the various aspects of venous pain remains in the same proportions as those described by the authors cited previously. While the etiological diagnosis must essentially eliminate all other causes: arterial, neurological, muscular, articular, it is essential not to neglect deep venous insufficiency of the gemellar veins, often responsible for a wide range of symptomatology and still all too often neglected. The pathogenesis of this pain not only involves the concept of pain receptors but also the appearance of algogenic metabolites at the site of the microcirculatory unit, to which endothelial cells are particularly sensitive during stasis. In fact, pain is the expression of disorders concerning local exchanges, whether thermal, pressure, metabolic or hemorheological. It is the alarm bell of venous insufficiency and merits the attention of the phebologist who must thus undertake active treatment before problems become irreversible. PMID:1496035

  3. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. PMID:25582579

  4. Targeting Epigenetic Mechanisms for Chronic Pain: A Valid Approach for the Development of Novel Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Casey O; Moloney, Rachel D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is a multifaceted and complex condition. Broadly classified into somatic, visceral, or neuropathic pain, it is poorly managed despite its prevalence. Current drugs used for the treatment of chronic pain are limited by tolerance with long-term use, abuse potential, and multiple adverse side effects. The persistent nature of pain suggests that epigenetic machinery may be a critical factor driving chronic pain. In this review, we discuss the latest insights into epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, and we describe their involvement in the pathophysiology of chronic pain and whether epigenetic modifications could be applied as future therapeutic targets for chronic pain. We provide evidence from experimental models and translational research in human tissue that have enhanced our understanding of epigenetic processes mediating nociception, and we then speculate on the potential future use of more specific and selective agents that target epigenetic mechanisms to attenuate pain. PMID:26787772

  5. Modulation of Chronic Pain by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chiechio, Santina

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to class C G-protein-coupled receptors. They are expressed throughout the nervous system on both neurons and glial cells. In the central nervous system (CNS), mGluRs are mainly located in the proximity of the synaptic cleft where they regulate glutamatergic transmission in addition to a number of other neurotransmitters. To date, eight subtypes of mGluRs (mGluR1-mGluR8) have been cloned and classified into three groups on the basis of sequence similarities, and pharmacological and biochemical properties. Consequently, group I mGluRs includes mGluR1 and mGluR5, group II mGluRs includes mGluR2 and mGluR3, and group III mGluRs consists of mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8. With the exception of mGluR6, whose localization is restricted within the retina, all mGluRs are ubiquitously expressed throughout the peripheral and CNS with some subtype specificity in different anatomical regions. mGluRs participate in many physiological processes and play important roles in a number of neurological conditions including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders. mGluRs also participate in the physiological transmission of pain stimuli as well as to mechanisms involved in the establishment of chronic pain. Therefore, these receptors are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in several neurological disorders including chronic pain. Thus, understanding the physiological function and role of each mGluR subtype in the development of chronic pain will provide a better insight into the potential use of subtype-selective drugs currently being developed as orthosteric or allosteric ligands. PMID:26920009

  6. Impact of potential inappropriate NSAIDs use in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ussai, S; Miceli, L; Pisa, F E; Bednarova, R; Giordano, A; Rocca, G Della; Petelin, R

    2015-01-01

    Pain remains one of the main reasons for medical consultation worldwide: moderate- to severe-intensity pain occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not recommended for long-term use and a careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical. This study aims to assess: 1) the pattern of use of NSAIDs and opioids in a population covered by a cloud-based pharmacovigilance surveillance system; and 2) potential inappropriate use. A retrospective 18-months systematic analysis on patients’ pain treatment was performed. The primary endpoint was evaluating the prevalence of NSAIDs and opioids use and the duration of therapy regimen. The secondary endpoint was to investigate the prevalence of NSAIDs taken for >21 consecutive days concomitant with drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or antiplatelet drugs. The yearly cost for individual users of concomitant NSAIDs for more than 21 consecutive days and of GORD medications has been estimated. A total of 3,050 subjects with chronic pain were enrolled; 97% of them took NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days; about one-fourth of these users also received drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A02B). The yearly cost foran individual who uses NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days as well as concomitant GORD medications is 61.23 euros. In total, 238 subjects (8%) using NSAIDs for >21 days also received one antiplatelet agent. About 11% of subjects received opioids at least once and only 2% of them carried on the therapy for more than 90 consecutive days. In evaluating the escalation in dosage as a proxy of dependence risk, this study shows no dosage escalation in our cohort of chronic pain population - that is to say we show no risk of dependence. PMID:25926717

  7. Associations between Neuroticism and Depression in Relation to Catastrophizing and Pain-Related Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kadimpati, Sandeep; Zale, Emily L.; Hooten, Michael W.; Ditre, Joseph W.; Warner, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive-affective constructs, including pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, have been implicated in the onset and progression of chronic pain, and both constructs have been identified as key targets for multidisciplinary pain treatment. Both neuroticism and depression have been linked to these constructs (and to each other), but how each may contribute to the pain experience is unknown. This study tested associations between neuroticism, depression, and indices of catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety among persons seeking treatment for chronic non-malignant pain. We hypothesized, as a higher-order personality trait, neuroticism would remain uniquely associated with both pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, even after accounting for current symptoms of depression. A retrospective study design assessed depression (as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale), neuroticism (measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Anxiety Symptom Score in a consecutive series of patients (n=595) admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain treatment program from March 2009 through January 2011. Hierarchical regression indicated that neuroticism was independently associated with greater pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, above-and-beyond the contributions of sociodemographic characteristics, pain severity, and depression. A depression by neuroticism interaction was not observed, suggesting that associations between neuroticism and cognitive-affective pain constructs remained stable across varying levels of current depression. These findings represent an early but important step towards the clarification of complex associations between trait neuroticism, current depression, and tendencies toward catastrophic and anxiety-provoking appraisals of pain among persons seeking treatment for chronic pain. PMID:25902153

  8. Depression among Chronic Pain Patients: Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis and Effect on Rehabilitation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Robert D.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined relevance of depression to chronic pain. Found significant differences among 131 depressed, mildly depressed, and nondepressed chronic pain sufferers on instrumental activities and coping skills, with more depressed subjects reporting lower levels of functioning and less support. Depressed pain patients showed greater tendency to drop out…

  9. Managing Chronic Pain in People with Learning Disabilities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sarah; Bell, Dorothy; Gillanders, David

    2007-01-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent, under-diagnosed problem in the learning disability population. This is in part due to communication problems, unrecognized pain behaviours and the effects of medication. As a consequence, chronic pain often goes untreated and causes ongoing distress. This paper initially describes the main research that has been

  10. Managing Chronic Pain in People with Learning Disabilities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sarah; Bell, Dorothy; Gillanders, David

    2007-01-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent, under-diagnosed problem in the learning disability population. This is in part due to communication problems, unrecognized pain behaviours and the effects of medication. As a consequence, chronic pain often goes untreated and causes ongoing distress. This paper initially describes the main research that has been…

  11. The transition from acute to chronic pain: might intensive care unit patients be at risk?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Pain remains a significant problem for patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs). As research has shown, for some of these patients pain might even persist after discharge and become chronic. Exposure to intense pain and stress during medical and nursing procedures could be a risk factor that contributes to the transition from acute to chronic pain, which is a major disruption of the pain neurological system. New evidence suggests that physiological alterations contributing to chronic pain states take place both in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review cutting-edge theories regarding pain and mechanisms that underlie the transition from acute to chronic pain, such as increases in membrane excitability of peripheral and central nerve fibers, synaptic plasticity, and loss of the function of descending inhibitory pain fibers; 2) provide information on the association between the immune system and pain and its crucial contribution to development of chronic pain syndromes, and 3) discuss mechanisms at brain levels in the nervous system and their contribution to affective (i.e., emotional) states associated with chronic pain conditions. Finally, we will offer suggestions for ICU clinical interventions to attempt to prevent the transition from acute to chronic pain. PMID:22898192

  12. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  13. Strategies Aimed at Preventing Chronic Post-surgical Pain: Comprehensive Perioperative Pain Management after Total Joint Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Linda J.; Kennedy, Deborah; Stratford, Paul; Katz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a frequent outcome of musculoskeletal surgery. Physiotherapists often treat patients with pain before and after musculoskeletal surgery. The purposes of this paper are (1) to raise awareness of the nature, mechanisms, and significance of CPSP; and (2) to highlight the necessity for an inter-professional team to understand and address its complexity. Using total joint replacement surgeries as a model, we provide a review of pain mechanisms and pain management strategies. Summary of Key Points: By understanding the mechanisms by which pain alters the body's normal physiological responses to surgery, clinicians selectively target pain in post-surgical patients through the use of multi-modal management strategies. Clinicians should not assume that patients receiving multiple medications have a problem with pain. Rather, the modern-day approach is to manage pain using preventive strategies, with the aims of reducing the intensity of acute postoperative pain and minimizing the development of CPSP. Conclusions: The roles of biological, surgical, psychosocial, and patient-related risk factors in the transition to pain chronicity require further investigation if we are to better understand their relationships with pain. Measuring pain intensity and analgesic use is not sufficient. Proper evaluation and management of risk factors for CPSP require inter-professional teams to characterize a patient's experience of postoperative pain and to examine pain arising during functional activities. PMID:22654235

  14. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly taken orally, but they are also available in topical preparations to be applied to or rubbed onto the skin of a painful joint, typically one affected by arthritis, with the aim of relieving pain locally. Topical NSAIDs are widely used in some parts of the world for acute and chronic painful conditions, but have not been universally accepted until recently. One of the problems has been that older clinical studies were generally short, lasting four weeks or less, and short duration studies are not regarded as adequate in ongoing painful conditions. Objectives To examine the use of topical NSAIDs in chronic musculoskeletal pain, focusing on studies of high methodological quality, and examining the measured effect of the preparations according to study duration. The principal aim was to estimate treatment efficacy in longer duration studies of at least 8 weeks. Search methods A series of electronic searches, together with bibliographic searches, and searches of in-house databases were combined with electronic searches of clinical trial registers and manufacturers of topical NSAIDs, or companies known to be actively researching topical NSAIDs. There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind studies with placebo or active comparators, where at least one treatment was a topical NSAID product, in any topical formulation (cream, gel, patch, solution), in studies lasting at least two weeks. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Information was available from 7688 participants in 34 studies from 32 publications; 23 studies compared a topical NSAID with placebo. Topical NSAIDs were significantly more effective than placebo for reducing pain due to chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The best data were for topical diclofenac in osteoarthritis, where the NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 8 to 12 weeks compared with placebo was 6.4 for the solution, and 11 for the gel formulation. There were too few data of good quality to calculate NNTs for other individual topical NSAIDs compared with placebo. Direct comparison of topical NSAID with an oral NSAID did not show any difference in efficacy. There was an increase in local adverse events (mostly mild skin reactions) with topical NSAIDs compared with placebo or oral NSAIDs, but no increase in serious adverse events. Gastrointestinal adverse events with topical NSAID did not differ from placebo, but were less frequent than with oral NSAIDs. A substantial amount of data from unpublished studies was unavailable. Much of this probably relates to formulations that have never been marketed. Authors’ conclusions Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief; topical diclofenac solution is equivalent to that of oral NSAIDs in knee and hand osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence for other chronic painful conditions. Formulation can influence efficacy. The incidence of local adverse events is increased with topical NSAIDs, but gastrointestinal adverse events are reduced compared with oral NSAIDs. PMID:22972108

  15. The place of oxycodone/naloxone in chronic pain management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are usually effective in the management of severe chronic pain. However, symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) are common during opioid therapy. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is often unsuccessfully managed due to limited effectiveness and numerous adverse effects of traditional laxatives. Newer treatment possibilities directed at the pathomechanism of OIBD comprise combined prolonged-release oxycodone with prolonged-release naloxone (oxycodone/naloxone) tablets. Oxycodone/naloxone provides effective analgesia with limited impact on bowel function as oxycodone displays high oral bioavailability and naloxone act as local antagonist on opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract due to nearly complete inactivation in the liver. Oxycodone/naloxone is administered to opioid-naive patients with severe pain and those unsuccessfully treated with weak opioids. Oxycodone/naloxone may be also administered to patients treated with strong opioids who experience intense symptoms of OIBD. Studies conducted to date indicate that oxycodone/naloxone is an important drug in chronic pain management, prevention and treatment of OIBD. PMID:23788978

