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Sample records for chronic mouse model

  1. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  2. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) Mouse Model in Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cong; Li, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased proliferation of granulocytic cells without the loss of their capability to differentiate. CML is a clonal disease, originated at the level of Hematopoietic Stem Cells with the Philadelphia chromosome resulting from a reciprocal translocation between the chromosomes 9 and 22t(9;22)-(q34;q11). This translocation produces a fusion gene known as BCR-ABL which acquires uncontrolled tyrosine kinase activity, constantly turning on its downstream signaling molecules/pathways, and promoting proliferation of leukemia cell through anti-apoptosis and acquisition of additional mutations. To evaluate the role of each critical downstream signaling molecule of BCR-ABL and test therapeutic drugs in vivo, it is important to use physiological mouse disease models. Here, we describe a mouse model of CML induced by BCR-ABL retrovirus (MSCV-BCR-ABL-GFP; MIG-BCR-ABL) and how to use this model in translational research.Moreover, to expand the application of this retrovirus induced CML model in a lot of conditional knockout mouse strain, we modified this vector to a triple gene coexpression vector in which we can co-express BCR-ABL, GFP, and a third gene which will be tested in different systems. To apply this triple gene system in conditional gene knockout strains, we can validate the CML development in the knockout mice and trace the leukemia cell following the GFP marker. In this protocol, we also describe how we utilize this triple gene system to prove the function of Pten as a tumor suppressor in leukemogenesis. Overall, this triple gene system expands our research spectrum in current conditional gene knockout strains and benefits our CML translational research. PMID:27150093

  3. Resveratrol Neuroprotection in a Chronic Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Kelly, Zoe; Nassrallah, Mayssa; Uribe, Jorge; Khan, Reas S.; Dine, Kimberly; Dutt, Mahasweta; Shindler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that activates SIRT1, an NAD-dependent deacetylase. SRT501, a pharmaceutical formulation of resveratrol with enhanced systemic absorption, prevents neuronal loss without suppressing inflammation in mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In contrast, resveratrol has been reported to suppress inflammation in chronic EAE, although neuroprotective effects were not evaluated. The current studies examine potential neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of resveratrol in chronic EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide in C57/Bl6 mice. Effects of two distinct formulations of resveratrol administered daily orally were compared. Resveratrol delayed the onset of EAE compared to vehicle-treated EAE mice, but did not prevent or alter the phenotype of inflammation in spinal cords or optic nerves. Significant neuroprotective effects were observed, with higher numbers of retinal ganglion cells found in eyes of resveratrol-treated EAE mice with optic nerve inflammation. Results demonstrate that resveratrol prevents neuronal loss in this chronic demyelinating disease model, similar to its effects in relapsing EAE. Differences in immunosuppression compared with prior studies suggest that immunomodulatory effects may be limited and may depend on specific immunization parameters or timing of treatment. Importantly, neuroprotective effects can occur without immunosuppression, suggesting a potential additive benefit of resveratrol in combination with anti-inflammatory therapies for MS. PMID:22654783

  4. A New Mouse Model That Spontaneously Develops Chronic Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fransén-Pettersson, Nina; Duarte, Nadia; Nilsson, Julia; Lundholm, Marie; Mayans, Sofia; Larefalk, Åsa; Hannibal, Tine D.; Hansen, Lisbeth; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Ivars, Fredrik; Cardell, Susanna; Palmqvist, Richard; Rozell, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here we characterize a new animal model that spontaneously develops chronic inflammation and fibrosis in multiple organs, the non-obese diabetic inflammation and fibrosis (N-IF) mouse. In the liver, the N-IF mouse displays inflammation and fibrosis particularly evident around portal tracts and central veins and accompanied with evidence of abnormal intrahepatic bile ducts. The extensive cellular infiltration consists mainly of macrophages, granulocytes, particularly eosinophils, and mast cells. This inflammatory syndrome is mediated by a transgenic population of natural killer T cells (NKT) induced in an immunodeficient NOD genetic background. The disease is transferrable to immunodeficient recipients, while polyclonal T cells from unaffected syngeneic donors can inhibit the disease phenotype. Because of the fibrotic component, early on-set, spontaneous nature and reproducibility, this novel mouse model provides a unique tool to gain further insight into the underlying mechanisms mediating transformation of chronic inflammation into fibrosis and to evaluate intervention protocols for treating conditions of fibrotic disorders. PMID:27441847

  5. Early microglia activation in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Alejandra; Steele, Michael R.; Vetter, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in microglial cell activation and distribution are associated with neuronal decline in the CNS, particularly under pathological conditions. Activated microglia converge on the initial site of axonal degeneration in human glaucoma, yet, their part in its pathophysiology remains unresolved. To begin with, it is unknown whether microglia activation precedes or is a late consequence of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurodegeneration. Here, we address this critical element in DBA/2J (D2) mice, an established model of chronic inherited glaucoma, using as a control the congenic substrain DBA/2J Gpnmb+/SjJ (D2G), which is not affected by glaucoma. We analyzed the spatial distribution and timecourse of microglial changes in the retina, as well as within the proximal optic nerve prior to and throughout ages when neurodegeneration has been reported. Exclusively in D2 mice, we detected early microglia clustering in the inner central retina and unmyelinated optic nerve regions, with microglia activation peaking by 3 months of age. Between 5 and 8 months of age, activated microglia persisted and concentrated in the optic disc, but also localized to the retinal periphery. Collectively, our findings suggest microglia activation is an early alteration in the retina and optic nerve in D2 glaucoma, potentially contributing to disease onset or progression. Ultimately, detection of microglial activation may have value in early disease diagnosis, while modulation of microglial responses may alter disease progression. PMID:21246546

  6. A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Connie S.; Weinberg, Ellen O.; Hua, Ning; Gudino, Cynthia V.; Hamilton, James A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies

  7. Chronic ethanol exposure inhibits distraction osteogenesis in a mouse model: Role of the TNF signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Elizabeth C.; Aronson, James; Liu, Lichu; Liu, Zhendong; Perrien, Daniel S.; Skinner, Robert A.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J.J.; Lumpkin, Charles K. . E-mail: lumpkincharlesk@uams.edu

    2007-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-{alpha} signaling. The effects in mice are unreported. Therefore, we hypothesized that in mice (1) administration of a soluble TNF receptor 1 derivative (sTNF-R1) would protect direct bone formation during chronic ethanol exposure, and (2) administration of recombinant mouse TNF-{alpha} (rmTNF-{alpha}) to ethanol naive mice would inhibit direct bone formation. We utilized a unique model of limb lengthening (distraction osteogenesis, DO) combined with liquid diets to measure chronic ethanol's effects on direct bone formation. Chronic ethanol exposure resulted in increased marrow TNF, IL-1, and CYP 2E1 RNA levels in ethanol-treated vs. control mice, while no significant weight differences were noted. Systemic administration of sTNF-R1 during DO (8.0 mg/kg/2 days) to chronic ethanol-exposed mice resulted in enhanced direct bone formation as measured radiologically and histologically. Systemic rmTNF-{alpha} (10 {mu}g/kg/day) administration decreased direct bone formation measures, while no significant weight differences were noted. We conclude that chronic ethanol-associated inhibition of direct bone formation is mediated to a significant extent by the TNF signaling axis in a mouse model.

  8. Chronic Toxoplasmosis Modulates the Induction of Contact Hypersensitivity by TNCB in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were combined to clarify the effect of opportunistic Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of AD. AD was induced as a chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with repeated challenge of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on the dorsal skin of mice. TNCB induced skin thickness increases in both normal and toxoplasmic mice. The changing patterns were different from the sigmoidal which saturated at 20 days in normal mice to the convex saturated at 12 days in toxoplasmic mice with the crossing at 18 days. Compared to normal mice, toxoplasmic mice presented CHS more severely in earlier times and then moderately in later times. These data suggest that host immune modification by T. gondii infection enhances CHS in early times of atopic stimulation but soothes the reaction of CHS in later times in mouse model. PMID:26797445

  9. Pericytes contribute to airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jill R; Folestad, Erika; Rowley, Jessica E; Noll, Elisa M; Walker, Simone A; Lloyd, Clare M; Rankin, Sara M; Pietras, Kristian; Eriksson, Ulf; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Myofibroblast accumulation, subepithelial fibrosis, and vascular remodeling are complicating features of chronic asthma, but the mechanisms are not clear. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) regulate the fate and function of various mesenchymal cells and have been implicated as mediators of lung fibrosis. However, it is not known whether PDGF-BB signaling via PDGFRβ, which is critical for the recruitment of pericytes to blood vessels, plays a role in airway remodeling in chronic asthma. In the present study, we used a selective PDGFRβ inhibitor (CP-673451) to investigate the role of PDGFRβ signaling in the development of airway remodeling and lung dysfunction in an established mouse model of house dust mite-induced chronic allergic asthma. Unexpectedly, we found that pharmacological inhibition of PDGFRβ signaling in the context of chronic aeroallergen exposure led to exacerbated lung dysfunction and airway smooth muscle thickening. Further studies revealed that the inflammatory response to aeroallergen challenge in mice was associated with decreased PDGF-BB expression and the loss of pericytes from the airway microvasculature. In parallel, cells positive for pericyte markers accumulated in the subepithelial region of chronically inflamed airways. This process was exacerbated in animals treated with CP-673451. The results indicate that perturbed PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ signaling and pericyte accumulation in the airway wall may contribute to airway remodeling in chronic allergic asthma. PMID:25637607

  10. Pericytes contribute to airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Folestad, Erika; Rowley, Jessica E.; Noll, Elisa M.; Walker, Simone A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Rankin, Sara M.; Pietras, Kristian; Eriksson, Ulf; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblast accumulation, subepithelial fibrosis, and vascular remodeling are complicating features of chronic asthma, but the mechanisms are not clear. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) regulate the fate and function of various mesenchymal cells and have been implicated as mediators of lung fibrosis. However, it is not known whether PDGF-BB signaling via PDGFRβ, which is critical for the recruitment of pericytes to blood vessels, plays a role in airway remodeling in chronic asthma. In the present study, we used a selective PDGFRβ inhibitor (CP-673451) to investigate the role of PDGFRβ signaling in the development of airway remodeling and lung dysfunction in an established mouse model of house dust mite-induced chronic allergic asthma. Unexpectedly, we found that pharmacological inhibition of PDGFRβ signaling in the context of chronic aeroallergen exposure led to exacerbated lung dysfunction and airway smooth muscle thickening. Further studies revealed that the inflammatory response to aeroallergen challenge in mice was associated with decreased PDGF-BB expression and the loss of pericytes from the airway microvasculature. In parallel, cells positive for pericyte markers accumulated in the subepithelial region of chronically inflamed airways. This process was exacerbated in animals treated with CP-673451. The results indicate that perturbed PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ signaling and pericyte accumulation in the airway wall may contribute to airway remodeling in chronic allergic asthma. PMID:25637607

  11. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q; New, Lee-Sun; de Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher KY.; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie; Bard, Frederic A.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Johnson, Randy L.; Radda, George K.; Chan, Eric CY.; Wessels, Lodewyk FA.; Adams, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important for human HCC, with a striking 1199 genes linked to cellular metabolic processes. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic landscape of HCC. PMID:24316982

  12. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  13. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models.

    PubMed

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  14. A novel mouse model identifies cooperating mutations and therapeutic targets critical for chronic myeloid leukemia progression

    PubMed Central

    Giotopoulos, George; van der Weyden, Louise; Osaki, Hikari; Rust, Alistair G.; Gallipoli, Paolo; Meduri, Eshwar; Horton, Sarah J.; Chan, Wai-In; Foster, Donna; Prinjha, Rab K.; Pimanda, John E.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Vassiliou, George S.; Koschmieder, Steffen; Adams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of highly selective ABL-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, TKIs are only efficacious in the chronic phase of the disease and effective therapies for TKI-refractory CML, or after progression to blast crisis (BC), are lacking. Whereas the chronic phase of CML is dependent on BCR-ABL, additional mutations are required for progression to BC. However, the identity of these mutations and the pathways they affect are poorly understood, hampering our ability to identify therapeutic targets and improve outcomes. Here, we describe a novel mouse model that allows identification of mechanisms of BC progression in an unbiased and tractable manner, using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis on the background of chronic phase CML. Our BC model is the first to faithfully recapitulate the phenotype, cellular and molecular biology of human CML progression. We report a heterogeneous and unique pattern of insertions identifying known and novel candidate genes and demonstrate that these pathways drive disease progression and provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Our model greatly informs the biology of CML progression and provides a potent resource for the development of candidate therapies to improve the dismal outcomes in this highly aggressive disease. PMID:26304963

  15. Impact of an additional chronic BDNF reduction on learning performance in an Alzheimer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Psotta, Laura; Rockahr, Carolin; Gruss, Michael; Kirches, Elmar; Braun, Katharina; Lessmann, Volkmar; Bock, Jörg; Endres, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. A number of studies demonstrated that AD patients exhibit reduced BDNF levels in the brain and the blood serum, and in addition, several animal-based studies indicated a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In order to further investigate the role of BDNF in the etiology of AD, we created a novel mouse model by crossing a well-established AD mouse model (APP/PS1) with a mouse exhibiting a chronic BDNF deficiency (BDNF+/−). This new triple transgenic mouse model enabled us to further analyze the role of BDNF in AD in vivo. We reasoned that in case BDNF has a protective effect against AD pathology, an AD-like phenotype in our new mouse model should occur earlier and/or in more severity than in the APP/PS1-mice. Indeed, the behavioral analysis revealed that the APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice show an earlier onset of learning impairments in a two-way active avoidance task in comparison to APP/PS1- and BDNF+/−-mice. However in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we could not observe an overall aggrevated impairment in spatial learning and also short-term memory in an object recognition task remained intact in all tested mouse lines. In addition to the behavioral experiments, we analyzed the amyloid plaque pathology in the APP/PS1 and APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice and observed a comparable plaque density in the two genotypes. Moreover, our results revealed a higher plaque density in prefrontal cortical compared to hippocampal brain regions. Our data reveal that higher cognitive tasks requiring the recruitment of cortical networks appear to be more severely affected in our new mouse model than learning tasks requiring mainly sub-cortical networks. Furthermore, our observations of an accelerated impairment in active avoidance learning in APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice further supports the hypothesis that BDNF deficiency

  16. Renal Impairment with Sublethal Tubular Cell Injury in a Chronic Liver Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Tokiko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Kawai, Chihiro; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal impairment in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) has been primarily studied in the advanced stages of hepatic injury. Meanwhile, the pathology of renal impairment in the early phase of CLDs is poorly understood, and animal models to elucidate its mechanisms are needed. Thus, we investigated whether an existing mouse model of CLD induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) shows renal impairment in the early phase. Renal injury markers, renal histology (including immunohistochemistry for tubular injury markers and transmission electron microscopy), autophagy, and oxidative stress were studied longitudinally in DDC- and standard diet–fed BALB/c mice. Slight but significant renal dysfunction was evident in DDC-fed mice from the early phase. Meanwhile, histological examinations of the kidneys with routine light microscopy did not show definitive morphological findings, and electron microscopic analyses were required to detect limited injuries such as loss of brush border microvilli and mitochondrial deformities. Limited injuries have been recently designated as sublethal tubular cell injury. As humans with renal impairment, either with or without CLD, often show almost normal tubules, sublethal injury has been of particular interest. In this study, the injuries were associated with mitochondrial aberrations and oxidative stress, a possible mechanism for sublethal injury. Intriguingly, two defense mechanisms were associated with this injury that prevent it from progressing to apparent cell death: autophagy and single-cell extrusion with regeneration. Furthermore, the renal impairment of this model progressed to chronic kidney disease with interstitial fibrosis after long-term DDC feeding. These findings indicated that DDC induces renal impairment with sublethal tubular cell injury from the early phase, leading to chronic kidney disease. Importantly, this CLD mouse model could be useful for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms

  17. New Mouse Models to Investigate the Efficacy of Drug Combinations in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hanyang; Woolfson, Adrian; Jiang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) comprises a simple and effective paradigm for generating new insights into the cellular origin, pathogenesis, and treatment of many types of human cancer. In particular, mouse models of CML have greatly facilitated the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of this disease and have led to the identification of new drug targets that in some cases offer the possibility of functional cure. There are currently three established CML mouse models: the BCR-ABL transgenic model, the BCR-ABL retroviral transduction/transplantation model, and the xenotransplant immunodeficient model. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the question of interest, some models may be more appropriate than others. In this chapter, we describe a newly developed xenotransplant mouse model to determine the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, either alone or in combination. The model facilitates the evaluation of the frequency of leukemic stem cells with long-term leukemia-initiating activity, a critical subcellular population that causes disease relapse and progression, through the utilization of primary CD34(+) CML stem/progenitor cells obtained from CML patients at diagnosis and prior to drug treatment. We have also investigated the effectiveness of new combination treatment strategies designed to prevent the development of leukemia in vivo using BCR-ABL (+) blast crisis cells as a model system. These types of in vivo studies are important for the prediction of individual patient responses to drug therapy, and have the potential to facilitate the design of personalized combination therapy strategies. PMID:27581149

  18. Limited Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment in a Mouse Model of Machado-Joseph Disease

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sofia; Duarte-Silva, Sara; Naia, Luana; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Silva-Fernandes, Anabela; Maciel, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the coding region of ATXN3 gene, and which currently lacks effective treatment. In this work we tested the therapeutic efficacy of chronic treatment with valproic acid (VPA) (200mg/kg), a compound with known neuroprotection activity, and previously shown to be effective in cell, fly and nematode models of MJD. We show that chronic VPA treatment in the CMVMJD135 mouse model had limited effects in the motor deficits of these mice, seen mostly at late stages in the motor swimming, beam walk, rotarod and spontaneous locomotor activity tests, and did not modify the ATXN3 inclusion load and astrogliosis in affected brain regions. However, VPA chronic treatment was able to increase GRP78 protein levels at 30 weeks of age, one of its known neuroprotective effects, confirming target engagement. In spite of limited results, the use of another dosage of VPA or of VPA in a combined therapy with molecules targeting other pathways, cannot be excluded as potential strategies for MJD therapeutics. PMID:26505994

  19. An optimised mouse model of chronic pancreatitis with a combination of ethanol and cerulein

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Rahmani, Mohammad-Reza; Fakhari, Shohreh; Mohammadi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an intractable and multi-factorial disorder. Developing appropriate animal models is an essential step in pancreatitis research, and the best ones are those which mimic the human disorder both aetiologically and pathophysiologically. The current study presents an optimised protocol for creating a murine model of CP, which mimics the initial steps of chronic pancreatitis in alcohol chronic pancreatitis and compares it with two other mouse models treated with cerulein or ethanol alone. Material and methods Thirty-two male C57BL/6 mice were randomly selected, divided into four groups, and treated intraperitoneally with saline (10 ml/kg, control group), ethanol (3 g/kg; 30% v/v), cerulein (50 µg/kg), or ethanol + cerulein, for six weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assays for chronic pancreatitis index along with real-time PCR assessments for mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic markers were conducted to verify the CP induction. Results The results indicated that CP index (CPI) was significantly increased in ethanol-cerulein mice compared to the saline, ethanol, and cerulein groups (p < 0.001). Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and myeloperoxidase activity were also significantly greater in both cerulein and ethanol-cerulein groups than in the saline treated animals (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed enhanced expression of TGF-β and α-SMA in ethanol-cerulein mice compared to the saline group. Conclusions Intraperitoneal (IP) injections of ethanol and cerulein could successfully induce CP in mice. IP injections of ethanol provide higher reproducibility compared to ethanol feeding. The model is simple, non-invasive, reproducible, and time-saving. Since the protocol mimics the initial phases of CP development in alcoholics, it can be used for investigating basic mechanisms and testing

  20. Macrophage Depletion Attenuates Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Ductular Reaction in a Mouse Model of Chronic Cholangiopathies.

    PubMed

    Best, Jan; Verhulst, Stefaan; Syn, Wing-Kin; Lagaisse, Kimberly; van Hul, Noemi; Heindryckx, Femke; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Peeters, Liesbeth; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Leclercq, Isabelle A; Canbay, Ali; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cholangiopathies, such as primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, are progressive disease entities, associated with periportal accumulation of inflammatory cells, encompassing monocytes and macrophages, peribiliary extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and ductular reaction (DR). This study aimed to elucidate the relevance of macrophages in the progression of chronic cholangiopathies through macrophage depletion in a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) mouse model. One group of mice received a single i.p. injection of Clodronate encapsulated liposomes (CLOLipo) at day 7 of a 14 day DDC treatment, while control animals were co-treated with PBSLipo instead. Mice were sacrificed after 7 or respectively 14 days of treatment for immunohistochemical assessment of macrophage recruitment (F4/80), ECM deposition (Sirius Red, Laminin) and DR (CK19). Macrophage depletion during a 14 day DDC treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of ECM deposition. Porto-lobular migration patterns of laminin-rich ECM and ductular structures were significantly attenuated and a progression of DR was effectively inhibited by macrophage depletion. CLOLipo co-treatment resulted in a confined DR to portal regions without amorphous cell clusters. This study suggests that therapeutic options selectively directed towards macrophages might represent a feasible treatment for chronic cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:27618307

  1. Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kruyer, Anna; Soplop, Nadine; Strickland, Sidney; Norris, Erin H

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies link vascular disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hypertension, specifically, is an important modifiable risk factor for late-onset AD. To examine the link between midlife hypertension and the onset of AD later in life, we chemically induced chronic hypertension in the TgSwDI mouse model of AD in early adulthood. Hypertension accelerated cognitive deficits in the Barnes maze test (P<0.05 after 3 months of treatment; P<0.001 after 6 months), microvascular deposition of β-amyloid (P<0.001 after 3 months of treatment; P<0.05 after 6 months), vascular inflammation (P<0.05 in the dentate gyrus and P<0.001 in the dorsal subiculum after 6 months of treatment), blood-brain barrier leakage (P<0.05 after 3 and 6 months of treatment), and pericyte loss (P<0.05 in the dentate gyrus and P<0.01 in the dorsal subiculum after 6 months of treatment) in these mice. In addition, hypertension induced hippocampal neurodegeneration at an early age in this mouse line (43% reduction in the dorsal subiculum; P<0.05), establishing this as a useful research model of AD with mixed vascular and amyloid pathologies. PMID:25941345

  2. Chronic ultraviolet exposure-induced p53 gene alterations in sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Ying; Smith, M.A.; Tucker, S.B.

    1997-06-27

    Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene p53 have been found in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) related human skin cancers and in UVR-induced murine skin tumors. However, links between p53 gene alterations and the stages of carcinogenesis induced by UVR have not been clearly defined. We established a chronic UVR exposure-induced Sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model to determine the frequency of p53 gene alterations in different stages of carcinogenesis, including UV-exposed skin, papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), and malignant spindle-cell tumors (SCTs). A high incidence of SCCs and SCTs were found in this model. Positive p53 nuclear staining was found in 10137 (27%) of SCCs and 12124 (50%) of SCTs, but was not detected in normal skin or papillomas. DNA was isolated from 40 paraffin-embedded normal skin, UV-exposed skin, and tumor sections. The p53 gene (exons 5 and 6) was amplified from the sections by using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and sequencing analysis revealed one point mutation in exon 6 (coden 193, C {r_arrow} A transition) from a UV-exposed skin sample, and seven point mutations in exon 5 (codens 146, 158, 150, 165, and 161, three C {r_arrow} T, two C {r_arrow} A, one C {r_arrow} G, and one A {r_arrow} T transition, respectively) from four SCTs, two SCCs and one UV-exposed skin sample. These experimental results demonstrate that alterations in the p53 gene are frequent events in chronic UV exposure-induced SCCs and later stage SCTs in Sencar mouse skin. 40 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Effects of Chung-Pae Inhalation Therapy on a Mouse Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lee, Beom-Joon; Jung, Hee Jae; Kim, Kwan-Il; Choi, Jun-Yong; Joo, Myungsoo; Jung, Sung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Chung-pae (CP) inhalation therapy is a method frequently used in Korea to treat lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the effects of CP inhalation on a COPD animal model. C57BL/6 mice received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alternately three times for 3 weeks to induce COPD. Then, CP (5 or 20 mg/kg) was administered every 2 h after the final LPS administration. The effect of CP was evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis of lung tissue, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, and tumor growth factor- (TGF-) β. Intratracheal CP administration reduced the number of leukocytes and neutrophils in BAL fluid, inhibited the histological appearance of lung damage, and decreased the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β. Intratracheal CP administration effectively decreased the chronic inflammation and pathological changes in a PPE- and LPS-induced COPD mouse model. Therefore, we suggest that CP is a promising strategy for COPD. PMID:26539225

  4. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  5. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  6. Selenoether oxytocin analogues have analgesic properties in a mouse model of chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Aline Dantas; Mobli, Mehdi; Castro, Joel; Harrington, Andrea M; Vetter, Irina; Dekan, Zoltan; Muttenthaler, Markus; Wan, JingJing; Lewis, Richard J; King, Glenn F; Brierley, Stuart M; Alewood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Poor oral availability and susceptibility to reduction and protease degradation is a major hurdle in peptide drug development. However, drugable receptors in the gut present an attractive niche for peptide therapeutics. Here we demonstrate, in a mouse model of chronic abdominal pain, that oxytocin receptors are significantly upregulated in nociceptors innervating the colon. Correspondingly, we develop chemical strategies to engineer non-reducible and therefore more stable oxytocin analogues. Chemoselective selenide macrocyclization yields stabilized analogues equipotent to native oxytocin. Ultra-high-field nuclear magnetic resonance structural analysis of native oxytocin and the seleno-oxytocin derivatives reveals that oxytocin has a pre-organized structure in solution, in marked contrast to earlier X-ray crystallography studies. Finally, we show that these seleno-oxytocin analogues potently inhibit colonic nociceptors both in vitro and in vivo in mice with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Our findings have potentially important implications for clinical use of oxytocin analogues and disulphide-rich peptides in general. PMID:24476666

  7. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders. PMID:27251783

  8. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders.

  9. Prostatic inflammation induces fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Wong, Letitia; Hutson, Paul R; Bushman, Wade

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation of the prostate is strongly correlated with development of lower urinary tract symptoms and several studies have implicated prostatic fibrosis in the pathogenesis of bladder outlet obstruction. It has been postulated that inflammation induces prostatic fibrosis but this relationship has never been tested. Here, we characterized the fibrotic response to inflammation in a mouse model of chronic bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation. Transurethral instillation of the uropathogenic E. coli into C3H/HeOuJ male mice induced persistent prostatic inflammation followed by a significant increase in collagen deposition and hydroxyproline content. This fibrotic response to inflammation was accompanied with an increase in collagen synthesis determined by the incorporation of 3H-hydroxyproline and mRNA expression of several collagen remodeling-associated genes, including Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Mmp2, Mmp9, and Lox. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation of inflammation severity with collagen deposition and immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes were abundant in inflamed prostates at the time point coinciding with increased collagen synthesis. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of these CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes among collagen type I expressing cells. These data show-for the first time-that chronic prostatic inflammation induces collagen deposition and implicates fibrocytes in the fibrotic process. PMID:24950301

  10. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders. PMID:27251783

  11. Alterations in the distal colon innervation in Winnie mouse model of spontaneous chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmed A; Robinson, Ainsley M; Jovanovska, Valentina; Eri, Rajaraman; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2015-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by extrinsic sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory nerve fibers as well as by intrinsic fibers from the neurons in myenteric and submucosal ganglia embedded into the gastrointestinal wall. Morphological and functional studies of intestinal innervation in animal models are important for understanding the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The recently established Winnie mouse model of spontaneous chronic colitis caused by a point mutation in the Muc2 mucin gene develops inflammation due to a primary epithelial defect. Winnie mice display symptoms of diarrhea, ulcerations and rectal bleeding similar to those in IBD. In this study, we investigated myenteric neurons, noradrenergic, cholinergic and sensory nerve fibers in the distal colon of Winnie (Win/Win) mice compared to C57/BL6 and heterozygote littermates (Win/Wt) using histological and immunohistochemical methods. All Win/Win mice used in this study had inflammation with signs of mucosal damage, goblet cell loss, thickening of muscle and mucosal layers, and increased CD45-immunoreactivity in the distal colon. The density of sensory, cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers innervating the myenteric plexus, muscle and mucosa significantly decreased in the distal colon of Win/Win mice compared to C57/BL6 and Win/Wt mice, while the total number of myenteric neurons as well as subpopulations of cholinergic and nitrergic neurons remained unchanged. In conclusion, changes in the colon morphology and innervation found in Winnie mice have multiple similarities with changes observed in patients with ulcerative colitis. PMID:26227258

  12. Immune System Modifications Induced in a Mouse Model of Chronic Exposure to (90)Sr.

    PubMed

    Synhaeve, Nicholas; Musilli, Stefania; Stefani, Johanna; Nicolas, Nour; Delissen, Olivia; Dublineau, Isabelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    Strontium 90 ((90)Sr) remains in the environment long after a major nuclear disaster occurs. As a result, populations living on contaminated land are potentially exposed to daily ingesting of low quantities of (90)Sr. The potential long-term health effects of such chronic contamination are unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to evaluate the effects of (90)Sr ingestion on the immune system, the animals were chronically exposed to (90)Sr in drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq/l, for a daily ingestion of 80-100 Bq/day. This resulted in a reduced number of CD19(+) B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in steady-state conditions. In contrast, the results from a vaccine experiment performed as a functional test of the immune system showed that in response to T-dependent antigens, there was a reduction in IgG specific to tetanus toxin (TT), a balanced Th1/Th2 response inducer antigen, but not to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), a strong Th2 response inducer antigen. This was accompanied by a reduction in Th1 cells in the spleen, consistent with the observed reduction in specific IgG concentration. The precise mechanisms by which (90)Sr acts on the immune system remain to be elucidated. However, our results suggest that (90)Sr ingestion may be responsible for some of the reported effects of internal contamination on the immune system in civilian populations exposed to the Chernobyl fallout. PMID:26930377

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia induces an exhausted T cell phenotype in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Franz J; Zaborsky, Nadja; Catakovic, Kemal; Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Egle, Alexander; Hartmann, Tanja N; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy, earlier studies have indicated a role of T cells in tumour growth and disease progression. In particular, the functional silencing of antigen-experienced T cells, called T cell exhaustion, has become implicated in immune evasion in CLL. In this study, we tested whether T cell exhaustion is recapitulated in the TCL1tg mouse model for CLL. We show that T cells express high levels of the inhibitory exhaustion markers programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also termed PD-1) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), whereas CLL cells express high levels of CD274 (also termed PD-ligand 1). In addition, the fraction of exhausted T cells increases with CLL progression. Finally, we demonstrate that exhausted T cells are reinvigorated towards CLL cytotoxicity by inhibition of PDCD1/CD274 interaction in vivo. These results suggest that T cell exhaustion contributes to CLL pathogenesis and that interference with PDCD1/CD274 signalling holds high potential for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25940792

  14. Complement protein C3 exacerbates prion disease in a mouse model of chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Michel, Brady; Ferguson, Adam; Johnson, Theodore; Bender, Heather; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Wyckoff, A Christy; Pulford, Bruce; Telling, Glenn C; Zabel, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows a critical role of the complement system in facilitating attachment of prions to both B cells and follicular dendritic cells and assisting in prion replication. Complement activation intensifies disease in prion-infected animals, and elimination of complement components inhibits prion accumulation, replication and pathogenesis. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly infectious prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervid populations that utilizes the complement system for efficient peripheral prion replication and most likely efficient horizontal transmission. Here we show that complete genetic or transient pharmacological depletion of C3 prolongs incubation times and significantly delays splenic accumulation in a CWD transgenic mouse model. Using a semi-quantitative prion amplification scoring system we show that C3 impacts disease progression in the early stages of disease by slowing the rate of prion accumulation and/or replication. The delayed kinetics in prion replication correlate with delayed disease kinetics in mice deficient in C3. Taken together, these data support a critical role of C3 in peripheral CWD prion pathogenesis. PMID:24038599

