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1

Plantar heel pain.  

PubMed

Plantar heel pain is a common complaint encountered by orthopedic surgeons, internists, and family practitioners. Although it is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, this is a diagnosis of exclusion. Other mechanical, rheumatologic, and neurologic causes must be considered first. The history and physical examination are typically all that is needed to make the proper diagnosis, but diagnostic adjuncts are available to assist the clinician. When plantar fasciitis is diagnosed, conservative modalities must be tried first. Corticosteroid injections and extracorporeal shock-wave therapy may also be used. After 6 months of failed conservative treatments, surgical intervention should be considered. PMID:24559879

Rosenbaum, Andrew J; DiPreta, John A; Misener, David

2014-03-01

2

Plantar and medial heel pain: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Heel pain is commonly encountered in orthopaedic practice. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is critical, but it can be challenging due to the complex regional anatomy. Subacute and chronic plantar and medial heel pain are most frequently the result of repetitive microtrauma or compression of neurologic structures, such as plantar fasciitis, heel pad atrophy, Baxter nerve entrapment, calcaneal stress fracture, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. Most causes of inferior heel pain can be successfully managed nonsurgically. Surgical intervention is reserved for patients who do not respond to nonsurgical measures. Although corticosteroid injections have a role in the management of select diagnoses, they should be used with caution. PMID:24860133

Lareau, Craig R; Sawyer, Gregory A; Wang, Joanne H; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

2014-06-01

3

Comparison between extracorporeal shockwave therapy, placebo ESWT and endoscopic plantar fasciotomy for the treatment of chronic plantar heel pain in the athlete  

PubMed Central

Summary Plantar fasciitis can be a chronic and debilitating condition affecting athletes of all levels. The aim of this study is to compare treatment outcomes for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis in athletes, comparing focused extra corporeal sound wave therapy (ESWT) and the surgical endoscopic plantar fasciotomy (EPF). A total of 37 eligible patients were enrolled in the study between May 2006 and December 2008 at a single institution. Patients were either enrolled in the surgical group, or to the ESWT group which included a placebo controlled, randomized group (P-ESWT). Pre and post Visual Analog Scores (VAS) and Roles and Maudlsey (RM) scores were recorded and compared between the three groups. The patient’s return to activity (RTA) was also documented. The results showed statistical improvement within the EPF and ESWT groups with both VAS & RM scores, with EPF being significantly better than both ESWT and P-ESWT in terms of treatment outcomes. Patients enrolled in the ESWT were able though to continue with their exercise regimen, while the EPF group was able to return to their athletic activity in an average of 2.8 months. In conclusion, EPF and ESWT are both effective forms of treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis; EPF being superior in outcomes yet ESWT treatment could be preferable since the athlete can remain active during treatment. Level of Evidence: II PMID:23738317

Saxena, Amol; Fournier, Magali; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger; Gollwitzer, Hans

2012-01-01

4

Heel pain-plantar fasciitis: revision 2014.  

PubMed

The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these revised clinical practice guidelines is to review recent peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to nonarthritic heel pain. PMID:25361863

Martin, Robroy L; Davenport, Todd E; Reischl, Stephen F; McPoil, Thomas G; Matheson, James W; Wukich, Dane K; McDonough, Christine M

2014-11-01

5

Plantar foot pressures during treadmill walking with high-heel and low-heel shoes.  

PubMed

The effect of walking with high-heel shoes on plantar foot pressure distribution was investigated. Ten normal women walking in shoes with low heels were compared to women walking in high-heel shoes. It was shown that high-heel shoes increased the load on the forefoot and relieved it on the hindfoot. The load passed toward the medial forefoot and the hallux. The lateral side of the forefoot showed a decrease in contact area, reduced forces, and peak pressures. The medial side of the forefoot had a higher force-time and pressure-time integral. It is suggested that these higher loads on the medial forefoot may aggravate symptoms in patients with hallux valgus deformity. PMID:8946179

Nyska, M; McCabe, C; Linge, K; Klenerman, L

1996-11-01

6

A retrospective comparison of percutaneous plantar fasciotomy and open plantar fasciotomy with heel spur resection.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of recalcitrant heel pain is a relatively new approach. To compare the 2 approaches, a retrospective chart review was conducted of 53 patients (55 feet) who had undergone surgical treatment of plantar fasciitis by either open fasciotomy with heel spur resection or percutaneous medial fascial release. The outcomes measures included perioperative pain and the interval to return to full activity. Pain was measured on a subjective 10-point visual analog scale. Of the 55 fasciotomies performed, 23 were percutaneous and 32 were open, with adjunctive heel spur resection. The percutaneous group experienced a mean pain reduction of 5.69 points at the first postoperative visit, whereas open fasciotomy group experienced a mean pain reduction of 3.53 points. At 12 months postoperatively, no statistically significant difference was found in the pain levels between the 2 groups. The results also showed that the percutaneous group returned to normal activity an average of 2.82 weeks (p < .001) faster than the open group. In the patient cohorts studied, percutaneous medial fascial release was as effective at resolving recalcitrant plantar fasciitis pain as the open procedure and involved less postoperative pain and a faster return to full activity. PMID:23473671

Fallat, Lawrence M; Cox, J Todd; Chahal, Ruby; Morrison, Pamela; Kish, John

2013-01-01

7

Regional plantar foot pressure distributions on high-heeled shoes-shank curve effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forefoot pain is common in high-heeled shoe wearers due to the high pressure caused by the center of body mass moving forward and the increased arch height with heel elevation. Sufficient arch support could reduce the high pressure over forefoot. However, too much arch support could lead to abnormal foot alignment and pain over midfoot. Little information is reported on the relationship among plantar arch height, shank curve design and plantar pressure. This study aimed at quantifying the plantar arch height changes at different heel heights and investigating the effect of shank curve on plantar pressure distribution. The plantar arch height increased to (7.6±1.3)mm at heel height of 75 mm. The Chinese standard suggests the depth of last should be 8.5mm for heel height of 75 mm. When a shank curve with higher depth of last (11 mm) was used, the peak pressure over forefoot further decreased in midstance phase, which might ease the forefoot problems, while the peak pressure over midfoot increased but not exceeded the discomfort pressure thresholds. To achieve a more ideal pressure distribution in high-heeled shoes, a higher than expected depth of last would be suggested that would not cause discomfort over midfoot.

Cong, Yan; Lee, Winson; Zhang, Ming

2011-12-01

8

Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is a common and disabling condition, which has a detrimental impact on health-related quality of life. Despite the high prevalence of plantar heel pain, the optimal treatment for this disorder remains unclear. Consequently, an alternative therapy such as dry needling is increasingly being used as an adjunctive treatment by health practitioners. Only two trials have investigated the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain, however both trials were of a low methodological quality. This manuscript describes the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. Methods Eighty community-dwelling men and woman aged over 18 years with plantar heel pain (who satisfy the inclusion and exclusion criteria) will be recruited. Eligible participants with plantar heel pain will be randomised to receive either one of two interventions, (i) real dry needling or (ii) sham dry needling. The protocol (including needling details and treatment regimen) was formulated by general consensus (using the Delphi research method) using 30 experts worldwide that commonly use dry needling for plantar heel pain. Primary outcome measures will be the pain subscale of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and "first step" pain as measured on a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome measures will be health related quality of life (assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire - Version Two) and depression, anxiety and stress (assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - short version). Primary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks and secondary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Conclusion This study is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. The trial will be reported in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines. The findings from this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain. Trial registration Australian New Zealand 'Clinical Trials Registry'. ACTRN12610000611022. PMID:21255460

2011-01-01

9

Relation between heel position and the distribution of forefoot plantar pressures and skin callosities in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between the position of the rearfoot and the distribution of forefoot plantar pressures and skin callosities in rheumatoid arthritis. METHOD: Plantar pressures and callosity patterns were measured in 102 rheumatoid arthritis patients (120 feet with normal heel alignment and 84 feet with valgus heel alignment measured by goniometry) and in 42 (84 feet) age matched healthy adults. Peak pressures (kPa) were measured across the metatarsal heads in-shoe using an FScan system and the distribution of plantar callosities was visually mapped for each foot. RESULTS: Peak pressures were significantly greater at all but the first metatarsal head in the rheumatoid normal heel alignment and healthy adult groups than in the rheumatoid valgus heel group. The feet of both the rheumatoid normal heel group and the healthy adult group behaved the same, the highest peak pressures registering on the central metatarsal heads. However, only in the rheumatoid group were plantar callosities found at these sites. In the rheumatoid valgus heel group, lateral metatarsal heads were frequently non-weightbearing, producing gross loading patterns with a dominant medial distribution. Peak pressures were shifted to the medial fore-foot accompanied by a higher prevalence of callosities. The results, however, failed to establish clearly an association between peak pressures and callus formation. CONCLUSIONS: In rheumatoid arthritis there is an important interrelation between the rearfoot position and forefoot pressure sites. PMID:8976636

Woodburn, J; Helliwell, P S

1996-01-01

10

Psychological variables associated with foot function and foot pain in patients with plantar heel pain.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that psychological variables are associated with self-reported pain and self-reported physical function in patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the relationship between psychological variables and foot pain and foot function has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. Eighty-four participants with plantar heel pain completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale short version (DASS-21) and Foot Health Status Questionnaire. Using a hierarchical regression analysis, a baseline model with age, sex and BMI explained 10 % of the variability in foot function. The addition of depression and stress in separate models explained an additional 7.3 % and 8.1 % of foot function scores, respectively. In the respective models, depression was a significant predictor (??=?-0.28; p?=?0.009) as was stress (??=?-0.29; p?=?0.006). Females drove the effect between stress and foot function (??=?-0.50; p?=?0.001) and depression and foot function (??=?-0.53; p?plantar heel pain, stress and depression scores were significantly associated with foot function but not foot pain. When the data was stratified by sex, stress and depression were significant predictors of foot pain and function in females. PMID:24647980

Cotchett, Matthew P; Whittaker, Glen; Erbas, Bircan

2014-03-20

11

Influence of in-shoe heel lifts on plantar pressure and center of pressure in the medial-lateral direction during walking.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate how the height and material of in-shoe heel lifts affect plantar pressure and center of pressure (COP) trajectory in the medial-lateral direction during walking. Seventeen healthy young male adults were asked to walk along an 8m walkway while wearing a high-cut flat shoe and 5 different heel lifts. Peak pressure (PP), pressure-time integral (PTI) and contact area (CA) were measured by Pedar insole system for three foot regions: forefoot, midfoot and heel. Range and velocity of medial-lateral (ML) COP during forefoot contact phase (FFCP) and foot flat phase (FFP) were collected using Footscan pressure plate. Forefoot pressure and ML-COP parameters increased as the heel was elevated. Statistically significant attenuation of heel peak plantar pressure was provided by all heel lifts except for the hard lift. Post hoc tests suggest that material had a greater influence on the range and velocity of ML-COP during FFCP than heel height, while during FFP, heel height seemed to affect these parameters more. The findings from this study suggest that thick heel lifts should be used with caution, and that a heel lift made of materials with good support and elastic properties might be more appropriate to improve footwear comfort and medial-lateral motion control. PMID:24440428

Zhang, Xianyi; Li, Bo

2014-04-01

12

A review of 105 consecutive uniport endoscopic plantar fascial release procedures for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain in the U.S. Army soldier, resulting in a significant loss of man hours. Given the heavy operations tempo of the U.S. military, successful treatment options need to be considered and used as quickly as possible. Plantar fasciitis can be successfully treated in up to 90% of patients using conservative measures. Operative intervention might need to be considered for those in whom conservative measures have failed. The present report is a review of 105 consecutive uniport endoscopic plantar fascial release procedures performed by the principal investigator during a 9-year period. The following data were collected and analyzed: gender, age, weight, height, body mass index, medical treatment facility, procedure laterality, preoperative pain levels, postoperative pain levels at 3 months, first ambulatory day in the controlled ankle motion boot, return to activity as tolerated, and complications. Three major points were of interest: evidence of improvement in chronic plantar fasciitis when treated with uniport endoscopic procedures; the patient attributes associated with self-reported pain levels 90 days postoperatively; and the patient attributes associated with the average time until patients were able to return to activities as tolerated in a controlled ankle motion boot. It was noted that 44.5% of those with a body mass index of 29.80 kg/m(2) or greater reported a postoperative pain level of 0; and 96.3% of those with a body mass index of 25.53 kg/m(2) or less reported postoperative pain levels of 0. The analyzed data were used to characterize the clinical outcomes of the procedure, identify changes in outcome with surgeon experience, and identify whether certain patient subgroups have better outcomes, allowing surgeons to identify which patient might be the best candidates for an endoscopic release procedure. PMID:23177328

Morton, Troy N; Zimmerman, Jeffrey P; Lee, Michael; Schaber, John D

2013-01-01

13

Diagnosis and management of plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis, a chronic degenerative process that causes medial plantar heel pain, is responsible for approximately 1 million physician visits each year. Individuals with plantar fasciitis experience pain that is most intense during their first few steps of the day or after prolonged standing. The authors provide an overview of the diagnosis and management of a common problem encountered in the primary care setting. Routine imaging is not initially recommended for the evaluation of plantar fasciitis but may be required to rule out other pathologic conditions. Overall, plantar fasciitis carries a good prognosis when patients use a combination of several conservative treatment modalities. Occasionally, referral to a specialist may be necessary. PMID:25429080

Thompson, John V; Saini, Sundeep S; Reb, Christopher W; Daniel, Joseph N

2014-12-01

14

Platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciopathy in adults: a case series.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is a common source of pain and disability that is often refractory to conservative management. There are no uniformly effective standard-of-care treatments for chronic recalcitrant PF. Corticosteroid injection is considered a viable treatment option when traditional therapies fail, but is limited by suboptimal long-term efficacy and potential adverse effects. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging injection-based treatment for various chronic degenerative soft-tissue diseases. It is postulated to promote native tissue regeneration; however, consistent scientific evidence remains lacking. A prospective case series, including 24 consecutive PF cases, was conducted to report patient-rated pain and disability following PRP injection. Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) scores were the primary clinical outcome measure. Foot-Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (Foot-SANE) scores, Short Form-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) questionnaires, and PRP treatment satisfaction surveys were secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis compared baseline and 32 weeks post-injection time points. Patients receiving PRP injection reported clinically and statistically significant improvement in all outcome measures during this interval. There were no serious adverse events associated with treatment. PRP is considered a safe therapeutic option with the ability to decrease heel pain in patients with chronic PF refractory to appropriate conservative management. PMID:24287209

Wilson, John J; Lee, Kenneth S; Miller, Andrew T; Wang, Sijian

2014-02-01

15

Treatment of chronic plantar fasciopathy with extracorporeal shock waves (review).  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest by doctors and patients in extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for chronic plantar fasciopathy (PF), particularly in second generation radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (RSWT). The present review aims at serving this interest by providing a comprehensive overview on physical and medical definitions of shock waves and a detailed assessment of the quality and significance of the randomized clinical trials published on ESWT and RSWT as it is used to treat chronic PF. Both ESWT and RSWT are safe, effective, and technically easy treatments for chronic PF. The main advantages of RSWT over ESWT are the lack of need for any anesthesia during the treatment and the demonstrated long-term treatment success (demonstrated at both 6 and 12 months after the first treatment using RSWT, compared to follow-up intervals of no more than 12 weeks after the first treatment using ESWT). In recent years, a greater understanding of the clinical outcomes in ESWT and RSWT for chronic PF has arisen in relationship not only in the design of studies, but also in procedure, energy level, and shock wave propagation. Either procedure should be considered for patients 18 years of age or older with chronic PF prior to surgical intervention. PMID:24004715

Schmitz, Christoph; Császár, Nikolaus B M; Rompe, Jan-Dirk; Chaves, Humberto; Furia, John P

2013-01-01

16

Treatment of chronic plantar fasciopathy with extracorporeal shock waves (review)  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing interest by doctors and patients in extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for chronic plantar fasciopathy (PF), particularly in second generation radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (RSWT). The present review aims at serving this interest by providing a comprehensive overview on physical and medical definitions of shock waves and a detailed assessment of the quality and significance of the randomized clinical trials published on ESWT and RSWT as it is used to treat chronic PF. Both ESWT and RSWT are safe, effective, and technically easy treatments for chronic PF. The main advantages of RSWT over ESWT are the lack of need for any anesthesia during the treatment and the demonstrated long-term treatment success (demonstrated at both 6 and 12 months after the first treatment using RSWT, compared to follow-up intervals of no more than 12 weeks after the first treatment using ESWT). In recent years, a greater understanding of the clinical outcomes in ESWT and RSWT for chronic PF has arisen in relationship not only in the design of studies, but also in procedure, energy level, and shock wave propagation. Either procedure should be considered for patients 18 years of age or older with chronic PF prior to surgical intervention. PMID:24004715

2013-01-01

17

Comparison of different energy densities of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for the management of chronic heel pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of different energy densities of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for managing chronic heel pain.Design: A randomized clinical trial.Setting: Hospital-based practice.Subjects: Fifty-seven patients with chronic heel pain were recruited; eight patients withdrew from the study.Interventions: Subjects were randomized into three groups receiving: (1) a ‘fixed’ energy density, (2) ‘maximum tolerable’ energy density, or (3) control

Intonia H W Chow; Gladys LY Cheing

2007-01-01

18

Chronic Achilles TendinopathyA Prospective Randomized Study Comparing the Therapeutic Effect of Eccentric Training, the AirHeel Brace, and a Combination of Both  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have shown that eccentric training has a positive effect on chronic Achilles tendinopathy. A new strategy for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy is the AirHeel brace.Hypothesis: AirHeel brace treatment improves the clinical outcome of patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The combination of the AirHeel brace and an eccentric training program has a synergistic effect.Study Design: Randomized

Wolf Petersen; Robert Welp; Dieter Rosenbaum

2007-01-01

19

Heel pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - heel ... Heel pain is most often the result of overuse. Rarely, it may be caused by an injury. Your heel ... on the heel Conditions that may cause heel pain include: When the tendon that connects the back ...