  16. Perspectives on yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a "relaxation response" in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  17. Perspectives on Yoga Inputs in the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vallath, Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is multi-dimensional. At the physical level itself, beyond the nociceptive pathway, there is hyper arousal state of the components of the nervous system, which negatively influences tension component of the muscles, patterns of breathing, energy levels and mindset, all of which exacerbate the distress and affect the quality of life of the individual and family. Beginning with the physical body, Yoga eventually influences all aspects of the person: vital, mental, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. It offers various levels and approaches to relax, energize, remodel and strengthen body and psyche. The asanas and pranayama harmonize the physiological system and initiate a “relaxation response” in the neuro endocrinal system. This consists of decreased metabolism, quieter breathing, stable blood pressure, reduced muscle tension, lower heart rate and slow brain wave pattern. As the neural discharge pattern gets modulated, hyper arousal of the nervous system and the static load on postural muscle come down. The function of viscera improves with the sense of relaxation and sleep gets deeper and sustained; fatigue diminishes. Several subtle level notional corrections can happen in case the subject meditates and that changes the context of the disease, pain and the meaning of life. Meditation and pranayama, along with relaxing asanas, can help individuals deal with the emotional aspects of chronic pain, reduce anxiety and depression effectively and improve the quality of life perceived. PMID:20859464

  18. The influence of chronic pain on the daily lives of underprivileged South Africans.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Martjie; Maree, Johanna Elizabeth; van Belkum, Corrien

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain is a major public health problem that changes lives and has devastating consequences for the person experiencing the pain, the family, and society. Living with chronic pain is not easy, especially in South Africa where the public health care system, serving 80% of the population, fails people suffering from chronic pain. The purpose of the study was to explore how experiencing chronic pain influenced the daily lives of underprivileged patients receiving nursing care at the palliative care clinic serving a resource-poor community in Tshwane, South Africa. A qualitative descriptive phenomenologic design was selected for the study. Nine purposively selected community members, registered as patients at the palliative care clinic and who suffered chronic pain, participated in the study. In-depth interviews were conducted and Tesch's coding process was used to analyze the data. Data gathering and analysis were done concurrently to determine data saturation. Four themes arose from the data: pain as a multidimensional experience, the influence of pain on physical activities, the psychosocial influence of pain, and the influence of pain on spirituality. Participants' experience of pain tells of severe suffering that hindered them in performing activities of daily living. Participants were confronted with total pain and were caught in a vicious circle where pain was responsible for severe suffering and their suffering added to their pain. However, strong religious beliefs improved pain and gave hope for the future. PMID:25434498

  19. Pain Sensitivity and Recovery From Mild Chronic Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Roehrs, Timothy A.; Harris, Erica; Randall, Surilla; Roth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether an extended bedtime in sleepy and otherwise healthy volunteers would increase alertness and thereby also reduce pain sensitivity. Setting: Outpatient with sleep laboratory assessments. Participants and Interventions: Healthy volunteers (n = 18), defined as having an average daily sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) < 8 min, were randomized to 4 nights of extended bedtime (10 hr) (EXT) or 4 nights of their diary-reported habitual bedtimes (HAB). On day 1 and day 4 they received a standard MSLT (10:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 16:00 hr) and finger withdrawal latency pain testing to a radiant heat stimulus (10:30 and 14:30 hr). Results: During the four experimental nights the EXT group slept 1.8 hr per night more than the HAB group and average daily sleep latency on the MSLT increased in the EXT group, but not the HAB group. Similarly, finger withdrawal latency was increased (pain sensitivity was reduced) in the EXT group but not the HAB group. The nightly increase in sleep time during the four experimental nights was correlated with the improvement in MSLT, which in turn was correlated with reduced pain sensitivity. Conclusions: These are the first data to show that an extended bedtime in mildly sleepy healthy adults, which resulted in increased sleep time and reduced sleepiness, reduces pain sensitivity. Citation: Roehrs TA; Harris E; Randall S; Roth T. Pain sensitivity and recovery from mild chronic sleep loss. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1667-1672. PMID:23204609

  20. Differences between patients with chronic widespread pain and local chronic low back pain in primary care - a comparative cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a common reason for consultation in general practice. Current research distinguishes between chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to identify differences between CWP and chronic low back pain (CLBP), a common type of CLP, in primary care settings. Methods Fifty-eight German general practitioners (GPs) consecutively recruited all eligible patients who consulted for chronic low back pain during a 5-month period. All patients received a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, pain characteristics, comorbidities, psychosomatic symptoms, and previous therapies. Results GPs recruited 647 eligible patients where of a quarter (n = 163, 25.2%) met the CWP criteria according to the American College of Rheumatology. CWP patients had significantly more comorbidities and psychosomatic symptoms, showed longer pain duration, and suffered predominantly from permanent pain instead of distinguishable pain attacks. CWP patients were more often females, are less working and reported a current pension application or a state-approved grade of disability more frequently. We found no other differences in demographic parameters such as age, nationality, marital status, number of persons in household, education, health insurance status, or in health care utilization data. Conclusions This project is the largest study performed to date which analyzes differences between CLBP and CWP in primary care settings. Our results showed that CWP is a frequent and particularly severe pain syndrome. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register, DRKS00003123. PMID:24330525

  1. Differences in Pain, Psychological Symptoms, and Gender Distribution Among Patients with Left vs. Right-Sided Chronic Spinal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wasan, Ajay D.; Anderson, Nina K.; Giddon, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine pain levels, function, and psychological symptoms in relation to predominant sidedness of pain (right or left) and gender in patients being treated for chronic spinal pain. Design Prospective cohort study Patients Patients with chronic neck or low back pain undergoing a nerve block procedure in a speciality pain medicine clinic Interventions/Outcomes Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Brief Pain Inventory just prior to the procedure. Pain history and demographic variables were collected from a chart review. Chi-square, Pearson correlations, and multivariate statistics were used to characterize the relationships between side of pain, gender, pain levels, pain interference, and psychological symptoms. Results Among 519 subjects, men with left-sided pain (n=98) were found to have significantly greater depression and anxiety symptoms and worse pain-related quality of life (p<.01), despite having similar pain levels as men with right-sided pain (n=91) or women with left or right-sided pain (n=289). In men, psychological symptoms had a significantly greater correlation with pain levels than in women (p<.01). Conclusion In this sample, men with left-sided spinal pain report worse quality of life and more psychological symptoms than women. These data provide clinical evidence corroborating basic neuroscience findings indicating that the right cerebral hemisphere is preferentially involved in the processing of pain and negative affect. These data suggest that men appear more right hemisphere dominant in pain and affect processing. These findings have implications for multidisciplinary assessment and treatment planning in men. PMID:20667025

  2. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We

  3. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  4. Spousal Mindfulness and Social Support in Couples with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Amy M.; Cano, Annmarie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing research has reported the correlation between patients’ psychological flexibility, of which mindfulness is a component, and their perceptions of the spouses’ support provision. It is quite likely that spouses’ mindfulness, in particular certain aspects of mindfulness, is also related to the support they provide to patients. The current study examined this issue. Methods The sample included 51 couples in which one partner had chronic pain. Patients and their spouses each completed a questionnaire that assessed three facets of their own mindfulness (i.e., non-reactivity, acting with awareness, non-judging). In addition, patients reported on their pain-related psychological flexibility, marital satisfaction, and perceptions of spousal support. Results Only one facet of patients’ mindfulness (i.e., non-reactivity) was related to their perceptions of their spouses as being emotionally responsive to them. Spouses’ non-judging and non-reactivity were negatively correlated with punishing spouse responses. In addition, spouses’ acting with awareness was positively correlated with patients’ reports of perceived partner responsiveness and instrumental support and negatively correlated with patients’ reports of punishing spouse responses, often over and above the contribution of patients' own mindfulness or pain-related psychological flexibility. Discussion Spouses’ mindfulness, especially as it pertains to acting with awareness, was most consistently associated with patient perceptions of spousal support. These findings suggest that acting with awareness should be examined further including the possible contributions this type of mindfulness may make to healthy relationship behaviors in the context of pain. PMID:24281274

  5. [Chronic pelvic pain. Another diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Dellenbach, P; Rempp, C; Haeringer, M T; Simon, T; Magnier, F; Meyer, C

    2001-03-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a frequent and difficult problem because despite the quality and diversity of diagnostic procedures no relevant etiology will be found in 30 to 40% of all cases. Psychologic and psychotherapeutic counselling is than usually proposed and usually not well accepted. A different approach can now be proposed according to a new semeiologic overall. In many cases the pain dominant is not visceral but parietal. The pelvic envelope is actually more painfull than the pelvic content. In these cases one can evoke the diagnosis of pelvic fibromyalgia and this is quite similar to classic fibromyalgia. This pelvifibromyalgia can be quantified with an algometric index. This form of pain actually is the somatisation of a past and difficult issue which will be very slowly and progressively revealed in the realm of a multidisciplinary and simultaneous physical and psychological approach. In the majority of cases these women have occurred physical, moral or sexual trauma inflicted by family members or a third party. Taking in account the physical dimension of body pain at the same time as psychotherapy will considerably enhance the efficiency of treatment. In our experience 70% of all women will be cured using this new approach. PMID:11300048

  6. ‘Two Pains Together’: Patient Perspectives on Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain while Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Walcott, Melonie; Ritchie, Christine; Herbey, Ivan; Kertesz, Stefan G.; Chamot, Eric; Saag, Michael; Turan, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic pain is common in HIV-infected individuals. Understanding HIV-infected patients’ chronic pain experience not just from a biological, but also from a psychological perspective, is a critical first step toward improving care for this population. Our objective was to explore HIV-infected patients’ perspectives on psychological aspects of chronic pain using in-depth qualitative interviews. Methods Investigators engaged in an iterative process of independent and group coding until theme saturation was reached. Results Of the 25 patients with chronic pain interviewed, 20 were male, 15 were younger than age 50, and 15 were African-American. Key themes that emerged included the close relationship between mood and pain; mood and pain in the context of living with HIV; use of alcohol/drugs to self-medicate for pain; and the challenge of receiving prescription pain medications while dealing with substance use disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that psychological approaches to chronic pain treatment may be well received by HIV-infected patients. PMID:25365306

  7. Occurrence, Characteristics, and Predictors of Pain in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vivi Lycke; Holm, Are Martin; Kongerud, Johny; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Paul, Steven M; Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have provided a detailed characterization of pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aims of this cross-sectional study were to describe the occurrence, intensity, locations, and level of interference associated with pain, as well as pain relief; to identify differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between COPD patients with and without pain; and to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with average pain, worst pain, and pain interference. A total of 258 patients with COPD provided information on demographic characteristics; comorbidities; respiratory parameters including dyspnea; body mass index; and symptom characteristics (i.e., anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and fatigue). Pain was measured using the Brief Pain Inventory. Of these 258 COPD patients, 157 (61%) reported pain. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with average pain severity, worst pain severity, and mean pain interference. Lower stages of COPD were associated with higher worst pain and higher pain interference scores. Higher depression scores were associated with higher average pain and higher pain interference scores. In addition, higher number of pain locations was associated with higher average and higher worst pain severity scores. Findings from this study confirm that pain is a significant problem and highlights the need for specific pain management interventions for patients with COPD. More research is needed about specific pain characteristics and symptoms to gain an increased knowledge about the causes of pain in these patients. PMID:27095390

  8. Targeting cortical representations in the treatment of chronic pain: a review.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Flor, Herta

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroscientific evidence has confirmed the important role of cognitive and behavioral factors in the development and treatment of chronic pain. Neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain are associated with substantial reorganization of the primary somatosensory and motor cortices as well as regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex and insula. What is more, in patients with chronic low back pain and fibromyalgia, the amount of reorganizational change increases with chronicity; in phantom limb pain and other neuropathic pain syndromes, cortical reorganization correlates with the magnitude of pain. These findings have implications for both our understanding of chronic pain and its prevention and treatment. For example, central alterations may be viewed as pain memories that modulate the processing of both noxious and nonnoxious input to the somatosensory system and outputs of the motor and other response systems. The cortical plasticity that is clearly important in chronic pain states also offers potential targets for rehabilitation. The authors review the cortical changes that are associated with chronic pain and the therapeutic approaches that have been shown to normalize representational changes and decrease pain and discuss future directions to train the brain to reduce chronic pain. PMID:22331213