  15. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia induces an exhausted T cell phenotype in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Franz J; Zaborsky, Nadja; Catakovic, Kemal; Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Egle, Alexander; Hartmann, Tanja N; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-08-01

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy, earlier studies have indicated a role of T cells in tumour growth and disease progression. In particular, the functional silencing of antigen-experienced T cells, called T cell exhaustion, has become implicated in immune evasion in CLL. In this study, we tested whether T cell exhaustion is recapitulated in the TCL1(tg) mouse model for CLL. We show that T cells express high levels of the inhibitory exhaustion markers programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also termed PD-1) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), whereas CLL cells express high levels of CD274 (also termed PD-ligand 1). In addition, the fraction of exhausted T cells increases with CLL progression. Finally, we demonstrate that exhausted T cells are reinvigorated towards CLL cytotoxicity by inhibition of PDCD1/CD274 interaction in vivo. These results suggest that T cell exhaustion contributes to CLL pathogenesis and that interference with PDCD1/CD274 signalling holds high potential for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25940792

  16. Neuroprotective Effect of Compound Anisodine in a Mouse Model with Chronic Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Dong; Chen, Lan-Lan; Shen, Ce-Ying; Jiang, Li-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compound anisodine (CA) is a compound preparation made from hydrobromide anisodine and procaine hydrochloride. The former is an M-choline receptor blocker with the function of regulating the vegetative nervous system, improving microcirculation, and so on. The latter is an antioxidant with the activities of neuroprotection. This study aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotection of CA, which affects the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in an animal model with chronic ocular hypertension. Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice (n = 24) were divided randomly into four groups: Normal control group without any treatment (Group A, n = 6); CA control group with feeding the CA solution (Group B, n = 6); microbeads (MBs) control group with injecting MB into the anterior chamber (Group C, n = 6); CA study group with MB injection and with feeding the CA solution (Group D, n = 6). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured every 3 days after MB injection. At the 21st day, neurons were retrograde-labeled by Fluoro-Gold (FG). Animals were sacrificed on the 27th day. Retinal flat mounts were stained immunohistologically by β-III-tubulin. FG-retrograde-labeled RGCs, β-III-tubulin-positive RGCs, and β-III-tubulin-positive nerve fibers were quantified. Results: Mice of Groups C and D expressed the incidence of consistent IOP elevation, which is above the IOP level of Group A with the normal one. There is no significant difference in IOP between Groups A and B (P > 0.05). On the 27th day, there were distinct loss in stained RGCs and nerve fibers from Groups C and D compared with Group A (all P < 0.001). The quantity was significantly higher in Group D as compared to Group C (all P < 0.001) but lower than Group A (all P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the quantity of RGCs and nerve fibers between Groups A and B (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that CA plays an importantly neuroprotective role on RGCs in a mouse model with

  17. Effect of Chronic Uremia on the Cell Surface Expression of B7 Family Costimulatory Molecules in an HLA-A2 Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Makidon, Paul E; Smith, Douglas M; Groom, Jeffery V; Cao, Zhengyi; Landers, Jeffery J; Baker, James R

    2015-01-01

    Uremia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans is associated with immune dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infections, immune-activation–associated inflammation, and poor responses to vaccines. The pathophysiologic basis of these immune defects is hypothesized to be associated with a wide range of immunologic abnormalities, including an inability to sufficiently express the B7 family (B7-1, CD80; B7-2, CD86) of T-cell costimulatory molecules. However, testing the hypothesis that a state of chronic uremia contributes to attenuated expression of CD80 or CD86 has been difficult because few animal models faithfully recapitulate the immune defects observed in human CKD patients. We used a humanized mouse in a model of surgically induced renal failure and secondary chronic uremia to evaluate the effect of uremia on the expression of these markers. In a manner that resembles the changes observed in CKD patients, surgically induced CKD in mice resulted in decreased costimulatory CD86 expression compared with that in sham-operated controls. Immunodeficiency was functionally demonstrated in this mouse model by documenting an attenuated immune response to a cholera-toxin–based hepatitis B vaccine. This model will be useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in chronic uremia-associated immunodeficiency, poor response to vaccination, and problems associated with immunization of CKD patients. PMID:26310460

  18. Chronic Subordinate Colony Housing Paradigm: A Mouse Model to Characterize the Consequences of Insufficient Glucocorticoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Langgartner, Dominik; Füchsl, Andrea M.; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole; Slattery, David A.; Reber, Stefan O.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, in particular chronic psychosocial, stress is a burden of modern societies and known to be a risk factor for numerous somatic and affective disorders (in detail referenced below). However, based on the limited existence of appropriate, and clinically relevant, animal models for studying the effects of chronic stress, the detailed behavioral, physiological, neuronal, and immunological mechanisms linking stress and such disorders are insufficiently understood. To date, most chronic stress studies in animals employ intermittent exposure to the same (homotypic) or to different (heterotypic) stressors of varying duration and intensity. Such models are only of limited value, since they do not adequately reflect the chronic and continuous situation that humans typically experience. Furthermore, application of different physical or psychological stimuli renders comparisons to the mainly psychosocial stressors faced by humans, as well as between the different stress studies almost impossible. In contrast, rodent models of chronic psychosocial stress represent situations more akin to those faced by humans and consequently seem to hold more clinical relevance. Our laboratory has developed a model in which mice are exposed to social stress for 19 continuous days, namely the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) paradigm, to help bridge this gap. The main aim of the current review article is to provide a detailed summary of the behavioral, physiological, neuronal, and immunological consequences of the CSC paradigm, and wherever possible relate the findings to other stress models and to the human situation. PMID:25755645

  19. Restoration of Oligodendrocyte Pools in a Mouse Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Jamie; Reimer, Michell M.; Holland, Philip R.; Manso, Yasmina; McLaughlin, Mark; Fowler, Jill H.; Horsburgh, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a sustained modest reduction in cerebral blood flow, is associated with damage to myelinated axons and cognitive decline with ageing. Oligodendrocytes (the myelin producing cells) and their precursor cells (OPCs) may be vulnerable to the effects of hypoperfusion and in some forms of injury OPCs have the potential to respond and repair damage by increased proliferation and differentiation. Using a mouse model of cerebral hypoperfusion we have characterised the acute and long term responses of oligodendrocytes and OPCs to hypoperfusion in the corpus callosum. Following 3 days of hypoperfusion, numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes were significantly decreased compared to controls. However following 1 month of hypoperfusion, the OPC pool was restored and increased numbers of oligodendrocytes were observed. Assessment of proliferation using PCNA showed no significant differences between groups at either time point but showed reduced numbers of proliferating oligodendroglia at 3 days consistent with the loss of OPCs. Cumulative BrdU labelling experiments revealed higher numbers of proliferating cells in hypoperfused animals compared to controls and showed a proportion of these newly generated cells had differentiated into oligodendrocytes in a subset of animals. Expression of GPR17, a receptor important for the regulation of OPC differentiation following injury, was decreased following short term hypoperfusion. Despite changes to oligodendrocyte numbers there were no changes to the myelin sheath as revealed by ultrastructural assessment and fluoromyelin however axon-glial integrity was disrupted after both 3 days and 1 month hypoperfusion. Taken together, our results demonstrate the initial vulnerability of oligodendroglial pools to modest reductions in blood flow and highlight the regenerative capacity of these cells. PMID:24498301

  20. Chronic alcohol intake promotes tumor growth in a diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis mouse model through increased Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol (EtOH) metabolism is involved in both initiating and promoting mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma progression in chronic alcoholics. In this study, we developed a mouse model to test the hypothesis that chronic EtOH consumption promotes tumor growth irrespective of EtOH-related initiati...

  1. Antidepressant-like effects of aqueous extract from Cecropia pachystachya leaves in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Martins, Fernanda Amelia; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Quevedo, João; de Campos, Angela Machado; Stefanello, Francieli M; Kaster, Manuella P; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Lencina, Claiton L

    2014-09-01

    Chronic stressful stimuli influence disease susceptibility to depression, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. The present work investigated antidepressant and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract from Cecropia pachystachya in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Our results indicated that acute administration of the aqueous extract (AE) from C. pachystachya (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) produced an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST). The chronic treatment with C. pachystachya extract (200mg/kg, p.o., for 14 days) prevented the depressant-like effect but not the anxiogenic effect induced by CUS. In addition to the behavioral modifications, the 14 days of CUS increased lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus (HP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), decreased total thiol content and glutathione peroxidase activity in the HP. C. pachystachya AE administration during CUS protocol was able to prevent the oxidative damage induced by stress. However, no changes were observed in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the above cited brain areas after the stress protocol and treatment. Our results suggest that C. pachystachya prevented both depressive behavior and oxidative damage induced by CUS, supporting its neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced by chronic stress. PMID:25108233

  2. Absence of α4 but not β2 integrins restrains development of chronic allergic asthma using mouse genetic models

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ena Ray; Jiang, Yi; Henderson, William R.; Latchman, Yvette; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic asthma is characterized by ongoing recruitment of inflammatory cells and airway hyperresponsiveness leading to structural airway remodeling. Although α4β1 and β2 integrins regulate leukocyte migration in inflammatory diseases and play decisive roles in acute asthma, their role has not been explored under the chronic asthma setting. To extend our earlier studies with α4Δ/Δ and β2−/− mice, which showed that both a4 and b2 integrins have nonredundant regulatory roles in acute ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma, we explored to what extent these molecular pathways control development of structural airway remodeling in chronic asthma. Materials and Methods Control, α4Δ/Δ, and β2−/−mouse groups, sensitized by intraperitoneal OVA as allergen, received intratracheal OVA periodically over days 8 to 55 to induce a chronic asthma phenotype. Post-OVA assessment of inflammation and pulmonary function (airway hyperresponsiveness), together with airway modeling measured by goblet cell metaplasia, collagen content of lung, and transforming growth factor β1 expression in lung homogenates, were evaluated. Results In contrast to control and β2−/− mice, α4Δ/Δ mice failed to develop and maintain the composite chronic asthma phenotype evaluated as mentioned and subepithelial collagen content was comparable to baseline. These data indicate that β2 integrins, although required for inflammatory migration in acute asthma, are dispensable for structural remodeling in chronic asthma. Conclusion α4 integrins appear to have a regulatory role in directing transforming growth factor β-induced collagen deposition and structural alterations in lung architecture likely through interactions of Th2 cells, eosinophils, or mast cells with endothelium, resident airway cells, and/or extracellular matrix. PMID:19463772

  3. Identification of an IFN-γ/mast cell axis in a mouse model of chronic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mang; Eckart, Michael R.; Morgan, Alexander A.; Mukai, Kaori; Butte, Atul J.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is considered a Th2 cell–associated disorder. Despite this, both the Th1 cell–associated cytokine IFN-γ and airway neutrophilia have been implicated in severe asthma. To investigate the relative contributions of different immune system components to the pathogenesis of asthma, we previously developed a model that exhibits several features of severe asthma in humans, including airway neutrophilia and increased lung IFN-γ. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that IFN-γ regulates mast cell function in our model of chronic asthma. Engraftment of mast cell–deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice, which develop markedly attenuated features of disease, with wild-type mast cells restored disease pathology in this model of chronic asthma. However, disease pathology was not fully restored by engraftment with either IFN-γ receptor 1–null (Ifngr1–/–) or Fcε receptor 1γ–null (Fcer1g–/–) mast cells. Additional analysis, including gene array studies, showed that mast cell expression of IFN-γR contributed to the development of many FcεRIγ-dependent and some FcεRIγ-independent features of disease in our model, including airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation, airway remodeling, and lung expression of several cytokines, chemokines, and markers of an alternatively activated macrophage response. These findings identify a previously unsuspected IFN-γ/mast cell axis in the pathology of chronic allergic inflammation of the airways in mice. PMID:21737883

  4. Generation of Functional Neutrophils from a Mouse Model of X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disorder Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sayandip; Santilli, Giorgia; Blundell, Michael P.; Navarro, Susana; Bueren, Juan A.; Thrasher, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Murine models of human genetic disorders provide a valuable tool for investigating the scope for application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Here we present a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate generation of iPSC from a mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), and their successful differentiation into haematopoietic progenitors of the myeloid lineage. We further demonstrate that additive gene transfer using lentiviral vectors encoding gp91phox is capable of restoring NADPH-oxidase activity in mature neutrophils derived from X-CGD iPSC. In the longer term, correction of iPSC from human patients with CGD has therapeutic potential not only through generation of transplantable haematopoietic stem cells, but also through production of large numbers of autologous functional neutrophils. PMID:21408614

  5. Sesamol treatment reduces plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in mouse models of acute and chronic hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitesh; Mudgal, Jayesh; Parihar, Vipan K; Nayak, Pawan G; Kutty, N Gopalan; Rao, C Mallikarjuna

    2013-06-01

    The active constituents of Sesamum indicum, sesamin and sesamolin, have already been explored for hypolipidemic action. In this study we have explored the anti-dyslipidemic activity of another active component and metabolite of sesamolin (sesamol), by using acute models of hyperlipidemia viz., a fat tolerance test, a tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia model and a chronic model of hyperlipidemia viz., a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia model in Swiss albino mice. Sesamol (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased triacylglycerol absorption in the fat tolerance test by showing a dose-dependent decrease in triacylglycerol levels. The hypolipidemic effect of sesamol at 200 mg/kg was equivalent to 10 mg/kg of orlistat. In the tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia model, Sesamol at 200 mg/kg reversed the elevated levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerol compared with the tyloxapol group at 12 and 24 h, which indicates its probable effect on cholesterol synthesis. Chronic hyperlipidemia in mice was produced by feeding a high-diet, a mixture of cholesterol (2 % w/w), cholic acid (1 % w/w) and coconut oil 30 % (v/w) with standard powdered standard animal chow (up to 100 g). Niacin (100 mg/kg) and sesamol (100 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the elevated body weight compared with the high fat diet control group. Elevated levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerol were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by the sesamol (50 and 100 mg/kg), implying that it might reduce the absorption and increase the excretion of cholesterol as well. PMID:23504268

  6. No exacerbation but impaired anti-viral mechanisms in a rhinovirus-chronic allergic asthma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rochlitzer, Sabine; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Müller, Meike; Braun, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma and viral-induced asthma exacerbations represent a high unmet medical need as no therapy is currently available for these patients. HRV (human rhinovirus) is prominently associated with asthma exacerbations in humans. The aim of the present study was to establish a mouse model of severe asthma with additional rhinovirus infection to investigate the interplay between chronic allergic airway inflammation and acute respiratory viral infection. Balb/c mice were sensitized with HDM (house dust mite) extract (25 μg in 50 μl of saline) by i.n. (intranasal) delivery to the lung over 7 weeks. HRV1B (HRV serotype 1B) inoculation was performed i.n. on the last 3 days. Therapeutic treatment with FP (fluticasone propionate) was performed to assess steroid efficacy. Lung resistance was measured invasively to assess AHR (airway hyper-responsiveness). BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) differential cell count, cytokines, lung histology and the proliferative and cytokine response of MLN (mediastinal lymph node) cells upon in vitro restimulation were analysed. Chronic HDM application induced a strong Th2-skewed eosinophilic airway inflammation and AHR, which was not exacerbated by superimposed HRV1B infection. Therapeutic steroid intervention in the chronic HDM model reduced BAL eosinophil cell counts, cytokine levels and AHR, while neutrophil numbers were unaffected. Steroid efficacy against inflammatory readouts was maintained during additional HRV1B infection. Animals with chronic allergic airway inflammation exhibited a diminished immune response towards superimposed HRV1B infection compared with HRV1B alone, as induction of the anti-viral and pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN (interferon)-α, IFN-γ and IL (interleukin)-12 were suppressed. Although superimposed HRV1B infection did not provoke asthma exacerbation in this severe model, a deficient anti-viral immune response to HRV1B was present under chronic allergic airway inflammatory conditions. Thus, this model is

  7. Enhanced Expression of TREK-1 Is Related with Chronic Constriction Injury of Neuropathic Pain Mouse Model in Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk

    2016-05-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/ or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin- B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (~9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients. PMID:27133259

  8. Enhanced Expression of TREK-1 Is Related with Chronic Constriction Injury of Neuropathic Pain Mouse Model in Dorsal Root Ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K+ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin-B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (∼9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients. PMID:27133259

  9. Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?

    PubMed

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-02-01

    In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. PMID:25465889

  10. A Chronic Longitudinal Characterization of Neurobehavioral and Neuropathological Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Gulf War Agent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Gogce; Hassan, Samira; Abdullah, Laila; Horne, Lauren; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2016-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990–1991) exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI. For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER) and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM), and Barnes Maze (BM) Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to

  11. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

    2014-01-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  12. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-11-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  13. Neurovascular changes in acute, sub-acute and chronic mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Mann, Dushyant; Bowyer, John F; Hanig, Joseph P; Schmued, Larry C; Paule, Merle G; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu

    2014-02-01

    Although selective neurodegeneration of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons is widely accepted as a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), the role of vascular components in the brain in PD pathology is not well understood. However, the neurodegeneration seen in PD is known to be associated with neuroinflammatory-like changes that can affect or be associated with brain vascular function. Thus, dysfunction of the capillary endothelial cell component of neurovascular units present in the brain may contribute to the damage to dopaminergic neurons that occurs in PD. An animal model of PD employing acute, sub-acute and chronic exposures of mice to methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to determine the extent to which brain vasculature may be damaged in PD. Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin labeling of microvessels and endothelial cells was used to determine the extent of vascular damage produced by MPTP. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NeuN were employed to detect and quantify dopaminergic neuron damage in the striatum (CPu) and substantia nigra (SNc). Gliosis was evaluated through GFAP immunohistochemistry. MPTP treatment drastically reduced TH immunoreactive neurons in the SNc (20.68 ± 2.83 in acute; 22.98 ± 2.14 in sub-acute; 10.20 ± 2.24 in chronic vs 34.88 ± 2.91 in controls; p<0.001). Similarly, TH immunoreactive terminals were dramatically reduced in the CPu of MPTP treated mice. Additionally, all three MPTP exposures resulted in a decrease in the intensity, length, and number of vessels in both CPu and SNc. Degenerative vascular changes such as endothelial cell 'clusters' were also observed after MPTP suggesting that vasculature damage may be modifying the availability of nutrients and exposing blood cells and/or toxic substances to neurons and glia. In summary, vascular damage and degeneration could be an additional exacerbating factor in the progression of PD, and therapeutics that protect and insure vascular integrity may be novel treatments for

  14. SCID mouse models of acute and relapsing chronic Toxoplasma gondii infections.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L L

    1992-01-01

    Lymphodeficient scid/scid (SCID) mice died from acute infection with a strain of Toxoplasma gondii that causes chronic infection with mild symptoms in immunocompetent non-SCID mice. However, most SCID mice reconstituted with spleen cells from immunocompetent mice 1 month prior to T. gondii infection survived in good health after a transient period during which they appeared ill. Unreconstituted SCID mice given sulfadiazine in their drinking water from day 10 of Toxoplasma infection onward survived the acute phase of infection and lived for many weeks without overt symptoms. Histological examination revealed Toxoplasma cysts in their brains. However, if sulfadiazine was withdrawn from the drinking water of these chronically infected SCID mice, the mice died within 1 week with large numbers of trophozoites throughout their brains. These findings establish SCID mice as a potentially useful resource with which to study various aspects of immunological control of T. gondii infection during either its acute or chronic phase. Furthermore, the ability to produce chronic infections with avirulent T. gondii in SCID mice and to cause acute relapsing infections at will suggests that SCID mice may be helpful in evaluating potential therapies for acute and chronic T. gondii infections in immunocompromised patients. Images PMID:1500181

  15. ENDURANCE EXERCISE PROMOTES CARDIORESPIRATORY REHABILITATION WITHOUT NEURORESTORATION IN THE CHRONIC MOUSE MODEL OF PARKINSONISM WITH SEVERE NEURODEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jarrah, Muhammed; Pothakos, Konstantinos; Novikova, Lesya; Smirnova, Irina V.; Kurz, Max J.; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa; Lau, Yuen-Sum

    2007-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation with endurance exercise for patients with Parkinson's disease has not been well established, although some clinical and laboratory reports suggest that exercise may produce neuroprotective effect and restore dopaminergic and motor functions. In this study, we used a chronic mouse model of Parkinsonism, which was induced by injecting male C57BL/6 mice with 10 doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (25 mg/kg) and probenecid (250 mg/kg) over five weeks. This chronic Parkinsonian model displays a severe and persistent loss of nigrostriatal neurons resulting in robust dopamine depletion and locomotor impairment in mice. Following the induction of Parkinsonism, these mice were capable to sustain an exercise training program on a motorized rodent treadmill at a speed of 18 m/min, 0° of inclination, 40 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. At the end of exercise training, we examined and compared their cardiorespiratory capacity, behavior, and neurochemical changes with that of the probenecid-treated control and sedentary Parkinsonian mice. We found that the resting heart rate after 4 weeks of exercise in the chronic Parkinsonian mice was significantly lower than the rate before exercise, whereas the resting heart rate at the beginning and 4 weeks afterwards in the control or sedentary Parkinsonian mice were unchanged. Exercised Parkinsonian mice also recovered from elevated electrocardiogram R-wave amplitude that was detected in the Parkinsonian mice without exercise for 4 weeks. The values of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and body heat generation in the exercised Parkinsonian mice before and during the Bruce maximal exercise challenge test were all significantly lower than their sedentary counterparts. Furthermore, the exercised Parkinsonian mice revealed a greater mass in the left ventricle of the heart and an increased level of citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscles. The amphetamine-induced, dopamine

  16. Chronic ethanol exposure inhibits distraction osteogenesis in a mouse model: role of the TNF signaling axis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-alpha signaling. The effects in mice are unreported....

  17. Effects of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract on chronic toxoplasmosis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; El-Fakahany, Amany Farouk; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Abou-Ouf, Eman Abdel-Rahman; Yaseen, Doaa Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the potential effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract (TVE) against Toxoplasma gondii infection in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. To evaluate prophylactic effects, mice received 500 mg/kg TVE for 5 days before they were infected by an avirulent Me49 T. gondii strain. To investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract postinfection, daily treatment with TVE was initiated at 6 weeks postinfection and continued for 10 days. The following groups of animals were used as controls: uninfected/non-treated, infected/non-treated, and infected/treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Brain cyst count and histopathological changes using H&E and Feulgen stains were used to evaluate the efficacy of TVE. The mean number of brain cysts was significantly decreased by 24 % in mice treated prophylactically with TVE. TVE also significantly reduced the mean number of brain cysts when administered to animals already chronically infected with T. gondii. The effect of TVE was comparable to that of treatment with a mixture of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (46 and 51 % reduction, respectively). Moreover, considerable amelioration of the pathological lesions in the brain and retina was observed. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of T. vulgaris as a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. PMID:27098159

  18. The Spectrum of Neurobehavioral Sequelae after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

  19. Natural killer T cells are dispensable in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and remodelling in a mouse model of chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Y-I; Shim, J-U; Lee, J-H; Chung, I-J; Min, J-J; Rhee, J H; Lee, H C; Chung, D H; Wi, J-O

    2010-07-01

    Natural killer T (NK T) cells have been shown to play an essential role in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and/or airway inflammation in mouse models of acute asthma. Recently, NK T cells have been reported to be required for the development of AHR in a virus induced chronic asthma model. We investigated whether NK T cells were required for the development of allergen-induced AHR, airway inflammation and airway remodelling in a mouse model of chronic asthma. CD1d-/- mice that lack NK T cells were used for the experiments. In the chronic model, AHR, eosinophilic inflammation, remodelling characteristics including mucus metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis and increased mass of the airway smooth muscle, T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response and immunoglobulin (Ig)E production were equally increased in both CD1d-/- mice and wild-type mice. However, in the acute model, AHR, eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 immune response and IgE production were significantly decreased in the CD1d-/- mice compared to wild-type. CD1d-dependent NK T cells may not be required for the development of allergen-induced AHR, eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway remodelling in chronic asthma model, although they play a role in the development of AHR and eosinophilic inflammation in acute asthma model. PMID:20456411

  20. Metabolomic identification of biochemical changes induced by fluoxetine and imipramine in a chronic mild stress mouse model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Jung, Yang-Hee; Jang, Choon-Gon; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics was applied to a C57BL/6N mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS). Such mice were treated with two antidepressants from different categories: fluoxetine and imipramine. Metabolic profiling of the hippocampus was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on samples prepared under optimized conditions, followed by principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and pair-wise orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses. Body weight measurement and behavior tests including an open field test and the forced swimming test were completed with the mice as a measure of the phenotypes of depression and antidepressive effects. As a result, 23 metabolites that had been differentially expressed among the control, CMS, and antidepressant-treated groups demonstrated that amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, adenosine receptors, and neurotransmitters are commonly perturbed by drug treatment. Potential predictive markers for treatment effect were identified: myo-inositol for fluoxetine and lysine and oleic acid for imipramine. Collectively, the current study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of two widely used medications. PMID:25749400

  1. Escin attenuates behavioral impairments, oxidative stress and inflammation in a chronic MPTP/probenecid mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindasamy Pushpavathi; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan

    2014-10-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results mainly due to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), and subsequently has an effect on one's motor function and coordination. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of escin, a natural triterpene-saponin on chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p) induced mouse model of PD. Administration of MPTP led to the depleted striatal dopamine content, impaired patterns of behavior, enhanced oxidative stress and diminished expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2). The expressions of interleukin-6 and -10, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in SN were also enhanced. Oral treatment of escin significantly attenuated MPTP/p induced dopaminergic markers depletion, physiological abnormalities, oxidative stress and inhibit neuroinflammatory cytokine expressions in SN. The result of our study confirmed that escin mediated its protection against experimental PD through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24657313

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia disease progression is accelerated by APRIL-TACI interaction in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lascano, Valeria; Guadagnoli, Marco; Schot, Jan G.; Luijks, Dieuwertje M.; Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; Cameron, Katherine; Hahne, Michael; Pals, Steven; Slinger, Erik; Kipps, Thomas J.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Eldering, Eric; Medema, Jan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Although in vitro studies pointed to the tumor necrosis factor family member APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) in mediating survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, clear evidence for a role in leukemogenesis and progression in CLL is lacking. APRIL significantly prolonged in vitro survival of CD5+B220dull leukemic cells derived from the murine Eμ-TCL1-Tg (TCL1-Tg [transgenic]) model for CLL. APRIL-TCL1 double-Tg mice showed a significantly earlier onset of leukemia and disruption of splenic architecture, and survival was significantly reduced. Interestingly, clonal evolution of CD5+B220dull cells (judged by BCR clonality) did not seem to be accelerated by APRIL; both mouse strains were oligoclonal at 4 months. Although APRIL binds different receptors, APRIL-mediated leukemic cell survival depended on tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TACI) ligation. These findings indicate that APRIL has an important role in CLL and that the APRIL-TACI interaction might be a selective novel therapeutic target for human CLL. PMID:24100449

  3. Chronic Pharmacological mGluR5 Inhibition Prevents Cognitive Impairment and Reduces Pathogenesis in an Alzheimer Disease Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alison; Vasefi, Maryam; Vander Tuin, Cheryl; McQuaid, Robyn J; Anisman, Hymie; Ferguson, Stephen S G

    2016-05-31

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been shown to act as a receptor for both Aβ oligomers and cellular prion proteins. Furthermore, the genetic deletion of mGluR5 in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of AD improves cognitive function and reduces Aβ plaques and Aβ oligomer concentrations. Here, we show that chronic administration of the orally bioavailable mGluR5-selective negative allosteric modulator CTEP, which is similar in structure, potency, and selectivity to Basimglurant (RO4917523), which is currently in phase II clinical development for major depressive disorder and fragile X syndrome, reverses cognitive decline in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice and reduces Aβ plaque deposition and soluble Aβ oligomer concentrations in both APPswe/PS1ΔE9 and 3xTg-AD male mice. These findings suggest that CTEP or its analogue Basimglutant might potentially be an effective therapeutic for the treatment of AD patients. PMID:27210751

  4. Metabolomic identification of biochemical changes induced by fluoxetine and imipramine in a chronic mild stress mouse model of depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Jung, Yang-Hee; Jang, Choon-Gon; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-03-01

    Metabolomics was applied to a C57BL/6N mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS). Such mice were treated with two antidepressants from different categories: fluoxetine and imipramine. Metabolic profiling of the hippocampus was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on samples prepared under optimized conditions, followed by principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and pair-wise orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses. Body weight measurement and behavior tests including an open field test and the forced swimming test were completed with the mice as a measure of the phenotypes of depression and antidepressive effects. As a result, 23 metabolites that had been differentially expressed among the control, CMS, and antidepressant-treated groups demonstrated that amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, adenosine receptors, and neurotransmitters are commonly perturbed by drug treatment. Potential predictive markers for treatment effect were identified: myo-inositol for fluoxetine and lysine and oleic acid for imipramine. Collectively, the current study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of two widely used medications.