20

Plantar fasciitis: a concise review.  

PubMed

One challenge in the treatment of plantar fasciitis is that very few high-quality studies exist comparing different treatment modalities to guide evidence-based management. Current literature suggests a change to the way that plantar fasciitis is managed. This article reviews the most current literature on plantar fasciitis and showcases recommended treatment guidelines. This serves to assist physicians in diagnosing and treating heel pain with plantar fasciitis. PMID:24626080

Schwartz, Emily N; Su, John

2014-01-01

21

Plantar Fasciitis: A Concise Review  

PubMed Central

One challenge in the treatment of plantar fasciitis is that very few high-quality studies exist comparing different treatment modalities to guide evidence-based management. Current literature suggests a change to the way that plantar fasciitis is managed. This article reviews the most current literature on plantar fasciitis and showcases recommended treatment guidelines. This serves to assist physicians in diagnosing and treating heel pain with plantar fasciitis. PMID:24626080

Schwartz, Emily N; Su, John

2014-01-01

22

Effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in chronic plantar fasciitis: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in treating chronic plantar fasciitis. An online database search was conducted for studies using ESWT in managing chronic plantar fasciitis. Eleven high-quality randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis and showed that ESWT was more effective in reducing morning pain (weighted mean difference, -0.77 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -1.30 to -0.25]; odds ratio, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.42-1.00]). Moderate-intensity ESWT was more effective in decreasing overall and activity pain (weighted mean difference, -6.6 [95% CI, -6.74 to -6.46], and weighted mean difference, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.30-0.74). Both moderate- and high-intensity ESWT were more effective in improving functional outcome, with odds ratios of 0.51 (95% CI, 0.30-0.84) and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.29-0.75). The adverse effects that were seen more in ESWT were pain on the calcaneal area and calcaneal erythema. This study concludes that moderate- and high-intensity ESWT were effective in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. PMID:23552334

Dizon, Jan Nathleen C; Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo; Zamora, Marcelle Theresa G; Gambito, Ephraim D V

2013-07-01

23

Correlation between the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave therapy and pretreatment MRI findings for chronic plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

Background. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and the treatment outcome of ESWT. Methods. This study examined 50 feet with chronic plantar fasciitis. The scores before ESWT and after a six-month follow-up were investigated using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). MRI before ESWT was used for image evaluation. MRI revealed thickening of the plantar fascia (PF), and an investigation was conducted regarding the findings of a high-signal-intensity area (HSIA) inside the PF, edema near the PF, and bone marrow edema (BME) of the calcaneus. Results. The average JSSF score and VAS score improved significantly at follow-up. In total, 44 feet were noted in the improved group. MRI revealed that the average amounts of PF thickening did not significantly differ between the improved group and the non-improved group. HSIA, edema near the PF, and BME were observed in 36, 41, and 11 feet in the improved group, respectively; and 2, 4, and 2 feet in the non-improved group, respectively. Conclusions. An HSIA in the PF predicted symptom improvement more easily than other MRI findings. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:25401230

Maki, Masahiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Imai, Kan; Kido, Masamitsu; Hara, Yusuke; Arai, Yuji; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

2014-11-17

24

Chronic bilateral heel pain in a child with Sever disease: case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a case report of a 10-year-old male with a 1 year history of bilateral heel pain. Sever disease is self limiting condition of calcaneal apophysis. It is the most common cause of heel pain in the growing child. There is no documented case of this condition in this region. This case highlights the clinical features of this self limiting disorder as seen in this patient and reviews the current literature. PMID:20069067

2009-01-01

25

Heel Pain in Recreational Runners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides physicians with the signs, symptoms, and management of heel/sole pain in recreational runners (usually due to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, and calcaneal stress fractures). Remedies involve palliative treatment of symptoms, correction of underlying biomechanical problems, and flexibility exercises. (SM)

Bazzoli, Allan S.; Pollina, Frank S.

1989-01-01

26

Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Is Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Chronic Recalcitrant Plantar FasciitisResults of a Confirmatory Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an effective treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis that can be administered to outpatients without anesthesia but has not yet been evaluated in controlled trials.Hypothesis: There is no difference in effectiveness between radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy and placebo in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.Study Design: Randomized, controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.Methods:

Ludger Gerdesmeyer; Carol Frey; Johannes Vester; Markus Maier; Lowell Weil; Martin Russlies; John Stienstra; Barry Scurran; Keith Fedder; Peter Diehl; Heinz Lohrer; Mark Henne; Hans Gollwitzer

2008-01-01

27

Spectrum of Ultrasound Pathologies of Achilles Tendon, Plantar Aponeurosis and Flexor Digiti Brevis Tendon Heel Entheses in Patients with Clinically Suspected Enthesitis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Enthesitis is considered a characteristic presentation of the second most common group of rheumatoid disorders, i.e. spondyloarthropathies (SpAs), particularly peripheral spondyloarthropathies. At the initial stages, enthesitis may be the only symptom of SpA, particularly in patients lacking the HLA-B27 receptor. Material/Methods In light of diagnostic difficulties with detecting enthesitis in clinical examinations and laboratory investigations, many studies point out the high specificity of imaging studies, and particularly ultrasonography. Results A total of 20% Achilles tendon entheses, 45% plantar aponeurosis entheses and 89.5% of flexor digiti brevis tendon entheses were unremarkable. In the remaining cases, the presentation of pathological lesions was not specific to enthesitis and might more likely correspond to degeneration or microinjuries of the entheses, beside the most obvious cases of achillobursitis or Kager’s fat pad inflammation. Conclusions The studies demonstrated that ultrasound scans rarely confirm the clinical diagnosis of enthesitis. PMID:25674194

Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

2014-01-01

28

Gastrocnemius shortening and heel pain.  

PubMed

Pain and reduced function caused by disorders of either the plantar fascia or the Achilles tendon are common. Although heel pain is not a major public health problem it affects millions of people each year. For most patients, time and first-line treatments allow symptoms to resolve. A proportion of patients have resistant symptoms. Managing these recalcitrant cases is a challenge. Gastrocnemius contracture produces increased strain in both the Achilles tendon and the plantar fascia. This biomechanical feature must be properly assessed otherwise treatment is compromised. PMID:25456718

Solan, Matthew C; Carne, Andrew; Davies, Mark S

2014-12-01

29

Lung cancer presenting as heel pain: A case report.  

PubMed

Bone metastasis as the first symptom of lung cancer is common, particularly in the axial skeleton. The calcaneus is an unusual site of metastatic involvement. Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is one of the most common complaints of the foot requiring medical treatment. The most typical symptom of CPHP is pain under the medial heel during weight-bearing, and this symptom is therefore generally initially diagnosed as CPHP by clinicians. The current case study reports a female patient never-smoker with non-small cell lung cancer accompanied by calcaneal metastasis presenting as heel pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with CPHP without any imaging examinations. As there was no relief from the heel pain six months later, a foot X-ray was performed, which revealed a lesion of the calcaneus. The analysis of a biopsy obtained from the lesion resulted in a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The present case indicates that patients suspected to have CPHP should be conventionally examined with radiography of the foot during the initial diagnosis. Similarly, if a patient with lung cancer has symptoms such as CPHP, distant metastasis should be accounted for; despite their rarity, clinicians should maintain a high level of suspicion, since accurate diagnosis and timely treatment is important in management and outcome. PMID:25009652

Dai, Hao; Qiang, Minfei; Chen, Yanxi; Zhai, Weitao; Zhang, Kun

2014-08-01

30

Targeting the Plantar Fascia for Corticosteroid Injection.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis is often a difficult condition to treat. It is related to repetitive strain of the fascia at its attachment to the heel bone. This condition quite often appears with the concomitant presence of a plantar calcaneal heel spur. Corticosteroid injection is a popular treatment choice for plantar fasciitis, and accurate localization of the injected medication is essential for successful resolution of symptoms after the injection. In the present brief technical communication, a method for targeting the attachment of the plantar fascia to the medial tubercle of the tuberosity of the calcaneus is described. The targeting method uses the lateral radiograph of the foot to aid in localization of the proximal attachment of the plantar fascia to the calcaneus. PMID:25432461

Salvi, Andrea Emilio

2014-11-26

31

Plantar fasciitis: what is the diagnosis and treatment?  

PubMed

Foot pain, specifically plantar heel pain, is a common complaint among patients in a podiatric or orthopaedic office setting but may be seen in primary care offices, urgent care centers, or emergency departments as well. There are numerous causes for heel pain, but plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause. The diagnosis of plantar fasciitis is generally made clinically, but there are many diagnostic modalities that may be used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of plantar fasciitis ranges from conservative measures to surgical interventions, but most cases of plantar fasciitis can be managed conservatively. There is no definitive treatment proven to be the best option for plantar fasciitis. Treatment is patient dependent and commonly requires a combination of different modalities to successfully alleviate the symptoms. In this article, plantar fasciitis from defining the disorder, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25058723

Johnson, Rachel E; Haas, Kim; Lindow, Kyle; Shields, Robert

2014-01-01

32

Positive power Doppler signal in plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

The plantar fascia is a multilayered band of fibrous tissue that support and maintain the longitudinal arch of the foot. We report a 34-old obese woman with heel pain for the past 3 years. On physical examination, she presented painful plantar fascia throughout extension of the foot. In addition, a soft painful, mobile nodule was also palpated in the medial aspect of her left heel. An US examination of her left foot showed an increased thickness of her plantar fascia with reduced echogenity, the presence of an effusion and a positive power Doppler signal. Positive US Doppler signal may be helpful in evaluating patients with plantar fasciitis and is suggestive of the presence of active microcirculation. PMID:22065073

Mendonça, José Alexandre; Provenza, José Roberto; Appenzeller, Simone

2013-02-01

33

Subcalcaneal bursitis with plantar fasciitis treated by arthroscopy.  

PubMed

We report the successful arthroscopic treatment of a case of subcalcaneal bursitis with plantar fasciitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on arthroscopic excision of a subcalcaneal bursa. Right heel pain developed in a 50-year-old woman, without any obvious cause. She reported that the heel pain occurred immediately after waking and that the heel ached when she walked. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extra-articular, homogeneous, high-intensity lesion in the fat pad adjacent to the calcaneal tubercle on T2-weighted sagittal and coronal images and thickening of the plantar fascia on T2-weighted sagittal images. A diagnosis of a recalcitrant subcalcaneal bursitis with plantar fasciitis was made, and surgery was performed. The arthroscope was placed between the calcaneus and the plantar fascia. With the surgeon viewing from the lateral portal and working from the medial portal, the dorsal surface of the degenerative plantar fascia was debrided and the medial half of the plantar fascia was released, followed by debridement of the subcalcaneal bursal cavity through the incised plantar fascia. Full weight bearing and gait were allowed immediately after the operation. At the latest follow-up, the patient had achieved complete resolution of heel pain without a recurrence of the mass, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23875139

Yamakado, Kotaro

2013-05-01

34

Plantar Fibroma  

MedlinePLUS

... Options Non-surgical treatment may help relieve the pain of a plantar fibroma, although it will not make the mass ... is considered if the patient continues to experience pain following non-surgical approaches. Surgical removal of a plantar fibroma may result in a flattening of the ...

35

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis: Indications, protocol, intermediate results, and a comparison of results to fasciotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the history, mechanism of action, and application of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic plantar fasciitis is presented. The results of 40 feet treated with this modality are reviewed after a mean follow-up time of 8.4 months. All procedures were performed under intravenous sedation and local infiltrative anesthesia. An electrohydraulic shock wave with a mean of 20.6

Lowell Scott Weil Jr.; Thomas S. Roukis; Lowell Scott Weil Sr.; Anthony H. Borrelli

2002-01-01

36

Plantar fasciitis  

MedlinePLUS

... obese or gain weight suddenly Have a tight Achilles tendon (the tendon connecting the calf muscles to the ... Making sure your ankle, Achilles tendon, and calf muscles are flexible ... Stretch your plantar fascia in the morning before you get ...

37

Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey. The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the following results: (1) highly significant fewer patients were reirradiated in the standard arm compared with the low-dose arm (P<.001); (2) the results of patients in the low-dose arm who were reirradiated were identical to those in the standard arm not reirradiated (reirradiation as a salvage therapy if the lower dose was ineffective); (3) patients experiencing a favorable result after 3 months showed this even after 12 months, and some results even improved further between 3 and 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy with 6-Gy doses on painful heel spur even for a longer time period of at least 1 year.

Niewald, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.niewald@uks.eu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany)] [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)] [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muecke, Ralf [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany)] [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany); Schaefer, Vera; Scheid, Christine; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2012-11-15

38

Plantar Pressure Distribution Patterns of Individuals with Prediabetes in Comparison with Healthy Individuals and Individuals with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Since elevated mechanical stress along with loss of plantar protective sensation are considered relevant factors in skin breakdown resulting in diabetic foot ulcerations, the assessment of plantar pressure is important for the prevention of diabetic foot complications. Prediabetes subjects are at risk of chronic hyperglycemia complications, among them neuropathy, but information about plantar loading in this population is not available. We aimed to compare baropodometric parameters of individuals with prediabetes versus healthy persons and persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Baropodometric data from 73 subjects (15 with prediabetes (pre-DM), 28 with type 2 DM, 30 healthy) aged between 29 and 69 years of both genders were registered through a pressure platform with self-selected gait speed and first-step protocol. Peak plantar pressure, stance time, percentage of contact time, percentage of contact area and pressure-time integral were assessed in five plantar foot regions: heel, midfoot, metatarsals, hallux, and toes 2 to 5. Groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc (? = 0.05). Results Age, body mass index, gender, and arch height index did not differ between groups. Pre-DM and DM subjects presented increased peak pressure and pressure-time integral in metatarsals (p = .010; p > .001), as well as increased percentage of contact time in midfoot (p = .006) and metatarsals (p = .004) regions when compared with healthy subjects. Stance time was significantly higher (p = .017) in DM subjects. Conclusions Pre-DM subjects seem to exhibit an altered plantar pressure distribution pattern similar to that often found in DM subjects. PMID:24124936

Robinson, Caroline Cabral; Balbinot, Luciane Fachin; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton Antônio

2013-01-01

39

Explicit finite element modelling of heel pad mechanics in running: inclusion of body dynamics and application of physiological impact loads.  

PubMed

Many heel pathologies including plantar heel pain may result from micro tears/trauma in the subcutaneous tissues, in which internal tissue deformation/stresses within the heel pad play an important role. Previously, many finite element models have been proposed to evaluate stresses inside the heel pad, but the majority of these models only focus on static loading boundary conditions. This study explored a dynamics modelling approach to the heel pad subjected to realistic impact loads during running. In this model, the inertial property and action of the body are described by a lumped parameter model, while the heel/shoe interactions are modelled using a viscoelastic heel pad model with contact properties. The impact force pattern, dynamic heel pad deformation and stress states predicted by the model were compared with published experimental data. Further parametrical studies revealed the model responses, in terms of internal stresses in the skin and fatty tissue, change nonlinearly when body dynamics changes. A reduction in foot's touchdown velocity resulted in a less severe impact landing and stress relief inside the heel pad, for example peak von-Mises stress in fatty tissue, was reduced by 11.3%. Applications of the model may be extendable to perform iterative analyses to further understand the complex relationships between body dynamics and stress distributions in the soft tissue of heel pad during running. This may open new opportunities to study the mechanical aetiology of plantar heel pain in runners. PMID:24980181

Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Peter Vee-Sin

2015-11-01

40

Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

41

Detachable high heel shoe construction  

E-print Network

The goal on this investigation was to develop a detachable high heel shoe construction that could enter the current high heel market. The impact of high heel shoes on women's fashion is enormous but there are associated ...