  9. Chronic Back Pain: Assessing the Patient at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Koelink, Anthony F.C.

    1990-01-01

    Pain in the lower back is a growing and costly problem. A simple, effective diagnosis can usually be provided by the family physician, based on a clinical history, especially regarding the circumstances surrounding an injury, and physical examination. Work-related risk factors implicated in the cause of the disorder are also important. Spinal X-ray examinations are of little value in diagnosis during the acute stage of low back pain. Chronic cases can be avoided by appropriate early treatment: a short period of analgesia and rest, followed by education about the back, a graduated exercise program, and if the clinical condition is stable or improving, early return to a modified level of work, even in the presence of symptoms. PMID:21233988

  10. Oxytocin - a multifunctional analgesic for chronic deep tissue pain.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Burel R; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain arising from deep tissues is currently inadequate and there is need for new pharmacological agents to provide analgesia. The endogenous paracrine hormone/neurotransmitter oxytocin is intimately involved in the modulation of multiple physiological and psychological functions. Recent experiments have given clear evidence for a role of oxytocin in the modulation of nociception. The present article reviews the existent human and basic science data related to the direct and indirect effects of oxytocin on pain. Due to its analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and other central nervous system effects, there is strong evidence that oxytocin and other drugs acting through the oxytocin receptor could act as multifunctional analgesics with unique therapeutic value. PMID:25345612

  11. Oxytocin – A Multifunctional Analgesic for Chronic Deep Tissue Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Ness, Timothy J.; Robbins, Meredith T.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain arising from deep tissues is currently inadequate and there is need for new pharmacological agents to provide analgesia. The endogenous paracrine hormone/neurotransmitter oxytocin is intimately involved in the modulation of multiple physiological and psychological functions. Recent experiments have given clear evidence for a role of oxytocin in the modulation of nociception. The present article reviews the existent human and basic science data related to the direct and indirect effects of oxytocin on pain. Due to its analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and other central nervous system effects, there is strong evidence that oxytocin and other drugs acting through the oxytocin receptor could act as multifunctional analgesics with unique therapeutic value. PMID:25345612

  12. More than meets the eye: visual attention biases in individuals reporting chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Fashler, Samantha R; Katz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The present study used eye-tracking technology to assess whether individuals who report chronic pain direct more attention to sensory pain-related words than do pain-free individuals. A total of 113 participants (51 with chronic pain, 62 pain-free) were recruited. Participants completed a dot-probe task, viewing neutral and sensory pain-related words while their reaction time and eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking data were analyzed by mixed-design analysis of variance with group (chronic pain versus pain-free) as the between-subjects factor, and word type (sensory pain versus neutral) as the within-subjects factor. Results showed a significant main effect for word type: all participants attended to pain-related words more than neutral words on several eye-tracking parameters. The group main effect was significant for number of fixations, which was greater in the chronic pain group. Finally, the group by word type interaction effect was significant for average visit duration, number of fixations, and total late-phase duration, all greater for sensory pain versus neutral words in the chronic pain group. As well, participants with chronic pain fixated significantly more frequently on pain words than did pain-free participants. In contrast, none of the effects for reaction time were significant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with chronic pain display specific attentional biases toward pain-related stimuli and demonstrate the value of eye-tracking technology in measuring differences in visual attention variables. PMID:25285022

  13. Pacing: A concept analysis of a chronic pain intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson-Lega, Kathryn; Berry, Robyn; Brown, Cary A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intervention of pacing is regularly recommended for chronic pain patients. However, pacing is poorly defined and appears to be interpreted in varying, potentially contradictory manners within the field of chronic pain. This conceptual lack of clarity has implications for effective service delivery and for researchers’ ability to conduct rigorous study. An examination of the background literature demonstrates that while pacing is often one part of a multidisciplinary pain management program, outcome research is hindered by a lack of a clear and shared definition of this currently ill-defined construct. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a formal concept analysis of the term ‘pacing’. METHODS: A standardized concept analysis process (including literature scoping to identify all uses of the concept, analysis to determine defining attributes of the concept and identification of model, borderline and contrary cases) was used to determine what the concept of pacing does and does not represent within the current evidence base. RESULTS: A conceptual model including the core attributes of action, time, balance, learning and self-management emerged. From these attributes, an evidence-based definition for pacing was composed and distributed to stakeholders for review. After consideration of stakeholder feedback, the emergent definition of pacing was finalized as follows: “Pacing is an active self-management strategy whereby individuals learn to balance time spent on activity and rest for the purpose of achieving increased function and participation in meaningful activities”. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present concept analysis will help to standardize the use and definition of the term pacing across disciplines for the purposes of both pain management and research. PMID:23717825

  14. Evidence for the endothelin system as an emerging therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Terika P; Haymond, Tami; Smith, Sherika N; Sweitzer, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Many people worldwide suffer from pain and a portion of these sufferers are diagnosed with a chronic pain condition. The management of chronic pain continues to be a challenge, and despite taking prescribed medication for pain, patients continue to have pain of moderate severity. Current pain therapies are often inadequate, with side effects that limit medication adherence. There is a need to identify novel therapeutic targets for the management of chronic pain. One potential candidate for the treatment of chronic pain is therapies aimed at modulating the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1. In addition to vasoactive properties, endothelin-1 has been implicated in pain transmission in both humans and animal models of nociception. Endothelin-1 directly activates nociceptors and potentiates the effect of other algogens, including capsaicin, formalin, and arachidonic acid. In addition, endothelin-1 has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain, cancer pain, neuropathic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and pain associated with sickle cell disease. Therefore, endothelin-1 may prove a novel therapeutic target for the relief of many types of chronic pain. PMID:25210474

  15. Evidence for the endothelin system as an emerging therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terika P; Haymond, Tami; Smith, Sherika N; Sweitzer, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Many people worldwide suffer from pain and a portion of these sufferers are diagnosed with a chronic pain condition. The management of chronic pain continues to be a challenge, and despite taking prescribed medication for pain, patients continue to have pain of moderate severity. Current pain therapies are often inadequate, with side effects that limit medication adherence. There is a need to identify novel therapeutic targets for the management of chronic pain. One potential candidate for the treatment of chronic pain is therapies aimed at modulating the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1. In addition to vasoactive properties, endothelin-1 has been implicated in pain transmission in both humans and animal models of nociception. Endothelin-1 directly activates nociceptors and potentiates the effect of other algogens, including capsaicin, formalin, and arachidonic acid. In addition, endothelin-1 has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain, cancer pain, neuropathic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and pain associated with sickle cell disease. Therefore, endothelin-1 may prove a novel therapeutic target for the relief of many types of chronic pain. PMID:25210474

  16. A psychological flexibility conceptualisation of the experience of injustice among individuals with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lance M; Trost, Zina

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the experience of injustice in patients with chronic pain is associated with poorer pain-related outcomes. Despite this evidence, a theoretical framework to understand this relationship is presently lacking. This review is the first to propose that the psychological flexibility model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may provide a clinically useful conceptual framework to understand the association between the experience of injustice and chronic pain outcomes. A literature review was conducted to identify research and theory on the injustice experience in chronic pain, chronic pain acceptance, and ACT. Research relating injustice to chronic pain outcomes is summarised, the relevance of psychological flexibility to the injustice experience is discussed, and the subprocesses of psychological flexibility are proposed as potential mediating factors in the relationship between injustice and pain outcomes. Application of the psychological flexibility model to the experience of pain-related injustice may provide new avenues for future research and clinical interventions for patients with pain. Summary points • Emerging research links the experience of pain-related injustice to problematic pain outcomes. • A clinically relevant theoretical framework is currently lacking to guide future research and intervention on pain-related injustice. • The psychological flexibility model would suggest that the overarching process of psychological inflexibility mediates between the experience of injustice and adverse chronic pain outcomes. • Insofar as the processes of psychological inflexibility account for the association between injustice experiences and pain outcomes, methods of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may reduce the impact of injustice of pain outcomes. • Future research is needed to empirically test the proposed associations between the experience of pain-related injustice, psychological flexibility and pain outcomes, and whether ACT interventions mitigate the impact of pain-related injustice on pain outcomes. PMID:26516537

  17. Deciphering the Temporal Link between Pain and Sleep in a Heterogeneous Chronic Pain Patient Sample: A Multilevel Daily Process Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nicole K.Y.; Goodchild, Claire E.; Sanborn, Adam N.; Howard, Jonathan; Salkovskis, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Because insomnia is a common comorbidity of chronic pain, scientific and clinical interest in the relationship of pain and sleep has surged in recent years. Although experimental studies suggest a sleep-interfering property of pain and a pain-enhancing effect of sleep deprivation/fragmentation, the temporal association between pain and sleep as experienced by patients is less understood. The current study was conducted to examine the influence of presleep pain on subsequent sleep and sleep on pain reports the next day, taking into consideration other related psychophysiologic variables such as mood and arousal. Design: A daily process study, involving participants to monitor their pain, sleep, mood, and presleep arousal for 1 wk. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Setting: In the patients' natural living and sleeping environment. Patients: One hundred nineteen patients (73.9% female, mean age = 46 years) with chronic pain and concomitant insomnia. Measurement: An electronic diary was used to record patients' self-reported sleep quality/efficiency and ratings of pain, mood, and arousal at different times of the day; actigraphy was also used to provide estimates of sleep efficiency. Results: Results indicated that presleep pain was not a reliable predictor of subsequent sleep. Instead, sleep was better predicted by presleep cognitive arousal. Although sleep quality was a consistent predictor of pain the next day, the pain-relieving effect of sleep was only evident during the first half of the day. Conclusions: These findings challenge the often-assumed reciprocal relationship between pain and sleep and call for a diversification in thinking of the daily interaction of these 2 processes. Citation: Tang NKY; Goodchild CE; Sanborn AN; Howard J; Salkovskis PM. Deciphering the temporal link between pain and sleep in a heterogeneous chronic pain patient sample: a multilevel daily process study. SLEEP 2012;35(5):675-687. PMID:22547894

  18. A Behavioral Approach to Managing Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, William M.

    1985-01-01

    Most patients with chronic back pain have no defined disease for which there is a specific treatment. These patients demonstrate excessive illness behavior. The initial approach must be to rule out a treatable disease. Then the patient must accept that while activity may hurt, it will not harm. The patient and spouse must both understand that no further investigation or specific therapy will help. The family physician must teach patients to change their lifestyle through a program of progressive activity. Realistic expectations must be set, with return to a normal lifestyle and work as the ultimate goals. PMID:21274224

  19. Communicating the Experience of Chronic Pain and Illness Through Blogging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although more individuals are sharing their experiences with chronic pain or illness through blogging (writing an Internet web log), research on the psychosocial effects and motivating factors for initiating and maintaining a blog is lacking. Objective The objective was to examine via online questionnaire the perceived psychosocial and health benefits of blogging among patients who use this media to communicate their experience of chronic pain or illness. Methods A 34-item online questionnaire was created, tested, and promoted through online health/disease forums. The survey employed convenience sampling and was open from May 5 to July 2, 2011. Respondents provided information regarding demographics, health condition, initiation and upkeep of blogs, and dynamics of online communication. Qualitative data regarding respondents’ blogging experiences, expectations for blogging, and the perceived effects from blogging on the blogger’s health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life were collected in the form of written narrative. Results Out of 372 respondents who started the survey, 230 completed the entire questionnaire. Demographic data showed survey respondents to be predominantly female (81.8%) and highly educated (97.2% > high school education and 39.6% with graduate school or professional degrees). A wide spectrum of chronic pain and illness diagnoses and comorbidities were represented. Respondents reported that initiating and maintaining an illness blog resulted in increased connection with others, decreased isolation, and provided an opportunity to tell their illness story. Blogging promoted accountability (to self and others) and created opportunities for making meaning and gaining insights from the experience of illness, which nurtured a sense of purpose and furthered their understanding of their illness. Conclusions Results suggest that blogging about chronic pain and illness may decrease a sense of isolation through the establishment of online connections with others and increases a sense of purpose to help others in similar situations. Further study involving a larger sample size, a wider range of education levels, and respondents with different types and magnitudes of illnesses will be needed to better elucidate the mechanism of the observed associations in this understudied area. PMID:23092747