  5. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marielza Andrade; Schöwe, Natalia Mendes; Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained. PMID:26605788

  6. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (1.2 mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained. PMID:26605788

  7. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system. PMID:26859816

  8. Anti-fatigue effect of Myelophil in a chronic forced exercise mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil. ICR male mice (10 weeks old) were forced to run for 1 hour, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Each running session was followed by administration of distilled water, Myelophil (50 or 100 mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) 1h later. Equal proportions of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix were extracted using 30% ethanol, and formulated into Myelophil. To evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil, exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests were conducted. Underlying mechanisms, including oxidant-antioxidant balance, inflammatory response, and energy metabolism, were investigated by analyzing skeletal muscle tissues and/or sera. Myelophil significantly increased exercise ability and latency times, and decreased the number of electric shocks and immobility time on exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests compared with control group. Myelophil also significantly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations in oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by multiple assays, including enzyme activity assays and western blotting, as well as alterations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Myelophil normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers in sera. These findings suggest that Myelophil reduces the effects of chronic fatigue, likely by attenuating oxidative and inflammatory responses and normalizing energy metabolism. Consequently, this study provides evidence for the clinical relevance of Myelophil. PMID:26142828

  9. Dendritic Spine Loss and Chronic White Matter Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Highly Repetitive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Winston, Charisse N; Noël, Anastasia; Neustadtl, Aidan; Parsadanian, Maia; Barton, David J; Chellappa, Deepa; Wilkins, Tiffany E; Alikhani, Andrew D; Zapple, David N; Villapol, Sonia; Planel, Emmanuel; Burns, Mark P

    2016-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an emerging risk for chronic behavioral, cognitive, and neurodegenerative conditions. Athletes absorb several hundred mTBIs each year; however, rodent models of repeat mTBI (rmTBI) are often limited to impacts in the single digits. Herein, we describe the effects of 30 rmTBIs, examining structural and pathological changes in mice up to 365 days after injury. We found that single mTBI causes a brief loss of consciousness and a transient reduction in dendritic spines, reflecting a loss of excitatory synapses. Single mTBI does not cause axonal injury, neuroinflammation, or cell death in the gray or white matter. Thirty rmTBIs with a 1-day interval between each mTBI do not cause dendritic spine loss; however, when the interinjury interval is increased to 7 days, dendritic spine loss is reinstated. Thirty rmTBIs cause white matter pathology characterized by positive silver and Fluoro-Jade B staining, and microglial proliferation and activation. This pathology continues to develop through 60 days, and is still apparent at 365 days, after injury. However, rmTBIs did not increase β-amyloid levels or tau phosphorylation in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Our data reveal that single mTBI causes a transient loss of synapses, but that rmTBIs habituate to repetitive injury within a short time period. rmTBI causes the development of progressive white matter pathology that continues for months after the final impact. PMID:26857506

  10. Effect of chronic coffee consumption on weight gain and glycaemia in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rustenbeck, I; Lier-Glaubitz, V; Willenborg, M; Eggert, F; Engelhardt, U; Jörns, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological evidence shows that chronic coffee consumption in humans is correlated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For the experimental exploration of the underlying mechanisms, this effect needs to be replicated in an animal model of type 2 diabetes with a short lifespan. Design: Male C57BL/6 mice consumed regular coffee or water ad libitum and the development of obesity and diabetes caused by high-fat diet (55% lipids, HFD) was observed from week 10 on for 35 weeks in comparison with mice feeding on a defined normal diet (9% lipids, ND). Results: The massive weight gain in HFD mice was dose-dependently retarded (P=0.034), the moderate weight gain in ND mice was abolished (P<0.001) by coffee consumption, probably because of a lower feeding efficiency. The consumption of fluid (water or coffee) was significantly diminished by HFD (P<0.001), resulting in a higher coffee exposure of ND mice. On week 21 intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) showed a dose-dependent faster decline of elevated glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P=0.016), but not in ND mice. Remarkably, a spontaneous decrease in non-fasting glycaemia occurred after week 21 in all treatment groups (P<0.001). On week 39 the IPGTT showed diminished peak of glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P<0.05). HFD mice were hyperinsulinaemic and had significantly (P<0.001) enlarged islets. Coffee consumption did not affect islet size or parameters of beta-cell apoptosis, proliferation and insulin granule content. Conclusion: Coffee consumption retarded weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and corresponding controls. This gives rise to the expectation that further insight into the mechanism of the diabetes-preventive effect of coffee consumption in humans may be gained by this approach. PMID:24979152

  11. Antidepressant-like effects of oleoylethanolamide in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Yu, Hai-Ling; Tian-Lan; Zhang, Feng; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2015-06-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endocannabinoid analog that belongs to a family of endogenous acylethanolamides. Increasing evidence suggests that OEA may act as an endogenous neuroprotective factor and participate in the control of mental disorder-related behaviors. In this study, we examined whether OEA is effective against depression and investigated the role of circulating endogenous acylethanolamides during stress. Mice were subjected to 28days of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and during the last 21days, treated with oral OEA (1.5-6mg/kg) or 6mg/kg fluoxetine. Sucrose preference and open field test activity were used to evaluate depression-like behaviors during CUMS and after OEA treatment. Weights of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were determined, and the adrenal index was measured. Furthermore, changes in serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were detected. Our findings indicate that OEA normalized sucrose preferences, locomotion distances, rearing frequencies, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal atrophy, and adrenal indices. In addition, OEA reversed the abnormalities of BDNF and MDA levels and SOD activities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as changes in serum levels of ACTH, CORT, and T-AOC. The antidepressant effects of OEA may be related to the regulation of BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, antioxidant defenses, and normalizing hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). PMID:25864425

  12. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase mediated signaling enhances leukemogenesis in a mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kil, Laurens P; de Bruijn, Marjolein JW; van Hulst, Jennifer AC; Langerak, Anton W; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2013-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) signals from the B cell receptor (BCR) play a major role in disease development and progression. In this light, new therapies that specifically target signaling molecules downstream of the BCR continue to be developed. While first studies on the selective small molecule inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), demonstrated that Btk inhibition sensitizes CLL cells to apoptosis and alters their migratory behavior, these studies however did not address whether Btk-mediated signaling is involved in the process of CLL leukemogenesis. To investigate the requirement of Btk signaling for CLL development, we modulated Btk expression in the IgH.ETμ CLL mouse model, which is based on sporadic expression of the simian oncovirus SV40 T-antigen in mature B cells. To this end, we crossed IgH.ETμ mice on a Btk-deficient background or introduced a human Btk transgene (CD19-hBtk). Here we show that Btk deficiency fully abrogates CLL formation in IgH.ETμ mice, and that leukemias formed in Btk haplo-insufficient mice selectively expressed the wild-type Btk allele on their active X chromosome. Conversely, Btk overexpression accelerated CLL onset, increased mortality, and was associated with selection of non-stereotypical BCRs into CLL clones. Taken together, these data show that Btk expression represents an absolute prerequisite for CLL development and that Btk mediated signaling enhances leukemogenesis in mice. We therefore conclude that in CLL Btk expression levels set the threshold for malignant transformation. PMID:23359016

  13. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Varsha G.; Herman, Eugene H.; Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S.; Lewis, Sherry M.; Davis, Kelly J.; George, Nysia I.; Lee, Taewon; Kerr, Susan; Fuscoe, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ► 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ► Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ► Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  14. Divergent Inflammatory, Fibrogenic, and Liver Progenitor Cell Dynamics in Two Common Mouse Models of Chronic Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Köhn-Gaone, Julia; Dwyer, Benjamin J; Grzelak, Candice A; Miller, Gregory; Shackel, Nicholas A; Ramm, Grant A; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Elsegood, Caryn L; Olynyk, John K; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E E

    2016-07-01

    Complications of end-stage chronic liver disease signify a major cause of mortality worldwide. Irrespective of the underlying cause, most chronic liver diseases are characterized by hepatocellular necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and proliferation of liver progenitor cells or ductular reactions. Vast differences exist between experimental models that mimic these processes, and their identification is fundamental for translational research. We compared two common murine models of chronic liver disease: the choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet versus thioacetamide (TAA) supplementation. Markers of liver injury, including serum alanine transaminase levels, apoptosis, hepatic fat loading, and oxidative stress, as well as inflammatory, fibrogenic and liver progenitor cell responses, were assessed at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42. This study revealed remarkable differences between the models. It identified periportal injury and fibrosis with an early peak and slow normalization of all parameters in the CDE regimen, whereas TAA-treated mice had pericentral patterns of progressive injury and fibrosis, resulting in a more severe hepatic injury phenotype. This study is the first to resolve two different patterns of injury and fibrosis in the CDE and TAA model and to indisputably identify the fibrosis pattern in the TAA model as driven from the pericentral vein region. Our data provide a valuable foundation for future work using the CDE and TAA regimens to model a variety of human chronic liver diseases. PMID:27181403

  15. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:26010758

  16. Thymocytes, Pre-B Cells, and Organ Changes in a Mouse Model of Chronic Ethanol Ingestion—Absence of Subset-Specific Glucocorticoid-Induced Immune Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert T.; Schlueter, Annette J.; Coleman, Ruth A.; Tygrett, Lorraine; Ballas, Zuhair K.; Jerrells, Thomas R.; Nashelsky, Marcus B.; Ray, Nancy B.; Haugen, Thomas H.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The well-known immune deficiency of the chronic alcoholic dictates the need for a long-term rodent ethanol administration model to evaluate the baseline immunologic effects of chronic ethanol abuse, and investigate the genetic determinants of those effects. Much published work with rodents has shown clearly that acute ethanol administration and short-term ethanol-containing liquid diets both cause elevated corticosterone and can cause significant thymocyte, pre-B cell and peripheral lymphocyte losses. Such losses may mask more subtle alterations in immune homeostasis, and in any case are generally short-lived compared with the span of chronic ethanol abuse. Thus, it is important to have a model in which long-term immune alterations can be studied free of corticosteroid-induced cell losses. Methods We have utilized chronic 20% (w / v) ethanol in water administration to several mouse strains for prolonged periods of time and evaluated serum corticosterone, immunologic stress parameters, and other organ changes by standard methods. Results We now confirm earlier reports that chronic ethanol in water administration to mice does not produce net elevations of corticosterone, although diurnal variation is altered. Importantly, there is neither selective loss of immune cell populations known to be corticosteroid sensitive, CD4+CD8+ thymocytes and pre-B cells, nor are changes observed in the histologic appearance of the thymus. Nonetheless, there are significant chronic ethanol effects in other tissues, including reduced heart weight, mild hepatic steatosis, alterations of gut flora, increased serum peptidoglycan, and as published elsewhere, immune system abnormalities. Conclusions This model of ethanol administration is convenient, sustainable for up to 1 year, demonstrably feasible in several mouse strains, permits good weight gains in most strains, and results in significant changes in a number of organs. The administration method also will permit modeling of

  17. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients. PMID:26063174

  18. Impaired Bronchoprotection Is Not Induced by Increased Smooth Muscle Mass in Chronic Treatment In Vivo with Formoterol in Asthmatic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Luo, W; Liu, C-T; Yang, Q-H; Yu, Q; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Inhaling β2-adrenoceptor agonist is first-line asthma treatment, which is used for both acute relief of and prevention of bronchoconstriction. However, chronic use of β-agonists results in impaired bronchoprotection and increasing occurrences of severe asthma exacerbation, even death in clinical practice. The mechanism of β-adrenoceptor hyposensitivity has not been thoroughly elucidated thus far. Bronchial smooth muscle contraction induces airway narrowing and also mediates airway inflammation. Moreover, bronchial smooth muscle mass significantly increases in asthmatics. We aim to establish an asthmatic model that demonstrated that formoterol induced impaired bronchoprotection and to see whether increased smooth muscle mass played a role in it. Methods: We combined routine allergen challenging (seven weeks) with repeated application of formoterol, formoterol plus budesonide or physiological saline in allergen-sensitized BALB/c mouse. The bronchoprotection mediated by β-agonist was measured in five consecutive weeks. Smooth muscle mass was shown by morphometric analysis, and α-actin expression was detected by western blot. Results: The trend of bronchoprotection was wavy in drug interventional groups, which initially increased and then decreased. Chronic treatment with formoterol significantly impaired bronchoprotection. According to the morphometric analysis and α-actin expression, no significant difference was detected in smooth muscle mass in all groups. Conclusion: This experiment successfully established that a chronic asthmatic mouse model, which manifested typical features of asthmatic patients, when treated chronically with formoterol, showed a loss of bronchoprotection. No significant difference was detected in smooth muscle mass in all groups, which implied some subcellular signalling changes may be the key points. PMID:25803396

  19. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  20. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  1. Chronic P7C3 treatment restores hippocampal neurogenesis in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down Syndrome [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Latchney, Sarah E; Jaramillo, Thomas C; Rivera, Phillip D; Eisch, Amelia J; Powell, Craig M

    2015-03-30

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and developmental delay. In addition to cognitive dysfunction, DS patients are marked by diminished neurogenesis, a neuropathological feature also found in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Interestingly, manipulations that enhance neurogenesis - like environmental enrichment or pharmacological agents - improve cognition in Ts65Dn mice. P7C3 is a proneurogenic compound that enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, cell survival, and promotes cognition in aged animals. However, this compound has not been tested in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. We hypothesized that P7C3 treatment would reverse or ameliorate the neurogenic deficits in Ts65Dn mice. To test this, adult Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were administered vehicle or P7C3 twice daily for 3 months. After 3 months, brains were examined for indices of neurogenesis, including quantification of Ki67, DCX, activated caspase-3 (AC3), and surviving BrdU-immunoreactive(+) cells in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. P7C3 had no effect on total Ki67+, DCX+, AC3+, or surviving BrdU+ cells in WT mice relative to vehicle. GCL volume was also not changed. In keeping with our hypothesis, however, P7C3-treated Ts65Dn mice had a significant increase in total Ki67+, DCX+, and surviving BrdU+ cells relative to vehicle. P7C3 treatment also decreased AC3+ cell number but had no effect on total GCL volume in Ts65Dn mice. Our findings show 3 months of P7C3 is sufficient to restore the neurogenic deficits observed in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. PMID:25668489

  2. Chronic 5-HT4 receptor agonist treatment restores learning and memory deficits in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression.

    PubMed

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M; David, Denis J; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-11

    Cognitive disturbances are often reported as serious invalidating symptoms in patients suffering from major depression disorders (MDD) and are not fully corrected by classical monoaminergic antidepressant drugs. If the role of 5-HT4 receptor agonists as cognitive enhancers is well established in naïve animals or in animal models of cognitive impairment, their cognitive effects in the context of stress need to be examined. Using a mouse model of anxiety/depression (CORT model), we reported that a chronic 5-HT4 agonist treatment (RS67333, 1.5mg/kg/day) restored chronic corticosterone-induced cognitive deficits, including episodic-like, associative and spatial learning and memory impairments. On the contrary, a chronic monoaminergic antidepressant drug treatment with fluoxetine (18mg/kg/day) only partially restored spatial learning and memory deficits and had no effect in the associative/contextual task. These results suggest differential mechanisms underlying cognitive effects of these drugs. Finally, the present study highlights 5-HT4 receptor stimulation as a promising therapeutic mechanism to alleviate cognitive symptoms related to MDD. PMID:26850572

  3. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine – Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Hongliang; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF) is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively) and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE. PMID:26186537

  4. Potential carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke and Swedish moist snuff on pancreas: a study using a transgenic mouse model of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Bhagat, Govind; Quante, Michael; Baik, Gwang Ho; Marrache, Frederic; Tu, Shui Ping; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Wang, Timothy C

    2010-03-01

    The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased in both Snus (the Swedish variant of oral smokeless tobacco) users and, to a greater extent, in cigarette smokers. Concurrent chronic pancreatitis further increases the risk in cigarette smokers. Little is known about the mechanism by which cigarette smoke or Snus increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with chronic pancreatitis. This study examined the carcinogenic effects of an aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (tobacco smoke, TS) or Snus in an Elastase-IL-1beta transgenic mouse model of chronic pancreatitis. Both transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice were fed diluted TS water or Snus-containing diet for up to 15 months, and monitored for phenotypic and molecular changes in the pancreas. Both TS- and Snus-treated Elastase-IL-1beta mice, but not WT mice, developed significant pancreatic ductal epithelial flattening and severe glandular atrophy compared with untreated transgenic mice. Ductal epithelial cells displayed a high proliferative index, minimal apoptosis, and induction of COX-2 in the setting of chronic inflammation. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha correlated with the onset of severe glandular atrophy. In comparison with Snus-treated mice, TS-Elastase-IL-1beta mice had an earlier onset and a greater extent of phenotypic changes, which were associated with up-regulation of TNF-alpha and increased expression of IL-6, TGF-beta, and SDF-1. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which tobacco products are likely to promote carcinogenesis in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:20065943

  5. The pathophysiology underlying repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Petraglia, Anthony L.; Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Chen, Michael; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Huang, Jason H.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Background: An animal model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is essential for further understanding the pathophysiological link between repetitive head injury and the development of chronic neurodegenerative disease. We previously described a model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in mice that encapsulates the neurobehavioral spectrum characteristic of patients with CTE. We aimed to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this animal model. Methods: Our previously described model allows for controlled, closed head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Briefly, 12-week-old mice were divided into three groups: Control, single, and repetitive mTBI. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily, for 7 days. Mice were then subsequently sacrificed for macro- and micro-histopathologic analysis at 7 days, 1 month, and 6 months after the last TBI received. Brain sections were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for astrocytes, CD68 for activated microglia, and AT8 for phosphorylated tau protein. Results: Brains from single and repetitive mTBI mice lacked macroscopic tissue damage at all time-points. Single mTBI resulted in an acute rea ctive astrocytosis at 7 days and increased phospho-tau immunoreactivity that was present acutely and at 1 month, but was not persistent at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI resulted in a more marked neuroinflammatory response, with persistent and widespread astrogliosis and microglial activation, as well as significantly elevated phospho-tau immunoreactivity to 6-months. Conclusions: The neuropathological findings in this new model of repetitive mTBI resemble some of the histopathological hallmarks of CTE, including increased astrogliosis, microglial activation, and hyperphosphorylated tau protein accumulation. PMID:25593768

  6. Differential Features between Chronic Skin Inflammatory Diseases Revealed in Skin-Humanized Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Marta; Guerrero-Aspizua, Sara; Illera, Nuria; Galvez, Victoria; Navarro, Manuel; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Jorcano, Jose Luis; Larcher, Fernando; del Rio, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are chronic and relapsing inflammatory diseases of the skin affecting a large number of patients worldwide. Psoriasis is characterized by a T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 immunological response, whereas acute atopic dermatitis lesions exhibit T helper type 2-dominant inflammation. Current single gene and signaling pathways-based models of inflammatory skin diseases are incomplete. Previous work allowed us to model psoriasis in skin-humanized mice through proper combinations of inflammatory cell components and disruption of barrier function. Herein, we describe and characterize an animal model for atopic dermatitis using similar bioengineered-based approaches, by intradermal injection of human T helper type 2 lymphocytes in regenerated human skin after partial removal of stratum corneum. In this work, we have extensively compared this model with the previous and an improved version of the psoriasis model, in which T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 lymphocytes replace exogenous cytokines. Comparative expression analyses revealed marked differences in specific epidermal proliferation and differentiation markers and immune-related molecules, including antimicrobial peptides. Likewise, the composition of the dermal inflammatory infiltrate presented important differences. The availability of accurate and reliable animal models for these diseases will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and provide valuable tools for drug development and testing. PMID:26763433

  7. Antidepressant-like effects of Sanyuansan in the mouse forced swim test, tail suspension test, and chronic mild stress model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; You, Zi-Li; Zhao, Qiu-Ying; Peng, Cheng; He, Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Natural products have been widely reported as effective therapeutic alternatives for treatment of depression. Sanyuansan is a compound recipe composed of ginseng total saponins, fish oil, and valeriana. The aims of this study were to validate whether Sanyuansan has antidepressant-like effects through acute behavioral tests including the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), locomotor activity test, and chronic mild stress (CMS) mice model of depression. C57BL/6 mice were given oral administration of 30 mg/kg imipramine, Sanyuansan, and saline, respectively. The acute behavioral tests including the TST, FST, and locomotor activity test were done after the administration of drugs for consecutively three times (24 hours, 1 hour, and 0.5 hour prior to the tests). Furthermore, the sucrose preference and the serum corticosterone level of mice in the CMS model were examined. Sanyuansan only at 900 mg/kg markedly reduced immobility time in the TST compared with the saline-treated group of mice. Sanyuansan at doses of 225 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility time of mice in the FST. Sanyuansan reversed the CMS-induced anhedonia and hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition, our results showed that neither imipramine nor Sanyuansan at any dosage increased spontaneous motor activity. These results suggested that Sanyuansan induced significant antidepressant-like effects in mice in both acute and chronic animal models, which seemed unlikely to be attributed to an increase in locomotor activities of mice, and had no sedative-like effects. PMID:26709221

  8. TCL1 transgenic mouse model as a tool for the study of therapeutic targets and microenvironment in human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bresin, A; D'Abundo, L; Narducci, M G; Fiorenza, M T; Croce, C M; Negrini, M; Russo, G

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell malignancy with a mature phenotype. In spite of its relatively indolent nature, no radical cure is as yet available. CLL is not associated with either a unique cytogenetic or a molecular defect, which might have been a potential therapeutic target. Instead, several factors are involved in disease development, such as environmental signals which interact with genetic abnormalities to promote survival, proliferation and an immune surveillance escape. Among these, PI3-Kinase signal pathway alterations are nowadays considered to be clearly important. The TCL1 gene, an AKT co-activator, is the cause of a mature T-cell leukemia, as well as being highly expressed in all B-CLL. A TCL1 transgenic mouse which reproduces leukemia with a distinct immunophenotype and similar to the course of the human B-CLL was developed several years ago and is widely used by many groups. This is a review of the CLL biology arising from work of many independent investigators who have used TCL1 transgenic mouse model focusing on pathogenetic, microenviroment and therapeutic targets. PMID:26821067

  9. Protein kinase C α inhibition prevents peritoneal damage in a mouse model of chronic peritoneal exposure to high-glucose dialysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Balzer, Michael S; Rong, Song; Menne, Jan; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Dong, Lei; Gueler, Faikah; Jang, Mi-Sun; Xu, Gang; Timrott, Kai; Tkachuk, Sergey; Hiss, Marcus; Haller, Hermann; Shushakova, Nelli

    2016-06-01

    Chronic exposure to commercial glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids during peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal membrane damage leading to ultrafiltration failure. In this study the role of protein kinase C (PKC) α in peritoneal membrane damage was investigated in a mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. We used 2 different approaches: blockade of biological activity of PKCα by intraperitoneal application of the conventional PKC inhibitor Go6976 in C57BL/6 wild-type mice and PKCα-deficient mice on a 129/Sv genetic background. Daily administration of peritoneal dialysis fluid for 5 weeks induced peritoneal upregulation and activation of PKCα accompanied by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelial cells, peritoneal membrane fibrosis, neoangiogenesis, and macrophage and T cell infiltration, paralleled by reduced ultrafiltration capacity. All pathological changes were prevented by PKCα blockade or deficiency. Moreover, treatment with Go6976 and PKCα deficiency resulted in strong reduction of proinflammatory, profibrotic, and proangiogenic mediators. In cell culture experiments, both treatment with Go6976 and PKCα deficiency prevented peritoneal dialysis fluid-induced release of MCP-1 from mouse peritoneal mesothelial cells and ameliorated transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and peritoneal dialysis fluid-induced MCP-1 release in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Thus, PKCα plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of peritoneal membrane dysfunction induced by peritoneal dialysis fluids, and we suggest that its therapeutic inhibition might be a valuable treatment option for peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:27142955

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengwei; Chi, Feifei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Chen, Yongquan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 was screened for high antioxidative activity from 55 lactobacilli. The present study attempted to explore the protective properties of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 in alcoholic liver injury. A mouse model was induced by orally feeding alcohol when simultaneously treated with L. rhamnosus CCFM1107, the drug Hu-Gan- Pian (HGP), L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), and L. plantarum CCFM1112 for 3 months. Biochemical analysis was performed for both serum and liver homogenate. Detailed intestinal flora and histological analyses were also carried out. Our results indicated that the administration of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 significantly inhibited the increase in the levels of serum aminotransferase and endotoxin, as well as the levels of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) in the serum and in the liver. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased. The enteric dysbiosis caused by alcohol was restored by increasing the numbers of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and decreasing the numbers of both enterococci and enterobacter. Histological analysis confirmed the protective effect of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107. Compared with the other lactobacilli and to the drug Hu-Gan-Pian, there is a high chance that L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 provides protective effects on alcoholic liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and restoring the intestinal flora. PMID:26626356

  11. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    PubMed

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI. PMID:26784694

  12. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R.; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M.; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A.; Cripton, Peter A.; Wellington, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8–16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI. PMID:26784694

  13. In Vivo Acute on Chronic Ethanol Effects in Liver: A Mouse Model Exhibiting Exacerbated Injury, Altered Metabolic and Epigenetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shivendra D.; Aroor, Annayya R.; Restrepo, Ricardo; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic ethanol binge group. Trimethylated histone H3 levels did not change. Nuclear levels of histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and histone deacetylase HDAC3 were elevated whereas phospho-CREB decreased in a distinctive manner. Taken together, acute on chronic ethanol ingestion caused amplification of liver injury and elicited characteristic profiles of histone modifications, metabolic alterations, and changes in nuclear protein levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure renders liver more susceptible to repeat acute/binge ethanol induced acceleration of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26610587

  14. Chronic hyperglycemia induced via the heterozygous knockout of Pdx1 worsens neuropathological lesion in an Alzheimer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuang; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jia-Yi; Ding, Chen; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Chai, Rui; Wang, Xu; Wang, Zhan-You

    2016-01-01

    Compelling evidence has indicated that dysregulated glucose metabolism links Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) via glucose metabolic products. Nevertheless, because of the lack of appropriate animal models, whether chronic hyperglycemia worsens AD pathologies in vivo remains to be confirmed. Here, we crossed diabetic mice (Pdx1(+/-) mice) with Alzheimer mice (APP/PS1 transgenic mice) to generate Pdx1(+/-)/APP/PS1. We identified robust increases in tau phosphorylation, the loss of the synaptic spine protein, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and plaque formation associated with increased microglial and astrocyte activation proliferation, which lead to exacerbated memory and cognition deficits. More importantly, we also observed increased glucose intolerance accompanied by Pdx1 reduction, the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and the activation of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) signaling pathways during AD progression; these changes are thought to contribute to the processing of Aβ precursor proteins and result in increased Aβ generation and decreased Aβ degradation. Protein glycation, increased oxidative stress and inflammation via hyperglycemia are the primary mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of AD. These results indicate the pathological relationship between these diseases and provide novel insights suggesting that glycemic control may be beneficial for decreasing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying AD progression. PMID:27406855

  15. YAP is up-regulated in the bronchial airway smooth muscle of the chronic asthma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Jing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by leukocytic infiltration and tissue remodeling with structural changes including subepithelial fibrosis and ASM cells proliferation. The Hippo pathway is a key regulatory point involved in cell proliferation, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cell differentiation. In order to disclose the relation between asthma and the Hippo pathway, expression of the Yes-associated protein (YAP), a key gene in the Hippo pathway, in the bronchial smooth muscle of chronic asthma model (CAM) was studied. 40 mice were randomly divided into control (wide type) and experimental group to construct CAM using chicken ovalbumin (OVA). Pathological changes of the lung tissues were observed in the CAM mice compared with the control using HE staining method. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect if YAP protein is expressed in the lung tissues. The pathological changes of the CAM group showed that a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration including mainly lymphocytes and a small amount of eosinophilic, with the presence of certain airway smooth muscle hyperplasia, was observed in comparison with the control. IHC results showed that the YAP protein was significantly increased compared with the control groups (P < 0.01). This result was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay which detected the up-regulation of the YAP gene (P < 0.01) and Western blot. In conclusion, the YAP protein was significantly expressed in the bronchial airway tissues of the CAM mice, and could be used as an indicator for asthma. PMID:26617833

  16. Chronic hyperglycemia induced via the heterozygous knockout of Pdx1 worsens neuropathological lesion in an Alzheimer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chuang; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jia-Yi; Ding, Chen; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Chai, Rui; Wang, Xu; Wang, Zhan-You

    2016-01-01

    Compelling evidence has indicated that dysregulated glucose metabolism links Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) via glucose metabolic products. Nevertheless, because of the lack of appropriate animal models, whether chronic hyperglycemia worsens AD pathologies in vivo remains to be confirmed. Here, we crossed diabetic mice (Pdx1+/− mice) with Alzheimer mice (APP/PS1 transgenic mice) to generate Pdx1+/−/APP/PS1. We identified robust increases in tau phosphorylation, the loss of the synaptic spine protein, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and plaque formation associated with increased microglial and astrocyte activation proliferation, which lead to exacerbated memory and cognition deficits. More importantly, we also observed increased glucose intolerance accompanied by Pdx1 reduction, the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and the activation of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) signaling pathways during AD progression; these changes are thought to contribute to the processing of Aβ precursor proteins and result in increased Aβ generation and decreased Aβ degradation. Protein glycation, increased oxidative stress and inflammation via hyperglycemia are the primary mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of AD. These results indicate the pathological relationship between these diseases and provide novel insights suggesting that glycemic control may be beneficial for decreasing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying AD progression. PMID:27406855

  17. A mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on expression of the SV40 large T antigen.

    PubMed

    ter Brugge, Petra J; Ta, Van B T; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Keijzers, Guido; Maas, Alex; van Gent, Dik C; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2009-07-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen is a potent oncogene able to transform many cell types and has been implicated in leukemia and lymphoma. In this report, we have achieved sporadic SV40 T-antigen expression in mature B cells in mice, by insertion of a SV40 T antigen gene in opposite transcriptional orientation in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain locus between the D and J(H) segments. SV40 T-antigen expression appeared to result from retention of the targeted germline allele and concomitant antisense transcription of SV40 large T in mature B cells, leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although B-cell development was unperturbed in young mice, aging mice showed accumulation of a monoclonal B-cell population in which the targeted IgH allele was in germline configuration and the wild-type IgH allele had a productive V(D)J recombination. These leukemic B cells were IgD(low)CD5(+) and manifested nonrandom usage of V, D, and J segments. V(H) regions were either unmutated, with preferential usage of the VH11 family, or manifested extensive somatic hypermutation. Our findings provide an animal model for B-CLL and show that pathways activated by SV40 T antigen play important roles in the pathogenesis of B-CLL. PMID:19332766

  18. Acute and Chronic Plasma Metabolomic and Liver Transcriptomic Stress Effects in a Mouse Model with Features of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; D’Arpa, Peter; Donohue, Duncan E.; Muhie, Seid; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Luke, Brian T.; Grapov, Dmitry; Carroll, Erica E.; Meyerhoff, James L.; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Acute responses to intense stressors can give rise to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD diagnostic criteria include trauma exposure history and self-reported symptoms. Individuals who meet PTSD diagnostic criteria often meet criteria for additional psychiatric diagnoses. Biomarkers promise to contribute to reliable phenotypes of PTSD and comorbidities by linking biological system alterations to behavioral symptoms. Here we have analyzed unbiased plasma metabolomics and other stress effects in a mouse model with behavioral features of PTSD. In this model, C57BL/6 mice are repeatedly exposed to a trained aggressor mouse (albino SJL) using a modified, resident-intruder, social defeat paradigm. Our recent studies using this model found that aggressor-exposed mice exhibited acute stress effects including changed behaviors, body weight gain, increased body temperature, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic histopathologies and transcriptomic changes of heart tissue. Some of these acute stress effects persisted, reminiscent of PTSD. Here we report elevated proteins in plasma that function in inflammation and responses to oxidative stress and damaged tissue at 24 hrs post-stressor. Additionally at this acute time point, transcriptomic analysis indicated liver inflammation. The unbiased metabolomics analysis showed altered metabolites in plasma at 24 hrs that only partially normalized toward control levels after stress-withdrawal for 1.5 or 4 wks. In particular, gut-derived metabolites were altered at 24 hrs post-stressor and remained altered up to 4 wks after stress-withdrawal. Also at the 4 wk time point, hyperlipidemia and suppressed metabolites of amino acids and carbohydrates in plasma coincided with transcriptomic indicators of altered liver metabolism (activated xenobiotic and lipid metabolism). Collectively, these system-wide sequelae to repeated intense stress suggest that the simultaneous perturbed functioning of multiple organ systems (e.g., brain, heart

  19. Chronic levodopa treatment alters expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in the MPTP/p mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cote, Samantha R; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-01-12

    Chronic treatment with levodopa or antipsychotics results in manifestation of side-effects such as dyskinesia which correlates with changes in expression and function of receptors and signaling proteins. Previous studies have suggested a role for the dopamine D3 receptor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and tardive dyskinesia. Yet the expression and signaling function of D3 receptor in these disorders is not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic levodopa treatment alters both expression and function of D3 receptors in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid (MPTP/p) mouse model of PD. drd3-EGFP reporter mice were injected biweekly with saline or MPTP and probenecid for a 5-week period. During the last two weeks of the 5-week period, the mice were administered saline or levodopa twice daily. Locomotor activity was measured during the treatment period. D3 receptor expression was determined by western blot analysis. D3 receptor signaling function was determined at tissue and single cell level by measuring the activation of D3 receptor-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The drd3-EGFP mice administered MPTP/p exhibited akinesia/bradykinesia. Expression of D3 receptor protein in the dorsal striatum specifically increased in the MPTP/p-treated mice administered levodopa. In the dorsal striatum of levodopa and MPTP/p-treated drd3-EGFP mice, administration of a D3 receptor-selective dose of agonist, PD128907, failed to activate D3 receptor-MAPK signaling. These results suggest that MPTP-induced lesion and chronic levodopa treatment alters D3 receptor expression and function in the dorsal striatum which could contribute to the development of dyskinesias and other motor side-effects. PMID:25445374