Morales, Alfredo Louis

2007-01-01

42

Analysis of muscular fatigue and foot stability during high-heeled gait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantar pressure measurements and surface electromyography (EMG) were used to determine the effects of muscular fatigue induced by high-heeled gait. The medio-lateral (M\\/L) stability of the foot was characterized by measuring the M\\/L deviations of the center of pressure (COP) and correlating these data with fatigue of lower-limb muscles seen on EMG. EMG measurements from habitual high-heeled shoe wearers demonstrated

Amit Gefen; M. Megido-Ravid; Y. Itzchak; M. Arcan

2002-01-01

43

The effects of total contact casting materials on plantar pressures.  

PubMed

The plaster-based total contact cast (TCC) is effective at reducing high plantar pressures associated with foot ulceration in the patient with diabetes. However, the weight and the lengthy drying time which require nonweightbearing create an inconvenience for the patient. Fiberglass has been commonly used as a substitute for plaster due to the quicker drying time, although little is known about the effects of fiberglass on plantar pressures. The purpose of the study was to compare a plaster-based TCC (PB-TCC) and an all-fiberglass TCC (AF-TCC) using selected plantar pressure parameters for commonly ulcerated regions of the foot. Using a repeated measures design, 10 healthy subjects consented to walk, for four consecutive trials, along a 25-m corridor while wearing a running shoe, PB-TCC, and AF-TCC. For each of the footwear conditions, parameters of peak pressure, pressure-time integral, and contact time for the forefoot, lateral midfoot, and heel regions were recorded using the Pedar trade mark system of plantar pressure measurement. Both the PB-TCC and AF-TCC produced similar peak plantar pressures that were significantly lower (p =.001) than the running shoe. Pressure-time integrals were similar for all footwear conditions and contact time was not altered with footwear type. In summary, the AF-TCC appears to be an effective alternative to the PB-TCC for plantar pressure reduction in the management of neuropathic foot ulceration. PMID:14992706

Hartsell, Heather D; Brand, Richard A; Frantz, Rita A; Saltzman, Charles L

2004-02-01

44

Combination of diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve block followed by pulsed radiofrequency for plantar fascitis pain: A new modality.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of chronic heel pain which may be bilateral in 20 to 30% of patients. It is a very painful and disabling condition which can affect the quality of life. The management includes both pharmacological and operative procedures with no single proven effective treatment modality. In the present case series, we managed three patients with PF (one with bilateral PF). Following a diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) block at its origin, we observed reduction in verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) in all the three patients. Two patients has relapse of PF pain which was managed with MCN block followed with pulsed radio frequency (PRF). All the patients were pain-free at the time of reporting. This case series highlights the possible role of combination of diagnostic MCN block near its origin followed with PRF as a new modality in management of patients with PF. PMID:24963184

Thapa, Deepak; Ahuja, Vanita

2014-03-01

45

Heel seats and shoe wear.  

PubMed

Seventy-two children with excessive heel valgus and markedly uneven shoe wear were treated by Helfet heel seats for 18-36 months. Of the 52 children reviewed in this study, 44 had improved shoe wear. Simple heel seats offer economical treatment for children whose foot deformities destroy their shoes. PMID:7814590

Theologis, T N; Gordon, C; Benson, M K

1994-01-01

46

Mountaineer’s heel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaineers are at risk of skin lesions caused by constant boot friction. This is the case of a 35 year old mountaineer who presented with large and deeply ulcerated lesions over the medial aspects of both heels after a two and a half day climb using crampons. A number of factors such as the length of the climb in cold

R M Strauss

2004-01-01

47

Plantar Wart (Verruca Plantaris)  

MedlinePLUS

... Wart (Verruca Plantaris) Text Size Print Bookmark Plantar Wart (Verruca Plantaris) What is a Plantar Wart? A wart is a small growth on the skin that ... when the skin is infected by a virus. Warts can develop anywhere on the foot, but typically ...

48

The efficacy of a pneumatic compression device in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis is a common foot disorder that affects more than two million Americans each year. Conservative management of plantar fasciitis is the first line of treatment by the medical specialist who frequently encounters this common foot complaint. In this study, 50 patients with plantar fasciitis of 4 weeks duration but less than 12 weeks were randomized into two groups. One group of 25 patients used the AirHeel (Aircast, Inc.) and the second group of 25 used the 1st Step prefabricated foot insert (Wrymark, Inc). Standardized weight-bearing radiographs were obtained in order to categorize the foot type: normal arch, pes planus, or pes cavus. Patients were initially evaluated and at 12 weeks they returned for a subsequent visit. The contact area of the foot with the AirHeel and 1st Step insert were similar, an increase of 27% and 26%, respectively, over the contact area barefoot. There was a noted difference in force reduction with the two devices. The AirHeel reduced the midstance force by 20.19%, as compared to the 1st Step insert which showed a 1.03% increase in midstance force. Patients with a higher initial pain score seemed to respond better initially to the AirHeel (p = 0.015) than the 1st Step insert (p = 0.035). This study demonstrates the benefits of offloading the foot at midstance with two devices to relieve the discomfort associated with plantar fasciitis. The Aircast AirHeel is a new modality for dynamic, functional treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis. PMID:16498185

Kavros, Steven J

2005-11-01

49

Comparison of Plantar Pressure Distribution between Different Speed and Incline During Treadmill Jogging  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in speed and incline slope on plantar pressure distribution of the foot during treadmill jogging. Plantar pressure parameters were measured with the Pedar-X system in twenty healthy girls (mean age of 20.7 years, mean height of 1.60m, and a mean weight of 53.35kg). Because variations in walking speed or slope can significantly change the magnitude of plantar pressure, comparisons of plantar pressure distribution between the two independent protocols during treadmill jogging were considered in this study. First, the subjects ran at the same speed of 2 m·s-1 with different incline slopes of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Second, they ran on the same slope of 0% with different speeds of 1.5 m·s-1, 2.0 m·s-1, and 2.5 m·s-1. The peak pressure of the eight plantar surface areas, apart from the medial forefoot and the hallux, significantly increased (p < 0.05) with an increase of 33% of peak pressure from 1.5 m·s-1 to 2.5 m·s-1 (speed) at heel region. In contrast, the peak pressures at the heel, medial fore-foot, toe and hallux decreased significantly (p < 0. 05) with increasing incline slope. At the heel, peak pressure reduced by 27% from 0% to 15% incline, however, pressure at the lateral midfoot region increased as following. Different speeds and incline slopes during jogging were associated with changes in plantar pressures. By systematic investigation of foot kinematics and plantar pressure during jogging with varying incline slope and speed, the results of this study provided further insight into foot biomechanics during jogging. Key points The study aimed to compare the plantar pressure distribution of the foot between different incline and speed during treadmill jogging by using plantar insole measurement system. With the increase of speed, apart from the hallux and medical forefoot, the peak pressure of all regions was raised significantly. As the slope increased, there was reduced peak pressure of the heel, medial forefoot, and hallux and toes. PMID:24149400

Ho, I-Ju; Hou, Yi-You; Yang, Chich-Haung; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chen, Sheng-Kai; Guo, Lan-Yuen

2010-01-01

50

Ultrasonographic evaluation at 6-month follow-up of plantar fasciitis after extracorporeal shock wave therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the ultrasonographic appearance of chronically painful, proximal plantar fasciitis. Materials and methods Twenty-two patients with a unilateral proximal plantar fasciitis were prospectively enrolled after unsuccessful conservative treatment lasting 6 months. The contralateral plantar fascia was used as the control. ESWT (3×3000 shock waves\\/session

Dietrich S. Hammer; Frank Adam; Andreas Kreutz; Stefan Rupp; Dieter Kohn; Romain Seil

2005-01-01

51

Application of ultrasound in the assessment of plantar fascia in patients with plantar fasciitis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis (PFS) is one of the most common causes of heel pain, estimated to affect 10% of the general population during their lifetime. Ultrasound (US) imaging technique is increasingly being used to assess plantar fascia (PF) thickness, monitor the effect of different interventions and guide therapeutic interventions in patients with PFS. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review previously published studies concerning the application of US in the assessment of PF in patients with PFS. A literature search was performed for the period 2000-2012 using the Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, Embase and Springer databases. The key words used were: ultrasound, sonography, imaging techniques, ultrasonography, interventional ultrasonography, plantar fascia and plantar fasciitis. The literature search yielded 34 relevant studies. Sixteen studies evaluated the effect of different interventions on PF thickness in patients with PFS using US; 12 studies compared PF thickness between patients with and without PFS using US; 6 studies investigated the application of US as a guide for therapeutic intervention in patients with PFS. There were variations among studies in terms of methodology used. The results indicated that US can be considered a reliable imaging technique for assessing PF thickness, monitoring the effect of different interventions and guiding therapeutic interventions in patients with PFS. PMID:24798393

Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Nakhaee, Masoomeh; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Shakourirad, Ali; Safari, Mohammad Reza; Vahab Kashani, Reza

2014-08-01

52

Predictors of Barefoot Plantar Pressure during Walking in Patients with Diabetes, Peripheral Neuropathy and a History of Ulceration  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated dynamic plantar foot pressures significantly increase the risk of foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus. The aim was to determine which factors predict plantar pressures in a population of diabetic patients who are at high-risk of foot ulceration. Methods Patients with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy and a history of ulceration were eligible for inclusion in this cross sectional study. Demographic data, foot structure and function, and disease-related factors were recorded and used as potential predictor variables in the analyses. Barefoot peak pressures during walking were calculated for the heel, midfoot, forefoot, lesser toes, and hallux regions. Potential predictors were investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. 167 participants with mean age of 63 years contributed 329 feet to the analyses. Results The regression models were able to predict between 6% (heel) and 41% (midfoot) of the variation in peak plantar pressures. The largest contributing factor in the heel model was glycosylated haemoglobin concentration, in the midfoot Charcot deformity, in the forefoot prominent metatarsal heads, in the lesser toes hammer toe deformity and in the hallux previous ulceration. Variables with local effects (e.g. foot deformity) were stronger predictors of plantar pressure than global features (e.g. body mass, age, gender, or diabetes duration). Conclusion The presence of local deformity was the largest contributing factor to barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in high-risk diabetic patients and should therefore be adequately managed to reduce plantar pressure and ulcer risk. However, a significant amount of variance is unexplained by the models, which advocates the quantitative measurement of plantar pressures in the clinical risk assessment of the patient. PMID:25647421

Barn, Ruth; Waaijman, Roelof; Nollet, Frans; Woodburn, James; Bus, Sicco A.

2015-01-01

53

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy of gastroc-soleus trigger points in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an alternative treatment for refractory cases of plantar fasciitis. Studies also demonstrated that ESWT may be an appropriate treatment for myofascial trigger points. This study was designed to evaluate its effectiveness by comparing the ESWT of Gastrocnemius/Soleus (gastroc-soleus) trigger points and heel region with the ESWT of the heel region alone. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 40 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, divided randomly to case (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The case group received ESWT for the heel region and for the gastroc-soleus trigger points. The control group received ESWT just for the heel region. The protocol was the same in both groups and they were treated for three sessions every week. The pain score (100 mm visual analog score [VAS]) and the modified Roles and Maudsley score was evaluated before the first session and eight weeks after the last session. Results: Eight weeks after the last session, although the mean VAS had decreased significantly in both groups, this decrement was more significant in the case group. (P = 0.04). According to the modified Roles and Maudsley score, there was a significant improvement in both the case (P < 0.001) and control (P = 0.01) groups, eight weeks after treatment, but there were significantly better results in the case group. Conclusion: The combination of ESWT for both plantar fasciitis and gastroc-soleus trigger points in treating patients with plantar fasciitis is more effective than utilizing it solely for plantar fasciitis. PMID:24800188

Moghtaderi, Alireza; Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz

2014-01-01

54

Ultrasound- versus Palpation-Guided Injection of Corticosteroid for Plantar Fasciitis: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background It is controversial whether ultrasound-guided injection of corticosteroid is superior to palpation-guided injection for plantar fasciitis. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided and palpation-guided injection of corticosteroid for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Methods Databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane library and EMBASE) and reference lists were searched from their establishment to August 30, 2013 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound-guided with palpation-guided injection for plantar fasciitis. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality. Outcome measurements were visual analogue scale (VAS), tenderness threshold (TT), heel tenderness index (HTI), response rate, plantar fascia thickness (PFT), hypoechogenicity and heel pad thickness (HPT). The statistical analysis was performed with software RevMan 5.2 and Stata 12.0. When I2<50%, the fixed-effects model was adopted. Otherwise the randomized-effects model was adopted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to assess the quality of evidence. Results Five RCTs with 149 patients were identified and analyzed. Compared with palpation-guided injection, ultrasound-guided injection was superior with regard to VAS, TT, response rate, PFT and hypoechogenicity. However, there was no statistical significance between the two groups for HPT and HTI. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided injection of corticosteroid tends to be more effective than palpation-guided injection. However, it needs to be confirmed by further research. PMID:24658102

Yu, Aixi; Qi, Baiwen

2014-01-01

55

On muscle, tendon and high heels.  

PubMed

Wearing high heels (HH) places the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in a shortened position. As muscles and tendons are highly malleable tissues, chronic use of HH might induce structural and functional changes in the calf MTU. To test this hypothesis, 11 women regularly wearing HH and a control group of 9 women were recruited. Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), the Achilles' tendon (AT) length, cross-sectional area (CSA) and mechanical properties, and the plantarflexion torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships were assessed in both groups. Shorter GM fascicle lengths were observed in the HH group (49.6+/-5.7 mm vs 56.0+/-7.7 mm), resulting in greater tendon-to-fascicle length ratios. Also, because of greater AT CSA, AT stiffness was higher in the HH group (136.2+/-26.5 N mm(-1) vs 111.3+/-20.2 N mm(-1)). However, no differences in the GM PCSA to AT CSA ratio, torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships were found. We conclude that long-term use of high-heeled shoes induces shortening of the GM muscle fascicles and increases AT stiffness, reducing the ankle's active range of motion. Functionally, these two phenomena seem to counteract each other since no significant differences in static or dynamic torques were observed. PMID:20639419

Csapo, R; Maganaris, C N; Seynnes, O R; Narici, M V

2010-08-01

56

Proportional EMG control of ankle plantar flexion in a powered transtibial prosthesis.  

PubMed

The human calf muscle generates 80% of the mechanical work to walk throughout stance-phase, powered plantar flexion. Powered plantar flexion is not only important for walking energetics, but also to minimize the impact on the leading leg at heel-strike. For unilateral transtibial amputees, it has recently been shown that knee load on the leading, intact limb decreases as powered plantar flexion in the trailing prosthetic ankle increases. Not surprisingly, excessive loads on the leading, intact knee are believed to be causative of knee osteoarthritis, a leading secondary impairment in lower-extremity amputees. In this study, we hypothesize that a transtibial amputee can learn how to control a powered ankle-foot prosthesis using a volitional electromyographic (EMG) control to directly modulate ankle powered plantar flexion. We here present preliminary data, and find that an amputee participant is able to modulate toe-off angle, net ankle work and peak power across a broad range of walking speeds by volitionally modulating calf EMG activity. The modulation of these key gait parameters is shown to be comparable to the dynamical response of the same powered prosthesis controlled intrinsically (No EMG), suggesting that transtibial amputees can achieve an adequate level of powered plantar flexion controllability using direct volitional EMG control. PMID:24187210

Wang, Jing; Kannape, Oliver A; Herr, Hugh M

2013-06-01

57

Miniscalpel-Needle versus Steroid Injection for Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a 12-Month Follow-Up.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain in adults. A novel alternative medical instrument, the miniscalpel-needle (MSN), which is based on an acupuncture needle, has been recently developed in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the MSN release treatment versus that of traditional steroid injection for plantar fasciitis. Patients with plantar fasciitis were randomly assigned to 2 groups and followed up for 12 months, with 29 receiving MSN treatment and 25 receiving steroid injection treatment. The results showed that visual analog scale scores for morning pain, active pain, and overall heel pain all were decreased significantly in the MSN group from 1 to 12 months after treatment. In contrast, treatment with steroid injection showed a significant effect only at the 1-month follow-up but not at 6 or 12 months after treatment. Moreover, the MSN group achieved more rapid and sustained improvements than the steroid group throughout the duration of this study. No severe side effects were observed with MSN treatment. Our data suggest that the MSN release treatment is safe and has a significant benefit for plantar fasciitis compared to steroid injection. PMID:25114704

Li, Shuming; Shen, Tong; Liang, Yongshan; Zhang, Ying; Bai, Bo

2014-01-01

58

The potential influence of the heel counter on internal stress during static standing: a combined finite element and positional MRI investigation.  