  20. Body awareness therapy for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Gard, Gunvor

    2005-06-17

    There are several therapies designed to increase body awareness. They are commonly known as body awareness therapies (BAT) and include Basic BAT, Mensendieck and Feldenkrais therapy. A focus on emotions is important in all these therapies. In this article the aim and development of Basic BAT is described together with evaluations of treatments including Basic BAT. Multidisciplinary studies have shown that Basic BAT can increase health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However Basic BAT needs to be further studied in relation to patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic pain. Studies so far indicate that Basic BAT has positive effects. PMID:16012065

  1. Complementary and alternative treatments for chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Adam J; Pathak, Ravi; Young, Mark; Christo, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a significant clinical entity that affects both men and women alike. The etiologies of CPP are multifactorial, and treatments are myriad. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) refers to non-allopathic health systems, and its use is popular in the United States. In particular, several recent studies have investigated the efficacy of various CAM practices in the treatment of CPP. The authors systematically evaluated recent literature in this area by searching the PubMed database for English-language studies published between January 2007 and August 2012. PMID:23315022

  2. Psychopharmacology of chronic pain: a focus on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Hani Raoul

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is considered one of the most prevalent causes of costly and disabling medical conditions. This review will define chronic pain and its categories and then will summarize the effectiveness and side effects associated with the use of various antidepressants, including the tricyclics, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, other miscellaneous antidepressants and the atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26821680

  3. CRHBP polymorphisms predict chronic pain development following motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Bortsov, Andrey V; Soward, April C; Swor, Robert; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey; Rathlev, Niels; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert; Hendry, Phyllis L; McLean, Samuel A

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common sequela of traumatic stress exposure. While biological factors contributing to chronic MSP after motor vehicle collision (MVC) have traditionally focused on tissue injury, increasing evidence suggests that neuro/stress/immune processes mediated by stress system activation may play a more dominant role. In a previous study, we found that genetic variants in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related gene FKBP5 influence vulnerability to persistent MSP 6 weeks after MVC. In the present cohort study (n = 855), we evaluated whether genetic variants in several other important HPA axis-related genes, including the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor R1 (CRHR1), and corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRHBP), influence risk of chronic MSP over time after MVC. Genetic polymorphism rs7718461 in the CRHBP gene showed significant association (P = 0.0012) with overall pain severity during the year after MVC in regression models controlling for multiple comparisons. Two additional CRHBP alleles in high linkage disequilibrium with rs7718461 also showed trend-level significance. In secondary analyses, a significant interaction between this CRHBP locus (minor allele frequency = 0.33) and time was observed (P = 0.015), with increasing effect observed over time following trauma. A significant CRHBP × FKBP5 interaction was also observed, with substantially increased MSP after MVC in those with a risk allele in both genes compared with either gene alone. The results of this study indicate that genetic variants in 2 different HPA axis genes predict chronic MSP severity following MVC and support the hypothesis that the HPA axis is involved in chronic post-MVC MSP pathogenesis. PMID:26447706

  4. Enhanced medial prefrontal-default mode network functional connectivity in chronic pain and its association with pain rumination.

    PubMed

    Kucyi, Aaron; Moayedi, Massieh; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Goldberg, Michael B; Freeman, Bruce V; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Davis, Karen D

    2014-03-12

    Rumination is a form of thought characterized by repetitive focus on discomforting emotions or stimuli. In chronic pain disorders, rumination can impede treatment efficacy. The brain mechanisms underlying rumination about chronic pain are not understood. Interestingly, a link between rumination and functional connectivity (FC) of the brain's default mode network (DMN) has been identified within the context of mood disorders. We, and others, have also found DMN dysfunction in chronic pain populations. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key node of the DMN that is anatomically connected with the descending pain modulatory system. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that in patients with chronic pain, the mPFC exhibits abnormal FC related to the patient's degree of rumination about their pain. Seventeen patients with idiopathic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting state functional MRI, and rumination about pain was assessed through the rumination subscale of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Compared with healthy controls, we found that TMD patients exhibited enhanced mPFC FC with other DMN regions, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus (PCu) and retrosplenial cortex. We also found that individual differences in pain rumination in the chronic pain patients (but not in healthy controls) were positively correlated to mPFC FC with the PCC/PCu, retrosplenial cortex, medial thalamus, and periaqueductal/periventricular gray. These data implicate communication within the DMN and of the DMN with the descending modulatory system as a mechanism underlying the degree to which patients ruminate about their chronic pain. PMID:24623774

  5. Early maladaptive schemas in Finnish adult chronic pain patients and a control sample.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom Harri; Saariaho, Anita Sylvia; Karila, Irma Anneli; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2011-04-01

    Engel (1959) suggested that negative physical or emotional experiences in childhood predispose to the development of chronic pain. Studies have shown that physical and sexual abuse in early life is connected with chronic pain. Emotional adversities are much less studied causes contributing to the development of chronic pain and disability. Early emotional abuse, neglect, maltreatment and other adversities are deleterious childhood experiences which, according to Young's schema theory (1990), produce early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The primary goal of this study was to examine whether early adversities were more common in chronic pain patients than in a control group. A total of 271 (53% women) first-visit chronic pain patients and 331 (86% women) control participants took part in the study. Their socio-demographic data, pain variables and pain disability were measured. To estimate EMSs the Young Schema Questionnaire was used. Chronic pain patients scored higher EMSs reflecting incapacity to perform independently, catastrophic beliefs and pessimism. The most severely disabled chronic pain patients showed an increase in all the EMSs in the Disconnection and Rejection schema domain, namely Abandonment/Instability, Mistrust/Abuse, Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame and Social Isolation/Alienation EMSs. The results of the study suggested that chronic pain patients had suffered early emotional maltreatment. PMID:21054422

  6. Presence of Mental Imagery Associated with Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Chantal; Vincent, Katy; Moore, Jane; Tracey, Irene; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether a small sample of patients with chronic pelvic pain experienced any pain-related cognitions in the form of mental images. Patients Ten women with chronic pelvic pain consecutively referred from a tertiary referral center by the physicians in charge of their treatment. Outcome measures An interview was used to determine the presence, emotional valence, content, and impact of cognitions about pain in the form of mental images and verbal thoughts. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed. Results In a population of patients with a prolonged duration of pain and high distress, all patients reported experiencing cognitions about pain in the form of mental images. For each patient, the most significant image was both negative in valence and intrusive. The associated emotional-behavioral pattern could be described within a cognitive behavioral therapy framework. Eight patients also reported coping imagery. Conclusion Negative pain-related cognitions in the form of intrusive mental imagery were reported by women with chronic pelvic pain. Targeting such imagery has led to interesting treatment innovation in the emotional disorders. Thus, imagery, hitherto neglected in pain phenomenology, could provide a novel target for cognitive behavioral therapy in chronic pain. These exciting yet preliminary results require replication and extension in a broader population of patients with chronic pain. PMID:21668746

  7. Development and Validation of a Pain Behavior Assessment in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katharina; Klipstein, Andreas; Oesch, Peter; Jansen, Beatrice; Kool, Jan; Niedermann, Karin

    2016-03-01

    Purpose High levels of pain behavior adversely affect the success of multidisciplinary rehabilitation of patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNSLBP). Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) assessment should detect high levels of pain behavior to prevent the inclusion of unsuitable patients to functional rehabilitation programs. The aim of this study was to develop a Pain Behavior Assessment (PBA) and to evaluate its construct validity. Methods The PBA was developed by experts in the field and is literature-based. Inclusion criteria for participants of the validation study were: CNSLBP, age 20-60 years, referral for fitness-for-work evaluation. The PBA was applied by physiotherapists during FCE. Rasch analysis was performed to evaluate the construct validity of the PBA. Internal consistency was indicated by the person separation index (PSI), which corresponds to Cronbach's alpha. Results 145 male (72.5 %) and 55 female patients were included. Rasch analysis removed 11 items due to misfit and redundancy, resulting in a final PBA of 41 items. Item mean fit residual was -0.33 (SD 1.06) and total item Chi square 100.39 (df = 82, p = 0.08). The PSI value was 0.83. DIF analysis for age and gender revealed no bias. Conclusions The PBA is a valid assessment tool to describe pain behavior in CNSLBP patients. The high PSI-value justifies the use of the PBA in individuals. The PBA may help to screen patients for high levels of pain behavior. PMID:26149617

  8. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the relationship between sleep disorder and pain level, quality of life, and disability

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332

  9. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN.

    PubMed

    Omran, Eman Kh; Mohammad, Asmaa N

    2015-08-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Sohag (Upper Egypt) in patients with chronic abdominal pain is scarce. This study determined the intestinal parasites symptoms in 130 patients with chronic abdominal pain and cross-matched 20 healthy persons. Parasitic infection was confirmed by stool analysis.The most commonest clinical data with stool analysis was as following: 1-Entamoeba histolytica associated with nausea 20 (3 7.74%) followed by anorexia 19 (35.85%), 2-Entamoeba coli associated with diarrhea 3 (100%) followed by nausea 2 (66.67%) and vomiting 2 (66.67%), 3-Enetrobius vermicularis associated with nausea 2 (66.67%), diarrhea 2 (66.67%) followed by flatulence 1(33.33%), 4-Giardia lamblia associated with anorexia 3 (42.86%), vomiting 3 (42.86%) followed by diarrhea 2 (28.57%)., 6-Hymenolepis nana associated with anorexia 10 (40.00%) followed by flatulence 9 (36.00%), 7-Taenia saginata associated with dyspepsia 3 (60.00%) followed by flatulence 2 (40.00%), and 8-Ancylostoma duodenal associated with anorexia 2 (66.67%) and diarrhea 2 (66.67%). PMID:26485858

  10. Response phases in methadone treatment for chronic nonmalignant pain.

    PubMed

    Arnaert, Antonia; Ciccotosto, Gina

    2006-03-01

    Although studies on the beliefs of persons with chronic nonmalignant pain (CNMP) are still scarce, methadone is increasingly prescribed for the treatment of CNMP. This qualitative case study uses semistructured interviews to explore the beliefs of 11 patients with CNMP and the challenges they faced coming to terms with and integrating methadone treatment into their lives. The study identifies a two-phase process of acceptance and integration. In the first phase, during acceptance of the prescribed methadone treatment, initial beliefs were mostly determined by the societal stigma that "methadone is for junkies." Different influencing factors such as knowledge about methadone for pain management, family support, and trust in physicians changed behavior in a positive way. In the second phase, patients dealt with the degree of disclosure about their treatment. Full disclosers have no problem in telling others that they were being treated with methadone, whereas partial disclosers were more selective. They were confronted with various barriers: negative encounters with family, friends, and the public; past addict experiences; safety issues; and obstacles within the health care system. As a result of these challenges, their beliefs were summarized as: "others think I'm an addict," and "methadone can harm me and/or my family."This study highlights the important role nurses have in the education of patients on the use of methadone in pain management, and in assisting patients with CNMP to gain confidence and a greater sense of control to cope with the challenging issues related to disclosing information. PMID:16490733

  11. Neuropathic Pain in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Painand Effects of Pregabalin: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenyu; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Sadayuki; Harada, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Preliminary study. Purpose To assess the association of neuropathic pain with chronic low back pain (LBP) and the effect of pregabalin on neuropathic pain in the elderly. Overview of Literature Of those with chronic LBP, 37% were predominantly presenting with neuropathic pain in young adults. Pregabalin is effective for pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuralgia. No study has reported on the effects of pregabalin for chronic LBP in elderly patients yet. Methods Pregabalin was administered to 32 patients (age, ≥65 years) with chronic LBP for 4 weeks. Pain and activities of daily living were assessed using the Neuropathic Pain Screening Questionnaire (NePSQ), the pain DETECT questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Modic change and spinal canal stenosis were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Altogether, 43.3% of patients had neuropathic pain according to the NePSQ and 15.6% patients had pain according to the pain DETECT. The efficacy rate of pregabalin was 73.3%. A significant effect was observed in patients with neuropathic pain after 4 weeks of administration. Conclusions Neuropathic pain was slightly less frequently associated with chronic LBP in the elderly. Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain in patients with chronic LBP accompanied with neuropathic pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis and lower limb symptoms were observed in patients with neuropathic pain. We recommend the use of pregabalin for patients after evaluating a screening score, clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging studies. PMID:25901238