  20. Restoration of Haemoglobin Level Using Hydrodynamic Gene Therapy with Erythropoietin Does Not Alleviate the Disease Progression in an Anaemic Mouse Model for TGFβ1-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Lea; Wogensen, Lise; Marcussen, Niels; Cecchi, Claudia R.; Dalsgaard, Trine; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin, Epo, is a 30.4 kDa glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the fetal liver and the adult kidney. Epo exerts its haematopoietic effects by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes with subsequent improved tissue oxygenation. Epo receptors are furthermore expressed in non-haematopoietic tissue and today, Epo is recognised as a cytokine with many pleiotropic effects. We hypothesize that hydrodynamic gene therapy with Epo can restore haemoglobin levels in anaemic transgenic mice and that this will attenuate the extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidneys. The experiment is conducted by hydrodynamic gene transfer of a plasmid encoding murine Epo in a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses TGF-β1 locally in the kidneys. This model develops anaemia due to chronic kidney disease characterised by thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, deposition of mesangial matrix and mild interstitial fibrosis. A group of age matched wildtype littermates are treated accordingly. After a single hydrodynamic administration of plasmid DNA containing murine EPO gene, sustained high haemoglobin levels are observed in both transgenic and wildtype mice from 7.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L to 9.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L and 10.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L to 15.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. We did not observe any effects in the thickness of glomerular or tubular basement membrane, on the expression of different collagen types in the kidneys or in kidney function after prolonged treatment with Epo. Thus, Epo treatment in this model of chronic kidney disease normalises haemoglobin levels but has no effect on kidney fibrosis or function. PMID:26046536

  1. A mouse model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction due to chronic infusion of a low subpressor dose of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jessica A; Mauro, Adolfo Gabriele; Carbone, Salvatore; Marchetti, Carlo; Gill, Rabia; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Valle Raleigh, Juan; Salloum, Fadi N; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Abbate, Antonio; Toldo, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome of HF symptoms associated with impaired diastolic function. Although it represents ∼50% of patients with HF, the mechanisms of disease are poorly understood, and therapies are generally ineffective in reducing HF progression. Animal models of HFpEF not due to pressure or volume overload are lacking, therefore limiting in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of novel therapies. We hypothesize that a continuous infusion of low-dose angiotensin II (ATII) is sufficient to induce left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF, without increasing blood pressure or inducing LV hypertrophy or dilatation. Osmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in 8-wk-old male mice assigned to the ATII (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or volume-matched vehicle (N = 8/group) for 4 wk. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures through a tail-cuff transducer, LV dimensions and ejection fraction through echocardiography, and LV relaxation through pulsed-wave Doppler and LV catheterization. Myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were measured. ATII infusion had no effects on systemic arterial blood pressure. ATII induced significant impairment in LV diastolic function, as measured by an increase (worsening) in LV isovolumetric relaxation time, myocardial performance index, isovolumetric relaxation time constant, and LV end-diastolic pressure without altering LV dimensions, mass, or ejection fraction. Chronic infusion of low-dose ATII recapitulates the HFpEF phenotype in the mouse, without increasing systemic arterial blood pressure. This mouse model may provide insight into the mechanisms of HFpEF. PMID:26188021

  2. A mouse model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction due to chronic infusion of a low subpressor dose of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jessica A.; Mauro, Adolfo Gabriele; Carbone, Salvatore; Marchetti, Carlo; Gill, Rabia; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Valle Raleigh, Juan; Salloum, Fadi N.; Van Tassell, Benjamin W.; Abbate, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome of HF symptoms associated with impaired diastolic function. Although it represents ∼50% of patients with HF, the mechanisms of disease are poorly understood, and therapies are generally ineffective in reducing HF progression. Animal models of HFpEF not due to pressure or volume overload are lacking, therefore limiting in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of novel therapies. We hypothesize that a continuous infusion of low-dose angiotensin II (ATII) is sufficient to induce left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF, without increasing blood pressure or inducing LV hypertrophy or dilatation. Osmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in 8-wk-old male mice assigned to the ATII (0.2 mg·kg−1·day−1) or volume-matched vehicle (N = 8/group) for 4 wk. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures through a tail-cuff transducer, LV dimensions and ejection fraction through echocardiography, and LV relaxation through pulsed-wave Doppler and LV catheterization. Myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were measured. ATII infusion had no effects on systemic arterial blood pressure. ATII induced significant impairment in LV diastolic function, as measured by an increase (worsening) in LV isovolumetric relaxation time, myocardial performance index, isovolumetric relaxation time constant, and LV end-diastolic pressure without altering LV dimensions, mass, or ejection fraction. Chronic infusion of low-dose ATII recapitulates the HFpEF phenotype in the mouse, without increasing systemic arterial blood pressure. This mouse model may provide insight into the mechanisms of HFpEF. PMID:26188021

  3. KRAS Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Rónán C.; Heyer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    KRAS is a potent oncogene and is mutated in about 30% of all human cancers. However, the biological context of KRAS-dependent oncogenesis is poorly understood. Genetically engineered mouse models of cancer provide invaluable tools to study the oncogenic process, and insights from KRAS-driven models have significantly increased our understanding of the genetic, cellular, and tissue contexts in which KRAS is competent for oncogenesis. Moreover, variation among tumors arising in mouse models can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying response or resistance to therapy in KRAS-dependent cancers. Hence, it is essential that models of KRAS-driven cancers accurately reflect the genetics of human tumors and recapitulate the complex tumor-stromal intercommunication that is manifest in human cancers. Here, we highlight the progress made in modeling KRAS-dependent cancers and the impact that these models have had on our understanding of cancer biology. In particular, the development of models that recapitulate the complex biology of human cancers enables translational insights into mechanisms of therapeutic intervention in KRAS-dependent cancers. PMID:21779503

  4. A novel mouse model for the study of the inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive alcohol consumption has been reported to interfere with human bone homeostasis and repair in multiple ways. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure in the rat via an intragastric dietary delivery system inhibits direct bone formation during distraction osteogenesis...

  5. Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common

  6. Persistent cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition downregulates NF-{kappa}B, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation in the min/+ mouse model of colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Adelaide M; Davids, Jennifer S; Damas, Beatrice C; Bertagnolli, Monica M

    2010-06-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition prevents adenoma formation in humans and mouse models of colon cancer. The selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib reduces COX-2 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) expression and adenomas in the intestine of Min/+ mice after treatment for several weeks, but prolonged treatment increases PGE(2) production, resulting in drug-resistant tumor formation and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-dependent intestinal fibrosis. In this study, we examined pathways that regulate COX-2 expression and suppress chronic intestinal inflammation. We show that NF-kappaB signaling was inhibited in the ileum of Min/+ mice receiving long-term treatment with celecoxib. This effect was associated with inhibition of TGFbeta-associated kinase-1 and IkappaB kinase alpha/beta activities and reduced expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 that enhance colonic barrier function. Additionally, we observed reduced activities of protein kinases c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 and protein kinase A and transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, regulators of COX-2 expression, which cross-talk with NF-kappaB. In ileum subjected to long-term celecoxib treatment, we noted relatively higher expression of COX-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-1beta in Paneth cells, whereas NF-kappaB and COX-2 were more strongly expressed by an expanded population of stromal myofibroblasts. Our findings argue that celecoxib resistance is an acquired adaptation to changes in the crypt microenvironment that is associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and impaired acute wound-healing responsiveness. PMID:20484034

  7. A novel dual GLP-1 and GIP incretin receptor agonist is neuroprotective in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease by reducing chronic inflammation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Li, Dongfang; Feng, Peng; Li, Lin; Xue, Guo-Fang; Li, Guanglai; Hölscher, Christian

    2016-04-13

    The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are growth factors. GLP-1 mimetics are on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes. Both GLP-1 and GIP mimetics have shown neuroprotective properties in previous studies. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in a clinical trial in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Novel GLP-1/GIP dual-agonist peptides have been developed to treat diabetes. Here, we report the neuroprotective effects of a novel dual agonist (DA-JC1) in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP was injected once daily (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 7 days and the dual agonist was coinjected once daily (50 nmol/kg intraperitoneally). We found that the drug reduced most of the MPTP-induced motor impairments in the rotarod, open-field locomotion, and muscle strength test. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum was reduced by MPTP and increased by DA-JC1. Synapse numbers (synaptophysin expression) were reduced in the substantia nigra and the striatum by MPTP and DA-JC1 reversed this effect. The activation of a chronic inflammation response by MPTP was considerably reduced by the dual agonist (DA) (astroglia and microglia activation). Therefore, dual agonists show promise as a novel treatment of PD. PMID:26918675

  8. Accelerated tau aggregation, apoptosis and neurological dysfunction caused by chronic oral administration of aluminum in a mouse model of tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Etsuko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yokota, Osamu; Nakashima-Yasuda, Hanae; Nagao, Shigeto; Ikeda, Chikako; Naohara, Jun; Terada, Seishi; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2013-11-01

    To clarify whether long-term oral ingestion of aluminum (Al) can increase tau aggregation in mammals, we examined the effects of oral Al administration on tau accumulation, apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS) and motor function using tau transgenic (Tg) mice that show very slowly progressive tau accumulation. Al-treated tau Tg mice had almost twice as many tau-positive inclusions in the spinal cord as tau Tg mice without Al treatment at 12 months of age, a difference that reached statistical significance, and the development of pretangle-like tau aggregates in the brain was also significantly advanced from 9 months. Al exposure did not induce any tau pathology in wild-type (WT) mice. Apoptosis was observed in the hippocampus in Al-treated tau Tg mice, but was virtually absent in the other experimental groups. Motor function as assessed by the tail suspension test was most severely impaired in Al-treated tau Tg mice. Given our results, chronic oral ingestion of Al may more strongly promote tau aggregation, apoptosis and neurological dysfunction if individuals already had a pathological process causing tau aggregation. These findings may also implicate chronic Al neurotoxicity in humans, who frequently have had mild tau pathology from a young age. PMID:23574527

  9. A new HCV mouse model on the block.

    PubMed

    Tawar, Rajiv G; Mailly, Laurent; Baumert, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of virus-induced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma needs small animal models modeling hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and liver disease biology. A recent study published in Cell Research reports a novel mouse model which is permissive for chronic HCV infection and shows chronic liver injury including inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis. PMID:25257465

  10. Chronic increase of urea leads to carbamylated proteins accumulation in tissues in a mouse model of CKD.

    PubMed

    Pietrement, Christine; Gorisse, Laëtitia; Jaisson, Stéphane; Gillery, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Carbamylation is a general process involved in protein molecular ageing due to the nonenzymatic binding of isocyanic acid, mainly generated by urea dissociation, to free amino groups. In vitro experiments and clinical studies have suggested the potential involvement of carbamylated proteins (CPs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications like atherosclerosis, but their metabolic fate in vivo is still unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated protein carbamylation in the plasma and tissues of control and 75% nephrectomised C57BL/6J mice by LC-MS/MS assay of homocitrulline, the major carbamylation-derived product (CDP). A basal level of carbamylation was evidenced under all conditions, showing that carbamylation is a physiological process of protein modification in vivo. CP plasma concentrations increased in nephrectomized vs. control mice over the 20 weeks of the experiment (e.g. 335 ± 43 vs. 167 ± 19 μmol homocitrulline/mol lysine (p<0.001) 20 weeks after nephrectomy). Simultaneously, CP content increased roughly by two-fold in all tissues throughout the experiment. The progressive accumulation of CPs was specifically noted in long-lived extracellular matrix proteins, especially collagen (e.g. 1264 ± 123 vs. 726 ± 99 μmol homocitrulline/mol lysine (p<0.01) in the skin of nephrectomized vs. control mice after 20 weeks of evolution). These results show that chronic increase of urea, as seen in CKD, increases the carbamylation rate of plasma and tissue proteins. These results may be considered in the perspective of the deleterious effects of CPs demonstrated in vitro and of the correlation evidenced recently between plasma CPs and cardiovascular risk or mortality in CKD patients. PMID:24324801

  11. Peripheral Neuropathy in Mouse Models of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Frizzi, Katie E; Guernsey, Lucie; Marquez, Alex; Ochoa, Joseline; Rodriguez, Maria; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of chronic diabetes that most commonly presents as a distal degenerative polyneuropathy with sensory loss. Around 20% to 30% of such patients may also experience neuropathic pain. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are uncertain, and therapeutic options are limited. Rodent models of diabetes have been used for more than 40 years to study neuropathy and evaluate potential therapies. For much of this period, streptozotocin-diabetic rats were the model of choice. The emergence of new technologies that allow relatively cheap and routine manipulations of the mouse genome has prompted increased use of mouse models of diabetes to study neuropathy. In this article, we describe the commonly used mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and provide protocols to phenotype the structural, functional, and behavioral indices of peripheral neuropathy, with a particular emphasis on assays pertinent to the human condition. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584552

  12. BL-7010 Demonstrates Specific Binding to Gliadin and Reduces Gluten-Associated Pathology in a Chronic Mouse Model of Gliadin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, Justin L.; Nisemblat, Yotam; Galipeau, Heather J.; Jury, Jennifer; Tabakman, Rinat; Cohen, Ad; Naftali, Esmira; Neiman, Bela; Halbfinger, Efrat; Murray, Joseph A.; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Varvak, Alexander; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Verdu, Elena F.

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder in individuals that carry DQ2 or DQ8 MHC class II haplotypes, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. There is no current treatment other than a gluten-free diet (GFD). We have previously shown that the BL-7010 copolymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate) (P(HEMA-co-SS)) binds with higher efficiency to gliadin than to other proteins present in the small intestine, ameliorating gliadin-induced pathology in the HLA-HCD4/DQ8 model of gluten sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of two batches of BL-7010 to interact with gliadin, essential vitamins and digestive enzymes not previously tested, and to assess the ability of the copolymer to reduce gluten-associated pathology using the NOD-DQ8 mouse model, which exhibits more significant small intestinal damage when challenged with gluten than HCD4/DQ8 mice. In addition, the safety and systemic exposure of BL-7010 was evaluated in vivo (in rats) and in vitro (genetic toxicity studies). In vitro binding data showed that BL-7010 interacted with high affinity with gliadin and that BL-7010 had no interaction with the tested vitamins and digestive enzymes. BL-7010 was effective at preventing gluten-induced decreases in villus-to-crypt ratios, intraepithelial lymphocytosis and alterations in paracellular permeability and putative anion transporter-1 mRNA expression in the small intestine. In rats, BL-7010 was well-tolerated and safe following 14 days of daily repeated administration of 3000 mg/kg. BL-7010 did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the genetic toxicity studies. Using complementary animal models and chronic gluten exposure the results demonstrate that administration of BL-7010 is effective and safe and that it is able to decrease pathology associated with gliadin sensitization warranting the progression to Phase I trials in humans. PMID:25365555

  13. The ion channel transient receptor potential melastatin-2 does not play a role in inflammatory mouse models of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) is an oxidative stress sensing channel that is expressed in a number of inflammatory cells and therefore it has been suggested that inhibition of TRPM2 could lead to a beneficial effect in COPD patients. In this study, we have investigated the role of TRPM2 in a variety of mouse models of oxidative stress and COPD using TRPM2-deficent mice. Methods Mice were exposed to ozone (3 ppm for 4 h) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.3 mg/kg, intranasaly). In another model, mice were exposed to tobacco smoke (750 μg/l total wet particulate matter) for 30 min twice a day on three consecutive days. For the exacerbation model, the smoke exposure on the morning of day 3 animals was replaced with intranasal administration of LPS (0.3 mg/kg). Animals were killed 3 and 24 h after the challenge (ozone and LPS model) or 18 h after the last tobacco smoke exposure. In vitro neutrophil chemotaxis and monocyte activation were also studied using cells isolated from wild type and TRPM2-deficient animals. Statistical significance for the in vivo data (P < 0.05) was determined using analysis of variance with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunns multiple comparison test. Results In all models studied, no difference in the bronchoalveolar lavage inflammation could be evidenced when comparing wild type and TRPM2-deficient mice. In addition, no difference could be seen in the lung inflammation as assessed by the measurement of various cytokines/chemokines. Similarly in various in vitro cellular activation assays using isolated neutrophils and monocytes no significant differences could be observed when comparing wild type and TRPM2-deficient mice. Discussion We have shown, in all the models tested, no difference in the development of airway inflammation or cell activation between TRPM2-deficient mice and their wild

  14. Cognitive recovery by chronic activation of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Kang, Huicong; Li, Yongzhi; Shui, Yuan; Yamamoto, Ryo; Sugai, Tokio; Kato, Nobuo

    2015-05-01

    We previously showed that activity of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (Big-K; BK) channels is suppressed in 3xTg Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice. However, its behavioral significance is not known. In the present report, ventricular injection of the BK channel activator isopimaric acid (ISO) was conducted to examine whether BK channel activation ameliorates cognition in 3xTg mice. The novel object recognition (NOR) test revealed that chronic injection of ISO improved non-spatial memory in 3xTg mice. In the Morris water maze, the probe test demonstrated an improved spatial memory after ISO injection. Electrophysiological underpinnings of the ISO effect were then examined in slices obtained from the mice after behavior. At hippocampal CA1 synapses, the basic synaptic transmission was abnormally elevated and long-term potentiation (LTP) was partially suppressed in 3xTg mice. These were both recovered by ISO treatment. We then confirmed suppressed BK channel activity in 3xTg mice by measuring the half-width of evoked action potentials. This was also recovered by ISO treatment. We previously showed that the recovery of BK channel activity accompanies reduction of neuronal excitability in pyramidal cells. Here again, pyramidal cell excitability, as assessed by calculating the frequency of evoked spikes, was elevated in the 3xTg mouse and was normalized by ISO. ELISA experiments demonstrated an ISO-induced reduction of Aβ1-42 content in hippocampal tissue in 3xTg mice. The present study thus suggests a potential therapeutic utility of BK channel activators for AD. PMID:25577958

  15. Chronic administration of an HDAC inhibitor treats both neurological and systemic Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Suhail; Getz, Michelle; Haldar, Kasturi

    2016-02-17

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are approved for treating rare cancers and are of interest as potential therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. We evaluated a triple combination formulation (TCF) comprising the pan-HDACi vorinostat, the caging agent 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for treating a mouse model (the Npc1(nmf164) mouse) of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a difficult-to-treat cerebellar disorder. Vorinostat alone showed activity in cultured primary cells derived from Npc1(nmf164) mice but did not improve animal survival. However, low-dose, once-weekly intraperitoneal injections of the TCF containing vorinostat increased histone acetylation in the mouse brain, preserved neurites and Purkinje cells, delayed symptoms of neurodegeneration, and extended mouse life span from 4 to almost 9 months. We demonstrate that the TCF boosted the ability of HDACi to cross the blood-brain barrier and was not toxic even when used long term. Further, the TCF enabled dose reduction, which has been a major challenge in HDACi therapy. TCF simultaneously treats neurodegenerative and systemic symptoms of Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model. PMID:26888431

  16. Preclinical mouse models of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Uluçkan, Özge; Segaliny, Aude; Botter, Sander; Santiago, Janice M; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common form of primary bone tumors with high prevalence in children. Survival rates of osteosarcoma are low, especially in the case of metastases. Mouse models of this disease have been very valuable in investigation of mechanisms of tumorigenesis, metastasis, as well as testing possible therapeutic options. In this chapter, we summarize currently available mouse models for osteosarcoma and provide detailed methodology for the isolation of cell lines from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), gene modification and tumor cell injection methods, as well as imaging techniques. PMID:25987985

  17. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models for Studying Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Takahito; Himuro, Hidetomo; Okada, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that is mediated by very complex mechanisms controlled by genetic, immune, and environmental factors. More than 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse strains have been established since 1993 for studying IBD. Although mouse models cannot fully reflect human IBD, they have provided significant contributions for not only understanding the mechanism, but also developing new therapeutic means for IBD. Indeed, 20 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models carry the susceptibility genes identified in human IBD, and the functions of some other IBD susceptibility genes have also been dissected out using mouse models. Cutting-edge technologies such as cell-specific and inducible knockout systems, which were recently employed to mouse IBD models, have further enhanced the ability of investigators to provide important and unexpected rationales for developing new therapeutic strategies for IBD. In this review article, we briefly introduce 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models that spontaneously develop intestinal inflammation. PMID:26387641

  18. Colocalization of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and T type Cav3.2 channel in dorsal root ganglia in chronic inflammatory pain mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Fang; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Sun, Yan-Gang; Liu, Xing-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor and plays important roles in the nervous system. Increasing evidence supports that IGF-1 contributes to pain hypersensitivity through its insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) by activating IGF-1R/Akt or MAPK signaling pathways, whereas T-type Cav3.2 channel can facilitate and amplify pain signals originating from the sensory periphery. A recent study showed that activated IGF-1R can increase T-type Cav3.2 channel currents and further activate the G protein-dependent PKCα pathway to contribute to inflammatory pain sensitivity. However, the colocalization of IGF-1R and Cav3.2 in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) under chronic inflammatory pain conditions remains elusive. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression of IGF-1R and the Cav3.2 channel, and their colocalization in mouse DRGs in chronic inflammatory pain condition (induced by complete Freund's adjuvant intraplanter injection) using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry approaches to confirm that Cav3.2 channel can mediate pain facilitation following IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling. We found that IGF-1R was expressed extensively in DRG neurons including small-, medium-, and large-sized neurons, whereas Cav3.2 channel was expressed exclusively in small-sized DRG neurons of naive mice. Expression of Cav3.2, but not IGF-1R, and colocalization of Cav3.2 and IGF-1R were increased in lumbar (L)4-L6 primary sensory neurons in DRGs of mice in chronic inflammatory pain. Moreover, the increased colocalization of IGF-1R and Cav3.2 is exclusively localized in small- and medium-sized primary sensory neurons. Our findings provided morphological evidence that T-type Cav3.2 channel, at least partially, mediates the pain facilitation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in chronic inflammatory pain condition. PMID:27213932

  19. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions. PMID:26660322

  20. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Bianca C.; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L.; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A.; McMullen, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions. PMID:26660322

  1. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Aya M; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with approximately one-fifth of all human cancers. Arising from combinations of factors such as environmental exposures, diet, inherited gene polymorphisms, infections, or from dysfunctions of the immune response, chronic inflammation begins as an attempt of the body to remove injurious stimuli; however, over time, this results in continuous tissue destruction and promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis. Here, we focus on intestinal inflammation and its associated cancers, a group of diseases on the rise and affecting millions of people worldwide. Intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and celiac disease. Long-standing intestinal inflammation is associated with colorectal cancer and small-bowel adenocarcinoma, as well as extraintestinal manifestations, including lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. This article highlights potential mechanisms of pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease, as well as those involved in the progression to associated cancers, most of which have been identified from studies utilizing mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into chemically induced models; genetic models, which make up the bulk of the studied models; adoptive transfer models; and spontaneous models. Studies in these models have lead to the understanding that persistent antigen exposure in the intestinal lumen, in combination with loss of epithelial barrier function, and dysfunction and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Transcriptional changes in this environment leading to cell survival, hyperplasia, promotion of angiogenesis, persistent DNA damage, or insufficient repair of DNA damage due to an excess of proinflammatory mediators are then thought to lead to sustained malignant transformation. With

  2. Mouse models of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Böck, Barbara C; Stein, Ulrike; Schmitt, Clemens A; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2014-09-01

    The Helmholtz Alliance Preclinical Comprehensive Cancer Center (PCCC; www.helmholtz-pccc.de) hosted the "1st International Kloster Seeon Meeting on Mouse Models of Human Cancer" in the Seeon monastery (Germany) from March 8 to 11, 2014. The meeting focused on the development and application of novel mouse models in tumor research and high-throughput technologies to overcome one of the most critical bottlenecks in translational bench-to-bedside tumor biology research. Moreover, the participants discussed basic molecular mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance, which are the prerequisite for the development of novel treatment strategies and clinical applications in cancer therapy. PMID:25136075

  3. Mouse models of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Ban, Joanne; Phillips, William D

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a muscle weakness disease characterized by autoantibodies that target components of the neuromuscular junction, impairing synaptic transmission. The most common form of myasthenia gravis involves antibodies that bind the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Many of the remaining cases are due to antibodies against muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Recently, autoantibodies against LRP4 (another component of the MuSK signaling complex in the postsynaptic membrane) were identified as the likely cause of myasthenia gravis in some patients. Fatiguing weakness is the common symptom in all forms of myasthenia gravis, but muscles of the body are differentially affected, for reasons that are not fully understood. Much of what we have learnt about the immunological and neurobiological aspects of the pathogenesis derives from mouse models. The most widely used mouse models involve either passive transfer of autoantibodies, or active immunization of the mouse with acetylcholine receptors or MuSK protein. These models can provide a robust replication of many of the features of the human disease. Depending upon the protocol, acute fatiguing weakness develops 2 - 14 days after the start of autoantibody injections (passive transfer) or might require repeated immunizations over several weeks (active models). Here we review mouse models of myasthenia gravis, including what they have contributed to current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and their current application to the testing of therapeutics. PMID:25777761

  4. Do mouse models of allergic asthma mimic clinical disease?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Experimental mouse models of allergic asthma established almost 10 years ago offered new opportunities to study disease pathogenesis and to develop new therapeutics. These models focused on the factors governing the allergic immune response, on modeling clinical behavior of allergic asthma, and led to insights into pulmonary pathophysiology. Although mouse models rarely completely reproduce all the features of human disease, after sensitization and respiratory tract challenges with antigen, wild-type mice develop a clinical syndrome that closely resembles allergic asthma, characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), increased IgE, mucus hypersecretion, and eventually, airway remodeling. There are, however, differences between mouse and human physiology that threaten to limit the value of mouse models. Three examples of such differences relate to both clinical manifestations of disease and underlying pathogenesis. First, in contrast to patients who have increased methacholine-induced AHR even when they are symptom-free, mice exhibit only transient methacholine-induced AHR following allergen exposure. Second, chronic allergen exposure in patients leads to chronic allergic asthma, whereas repeated exposures in sensitized mice causes suppression of disease. Third, IgE and mast cells, in humans, mediate early- and late-phase allergic responses, though both are unnecessary for the generation of allergic asthma in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that mouse models of allergic asthma are not exact replicas of human disease and thus, question the validity of these models. However, observations from mouse models of allergic asthma support many existing paradigms, although some novel discoveries in mice have yet to be verified in patients. This review presents an overview of the clinical aspects of disease in mouse models of allergic asthma emphasizing (1). the factors influencing the pathophysiological responses during

  5. Triheptanoin in acute mouse seizure models.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nicola K; Willis, Sarah; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2012-05-01

    Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is used to treat certain hereditary metabolic diseases in USA because of its anaplerotic potential. In two chronic mouse seizure models this clear tasteless oil was found to be reproducibly anticonvulsant. Here we investigated the effects of triheptanoin feeding in C3H and CD1 mice using standard acute seizure models. Feeding 30-40% triheptanoin (caloric intake) consistently elevated blood propionyl-carnitines, but inconsistent anticonvulsant effects were observed in the fluorothyl, pentylenetetrazole and 6Hz seizure models. A 2mA consistent increase in the maximal electroshock threshold was found after 3 weeks of 35% triheptanoin feeding (p=0.018). In summary, triheptanoin shows a unique anticonvulsant profile in seizure models, compared to other treatments that are in the clinic. Therefore, despite small and/or inconsistent effects of triheptanoin in acute seizure models, triheptanoin remains of interest as a potential add-on treatment for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. PMID:22260920

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application. PMID:26617183

  7. Mouse Models of Anemia of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Airie; Rivera, Seth; Shprung, Dana; Limbrick, Donald; Gabayan, Victoria; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Anemia of cancer (AC) may contribute to cancer-related fatigue and impair quality of life. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of AC could facilitate better treatment, but animal models to study AC are lacking. We characterized four syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse cancers that cause AC. Mice with two different rapidly-growing metastatic lung cancers developed the characteristic findings of anemia of inflammation (AI), with dramatically different degrees of anemia. Mice with rapidly-growing metastatic melanoma also developed a severe anemia by 14 days, with hematologic and inflammatory parameters similar to AI. Mice with a slow-growing peritoneal ovarian cancer developed an iron-deficiency anemia, likely secondary to chronically impaired nutrition and bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. Of the four models, hepcidin mRNA levels were increased only in the milder lung cancer model. Unlike in our model of systemic inflammation induced by heat-killed Brucella abortus, ablation of hepcidin in the ovarian cancer and the milder lung cancer mouse models did not affect the severity of anemia. Hepcidin-independent mechanisms play an important role in these murine models of AC. PMID:24681760

  8. Chronic Wound Biofilm Model

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Kasturi; Sinha, Mithun; Mathew-Steiner, Shomita S.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Multispecies microbial biofilms may contribute to wound chronicity by derailing the inherent reparative process of the host tissue. In the biofilm form, bacteria are encased within an extracellular polymeric substance and become recalcitrant to antimicrobials and host defenses. For biofilms of relevance to human health, there are two primary contributing factors: the microbial species involved and host response which, in turn, shapes microbial processes over time. This progressive interaction between microbial species and the host is an iterative process that helps evolve an acute-phase infection to a pathogenic chronic biofilm. Thus, long-term wound infection studies are needed to understand the longitudinal cascade of events that culminate into a pathogenic wound biofilm. Recent Advances: Our laboratory has recently published the first long-term (2 month) study of polymicrobial wound biofilm infection in a translationally valuable porcine wound model. Critical Issues: It is widely recognized that the porcine system represents the most translationally valuable approach to experimentally model human skin wounds. A meaningful experimental biofilm model must be in vivo, include mixed species of clinically relevant microbes, and be studied longitudinally long term. Cross-validation of such experimental findings with findings from biofilm-infected patient wounds is critically important. Future Directions: Additional value may be added to the experimental system described above by studying pigs with underlying health complications (e.g., metabolic syndrome), as is typically seen in patient populations. PMID:26155380

  9. Chronic oral or intraarticular administration of docosahexaenoic acid reduces nociception and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant–induced knee arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) reduce joint destruction and inflammation present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of individual ω-3 PUFAs on chronic arthritic pain have not been evaluated to date. Thus, our aim in this study was to examine whether purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an ω-3 PUFA) reduces spontaneous pain-related behavior and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of knee arthritis. Methods Unilateral arthritis was induced by multiple injections of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right knee joints of male ICR adult mice. Mice that received CFA injections were then chronically treated from day 15 until day 25 post–initial CFA injection with oral DHA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg daily) or intraarticular DHA (25 and 50 μg/joint twice weekly). Spontaneous flinching of the injected extremity (considered as spontaneous pain-related behavior), vertical rearing and horizontal exploratory activity (considered as functional outcomes) and knee edema were assessed. To determine whether an endogenous opioid mechanism was involved in the therapeutic effect of DHA, naloxone (NLX, an opioid receptor antagonist, 3 mg/kg subcutaneously) was administered in arthritic mice chronically treated with DHA (30 mg/kg by mouth) at day 25 post–CFA injection. Results The intraarticular CFA injections resulted in increasing spontaneous flinching and knee edema of the ipsilateral extremity as well as worsening functional outcomes as time progressed. Chronic administration of DHA, given either orally or intraarticularly, significantly improved horizontal exploratory activity and reduced flinching behavior and knee edema in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of NLX did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of DHA. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate DHA’s antinociceptive and