PubMed

Confinement of the heel due to the counter of the shoe is believed to influence heel pad biomechanics. Using a two-dimensional finite element model of the heel pad and shoe during a simulation of static standing, the aim of this study was to quantify the potential effect of confinement on internal heel pad stress. Non-weightbearing MRI and weightbearing MRI with plantar pressure and ground reaction force data were recorded for a single subject. The non-weightbearing MRI was used to create two FE models of the heel pad, using either homogeneous or composite material properties. The composite model included a distinction in material properties between fat pad and skin. Vertical and medial-lateral forces, as measured on the subject's heel, were applied to the models and vertical compressive strains for both models were comparable with those observed by weightbearing MRI. However, only for the composite model was the predicted plantar pressure distribution comparable with measured data. The composite model was therefore used in further analyses. In this composite model, the internal stresses were located mainly in the skin and were predominantly tensile in nature, whereas the stress state in the fat pad approached hydrostatic conditions. A representation of a running shoe, including an insole, midsole and heel counter was then added to the composite heel pad to form the shod model. In order to investigate the counter effect, the load was applied to the shod model with and without the heel counter. The effect of the counter on peak stress was to elevate compression (0-50%), reduce tension (22-34%) and reduce shear (22-28%) in the skin. In addition, the counter reduced both compressive (20-40%) and shear (58-80%) stress in the fat pad and tension in the fat pad remained negligible. Taken together the results indicate that a well-fitted counter works in sympathy with the internal structure of the heel pad and could be an effective reducer of heel pad stress. However, further research needs to be undertaken to assess the long-term effects on the soft-tissues, practicalities of achieving good fit and behavior under dynamic events. PMID:17362970

Spears, I R; Miller-Young, J E; Sharma, J; Ker, R F; Smith, F W

2007-01-01

59

Criss Cross Heel and Toe Touch  

E-print Network

-a-Picture/Perspectives Duct Tape Adventure Egg Drop Electric Fence Escape from the Planet "What" Eyes Voice Body Fire Fighting1 GAMES BOOK Stretches All Over Criss Cross Crow Hop Fried Egg Heel and Toe Touch Heel Clicker Hop Clam Free Clock Dead Ant Tag Dragon Tail Tag Drip Drip Drop Earth Air Water Fire (E) Ecological Values

Royer, Dana

60

Plantar soft tissue thickness during ground contact in walking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is introduced for the measurement of plantar soft tissue thickness during barefoot walking. Subjects stepped into an adjustable Plexiglas frame which ensured that the required bony landmarks were appropriately positioned relative to a linear ultrasound probe connected to a conventional 7.5 MHz ultrasound scanner. Clear images of the metatarsal condyles or other foot bones were obtained throughout ground contact. Subsequent analysis of the video taped images using a motion analysis system allowed the tissue displacement to be calculated as a function of time. The tissue underneath the second metatarsal head was shown to undergo an average maximum compression of 45.7% during the late stages of ground contact during first step gait in a group of five normal subjects with a mean unloaded tissue thickness of 15.2 mm. The technique has a number of applications, including use in the validation of deformation predicted by finite element models of the soft tissue of the foot, and the study of alterations in the cushioning properties of the heel by devices which constrain the displacement of the heel pad.

Cavanagh, P. R.

1999-01-01

61

Effect of variable body mass on plantar foot pressure and off-loading device efficacy.  

PubMed

An increasing body of evidence has implicated obesity as having a negative effect on the development, treatment, and outcome of lower extremity pathologic entities, including diabetic foot disease. The objective of the present study was to increase the body of knowledge with respect to the effects of obesity on foot function. Specifically, we attempted to (1) describe the relationship between an increasing body mass index (BMI) on plantar foot pressures during gait, and (2) evaluate the efficacy of commonly prescribed off-loading devices with an increasing BMI. A repeated measures design was used to compare the peak plantar foot pressures under multiple test conditions, with the volunteers acting as their own controls. The primary outcome measure was the mean peak plantar pressure in the heel, midfoot, forefoot, and first metatarsal, and the 2 variables were modification of patient weight (from "normal" BMI to "overweight," "obese," and "morbidly obese") and footwear (from an athletic sneaker to a surgical shoe, controlled ankle motion walker, and total contact cast). Statistically significant increases in the peak plantar pressures were observed with increasing volunteer BMI weight class, regardless of the off-loading device used. The present investigation has provided unique and specific data with respect to the changes that occur in the peak plantar pressures with variable BMIs across different anatomic levels and with commonly used off-loading devices. From our results, we have concluded that although the plantar pressures increase with increasing weight, it appears that at least some reduction in pressure can be achieved with an off-loading device, most effectively with the total contact cast, regardless of the patient's BMI. PMID:24735742

Pirozzi, Kelly; McGuire, James; Meyr, Andrew J

2014-01-01

62

Plantar pressures in the tennis serve.  

PubMed

In-shoe loading patterns were examined in each foot (back and front) separately during two types of tennis serve [first (or flat) and second (or twist) serve] and two service stance styles [foot-up (back foot is moved forward next to front foot for push-off) and foot-back (feet remain at the same relative level)]. Ten competitive tennis players completed five trials for each type of serve and service stance style in random order. Plantar pressure distribution was recorded using Pedar insoles divided into nine areas for analysis. Mean and peak pressures (+15.2%, P < 0.01 and +12.8%, P < 0.05) as well as maximal forces (+20.2%, P < 0.01) were higher under the lateral forefoot of the front foot in first than in second serves, while mean forces were higher (+17.2%, P < 0.05) under the lesser toes. Relative load was higher on the lateral forefoot (+20.4%, P < 0.05) but lower (-32.5%, P < 0.05) on the medial heel of the front foot with foot-up compared with foot-back stance. Using a foot-up stance, loading of the back foot was higher (+31.8%, P < 0.01) under the lateral mid-foot but lower (-29.9%, P < 0.01) under the medial forefoot. The type of serve and the stance style adopted have a significant effect on foot loading. Such findings might help improve mechanical efficiency of the serve. PMID:20496222

Girard, Olivier; Eicher, Frank; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Millet, Grégoire

2010-06-01

63

Complete remission of plantar fasciitis with a gluten-free diet: relationship or just coincidence?  

PubMed

We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with no known history for gluten sensitivity who presented severe heel pain, and was successfully managed with a gluten-free diet. Previously she had been unsuccessfully treated with several conservative remedies. The presence of musculoskeletal problems in patients with gluten sensitivity is not rare. To the best of our knowledge, however, this is the first case report mentioning the successful management of plantar fasciitis with a gluten-free diet. The case report highlights the importance of considering gluten sensitivity among other possible differential diagnosis for musculoskeletal pain insensitive to traditional therapies. PMID:25063015

Paoloni, Marco; Tavernese, Emanuela; Ioppolo, Francesco; Fini, Massimo; Santilli, Valter

2014-09-01

64

Complex heel reconstruction with a sural fasciomyocutaneous perforator flap.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of weight-bearing surfaces at the foot and ankle is controversial. Free tissue transfer and local fasciocutaneous perforator flaps are preferred for plantar reconstruction, but high rates of flap breakdown and ulceration have caused unsatisfactory functional outcomes. We present a modified "sural fasciomyocutaneous perforator flap" and its functional outcome. Between January 2007 and September 2010, 19 patients were treated for soft-tissue defects in the weight-bearing area with sural fasciomyocutaneous perforator flaps. The gastrocnemius, preserved in the base of the flap, was applied as padding under the calcaneus. In follow-up from 9 to 25 months (mean 13.8 months), each patient's pain score, defect size, ulcer formation, protective sensation recovery, and normal footwear were analyzed. The majority of the flaps survived with satisfactory aesthetic and functional results. One case of partial flap loss and one case of delayed ulceration were noted. With partial weight bearing at 4 weeks, satisfactory gait recovery was obtained at 5 to 8 months (in conjunction with protective sensation recovery). Sural fasciomyocutaneous perforator flap is a reliable modality in heel construction, showing advantages of low ulceration rate, durability, and good protective sensation recovery compared with conventional free tissue transfer and local fasciocutaneous perforator flap. PMID:24163225

Lu, Shengdi; Chai, Yimin; Wang, Chunyang; Wen, Gen

2014-02-01

65

A 4-week instructed minimalist running transition and gait-retraining changes plantar pressure and force.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare changes in plantar pressure and force using conventional running shoes (CRS) and minimalist footwear (MFW) pre and post a 4-week MFW familiarization period. Ten female runners (age: 21?±?2 years; stature: 165.8?±?4.5?cm; mass: 55.9?±?3.2?kg) completed two 11?km/h treadmill runs, 24 hours apart, in both CRS and MFW (pretest). Plantar data were measured using sensory insoles for foot strike patterns, stride frequency, mean maximum force ( M ? F ¯ ), mean maximum pressure ( M ? P ¯ ) and eight mean maximum regional pressures. Subjects then completed a 4-week familiarization period consisting of running in MFW and simple gait-retraining, before repeating the tests (posttest). During the pretests, 30% of subjects adopted a forefoot strike in MFW, following familiarization this increased to 80%; no change occurred in CRS. A significant decrease in M ? F ¯ in both MFW and CRS (P?=?0.024) was observed from pre-post, and a significant decrease in heel pressures in MFW. M ? P ¯ was higher in MFW throughout testing (P?heel pressures. Higher M ? P ¯ was observed throughout testing in the MFW condition. PMID:24004458

Warne, J P; Kilduff, S M; Gregan, B C; Nevill, A M; Moran, K A; Warrington, G D

2014-12-01

66

Physical activity, eccentric contractions of plantar flexors, and neurogenesis: therapeutic potential of flat shoes in psychiatric and neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Using flat shoes with no heels results in stronger eccentric contractions of plantar flexors, which stimulate the rostral parts of the cerebellar vermis. The stimulation inhibits the limbic structures and increase neurogenesis. Physical activity often involves walking. Eccentric contractions during dorsal flexion of the plantar flexors in the stance phase of walking give rise to tension signals from Golgi tendon organs. The signals from the eccentric contractions are brought to the rostral parts of the cerebellar vermis. Electrical stimulation of the vermis inhibits the limbic structures and increases neurogenesis, and so do the signals from eccentric contractions. The use of heeled shoes results in less eccentric contractions with decreased neurogenesis. People in the Western World wore heeled shoes from the beginning of the 17th century, and, because of the decreased neurogenesis, the prevalence of diseases such as depression, epilepsia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, diabetes, and myopia increased. Use of flat shoes produces stronger eccentric contractions and increases neurogenesis. This would lead to better protection from a range of diseases. Even therapy is possible. PMID:19364629

Flensmark, Jarl

2009-08-01

67

Plantar fibromatosis--topical review.  

PubMed

Morbus Ledderhose is a rare hyperproliferative disease of the plantar fascia, leading to the formation of nodules. Its origin is unknown. No causal therapy is available, and treatment remains symptomatic. Various therapeutic strategies to alleviate symptoms are available and are adapted to the severity of the disease. In early stages, conservative therapy including nonpharmacological, physical, and pharmacological treatments is applied. If the disease progresses, irradiation of the plantar surface, injections of steroids, shock wave therapy, and partial or complete fasciectomy as an ultimate therapy may be indicated. Novel experimental treatment options including application of fibrinolytic agents are currently being tested, but no controlled, randomized long-term studies are available. This review aims to provide a systematic overview of current established procedures and outlines novel experimental strategies for the treatment of morbus Ledderhose, including future avenues to treat this rare disease. PMID:24043350

Veith, Nils T; Tschernig, Thomas; Histing, Tina; Madry, Henning

2013-12-01

68

Intercellular lamellar lipids in plantar stratum corneum.  

PubMed

Plantar stratum corneum was examined by means of transmission electron microscopy after conventional osmium fixation and after fixation with ruthenium tetroxide. The latter fixative was used in order to reveal the possible existence of lamelarly ordered lipids in the intercellular space, as has previously been demonstrated for non-palmo-plantar stratum corneum. A major part of the plantar stratum corneum intercellular space was occupied by extracellular parts of desmosomes. In specimens fixed with ruthenium tetroxide the intercellular space not occupied by desmosomes was found to contain multiple alternating electron dense and electron lucid bands, suggestive of membraneous structures. This pattern appeared to be similar to that previously described for non-palmo-plantar stratum corneum. It is suggested that the intercellular lipids of palmo-plantar stratum corneum may be qualitatively similar to the intercellular lipids of non-palmo-plantar stratum corneum. The lower lipid content, expressed as weight per unit weight of tissue, in palmo-plantar stratum corneum as compared to non-palmo-plantar stratum corneum may be related to the fact that a larger portion of the intercellular space of the former tissue is occupied by desmosomes. The relatively high water permeability of palmo-plantar stratum corneum implies that desmosomes, i.e. non-lipid regions of the intercellular space, may have a high water permeability and hence could establish a hydrophilic route through the stratum corneum. PMID:1684462

Egelrud, T; Lundström, A

1991-01-01

69

Abnormalities of plantar pressure distribution in early, intermediate, and late stages of diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Inconsistent findings with regard to plantar pressure while walking in the diabetic population may be due to the heterogeneity of the studied groups resulting from the classification/grouping criteria adopted. The clinical diagnosis and classification of diabetes have inherent uncertainties that compromise the definition of its onset and the differentiation of its severity stages. A fuzzy system could improve the precision of the diagnosis and classification of diabetic neuropathy because it takes those uncertainties into account and combines different assessment methods. Here, we investigated how plantar pressure abnormalities evolve throughout different severity stages of diabetic polyneuropathy (absent, n=38; mild, n=20; moderate, n=47; severe, n=24). Pressure distribution was analysed over five areas while patients walked barefoot. Patients with mild neuropathy displayed an increase in pressure-time integral at the forefoot and a lower peak pressure at the heel. The peak and pressure-time integral under the forefoot and heel were aggravated in later stages of the disease (moderate and severe) compared with early stages of the disease (absent and mild). In the severe group, lower pressures at the lateral forefoot and hallux were observed, which could be related to symptoms that develop with the aggravation of neuropathy: atrophy of the intrinsic foot muscles, reduction of distal muscle activity, and joint stiffness. Although there were clear alterations over the forefoot and in a number of plantar areas with higher pressures within each severity stage, they did not follow the aggravation evolution of neuropathy classified by the fuzzy model. Based on these results, therapeutic interventions should begin in the early stages of this disease to prevent further consequences of the disease. PMID:25086801

Sacco, Isabel C N; Hamamoto, Adriana N; Tonicelli, Lucas M G; Watari, Ricky; Ortega, Neli R S; Sartor, Cristina D

2014-09-01

70

An optoelectric plantar "shear" sensing transducer: design, validation, and preliminary subject tests.  

PubMed

A prototype miniature plantar shear sensing transducer was developed, characterized, and tested in this study. Electro-optical components were chosen for the design because of the fast response time, low cost, small size, low power requirements, and adaptability to this application. The optoelectric circuit employed a 660 nm wavelength light source and photodiode solar cell. Signal amplification and sensitivity were adjusted to provide an output voltage proportional to light power. The sensor shell was designed to encapsulate the electro-optical sensing components while providing mechanical resistance to shear through a spring mechanism. A naval bronze was chosen for the shell due to its strength and nonreflective characteristics (alloy of copper and tin). Static and dynamic characteristics of the shear sensor were determined through a series of calibration tests. Mechanical crosstalk sensitivity ranged from 14.34 to 30.51 mV/N. This represented 1% full-scale/Newton sensitivity. Nonlinearity averaged 5.6% in the forward direction and 7.6% in the reverse direction. Overall sensor output hysteresis was 1.1 +/- 3.1% while the natural frequency of the sensor to an input shear transient was approximately 5 Hz. Temperature sensitivity was -7.0 mV/degree C or 3.5% full-scale/degree C. Testing of five adult subjects revealed peak anterior-posterior shear ranging from 6.7 kPa (posterior heel) to 51.4 kPa (great toe) and medial-lateral shear ranging from 5.4 kPa (great toe) to 43.5 kPa (first metatarsal head). Stress-time integral values ranged from 0.78 kPa-sec (posterior shear at the posterior heel) to 37.3 kPa-sec (medial shear at the posterior heel). Contact durations ranged from 0.28 sec (posterior shear at the posterior heel) to 1.25 sec (medial shear at the posterior heel). Further application of the sensor for plantar shear characterization in able-bodied subjects and those with pathology is suggested. PMID:8973957

Lebar, A M; Harris, G F; Wertsch, J J; Zhu, H

1996-12-01

71

Foot Kinematics During a Bilateral Heel Rise Test in Participants With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Experimental laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES To compare foot kinematics, using 3-dimensional tracking methods, during a bilateral heel rise between participants with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) and participants with a normal medial longitudinal arch (MLA). BACKGROUND The bilateral heel rise test is commonly used to assess patients with PTTD; however, information about foot kinematics during the test is lacking. METHODS Forty-five individuals volunteered to participate, including 30 patients diagnosed with unilateral stage II PTTD (mean ± SD age, 59.8 ± 11.1 years; body mass index, 29.9 ± 4.8 kg/m2) and 15 controls (mean ± SD age, 56.5 ± 7.7 years; body mass index, 30.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Foot kinematic data were collected during a bilateral heel rise task from the calcaneus (hindfoot), first metatarsal, and hallux, using an Optotrak motion analysis system and Motion Monitor software. A 2-way mixed-effects analysis of variance model, with normalized heel height as a covariate, was used to test for significant differences between the normal MLA and PTTD groups. RESULTS The patients in the PTTD group exhibited significantly greater ankle plantar flexion (mean difference between groups, 7.3°; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1° to 9.5°), greater first metatarsal dorsiflexion (mean difference between groups, 9.0°; 95% CI: 3.7° to 14.4°), and less hallux dorsiflexion (mean difference, 6.7°; 95% CI: 1.7° to 11.8°) compared to controls. At peak heel rise, hindfoot inversion was similar (P = .130) between the PTTD and control groups. CONCLUSION Except for hindfoot eversion/inversion, the differences in foot kinematics in participants with stage II PTTD, when compared to the control group, mainly occur as an offset, not an alteration in shape, of the kinematic patterns. PMID:19648723

HOUCK, JEFF; NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; TOME, JOSHUA; FLEMISTER, ADOLPH

2010-01-01

72

Effect of custom-made and prefabricated insoles on plantar loading parameters during running with and without fatigue.  