  12. Exploring the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain: When, How, and for Whom?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Abigail; Kominek, Courtney; Pham, Thien C; Fudin, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview regarding intent to initiate and consider ongoing chronic opioid therapy (COT) for treatment of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). COT should be an individualized decision based on a comprehensive evaluation, assessment, and monitoring. It is imperative that providers discuss various risks and benefits of COT initially and at follow-up visits, and continue appropriate monitoring and follow-up at regular intervals. The decision to initiate or continue opioid therapy is based on clinical judgment; however, it is understood that opioid and other medication therapy represent one piece of the complete treatment plan for patients with CNCP. PMID:26614721

  13. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat depression and insomnia with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Se Jin; Koh, Do Yle; Han, Yoo Mi

    2014-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive and safe technique for motor cortex stimulation. TMS is used to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders, including mood and movement disorders. TMS can also treat several types of chronic neuropathic pain. The pain relief mechanism of cortical stimulation is caused by modifications in neuronal excitability. Depression is a common co-morbidity with chronic pain. Pain and depression should be treated concurrently to achieve a positive outcome. Insomnia also frequently occurs with chronic lower back pain. Several studies have proposed hypotheses for TMS pain management. Herein, we report two cases with positive results for the treatment of depression and insomnia with chronic low back pain by TMS. PMID:25031816

  14. Functional Reorganization of the Default Mode Network across Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Mansour, Ali R.; Baria, Alex T.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is associated with neuronal plasticity. Here we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional changes in patients suffering from chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). We isolated five meaningful resting-state networks across the groups, of which only the default mode network (DMN) exhibited deviations from healthy controls. All patient groups showed decreased connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) to the posterior constituents of the DMN, and increased connectivity to the insular cortex in proportion to the intensity of pain. Multiple DMN regions, especially the MPFC, exhibited increased high frequency oscillations, conjoined with decreased phase locking with parietal regions involved in processing attention. Both phase and frequency changes correlated to pain duration in OA and CBP patients. Thus chronic pain seems to reorganize the dynamics of the DMN and as such reflect the maladaptive physiology of different types of chronic pain. PMID:25180885

  15. Intersection of chronic pain treatment and opioid analgesic misuse: causes, treatments, and policy strategies.

    PubMed

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Boyer, Edward; Naqvi, Zafar N; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Treating chronic pain in the context of opioid misuse can be very challenging. This paper explores the epidemiology and potential treatments for chronic pain and opioid misuse and identifies educational and regulation changes that may reduce diversion of opioid analgesics. We cover the epidemiology of chronic pain and aberrant opioid behaviors, psychosocial influences on pain, pharmacological treatments, psychological treatments, and social treatments, as well as educational and regulatory efforts being made to reduce the diversion of prescription opioids. There are a number of ongoing challenges in treating chronic pain and opioid misuse, and more research is needed to provide strong, integrated, and empirically validated treatments to reduce opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain. PMID:24474854

  16. Intersection of chronic pain treatment and opioid analgesic misuse: causes, treatments, and policy strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Boyer, Edward; Naqvi, Zafar N; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Treating chronic pain in the context of opioid misuse can be very challenging. This paper explores the epidemiology and potential treatments for chronic pain and opioid misuse and identifies educational and regulation changes that may reduce diversion of opioid analgesics. We cover the epidemiology of chronic pain and aberrant opioid behaviors, psychosocial influences on pain, pharmacological treatments, psychological treatments, and social treatments, as well as educational and regulatory efforts being made to reduce the diversion of prescription opioids. There are a number of ongoing challenges in treating chronic pain and opioid misuse, and more research is needed to provide strong, integrated, and empirically validated treatments to reduce opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain. PMID:24474854

  17. Opioid therapy in patients with chronic noncancer pain: diagnostic and clinical challenges.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; O'Brien, Charles P

    2011-01-01

    Chronic opioid therapy for patients with chronic noncancer pain has become controversial, given the rising prevalence of opioid abuse. The prevailing literature suggests that the rate of addiction in chronic noncancer pain patients exposed to opioid therapy is relatively low, especially in those patients without significant concomitant psychiatric disorders and personal and family history of addiction. However, the escalating rate of misuse of prescription opioids has resulted in many clinicians caring for these patients to be more judicious in prescribing opioids. Accurately diagnos ing addiction in chronic pain patients receiving opioids is complex. Managing the patient with pain and co-occurring opioid abuse is equally challenging. Diagnostic issues, current guidelines for the appropriate use of opioids in the chronic pain population and risk stratification models are examined. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment strategies for the patient with pain and opioid addiction are reviewed. PMID:21508626

  18. Is chronic post-herniorrhaphy pain always chronic? A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sandblom, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic post-surgery pain (CPSP) has gained increased recognition as a major factor influencing health-related quality-of-life following most surgical procedures, in particular following surgery for benign conditions. The natural course of CPSP, however, is not well-known. Methods A literature review was undertaken, searching for studies with repeated estimates of post-herniorrhaphy pain. The hypothetical halvation time was calculated from the repeat estimates. Results Eight studies fulfilling the criteria were identified. With one exception, the extrapolated halvation times ranged from 1.3 to 9.2 years. Discussion Even if CPSP is generally very treatment-resistant, in many cases it eventually dissipates with time. Further studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of pain beyond the first decade. PMID:26045676

  19. Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, Non-malignant Pain: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain. PMID:17549233

  20. Chronic Pain Without Clear Etiology in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Tracy; Thomas, Sarah; Stabile, Victoria; Han, Xue; Shotwell, Matthew; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Globally, 8 of the top 12 disabling conditions are related either to chronic pain or to the psychological conditions strongly associated with persistent pain. In this narrative review, we explore the demographic and psychosocial associations with chronic pain exclusively from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and compare them with current global data. One hundred nineteen publications in 28 LMICs were identified for review; associations with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, insomnia, disability, gender, age, rural/urban location, education level, income, and additional sites of pain were analyzed for each type of chronic pain without clear etiology. Of the 119 publications reviewed, pain was described in association with disability in 50 publications, female gender in 40 publications, older age in 34 publications, depression in 36 publications, anxiety in 19 publications, and multiple somatic complaints in 13 publications. Women, elderly patients, and workers, especially in low-income and low-education subgroups, were more likely to have pain in multiple sites, mood disorders, and disabilities. In high-income countries, multisite pain without etiology, female gender, and association with mood disturbance and disability may be suggestive of a central sensitization syndrome (CSS). Because each type of prevalent chronic pain without known etiology reviewed had similar associations in LMICs, strategies for assessment and treatment of chronic pain worldwide should consider the possibility of prevalent CSS. Recognition is especially critical in resource-poor areas, because treatment of CSS is vastly different than localized chronic pain. PMID:27195643

  1. Diagnosing and treating chronic musculoskeletal pain based on the underlying mechanism(s).

    PubMed

    Clauw, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, most clinicians considered chronic pain to be typically due to ongoing peripheral nociceptive input (i.e., damage or inflammation) in the region of the body where the individual is experiencing pain. Clinicians are generally aware of a few types of pain (e.g., headache and phantom limb pain) where chronic pain is not due to such causes, but most do not realize there is not a single chronic pain state where any radiographic, surgical, or pathological description of peripheral nociceptive damage has been reproducibly shown to be related to the presence or severity of pain. The primary reason for this appears to be that both the peripheral and central nervous systems play a critical role in determining which nociceptive input being detected by sensory nerves in the peripheral tissues will lead to the perception of pain in humans. This manuscript reviews some of the latest findings regarding the neural processing of pain, with a special focus on how clinicians can use information gleaned from the history and physical examination to assess which mechanisms are most likely to be responsible for pain in a given individual, and tailors therapy appropriately. A critical construct is that, within any specific diagnostic category (e.g., fibromyalgia (FM), osteoarthritis (OA), and chronic low back pain (CLBP) are specifically reviewed), individual patients may have markedly different peripheral/nociceptive and neural contributions to their pain. Thus, just as low back pain has long been acknowledged to have multiple potential mechanisms, so also is this true of all chronic pain states, wherein some individuals will have pain primarily due to peripheral nociceptive input, whereas in others peripheral (e.g., peripheral sensitization) or central nervous system factors ("central sensitization" or "centralization" of pain via augmented pain processing in spinal and brain) may be playing an equally or even more prominent role in their pain and other symptoms. PMID:26266995

  2. Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress. PMID:22699798

  3. Pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain: Foundation, application and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Asmundson, Gordon JG; Noel, Melanie; Petter, Mark; Parkerson, Holly A

    2012-01-01

    The fear-avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain has become an increasingly popular conceptualization of the processes and mechanisms through which acute pain can become chronic. Despite rapidly growing interest and research regarding the influence of fear-avoidance constructs on pain-related disability in children and adolescents, there have been no amendments to the model to account for unique aspects of pediatric chronic pain. A comprehensive understanding of the role of fear-avoidance in pediatric chronic pain necessitates understanding of both child/adolescent and parent factors implicated in its development and maintenance. The primary purpose of the present article is to propose an empirically-based pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain that accounts for both child/adolescent and parent factors as well as their potential interactive effects. To accomplish this goal, the present article will define important fear-avoidance constructs, provide a summary of the general fear-avoidance model and review the growing empirical literature regarding the role of fear-avoidance constructs in pediatric chronic pain. Assessment and treatment options for children with chronic pain will also be described in the context of the proposed pediatric fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Finally, avenues for future investigation will be proposed. PMID:23248813

  4. Chronic pain in survivors of critical illness: a retrospective analysis of incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic pain has been reported in survivors of critical illness for many years after discharge from hospital. This study investigates the incidence and site of chronic pain in survivors of critical illness between 6 months and 1 year after hospitalization, including ICU admission. A retrospective analysis of the risk factors for chronic pain in this patient group was also completed. Methods A questionnaire method was used to investigate the incidence of chronic pain and the specific body parts affected. A retrospective study and multivariable analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for chronic pain in this patient group. All survivors of a general intensive care unit (ICU) in South Wales in a 6-month period were included in this study. Results Chronic pain was reported in 44% of all respondents. The shoulder was the most commonly reported joint affected by pain (22%). Risk factors for chronic pain between 6 months and 1 year after ICU discharge were increasing patient age and severe sepsis. Conclusions Chronic pain is a problem in survivors of critical illness, especially in the shoulder joint, and further studies are needed investigating therapeutic interventions that address this long-term problem. PMID:23718685

  5. Catastrophizers with chronic pain display more pain behaviour when in a relationship with a low catastrophizing spouse

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Nathalie; Thibault, Pascal; Sullivan, Michael JL

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between couple concordance of catastrophizing and adverse pain outcomes. Possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between couple concordance of catastrophizing and pain outcomes were also explored. Fifty-eight couples were recruited for the study. The chronic pain patients were filmed while lifting a series of weighted canisters. The spouse was later invited to view the video and answer questions about the pain experience of their partner. Median splits on Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores were used to create four ‘catastrophizing concordance’ groups: low catastrophizing patient-low catastrophizing spouse; low catastrophizing patient-high catastrophizing spouse; high catastrophizing patient-low catastrophizing spouse; and high catastrophizing patient-high catastrophizing spouse. Analyses revealed that high catastrophizing pain patients who were in a relationship with a low catastrophizing spouse displayed more pain behaviours than patients in all other groups. These findings suggest that high catastrophizing chronic pain patients may need to increase the ‘volume’ of pain communication to compensate for low catastrophizing spouses’ tendency to underestimate the severity of their pain experience. Patients’ perceived solicitousness and punitive response from the spouse could not explain the group differences in pain behaviour. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22059198

  6. Pain Expectancies, Pain, and Functional Self-Efficacy Expectancies as Determinants of Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…

  7. Validation and reliability of the German version of the Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire in primary care back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Klasen, Bernhard W.; Hallner, Dirk; Schaub, Claudia; Willburger, Roland; Hasenbring, Monika