  10. A reliable method for intracranial electrode implantation and chronic electrical stimulation in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Electrical stimulation of brain structures has been widely used in rodent models for kindling or modeling deep brain stimulation used clinically. This requires surgical implantation of intracranial electrodes and subsequent chronic stimulation in individual animals for several weeks. Anchoring screws and dental acrylic have long been used to secure implanted intracranial electrodes in rats. However, such an approach is limited when carried out in mouse models as the thin mouse skull may not be strong enough to accommodate the anchoring screws. We describe here a screw-free, glue-based method for implanting bipolar stimulating electrodes in the mouse brain and validate this method in a mouse model of hippocampal electrical kindling. Methods Male C57 black mice (initial ages of 6–8 months) were used in the present experiments. Bipolar electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the hippocampal CA3 area for electrical stimulation and electroencephalographic recordings. The electrodes were secured onto the skull via glue and dental acrylic but without anchoring screws. A daily stimulation protocol was used to induce electrographic discharges and motor seizures. The locations of implanted electrodes were verified by hippocampal electrographic activities and later histological assessments. Results Using the glue-based implantation method, we implanted bilateral bipolar electrodes in 25 mice. Electrographic discharges and motor seizures were successfully induced via hippocampal electrical kindling. Importantly, no animal encountered infection in the implanted area or a loss of implanted electrodes after 4–6 months of repetitive stimulation/recording. Conclusion We suggest that the glue-based, screw-free method is reliable for chronic brain stimulation and high-quality electroencephalographic recordings in mice. The technical aspects described this study may help future studies in mouse models. PMID:23914984

  11. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  12. Chronic consumption of a western diet induces robust glial activation in aging mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Graham, Leah C; Harder, Jeffrey M; Soto, Ileana; de Vries, Wilhelmine N; John, Simon W M; Howell, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the effects of the diet in AD. Astrocytosis and microglia/monocyte activation were dramatically increased in response to diet and was further increased in APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet. This increase in glial responses was associated with increased plaque burden in the hippocampus. Interestingly, given recent studies highlighting the importance of TREM2 in microglia/monocytes in AD susceptibility and progression, B6 and APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet showed significant increases TREM2+ microglia/monocytes. Therefore, an increase in TREM2+ microglia/monocytes may underlie the increased risk from a western diet to age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This study lays the foundation to fully investigate the impact of a western diet on glial responses in aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26888450

  13. Chronic consumption of a western diet induces robust glial activation in aging mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Leah C.; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Soto, Ileana; de Vries, Wilhelmine N.; John, Simon W. M.; Howell, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the effects of the diet in AD. Astrocytosis and microglia/monocyte activation were dramatically increased in response to diet and was further increased in APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet. This increase in glial responses was associated with increased plaque burden in the hippocampus. Interestingly, given recent studies highlighting the importance of TREM2 in microglia/monocytes in AD susceptibility and progression, B6 and APP/PS1 mice fed the western diet showed significant increases TREM2+ microglia/monocytes. Therefore, an increase in TREM2+ microglia/monocytes may underlie the increased risk from a western diet to age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. This study lays the foundation to fully investigate the impact of a western diet on glial responses in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26888450

  14. Mouse Models of Tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Loi, Sherene; Thomas, David; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is now evolving into a major therapeutic option for cancer patients. Such clinical advances also promote massive interest in the search for novel immunotherapy targets, and to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs. It is projected that a series of novel immunotherapy agents will be developed and assessed for their therapeutic activity. In light of this, in vivo experimental mouse models that recapitulate human malignancies serve as valuable tools to validate the efficacy and safety profile of immunotherapy agents, before their transition into clinical trials. In this review, we will discuss the major classes of experimental mouse models of cancer commonly used for immunotherapy assessment and provide examples to guide the selection of appropriate models. We present some new data concerning the utility of a carcinogen-induced tumor model for comparing immunotherapies and combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. We will also highlight some recent advances in experimental modeling of human malignancies in mice that are leading towards personalized therapy in patients. PMID:26922998

  15. NKG2D mediates NK cell hyperresponsiveness and influenza-induced pathologies in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Brian W; Eppert, Bryan L; Motz, Greg T; Flury, Jennifer L; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Hoebe, Kasper; Panos, Ralph J; Maxfield, Melissa; Glasser, Stephan W; Senft, Albert P; Raulet, David H; Borchers, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by peribronchial and perivascular inflammation and largely irreversible airflow obstruction. Acute disease exacerbations, due frequently to viral infections, lead to enhanced disease symptoms and contribute to long-term progression of COPD pathology. Previously, we demonstrated that NK cells from cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice exhibit enhanced effector functions in response to stimulating cytokines or TLR ligands. In this article, we show that the activating receptor NKG2D is a key mediator for CS-stimulated NK cell hyperresponsiveness, because CS-exposed NKG2D-deficient mice (Klrk1(-/-)) did not exhibit enhanced effector functions as assessed by cytokine responsiveness. NK cell cytotoxicity against MHC class I-deficient targets was not affected in a COPD model. However, NK cells from CS-exposed mice exhibit greater cytotoxic activity toward cells that express the NKG2D ligand RAET1ε. We also demonstrate that NKG2D-deficient mice exhibit diminished airway damage and reduced inflammation in a model of viral COPD exacerbation, which do not affect viral clearance. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKG2D(+) NK cells into CS-exposed, influenza-infected NKG2D-deficient mice recapitulated the phenotypes observed in CS-exposed, influenza-infected wild-type mice. Our findings indicate that NKG2D stimulation during long-term CS exposure is a central pathway in the development of NK cell hyperresponsiveness and influenza-mediated exacerbations of COPD. PMID:22467655

  16. No evidence for chronic demyelination in spared axons following spinal cord injury in a mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lasiene, Jurate; Shupe, Larry; Perlmutter, Steve; Horner, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of remyelination after traumatic spinal cord injury remains elusive, with animal and human studies reporting partial to complete demyelination followed by incomplete remyelination. In the present study, we found that spared rubrospinal tract (RST) axons of passage traced with actively transported dextrans and examined caudally to the lesion twelve weeks after mouse spinal cord contusion injury were fully remyelinated. Spared axons exhibited a marginally reduced myelin thickness and significantly shorter internodes. Contactin-associated protein (CASPR) and Kv1.2 channels were used to identify internodes and paranodal protein distribution properties were used as an index of myelin integrity. This is the first time the CNS myelin internode length was measured in a mouse. To better understand the significance of shortened internodes and thinner myelin in spared axons, we modeled conduction properties using McIntyre’s et al. model of myelinated axons. Mathematical modeling predicted a 21% decrease in the conduction velocity of remyelinated RST axons due to shortened internodes. To determine whether demyelination could be present on axons exhibiting a pathological transport system we utilized the retroviral reporter system. Virally delivered GFP unveiled a small population of dystrophic RST axons that persist chronically with evident demyelination or abnormal remyelination. Collectively these data show that lasting demyelination in spared axons is rare and that remyelination of axons of passage occurs in the chronically injured mouse spinal cord. PMID:18400887

  17. Metabolism of Doxorubicin to the Cardiotoxic Metabolite Doxorubicinol Is Increased in a Mouse Model of Chronic Glutathione Deficiency: A Potential Role for Carbonyl Reductase 3

    PubMed Central

    Schaupp, Christopher M.; White, Collin C.; Merrill, Gary F.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin is highly effective at inducing DNA double-strand breaks in rapidly dividing cells, which has led to it being a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic. However, clinical administration of doxorubicin is limited by off-target cardiotoxicity, which is thought to be mediated by doxorubicinol, the primary alcohol metabolite of doxorubicin. Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a well-characterized monomeric enzyme present at high basal levels in the liver, is known to exhibit activity toward doxorubicin. Little is known about a closely related enzyme, carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3), which is present in the liver at low basal levels but is highly inducible by the transcription factor Nrf2. Genetic polymorphisms in CBR3, but not CBR1, are associated with differential cardiac outcomes in doxorubicin treated pediatric patients. Cbr3 mRNA and CBR3 protein are highly expressed in the livers of Gclm −/− mice (a mouse model of glutathione deficiency) relative to wild type mice. In the present study, we first investigated the ability of CBR3 to metabolize doxorubicin. Incubations of doxorubicin and purified recombinant murine CBR3 (mCBR3) were analyzed for doxorubicinol formation using HPLC, revealing for the first time that doxorubicin is a substrate of mCBR3. Moreover, hepatocytes from Gclm −/− mice produced more doxorubicinol than Gclm +/+ hepatocytes. In addition, differentiated rat myoblasts (C2C12 cells) co-cultured with primary Gclm −/− murine hepatocytes were more sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cytostasis/cytotoxicity than incubations with Gclm +/+ hepatocytes. Our results indicate a potentially important role for CBR3 in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Because there is likely to be variability in hepatic CBR3 activity in humans (due to either genetic or epigenetic influences on its expression), these data also suggest that inhibition of CBR3 may provide protection from doxorubicinol cardiotoxicity. PMID:25446851

  18. Hypothalamic Proteomic Analysis Reveals Dysregulation of Glutamate Balance and Energy Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chenglong; Shi, Haiyang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Zhu, Dan; Zhao, Mingjun; Wang, Ziye; Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Liao, Li; Tang, Jianyong; Wu, You; Zhou, Jian; Cheng, Ke; Xie, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression. However, the mechanism underlying the dysfunction of the HPA axis is not well understood. Moreover, dysfunction of the hypothalamus, the key brain region of the HPA axis, has not been well-explored. The aim of our study was to examine possible alterations in hypothalamus protein expression in a model of depression using proteomic analysis. In order to achieve this aim, mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), as the paradigm results in hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Differential protein expression between the hypothalamic proteomes of CUMS and control mice was then assessed through two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-seven proteins with a threshold of a 1.5-fold change and a p value ≤0.05 were identified as being differentially expressed between CUMS and control mice, and were quantified for bioinformatics analysis. Glycometabolism, citrate cycle (TCA cycle) and oxidation respiratory chain were found to have changed significantly. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase were further validated by Western Blot. Our results demonstrated that CUMS mice exhibited a dramatic protein change both in glutamate metabolism and energy mobilization, which may shed some light on the role of the hypothalamus in the pathology of stress-induced depression. PMID:27230881

  19. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (10(7) CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  20. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (107 CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  1. Inducing Chronic Excitotoxicity in the Mouse Spinal Cord to Investigate Lower Motor Neuron Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Blizzard, Catherine A.; Lee, K. M.; Dickson, Tracey C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the methodology for the chronic delivery of an excitotoxin to the mouse spinal cord via surgically implanted osmotic mini-pumps. Previous studies have investigated the effect of chronic application of excitotoxins in the rat, however there has been little translation of this model to the mouse. Using mice that express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), motor neuron and neuromuscular junction alterations can be investigate following targeted, long-term (28 days) exposure to the α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor excitotoxin, kainic acid. By targeting the L3-4 region of the lumbar spinal cord, with insertion of an intrathecal catheter into the subarachnoid space at L5, chronic application of the kainic acid results in slow excitotoxic death in the anterior ventral horn, with a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of SMI-32 immunopositive neurons present after 28 days infusion. Use of the Thy1-YFP mice provides unrivaled visualization of the neuromuscular junction and enables the resultant distal degeneration in skeletal muscle to be observed. Both neuromuscular junction retraction at the gastrocnemius muscle and axonal fragmentation in the sciatic nerve were observed after chronic infusion of kainic acid for 28 days. Lower motor neuron, and distal neuromuscular junction, degeneration are pathological hallmarks of the devastating neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). This mouse model will be advantageous for increasing our understanding of how the pathophysiological phenomena associated with this disease can lead to lower motor neuron loss and distal pathology, as well as providing a robust in vivo platform to test therapeutic interventions directed at excitotoxic mechanisms. PMID:26973454

  2. Mouse models for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, Latifa; Wagner, Erwin F

    2013-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related cell death in human and the fifth in women worldwide. The incidence of HCC is increasing despite progress in identifying risk factors, understanding disease etiology and developing anti-viral strategies. Therapeutic options are limited and survival after diagnosis is poor. Therefore, better preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic tools are urgently needed, in particular given the increased contribution from systemic metabolic disease to HCC incidence worldwide. In the last three decades, technological advances have facilitated the generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to mimic the alterations frequently observed in human cancers or to conduct intervention studies and assess the relevance of candidate gene networks in tumor establishment, progression and maintenance. Because these studies allow molecular and cellular manipulations impossible to perform in patients, GEMMs have improved our understanding of this complex disease and represent a source of great potential for mechanism-based therapy development. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of HCC modeling in the mouse, highlighting successes, current challenges and future opportunities. PMID:23428636

  3. Mouse models of congenital cataract.

    PubMed

    Graw, J

    1999-06-01

    Mouse mutants affecting lens development are excellent models for corresponding human disorders. The mutant aphakia has been characterised by bilaterally aphakic eyes (Varnum and Stevens, J Hered 1968;59:147-50); the corresponding gene was mapped to chromosome 19 (Varnum and Stevens, Mouse News Lett 1975;53:35). Recent investigations in our laboratory refined the linkage of 0.6 cM proximal to the marker D19Mit10. Several candidate genes have been excluded (Chuk1, Fgf8, Lbp1, Npm3, Pax2, Pitx3). The Cat3 mutations are characterised by vacuolated lenses caused by alterations in the initial secondary lens fibre cell differentiation. Secondary malformations develop at the cornea and iris, but the retina remains unaffected. The mutation has been mapped to chromosome 10 close to the markers D10Mit41 and D10Mit95. Several candidate genes have been excluded (Dcn, Elk3, Ldc, Mell8, Tr2-11). The series of Cat2 mutations have been mapped close to the gamma-crystallin genes (Cryg; Löster et al., Genomics 1994;23:240-2). The Cat2nop mutation is characterised by a mutation in the third exon of Crygb leading to a truncated gamma B-crystallin and the termination of lens fibre cell differentiation. The Cat2 mutants are interesting models for human cataracts caused by mutations in the human CRYG genes at chromosome 2q32-35. PMID:10627821

  4. CML Mouse Model Generated from Leukemia Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder with a high number of well-differentiated neutrophils in peripheral blood and myeloid cells in bone marrow (BM). CML is derived from the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph(+), t(9;22)-(q34;q11)), resulting in generating a fusion oncogene, BCR/ABL1. HSCs with Ph(+) are defined as leukemia stem cells (LSCs), a subpopulation cell at the apex of hierarchies in leukemia cells and responsible for the disease continuous propagation. Several kinds of CML models have been developed to reveal the mechanism of CML pathogenesis and evaluate therapeutic drugs in the past three decades. Here, we describe the procedures to generate a CML mouse model by introducing BCR/ABL1 into Lin(-)Sca1(+) cKit(+) population cells purified from mouse bone marrow. In CML retroviral transduction/transplantation mouse models, this modified model can mimic CML pathogenesis on high fidelity. PMID:27581136

  5. Mouse model for sublethal Leptospira interrogans infection.

    PubMed

    Richer, Luciana; Potula, Hari-Hara; Melo, Rita; Vieira, Ana; Gomes-Solecki, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although Leptospira can infect a wide range of mammalian species, most studies have been conducted in golden Syrian hamsters, a species particularly sensitive to acute disease. Chronic disease has been well characterized in the rat, one of the natural reservoir hosts. Studies in another asymptomatic reservoir host, the mouse, have occasionally been done and have limited infection to mice younger than 6 weeks of age. We analyzed the outcome of sublethal infection of C3H/HeJ mice older than age 10 weeks with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Infection led to bloodstream dissemination of Leptospira, which was followed by urinary shedding, body weight loss, hypothermia, and colonization of the kidney by live spirochetes 2 weeks after infection. In addition, Leptospira dissemination triggered inflammation in the kidney but not in the liver or lung, as determined by increased levels of mRNA transcripts for the keratinocyte-derived chemokine, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, and gamma interferon in kidney tissue. The acquired humoral response to Leptospira infection led to the production of IgG mainly of the IgG1 subtype. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes from infected mice revealed that cellular expansion was primarily due to an increase in the levels of CD4(+) and double-negative T cells (not CD8(+) cells) and that CD4(+) T cells acquired a CD44(high) CD62L(low) effector phenotype not accompanied by increases in memory T cells. A mouse model for sublethal Leptospira infection allows understanding of the bacterial and host factors that lead to immune evasion, which can result in acute or chronic disease or resistance to infection (protection). PMID:26416909

  6. Mouse Model for Sublethal Leptospira interrogans Infection

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Luciana; Potula, Hari-Hara; Melo, Rita; Vieira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Although Leptospira can infect a wide range of mammalian species, most studies have been conducted in golden Syrian hamsters, a species particularly sensitive to acute disease. Chronic disease has been well characterized in the rat, one of the natural reservoir hosts. Studies in another asymptomatic reservoir host, the mouse, have occasionally been done and have limited infection to mice younger than 6 weeks of age. We analyzed the outcome of sublethal infection of C3H/HeJ mice older than age 10 weeks with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Infection led to bloodstream dissemination of Leptospira, which was followed by urinary shedding, body weight loss, hypothermia, and colonization of the kidney by live spirochetes 2 weeks after infection. In addition, Leptospira dissemination triggered inflammation in the kidney but not in the liver or lung, as determined by increased levels of mRNA transcripts for the keratinocyte-derived chemokine, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, and gamma interferon in kidney tissue. The acquired humoral response to Leptospira infection led to the production of IgG mainly of the IgG1 subtype. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes from infected mice revealed that cellular expansion was primarily due to an increase in the levels of CD4+ and double-negative T cells (not CD8+ cells) and that CD4+ T cells acquired a CD44high CD62Llow effector phenotype not accompanied by increases in memory T cells. A mouse model for sublethal Leptospira infection allows understanding of the bacterial and host factors that lead to immune evasion, which can result in acute or chronic disease or resistance to infection (protection). PMID:26416909

  7. Pulmonary administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to the lungs induces alveolar regeneration in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Michiko; Hirokawa, Mai; Abe, Kaori; Kumagai, Harumi; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2016-07-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disease with several causes, including smoking, and no curative therapeutic agent is available, particularly for destructive alveolar lesions. In this study, we investigated the differentiation-inducing effect on undifferentiated lung cells (Calu-6) and the alveolar regenerative effect of the active vitamin 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VD3) with the ultimate goal of developing a novel curative drug for COPD. First, the differentiation-inducing effect of VD3 on Calu-6 cells was evaluated. Treatment with VD3 increased the proportions of type I alveolar epithelial (AT-I) and type II alveolar epithelial (AT-II) cells constituting alveoli in a concentration- and treatment time-dependent manner, demonstrating the potent differentiation-inducing activity of VD3 on Calu-6 cells. We thus administered VD3 topically to the mice lung using a previously developed intrapulmonary administration via self-inhalation method. To evaluate the alveolus-repairing effect of VD3, we administered VD3 intrapulmonarily to elastase-induced COPD model mice and computed the mean distance between the alveolar walls as an index of the extent of alveolar injury. Results showed significant decreases in the alveolar wall distance in groups of mice that received 0.01, 0.1, and 1μg/kg of intrapulmonary VD3, revealing excellent alveolus-regenerating effect of VD3. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of VD3 on improving respiratory function using a respiratory function analyzer. Lung elasticity and respiratory competence [forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1 s %] are reduced in COPD, reflecting advanced emphysematous changes. In elastase-induced COPD model mice, although lung elasticity and respiratory competence were reduced, VD3 administered intrapulmonarily twice weekly for 2weeks recovered tissue elastance and forced expiratory volume in 0.05s to the forced vital capacity, which are indicators of lung elasticity and respiratory

  8. Mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-chul; Berns, Anton

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease and a major therapeutic burden with poor survival rates. It is responsible for 30% of all cancer deaths. Lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking, although some subtypes are also seen in non-smokers. Tumors in the latter group are mostly adenocarcinomas with many carrying mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Survival statistics of lung cancer are grim because of its late detection and frequent local and distal metastases. Although DNA sequence information from tumors has revealed a number of frequently occurring mutations, affecting well-known tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, many of the driver mutations remain ill defined. This is likely due to the involvement of numerous rather infrequently occurring driver mutations that are difficult to distinguish from the very large number of passenger mutations detected in smoking-related lung cancers. Therefore, experimental model systems are indispensable to validate putative driver lesions and to gain insight into their mechanisms of action. Whereas a large fraction of these analyzes can be performed in cell cultures in vitro, in many cases the consequences of the mutations have to be assessed in the context of an intact organism, as this is the context in which the Mendelian selection process of the tumorigenic process took place and the advantages of particular mutations become apparent. Current mouse models for cancer are very suitable for this as they permit mimicking many of the salient features of human tumors. The capacity to swiftly re-engineer complex sets of lesions found in human tumors in mice enables us to assess the contribution of defined combinations of lesions to distinct tumor characteristics such as metastatic behavior and response to therapy. In this review we will describe mouse models of lung cancer and how they are used to better understand the disease and how they are exploited to develop better intervention strategies

  9. [Establishment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection mouse model by in vivo transduction with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 carrying 1. 3 copies of HBV genome (rAAN8-1. 3HBV)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Yan; Yu, Chi-Jie; Wang, Gang; Tian, Wen-Hong; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Feng-Wei; Wang, Wen; Wang, Yue; Tan, Wen-Jie; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2010-11-01

    In this report, we developed a HBV infection model in C57BL/6 mouse line by in vivo injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 vector carrying 1. 3 copies of HBV genome (ayw subtype) (rAAV8-1. 3HBV). We firstly prepared and purified the rAAV8-1. 3HBV and then injected it into three C57BL/6 mice with the dose of 2 x 10e11vg, respectively. HBsAg and HBeAg were assayed in sera collected at different time points post injection. Ten weeks post injection, the three mice were sacrificed and blood and liver tissue were taken for assay. Copies of HBV DNA were detected by real time PCR and the way of HBV DNA replication was identified by PCR. Subsequently, detection of HBV antigen by immunohistochemistry and pathology analysis of liver tissue of mice were performed. The results suggested that expression of HBsAg and HBeAg lasted for at least 10 weeks in mice sera. Among mice injected with rAAV8-1. 3HBV, HBsAg levels were showed an 'increasing-decreasing-increasing' pattern (the lowest level at the 4th week post injection), while HBeAg levels were kept high and relatively stable. HBV DNA copies were 4.2 x 10(3), 3.6 x 10(3), 2.5 x 10(3) copies/mL in sera and 8.0 x 10(6), 5.7 x 10(6), 2.6 x 10(6) copies/g in hepatic tissues of three mice, respectively. We found that the linear 1. 3HBV DNA in the rAAV8-1. 3HBV could self form into circular HBV genome and replicate in livers of HBV transfected mice. HBsAg and HBcAg were both positive in liver tissue of mice injected with rAAV8-1. 3HBV and no obvious pathological characters were found in liver of mice injected with rAAV8-1. 3HBV. In conclusion, we successfully developed a HBV chronic infection model in C57BL/6 mouse line by in vivo transduction with the recombinant virus rAAV8-1. 3HBV, in which HBV genes could be continuously expressed and replicated over 10 weeks, and paved a way for further characterization of the human chronic hepatitis B virus infection and evaluation of vaccine and anti-HBV agents. PMID:21344744

  10. Mouse models of DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Miriam R; Sweasy, Joann B

    2012-12-01

    In 1956, Arthur Kornberg discovered the mechanism of the biological synthesis of DNA and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959 for this contribution, which included the isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Now there are 15 known DNA polymerases in mammalian cells that belong to four different families. These DNA polymerases function in many different cellular processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and damage tolerance. Several biochemical and cell biological studies have provoked a further investigation of DNA polymerase function using mouse models in which polymerase genes have been altered using gene-targeting techniques. The phenotypes of mice harboring mutant alleles reveal the prominent role of DNA polymerases in embryogenesis, prevention of premature aging, and cancer suppression. PMID:23001998

  11. Roles of ASIC3, TRPV1, and NaV1.8 in the transition from acute to chronic pain in a mouse model of fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tissue acidosis is effective in causing chronic muscle pain. However, how muscle nociceptors contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain is largely unknown. Results Here we showed that a single intramuscular acid injection induced a priming effect on muscle nociceptors of mice. The primed muscle nociceptors were plastic and permitted the development of long-lasting chronic hyperalgesia induced by a second acid insult. The plastic changes of muscle nociceptors were modality-specific and required the activation of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) or transient receptor potential cation channel V1 (TRPV1). Activation of ASIC3 was associated with increased activity of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels but not protein kinase Cϵ (PKCϵ) in isolectin B4 (IB4)-negative muscle nociceptors. In contrast, increased activity of TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels with ASIC3 or TRPV1 activation in NaV1.8-positive muscle nociceptors was required for the development of chronic hyperalgesia. Accordingly, compared to wild type mice, NaV1.8-null mice showed briefer acid-induced hyperalgesia (5 days vs. >27 days). Conclusion ASIC3 activation may manifest a new type of nociceptor priming in IB4-negative muscle nociceptors. The activation of ASIC3 and TRPV1 as well as enhanced NaV1.8 activity are essential for the development of long-lasting hyperalgesia in acid-induced, chronic, widespread muscle pain. PMID:24957987

  12. Mouse model of intracerebellar haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tijjani Salihu, Abubakar; Muthuraju, Sangu; Aziz Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul; Ahmad, Farizan; Zulkifli Mustafa, Mohd; Jaafar, Hasnan; Idris, Zamzuri; Rahman Izaini Ghani, Abdul; Malin Abdullah, Jafri

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the behavior and neuronal morphological changes in the perihaemorrhagic tissue of the mouse intracerebellar haemorrhage experimental model. Adult male Swiss albino mice were stereotactically infused with collagenase type VII (0.4U/μl of saline) unilaterally in to the cerebellum, following anaesthesia. Motor deficits were assessed using open field and composite score for evaluating the mouse model of cerebellar ataxia at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after collagenase infusion. The animals were sacrificed at the same time interval for evaluation of perihaematomal neuronal degeneration using haematoxylin and eosin staining and Annexin V-FITC/Propidium iodide assay. At the end of the study, it was found that infusion of 0.4U collagenase produces significant locomotor and ataxic deficit in the mice especially within the first week post surgery, and that this gradually improved within three weeks. Neuronal degeneration evident by cytoplasmic shrinkage and nuclear pyknosis was observed at the perihaematomal area after one day; especially at 3 and 7 days post haemorrhage. By 21 days, both the haematoma and degenerating neurons in the perihaematomal area were phagocytosed and the remaining neuronal cells around the scar tissue appeared normal. Moreover, Annexin-V/propidium iodide-positive cells were observed at the perihaematomal area at 3 and 7 days implying that the neurons likely die via apoptosis. It was concluded that a population of potentially salvageable neurons exist in the perihaematomal area after cerebellar haemorrhage throughout a wide time window that could be amenable to treatment. PMID:27327104

  13. Mouse Models of Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelli A.; Hayes, John M.; Wiggin, Timothy D.; Backus, Carey; Oh, Sang Su; Lentz, Stephen I.; Brosius, Frank; Feldman, Eva L.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a debilitating complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rodent models of DN do not fully replicate the pathology observed in human patients. We examined DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced [B6] and spontaneous type 1 diabetes [B6Ins2Akita] and spontaneous type 2 diabetes [B6-db/db, BKS-db/db]. DN was defined using the criteria of the Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium (http://www.amdcc.org). Despite persistent hyperglycemia, the STZ-treated B6 and B6Ins2Akita mice were resistant to the development of DN. In contrast, DN developed in both type 2 diabetes models: the B6-db/db and BKS-db/db mice. The persistence of hyperglycemia and development of DN in the B6-db/db mice required an increased fat diet while the BKS-db/db mice developed severe DN and remained hyperglycemic on standard mouse chow. Our data support the hypothesis that genetic background and diet influence the development of DN and should be considered when developing new models of DN. PMID:17804249

  14. Mouse Models for Filovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bradfute, Steven B.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Bray, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The filoviruses marburg- and ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans and nonhuman primates. Because many cases have occurred in geographical areas lacking a medical research infrastructure, most studies of the pathogenesis of filoviral HF, and all efforts to develop drugs and vaccines, have been carried out in biocontainment laboratories in non-endemic countries, using nonhuman primates (NHPs), guinea pigs and mice as animal models. NHPs appear to closely mirror filoviral HF in humans (based on limited clinical data), but only small numbers may be used in carefully regulated experiments; much research is therefore done in rodents. Because of their availability in large numbers and the existence of a wealth of reagents for biochemical and immunological testing, mice have become the preferred small animal model for filovirus research. Since the first experiments following the initial 1967 marburgvirus outbreak, wild-type or mouse-adapted viruses have been tested in immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice. In this paper, we review how these types of studies have been used to investigate the pathogenesis of filoviral disease, identify immune responses to infection and evaluate antiviral drugs and vaccines. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of murine models for filovirus research, and identify important questions for further study. PMID:23170168

  15. Behavioural signs of chronic back pain in the SPARC-null mouse

    PubMed Central

    Millecamps, Magali; Tajerian, Maral; Sage, E. Helene; Stone, Laura S

    2010-01-01

    Study Design SPARC-null mice were examined for behavioural signs of chronic low back and/or radicular pain. Objective To assess SPARC-null mice as a rodent model of chronic low back and/or radicular pain due to degenerative disc disease. Summary of Background Data Degeneration of intervertebral discs is a major cause of chronic low back and radicular pain in humans. Inactivation of the SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine, also known as osteonectin and BM-40) gene in mice results in premature intervertebral disc degeneration. The impact of disc degeneration on behavioural measures of chronic pain has not been evaluated in this model. Methods Cohorts of young and old (3 and 6–12 months, respectively) SPARC-null and wild-type control mice were screened for behavioural indices of low back and/or radiating pain. Sensitivity to mechanical, cold and heat stimuli, locomotor impairment, and movement-evoked hypersensitivity were determined. Animals were challenged with three analgesic agents with different mechanisms: morphine, dexamethasone, and gabapentin. Results SPARC-null mice showed signs of movement-evoked discomfort as early as 3 months of age. Hypersensitivity to cold stimuli on both the lower back and hindpaws developed with increasing age. SPARC-null mice had normal sensitivity to tactile and heat stimuli, and locomotor skills were not impaired. The hypersensitivity to cold was reversed by morphine, but not by dexamethasone or gabapentin. Conclusion SPARC-null mice display behavioural signs consistent with chronic low back and radicular pain that we attribute to intervertebral disc degeneration. We predict that the SPARC-null mouse is a useful model of chronic back pain due to degenerative disc disease. PMID:20714283

  16. Chronic Pancreatitis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Prevent Impact of Chemotherapy with Gemcitabine in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Knoop, Richard F.; Sparn, Moritz; Waldmann, Jens; Plassmeier, Lars; Bartsch, Detlef K.; Lauth, Matthias; Hudemann, Christoph; Fendrich, Volker

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS BACKGROUND AND AIMSGemcitabine is the standard therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer with metastatic disease. Patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer presenting with increased values of C-reactive protein do not respond to gemcitabine. So far, no studies have evaluated the correlation between chronic pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and the loss of chemotherapeutic benefit. METHODS Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D/+;LSL-Trp53R172H/+ mice were assigned into four groups: 1) Sixteen animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of caerulein from their ninth week of life on. 2) Sixteen mice were additionally given gemcitabine. 3) Twelve animals received gemcitabine only. 4) Saline-treated control group. Furthermore, human Paca44 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells were seeded and cultured in 0.5% FBS containing growth medium plus/minus 1 μM gemcitabine plus/minus recombinant human interleukin (IL)-6. RESULTS Induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and a mild chronic pancreatitis diminished the beneficial effects of gemcitabine upon median overall survival. In median, the monogemcitabine group survived 191 days, whereas the caerulein-mono group survived 114, the control group 121, and the caerulein gemcitabine group 127 days (P < .05). In vitro, the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by recombinant human IL-6 promoted pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell survival during gemcitabine treatment. CONCLUSION We could demonstrate for the first time that an improvement in median overall survival with gemcitabine is significantly abolished by a persistent mild chronic pancreatitis and a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In particular, the inflammation biomarkers C-reactive protein, IL-6, and IL-1α could indicate the prognostic benefit of gemcitabine chemotherapy and should now be tested in prospective patient-controlled trials. PMID:24953430