PubMed

Controversy exists whether custom-made insoles are more effective in reducing plantar loading compared to prefabricated insoles. Forty recreational athletes ran using custom-made, prefabricated, and the original insoles of their running shoes, at rest and after a fatigue run. Contact time, stride rate, and plantar loading parameters were measured. Neither the insole conditions nor the fatigue state modified contact time and stride rate. Addressing prevention of running injuries, post-fatigue loading values are of great interest. Custom-made insoles reduced the post-fatigue loading under the hallux (92 vs. 130 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (70 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (62 vs 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Prefabricated insoles provoked reductions in post-fatigue loading under the toes (120 vs. 175 kPa, P < 0.05), medial midfoot (71 vs. 105 kPa, P < 0.01), and lateral midfoot (68 vs. 96 kPa, P < 0.01). Regarding both study insoles, custom-made insoles reduced by 31% and 54% plantar loading under the medial and lateral heel compared to the prefabricated insoles. Finally, fatigue state did not influence plantar loading regardless the insole condition. In long-distance races, even a slight reduction in plantar loading at each foot strike may suppose a significant decrease in the overall stress experienced by the foot, and therefore the use of insoles may be an important protective mechanism for plantar overloading. PMID:24823258

Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Macián-Romero, Cecili; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

2014-01-01

73

An innovative ultrasound foot scanner system for measuring the change in biomechanical properties of plantar tissue from sitting to standing.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the reliability of an innovative ultrasound foot scanner system in assessing the thickness and stiffness of plantar soft tissue and the comparison of stiffness and thickness in sitting and standing. Fifteen young healthy individuals were examined. The target sites on the foot sole for investigation included the heel pad, the fifth metatarsal head, the second metatarsal head, the first metatarsal head, and the pulp of the hallux. The test (day 1) and retest (day 2) were performed 1 week apart at the exact time with humidity and temperature of the assessment room under control. The thickness and stiffness of the plantar soft tissue obtained in sitting and standing positions on day 1 were used for comparison. The results showed significant test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient(3,2)>0.90, P<0.001] at all five sites in both sitting and standing positions. When changing from sitting to standing, the plantar soft tissue became significantly thinner (with decrease ranging from 10 to 14% at various sites) and stiffer (with increase ranging from 123 to 164% at various sites, all P<0.05). The present innovative system is a reliable device for the measurement of the thickness and stiffness of plantar soft tissue in either the sitting or the standing position. The change in positions from sitting to standing resulted in a significant thinning and stiffening of plantar soft tissues. This system could be a potential clinical device to monitor the biomechanical properties of plantar tissue in the elderly or in patients with diseases such as diabetes to estimate the risk of developing foot ulcer or other foot complications. PMID:25426574

Ng, Thomas Ka-Wai; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Kwan, Rachel Lai-Chu; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

2014-11-25

74

Analysis of heel pad tissues mechanics at the heel strike in bare and shod conditions.  

PubMed

A combined experimental and numerical approach is used to investigate the interaction phenomena occurring between foot and footwear during the heel strike phase of the gait. Two force platforms are utilised to evaluate the ground reaction forces of a subject in bare and shod walking. The reaction forces obtained from the experimental tests are assumed as loading conditions for the numerical analyses using three dimensional models of the heel region and of the running shoe. The heel pad region, as fat and skin tissues, is described by visco-hyperelastic and fibre-reinforced hyperelastic formulations respectively and bone region by a linear orthotropic formulation. Different elastomeric foams are considered with regard to the outsole, the midsole and the insole layers. The mechanical properties are described by a hyperfoam formulation. The evaluation of the mechanical behaviour of the heel pad tissues at the heel strike in bare and shod conditions is performed considering different combinations of materials for midsole and insole layers. Results allow for the definition of the influence of different material characteristics on the mechanical response of the heel pad region, in particular showing the compressive stress differentiation in the bare and shod conditions. PMID:22789809

Fontanella, C G; Forestiero, A; Carniel, E L; Natali, A N

2013-04-01

75

High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoe inserts and plantar fascia-specific stretching vs shoe inserts and high-load strength training in patients with plantar fasciitis. Forty-eight patients with ultrasonography-verified plantar fasciitis were randomized to shoe inserts and daily plantar-specific stretching (the stretch group) or shoe inserts and high-load progressive strength training (the strength group) performed every second day. High-load strength training consisted of unilateral heel raises with a towel inserted under the toes. Primary outcome was the foot function index (FFI) at 3 months. Additional follow-ups were performed at 1, 6, and 12 months. At the primary endpoint, at 3 months, the strength group had a FFI that was 29 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): 6-52, P?=?0.016] compared with the stretch group. At 1, 6, and 12 months, there were no differences between groups (P?>?0.34). At 12 months, the FFI was 22 points (95% CI: 9-36) in the strength group and 16 points (95% CI: 0-32) in the stretch group. There were no differences in any of the secondary outcomes. A simple progressive exercise protocol, performed every second day, resulted in superior self-reported outcome after 3 months compared with plantar-specific stretching. High-load strength training may aid in a quicker reduction in pain and improvements in function. PMID:25145882

Rathleff, M S; Mølgaard, C M; Fredberg, U; Kaalund, S; Andersen, K B; Jensen, T T; Aaskov, S; Olesen, J L

2014-08-21

76

Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review  

PubMed Central

Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis. PMID:23012576

Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Zayegh, Aladin; Begg, Rezaul K.; Wahab, Yufridin

2012-01-01

77

Effect of overground vs treadmill running on plantar pressure: influence of fatigue.  

PubMed

The differences produced when running on a treadmill vs overground may call into question the use and validity of the treadmill as a piece of equipment commonly used in research, training, and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to analyze under pre/post fatigue conditions the effect of treadmill vs overground on plantar pressures. Twenty-seven recreational runners (17 men and 10 women) ran on a treadmill and overground at two speeds: S1=3.33 m/s and S2=4.00 m/s, before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a 30-min run at 85% of their individual maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Contact time (CT in seconds), peak pressure (PP in kPa), and relative load (RL in %) were analyzed under nine foot zones of the left foot using an in-shoe plantar pressure device. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that running on a treadmill increases CT (7.70% S1 and 9.91% S2), modifies the pressure distribution and reduces PP (25.98% S1 and 31.76% S2), especially under the heel, medial metatarsals, and hallux, compared to running overground. Moreover, on both surfaces, fatigue (S2) led to a reduced stride frequency (2.78%) and reduced PP on the lateral heel and hallux (15.96% and 16.35%, respectively), and (S1) increased relative load on the medial arch (9.53%). There was no significant interaction between the two factors analyzed (surface and fatigue). Therefore, the aforementioned surface effect, which occurs independently of the fatigue state, should be taken into account when interpreting the results of studies that use the treadmill in their experimental protocols, and when prescribing physical exercise on a treadmill. PMID:23746487

García-Pérez, José A; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana, Salvador; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

2013-09-01

78

Eccentric Plantar-Flexor Torque Deficits in Participants With Functional Ankle Instability  

PubMed Central

Context: Inversion ankle sprains can lead to a chronic condition called functional ankle instability (FAI). Limited research has been reported regarding isokinetic measures for the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors of the ankle. Objective: To examine the isokinetic eccentric torque measures of the ankle musculature in participants with stable ankles and participants with functionally unstable ankles during inversion, eversion, plantar flexion, and dorsiflexion. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Athletic training research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty participants with a history of “giving way” were included in the FAI group. Inclusion criteria for the FAI group included a history of at least 1 ankle sprain and repeated episodes of giving way. Twenty participants with no prior history of ankle injury were included in the control group. Intervention(s): Isokinetic eccentric torque was assessed in each participant. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic eccentric testing was conducted for inversion-eversion and plantar-flexion–dorsiflexion movements. Peak torque values were standardized to each participant's body weight. The average of the 3 trials for each direction was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant side-by-group interaction was noted for eccentric plantar flexion torque (P < .01). Follow-up t tests revealed a significant difference between the FAI limb in the FAI group and the matched limb in the control group. Additionally, a significant difference was seen between the sides of the control group (P = .03). No significant interactions were identified for eccentric inversion, eversion, or dorsiflexion torques (P > .05). Conclusions: A deficit in plantar flexion torque was identified in the functionally unstable ankles. No deficits were identified for inversion, eversion, or dorsiflexion torque. Therefore, eccentric plantar flexion strength may be an important contributing factor to functional ankle instability. PMID:18335013

Fox, Jason; Docherty, Carrie L; Schrader, John; Applegate, Trent

2008-01-01

79

The reliability of plantar pressure assessment during barefoot level walking in children aged 7-11 years  

PubMed Central

Background Plantar pressure assessment can provide information pertaining to the dynamic loading of the foot, as well as information specific to each region in contact with the ground. There have been few studies which have considered the reliability of plantar pressure data and therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of assessing plantar pressure variables in a group of typically developing children, during barefoot level walking. Methods Forty-five participants, aged 7 to 11 years, were recruited from local primary and secondary schools in East London. Data from three walking trials were collected at both an initial and re-test session, taken one week apart, to determine both the within- and between-session reliability of selected plantar pressure variables. The variables of peak pressure, peak force, pressure-time and force-time integrals were extracted for analysis in the following seven regions of the foot; lateral heel, medial heel, midfoot, 1st metatarsophalangeal joint, 2nd-5th metatarsophalangeal joint, hallux and the lesser toes. Reliability of the data were explored using Intra Class Correlation Coefficients (ICC 3,1 and 3,2) and variability with Coefficients of Variation (CoV's). Results The measurements demonstrated moderate to good levels of within-session reliability across all segments of the foot (0.69-0.93), except the lesser toes, which demonstrated poor reliability (0.17-0.50). CoV's across the three repeated trials ranged from 10.12-19.84% for each of the measured variables across all regions of the foot, except the lesser toes which demonstrated the greatest variability within trials (27.15-56.08%). The between-session results demonstrated good levels of reliability across all foot segments (0.79-0.99) except the lesser toes; with moderate levels of reliability reported at this region of the foot (0.58-0.68). The CoV's between-sessions demonstrated that the midfoot (16.41-36.23%) and lesser toe region (29.64-56.61) demonstrated the greatest levels of variability across all the measured variables. Conclusions These findings indicate that using the reported protocols, reliable plantar pressure data can be collected in children, aged 7 to 11 years in all regions of the foot except the lesser toes which consistently reported poor-to-moderate levels of reliability and increased variability. PMID:22433255

2012-01-01

80

The Effect of Backpack Load on Muscle Activities of the Trunk and Lower Extremities and Plantar Foot Pressure in Flatfoot  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activation of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure due to backpack loads of 0, 10, 15, and 20% of body weight during level walking in individuals with flatfoot. [Methods] Fourteen young flatfoot subjects and 12 normal foot subjects participated in this study. In each session, the subjects were assigned to carry a backpack load, and there were four level walking modes: (1) unloaded walking (0%), (2) 10% body weight (BW) load, (3) 15% BW load, and (4) 20% BW load. Trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were recorded by surface EMG, and contact area and plantar foot pressure were determined using a RS scan system. [Results] The erector spinae, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle activities, but not the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis muscle activities of flatfoot subjects significantly and progressively increased as load increased in flatfoot subjects. Contact area and pressure of the lateral and medial heel zones were significantly increased too. [Conclusion] Based on this data, the weight of a backpack could influence muscle activation and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot. PMID:24396193

Son, Hohee

2013-01-01

81

Effect of rocker shoes on plantar pressure pattern in healthy female runners.  

PubMed

Rocker profile shoes (rocker shoes) are one of the treatment options of metatarsalgia and forefoot stress fractures. The efficacy of rocker shoes in unloading the forefoot pressure has been shown in walking. In running, however, the effect of rocker shoes on forefoot pressure is unknown. Eighteen healthy female runners participated in this study. In-shoe plantar pressures were recorded during running with the standard running shoes and rocker shoes. Shoe comfort was assessed after each shoe measurement. Peak pressure (PP), maximum mean pressure (MMP) and force-time integral (FTI) were determined for seven foot areas. The effects of shoes on the different outcome variables were statistically analyzed using a linear mixed model. Running with the rocker shoes caused a significant reduction (p<0.001) in all pressure parameters in the central and lateral forefoot. FTI and MMP were also reduced by 11% and 12% in the medial forefoot while running with rocker shoes. Running with rocker shoes resulted in a significant increase in all pressure parameters at the heel region (p<0.001). Running with rocker shoes received a significant (p<0.01) lower comfort rate than running with standard running shoes. Rocker shoes might be beneficial for runners who are recovering from metatarsalgia or stress fractures of the forefoot region, as it reduces plantar pressure in the forefoot region. PMID:24370440

Sobhani, Sobhan; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Bredeweg, Steef; Kluitenberg, Bas; Postema, Klaas; Hijmans, Juha M; Dekker, Rienk

2014-03-01

82

Waste Tank Heel Chemical Cleaning Summary  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, there are approximately 40 million gallons of legacy High Level Waste stored in large capacity sub-surface tanks. Twelve of these tanks are single-containment, non-conforming tanks with leaks. These tanks were built in the 1950s. Some of these tanks contain sludge heels and are being considered for near-term removal efforts and vitrification. Currently, only mechanical methods (i.e., pumps) are used to remove the sludge waste with varying degrees of success. To provide for additional levels of removal, chemically-aided techniques are being considered. The objective of the was to collect and evaluate information available on chemical-based methods for removing residual solids from the Site's waste tanks. As part of this study, the team was requested to develop recommendations for chemical treatments to remove residual heels (primarily sludge). Ideally, one agent alone would be efficient at dissolving all residual tank heels and yet satisfy all safety and process concerns. No such chemical cleaning agent was found. The cleaning agents identified from the literature, included oxalic acid, a mixture of oxalic acid and citric acid, a combination of oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, formic acid, and organics. A criteria matrix for evaluating the various cleaning agents was developed. The results of the evaluation conclusively support oxalic acid as the cleaning agent of choice for the immediate future. Oxalic acid scored nearly double the next closest cleaning agent. Nitric acid, formic acid, and oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide were all closely grouped for the next best choice. The mixture of oxalic acid and citric acid rated poorly. Organics rated even more poorly due to large uncertainties in performance and downstream impacts.

Barnes, M.J.

2003-12-02

83

46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174...Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a...

2012-10-01

84

Flat Feet, Happy Feet? Comparison of the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution and Static Medial Foot Geometry between Malawian and Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints. PMID:23468936

Stolwijk, Niki M.; Duysens, Jacques; Louwerens, Jan Willem K.; van de Ven, Yvonne HM.; Keijsers, Noël LW.

2013-01-01

85

Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.  

PubMed

In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints. PMID:23468936

Stolwijk, Niki M; Duysens, Jacques; Louwerens, Jan Willem K; van de Ven, Yvonne Hm; Keijsers, Noël Lw

2013-01-01

86

The effects of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in recreational runners.  