    2004-01-01

    In 1992 Von Korff and his co-workers developed a simple, brief questionnaire to assess the severity of chronic pain problems, the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG). The present study was conducted to analyse the psychometric properties of the translated German version of the CPG within a population of primary care back pain patients (n=130). Factor analysis yielded two factors which accounted for 72% of the variance of the questionnaire. The first factor 'Disability Score' (53.56% of the variance) revealed a good internal consistency (alpha=.88), the internal consistency of the second factor 'Characteristic Pain Intensity' was moderate (alpha=.68). The reliability of the whole instrument was good (alpha=.82). The CPG and its subscales show moderate to high relations with other instruments assessing the patient's disability (FFbH-R, Pain Disability Index PDI). Additionally weak to moderate but significant correlations were found between the CPG and other measures of grading and staging chronic pain (MPSS, RGS). Further, positive correlations between the CPG and both, the frequency of doctor visits and the frequent use of pain medication have been seen. The reported findings suggest, that the German version of the CPG is a reliable, valid and useful instrument if a brief, simple method of grading the severity of chronic pain is needed. The German version leads to a better comparability between German and English language studies and facilitates an international collaboration in this field of research. PMID:19742049

  8. Chronic Pain in the Japanese Community—Prevalence, Characteristics and Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Fumio; Nishihara, Makoto; Arai, Young-Chang P.; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Kawai, Takashi; Inoue, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is recognized as a public health problem that affects the general population physically, psychologically, and socially. However, there is little knowledge about the associated factors of chronic pain, such as the influence of weather, family structure, daily exercise, and work status. Objectives This survey had three aims: 1) to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Japan, 2) to analyze these associated factors, and 3) to evaluate the social burden due to chronic pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey in a sample of 6000 adults aged ≥20 years. The response rate was 43.8%. Results The mean age of the respondents was 57.7 years (range 20–99 years); 39.3% met the criteria for chronic pain (lasting ≥3 months). Approximately a quarter of the respondents reported that their chronic pain was adversely influenced by bad weather and also oncoming bad weather. Risk factors for chronic pain, as determined by a logistic regression model, included being an older female, being unemployed, living alone, and no daily exercise. Individuals with chronic pain showed significantly lower quality of life and significantly higher psychological distress scores than those without chronic pain. The mean annual duration of absence from work of working-age respondents was 9.6 days (range 1–365 days). Conclusions Our findings revealed that high prevalence and severity of chronic pain, associated factors, and significant impact on quality of life in the adult Japanese population. A detailed understanding of factors associated with chronic pain is essential for establishing a management strategy for primary care. PMID:26076135

  9. Management of Men Diagnosed With Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Who Have Failed Traditional Management

    PubMed Central

    Curtis Nickel, J; Baranowski, Andrew P; Pontari, Michel; Berger, Richard E; Tripp, Dean A

    2007-01-01

    For many patients, the traditional biomedical model that physicians have used to manage chronic prostatitis does not work. This article describes innovative treatment strategies for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, with an emphasis on novel biomedical physical therapy and biopsychosocial approaches to the management of individualized patient symptoms. PMID:17592539

  10. Psychological influences on repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael J L; Thibault, Pascal; Andrikonyte, Juste; Butler, Heather; Catchlove, Richard; Larivière, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of pain catastrophizing, fear of movement and depression as determinants of repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain. The sample consisted of 90 (44 women and 46 men) work-disabled individuals with chronic low back pain. Participants were asked to lift a series of 18 canisters that varied according to weight (2.9kg, 3.4kg, 3.9kg) and distance from the body. The canisters were arranged in a 3x6 matrix and the weights were distributed such that each 'column' of three canisters was equated in terms of physical demands. Participants rated their pain after each lift, and in a separate trial, estimated the weight of each canister. Mean activity-related pain ratings were computed for each Column of the task. An index of repetition-induced summation of pain was derived as the change in pain ratings across the six 'columns' of the task. Pain catastrophizing, fear of movement and depression were significantly correlated with condition-related pain (e.g., MPQ) and activity-related pain ratings. Women rated their pain as more intense than men, and estimated weights to be greater than men. A repetition-induced summation of pain effect was observed where pain ratings increased as participants lifted successive canisters. Fear of movement, but not pain catastrophizing or depression, was associated with greater repetition-induced summation of pain. The findings point to possible neurophysiological mechanisms that could help explain why fear of pain is a robust predictor of pain-related disability. Mechanisms of repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain are discussed. PMID:19059719

  11. Referred Pain Patterns Provoked on Intra-Pelvic Structures among Women with and without Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Stephen; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. Materials and Methods In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas. Results Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7) in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1) in women without CPP, p< 0.0001. Conclusions Referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis. PMID:25793999

  12. A qualitative exploration of people's experiences of pain neurophysiological education for chronic pain: The importance of relevance for the individual.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Victoria; King, Richard; Ryan, Cormac G; Martin, Denis J

    2016-04-01

    Pain neurophysiology education (PNE) is a distinct form of patient education in pain management. The aims of this study were to explore the experience of PNE for people with chronic pain and to gain insight into their understanding of their pain after PNE. This was a qualitative study, based on Interpretive Phenomenology Analysis, using individual semi-structured interviews to collect data. We recruited a purposive sample of 10 adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (men and women; mean age 48 years; with a mean pain duration of 9 years) who had recently completed PNE delivered as a single 2-h group session. The interview transcripts were analysed for emerging themes. We identified three themes: perceived relevance for the individual participant; perceived benefits for the individual participant; and evidence of reconceptualisation. An interlinking narrative was the importance of relevance. Eight participants viewed the session as relevant and reported benefits ranging from a better understanding of pain, improved ability to cope with the pain, and some suggested improved levels of physical activity. Four of these participants showed evidence of reconceptualisation, which we describe as partial and patchy. Two participants reported no benefit and did not perceive the material delivered within PNE to be relevant to themselves. Relevance to the individual needs of a person with chronic pain may be a key factor in the success of PNE, and this is a particular challenge when it is delivered in a group situation. PMID:26511524

  13. A measure for quality of life assessment in chronic pain: preliminary properties of the WHOQOL-pain.

    PubMed

    Mason, V L; Skevington, S M; Osborn, M

    2009-04-01

    Chronic pain has a considerable impact on patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QoL). To assess QoL in people with chronic pain, a pain and discomfort module (PDM) was developed for use with the WHOQOL-100 and its psychometric properties assessed. Sixteen items covered four facets on pain relief; anger and frustration; vulnerability, fear and worry; and uncertainty. Chronic low back pain patients (n = 133) (age 56; pain duration 85 months; 65% female) completed the WHOQOL-100 and PDM, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and SF-12. The PDM showed good internal consistency reliability (alpha = .88) (alphas .66-.81). Except for anger, all facets associated most strongly with their 'parent' domain. Pain and poorer QoL were strongly associated, supporting construct validity. The SF-12 physical health component associated strongly with pain relief, and the mental health score with other facets, indicating good concurrent validity. Discriminant validity tests showed that PDM scores distinguished between ill and well patients, and between those reporting different health statuses. The PDM has fair to good psychometric properties indicating its value as a patient-reported outcome measure for clinical trials. PMID:19057988

  14. Ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency ablation of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve for treatment of intractable orchalgia

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Romdhane, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic orchalgia is a frustrating clinical problem for both the patient and the physician. We present a 17-year-old boy with a bilateral idiopathic chronic intractable orchalgia with failed conservative treatment. For 2 years, he suffered from severe attacks of scrotal pain that affected his daily activities and caused frequent absence from school. Ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency ablation (PRF) of the genital branches of the genitofemoral nerve performed after local anesthetic nerve block confirmed the diagnosis and yielded 6 weeks of symptom relief. Seven-month follow-up revealed complete satisfactory analgesia. The use of PRF is an effective and non-invasive approach to treat intractable chronic orchalgia. PMID:24843352

  15. Limbic associated pelvic pain: a hypothesis to explain the diagnostic relationships and features of patients with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Bradford W

    2007-01-01

    Limbic associated pelvic pain is a proposed pathophysiology designed to explain features commonly encountered in patients with chronic pelvic pain, including the presence of multiple pain diagnoses, the frequency of previous abuse, the minimal or discordant pathologic changes of the involved organs, the paradoxical effectiveness of many treatments, and the recurrent nature of the condition. These conditions include endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, levator ani syndrome, pelvic floor tension myalgia, vulvar vestibulitis, and vulvodynia. The hypothesis is based on recent improvements in the understanding of pain processing pathways in the central nervous system, and in particular the role of limbic structures, especially the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, in chronic and affective pain perception. Limbic associated pelvic pain is hypothesized to occur in patients with chronic pelvic pain out of proportion to any demonstrable pathology (hyperalgesia), and with more than one demonstrable pain generator (allodynia), and who are susceptible to development of the syndrome. This most likely occurs as a result of childhood sexual abuse but may include other painful pelvic events or stressors, which lead to limbic dysfunction. This limbic dysfunction is manifest both as an increased sensitivity to pain afferents from pelvic organs, and as an abnormal efferent innervation of pelvic musculature, both visceral and somatic. The pelvic musculature undergoes tonic contraction as a result of limbic efferent stimulation, which produces the minimal changes found on pathological examination, and generates a further sensation of pain. The pain afferents from these pelvic organs then follow the medial pain pathway back to the sensitized, hypervigilant limbic system. Chronic stimulation of the limbic system by pelvic pain afferents again produces an efferent contraction of the pelvic muscles, thus perpetuating the cycle. This cycle is susceptible to disruption through blocking afferent signals from pelvic organs, either through anesthesia or muscle manipulation. Disruption of limbic perception with psychiatric medication similarly produces relief. Without a full disruption of both the central hypervigilance and pelvic organ dysfunction, pain recurs. To prevent recurrence, clinicians will need to include some form of therapy, either medical or cognitive, targeted at the underlying limbic hypervigilance. Further research into novel, limbic targeted therapies can hopefully be stimulated by explicitly stating the role of the limbic system in chronic pain. This hypothesis provides a framework for clinicians to rationally approach some of the most challenging patients in medicine, and can potentially improve outcomes by including management of limbic dysfunction in their treatment. PMID:17292560

  16. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: review of mechanisms and biochemical biomarkers as assessed by the microdialysis technique

    PubMed Central

    Gerdle, Björn; Ghafouri, Bijar; Ernberg, Malin; Larsson, Britt

    2014-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions are multifaceted, and approximately 20% of the adult population lives with severe chronic pain, with a higher prevalence in women and in lower income groups. Chronic pain is influenced by and interacts with physical, emotional, psychological, and social factors, and a biopsychosocial framework is increasingly applied in clinical practice. However, there is still a lack of assessment procedures based on the activated neurobiological pain mechanisms (ie, the biological part of the biopsychosocial model of pain), which may be a necessary step for further optimizing outcomes after treatments for patients with chronic pain. It has been suggested that chronic pain conditions are mainly driven by alterations in the central nervous system with little or no peripheral stimuli or nociception. In contrast, other authors argue that such central alterations are driven by peripheral alterations and nociceptive input. Microdialysis is an in vivo method for studying local tissue alterations and allows for sampling of substances in the interstitium of the muscle, where nociceptor free nerve endings are found close to the muscle fibers. The extracellular matrix plays a key role in physiologic functions of cells, including the primary afferent nociceptor. The present review mainly concerns the results of microdialysis studies and how they can contribute to the understanding of activated peripheral nociceptive and pain mechanisms in humans with chronic pain. The primary aim was to review molecular studies using microdialysis for the investigation of human chronic muscle pain, ie, chronic masticatory muscle pain, chronic trapezius myalgia, chronic whiplash-associated disorders, and chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia syndrome. Several studies clearly showed elevated levels of serotonin, glutamate, lactate, and pyruvate in localized chronic myalgias and may be potential biomarkers. These results indicate that peripheral muscle alterations are parts of the activated pain mechanisms in common chronic pain conditions. Muscle alterations have been reported in fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic widespread pain, but more studies are needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. For other substances, results are inconclusive across studies and patient groups. PMID:24966693