  17. Otitis media in the Tgif knockout mouse implicates TGFβ signalling in chronic middle ear inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Tateossian, Hilda; Morse, Susan; Parker, Andrew; Mburu, Philomena; Warr, Nick; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Cheeseman, Michael; Wells, Sara; Brown, Steve D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the most common cause of hearing loss in children and tympanostomy to alleviate the condition remains the commonest surgical intervention in children in the developed world. Chronic and recurrent forms of OM are known to have a very significant genetic component, however, until recently little was known of the underlying genes involved. The identification of mouse models of chronic OM has indicated a role of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling and its impact on responses to hypoxia in the inflamed middle ear. We have, therefore, investigated the role of TGFβ signalling and identified and characterized a new model of chronic OM carrying a mutation in the gene for transforming growth interacting factor 1 (Tgif1). Tgif1 homozygous mutant mice have significantly raised auditory thresholds due to a conductive deafness arising from a chronic effusion starting at around 3 weeks of age. The OM is accompanied by a significant thickening of the middle ear mucosa lining, expansion of mucin-secreting goblet cell populations and raised levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, TNF-α and IL-1β in ear fluids. We also identified downstream effects on TGFβ signalling in middle ear epithelia at the time of development of chronic OM. Both phosphorylated SMAD2 and p21 levels were lowered in the homozygous mutant, demonstrating a suppression of the TGFβ pathway. The identification and characterization of the Tgif mutant supports the role of TGFβ signalling in the development of chronic OM and provides an important candidate gene for genetic studies in the human population. PMID:23459932

  18. Generating Transgenic Mouse Models for Studying Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Ju, Josephine M; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of current animal models for studying celiac disease, with a focus on generating HLA transgenic mouse models. Human Leukocyte Antigen class II molecules have been a particular target for transgenic mice due to their tight association with celiac disease, and a number of murine models have been developed which had the endogenous MHC class II genes replaced with insertions of disease susceptible HLA class II alleles DQ2 or DQ8. Additionally, transgenic mice that overexpress interleukin-15 (IL-15), a key player in the inflammatory cascade that leads to celiac disease, have also been generated to model a state of chronic inflammation. To explore the contribution of specific bacteria in gluten-sensitive enteropathy, the nude mouse and rat models have been studied in germ-free facilities. These reductionist mouse models allow us to address single factors thought to have crucial roles in celiac disease. No single model has incorporated all of the multiple factors that make up celiac disease. Rather, these mouse models can allow the functional interrogation of specific components of the many stages of, and contributions to, the pathogenic mechanisms that will lead to gluten-dependent enteropathy. Overall, the tools for animal studies in celiac disease are many and varied, and provide ample space for further creativity as well as to characterize the complete and complex pathogenesis of celiac disease. PMID:26498609

  19. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is. PMID:24167266

  20. Mouse models of Inherited Cancer Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Jahid, Sohail; Lipkin, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of cancer have been instrumental in understanding the progression and therapy for hereditary cancer syndromes. The ability to alter the genome of individual mouse cell types in both constitutive and inducible approaches has led to many novel insights into their human disease counterparts. In this review, conventional, conditional and inducible knockout mouse models of inherited human cancer syndromes are presented and insights from the study of these models are highlighted. PMID:21075289

  1. Accumulation of peribronchial mast cells in a mouse model of ovalbumin allergen induced chronic airway inflammation: modulation by immunostimulatory DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Reid K; Miller, Marina; Nayar, Jyothi; Walker, Linda; Cho, Jae Youn; McElwain, Kirsti; McElwain, Shauna; Raz, Eyal; Broide, David H

    2003-11-01

    Few peribronchial mast cells are noted either in the lungs of naive mice or in the lungs of OVA-sensitized mice challenged acutely with OVA by inhalation. In this study, we demonstrate that OVA-sensitized mice exposed to repetitive OVA inhalation for 1-6 mo have a significant accumulation of peribronchial mast cells. This accumulation of peribronchial mast cells is associated with increased expression of the Th2 cell-derived mast cell growth factors, including IL-4 and IL-9, but not with the non-Th2 cell-derived mast cell growth factor, stem cell factor. Pretreating mice with immunostimulatory sequences (ISS) of DNA containing a CpG motif significantly inhibited the accumulation of peribronchial mast cells and the expression of IL-4 and IL-9. To determine whether mast cells express Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9; the receptor for ISS), TLR-9 expression by mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (MBMMCs) was assessed by RT-PCR. MBMMCs strongly expressed TLR-9 and bound rhodamine-labeled ISS. However, incubation of MBMMCs with ISS in vitro neither inhibited MBMMC proliferation nor inhibited Ag/IgE-mediated MBMMC degranulation, but they did induce IL-6. Overall these studies demonstrate that mice exposed to repetitive OVA challenge, but not acute OVA challenge, have an accumulation of peribronchial mast cells and express increased levels of mast cell growth factors in the lung. Although mast cells express TLR-9, ISS does not directly inhibit mast cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting that ISS inhibits accumulation of peribronchial mast cells in vivo by indirect mechanism(s), which include inhibiting the lung expression of Th2 cell-derived mast cell growth factors. PMID:14568966

  2. Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I)-induced Chronic Gliosis and Retinal Stress Lead to Neurodegeneration in a Mouse Model of Retinopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Villacampa, Pilar; Ribera, Albert; Motas, Sandra; Ramírez, Laura; García, Miquel; de la Villa, Pedro; Haurigot, Virginia; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) exerts multiple effects on different retinal cell types in both physiological and pathological conditions. Despite the growth factor's extensively described neuroprotective actions, transgenic mice with increased intraocular levels of IGF-I showed progressive impairment of electroretinographic amplitudes up to complete loss of response, with loss of photoreceptors and bipolar, ganglion, and amacrine neurons. Neurodegeneration was preceded by the overexpression of genes related to retinal stress, acute-phase response, and gliosis, suggesting that IGF-I altered normal retinal homeostasis. Indeed, gliosis and microgliosis were present from an early age in transgenic mice, before other alterations occurred, and were accompanied by signs of oxidative stress and impaired glutamate recycling. Older mice also showed overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that, when chronically increased, intraocular IGF-I is responsible for the induction of deleterious cellular processes that can lead to neurodegeneration, and they highlight the importance that this growth factor may have in the pathogenesis of conditions such as ischemic or diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23620587

  3. Micro-heterogeneity of flow in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion revealed by longitudinal Doppler optical coherence tomography and angiography.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Vivek J; Yu, Esther; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Can, Anil; Climov, Mihail; Leahy, Conor; Ayata, Cenk; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina

    2015-10-01

    Although microvascular dysfunction accompanies cognitive decline in aging, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease, tools to study microvasculature longitudinally in vivo are lacking. Here, we use Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography for noninvasive, longitudinal imaging of mice with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion for up to 1 month. In particular, we optimized the OCT angiography method to selectively image red blood cell (RBC)-perfused capillaries, leading to a novel way of assessing capillary supply heterogeneity in vivo. After bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS), cortical blood flow measured by Doppler OCT dropped to half of baseline throughout the imaged tissue acutely. Microscopic imaging of the capillary bed with OCT angiography further revealed local heterogeneities in cortical flow supply during hypoperfusion. The number of RBC-perfused capillaries decreased, leading to increased oxygen diffusion distances in the days immediately after BCAS. Linear regression showed that RBC-perfused capillary density declined by 0.3% for a drop in flow of 1 mL/100 g per minute, and decreases in RBC-perfused capillary density as high as 25% were observed. Taken together, these results demonstrate the existence of local supply heterogeneity at the capillary level even at nonischemic global flow levels, and demonstrate a novel imaging method to assess this heterogeneity. PMID:26243708

  4. Mouse models of primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seok; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Cha, Seunghee

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by immune cell infiltration and progressive injury to the salivary and lacrimal glands. As a consequence, patients with SjS develop xerostomia (dry mouth) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes). SjS is the third most common rheumatic autoimmune disorder, affecting 4 million Americans with over 90% of patients being female. Current diagnostic criteria for SjS frequently utilize histological examinations of minor salivary glands for immune cell foci, serology for autoantibodies, and dry eye evaluation by corneal or conjunctival staining. SjS can be classified as primary or secondary SjS, depending on whether it occurs alone or in association with other systemic rheumatic conditions, respectively. Clinical manifestations typically become apparent when the disease is relatively advanced in SjS patients, which poses a challenge for early diagnosis and treatment of SjS. Therefore, SjS mouse models, because of their close resemblance to the human SjS, have been extremely valuable to identify early disease markers and to investigate underlying biological and immunological dysregulations. However, it is important to bear in mind that no single mouse model has duplicated all aspects of SjS pathogenesis and clinical features, mainly due to the multifactorial etiology of SjS that includes numerous susceptibility genes and environmental factors. As such, various mouse models have been developed in the field to try to recapitulate SjS. In this review, we focus on recent mouse models of primary SjS and describe them under three categories of spontaneous, genetically engineered, and experimentally induced development of SjS-like disease. In addition, we discuss future perspectives of SjS mouse models highlighting pros and cons of utilizing mouse models and demands for improved models. PMID:25777752

  5. Chronic sustained hypoxia-induced redox remodeling causes contractile dysfunction in mouse sternohyoid muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Philip; Sheehan, David; Soares, Renata; Varela Coelho, Ana; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sustained hypoxia (CH) induces structural and functional adaptations in respiratory muscles of animal models, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study explores the putative role of CH-induced redox remodeling in a translational mouse model, with a focus on the sternohyoid—a representative upper airway dilator muscle involved in the control of pharyngeal airway caliber. We hypothesized that exposure to CH induces redox disturbance in mouse sternohyoid muscle in a time-dependent manner affecting metabolic capacity and contractile performance. C57Bl6/J mice were exposed to normoxia or normobaric CH (FiO2 = 0.1) for 1, 3, or 6 weeks. A second cohort of animals was exposed to CH for 6 weeks with and without antioxidant supplementation (tempol or N-acetyl cysteine in the drinking water). Following CH exposure, we performed 2D redox proteomics with mass spectrometry, metabolic enzyme activity assays, and cell-signaling assays. Additionally, we assessed isotonic contractile and endurance properties ex vivo. Temporal changes in protein oxidation and glycolytic enzyme activities were observed. Redox modulation of sternohyoid muscle proteins key to contraction, metabolism and cellular homeostasis was identified. There was no change in redox-sensitive proteasome activity or HIF-1α content, but CH decreased phospho-JNK content independent of antioxidant supplementation. CH was detrimental to sternohyoid force- and power-generating capacity and this was prevented by chronic antioxidant supplementation. We conclude that CH causes upper airway dilator muscle dysfunction due to redox modulation of proteins key to function and homeostasis. Such changes could serve to further disrupt respiratory homeostasis in diseases characterized by CH such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Antioxidants may have potential use as an adjunctive therapy in hypoxic respiratory disease. PMID:25941492

  6. Chronic sustained hypoxia-induced redox remodeling causes contractile dysfunction in mouse sternohyoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Philip; Sheehan, David; Soares, Renata; Varela Coelho, Ana; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sustained hypoxia (CH) induces structural and functional adaptations in respiratory muscles of animal models, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study explores the putative role of CH-induced redox remodeling in a translational mouse model, with a focus on the sternohyoid-a representative upper airway dilator muscle involved in the control of pharyngeal airway caliber. We hypothesized that exposure to CH induces redox disturbance in mouse sternohyoid muscle in a time-dependent manner affecting metabolic capacity and contractile performance. C57Bl6/J mice were exposed to normoxia or normobaric CH (FiO2 = 0.1) for 1, 3, or 6 weeks. A second cohort of animals was exposed to CH for 6 weeks with and without antioxidant supplementation (tempol or N-acetyl cysteine in the drinking water). Following CH exposure, we performed 2D redox proteomics with mass spectrometry, metabolic enzyme activity assays, and cell-signaling assays. Additionally, we assessed isotonic contractile and endurance properties ex vivo. Temporal changes in protein oxidation and glycolytic enzyme activities were observed. Redox modulation of sternohyoid muscle proteins key to contraction, metabolism and cellular homeostasis was identified. There was no change in redox-sensitive proteasome activity or HIF-1α content, but CH decreased phospho-JNK content independent of antioxidant supplementation. CH was detrimental to sternohyoid force- and power-generating capacity and this was prevented by chronic antioxidant supplementation. We conclude that CH causes upper airway dilator muscle dysfunction due to redox modulation of proteins key to function and homeostasis. Such changes could serve to further disrupt respiratory homeostasis in diseases characterized by CH such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Antioxidants may have potential use as an adjunctive therapy in hypoxic respiratory disease. PMID:25941492

  7. Melatonin receptors: latest insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillame, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications towards type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1/MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

  8. Multimodal, multidimensional models of mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Lee, Erh-Fang; Dinov, Ivo D; Yuan, Heng; Jacobs, Russell E; Toga, Arthur W

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring mutants and genetically manipulated strains of mice are widely used to model a variety of human diseases. Atlases are an invaluable aid in understanding the impact of such manipulations by providing a standard for comparison and to facilitate the integration of anatomic, genetic, and physiologic observations from multiple subjects and experiments. We have developed digital atlases of the C57BL/6J mouse brain (adult and neonate) as comprehensive frameworks for storing and accessing the myriad types of information about the mouse brain. Along with raw and annotated images, these contain database management systems and a set of tools for comparing information from different techniques and different animals. Each atlas establishes a canonical representation of the mouse brain and provides the tools for the manipulation and analysis of new data. We describe both these atlases and discuss how they may be put to use in organizing and analyzing data from mouse models of epilepsy. PMID:17767578

  9. Alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 Loci Impairs Its Processing and Augments B-1 Expansion in De Novo Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Kasar, Siddha; Underbayev, Chingiz; Hassan, Moinuddin; Ilev, Ilko; Degheidy, Heba; Bauer, Steven; Marti, Gerald; Lutz, Carol; Raveche, Elizabeth; Batish, Mona

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand Black (NZB) mice, a de novo model of CLL, share multiple characteristics with CLL patients, including decreased expression of miR-15a/16-1. We previously discovered a point mutation and deletion in the 3' flanking region of mir-16-1 of NZB and a similar mutation has been found in a small number of CLL patients. However, it was unknown whether the mutation is the cause for the reduced miR-15a/16-1 expression and CLL development. Using PCR and in vitro microRNA processing assays, we found that the NZB sequence alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci result in deficient processing of the precursor forms of miR-15a/16-1, in particular, we observe impaired conversion of pri-miR-15a/16-1 to pre-miR-15a/16-1. The in vitro data was further supported by derivation of congenic strains with replaced mir-15a/16-1 loci at one or both alleles: NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/-) and DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-). The level of miR-15a/16-1 reflected the configuration of the mir-15a/16-1 loci with DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-) showing reduced miR-15a levels compared to homozygous wild-type allele, while the NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/-) showed an increase in miR-15a levels relative to homozygous mutant allele. Similar to Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), the precursor stage of the human disease, an overall expansion of the B-1 population was observed in DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-) relative to wild-type (DmiR+/+). These studies support our hypothesis that the mutations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci are responsible for decreased expression of this regulatory microRNA leading to B-1 expansion and CLL development. PMID:26959643

  10. Alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 Loci Impairs Its Processing and Augments B-1 Expansion in De Novo Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    PubMed Central

    Kasar, Siddha; Underbayev, Chingiz; Hassan, Moinuddin; Ilev, Ilko; Degheidy, Heba; Bauer, Steven; Marti, Gerald; Lutz, Carol; Raveche, Elizabeth; Batish, Mona

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand Black (NZB) mice, a de novo model of CLL, share multiple characteristics with CLL patients, including decreased expression of miR-15a/16-1. We previously discovered a point mutation and deletion in the 3' flanking region of mir-16-1 of NZB and a similar mutation has been found in a small number of CLL patients. However, it was unknown whether the mutation is the cause for the reduced miR-15a/16-1 expression and CLL development. Using PCR and in vitro microRNA processing assays, we found that the NZB sequence alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci result in deficient processing of the precursor forms of miR-15a/16-1, in particular, we observe impaired conversion of pri-miR-15a/16-1 to pre-miR-15a/16-1. The in vitro data was further supported by derivation of congenic strains with replaced mir-15a/16-1 loci at one or both alleles: NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/-) and DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-). The level of miR-15a/16-1 reflected the configuration of the mir-15a/16-1 loci with DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-) showing reduced miR-15a levels compared to homozygous wild-type allele, while the NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/-) showed an increase in miR-15a levels relative to homozygous mutant allele. Similar to Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), the precursor stage of the human disease, an overall expansion of the B-1 population was observed in DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-) relative to wild-type (DmiR+/+). These studies support our hypothesis that the mutations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci are responsible for decreased expression of this regulatory microRNA leading to B-1 expansion and CLL development. PMID:26959643

  11. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  12. Mouse models of acute exacerbations of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh K; Herbert, Cristan; Foster, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Most of the healthcare costs associated with asthma relate to emergency department visits and hospitalizations because of acute exacerbations of underlying chronic disease. Development of appropriate animal models of acute exacerbations of asthma is a necessary prerequisite for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms and assessing potential novel therapeutic approaches. Most such models have been developed using mice. Relatively few mouse models attempt to simulate the acute-on-chronic disease that characterizes human asthma exacerbations. Instead, many reported models involve relatively short-term challenge with an antigen to which animals are sensitized, followed closely by an unrelated triggering agent, so are better described as models of potentiation of acute allergic inflammation. Triggers for experimental models of asthma exacerbations include (i) challenge with high levels of the sensitizing allergen (ii) infection by viruses or fungi, or challenge with components of these microorganisms (iii) exposure to environmental pollutants. In this review, we examine the strengths and weaknesses of published mouse models, their application for investigation of novel treatments and potential future developments. PMID:26922049

  13. Mouse Models of Uncomplicated and Fatal Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Brian W.; Pearman, Emily; Kim, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have demonstrated utility in delineating the mechanisms underlying many aspects of malaria immunology and physiology. The most common mouse models of malaria employ the rodent-specific parasite species Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii, and P. chabaudi, which elicit distinct pathologies and immune responses and are used to model different manifestations of human disease. In vitro culture methods are not well developed for rodent Plasmodium parasites, which thus require in vivo maintenance. Moreover, physiologically relevant immunological processes are best studied in vivo. Here, we detail the processes of infecting mice with Plasmodium, maintaining the parasite in vivo, and monitoring parasite levels and health parameters throughout infection. PMID:26236758

  14. Standardized Profiling of The Membrane-Enriched Proteome of Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) Provides Novel Insights Into Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Rouwette, Tom; Sondermann, Julia; Avenali, Luca; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disease with limited treatment options. Several profiling efforts have been employed with the aim to dissect its molecular underpinnings. However, generated results are often inconsistent and nonoverlapping, which is largely because of inherent technical constraints. Emerging data-independent acquisition (DIA)-mass spectrometry (MS) has the potential to provide unbiased, reproducible and quantitative proteome maps - a prerequisite for standardization among experiments. Here, we designed a DIA-based proteomics workflow to profile changes in the abundance of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) proteins in two mouse models of chronic pain, inflammatory and neuropathic. We generated a DRG-specific spectral library containing 3067 DRG proteins, which enables their standardized quantification by means of DIA-MS in any laboratory. Using this resource, we profiled 2526 DRG proteins in each biological replicate of both chronic pain models and respective controls with unprecedented reproducibility. We detected numerous differentially regulated proteins, the majority of which exhibited pain model-specificity. Our approach recapitulates known biology and discovers dozens of proteins that have not been characterized in the somatosensory system before. Functional validation experiments and analysis of mouse pain behaviors demonstrate that indeed meaningful protein alterations were discovered. These results illustrate how the application of DIA-MS can open new avenues to achieve the long-awaited standardization in the molecular dissection of pathologies of the somatosensory system. Therefore, our findings provide a valuable framework to qualitatively extend our understanding of chronic pain and somatosensation. PMID:27103637

  15. Citrobacter rodentium mouse model of bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Crepin, Valerie F; Collins, James W; Habibzay, Maryam; Frankel, Gad

    2016-10-01

    Infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium is a robust model to study bacterial pathogenesis, mucosal immunology, the health benefits of probiotics and the role of the microbiota during infection. C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was 'rediscovered' by Falkow and Schauer in 1993. Since then the use of the model has proliferated, and it is now the gold standard for studying virulence of the closely related human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively). Here we provide a detailed protocol for various applications of the model, including bacterial growth, site-directed mutagenesis, mouse inoculation (from cultured cells and after cohabitation), monitoring of bacterial colonization, tissue extraction and analysis, immune responses, probiotic treatment and microbiota analysis. The main protocol, from mouse infection to clearance and analysis of tissues and host responses, takes ∼5 weeks to complete. PMID:27606775

  16. Mouse models of the laminopathies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Colin L. . E-mail: stewartc@ncifcrf.gov; Kozlov, Serguei; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G. . E-mail: sgyoung@mednet.ucla.edu

    2007-06-10

    The A and B type lamins are nuclear intermediate filament proteins that comprise the bulk of the nuclear lamina, a thin proteinaceous structure underlying the inner nuclear membrane. The A type lamins are encoded by the lamin A gene (LMNA). Mutations in this gene have been linked to at least nine diseases, including the progeroid diseases Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and atypical Werner's syndromes, striated muscle diseases including muscular dystrophies and dilated cardiomyopathies, lipodystrophies affecting adipose tissue deposition, diseases affecting skeletal development, and a peripheral neuropathy. To understand how different diseases arise from different mutations in the same gene, mouse lines carrying some of the same mutations found in the human diseases have been established. We, and others have generated mice with different mutations that result in progeria, muscular dystrophy, and dilated cardiomyopathy. To further our understanding of the functions of the lamins, we also created mice lacking lamin B1, as well as mice expressing only one of the A type lamins. These mouse lines are providing insights into the functions of the lamina and how changes to the lamina affect the mechanical integrity of the nucleus as well as signaling pathways that, when disrupted, may contribute to the disease.

  17. The mouse gut microbiome revisited: From complex diversity to model ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Thomas; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Blaut, Michael; Stecher, Bärbel

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory mice are the most commonly used animal model in translational medical research. In recent years, the impact of the gut microbiota (i.e. communities of microorganisms in the intestine) on host physiology and the onset of diseases, including metabolic and neuronal disorders, cancers, gastrointestinal infections and chronic inflammation, became a focal point of interest. There is abundant evidence that mouse phenotypes in disease models vary greatly between animal facilities or commercial providers, and that this variation is associated with differences in the microbiota. Hence, there is a clear discrepancy between the widespread use of mouse models in research and the patchwork knowledge on the mouse gut microbiome. In the present manuscript, we summarize data pertaining to the diversity and functions of the mouse gut microbiota, review existing work on gnotobiotic mouse models, and discuss challenges and opportunities for current and future research in the field. PMID:26995267

  18. Chronic Cellular Imaging of Mouse Visual Cortex During Operant Behavior and Passive Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Andermann, Mark L.; Kerlin, A. M.; Reid, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby neurons in mammalian neocortex demonstrate a great diversity of cell types and connectivity patterns. The importance of this diversity for computation is not understood. While extracellular recording studies in visual cortex have provided a particularly rich description of behavioral modulation of neural activity, new methods are needed to dissect the contribution of specific circuit elements in guiding visual perception. Here, we describe a method for three-dimensional cellular imaging of neural activity in the awake mouse visual cortex during active discrimination and passive viewing of visual stimuli. Head-fixed mice demonstrated robust discrimination for many hundred trials per day after initial task acquisition. To record from multiple neurons during operant behavior with single-trial resolution and minimal artifacts, we built a sensitive microscope for two-photon calcium imaging, capable of rapid tracking of neurons in three dimensions. We demonstrate stable recordings of cellular calcium activity during discrimination behavior across hours, days, and weeks, using both synthetic and genetically encoded calcium indicators. When combined with molecular and genetic technologies in mice (e.g., cell-type specific transgenic labeling), this approach allows the identification of neuronal classes in vivo. Physiological measurements from distinct classes of neighboring neurons will enrich our understanding of the coordinated roles of diverse elements of cortical microcircuits in guiding sensory perception and perceptual learning. Further, our method provides a high-throughput, chronic in vivo assay of behavioral influences on cellular activity that is applicable to a wide range of mouse models of neurologic disease. PMID:20407583

  19. Loganin inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse 3T3L1 adipocytes and mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Zheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Chenxu; Shen, Bingyu; Tian, Ye; Feng, Haihua

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vascular walls. ApoCIII is an independent factor which promotes atherosclerotic processes. This study aimed to investigate whether Loganin administration inhibits the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. In the apoCIII-induced mouse adipocytes, the levels of cytokines, including TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and their gene expressions were measured through RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins was analyzed by Western blotting. Our results showed that Loganin markedly decreased TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 concentrations as well as their gene expressions. Western blotting analysis indicated that Loganin suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. In the Tyloxapol-treated mouse model, Loganin reduced the contents of TC and TG in mouse serum. The results of Oil Red-O Staining showed that Loganin reduced the production of lipid droplets. So it is suggested that Loganin might be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing the inflammation stress in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27155393

  20. Acute molecular response of mouse hindlimb muscles to chronic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, R. C.; Bombach, K. L.; Ankrapp, D. P.; Krill-Burger, J. M.; Sciulli, C. M.; Petrosko, P.; Wiseman, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    Stimulation of the mouse hindlimb via the sciatic nerve was performed for a 4-h period to investigate acute muscle gene activation in a model of muscle phenotype conversion. Initial force production (1.6 ± 0.1 g/g body wt) declined 45% within 10 min and was maintained for the remainder of the experiment. Force returned to initial levels upon study completion. An immediate-early growth response was present in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle (FOS, JUN, activating transcription factor 3, and musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene) with a similar but attenuated pattern in the soleus muscle. Transcript profiles showed decreased fast fiber-specific mRNA (myosin heavy chains 2A and 2B, fast troponins T3 and I, α-tropomyosin, muscle creatine kinase, and parvalbumin) and increased slow transcripts (myosin heavy chain-1β/slow, troponin C slow, and tropomyosin 3y) in the EDL versus soleus muscles. Histological analysis of the EDL revealed glycogen depletion without inflammatory cell infiltration in stimulated versus control muscles, whereas ultrastructural analysis showed no evidence of myofiber damage after stimulation. Multiple fiber type-specific transcription factors (tea domain family member 1, nuclear factor of activated T cells 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and -β, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) increased in the EDL along with transcription factors characteristic of embryogenesis (Kruppel-like factor 4; SRY box containing 17; transcription factor 15; PBX/knotted 1 homeobox 1; and embryonic lethal, abnormal vision). No established in vivo satellite cell markers or genes activated in our parallel experiments of satellite cell proliferation in vitro (cyclins A2, B2, C, and E1 and MyoD) were differentially increased in the stimulated muscles. These results indicated that the molecular onset of fast to slow phenotype conversion occurred in the EDL within 4 h of stimulation

  1. HIF-VEGF pathways are critical for chronic otitis media in Junbo and Jeff mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, Michael T; Tyrer, Hayley E; Williams, Debbie; Hough, Tertius A; Pathak, Paras; Romero, Maria R; Hilton, Helen; Bali, Sulzhan; Parker, Andrew; Vizor, Lucie; Purnell, Tom; Vowell, Kate; Wells, Sara; Bhutta, Mahmood F; Potter, Paul K; Brown, Steve D M

    2011-10-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the commonest cause of hearing loss in children, yet the underlying genetic pathways and mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Ventilation of the middle ear with tympanostomy tubes is the commonest surgical procedure in children and the best treatment for chronic OME, but the mechanism by which they work remains uncertain. As hypoxia is a common feature of inflamed microenvironments, moderation of hypoxia may be a significant contributory mechanism. We have investigated the occurrence of hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) mediated responses in Junbo and Jeff mouse mutant models, which develop spontaneous chronic otitis media. We found that Jeff and Junbo mice labeled in vivo with pimonidazole showed cellular hypoxia in inflammatory cells in the bulla lumen, and in Junbo the middle ear mucosa was also hypoxic. The bulla fluid inflammatory cell numbers were greater and the upregulation of inflammatory gene networks were more pronounced in Junbo than Jeff. Hif-1α gene expression was elevated in bulla fluid inflammatory cells, and there was upregulation of its target genes including Vegfa in Junbo and Jeff. We therefore investigated the effects in Junbo of small-molecule inhibitors of VEGFR signaling (PTK787, SU-11248, and BAY 43-9006) and destabilizing HIF by inhibiting its chaperone HSP90 with 17-DMAG. We found that both classes of inhibitor significantly reduced hearing loss and the occurrence of bulla fluid and that VEGFR inhibitors moderated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the inflamed middle ear mucosa. The effectiveness of HSP90 and VEGFR signaling inhibitors in suppressing OM in the Junbo model implicates HIF-mediated VEGF as playing a pivotal role in OM pathogenesis. Our analysis of the Junbo and Jeff mutants highlights the role of hypoxia and HIF-mediated pathways, and we conclude that targeting molecules in HIF-VEGF signaling pathways has therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic OM. PMID

  2. Novel thromboxane A2 analog-induced IUGR mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fung, C; Brown, A; Cox, J; Callaway, C; McKnight, R; Lane, R

    2011-10-01

    Rodents, particularly rats, are used in the majority of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) research. An important tool that is lacking in this field is the ability to impose IUGR on transgenic mice. We therefore developed a novel mouse model of chronic IUGR using U-46619, a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) analog, infusion. TXA2 overproduction is prevalent in human pregnancies complicated by cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. In this model, U-46619 micro-osmotic pump infusion in the last week of C57BL/6J mouse gestation caused maternal hypertension. IUGR pups weighed 15% less, had lighter brain, lung, liver and kidney weights, but had similar nose-to-anus lengths compared with sham pups at birth. Metabolically, IUGR pups showed increased essential branched-chain amino acids. They were normoglycemic yet hypoinsulinemic. They showed decreased hepatic mRNA levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 and its variants, but increased level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha. IUGR offspring were growth restricted from birth (P1) through postnatal day 21 (P21). IUGR males caught up with sham males in weight by P28, whereas IUGR females caught up with sham females by P77. IUGR males surpassed sham males in weight by P238. In summary, we have a non-brain sparing IUGR mouse model that has a relative ease of surgical IUGR induction and exhibits features similar to the chronic IUGR offspring of humans and other animal models. As transgenic technology predominates in mice, this model now permits the imposition of IUGR on transgenic mice to interrogate mechanisms of fetal origins of adult disease. PMID:25141265

  3. Effects of verbenalin on prostatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Mingsan; Guo, Lin; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tan; Li, Zuming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the treatment characteristics of verbenalin on a prostatitis mouse model. Give Xiaozhiling injection in the prostate locally to make a prostatitis mouse model. High, medium and low doses of verbenalin were each given to different mouse groups. The amount of water was determined in 14th, 28th. The number of white cells and lecithin corpuscle density in prostatic fluid were determined. Morphological changes in the prostate, testis, epididymis and kidney were detected. Compared with the model control group, the mice treated with high, medium and low doses of verbenalin had significantly increased amounts of water, and prostate white blood cell count and prostate volume density (Vv) were decreased significantly, the density of lecithin corpuscle score increased, and pathologic prostatitis changes were significantly reduced. Pathological change in the testis was significantly reduced and the change in the epididymis was obviously reduced. The thymic cortex thickness and the number of lymphocytes increased significantly and could reduce the renal pathological changes in potential. Verbenalin has a good therapeutic effect on the prostatitis mouse model. PMID:26858560