PubMed

Chronic injuries are a common complaint in recreational runners. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective for the treatment of running injuries but their mechanical effects are still not well understood. This study aims to examine the influence of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 with and without orthotics. Multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain were obtained during the stance phase and contrasted using paired t tests. Relative coronal plane range of motion of the midfoot relative to the rearfoot was significantly reduced with orthotics (1.0°) compared to without (2.2°). Similarly, relative transverse plane range of motion was significantly lower with orthotics (1.1°) compared to without (1.8°). Plantar fascia strain did not differ significantly between orthotic (7.1) and nonorthotic (7.1) conditions. This study shows that although orthotics did not serve to reduce plantar fascia strain, they are able to mediate reductions in coronal and transverse plane rotations of the midfoot. PMID:25268399

Sinclair, Jonathan; Isherwood, Josh; Taylor, Paul J

2015-02-01

87

The Use of Dry Needling and Myofascial Meridians in a Case of Plantar Fasciitis  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of dry needling based on myofascial meridians for management of plantar fasciitis. Clinical features A 53-year-old man presented with bilateral chronic foot pain for more than 2 years. After 2 months of conventional treatment (ultrasound, plantar fascia and Achilles tendon stretching, and intrinsic foot strengthening), symptoms eventually improved; however, symptoms returned after prolonged standing or walking. Almost all previous treatment methods were localized in the site of pain that targeted only the plantar fascia. Initial examination of this individual revealed that multiple tender points were found along the insertion of Achilles tendon, medial gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and ischial tuberosity. Intervention and outcome Dry needling of the trigger points was applied. After 4 treatments over 2 weeks, the patient felt a 60% to 70% reduction in pain. His pressure pain threshold was increased, and pain was alleviated. The patient returned to full daily activities. The rapid relief of this patient’s pain after 2 weeks of dry needling to additional locations along the superficial back line suggests that a more global view on management was beneficial to this patient. Conclusion Dry needling based on myofascial meridians improved the symptoms for a patient with recurrent plantar fasciitis. PMID:24711784

Behnam, Akhbari; Mahyar, Salavati; Ezzati, Kamran; Rad, Shahrzad Mohammadi

2014-01-01

88

Plantar Fascia Coronal Length: A New Parameter for Plantar Fascia Assessment.  

PubMed

The effects of gender and various anthropometric variables were previously reported as significant predictors of plantar fascia thickness. Although a strong correlation between either the body weight or body mass index (BMI) and plantar fascia thickness were not demonstrated, a moderate relation was stated. We retrospectively investigated the role of gender, height, weight, and body mass index on plantar fascia thickness at the calcaneal origin (PFCO) and 1 cm distal from the calcaneal origin (PF1cm) and the coronal length of the plantar fascia at the calcaneal origin (CLPF) in healthy subjects. The PFCO, PF1cm, and CLPF were retrospectively measured from magnetic resonance images of 100 healthy subjects. The gender, height, weight, and body mass index of the participants were also noted. Gender was a predictive factor for the length of the CLPF. The subjects with a BMI >25 kg/m(2) had a significantly greater PFCO, PF1cm, and CLPF. Height was mildly and BMI and weight were moderately related to the PFCO. However the CLPF showed a better correlation with height, BMI, and weight than that of plantar fascia thickness. CLPF better reflected the role of weight, BMI, and height than its thickness. It is a new parameter that could be valuable in the evaluation of plantar fascia disorders. PMID:25488598

Sari, Ahmet Sinan; Demircay, Emre; Cakmak, Gokhan; Sahin, M Sukru; Tuncay, I Cengiz; Altun, Suleyman

2014-12-01

89

Multislice CT angiography of the plantar arch  

PubMed Central

The aim of this case report is to present a multislice computed tomography angiography (CTA) procedure for viewing the plantar arch. A CTA was requested to determine the vascular sufficiency of the plantar arch of a 64-year-old patient with necrotic and gangrenous toes. The patient had recently undergone a proximal wedge osteotomy procedure for correction of a hallux valgus deformity. A 16-detector row CT scanner with 1.25 mm slice thickness and 0.625 mm reconstruction interval was used to reconstruct multiplanar reformats, maximum intensity projections and three-dimensional volume rendered images of the foot in question in both arterial and venous phases to determine if pathology of the plantar arch was present. The 3D reconstructed images of CTA demonstrated a loss of continuity of the plantar arch between the first and third metatarsals. This case report shows the diagnostic value of multislice CTA, especially 3D visualisation in the assessment of peripheral vascular branches. PMID:21611062

Field, L; Sun, Z

2010-01-01

90

Sweaty Sock Syndrome (Juvenile Plantar Dermatosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... locations for sweaty sock syndrome include: Big toe Ball of the foot Heel The creases between the toes (toe webs) are not usually affected. Sweaty sock syndrome occurs as shiny, red patches on the weight-bearing surfaces of the feet. The skin appears tight ...

91

Utility of heel ultrasound bone density in men.  

PubMed

In women, heel ultrasound (US) bone mineral density (BMD) has been shown to predict fracture risk, but the usefulness of this screening tool in men is not known. We measured the heel quantitative ultrasound index (QUI( in a convenience sample 185 of men (136 Caucasian, 1 Asian, and 48 African-American) with an average age of 63 yr (range of 25-85) undergoing BMD of the spine and hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine whether the heel measurement could predict central BMD. The average DXA T-score was -0.97, -1.20, and -1.61 for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck, respectively. The mean heel US BMD T-score (using the only available T-score, which was defined for Caucasian postmenopausal women) was -0.92. There were significant correlations among the various DXA measurements and the heel US BMD T-score (r = 0.373-0.483, p < 0.001). We defined arbitrarily osteopenia as a spine, total hip, or femoral neck T-score by DXA of < -1.5. We also made two different arbitrary definitions of osteoporosis by DXA: < -2.0 and < -2.5. Using these numbers as disease definitions, we determined the specificity, sensitivity, as well as positive and negative predictive values of using the heel US T-score to predict osteopenia or osteoporosis. Using various cutoffs for the heel T-score, we found that increasing the cutoff toward 0 increased the sensitivity but lowered the specificity. No cutoff was found that provided both good sensitivity and specificity. By analyzing the men by ethnic and age groups, we found that the best set of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was derived from data using heel US to predict osteopenia and osteoporosis in men younger than age 65, although the areas under the ROC curve were approx 0.8. In conclusion, despite a strong correlation between the heel QUI and the spine and hip BMD by DXA, no heel T-score could predict osteopenia or osteoporosis with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. It is possible that the use of risk factor assessment plus heel QUI might have better predictive value, and further studies are needed to determine whether heel QUI or other US determination is an independent risk factor for fracture in men. PMID:11740064

Adler, R A; Funkhouser, H L; Holt, C M

2001-01-01

92

Preventing heel ulcers: a comparison of prophylactic body-support systems.  

PubMed

Five commercially available body-support systems used in the prevention of decubitus heel ulcers were objectively compared for their capacity to dissipate or decrease pressure concentration at the most prominent posterior aspect of the heel in bedridden, insensate patients. The Foot Drop Stop, a foam heel suspender, completely eliminated contact between the heel and the bed, and it was the most successful in decreasing pressure concentration. The space boot and foam heel protectors were far more successful than sheepskin rugs or polyester heel protectors, which provided little protection to the prominent heel. PMID:2059125

Pinzur, M S; Schumacher, D; Reddy, N; Osterman, H; Havey, R; Patwardin, A

1991-06-01

93

Heel-line hyperpigmentation: a variant of sock-line hyperpigmentation after the use of heel-length socks.  

PubMed

Two infants developed hyperpigmented curvilinear patches on the posterior heel after wearing heel-length socks. Both of the patient's lesions improved after discontinuing the use of the heel-length socks. Hyperpigmented patches called sock-line or mitten-line hyperpigmentation have been reported at sites of tight elastic bands from socks or mittens in infants on the calves and wrists. Recognizing this clinical entity is important to differentiate it from other causes of linear lesions such as child abuse or amniotic band syndrome. PMID:23432211

Ciliberto, Heather; Berk, David; Salphale, Pankaj; Bayliss, Susan

2013-01-01

94

Change in the Mechanical Energy of the Body Center of Mass in Hemiplegic Gait after Continuous Use of a Plantar Flexion Resistive Ankle-foot Orthosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mechanical energy due to continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) of subjects with chronic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 5 hemiplegic patients using AFOs without a plantar flexion resistive function in their daily lives. We analyzed the gait of the subjects using a 3D motion capture system under three conditions: patients’ use of their own AFOs; after being fitted with a plantar flexion resistive AFO; and after continuous use of the device. The gait efficiency was determined by calculating the mutual exchange of kinetic and potential energy of the center of mass. [Results] An increased exchange rate of the kinetic and potential energy was found for all subjects. A larger increase of energy exchange was shown on the non-paralyzed side, and after continuous use of the plantar flexion resistive AFO. [Conclusion] We found that continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive AFO increased the rate of mutual exchange between kinetic energy and potential energy. The change in the rate was closely related to the role of the non-paretic side, showing that the subjects needed a certain amount of time to adapt to the plantar flexion resistive AFO. PMID:24396206

Haruna, Hirokazu; Sugihara, Shunichi; Kon, Keisuke; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki; Nosaka, Toshiya; Kimura, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

95

Change in the Mechanical Energy of the Body Center of Mass in Hemiplegic Gait after Continuous Use of a Plantar Flexion Resistive Ankle-foot Orthosis.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mechanical energy due to continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) of subjects with chronic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 5 hemiplegic patients using AFOs without a plantar flexion resistive function in their daily lives. We analyzed the gait of the subjects using a 3D motion capture system under three conditions: patients' use of their own AFOs; after being fitted with a plantar flexion resistive AFO; and after continuous use of the device. The gait efficiency was determined by calculating the mutual exchange of kinetic and potential energy of the center of mass. [Results] An increased exchange rate of the kinetic and potential energy was found for all subjects. A larger increase of energy exchange was shown on the non-paralyzed side, and after continuous use of the plantar flexion resistive AFO. [Conclusion] We found that continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive AFO increased the rate of mutual exchange between kinetic energy and potential energy. The change in the rate was closely related to the role of the non-paretic side, showing that the subjects needed a certain amount of time to adapt to the plantar flexion resistive AFO. PMID:24396206

Haruna, Hirokazu; Sugihara, Shunichi; Kon, Keisuke; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki; Nosaka, Toshiya; Kimura, Kazuyuki

2013-11-01

96

Triaxial plantar pressure sensor: design, calibration and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel tri-axial plantar pressure sensor has been developed. This sensor simultaneously measures vertical plantar pressure and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral shear plantar pressures utilizing a central post, four parallel plates, and a commercial miniature pressure transducer. As a subject walks over the sensor, the central post is deflected and the shear pressures are measured utilizing capacitive sensing technology. The miniature

E. J. Heywood; D. C. Jeutter; G. F. Harris

2004-01-01

97

The effect of the gastrocnemius on the plantar fascia.  

PubMed

Although anatomic and functional relationship has been established between the gastrocnemius muscle, via the Achilles tendon, and the plantar fascia, the exact role of gastrocnemius tightness in foot and plantar fascia problems is not completely understood. This article summarizes past and current literature linking these 2 structures and gives a mechanical explanation based on functional models of the relationship between gastrocnemius tightness and plantar fascia. The effect of gastrocnemius tightness on the sagittal behavior of the foot is also discussed. PMID:25456717

Pascual Huerta, Javier

2014-12-01

98

Plantar pressure characteristics in hallux valgus feet.  

PubMed

Due to the pathoanatomical changes in hallux valgus feet, the plantar flexion moment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is reduced. Therefore, load bearing of the hallux is decreased during push-off. We assessed loading parameters in hallux valgus feet. Based on dorsal-plantar weight bearing radiographs of 61 feet, the intermetatarsal-, hallux valgus-, distal metatarsal articulation-angle, and sesamoid position were evaluated. Plantar pressure assessment was performed with the emed® system during level walking. We found negative correlations between hallux valgus angle and peak pressure in the great toe (r=-0.301, p<0.023), the maximum force of the hallux (r=-0.481, p<0.001), and contact time of the great toe (r=-0.448, p<0.001), and positive correlations for force time integral (r=0.348, p<0.001), contact area (r=0.307, p<0.020), maximum force (r=0.430, p<0.001), and peak pressure (r=0.361, p<0.006) of the fifth metatarsal head. A positive correlation between the sesamoid and the metatarsal subluxation regarding maximum force (r=0.294, p<0.034), and a negative correlation between the contact area of the hallux (r=-0.232, p<0.020) was shown. Depending on the severity, hallux valgus angle, and sesamoid subluxation, load shows significant lateral transmission in hallux valgus feet. PMID:25130961

Koller, Ulrich; Willegger, Madeleine; Windhager, Reinhard; Wanivenhaus, Axel; Trnka, Hans-Joerg; Schuh, Reinhard

2014-12-01

99

[Plantar fasciitis and radiotherapy. Clinical and radiobiological treatment results].  

PubMed

Patients with plantar fasciitis and pain refractory to conventional therapy are treated with low-dose radiotherapy (RT), but no conclusive evidence-based and radiobiological studies had been performed. In 2001 the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD) carried out a study by mailing a standardized questionnaire. A total of 136 institutions treated 3621 patients/year with chronic or refractory pain. The median total dose was 6 Gy (median single dose: 1 Gy); 76 institutions reported data of their clinical evaluation of a total of 7947 patients. Pain relief lasting for at least 3 months was reported in 70% and persistent pain relief in 65%. There were no acute or chronic radiogenic side effects observed. The radiobiological studies showed a significant increase of granulocyte function at 1.5 Gy and a significant decrease at 3.5 and 4.0 Gy. These results may provide a possible explanation for a local anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose RT. RT may be an excellent alternative for patients with contraindications to long-term treatment with steroids or NSAID. PMID:15883784

Micke, O; Seeegenschmiedt, M H; Mücke, R; de Vries, A; Schäfer, U; Willich, N

2005-06-01

100

In-shoe plantar tri-axial stress profiles during maximum-effort cutting maneuvers.  

PubMed

Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2±157.0kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3±124.3kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0±272.6kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8±181.7kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions. PMID:25468303

Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming

2014-12-18

101

The in vivo plantar soft tissue mechanical property under the metatarsal head: implications of tissues? joint-angle dependent response in foot finite element modeling.  

PubMed

Material properties of the plantar soft tissue have not been well quantified in vivo (i.e., from life subjects) nor for areas other than the heel pad. This study explored an in vivo investigation of the plantar soft tissue material behavior under the metatarsal head (MTH). We used a novel device collecting indentation data at controlled metatarsophalangeal joint angles. Combined with inverse analysis, tissues? joint-angle dependent material properties were identified. The results showed that the soft tissue under MTH exhibited joint-angle dependent material responses, and the computed parameters using the Ogden material model were 51.3% and 30.9% larger in the dorsiflexed than in the neutral positions, respectively. Using derived parameters in subject-specific foot finite element models revealed only those models that used tissues? joint-dependent responses could reproduce the known plantar pressure pattern under the MTH. It is suggested that, to further improve specificity of the personalized foot finite element models, quantitative mechanical properties of the tissue inclusive of the effects of metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion are needed. PMID:25255421

Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Sung-Jae; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

2014-12-01

102

MR elastographic methods for the evaluation of plantar fat pads: preliminary comparison of the shear modulus for shearing deformation and compressive deformation in normal subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MR elastography (MRE) images the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissues; e.g., the shear modulus, ?. The ? of the plantar soft tissues is important in understanding the mechanisms whereby the forces induced during normal motion produce ulcers that lead to amputation in diabetic feet. We compared the compliance of the heel fat pad to compressive forces and to shearing forces. The design of prosthetics to protect the foot depends on the proper understanding of the mechanisms inducing damage. In the heel fat pads of six normal subjects, between 25 and 65 years of age, the ? for deformation perpendicular to the direction of weight bearing is similar but not identical to that determined for deformation along the weight bearing axis. The average difference between ? along the weight bearing axis and ? perpendicular to the weight bearing axis, is well correlated with age (Correlation Coefficient = 0.789). The p-value for the data being random was 0.0347 indicating that the observed difference is not likely to be random. The p-value for control points is 0.8989, indicating a random process. The results are suggestive that the high compressive forces imposed during walking damage the heel fat pads over time resulting in softening to compression preferentially over shearing. It is important to validate the observed effect with larger numbers of subjects, and better controls including measures of activity, and to understand if diseases like diabetes increase the observed damage.

Weaver, John B.; Miller, Timothy B.; Perrinez, Philip R.; Doyley, Marvin M.; Wang, Huifang; Cheung, Yvonne Y.; Wrobel, James S.; Comi, Richard J.; Kennedy, Francis E.; Paulsen, Keith D.

2006-03-01

103

Does Plasmodium falciparum have an Achilles' heel?  