  17. Executive and attentional functions in chronic pain: Does performance decrease with increasing task load?

    PubMed Central

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Derksen, Laura C; van Wijck, Albert JM; Kessels, Roy PC; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients. OBJECTIVE: To examine different aspects of executive and attentional control in chronic pain together with the confounding role of psychomotor slowing. METHODS: Neuropsychological tests of sustained attention, planning ability, inhibition and mental flexibility were administered to 34 participants with chronic pain and 32 control participants. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, participants with chronic pain took longer to complete tests of sustained attention and mental flexibility, but did not perform worse on inhibition or planning tasks. The decreased performance on the mental flexibility task likely reflects a reduction in psychomotor speed. The pattern of performance on the sustained attention task reveals a specific decline in attention, indicated by a disproportionate decline in performance with an increase in task duration and by increased fluctuations in attention during task performance. No additional effect was noted of pain intensity, pain duration, pain catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, reduced sleep because of the pain or opioid use. CONCLUSIONS: Executive and attention functions are not uniformly affected in chronic pain. At least part of the previously reported decline in executive function in this group may reflect psychomotor slowing. Overall, limited evidence was found that executive and attention performance is indeed lower in chronic pain. Therefore, it can be concluded that in chronic pain sustained attention performance is diminished while mental flexibility, planning and inhibition appear to be intact. PMID:22606680

  18. Using electronic health records data to identify patients with chronic pain in a primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Terrence Y; Zlateva, Ianita; Anderson, Daren R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate an accurate method to identify patients with chronic pain using electronic health records (EHR) data at a multisite community health center. Materials and methods We identified patients with chronic pain in our EHR system using readily available data elements pertaining to pain: diagnostic codes (International Classification of Disease, revision 9; ICD-9), patient-reported pain scores, and opioid prescription medications. Medical chart reviews were used to evaluate the accuracy of these data elements in all of their combinations. We developed an algorithm to identify chronic pain patients more accurately based on these evaluations. The algorithm's results were validated for accuracy by comparing them with the documentation of chronic pain by the patient's treating clinician in 381 random patient charts. Results The new algorithm, which combines pain scores, prescription medications, and ICD-9 codes, has a sensitivity and specificity of 84.8% and 97.7%, respectively. The algorithm was more accurate (95.0%) than pain scores (88.7%) or ICD-9 codes (93.2%) alone. The receiver operating characteristic was 0.981. Discussion A straightforward method for identifying chronic pain patients solely using structured electronic data does not exist because individual data elements, such as pain scores or ICD-9 codes, are not sufficiently accurate. We developed and validated an algorithm that uses a combination of elements to identify chronic pain patients accurately. Conclusions We derived a useful method that combines readily available elements from an EHR to identify chronic pain with high accuracy. This method should prove useful to those interested in identifying chronic pain patients in large datasets for research, evaluation or quality improvement purposes. PMID:23904323

  19. [Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain with neuropathic component at Parakou in northern Benin in 2012].

    PubMed

    Adoukonou, T; Gnonlonfoun, D; Kpozehouen, A; Adjien, C; Tchaou, B; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Adechina, H; Covi, R; Houinato, D

    2014-11-01

    The burden of chronic and neuropathic pain is high making it an important public health problem. The epidemiology is not well known in the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component at Tititou in Parakou in northeastern Benin. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to 31 May 2012 and included 2314 people in a door-to-door survey. Chronic pain was defined as pain occurring for more than three months. Neuropathic pain was assessed with the DN4 score. A neurological exam was performed by a young physician for all people with chronic pain. During the interview, sociodemographic data, past medical history, weight and height were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the main associated factors. Among the 2314 people included in this survey, 49.7% were male. The mean age was 32.3 ± 13.1 years. Nine hundred seven reported pain occurring for more than 3 months. The prevalence of chronic pain was 39.2% (CI95%: 29.3-34.7). It was more frequent in females, older people, among diabetics, people with a history of any surgery, stroke, brain trauma, and alcoholism. The prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component was 6.3% (CI95%: 5.0-7.9). The main associated factors were age, matrimonial status, professional occupation, body mass index, diabetes, history of zoster, history of any surgery, brain trauma. People with neuropathic pain often reported pain with burning (87.6%), prickling (82.8%), numbness (66.9%), tingling (63.4%), and lightning pain (48.3%). The main locations were the lower limbs and low back pain. This study suggested the high frequency of chronic neuropathic pain in the general population in Parakou compared with rates reported in western countries. PMID:25444451

  20. The role of tramadol ER in the treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M T

    2009-10-01

    Despite its high prevalence, chronic pain is suboptimally treated in approximately one half of affected patients. Failure to recognise and manage comorbid physical and psychosocial impairments may contribute to the perpetuation of chronic pain. Knowledge of the potential advantages and disadvantages of available analgesic medications will permit informed selection of the appropriate medication for the individual chronic pain patient. Ultimate therapeutic goals will also influence analgesic medication selection. For the patient with chronic pain requiring analgesic treatment for an extended period of time, long-acting analgesics are recommended. Theoretically, these agents will provide sustained analgesia by minimising the end-of-dose pain that is often seen with short-acting medications, with improved patient convenience and a potential for reduced risk of adverse events. The extended-release formulation of tramadol (tramadol ER) has proven efficacy in chronic pain conditions such as osteoarthritis and low back pain, as well as a favourable tolerability profile. In addition, tramadol ER has been shown in clinical trials to improve pain-related sleep disturbances and physical function in patients with chronic pain from osteoarthritis and low back pain. PMID:19769710

  1. mTOR Kinase: A Possible Pharmacological Target in the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, Paola; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a major public health problem worldwide. Current pharmacological treatments for chronic pain syndromes, including neuropathic pain, are only partially effective, with significant pain relief achieved in 40–60% of patients. Recent studies suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and downstream effectors may be implicated in the development of chronic inflammatory, neuropathic, and cancer pain. The expression and activity of mTOR have been detected in peripheral and central regions involved in pain transmission. mTOR immunoreactivity was found in primary sensory axons, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and in dorsal horn neurons. This kinase is a master regulator of protein synthesis, and it is critically involved in the regulation of several neuronal functions, including the synaptic plasticity that is a major mechanism leading to the development of chronic pain. Enhanced activation of this pathway is present in different experimental models of chronic pain. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity turned out to have significant antinociceptive effects in several experimental models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We will review the main evidence from animal and human studies supporting the hypothesis that mTOR may be a novel pharmacological target for the management of chronic pain. PMID:25685786

  2. The shared neuroanatomy and neurobiology of comorbid chronic pain and PTSD: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Scioli-Salter, Erica R; Forman, Daniel E; Otis, John D; Gregor, Kristin; Valovski, Ivan; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are disabling conditions that affect biological, psychological, and social domains of functioning. Clinical research demonstrates that patients who are affected by chronic pain and PTSD in combination experience greater pain, affective distress, and disability than patients with either condition alone. Additional research is needed to delineate the interrelated pathophysiology of chronic pain and PTSD, with the goal of facilitating more effective therapies to treat both conditions more effectively; current treatment strategies for chronic pain associated with PTSD have limited efficacy and place a heavy burden on patients, who must visit various specialists to manage these conditions separately. This article focuses on neurobiological factors that may contribute to the coprevalence and synergistic interactions of chronic pain and PTSD. First, we outline how circuits that mediate emotional distress and physiological threat, including pain, converge. Secondly, we discuss specific neurobiological mediators and modulators of these circuits that may contribute to chronic pain and PTSD symptoms. For example, neuropeptide Y, and the neuroactive steroids allopregnanolone and pregnanolone (together termed ALLO) have antistress and antinociceptive properties. Reduced levels of neuropeptide Y and ALLO have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both chronic pain and PTSD. The potential contribution of opioid and cannabinoid system factors also will be discussed. Finally, we address potential novel methods to restore the normal function of these systems. Such novel perspectives regarding disease and disease management are vital to the pursuit of relief for the many individuals who struggle with these disabling conditions. PMID:24806468

  3. Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Cauda, Franco; Palermo, Sara; Costa, Tommaso; Torta, Riccardo; Duca, Sergio; Vercelli, Ugo; Geminiani, Giuliano; Torta, Diana M E

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter) and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain. We used network decomposition to investigate whether different kinds of chronic pain are associated with a common or specific set of altered networks. Representational similarity techniques, network decomposition and model-based clustering were employed: i) to verify the presence of a core set of brain areas commonly modified by chronic pain; ii) to investigate the involvement of these areas in a large-scale network perspective; iii) to study the relationship between altered networks and; iv) to find out whether chronic pain targets clusters of areas. Our results showed that chronic pain causes both core and pathology-specific gray matter alterations in large-scale networks. Common alterations were observed in the prefrontal regions, in the anterior insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, post- and pre-central gyri and inferior parietal lobule. We observed that the salience and attentional networks were targeted in a very similar way by different chronic pain pathologies. Conversely, alterations in the sensorimotor and attention circuits were differentially targeted by chronic pain pathologies. Moreover, model-based clustering revealed that chronic pain, in line with some neurodegenerative diseases, selectively targets some large-scale brain networks. Altogether these findings indicate that chronic pain can be better conceived and studied in a network perspective. PMID:24936419

  4. Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Franco; Palermo, Sara; Costa, Tommaso; Torta, Riccardo; Duca, Sergio; Vercelli, Ugo; Geminiani, Giuliano; Torta, Diana M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter) and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain. We used network decomposition to investigate whether different kinds of chronic pain are associated with a common or specific set of altered networks. Representational similarity techniques, network decomposition and model-based clustering were employed: i) to verify the presence of a core set of brain areas commonly modified by chronic pain; ii) to investigate the involvement of these areas in a large-scale network perspective; iii) to study the relationship between altered networks and; iv) to find out whether chronic pain targets clusters of areas. Our results showed that chronic pain causes both core and pathology-specific gray matter alterations in large-scale networks. Common alterations were observed in the prefrontal regions, in the anterior insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, post- and pre-central gyri and inferior parietal lobule. We observed that the salience and attentional networks were targeted in a very similar way by different chronic pain pathologies. Conversely, alterations in the sensorimotor and attention circuits were differentially targeted by chronic pain pathologies. Moreover, model-based clustering revealed that chronic pain, in line with some neurodegenerative diseases, selectively targets some large-scale brain networks. Altogether these findings indicate that chronic pain can be better conceived and studied in a network perspective. PMID:24936419

  5. How Does Pain Localization Affect Physical Functioning, Emotional Status and Independency in Older Adults with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Ya?ci, Nesrin; Duymaz, Tomris; Cavlak, U?ur

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to show the impact of chronic musculoskeletal pain of the spinal column and lower extremities on physical functioning, emotional status, and independency in older adults. [Subjects] In this cross-sectional study, 258 older adults (mean age, 71.985.86?years, 50.8% males, 49.2% females) living in their own residences were evaluated. [Methods] Pain intensity was analyzed using a visual analogue scale. Physical functioning was evaluated with the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and a Six-Minute Walk Test. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to determine emotional status. The independency in daily living of the participants was evaluated using the Lawton Brody IADL Scale. All participants were divided into two groups in accordance with the pain localization: the (1) spinal pain and (2) lower extremity pain groups. [Results] When the pain scores were compared, no significant differences between the two groups were found. The same results were found in terms of TUG scores. The spinal pain group had higher scores in terms of aerobic capacity than the lower extremity pain group. [Conclusion] The results indicate that chronic musculoskeletal pain in the lower extremities decreased aerobic capacity much more than spinal pain in older adults. PMID:25202178

  6. An Exploration of Positive Identity Development in Women Living with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Hillary; Alderson, Kevin; Collins, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    We explored the concept of living positively with chronic pain using a mixed-methods design that relied primarily on hermeneutic phenomenology. Ten women described their experiences of developing a positive identity while contending with chronic pain. Throughout their journeys, the women interviewed experienced a number of key themes including:…

  7. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

  8. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…

  9. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional

  10. Primary Care Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Veterans: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs

  11. Acupuncture May Be Helpful for Chronic Pain: A Meta-Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... May Be Helpful for Chronic Pain: A Meta-Analysis Share: acupuncture.jpg © BananaStock A recent NCCAM-funded ... trials on acupuncture for chronic pain, conducted an analysis of individual patient data from 29 high-quality ...