  4. Genetically engineered mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwak, I; Tsai, S Y; DeMayo, F J

    2004-01-01

    The lung is a complex organ consisting of numerous cell types that function to ensure sufficient gas exchange to oxygenate the blood. In order to accomplish this function, the lung must be exposed to the external environment and at the same time maintain a homeostatic balance between its function in gas exchange and the maintenance of inflammatory balance. During the past two decades, as molecular methodologies have evolved with the sequencing of entire genomes, the use of in vivo models to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in pulmonary physiology and disease have increased. The mouse has emerged as a potent model to investigate pulmonary physiology due to the explosion in molecular methods that now allow for the developmental and tissue-specific regulation of gene transcription. Initial efforts to manipulate gene expression in the mouse genome resulted in the generation of transgenic mice characterized by the constitutive expression of a specific gene and knockout mice characterized by the ablation of a specific gene. The utility of these original mouse models was limited, in many cases, by phenotypes resulting in embryonic or neonatal lethality that prevented analysis of the impact of the genetic manipulation on pulmonary biology. Second-generation transgenic mouse models employ multiple strategies that can either activate or silence gene expression thereby providing extensive temporal and spatial control of the experimental parameters of gene expression. These highly regulated mouse models are intended to serve as a foundation for further investigation of the molecular basis of human disease such as tumorigenesis. This review describes the principles, progress, and application of systems that are currently employed in the conditional regulation of gene expression in the investigation of lung cancer. PMID:14977417

  5. Clinicopathological characterization of mouse models of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Blake; Soyer, H Peter; Walker, Graeme J

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of melanoma have proven invaluable in the delineation of key molecular events involved in disease progression in humans and provide potential preclinical models for therapeutic testing (Damsky and Bosenberg, Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 25(4):404-405, 2012; Walker et al., Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 24(6):1158-1176, 2011). Here we concentrate on the clinicopathological analysis of melanocytic tumors. PMID:25636472

  6. Mouse Model of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Norma V.; Filler, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with defects in cell-mediated immunity or saliva production. Animal models of this infection are important for studying disease pathogenesis and evaluating vaccines and antifungal therapies. Here we describe a simple murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Mice are rendered susceptible to oral infection by injection with cortisone acetate and then inoculated by placing a swab saturated with Candida albicans sublingually. This process results in a reproducible level of infection, the histopathology of which mimics that of pseudomembranous oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients. Using this model, data are obtained after 5–9 days of work. PMID:22402633

  7. Mouse models for core binding factor leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chin, D W L; Watanabe-Okochi, N; Wang, C Q; Tergaonkar, V; Osato, M

    2015-10-01

    RUNX1 and CBFB are among the most frequently mutated genes in human leukemias. Genetic alterations such as chromosomal translocations, copy number variations and point mutations have been widely reported to result in the malfunction of RUNX transcription factors. Leukemias arising from such alterations in RUNX family genes are collectively termed core binding factor (CBF) leukemias. Although adult CBF leukemias generally are considered a favorable risk group as compared with other forms of acute myeloid leukemia, the 5-year survival rate remains low. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanism for CBF leukemia is imperative to uncover novel treatment options. Over the years, retroviral transduction-transplantation assays and transgenic, knockin and knockout mouse models alone or in combination with mutagenesis have been used to study the roles of RUNX alterations in leukemogenesis. Although successful in inducing leukemia, the existing assays and models possess many inherent limitations. A CBF leukemia model which induces leukemia with complete penetrance and short latency would be ideal as a platform for drug discovery. Here, we summarize the currently available mouse models which have been utilized to study CBF leukemias, discuss the advantages and limitations of individual experimental systems, and propose suggestions for improvements of mouse models. PMID:26165235

  8. On Models and Mickey Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petherbridge, Deanna

    2005-01-01

    The re-issue of a nineteenth-century French "Drawing Course" is the occasion for an examination of issues of "models of good practice" in current art teaching. These are listed as an expanded set of student-centred pedagogical paradigms, which embrace the forceful popular imagery of electronic games and comic strips. The formalist adaptations of…

  9. Mouse models for neural tube closure defects.

    PubMed

    Juriloff, D M; Harris, M J

    2000-04-12

    Neural tube closure defects (NTDs), in particular anencephaly and spina bifida, are common human birth defects (1 in 1000), their genetics is complex and their risk is reduced by periconceptional maternal folic acid supplementation. There are > 60 mouse mutants and strains with NTDs, many reported within the past 2 years. Not only are NTD mutations at loci widely heterogeneous in function, but also most of the mutants demonstrate variable low penetrance and some show complex inheritance patterns (e.g. SELH/Bc, Abl / Arg, Mena / Profilin1 ). In most of these mouse models, the NTDs are exencephaly (equivalent to anencephaly) or spina bifida or both, reflecting failure of neural fold elevation in well defined, mechanistically distinct elevation zones. NTD risk is reduced in various models by different maternal nutrient supplements, including folic acid ( Pax3, Cart1, Cd mutants), inositol ( ct ) and methionine ( Axd ). Lack of de novo methylation in embryos ( Dnmt3b -null) leads to NTD risk, and we suggest a potential link between methylation and the observed female excess among cranial NTDs in several models. Some surprising NTD mutants ( Gadd45a, Terc, Trp53 ) suggest that genes with a basic mitotic function also have a function specific to neural fold elevation. The genes mutated in several mouse NTD models involve actin regulation ( Abl/Arg, Macs, Mena/Profilin1, Mlp, Shrm, Vcl ), support the postulated key role of actin in neural fold elevation, and may be a good candidate pathway to search for human NTD genes. PMID:10767323

  10. Mouse models of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of mice as model organisms to study human biology is predicated on the genetic and physiological similarities between the species. Nonetheless, mice and humans have evolved in and become adapted to different environments and so, despite their phylogenetic relatedness, they have become very different organisms. Mice often respond to experimental interventions in ways that differ strikingly from humans. Mice are invaluable for studying biological processes that have been conserved during the evolution of the rodent and primate lineages and for investigating the developmental mechanisms by which the conserved mammalian genome gives rise to a variety of different species. Mice are less reliable as models of human disease, however, because the networks linking genes to disease are likely to differ between the two species. The use of mice in biomedical research needs to take account of the evolved differences as well as the similarities between mice and humans. PMID:27121451

  11. Analgesic effects of NB001 on mouse models of arthralgia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Xin-shang; Tian, Jiao; Han, Jing; Guo, Yan-yan; Feng, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Ming-gao; Liu, Shui-bing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated the critical roles of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) in the central nervous system in chronic pain. In the present study, we examined the analgesic effects of NB001, a selective inhibitor of AC1, on animal models of ankle joint arthritis and knee joint arthritis induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection. NB001 treatment had no effect on joint edema, stiffness, and joint destruction. Furthermore, the treatment failed to attenuate the disease progression of arthritis. However, NB001 treatment (3 mg/kg) significantly weakened joint pain-related behavior in the mouse models of ankle joint arthritis and knee joint arthritis. Results indicated that NB001 exhibited an analgesic effect on the animal models of arthritis but was not caused by anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26452469

  12. ALIGNING MOUSE MODELS OF ASTHMA TO HUMAN ENDOTYPES OF DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rebecca A; Hodgkins, Samantha R; Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2014-01-01

    Substantial gains in understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying asthma have been made using preclinical mouse models. However, because asthma is a complex, heterogeneous syndrome that is rarely due to a single allergen and that often presents in the absence of atopy, few of the promising therapeutics that demonstrated effectiveness in mouse models have translated into new treatments for patients. This has resulted in an urgent need to characterize Th2-low, noneosinophilic subsets of asthma, to study models that are resistant to conventional treatments such as corticosteroids, and to develop therapies targeting patients with severe disease. Classifying asthma based on underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, known as endotyping, offers a stratified approach for the development of new therapies for asthma. In preclinical research, new models of asthma are being utilized that more closely resemble the clinical features of different asthma endotypes, including the presence of IL-17 and a Th17 response, a biomarker of severe disease. These models utilize more physiologically relevant sensitizing agents, exacerbating factors, and allergens, as well as incorporate time points that better reflect the natural history and chronicity of clinical asthma. Importantly, some models better represent nonclassical asthma endotypes that facilitate the study of non-Th2 driven pathology and resemble the complex nature of clinical asthma, including corticosteroid resistance. Placing mouse asthma models into the context of human asthma endotypes will afford a more relevant approach to the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of disease that will afford the development of new therapies for those asthmatics that remain difficult to treat. PMID:24811131

  13. Chronic mild stress facilitates melanoma tumor growth in mouse lines selected for high and low stress-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Agnieszka R; Lesniak, Anna; Bochynska-Czyz, Marta; Kosson, Anna; Szymanska, Hanna; Pysniak, Kazimiera; Gajewska, Marta; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Sacharczuk, Mariusz

    2013-09-01

    Both chronic stress conditions and hyperergic reaction to environmental stress are known to enhance cancer susceptibility. We described two mouse lines that displayed high (HA) and low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia (SSIA) to investigate the relationship between inherited differences in sensitivity to stress and proneness to an increased growth rate of subcutaneously inoculated melanoma. These lines display several genetic and physiological differences, among which distinct sensitivity to mutagens and susceptibility to cancer are especially noticeable. High analgesic mice display high proneness both to stress and a rapid local spread of B16F0 melanoma. However, stress-resistant LA mice do not develop melanoma tumors after inoculation, or if so, tumors regress spontaneously. We found that the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure leads to enhanced interlinear differences in melanoma susceptibility. Tumors developed faster in stress conditions in both lines. However, LA mice still displayed a tendency for spontaneous regression, and 50% of LA mice did not develop a tumor, even under stressed conditions. Moreover, we showed that chronic stress, but not tumor progression, induces depressive behavior, which may be an important clue in cancer therapy. Our results clearly indicate how the interaction between genetic susceptibility to stress and environmental stress determine the risk and progression of melanoma. To our knowledge, HA/LA mouse lines are the first animal models of distinct melanoma progression mediated by inherited differences in stress reactivity. PMID:23688070

  14. Recent advances in pre-clinical mouse models of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2013-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a major incurable global health burden and will become the third largest cause of death in the world by 2020. It is currently believed that an exaggerated inflammatory response to inhaled irritants, in particular cigarette smoke, causes progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages, neutrophils and T-cells are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, small airways fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. The mechanisms and mediators that drive the induction and progression of chronic inflammation, emphysema and altered lung function are poorly understood. Current treatments have limited efficacy in inhibiting chronic inflammation, do not reverse the pathology of disease and fail to modify the factors that initiate and drive the long-term progression of disease. Therefore there is a clear need for new therapies that can prevent the induction and progression of COPD. Animal modelling systems that accurately reflect disease pathophysiology continue to be essential to the development of new therapies. The present review highlights some of the mouse models used to define the cellular, molecular and pathological consequences of cigarette smoke exposure and whether they can be used to predict the efficacy of new therapeutics for COPD. PMID:24144354

  15. Chronic brief restraint decreases in vivo binding of benzodiazepine receptor ligand to mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mosaddeghi, M; Burke, T F; Moerschbaecher, J M

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the effects of chronic brief restraint on in vivo benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor binding in mouse brain. Three groups of mice were used. Mice in group 1 were neither restrained nor injected (ACUTE control). Mice in group 2 were restrained for 5-6 s by grabbing the back skin and holding the subject upside-down at a 45 degrees angle as if to be injected (CHRONIC SHAM control) for 7 d. Mice in group 3 (CHRONIC SALINE) received daily single intraperitoneal (ip) injections of saline (5 mL/kg) for 7 d. On d 8 BZD receptors were labeled in vivo by administration of 3 microCi [3H]flumazenil (ip). The levels of ligand bound in vivo to cerebral cortex (CX), cerebellum (CB), brain stem (BS), striatum (ST), hippocampus (HP), and hypothalamus (HY) were determined. Results indicated that the level of binding was significantly (p < 0.01) lower by 30-50% (depending on the brain region) in saline-injected or sham control groups compared to acute control animals. Furthermore, the values for sham control were similar to the saline-treated group. Our data suggest that exposure to chronic mild restraint produces a decrease in in vivo binding of [3H]flumazenil in mouse brain and supports the hypothesis that chronic mild stress produces a decrease in BZD receptor binding sites. PMID:8385464

  16. Criteria for Validating Mouse Models of Psychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chadman, Kathryn K.; Yang, Mu; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of human diseases are in widespread use for biomedical research. Mouse models with a mutation in a single gene or multiple genes are excellent research tools for understanding the role of a specific gene in the etiology of a human genetic disease. Ideally, the mouse phenotypes will recapitulate the human phenotypes exactly. However, exact matches are rare, particularly in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. This article summarizes the current strategies for optimizing the validity of a mouse model of a human brain dysfunction. We address the common question raised by molecular geneticists and clinical researchers in psychiatry, “what is a ‘good enough’ mouse model”? PMID:18484083

  17. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  18. A mouse kindling model of perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Gould, Jordan; Gangisetty, O

    2012-06-01

    Catamenial epilepsy is caused by fluctuations in progesterone-derived GABA(A) receptor-modulating anticonvulsant neurosteroids, such as allopregnanolone, that play a significant role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. However, there is no specific mouse model of catamenial epilepsy. In this study, we developed and characterized a mouse model of catamenial epilepsy by using the neurosteroid-withdrawal paradigm. It is hypothesized that seizure susceptibility decreases when neurosteroid levels are high (midluteal phase) and increases during their withdrawal (perimenstrual periods) in close association with GABA(A) receptor plasticity. A chronic seizure condition was created by using the hippocampus kindling model in female mice. Elevated neurosteroid levels were induced by sequential gonadotropin treatment, and withdrawal was induced by the neurosteroid synthesis inhibitor finasteride. Elevated neurosteroid exposure reduced seizure expression in fully kindled mice. Fully kindled mice subjected to neurosteroid withdrawal showed increased generalized seizure frequency and intensity and enhanced seizure susceptibility. They also showed reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity and enhanced neurosteroid potency, similar to the clinical catamenial seizure phenotype. The increased susceptibility to seizures and alterations in antiseizure drug responses are associated with increased abundance of the α4 and δ subunits of GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that endogenous neurosteroids protect against seizure susceptibility and their withdrawal, such as that which occurs during menstruation, leads to exacerbation of seizure activity. This is possibly caused by specific changes in GABA(A) receptor-subunit plasticity and function, therefore providing a novel mouse model of human perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy that can be used for the investigation of disease mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22434675

  19. Increased Opioid Dependence in a Mouse Model of Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Murtra, Patricia; Zamalloa, Teresa; Canals, Josep Maria; Pineda, Joseba; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Maldonado, Rafael; Dierssen, Mara

    2009-01-01

    Panic disorder is a highly prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder that shows co-occurrence with substance abuse. Here, we demonstrate that TrkC, the high-affinity receptor for neurotrophin-3, is a key molecule involved in panic disorder and opiate dependence, using a transgenic mouse model (TgNTRK3). Constitutive TrkC overexpression in TgNTRK3 mice dramatically alters spontaneous firing rates of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons and the response of the noradrenergic system to chronic opiate exposure, possibly related to the altered regulation of neurotrophic peptides observed. Notably, TgNTRK3 LC neurons showed an increased firing rate in saline-treated conditions and profound abnormalities in their response to met5-enkephalin. Behaviorally, chronic morphine administration induced a significantly increased withdrawal syndrome in TgNTRK3 mice. In conclusion, we show here that the NT-3/TrkC system is an important regulator of neuronal firing in LC and could contribute to the adaptations of the noradrenergic system in response to chronic opiate exposure. Moreover, our results indicate that TrkC is involved in the molecular and cellular changes in noradrenergic neurons underlying both panic attacks and opiate dependence and support a functional endogenous opioid deficit in panic disorder patients. PMID:20204153

  20. Esophageal Cancer: Insights From Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Tétreault, Marie-Pier

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in the development of surgical techniques in combination with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer are still poorly understood. Hence, understanding these mechanisms is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer. Mouse models constitute valuable tools for modeling human cancers and for the preclinical testing of therapeutic strategies in a manner not possible in human subjects. Mice are excellent models for studying human cancers because they are similar to humans at the physiological and molecular levels and because they have a shorter gestation time and life cycle. Moreover, a wide range of well-developed technologies for introducing genetic modifications into mice are currently available. In this review, we describe how different mouse models are used to study esophageal cancer. PMID:26380556

  1. A Chemical Mutagenesis Screen Identifies Mouse Models with ERG Defects.

    PubMed

    Charette, Jeremy R; Samuels, Ivy S; Yu, Minzhong; Stone, Lisa; Hicks, Wanda; Shi, Lan Ying; Krebs, Mark P; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M; Peachey, Neal S

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models provide important resources for many areas of vision research, pertaining to retinal development, retinal function and retinal disease. The Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) program uses chemical mutagenesis to generate new mouse models for vision research. In this chapter, we report the identification of mouse models for Grm1, Grk1 and Lrit3. Each of these is characterized by a primary defect in the electroretinogram. All are available without restriction to the research community. PMID:26427409

  2. Mouse Model of Coxiella burnetii Aerosolization.

    PubMed

    Melenotte, Cléa; Lepidi, Hubert; Nappez, Claude; Bechah, Yassina; Audoly, Gilles; Terras, Jérôme; Raoult, Didier; Brégeon, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    Coxiella burnetii is mainly transmitted by aerosols and is responsible for multiple-organ lesions. Animal models have shown C. burnetii pathogenicity, but long-term outcomes still need to be clarified. We used a whole-body aerosol inhalation exposure system to mimic the natural route of infection in immunocompetent (BALB/c) and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. After an initial lung inoculum of 10(4) C. burnetii cells/lung, the outcome, serological response, hematological disorders, and deep organ lesions were described up to 3 months postinfection. C. burnetii-specific PCR, anti-C. burnetii immunohistochemistry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting C. burnetii-specific 16S rRNA completed the detection of the bacterium in the tissues. In BALB/c mice, a thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia were first observed, prior to evidence of C. burnetii replication. In all SCID mouse organs, DNA copies increased to higher levels over time than in BALB/c ones. Clinical signs of discomfort appeared in SCID mice, so follow-up had to be shortened to 2 months in this group. At this stage, all animals presented bone, cervical, and heart lesions. The presence of C. burnetii could be attested in situ for all organs sampled using immunohistochemistry and FISH. This mouse model described C. burnetii Nine Mile strain spread using aerosolization in a way that corroborates the pathogenicity of Q fever described in humans and completes previously published data in mouse models. C. burnetii infection occurring after aerosolization in mice thus seems to be a useful tool to compare the pathogenicity of different strains of C. burnetii. PMID:27160294

  3. A mouse model of in utero transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nijagal, Amar; Le, Tom; Wegorzewska, Marta; Mackenzie, Tippi C

    2011-01-01

    The transplantation of stem cells and viruses in utero has tremendous potential for treating congenital disorders in the human fetus. For example, in utero transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to successfully treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. In several other conditions, however, IUT has been attempted without success. Given these mixed results, the availability of an efficient non-human model to study the biological sequelae of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy is critical to advance this field. We and others have used the mouse model of IUT to study factors affecting successful engraftment of in utero transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in both wild-type mice and those with genetic diseases. The fetal environment also offers considerable advantages for the success of in utero gene therapy. For example, the delivery of adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, retroviral, and lentiviral vectors into the fetus has resulted in the transduction of multiple organs distant from the site of injection with long-term gene expression. in utero gene therapy may therefore be considered as a possible treatment strategy for single gene disorders such as muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis. Another potential advantage of IUT is the ability to induce immune tolerance to a specific antigen. As seen in mice with hemophilia, the introduction of Factor IX early in development results in tolerance to this protein. In addition to its use in investigating potential human therapies, the mouse model of IUT can be a powerful tool to study basic questions in developmental and stem cell biology. For example, one can deliver various small molecules to induce or inhibit specific gene expression at defined gestational stages and manipulate developmental pathways. The impact of these alterations can be assessed at various timepoints after the initial transplantation. Furthermore, one can transplant pluripotent or lineage specific progenitor

  4. Mouse Genetic Models of Human Brain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Leung, Celeste; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, genetic manipulations in mice have been used in neuroscience as a major approach to investigate the in vivo function of genes and their alterations. In particular, gene targeting techniques using embryonic stem cells have revolutionized the field of mammalian genetics and have been at the forefront in the generation of numerous mouse models of human brain disorders. In this review, we will first examine childhood developmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. We will then explore psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and lastly, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. We will outline the creation of these mouse models that range from single gene deletions, subtle point mutations to multi-gene manipulations, and discuss the key behavioral phenotypes of these mice. Ultimately, the analysis of the models outlined in this review will enhance our understanding of the in vivo role and underlying mechanisms of disease-related genes in both normal brain function and brain disorders, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. PMID:27047540

  5. Mouse Genetic Models of Human Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Celeste; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, genetic manipulations in mice have been used in neuroscience as a major approach to investigate the in vivo function of genes and their alterations. In particular, gene targeting techniques using embryonic stem cells have revolutionized the field of mammalian genetics and have been at the forefront in the generation of numerous mouse models of human brain disorders. In this review, we will first examine childhood developmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. We will then explore psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and lastly, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. We will outline the creation of these mouse models that range from single gene deletions, subtle point mutations to multi-gene manipulations, and discuss the key behavioral phenotypes of these mice. Ultimately, the analysis of the models outlined in this review will enhance our understanding of the in vivo role and underlying mechanisms of disease-related genes in both normal brain function and brain disorders, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. PMID:27047540

  6. Mouse Genome Database: from sequence to phenotypes and disease models

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Janan T.; Richardson, Joel E.; Kadin, James A.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, www.informatics.jax.org) is the international scientific database for genetic, genomic, and biological data on the laboratory mouse to support the research requirements of the biomedical community. To accomplish this goal, MGD provides broad data coverage, serves as the authoritative standard for mouse nomenclature for genes, mutants, and strains, and curates and integrates many types of data from literature and electronic sources. Among the key data sets MGD supports are: the complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features, comparative homology data for mouse and vertebrate genes, the authoritative set of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for mouse gene functions, a comprehensive catalog of mouse mutations and their phenotypes, and a curated compendium of mouse models of human diseases. Here we describe the data acquisition process, specifics about MGD’s key data areas, methods to access and query MGD data, and outreach and user help facilities. PMID:26150326

  7. Mouse Genome Database: From sequence to phenotypes and disease models.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Richardson, Joel E; Kadin, James A; Smith, Cynthia L; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, www.informatics.jax.org) is the international scientific database for genetic, genomic, and biological data on the laboratory mouse to support the research requirements of the biomedical community. To accomplish this goal, MGD provides broad data coverage, serves as the authoritative standard for mouse nomenclature for genes, mutants, and strains, and curates and integrates many types of data from literature and electronic sources. Among the key data sets MGD supports are: the complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features, comparative homology data for mouse and vertebrate genes, the authoritative set of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for mouse gene functions, a comprehensive catalog of mouse mutations and their phenotypes, and a curated compendium of mouse models of human diseases. Here, we describe the data acquisition process, specifics about MGD's key data areas, methods to access and query MGD data, and outreach and user help facilities. PMID:26150326

  8. An Overview of Mouse Models of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: From Past to Present.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ans; Warda, Anne-Sophie; Verbeek, Jef; Cassiman, David; Spincemaille, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world. It is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes and represents a spectrum of histological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can further progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver failure. To gain insight into the pathogenesis and evaluate treatment options, mouse models of NAFLD/NASH are of utmost importance. There is a high phenotypical variety in the available mouse models, however, models that truly display the full spectrum of histopathological and metabolic features associated with human NASH are rare. In this review, we summarize the most important NAFLD/NASH mouse models that have been developed over the years and briefly highlight the pros and cons. Also, we illustrate the preclinical research in which these models have been used. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248434

  9. Mouse models of osteoarthritis: modelling risk factors and assessing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hang; Beier, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent musculoskeletal disease that results in pain and low quality of life for patients, as well as enormous medical and socioeconomic burdens. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of OA are still poorly understood. As such, mouse models of the disease are having increasingly important roles in OA research owing to the advancements of microsurgical techniques and the use of genetically modified mice, as well as the development of novel assessment tools. In this Review, we discuss available mouse models of OA and applicable assessment tools in studies of experimental OA. PMID:24662645

  10. Insights from mouse models into human retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, David

    2008-01-01

    Novel murine models of retinoblastoma based on Rb gene deletion in concert with inactivation of Rb family members have recently been developed. These new Rb knockout models of retinoblastoma provide excellent tools for pre-clinical studies and for the exploration of the genetics of tumorigenesis driven by RB inactivation. This review focuses on the developmental consequences of Rb deletion in the retina and the genetic interactions between Rb and the two other members of the pocket protein family, p107 (Rbl1) and p130 (Rbl2). There is increasing appreciation that homozygous RB mutations are insufficient for human retinoblastoma. Identifying and understanding secondary gene alterations that cooperate with RB inactivation in tumorigenesis may be facilitated by mouse models. Recent investigation of the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma, and evidence of spatial topology to early murine retinoblastoma are also discussed in this review. PMID:18489754

  11. Mouse models of long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Guy; London, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Congenital long QT syndrome is a rare inherited condition characterized by prolongation of action potential duration (APD) in cardiac myocytes, prolongation of the QT interval on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), and an increased risk of syncope and sudden death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Mutations of cardiac ion channel genes that affect repolarization cause the majority of the congenital cases. Despite detailed characterizations of the mutated ion channels at the molecular level, a complete understanding of the mechanisms by which individual mutations may lead to arrhythmias and sudden death requires study of the intact heart and its modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Here, we will review studies of molecularly engineered mice with mutations in the genes (a) known to cause long QT syndrome in humans and (b) specific to cardiac repolarization in the mouse. Our goal is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of mouse models with long QT syndrome and to emphasize the advantages and limitations of these models. PMID:17038432

  12. Reproductive and metabolic phenotype of a mouse model of PCOS.

    PubMed

    van Houten, E Leonie A F; Kramer, Piet; McLuskey, Anke; Karels, Bas; Themmen, Axel P N; Visser, Jenny A

    2012-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women in their reproductive age, is characterized by both reproductive and metabolic features. Recent studies in human, nonhuman primates, and sheep suggest that hyperandrogenism plays an important role in the development of PCOS. We investigated whether chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure in mice reproduces both features of PCOS. Such a model would allow us to study the mechanism of association between the reproductive and metabolic features in transgenic mice. In this study, prepubertal female mice received a 90 d continuous release pellet containing the nonaromatizable androgen DHT or vehicle. At the end of the treatment period, DHT-treated mice were in continuous anestrous, their ovaries contained an increased number of atretic follicles, with the majority of atretic antral follicles having a cyst-like structure. Chronic DHT-exposed mice had significantly higher body weights (21%) than vehicle-treated mice. In addition, fat depots of DHT-treated mice displayed an increased number of enlarged adipocytes (P < 0.003). Leptin levels were elevated (P < 0.013), adiponectin levels were diminished (P < 0.001), and DHT-treated mice were glucose intolerant (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a mouse model of PCOS has been developed showing reproductive and metabolic characteristics associated with PCOS in women. PMID:22334715

  13. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Protects Mouse Cortical Neurons From Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Mediated Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaoyang; Chi, Liying; Ke, Yan; Luo, Chun; Qian, Steven; Gozal, David; Liu, Rugao

    2007-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) syndrome has been recognized as a highly prevalent public health problem and is associated with major neurobehavioral morbidity. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a major pathological component of OSA, increases oxidative damage to the brain cortex and decreases neurocognitive function in rodent models resembling human OSA. We employed in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify the specific phases and subcellular compartments in which enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during CIH. In addition, we utilized the cell culture and animal models to analyze the consequences of enhanced production of ROS on cortical neuronal cell damage and neurocognitive dysfunction. In a primary cortical neuron culture system, we demonstrated that the transition phase from hypoxia to normoxia (NOX) during CIH generates more ROS than the transition phase from NOX to hypoxia or hypoxia alone, all of which generate more ROS than NOX. Using selective inhibitors of the major pathways underlying ROS generation in the cell membrane, cytosol, and mitochondria, we showed that the mitochondria are the predominant source of enhanced ROS generation during CIH in mouse cortical neuronal cells. Furthermore, in both cell culture and transgenic mice, we demonstrated that overexpression of MnSOD decreased CIH-mediated cortical neuronal apoptosis, and reduced spatial learning deficits measured with the Morris water maze assay. Together, the data from the in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that CIH-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress may play a major role in the neuronal cell loss and neurocognitive dysfunction in OSA. Thus, therapeutic strategies aiming at reducing ROS generation from mitochondria may improve the neurobehavioral morbidity in OSA. PMID:17719231

  14. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25348401

  15. A mouse model for juvenile doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wuqiang; Shou, Weinian; Payne, R Mark; Caldwell, Randall; Field, Loren J

    2008-11-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent antitumor agent. DOX can also induce cardiotoxicity, and high cumulative doses are associated with recalcitrant heart failure. Children are particularly sensitive to DOX-induced heart failure. The ability to genetically modify mice makes them an ideal experimental system to study the molecular basis of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, most mouse DOX studies rely on acute drug administration in adult animals, which typically are analyzed within 1 wk. Here, we describe a juvenile mouse model of chronic DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction. DOX treatment was initiated at 2 wk of age and continued for a period of 5 wk (25 mg/kg cumulative dose). This resulted in a decline in cardiac systolic function, which was accompanied by marked atrophy of the heart, low levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and decreased growth velocity. Other animals were allowed to recover for 13 wk after the final DOX injection. Cardiac systolic function improved during this recovery period but remained depressed compared with the saline injected controls, despite the reversal of cardiac atrophy. Interestingly, increased levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and concomitant myocardial fibrosis were observed after DOX withdrawal. These data suggest that different mechanisms contribute to cardiac dysfunction during the treatment and recovery phases. PMID:18614963

  16. The activity-based anorexia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, Stephanie J; Dulawa, Stephanie C

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed with running wheels and subjected to daily food restriction show paradoxical reductions in food intake and increases in running wheel activity. This phenomenon, known as activity-based anorexia (ABA), leads to marked reductions in body weight that can ultimately lead to death. Recently, ABA has been proposed as a model of anorexia nervosa (AN). AN affects about 8 per 100,000 females and has the highest mortality rate among all psychiatric illnesses. Given the reductions in quality of life, high mortality rate, and the lack of pharmacological treatments for AN, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN-like behavior is greatly needed. This chapter provides basic guidelines for conducting ABA experiments using mice. The ABA mouse model provides an important tool for investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of AN-like behavior and identifying novel treatments. PMID:22231828

  17. A novel model of chronic wounds: importance of redox imbalance and biofilm-forming bacteria for establishment of chronicity.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Sandeep; Do, Danh; Garcia, Monika; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka; Brandon, Angela; Kim, Jane; Sanchez, Antonio; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Gallagher, Sean; Nothnagel, Eugene A; Chalfant, Charles E; Patel, Rakesh P; Schiller, Neal; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wounds have a large impact on health, affecting ∼6.5 M people and costing ∼$25B/year in the US alone. We previously discovered that a genetically modified mouse model displays impaired healing similar to problematic wounds in humans and that sometimes the wounds become chronic. Here we show how and why these impaired wounds become chronic, describe a way whereby we can drive impaired wounds to chronicity at will and propose that the same processes are involved in chronic wound development in humans. We hypothesize that exacerbated levels of oxidative stress are critical for initiation of chronicity. We show that, very early after injury, wounds with impaired healing contain elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, much like in humans, these levels increase with age. Moreover, the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes is not elevated, leading to buildup of oxidative stress in the wound environment. To induce chronicity, we exacerbated the redox imbalance by further inhibiting the antioxidant enzymes and by infecting the wounds with biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from the chronic wounds that developed naturally in these mice. These wounds do not re-epithelialize, the granulation tissue lacks vascularization and interstitial collagen fibers, they contain an antibiotic-resistant mixed bioflora with biofilm-forming capacity, and they stay open for several weeks. These findings are highly significant because they show for the first time that chronic wounds can be generated in an animal model effectively and consistently. The availability of such a model will significantly propel the field forward because it can be used to develop strategies to regain redox balance that may result in inhibition of biofilm formation and result in restoration of healthy wound tissue. Furthermore, the model can lead to the understanding of other fundamental mechanisms of chronic wound development that can potentially lead to novel therapies. PMID:25313558