E-print Network

Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. Currently, science has been established about its cellular structures, its metabolic processes, and even the molecular structures of its intrinsic membrane proteins responsible for transporting water, nutrient, and waste molecules across the parasite plasma membrane (PPM). I hypothesize that Plasmodium falciparum has an Achilles' heel that can be attacked with erythritol, the well-known sweetener that is classified as generally safe. Most organisms have in their cell membrane two types of water-channel proteins: aquaporins to maintain hydro-homeostasis across the membrane and aquaglyceroporins to uptake glycerols etc. In contrast, P. falciparum has only one type of such proteins---the multi-functional aquaglyceroporin (PfAQP) expressed in the PPM---to do both jobs. Moreover, the parasite also uses PfAQP to excrete its metabolic wastes (ammonia included) produced at a very high rate in the blood stage. This extremely high efficiency of the bug using one protein for multiple essential tasks makes the parasite fatally vulnerable. Erythritol in the blood stream can kill the parasite by clogging up its PfAQP channel that needs to be open for maintaining hydro-homeostasis and for excreting toxic wastes across the bug's PPM. In vitro tests are to measure the growth/death rate of P. falciparum in blood with various erythritol concentrations. In vivo experiments are to administer groups of infected mice with various doses of erythritol and monitor the parasite growth levels from blood samples drawn from each group. Clinic trials can be performed to observe the added effects of administering to patients erythritol along with the known drugs because erythritol was classified as a safe food ingredient.

Liao Y Chen

2013-05-21

104

Plantar fascia calcification a sequelae of corticosteroid injection in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 72-year-old woman suffering with severe plantar fasciitis who received a therapeutic corticosteroid injection. Two-and-a-half years after the injection she developed a small calcified lump under the skin which subsequently caused ulceration and infection. She went on to develop a diabetic foot infection requiring an extended course of intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23955985

Fox, Thomas Peter; Oliver, Govind; Wek, Caesar; Hester, Thomas

2013-01-01

105

Aspects of treatment for posterior heel pain in young athletes.  

PubMed

Posterior heel pain occurs in young athletes involved in running and jumping. Due to the pain, the child often limits his/her physical activity level, with a possible negative effect on health and well-being. Although numerous research studies have examined the cause and treatment of heel and Achilles tendon pain in adults, there are no randomized clinical trials on treatment in children and adolescents. Therefore, there is limited evidence for how to treat young athletes with this type of complaint. The purpose of this review was to analyze critically and summarize the literature in regards to the cause and treatment of posterior heel pain in young athletes. The various diagnoses and clinical presentations relating to posterior heel and Achilles tendon pain are discussed. The theory and mechanism behind various recommended treatment strategies are also reviewed in the context of use in the young athlete. In summary, it is important to perform a thorough evaluation of each young athlete with heel pain to determine the appropriate diagnosis and to treat the deficits found and allow for a gradual progression to training. However, the recommendations at this time are based on clinical experience and a few retrospective studies, so further well designed prospective studies with validated outcome measures are urgently needed for the young athlete. PMID:24198561

Elengard, Thomas; Karlsson, Jón; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

2010-01-01

106

Aspects of treatment for posterior heel pain in young athletes  

PubMed Central

Posterior heel pain occurs in young athletes involved in running and jumping. Due to the pain, the child often limits his/her physical activity level, with a possible negative effect on health and well-being. Although numerous research studies have examined the cause and treatment of heel and Achilles tendon pain in adults, there are no randomized clinical trials on treatment in children and adolescents. Therefore, there is limited evidence for how to treat young athletes with this type of complaint. The purpose of this review was to analyze critically and summarize the literature in regards to the cause and treatment of posterior heel pain in young athletes. The various diagnoses and clinical presentations relating to posterior heel and Achilles tendon pain are discussed. The theory and mechanism behind various recommended treatment strategies are also reviewed in the context of use in the young athlete. In summary, it is important to perform a thorough evaluation of each young athlete with heel pain to determine the appropriate diagnosis and to treat the deficits found and allow for a gradual progression to training. However, the recommendations at this time are based on clinical experience and a few retrospective studies, so further well designed prospective studies with validated outcome measures are urgently needed for the young athlete. PMID:24198561

Elengard, Thomas; Karlsson, Jón; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

2010-01-01

107

Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles in different types of high heels during standing  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during standing while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8?cm. [Subjects and Methods] The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225–230?mm and a normal gait pattern. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during standing while wearing 8-cm-high wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels was then measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each, and the mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The levels of muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles induced by standing on wedge heels, setback heels, and French heels in the cervical and lumbar areas were significantly higher than those induced by standing on bare feet. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. [Conclusion] The height of the heels presented a greater variable than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. Therefore, wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problems in the cervical and/or lumbar spine. PMID:25642040

Han, Dongwook

2015-01-01

108

Temperature as a predictive tool for plantar triaxial loading.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulcers are caused by moderate repetitive plantar stresses in the presence of peripheral neuropathy. In severe cases, the development of these foot ulcers can lead to lower extremity amputations. Plantar pressure measurements have been considered a capable predictor of ulceration sites in the past, but some investigations have pointed out inconsistencies when solely relying on this method. The other component of ground reaction forces/stresses, shear, has been understudied due to a lack of adequate equipment. Recent articles reported the potential clinical significance of shear in diabetic ulcer etiology. With the lack of adequate tools, plantar temperature has been used as an alternative method for determining plantar triaxial loading and/or shear. However, this method has not been previously validated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the potential association between exercise-induced plantar temperature increase and plantar stresses. Thirteen healthy individuals walked on a treadmill for 10minutes at 3.2km/h. Pre and post-exercise temperature profiles were obtained with a thermal camera. Plantar triaxial stresses were quantified with a custom-built stress plate. A statistically significant correlation was observed between peak shear stress (PSS) and temperature increase (r=0.78), but not between peak resultant stress (PRS) and temperature increase (r=0.46). Plantar temperature increase could predict the location of PSS and PRS in 23% and 39% of the subjects, respectively. Only a moderate linear relationship was established between triaxial plantar stresses and walking-induced temperature increase. Future research will investigate the value of nonlinear models in predicting plantar loading through foot temperature. PMID:25446272

Yavuz, Metin; Brem, Ryan W; Davis, Brian L; Patel, Jalpa; Osbourne, Abe; Matassini, Megan R; Wood, David A; Nwokolo, Irene O

2014-11-28

109

Plantar fascia anatomy and its relationship with Achilles tendon and paratenon.  

PubMed

Although the plantar fascia (PF) has been studied quite well from a biomechanical viewpoint, its microscopic properties have been overlooked: nothing is known about its content of elastic fibers, the features of the extracellular matrix or the extent of innervation. From a functional and clinical standpoint, the PF is often correlated with the triceps surae muscle, but the anatomical grounds for this link are not clear. The aim of this work was to focus on the PF macroscopic and microscopic properties and study how Achilles tendon diseases might affect it. Twelve feet from unembalmed human cadavers were dissected to isolate the PF. Specimens from each PF were tested with various histological and immunohistochemical stains. In a second stage, 52 magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from patients complaining of aspecific ankle or foot pain were analyzed, dividing the cases into two groups based on the presence or absence of signs of degeneration and/or inflammation of the Achilles tendon. The thickness of PF and paratenon was assessed in the two groups and statistical analyses were conducted. The PF is a tissue firmly joined to plantar muscles and skin. Analyzing its possible connections to the sural structures showed that this fascia is more closely connected to the paratenon of Achilles tendon than to the Achilles tendon, through the periosteum of the heel. The PF extended medially and laterally, continuing into the deep fasciae enveloping the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi muscles, respectively. The PF was rich in hyaluronan, probably produced by fibroblastic-like cells described as 'fasciacytes'. Nerve endings and Pacini and Ruffini corpuscles were present, particularly in the medial and lateral portions, and on the surface of the muscles, suggesting a role for the PF in the proprioception of foot. In the radiological study, 27 of the 52 MRI showed signs of Achilles tendon inflammation and/or degeneration, and the PF was 3.43 ± 0.48 mm thick (99%CI and SD = 0.95), as opposed to 2.09 ± 0.24 mm (99%CI, SD = 0.47) in the patients in which the MRI revealed no Achilles tendon diseases; this difference in thickness of 1.29 ± 0.57 mm (99%CI) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). In the group of 27/52 patients with tendinopathies, the PF was more than 4.5 mm thick in 5, i.e. they exceeded the threshold for a diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. None of the other 25/52 paitents had a PF more than 4 mm thick. There was a statistically significant correlation between the thicknesses of the PF and the paratenon. These findings suggest that the plantar fascia has a role not only in supporting the longitudinal arch of the foot, but also in its proprioception and peripheral motor coordination. Its relationship with the paratenon of the Achilles tendon is consistent with the idea of triceps surae structures being involved in the PF pathology, so their rehabilitation can be considered appropriate. Finally, the high concentration of hyaluronan in the PF points to the feasibility of using hyaluronan injections in the fascia to treat plantar fasciitis. PMID:24028383

Stecco, Carla; Corradin, Marco; Macchi, Veronica; Morra, Aldo; Porzionato, Andrea; Biz, Carlo; De Caro, Raffaele

2013-12-01

110

Does Plasmodium falciparum have an Achilles’ heel?  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria responsible for nearly a million deaths a year. Currently, science has been established about its cellular structures, its metabolic processes, and even the molecular structures of its intrinsic membrane proteins responsible for transporting water, nutrient, and waste molecules across the parasite plasma membrane (PPM). Presentation of the hypothesis I hypothesize that Plasmodium falciparum has an Achilles’ heel that can be attacked with erythritol, the well-known sweetener that is classified as generally safe. This hypothesis is based on the molecular structure of the parasite’s membrane and the quantitative mechanics of how erythritol interacts with the multi-functional channel protein expressed in the PPM. Most organisms have in their cell membrane two types of water-channel proteins: aquaporins to maintain hydro-homeostasis across the membrane and aquaglyceroporins to uptake glycerols etc. In contrast, P. falciparum has only one type of such proteins---the multi-functional aquaglyceroporin (PfAQP) expressed in the PPM---to do both jobs. Moreover, the parasite also uses PfAQP to excrete its metabolic wastes (ammonia included) produced at a very high rate in the blood stage. This extremely high efficiency of the bug using one protein for multiple essential tasks makes the parasite fatally vulnerable. Erythritol in the blood stream can kill the parasite by clogging up its PfAQP channel that needs to be open for maintaining hydro-homeostasis and for excreting toxic wastes across the bug’s PPM. Testing the hypothesis In vitro tests are to measure the growth/death rate of P. falciparum in blood with various erythritol concentrations. In vivo experiments are to administer groups of infected mice with various doses of erythritol and monitor the parasite growth levels from blood samples drawn from each group. Clinic trials can be performed to observe the added effects of administering to patients erythritol along with the known drugs because erythritol was classified as a safe food ingredient. Implications of the hypothesis If proven true, erythritol will cure the most severe form of malaria without significant side effects. PMID:25346857

Chen, Liao Y.

2014-01-01

111

46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of...

2013-10-01

112

46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).  

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of...

2014-10-01

113

46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of...

2011-10-01

114

Validation of Plantar Pressure Measurements for a Novel In-Shoe Plantar Sensory Replacement Unit  

PubMed Central

An article by Ferber and coauthors in Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology reported on the ability of novel in-shoe plantar sensory replacement unit (PSRU) to provide alert-based feedback derived from analyzing plantar pressure (PP) threshold measurements in real time. The study aimed at comparing the PSRU device to a gold standard pressure-sensing device (GS-PSD) to determine the correlation between concurrent measure of PP during walking. Data were collected simultaneously from 10 participants who walked overground with both devices. The variable of interest was the number of recorded data points greater than 32 mm Hg for each of the PSRU sensors and corresponding average recordings from the GS-PSD. Authors concluded that the PSRU provides analogous data to the GS-PSD. However, several aspects of the study should be considered when interpreting their clinical relevance. PMID:24124943

Sawacha, Zimi

2013-01-01

115

Nuclear mitochondrial DNA: an Achilles' heel of molecular systematics, phylogenetics,  

E-print Network

Nuclear mitochondrial DNA: an Achilles' heel of molecular systematics, phylogenetics-like DNA (numt) has been found in a variety of insect species. In this work, our objective was to create. This led us to infer that M. capixaba has numts. A phylogenetic analysis which included COI sequences

116

Fiber optic plantar pressure/shear sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full-scale foot pressure/shear sensor that has been developed to help diagnose the cause of ulcer formation in diabetic patients is presented. The design involves a tactile sensor array using intersecting optical fibers embedded in soft elastomer. The basic configuration incorporates a mesh that is comprised of two sets of parallel optical fiber plane; the planes are configured so the parallel rows of fiber of the top and bottom planes are perpendicular to each other. Threedimensional information is determined by measuring the loss of light from each of the waveguide to map the overall pressure distribution and the shifting of the layers relative to each other. In this paper we will present the latest development on the fiber optic plantar pressure/shear sensor which can measure normal force up from 19.09 kPa to 1000 kPa.

Soetanto, William; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Wang, Wei-Chih

2011-04-01

117

Foot Modeling and Smart Plantar Pressure Reconstruction from Three Sensors  

PubMed Central

In order to monitor pressure under feet, this study presents a biomechanical model of the human foot. The main elements of the foot that induce the plantar pressure distribution are described. Then the link between the forces applied at the ankle and the distribution of the plantar pressure is established. Assumptions are made by defining the concepts of a 3D internal foot shape, which can be extracted from the plantar pressure measurements, and a uniform elastic medium, which describes the soft tissues behaviour. In a second part, we show that just 3 discrete pressure sensors per foot are enough to generate real time plantar pressure cartographies in the standing position or during walking. Finally, the generated cartographies are compared with pressure cartographies issued from the F-SCAN system. The results show 0.01 daN (2% of full scale) average error, in the standing position. PMID:25400713

Ghaida, Hussein Abou; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

2014-01-01

118

Dielectric Elastomer Generators for Foot Plantar Pressure Based Energy Scavenging  

E-print Network

Dielectric Elastomer Generators for Foot Plantar Pressure Based Energy Scavenging Vishwa Goudar Abstract-- Parasitic energy scavenging from human-generated vibrations with piezoelectric materials has cycles, we contrast the energy scavenged from shoe strikes by DEGs that are virtually embedded

Potkonjak, Miodrag

119

Foot modeling and smart plantar pressure reconstruction from three sensors.  

PubMed

In order to monitor pressure under feet, this study presents a biomechanical model of the human foot. The main elements of the foot that induce the plantar pressure distribution are described. Then the link between the forces applied at the ankle and the distribution of the plantar pressure is established. Assumptions are made by defining the concepts of a 3D internal foot shape, which can be extracted from the plantar pressure measurements, and a uniform elastic medium, which describes the soft tissues behaviour. In a second part, we show that just 3 discrete pressure sensors per foot are enough to generate real time plantar pressure cartographies in the standing position or during walking. Finally, the generated cartographies are compared with pressure cartographies issued from the F-SCAN system. The results show 0.01 daN (2% of full scale) average error, in the standing position. PMID:25400713

Ghaida, Hussein Abou; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

2014-01-01

120

Assessment of plantar pressure and balance in patients with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients with diabetes for more than 10 years may have an increase in peak plantar pressure, considerable postural oscillation, balance deficit, alterations in gait pattern and an increased risk of falls. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between plantar pressure distribution and balance in patients with diabetes using a pressure platform (Footwork). Material and methods The study was carried out at the Human Movement Clinic of the Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte (Brazil). The sample was made up of 18 right-handed individuals with type 2 diabetes – 14 females and 4 males – with an average age of 58.72 ±9.54 and an average of 18.56 ±6.61 years since diagnosis. Result Data analysis revealed that greater peak plantar pressure on the right hindfoot led to greater radial displacement (Rd) (r = 0.2022) and greater displacement velocity (r = 0.2240). Greater peak plantar pressure on the left hindfoot also led to greater displacement velocity (P) (r = 0.5728) and radial displacement (RD) (r = 0.1972). A positive correlation was found between time elapsed since diagnosis and peak midfoot pressure (r = 0.3752) on the right and left side as well as between BMI and plantar pressure on all regions of the foot. Conclusions The data reveal a correlation between postural oscillation and peak plantar pressure on the hindfoot. PMID:22371719

Anjos, Daniela M.C.; Gomes, Luciana P.O.; Sampaio, Luciana M.M.; Correa, João C.F.