  12. Primary Care Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Veterans: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs…

  13. Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

  14. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of…

  15. Treating Chronic Pain in Veterans Presenting to an Addictions Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Haas, Elizabeth; Czyz, Ewa; Webster, Linda; Sorrell, John T.; Chermack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. The pharmacological treatment of pain is complicated in individuals with substance use disorders because of the potential for abuse and diversion of many prescription pain medications. One potential approach is to use a combination of cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based strategies…

  16. Treating Chronic Pain in Veterans Presenting to an Addictions Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Haas, Elizabeth; Czyz, Ewa; Webster, Linda; Sorrell, John T.; Chermack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. The pharmacological treatment of pain is complicated in individuals with substance use disorders because of the potential for abuse and diversion of many prescription pain medications. One potential approach is to use a combination of cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based strategies

  17. Multi-dimensionality of chronic pain of the oral cavity and face

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain in its broadest definition can affect up to 7% of the population. Its diagnosis and initial management falls between dentists and doctors and in the secondary care sector among pain physicians, headache neurologists and oral physicians. Chronic facial pain is a long term condition and like all other chronic pain is associated with numerous co-morbidities and treatment outcomes are often related to the presenting co-morbidities such as depression, anxiety, catastrophising and presence of other chronic pain which must be addressed as part of management . The majority of orofacial pain is continuous so a history of episodic pain narrows down the differentials. There are specific oral conditions that rarely present extra orally such as atypical odontalgia and burning mouth syndrome whereas others will present in both areas. Musculoskeletal pain related to the muscles of mastication is very common and may also be associated with disc problems. Trigeminal neuralgia and the rarer glossopharyngeal neuralgia are specific diagnosis with defined care pathways. Other trigeminal neuropathic pain which can be associated with neuropathy is caused most frequently by trauma but secondary causes such as malignancy, infection and auto-immune causes need to be considered. Management is along the lines of other neuropathic pain using accepted pharmacotherapy with psychological support. If no other diagnostic criteria are fulfilled than a diagnosis of chronic or persistent idiopathic facial pain is made and often a combination of antidepressants and cognitive behaviour therapy is effective. Facial pain patients should be managed by a multidisciplinary team. PMID:23617409

  18. The association among neighborhood socioeconomic status, race and chronic pain in black and white older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.

    2007-01-01

    The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920

  19. The Body Has a History: An Educational Intervention Programme for People with Generalised Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Eldri; Haugli, Liv

    2000-01-01

    Studies the effects of a 12-session educational group intervention program for people with generalized chronic musculoskeletal pain. Results reveal that participants came out significantly better than the control group with respect to pain and pain coping, taking care of themselves, life satisfaction, and health care consumption. (Contains 69…

  20. Chronic pain effect on body schema and neuropsychological performance in athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thurm, Bianca E; Matoso, Amanda; Diaz, Ana C; Paschoalini, Carolina; Neves, Elayne; Tuunelis, Raquel; Kiyomoto, Henry Dan; Gama, Eliane F

    2013-04-01

    The ability to recognize the body parts blindfolded is called body schema. Chronic pain disrupts cognitive function and could lead to an altered body schema. Commonly competitive athletes have chronic pain, but still train and compete. The goal of this study was to assess the body schema of competitive athletes with chronic pain. Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire. To assess the body schema, the Image Marking Procedure was used to assess the capacity of the participants to project their bodies in space. Neuropsychological performance was assessed with the Grooved Pegboard Test. There was no difference in body schema between groups; neuropsychological performance indicated better scores in the athlete group. This study showed that despite chronic pain, the athlete group presented unaltered body schema and better neuropsychological performance, perhaps explained by self-selection. PMID:24032329

  1. Latent Sensitization: a model for stress-sensitive chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Marvizon, Juan Carlos; Walwyn, Wendy; Minasyan, Ani; Chen, Wenling; Taylor, Bradley K.

    2015-01-01

    Latent sensitization is a rodent model of chronic pain that reproduces both its episodic nature and its sensitivity to stress. It is triggered by a wide variety of injuries ranging from injection of inflammatory agents to nerve damage. It follows a characteristic time course in which a hyperalgesic phase is followed by a phase of remission. The hyperalgesic phase lasts between a few days to several months, depending of the triggering injury. Injection of μ-opioid receptor inverse agonists (i.e., naloxone, naltrexone) during the remission phase induces reinstatement of hyperalgesia. This indicates that the remission phase does not represent a return to the normal state, but rather an altered state in which hyperalgesia is masked by constitutive activity of opioid receptors. Importantly, stress also triggers reinstatement. Here we describe in detail the procedures to induce and follow latent sensitization in its different phases in rats and mice. PMID:25829356

  2. Intimate Partner Aggression Perpetration in Primary Care Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Casey; Schwartz, Sonia; Liebschutz, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of partner aggression perpetration in 597 primary care chronic pain patients. Approximately 30% of participants reported perpetrating low-level aggression, 12% reported injuring their partner, and 5% reported engaging in sexual coercion. Women reported more low-level aggression perpetration than men, and men reported more engagement in sexual coercion than women. Substance use disorders (SUD) were associated with all outcomes, and both aggression victimization and lifetime ratings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with low-level aggression and injuries. In multivariate analyses, gender, aggression victimization, PTSD, and SUD evidenced associations with one or more outcomes. Findings indicate a need for aggression screening in this population and highlight avenues for intervention. PMID:21061870

  3. Latent sensitization: a model for stress-sensitive chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Marvizon, Juan Carlos; Walwyn, Wendy; Minasyan, Ani; Chen, Wenling; Taylor, Bradley K

    2015-01-01

    Latent sensitization is a rodent model of chronic pain that reproduces both its episodic nature and its sensitivity to stress. It is triggered by a wide variety of injuries ranging from injection of inflammatory agents to nerve damage. It follows a characteristic time course in which a hyperalgesic phase is followed by a phase of remission. The hyperalgesic phase lasts between a few days to several months, depending on the triggering injury. Injection of μ-opioid receptor inverse agonists (e.g., naloxone or naltrexone) during the remission phase induces reinstatement of hyperalgesia. This indicates that the remission phase does not represent a return to the normal state, but rather an altered state in which hyperalgesia is masked by constitutive activity of opioid receptors. Importantly, stress also triggers reinstatement. Here we describe in detail procedures for inducing and following latent sensitization in its different phases in rats and mice. PMID:25829356

  4. Secondary prevention of chronic pain: can internet help?

    PubMed

    Nieto, Rubén

    2014-07-01

    Chronic pain is common and strongly impacts the individual and society as a whole. Although there are effective multidisciplinary treatments available, they are often not easily accessible and designed for people with severe long-lasting problems. The main aim of this paper is to propose and stimulate debate about how the internet can help to increase accessibility and promote a shift toward secondary prevention. Specifically, internet can help by providing access to educational websites containing information for professionals and the general population. Internet can also be useful for creating accessible interventions designed to reduce risk factors for the development of long-term disability. The involvement of society in general and the professionals working in the field is fundamental for advancing in this direction. PMID:25300386

  5. The use of nonopioid drugs in management of chronic orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, J R

    1998-09-01

    Although controversial, opioid analgesics have been prescribed for patients with chronic facial pain. Based primarily on survey data and a few well-controlled clinical trials, long-term opioid treatment provides adequate pain reduction in 41% to 100% of patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. However, only 25% of chronic facial pain patients reported adequate pain relief with chronic opioid treatment. Work, home, and school function are generally reestablished or maintained during chronic opioid treatment, but 25% to 38% of patients remain dysfunctional, and one study indicated that 20% of patients became dysfunctional during treatment. Chronic opioid treatment is associated with many transient side effects; constipation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, itching, and fatigue have been reported in 5% to 42% of patients taking opioids over 1 year. Although survey studies suggest that the risks of addiction are low in typical patients, drug abuse rates up to 17.3% and prescription abuse rates up to 27.6% were reported within groups of chronic opioid users. Chronic opioid use induces analgesic tolerance and physical dependence, which may result in a serious abstinence syndrome in users and children born to users. Chronic opioid use also may induce harmful immune system changes, diminish cognitive and motor function, and produce nociceptive hyperexcitability. This article shows that the use of long-term opioids for chronic facial pain is not justified based on the available data. Despite these perceived problems, there is anecdotal evidence that chronic facial pain patients will respond positively to opioid analgesics. In our experience, the pain assessment scale and a modification of the World Health Organization's three-step analgesic ladder, which prescribes nonopioid analgesics, can be the starting point for the successful management of chronic facial pain. PMID:9734770

  6. Yoga attitudes in chronic low back pain: Roles of catastrophizing and fear of movement.

    PubMed

    Combs, Martha A; Thorn, Beverly E

    2015-08-01

    Chronic low back pain is a significant public health problem and, although underused, yoga may be an effective complementary treatment. The current study examined associations of pain catastrophizing and fear of movement with attitudes toward yoga in adults with chronic low back pain. Participants completed three quantitative questionnaires assessing specific constructs: beliefs about yoga, fear of movement, and pain catastrophizing. A semi-structured in-person interview was then conducted to obtain specific pain-related information. Hierarchical regression and mediational analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with the fear-avoidance model of chronic pain, catastrophizing and fear of movement were negatively associated with yoga attitudes. Specifically, fear of movement was a mediator between catastrophizing and attitudes toward yoga. Individuals with higher levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement may be less likely to consider a pain treatment involving physical movement. PMID:26256134

  7. Diagnostic use of infrared thermography in a patient with chronic pain following electrocution: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Survival after severe electrocution is uncommon but chronic pain after such trauma is rare. We present a case report of an individual in whom the only modality providing objective evidence of pain related injury was infrared thermography. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre with severe pain in her left hand and foot following electrocution. All previous clinical and neurological testing had been normal. Infrared thermography demonstrated a significant reduction in temperature in the regions affected on her left hand and foot. Pain was reduced with the use of pregabalin but without changes to thermal differences in the affected limbs. Conclusion It would appear from this case report that infrared thermography may be of use in the documentation of abnormalities associated with chronic pain following survival after electrocution. Pregabalin may be of benefit in pain reduction after electrocution.

  8. Physical exercise as non-pharmacological treatment of chronic pain: Why and when.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Kirsten R; Golightly, Yvonne M

    2015-02-01

    Chronic pain broadly encompasses both objectively defined conditions and idiopathic conditions that lack physical findings. Despite variance in origin or pathogenesis, these conditions are similarly characterized by chronic pain, poor physical function, mobility limitations, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, and they are treated alone or in combination by pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches, such as physical activity (aerobic conditioning, muscle strengthening, flexibility training, and movement therapies). Physical activity improves general health, disease risk, and progression of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. When applied to chronic pain conditions within appropriate parameters (frequency, duration, and intensity), physical activity significantly improves pain and related symptoms. For chronic pain, strict guidelines for physical activity are lacking, but frequent movement is preferable to sedentary behavior. This gives considerable freedom in prescribing physical activity treatments, which are most successful when tailored individually, progressed slowly, and account for physical limitations, psychosocial needs, and available resources. PMID:26267006

  9. Physical exercise as non-pharmacological treatment of chronic pain: Why and when

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Kirsten R.; Golightly, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain broadly encompasses both objectively defined conditions and idiopathic conditions that lack physical findings. Despite variance in origin or pathogenesis, these conditions are similarly characterized by chronic pain, poor physical function, mobility limitations, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance and are treated alone or in combination by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, such as physical activity (aerobic conditioning, muscle strengthening, flexibility training and movement therapies). Physical activity improves general health, disease risk and progression of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes and obesity. When applied to chronic pain conditions within appropriate parameters (frequency, duration, intensity), physical activity significantly improves pain and related symptoms. For chronic pain, strict guidelines for physical activity are lacking, but frequent movement is preferable to sedentary behavior. This gives considerable freedom in prescribing physical activity treatments, which are most successful when tailored individually, progressed slowly and account for physical limitations, psychosocial needs and available resources. PMID:26267006

  10. Patient Prioritization Preferences among Physiotherapy Entry-Level Students: The Importance of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate physiotherapy entry-level students' preferences in prioritizing patients, specifically, patients with chronic pain. Methods: After a group discussion, 249 Canadian entry-level physiotherapy students completed a questionnaire that used five distinct scenarios (fictitious patient cases). Respondents were asked to prioritize the patients (P1=highest priority, P5=lowest priority). Results: Physiotherapy students accorded the highest priority to the patient with chronic pain and the post-surgical patients; the elderly patient and the patient with cognitive impairment were given low priority. Conclusions: A diagnosis of chronic pain is given the highest level of priority by physiotherapy students. The literature shows, however, that chronic pain is given the lowest priority in physiotherapy department triage tools. There may be a shift in preferences with respect to patients with chronic pain between the pre-licensure (student) phase