  18. A Novel Model of Chronic Wounds: Importance of Redox Imbalance and Biofilm-Forming Bacteria for Establishment of Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Sandeep; Do, Danh; Garcia, Monika; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka; Brandon, Angela; Kim, Jane; Sanchez, Antonio; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Gallagher, Sean; Nothnagel, Eugene A.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Schiller, Neal; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wounds have a large impact on health, affecting ∼6.5 M people and costing ∼$25B/year in the US alone [1]. We previously discovered that a genetically modified mouse model displays impaired healing similar to problematic wounds in humans and that sometimes the wounds become chronic. Here we show how and why these impaired wounds become chronic, describe a way whereby we can drive impaired wounds to chronicity at will and propose that the same processes are involved in chronic wound development in humans. We hypothesize that exacerbated levels of oxidative stress are critical for initiation of chronicity. We show that, very early after injury, wounds with impaired healing contain elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, much like in humans, these levels increase with age. Moreover, the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes is not elevated, leading to buildup of oxidative stress in the wound environment. To induce chronicity, we exacerbated the redox imbalance by further inhibiting the antioxidant enzymes and by infecting the wounds with biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from the chronic wounds that developed naturally in these mice. These wounds do not re-epithelialize, the granulation tissue lacks vascularization and interstitial collagen fibers, they contain an antibiotic-resistant mixed bioflora with biofilm-forming capacity, and they stay open for several weeks. These findings are highly significant because they show for the first time that chronic wounds can be generated in an animal model effectively and consistently. The availability of such a model will significantly propel the field forward because it can be used to develop strategies to regain redox balance that may result in inhibition of biofilm formation and result in restoration of healthy wound tissue. Furthermore, the model can lead to the understanding of other fundamental mechanisms of chronic wound development that can potentially lead to novel therapies. PMID:25313558

  19. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse–human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human–Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene–phenotype–disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25348401

  20. Memory B cells in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, B; Grimsholm, O; Thorarinsdottir, K; Ren, W; Jirholt, P; Gjertsson, I; Mårtensson, I-L

    2013-08-01

    One of the principles behind vaccination, as shown by Edward Jenner in 1796, and host protection is immunological memory, and one of the cells central to this is the antigen-experienced memory B cell that responds rapidly upon re-exposure to the initiating antigen. Classically, memory B cells have been defined as progenies of germinal centre (GC) B cells expressing isotype-switched and substantially mutated B cell receptors (BCRs), that is, membrane-bound antibodies. However, it has become apparent over the last decade that this is not the only pathway to B cell memory. Here, we will discuss memory B cells in mice, as defined by (1) cell surface markers; (2) multiple layers; (3) formation in a T cell-dependent and either GC-dependent or GC-independent manner; (4) formation in a T cell-independent fashion. Lastly, we will touch upon memory B cells in; (5) mouse models of autoimmune diseases. PMID:23679222

  1. A mouse model for testing remyelinating therapies.

    PubMed

    Bai, C Brian; Sun, Sunny; Roholt, Andrew; Benson, Emily; Edberg, Dale; Medicetty, Satish; Dutta, Ranjan; Kidd, Grahame; Macklin, Wendy B; Trapp, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Used in combination with immunomodulatory therapies, remyelinating therapies are a viable therapeutic approach for treating individuals with multiple sclerosis. Studies of postmortem MS brains identified greater remyelination in demyelinated cerebral cortex than in demyelinated brain white matter and implicated reactive astrocytes as an inhibitor of white matter remyelination. An animal model that recapitulates these phenotypes would benefit the development of remyelination therapeutics. We have used a modified cuprizone protocol that causes a consistent and robust demyelination of mouse white matter and cerebral cortex. Spontaneous remyelination occurred significantly faster in the cerebral cortex than in white matter and reactive astrocytes were more abundant in white matter lesions. Remyelination of white matter and cerebral cortex was therapeutically enhanced by daily injections of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3). In summary, we describe an in vivo demyelination/remyelination paradigm that can be powered to determine efficacy of therapies that enhance white matter and cortical remyelination. PMID:27384502

  2. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model. PMID:26983733

  3. Preclinical fluorescent mouse models of pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2007-02-01

    Here we describe our cumulative experience with the development and preclinical application of several highly fluorescent, clinically-relevant, metastatic orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer. These models utilize the human pancreatic cancer cell lines which have been genetically engineered to selectively express high levels of the bioluminescent green fluorescent (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP). Fluorescent tumors are established subcutaneously in nude mice, and tumor fragments are then surgically transplanted onto the pancreas. Locoregional tumor growth and distant metastasis of these orthotopic implants occurs spontaneously and rapidly throughout the abdomen in a manner consistent with clinical human disease. Highly specific, high-resolution, real-time visualization of tumor growth and metastasis may be achieved in vivo without the need for contrast agents, invasive techniques, or expensive imaging equipment. We have shown a high correlation between florescent optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging in these models. Alternatively, transplantation of RFP-expressing tumor fragments onto the pancreas of GFP-expressing transgenic mice may be used to facilitate visualization of tumor-host interaction between the pancreatic tumor fragments and host-derived stroma and vasculature. Such in vivo models have enabled us to serially visualize and acquire images of the progression of pancreatic cancer in the live animal, and to demonstrate the real-time antitumor and antimetastatic effects of several novel therapeutic strategies on pancreatic malignancy. These fluorescent models are therefore powerful and reliable tools with which to investigate human pancreatic cancer and therapeutic strategies directed against it.

  4. Generation of transgenic mouse model using PTTG as an oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Sham S; Kakar, Cohin

    2015-01-01

    The close physiological similarity between the mouse and human has provided tools to understanding the biological function of particular genes in vivo by introduction or deletion of a gene of interest. Using a mouse as a model has provided a wealth of resources, knowledge, and technology, helping scientists to understand the biological functions, translocation, trafficking, and interaction of a candidate gene with other intracellular molecules, transcriptional regulation, posttranslational modification, and discovery of novel signaling pathways for a particular gene. Most importantly, the generation of the mouse model for a specific human disease has provided a powerful tool to understand the etiology of a disease and discovery of novel therapeutics. This chapter describes in detail the step-by-step generation of the transgenic mouse model, which can be helpful in guiding new investigators in developing successful models. For practical purposes, we will describe the generation of a mouse model using pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) as the candidate gene of interest. PMID:25636481

  5. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Azuma, Masahiko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Uehara, Hisanori; Aono, Yoshinori; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling. PMID:25785861

  6. NOD/SCID IL2Rγ-null mouse xenograft model of human p53-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ATM-mutated mantle cell lymphoma using permanent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Verner, Jan; Trbusek, Martin; Chovancova, Jana; Jaskova, Zuzana; Moulis, Mojmir; Folber, Frantisek; Halouzka, Roman; Mayer, Jiri; Pospisilova, Sarka; Doubek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Xenograft models represent a promising tool to study the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. To establish a reliable and appropriate in vivo model of aggressive human B-cell leukemia and lymphoma we xenotransplanted four p53-mutated cell lines and one ATM-mutated cell line into immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ-null mice. The cell lines MEC-1, SU-DHL-4, JEKO-1, REC-1, and GRANTA-519 were transplanted intraperitoneally or subcutaneously and the engraftment was investigated using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We found significant differences in engraftment efficiency. MEC-1, JEKO-1 and GRANTA-519 cell lines engrafted most efficiently, while SU-DHL-4 cells did not engraft at all. MEC-1 and GRANTA-519 massively infiltrated organs and the whole intraperitoneal cavity showing very aggressive growth. In addition, GRANTA-519 cells massively migrated to the bone marrow regardless of the transplantation route. The MEC-1 and GRANTA-519 cells can be especially recommended for in vivo study of p53-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ATM-mutated mantle cell lymphoma, respectively. PMID:25827173

  7. Mouse models of colorectal cancer as preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Buczacki, Simon J.A.; Arends, Mark J.; Adams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the application of mouse models to the identification and pre‐clinical validation of novel therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer, and to the search for early disease biomarkers. Large‐scale genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of colorectal carcinomas has led to the identification of many candidate genes whose direct contribution to tumourigenesis is yet to be defined; we discuss the utility of cross‐species comparative ‘omics‐based approaches to this problem. We highlight recent progress in modelling late‐stage disease using mice, and discuss ways in which mouse models could better recapitulate the complexity of human cancers to tackle the problem of therapeutic resistance and recurrence after surgical resection. PMID:26115037

  8. Mouse Models of Rare Craniofacial Disorders.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Annita; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    A rare disease is defined as a condition that affects less than 1 in 2000 individuals. Currently more than 7000 rare diseases have been documented, and most are thought to be of genetic origin. Rare diseases primarily affect children, and congenital craniofacial syndromes and disorders constitute a significant proportion of rare diseases, with over 700 having been described to date. Modeling craniofacial disorders in animal models has been instrumental in uncovering the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous conditions and in some cases has even led to potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. In this chapter, we focus primarily on two general classes of rare disorders, ribosomopathies and ciliopathies, and the surprising finding that the disruption of fundamental, global processes can result in tissue-specific craniofacial defects. In addition, we discuss recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of an extremely rare and specific craniofacial condition known as syngnathia, based on the first mouse models for this condition. Approximately 1% of all babies are born with a minor or major developmental anomaly, and individuals suffering from rare diseases deserve the same quality of treatment and care and attention to their disease as other patients. PMID:26589934

  9. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  10. Persistent at-level thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia accompany chronic neuronal and astrocyte activation in superficial dorsal horn following mouse cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jaime L; Hala, Tamara J; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Sannie, Daniel; Lepore, Angelo C

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can lead to maladaptive circuitry, aberrant pain processing and, ultimately, chronic neuropathic pain. Here we present a mouse model of SCI-induced neuropathic pain that exhibits a persistent pain phenotype accompanied by chronic neuronal hyperexcitability and glial activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn. We generated a unilateral cervical contusion injury at the C5 or C6 level of the adult mouse spinal cord. Following injury, an increase in the number of neurons expressing ΔFosB (a marker of chronic neuronal activation), persistent astrocyte activation and proliferation (as measured by GFAP and Ki67 expression), and a decrease in the expression of the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 are observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. These changes have previously been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and may contribute to altered pain transmission and chronic neuropathic pain. In our model, they are accompanied by robust at-level hyperaglesia in the ipsilateral forepaw and allodynia in both forepaws that are evident within two weeks following injury and persist for at least six weeks. Furthermore, the pain phenotype occurs in the absence of alterations in forelimb grip strength, suggesting that it represents sensory and not motor abnormalities. Given the importance of transgenic mouse technology, this clinically-relevant model provides a resource that can be used to study the molecular mechanisms contributing to neuropathic pain

  11. Evidence of oxidative stress and in vivo neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: a chronic oxidative paradigm for testing antioxidant therapies in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Pappolla, M. A.; Chyan, Y. J.; Omar, R. A.; Hsiao, K.; Perry, G.; Smith, M. A.; Bozner, P.

    1998-01-01

    Increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat-shock proteins are key markers of oxidative stress. Such proteins are abnormally present within the neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that oxidative stress may play significant but yet undefined roles in this disorder. To gain further insight into the role of oxidative stress in AD, we studied the expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), two established markers of oxidative stress, in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Immunohistochemistry with anti-SOD and anti-HO-1 antibodies revealed a very pronounced increase of these proteins only in aged transgene-positive mice. Interestingly, the distribution of the oxidative burden was largely overlapping with dystrophic neuritic elements in the mice as highlighted with anti-ubiquitin antibodies. Because the most conspicuous alterations were identified around amyloid (Abeta) deposits, our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that Abeta is neurotoxic in vivo and that such toxicity is mediated by free radicals. To obtain additional experimental evidence for such an interpretation (ie, a cause-effect relationship between Abeta and oxidative neurotoxicity), PC12 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of Abeta or to oxidative stress. In agreement with the in vivo findings, either treatment caused marked induction of SOD or HO-1 in a dose-dependent fashion. These results validate the transgenic approach for the study of oxidative stress in AD and for the evaluation of antioxidant therapies in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9546346

  12. Sub-chronic Antipsychotic Drug Administration Reverses the Expression of Neuregulin 1 and ErbB4 in a Cultured MK801-Induced Mouse Primary Hippocampal Neuron or a Neurodevelopmental Schizophrenia Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Cunyan; Tang, Yamei; Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xianghui; Liu, Yong; Tang, Aiguo

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that specific environmental influences during the postpartum period might contribute to the development of schizophrenia (SZ). Administration of MK801 during early development led to persistent brain pathology. Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD67) and parvalbumin (PV), and neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 signaling were closely associated with SZ pathology. We postulated therefore that NMDA receptor antagonists exposure during the postpartum period may be associated with expression dysregulation of some of the SZ candidate proteins. To test this, we used mouse primary hippocampal neurons and neonatal male mice treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801 at postnatal day 4 (P4) or P7, followed by the treatments of antipsychotic drugs (i.e., olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol). The expressions of GAD67, PV, NRG1, and ErbB4 in in vitro and in vivo SZ models were detected with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Behavioral tests (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) were measured. We found MK801 decreased the expression of GAD67, PV, NRG1 and ErbB4, and induced obvious behavioral alterations, while antipsychotics reversed these alterations. These results suggest that exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist in early development may lead to long-lasting influence on the expression of specific proteins, such as GAD67, PV, NRG1, and ErbB4. Moreover, our results suggest that rescue of the activation of the NRG1/ErbB4 signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs have an antipsychotic effect. PMID:27097547

  13. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions.

    PubMed

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J; Ernst, Matthias; Putoczki, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late-stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new-targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre-clinical development of new therapeutics. PMID:26809278

  14. Chronic Disease Modeling and Simulation Software

    PubMed Central

    Barhak, Jacob; Isaman, Deanna JM; Ye, Wen; Lee, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    Computers allow describing the progress of a disease using computerized models. These models allow aggregating expert and clinical information to allow researchers and decision makers to forecast disease progression. To make this forecast reliable, good models and therefore good modeling tools are required. This paper will describe a new computer tool designed for chronic disease modeling. The modeling capabilities of this tool were used to model the Michigan model for diabetes. The modeling approach and its advantages such as simplicity, availability, and transparency are discussed. PMID:20558320

  15. Mouse models for radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael J; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Potential ionising radiation exposure scenarios are varied, but all bring risks beyond the simple issues of short-term survival. Whether accidentally exposed to a single, whole-body dose in an act of terrorism or purposefully exposed to fractionated doses as part of a therapeutic regimen, radiation exposure carries the consequence of elevated cancer risk. The long-term impact of both intentional and unintentional exposure could potentially be mitigated by treatments specifically developed to limit the mutations and precancerous replication that ensue in the wake of irradiation The development of such agents would undoubtedly require a substantial degree of in vitro testing, but in order to accurately recapitulate the complex process of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, well-understood animal models are necessary. Inbred strains of the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, present the most logical choice due to the high number of molecular and physiological similarities they share with humans. Their small size, high rate of breeding and fully sequenced genome further increase its value for use in cancer research. This chapter will review relevant m. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animals of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, thymic lymphoma, breast and lung cancers. Method of cancer induction and associated molecular pathologies will also be described for each model. PMID:27209205

  16. Identifying mouse models for skin cancer using the Mouse Tumor Biology Database.

    PubMed

    Begley, Dale A; Krupke, Debra M; Neuhauser, Steven B; Richardson, Joel E; Schofield, Paul N; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Sundberg, John P

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has generated an ever-increasing amount of data from a growing number of animal models of human cancers. Much of these data come from genetically engineered mouse models. Identifying appropriate models for skin cancer and related relevant genetic data sets from an expanding pool of widely disseminated data can be a daunting task. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) provides an electronic archive, search and analysis system that can be used to identify dermatological mouse models of cancer, retrieve model-specific data and analyse these data. In this report, we detail MTB's contents and capabilities, together with instructions on how to use MTB to search for skin-related tumor models and associated data. PMID:25040013

  17. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed. PMID:22133269

  18. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, Alexander A; Mayerle, Julia; Christochowitz, Sandra; Weiss, Frank U; Sendler, Matthias; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed. PMID:22133269

  19. Mouse Models of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Debeuf, Nincy; Haspeslagh, Eline; van Helden, Mary; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the conducting airways characterized by the presence of allergen-specific IgE, Th2 cytokine production, eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperreactivity, mucus overproduction, and structural changes in the airways. Investigators have tried to mimic these features of human allergic asthma in murine models. Whereas the surrogate allergen ovalbumin has been extremely valuable for unravelling underlying mechanisms of the disease, murine asthma models depend nowadays on naturally occurring allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and Alternaria alternata. Here we describe a physiologically relevant model of acute allergic asthma based on sensitization and challenge with HDM extracts, and compare it with the ovalbumin/alum-induced asthma model. Moreover, we propose a detailed readout of the asthma phenotype, determining the degree of eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by flow cytometry, visualizing goblet cell metaplasia, and measuring Th cytokine production by lung-draining mediastinal lymph node cells restimulated with HDM. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248433

  20. Chronic serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake transporter inhibition modifies basal respiratory output in adult mouse in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kelly A.; Solomon, Irene C.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory disturbances are a common feature of panic disorder and present as breathing irregularity, hyperventilation, and increased sensitivity to carbon dioxide. Common therapeutic interventions, such as tricyclic (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, have been shown to ameliorate not only the psychological components of panic disorder but also the respiratory disturbances. These drugs are also prescribed for generalized anxiety and depressive disorders, neither of which are characterized by respiratory disturbances, and previous studies have demonstrated that TCAs and SSRIs exert effects on basal respiratory activity in animal models without panic disorder symptoms. Whether serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have similar effects on respiratory activity remains to be determined. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of the SNRI antidepressant venlafaxine (VHCL) on basal respiratory output. For these experiments, we recorded phrenic nerve discharge in an in vitro arterially-perfused adult mouse preparation and diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) activity in an in vivo urethane-anesthetized adult mouse preparation. We found that following 28-d VHCL administration, basal respiratory burst frequency was markedly reduced due to an increase in expiratory duration (TE), and the inspiratory duty cycle (TI/Ttot) was significantly shortened. In addition, post-inspiratory and spurious expiratory discharges were seen in vitro. Based on our observations, we suggest that drugs capable of simultaneously blocking both 5-HT and NE reuptake transporters have the potential to influence the respiratory control network in patients using SNRI therapy. PMID:22871263

  1. Development of a novel mouse constipation model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chao; Wang, Kai-Yue; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To establish a novel mouse constipation model. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into three groups, and intragastrically administered 0-4 °C saline (ice-cold group) or 15-20 °C saline (saline control group) daily for 14 d, or were left untreated (blank control group). Stools were collected 3-24 h after treatment to record the wet and dry weights and the stool form. Intestinal propulsion experiments were carried out and defecation time was measured for six days continuously after suspending treatments. The expressions of PGP9.5 were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Based on the percentage of stool weight changes compared with baseline (before irritation) in 9-14 d, stool weight changes were classified into three levels. Each level shows a different body state, which is state I (no change: plus or minus 5%), state II (slightly decreased: 5%-15%) and state III (decreased: 15%-25%). In state III, between day 9-14, the stool weights decreased by 15%-25% compared with the baseline, and changed at a rate > 10% compared with blank control values, and the stools became small and dry. Additionally, intestinal functions degenerated in these animals, and PGP9.5-positive expression markedly decreased in jejunum, ileum and proximal colon myenteric plexus. CONCLUSION: Irritation with ice-cold saline is a stable, repeatable method in building constipation model in mice for exploring the pathogenesis and treatment options of constipation, and the change of stool weight and size may serve as a useful tool to judge a constipation model success or not. PMID:26973418

  2. Characterization of a mouse model of headache.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dongyue; Ren, Lynn; Qiu, Chang-Shen; Liu, Ping; Peterson, Jonathan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Cao, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Migraine and other primary headache disorders affect a large population and cause debilitating pain. Establishing animal models that display behavioral correlates of long-lasting and ongoing headache, the most common and disabling symptom of migraine, is vital for the elucidation of disease mechanisms and identification of drug targets. We have developed a mouse model of headache, using dural application of capsaicin along with a mixture of inflammatory mediators (IScap) to simulate the induction of a headache episode. This elicited intermittent head-directed wiping and scratching as well as the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Interestingly, dural application of IScap preferentially induced FOS protein expression in the excitatory but not inhibitory cervical/medullary dorsal horn neurons. The duration of IScap-induced behavior and the number of FOS-positive neurons correlated positively in individual mice; both were reduced to the control level by the pretreatment of antimigraine drug sumatriptan. Dural application of CGRP(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, also effectively blocked IScap-induced behavior, which suggests that the release of endogenous CGRP in the dura is necessary for IScap-induced nociception. These data suggest that dural IScap-induced nocifensive behavior in mice may be mechanistically related to the ongoing headache in humans. In addition, dural application of IScap increased resting time in female mice. Taken together, we present the first detailed study using dural application of IScap in mice. This headache model can be applied to genetically modified mice to facilitate research on the mechanisms and therapeutic targets for migraine headache. PMID:27058678

  3. Cardiac Dysfunction in the BACHD Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Analyne M; Wang, Huei Bin; Park, Saemi; Jordan, Maria C; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Fishbein, Michael C; Roos, Kenneth P; Ghiani, Cristina A; Colwell, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    While Huntington's disease (HD) is classified as a neurological disorder, HD patients exhibit a high incidence of cardiovascular events leading to heart failure and death. In this study, we sought to better understand the cardiovascular phenotype of HD using the BACHD mouse model. The age-related decline in cardiovascular function was assessed by echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, histological and microarray analysis. We found that structural and functional differences between WT and BACHD hearts start at 3 months of age and continue throughout life. The aged BACHD mice develop cardiac fibrosis and ultimately apoptosis. The BACHD mice exhibited adaptive physiological changes to chronic isoproterenol treatment; however, the medication exacerbated fibrotic lesions in the heart. Gene expression analysis indicated a strong tilt toward apoptosis in the young mutant heart as well as changes in genes involved in cellular metabolism and proliferation. With age, the number of genes with altered expression increased with the large changes occurring in the cardiovascular disease, cellular metabolism, and cellular transport clusters. The BACHD model of HD exhibits a number of changes in cardiovascular function that start early in the disease progress and may provide an explanation for the higher cardiovascular risk in HD. PMID:26807590

  4. A mouse model of Salmonella typhi infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ramkumar; Oh, Hyunju; Zhang, Dekai; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Seo, Jin; Koblansky, Alicia; Hayden, Matthew S.; Ghosh, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are gram-negative flagellated bacteria that can cause food and water-borne gastroenteritis and typhoid fever in humans. We now report that flagellin from Salmonella spp. is recognized in mouse intestine by Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11). Absence of TLR11 renders mice more susceptible to infection by S. typhimurium, with increased dissemination of the bacteria and enhanced lethality. Unlike S. typhimurium, S. typhi, a human obligatory pathogen that causes typhoid fever, is normally unable to infect mice. TLR11 is expressed in mice but not in humans, and remarkably, we find that tlr11−/− mice are efficiently infected with orally-administered S. typhi. We also find that tlr11−/− mice can be immunized against S. typhi. Therefore, tlr11−/− mice represent the first small animal model for the study of the immune response to S. typhi, and for the development of vaccines against this important human pathogen. PMID:23101627

  5. Chronic TCDD exposure results in the dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes and in the impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Tian, Jijing; Krylova, Irina; Xu, Tuan; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Guo, Tai L; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure in humans is associated with marked immune suppressions and increased incidence of lymphoblastic diseases. To elucidate mechanisms of impairments in humoral immune responses, we used a murine model. Following a 20-week administration of low doses of TCDD, we observed severely reduced antibody titers, dramatically decreased number of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells and an increase in CD19(+) B cells. Transcriptional profiling of CD19(+) B cells showed that markers of pre-B cells were significantly elevated, indicating delayed B cell maturation. These changes in B cells were accompanied by decreases of T helper cell numbers and reduced IgM and IgG titers. A transcriptome analysis of splenic B cells followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed a set of differentially expressed genes known to play roles in tumorigenesis, cell-proliferation and cell-migration. The most up-regulated transcript gene was Eph receptor A2 (EphA2), a known oncogene, and the most down-regulated transcript was ZBTB16 that codes for a negative transcriptional regulator important in epigenetic chromatin remodeling. IPA identified cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) and cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) as top upstream regulators. Consistently, a MAPPER promoter database analysis showed that all top dysregulated genes had CREM and/or CREB1 binding sites in their promoter regions. In summary, our data showed that chronic TCDD exposure in mice caused suppressed humoral immunity accompanied with profound dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes, likely through cAMP-dependent pathways. This dysregulation resulted in impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation and activation of the tumorigenic transcription program. PMID:26899660

  6. What have we learned from brucellosis in the mouse model?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucellosis research in natural hosts is often precluded by practical, economical and ethical reasons and mice are widely used. However, mice are not natural Brucella hosts and the course of murine brucellosis depends on bacterial strain virulence, dose and inoculation route as well as breed, genetic background, age, sex and physiological statu of mice. Therefore, meaningful experiments require a definition of these variables. Brucella spleen replication profiles are highly reproducible and course in four phases: i), onset or spleen colonization (first 48 h); ii), acute phase, from the third day to the time when bacteria reach maximal numbers; iii), chronic steady phase, where bacterial numbers plateaus; and iv), chronic declining phase, during which brucellae are eliminated. This pattern displays clear physiopathological signs and is sensitive to small virulence variations, making possible to assess attenuation when fully virulent bacteria are used as controls. Similarly, immunity studies using mice with known defects are possible. Mutations affecting INF-γ, TLR9, Myd88, Tγδ and TNF-β favor Brucella replication; whereas IL-1β, IL-18, TLR4, TLR5, TLR2, NOD1, NOD2, GM-CSF, IL/17r, Rip2, TRIF, NK or Nramp1 deficiencies have no noticeable effects. Splenomegaly development is also useful: it correlates with IFN-γ and IL-12 levels and with Brucella strain virulence. The genetic background is also important: Brucella-resistant mice (C57BL) yield lower splenic bacterial replication and less splenomegaly than susceptible breeds. When inoculum is increased, a saturating dose above which bacterial numbers per organ do not augment, is reached. Unlike many gram-negative bacteria, lethal doses are large (≥ 108 bacteria/mouse) and normally higher than the saturating dose. Persistence is a useful virulence/attenuation index and is used in vaccine (Residual Virulence) quality control. Vaccine candidates are also often

  7. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on sterol transfer proteins in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Myers-Payne, S C; Fontaine, R N; Loeffler, A; Pu, L; Rao, A M; Kier, A B; Wood, W G; Schroeder, F

    1996-01-01

    Although lipids are essential to brain function, almost nothing is known of lipid transfer proteins in the brain. Early reports indicates cross-reactivity of brain proteins with antisera against two native liver sterol transfer proteins, sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) and the liver form of fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). Herein, polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant liver sterol transfer proteins SCP-2 and L-FABP were used to identify the lipid transfer proteins in the brains of alcohol-treated and control mice. L-FABP was not detectable in brain of either control or chronic ethanol-treated mice. In contrast, SCP-2 not only was present, but its level was significantly (p < 0.05) increased 23 and 50%, respectively, in brain homogenates and synaptosomes of mice exposed to alcohol. To determine whether antibodies against the recombinant liver SCP-2 reflected true levels of SCP-2 in brain, the cDNA sequence for brain SCP-2 was isolated from a brain cDNA library. The mouse brain SCP-2 sequence was 99.99% identical to the mouse liver SCP-2 sequence. The translated sequence differed by only one amino acid, and the replacement was conservative. Thus, unlike the fatty acid binding proteins, the SCP-2 moieties of brain and liver are essentially identical. Polyclonal antibodies against acyl-CoA binding protein, a lipid-binding protein that does not bind or transfer sterol, showed that increased levels of brain SCP-2 with chronic ethanol consumption did not represent a general increase in content of all lipid transfer proteins. Changes in the amount of SCP-2 may contribute to membrane tolerance to ethanol. PMID:8522969

  8. Murine Models of CLL: Role of microRNA-16 in the NZB mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Brian J.; Salerno, Erica; Balan, Murugabaskar; Coffman, Frederick; Landgraf, Pablo; Abbasi, Fatima; Kotenko, Sergei; Marti, Gerald E.; Raveche, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Mouse models are valuable tools in the study of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The New Zealand Black (NZB) strain is a naturally occurring model of late-onset CLL characterized by B cell hyperproliferation and autoimmunity early in life, followed by progression to CLL. Other genetically engineered models of CLL that have been developed include (NZB × NZW) F1 mice engineered to express IL5, mice expressing human TCL1A, and mice overexpressing both BCL2 and a tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor. The applicability to human CLL varies with each model, suggesting that CLL is a multifactorial disease. Our work with the de novo NZB model has revealed many similarities to the human situation, particularly familial CLL. In NZB, the malignant clones express CD5, zap-70, and have chromosomal instability and germline Ig sequence. We also identified a point mutation in the 3’ flanking sequence of Mirn16-1, which resulted in decreased levels of the microRNA, miR-16 in lymphoid tissue. Exogenous restoration of miR-16 to an NZB malignant B-1 cell line resulted in cell cycle alterations, suggesting that the altered expression of Mirn15a/16-1 is an important molecular lesion in CLL. Future studies utilizing the NZB mouse could ascertain the role of environmental triggers, such as low dose radiation and organic chemicals in the augmentation of a pre-existing propensity to develop CLL. PMID:17941951

  9. Humanized Mouse Models of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Paul W.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2013-01-01

    Because of the limited tropism of HIV, in vivo modeling of this virus has been almost exclusively limited to other lentiviruses such as SIV that reproduce many important characteristics of HIV infection. However, there are significant genetic and biological differences among lentiviruses and some HIV-specific interventions are not effective against other lentiviruses in non-human hosts. For these reasons much emphasis has recently been placed on developing alternative animal models that support HIV replication and recapitulate key aspects of HIV infection and pathogenesis in humans. Humanized mice, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell transplanted immunodeficient mice and in particular mice also implanted with human thymic/liver tissue (BLT mice) that develop a functional human immune system, have been the focus of a great deal of attention as possible models to study virtually all aspects of HIV biology and pathogenesis. Humanized mice are systemically reconstituted with human lymphoid cells offering rapid, reliable and reproducible experimental systems for HIV research. Peripheral blood of humanized mice can be readily sampled longitudinally to assess reconstitution with human cells and to monitor HIV replication permitting the evaluation of multiple parameters of HIV infection such as viral load levels, CD4+ T cell depletion, immune activation, as well as the effects of therapeutic interventions. Of high relevance to HIV transmission is the extensive characterization and validation of the reconstitution with human lymphoid cells of the female reproductive tract and of the gastrointestinal tract of humanized BLT mice that renders them susceptible to both vaginal and rectal HIV infection. Other important attributes of all types of humanized mice include: 1) their small size and cost that make them broadly accessible; 2) multiple cohorts of humanized mice can be made from multiple human donors and each cohort has identical human cells, permitting control of

  10. System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.