2010-01-01

121

Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle  

DOEpatents

A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

2012-12-11

122

Validation of Plantar Pressure Measurements for a Novel In-Shoe Plantar Sensory Replacement Unit  

PubMed Central

Background Research concerning prevention of diabetic foot complications is critical. A novel in-shoe plantar sensory replacement unit (PSRU) has been developed that provides alert-based feedback derived from analyzing plantar pressure threshold measurements in real time. The purpose of this study was to compare the PSRU device to a gold standard pressure-sensing device (GS-PSD) to determine the correlation between concurrent measures of plantar pressure during walking. Methods The PSRU had an array of eight sensors with a range of 10–75 mm Hg and collected data at 4 Hz, whereas the GS-PSD had 99 sensors with a range of 1–112 mm Hg and collected data at 100 Hz. Based on an a priori power analysis, data were collected from 10 participants (3 female, 7 male) while walking over ground in both devices. The primary variable of interest was the number of data points recorded that were greater than 32 mm Hg (capillary arterial pressure—the minimum pressure reported to cause pressure ulcers) for each of the eight PSRU sensors and corresponding average recordings from the GS-PSD sensor clusters. Intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) was used to compare data between the two devices. Results Compared with the GS-PSD, we found good-to-very-good correlations (r-value range 0.67–0.86; p-value range 0.01–0.05) for six of the PSRU’s eight sensors and poor correlation for only two sensors (r = 0.41, p = .15; r = 0.38, p = .18) when measuring the number of data points recorded that were greater than 32 mm Hg. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, we conclude the PSRU provides analogous data when compared with a GS-PSD. PMID:24124942

Ferber, Reed; Webber, Talia; Kin, B; Everett, Breanne; Groenland, Marcel

2013-01-01

123

Site-specific differences in the association between plantar tactile perception and mobility function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Impaired somatosensation is common in older adults and contributes to age-related loss of mobility function. However, little is known about whether somatosensation at different sites on the plantar surface of the foot are differentially related to mobility function. Such a finding may have important implications for clinical care of older adults and other at-risk populations, such as for optimizing interventions (e.g., footwear for augmenting somatosensory feedback) and for improving the efficiency of clinical assessment. Materials and Methods: Tactile perception was evaluated with a 10 g monofilament at four sites on the plantar surface of each foot: great toe (GT), first metatarsal head (MT1), heel (H) and fifth metatarsal head (MT5). Mobility function was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale and walking speed. Results: Sixty-one older adults participated. Tactile perception was significantly positively associated with Berg Balance Score (adjusted r = 0.30 ? 0.75; p = 0.03 ? < 0.001), with the strongest association found at the site of the MT1. Only at this site was tactile perception found to be significantly associated with usual walking speed (adjusted r = 0.51; p < 0.001) and maximal walking speed (adjusted r = 0.38, p = 0.004). Clinically mild somatosensory impairment at MT1, but not at other sites, was found to yield substantial deficits in both Berg Balance Score and walking speed. Discussion: The present findings indicate that tactile perception at MT1 is more closely linked to mobility function than is tactile perception at GT, MT5 or H. These findings warrant further research to examine whether interventions (e.g., textured insoles) and assessments that preferentially or exclusively focus on the site of MT1 may be more effective for optimizing clinical care. PMID:24782765

Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Black, Mieniecia L.; Christou, Evangelos A.; Clark, David J.

2014-01-01

124

Reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system for the measurement of plantar forces and pressures during barefoot level walking in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background Plantar pressure systems are increasingly being used to evaluate foot function in both research settings and in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system in assessing plantar forces and pressures during barefoot level walking. Methods Thirty participants were assessed for the reliability of measurements taken one week apart for the variables maximum force, peak pressure and average pressure. The following seven regions of the foot were investigated; heel, midfoot, 3rd-5th metatarsophalangeal joint, 2nd metatarsophalangeal joint, 1st metatarsophalangeal joint, hallux and the lesser toes. Results Reliability was assessed using both the mean and the median values of three repeated trials. The system displayed moderate to good reliability of mean and median calculations for the three analysed variables across all seven regions, as indicated by intra-class correlation coefficients ranging from 0.44 to 0.95 for the mean and 0.54 to 0.97 for the median, and coefficients of variation ranging from 5 to 20% for the mean and 3 to 23% for the median. Selecting the median value of three repeated trials yielded slightly more reliable results than the mean. Conclusions These findings indicate that the TekScan MatScan® system demonstrates generally moderate to good reliability. PMID:20565812

2010-01-01

125

THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEEL HEIGHT AND LOAD CARRIAGE ON POSTURE DURING GAIT: A PILOT STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: It is very common for women to walk in high-heeled shoes and carry a bag at the same time. These disturbances are combined and reduce stability during gait. Studies on gait pattern with high-heeled shoes report decrease in trunk flexion angle and increase in plantarflexion angle. High-heeled shoes shift the center of gravity of the subject anteriorly resulting in

Soul Lee; Jing Xian Li

2008-01-01

126

Hybrid toe and heel joints for biped\\/humanoid robots for natural gait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biped\\/humanoid robot with toe and heel joints is capable of more natural locomotion due to the additional degrees of freedom available. Though passive spring loaded joints can help to some extent, they introduce constraints between the joint torque and the joint angular displacement. In this paper, we propose to use hybrid active\\/passive toe and heel joints in order to

R Prasanth KumarI; Nandha Handharu; Jungwon Yoon; Gap-soon Kim

2007-01-01

127

Reliability of the Kinetic Measures under Different Heel Conditions during Normal Walking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the reliability of 3 dimension reaction forces and impulses in walking with 3 different heel shoe conditions. These results suggest that changing the height of the heels affects mainly the reliability of the ground reaction force and impulse measures on the medial and lateral dimension and not…

Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Yong Tai

2004-01-01

128

Dynamic plantar pressure measurements in children with tarsal coalition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarsal coalition is a congenital foot anomaly seen in childhood. It results in a rigid flatfoot deformity. Radiographic studies are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Characterization of this foot deformity during normal gait was done using the Emed plantar pressure system (Novel Electronics Inc, St Paul, USA). The hindfoot demonstrated higher than normal peak pressure and increased peak pressure on

R. Lyon; X. C. Liu

2000-01-01

129

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred fifty patients were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective, double- blind study to assess the clinical safety and effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) using the Dornier Epos Ultra for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. The Active Group was treated with electromagnetically generated shocks using ultrasound guidance during a single therapy session. The Control Group received

George H. Theodore; Matthias Buch; Annunziato Amendola; Christine Bachmann; Lamar L. Fleming; Christopher Zingas

130

Plantar melanoma: a case-control study in Paraguay.  

PubMed

In Paraguay, the plantar surface of the foot is the most common site for malignant melanoma, as it is in several other populations worldwide, most notably in those of African descent. Here, we report the results of the first case-control study of plantar melanoma, carried out in Paraguay. Sixty incident, histologically confirmed cases of plantar melanoma and 256 hospital controls were recruited in 11 hospitals throughout the country during 1988-93. Information was collected on general demographic, social, and lifestyle variables, on external exposures of feet (shoewear, work activities, injuries), and on some constitutional factors (skin, eye and hair color, and pigmented lesions of the feet). Few of the factors examined appeared to be associated with the risk of plantar melanoma. Adjusted for possible confounders, the strongest association was found for reported injuries (odds ratio [OR] = 40.9, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 14.8-112.7) and for occurrence of naevi on the soles (OR = 5.9, CI = 2.5-14.3). Walking barefoot did not seem to contribute to the risk although an outdoor workplace was associated with an increased melanoma occurrence (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.1-4.8). Future studies should be aware of problems of recall bias with respect to previous injuries, and ensure that evaluation of pigmentation of the sole is carried out blind to case/control status. PMID:9427427

Rolón, P A; Kramárová, E; Rolón, H I; Khlat, M; Parkin, D M

1997-11-01

131

Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

2011-01-01

132

An unusual cause of a painful plantar mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous or accessory muscles in and around the foot and ankle have been reported in 8% of the population. Quadratus plantae muscle is one of the medial anomalous muscles in the foot and is a rare cause of heel pain or mass. This muscle has been implicated in tarsal tunnel syndrome. There is exiguous radiological description of quadratus plantae muscle

Suchi Gaba; Michael Allen; Raj Bhatt

2008-01-01

133

The influence of heel height on utilized coefficient of friction during walking.  

PubMed

Wearing high heel shoes has been associated with an increased potential for slips and falls. The association between wearing high heels and the increased potential for slipping suggests that the friction demand while wearing high heels may be greater when compared to wearing low heel shoes. The purpose of this study was to determine if heel height affects utilized friction (uCOF) during walking. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare kinematics at the ankle, knee, and hip that may explain uCOF differences among shoes with varied heel heights. Fifteen healthy women (mean age 24.5±2.5yrs) participated. Subjects walked at self-selected velocity under 3 different shoe conditions that varied in heel height (low: 1.27cm, medium: 6.35cm, and high: 9.53cm). Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded using a force platform (1560Hz). Kinematic data were obtained using an 8 camera motion analysis system (120Hz). Utilized friction was calculated as the ratio of resultant shear force to vertical force. One-way repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to test for differences in peak uCOF, GRFs at peak uCOF and lower extremity joint angles at peak uCOF. On average, peak uCOF was found to increase with heel height. The increased uCOF observed in high heel shoes was related to an increase in the resultant shear force and decrease in the vertical force. Our results signify the need for proper public education and increased footwear industry awareness of how high heel shoes affect slip risk. PMID:21536444

Blanchette, Mark G; Brault, John R; Powers, Christopher M

2011-05-01

134

Influence of the calcaneus shape on the risk of posterior heel ulcer using 3D patient-specific biomechanical modeling  

E-print Network

for the prevention of heel ulcer when coupled with a pressure sensor. Key terms: posterior heel ulcer prevention sensitivity. Three mechanisms, at least, are recognized as leading to pressure ulcerations (Mueller4 of inactivity and prolonged time lying down on the back. They appear when pressures applied on the heel create

Payan, Yohan

135

Backwards in High Heels: Getting Women Elected, 1842-1990  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Incorporated as the capital of the Republic of Texas in 1839, Austin didnâÂÂt elect its first female council woman until the middle of the 20th century. The first female legislators didnâÂÂt find their way into office until the 1970s, and it wasnâÂÂt until 1990 that Texas elected a female governor. This exhibit by AustinâÂÂs Public Library tells the story of women in the cityâÂÂs politics through photographs, essays, and old newspaper clippings. Categories include WomenâÂÂs Work, Political Pioneers, and A Foot in the Door, among many others. Of particular interest, the biography of Ann Richards, the former governor of Texas, contextualizes her famous quote: âÂÂGinger Rogers did everything that Fred Astaire did. She just did it backwards and in high heels.âÂÂ

2014-02-25

136

Heel pain due to psoriatic arthritis in a 50 year old recreational male athlete: case report  

PubMed Central

Heel pain is a common presentation in a sports injury practice, with a list of common differentials including achilles tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis. However, seronegative arthritis can also cause enthesopathies that produce heel pain and should be considered in a differential diagnosis list. In this case, a 50 year old recreationally active male presented with non-traumatic insidious heel pain and without history of any skin conditions or any other symptoms of seronegative spondyloarthritis. Clinical suspicion led to laboratory testing and radiographs/bone scan which yielded the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. PMID:22131565

Yedon, Dominique Forand; Howitt, Scott

2011-01-01

137

Comparisons of plantar pressures between the elderly and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loading variables were compared for 35 elderly (71–90 years) and 35 young adult (aged 18–24) participants. Plantar pressures were measured at 70 Hz with a capacitive platform with a resolution of two sensors per square centimetre. Subjects were required to walk barefoot at their ‘preferred’ gait speed down a 15-m walkway. Gait speed was determined via a photoelectric timing system.

TW Kernozek; EE LaMott

1995-01-01

138

[Electronic plantar pressure measurements in different types of moutaineering boots].  

PubMed

Specific footwear has been developed for different, partly newly developed mountain sports. This footwear has very different basic characteristics. This experimental study is dealing with the dynamic parameters of electronic plantar pressure measurements in normal walking using different mountain sport shoes designed for a special purpose in mountaineering. These mountain shoes included a hiking shoe, a trekking shoe and a high-alpine shoe which can take crampons. The electronic plantar pressure measurements were done with the Parotec system of the company Paromed with insoles with hydrocell-sensors. The data obtained during the study were proceeded through a variant analysis. There were no significant differences for impulse and contact time, nevertheless concerning maximal pressure there were significant differences between walking barefoot and walking with the hiking and high-alpine shoe. Even when walking in different mountain shoes the feet conserve their own characteristics and their walking style. The different mountain shoes did not alter most of the measured plantar parameters significantly comparing barefoot walking to walking with the different mountain shoes or comparing walking in the different mountain shoes. PMID:11475620

Peters, P; Runge, J

2001-06-01

139

Long-Term Outcome of Low-Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis: Comparative Analysis According to Ultrasonographic Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the long-term effect of low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for plantar fasciitis (PF) according to ultrasonography (US) findings. Methods Thirty feet of 25 patients with clinical diagnosis of PF were enrolled and divided into two groups (Apparent-US and Uncertain-US) according to US findings, such as plantar fascia thickening or hypoechogenicity. Inclusion criteria were symptom duration >6 months and a fair or poor grade in Roles-Maudsley score (RMS). ESWT (0.10 mJ/mm2, 600 shocks) was given once a week for 6 weeks. Numeric rating scale (NRS) and RMS were evaluated prior to each ESWT session, at short-term follow-up (one week after all ESWT sessions) and long-term follow-up telephone interview (mean 24 months after ESWT). Good and excellent grade in RMS were considered as treatment success. Results Repeated measure ANOVA demonstrated that NRS significantly decreased with time after ESWT up to the long-term follow-up (time effect, p<0.001) without group-time interaction (p=0.641), indicating that ESWT equally decreased pain in both groups. Overall success rate was 63.3% (short-term follow-up) and 80.0% (long-term follow-up). In comparative analysis between groups, success rate of Apparent-US and Uncertain-US at short-term follow-up was 61.9% and 66.7%, respectively, and 85.7% and 66.7%, respectively, at long-term follow-up. Conclusion If other causes of heel pain are ruled out through meticulous physical examination and ultrasonography, low-energy ESWT in PF seems to be beneficial regardless of US findings. In terms of success rate, however, long-term outcome of Apparent-US appears to be superior to Uncertain-US. PMID:25229032

Park, Jong-Wan; Yoon, Kyungjae; Chun, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Joon-Youn; Park, Hee-Jin; Lee, So-Yeon

2014-01-01

140

Foot-Ankle RollOver Characteristics in Different Heel Heights during Walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a feasibility study was performed for biomechanical applications of foot-ankle roll-over characteristics in different heel height shoes during walking. Five nondisabled female volunteers were participated in gait experiments, wearing four pairs of shoes with different heel heights. Roll-over shapes of the foot-ankle systems were obtained using trajectories of ankle, knee and the center of pressure between initial

H. S. Choi; H. L. Park; Y. H. Kim

2005-01-01

141

Extracorporal shock wave therapy in patients with tennis elbow and painful heel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in tennis elbow and painful heel.\\u000a Nineteen patients with tennis elbow and 44 patients with painful heel in which conservative treatment had failed underwent\\u000a ESWT. Both groups received 3000 shock waves of 0.12 mJ\\/mm2 three times at weekly intervals. After a follow-up of 5

Dietrich S. Hammer; Stefan Rupp; Stefan Ensslin; Dieter Kohn; Romain Seil

2000-01-01

142

Study on lumbar kinematics and the risk of low back disorder in female university students by using shoes of different heel heights.  

PubMed

The study was taken up to investigate the effects of heel heights on lumbar kinematics and the risk of Low Back Disorder (LBD) in females. Nineteen female university students (24.5 ± 3.36 yrs) volunteered in the study. Lumbar kinematics was measured by using Industrial Lumbar Motion Monitor (iLMM). The volunteers were asked to walk for a distance of 50 meters in 3 different given conditions i.e bare foot (Heel 0), with flat heels (Heel 1) and with high heels (Heel 2). Heights of Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 1.5 ± 0.84 cm and 5.5 ± 1.70 cm respectively. The Lumbar kinematic parameters studied were- Average Twisting Velocity (ATV), Maximum Sagital Flexion (MSF) and Maximum Lateral Velocity (MLV). It was observed that all the above mentioned Lumbar kinematics - ATV, MSF and MLV increases with increase of heel heights, which in turn increases the risk of LBD. As a result of increase in Lumbar kinematic values with increase in heel heights, LBD risk has also increased. Mean and SD of the LBD risk with Heel 0, Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 16.79 ± 6.04%, 19.00 ± 7.38% and 22.11 ± 6.98% respectively. Lower stature with high heels showed higher risk of LBD than the higher stature with high heels. PMID:22317099

Iqbal, Rauf; De, Amitabha; Mishra, Wricha; Maulik, Shreya; Chandra, A M

2012-01-01

143

Interference of high-heeled shoes in static balance among young women.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the use of high-heeled shoes on static balance in young adult women. Fifty-three women between 18 and 30 years of age and accustomed to wearing high-heeled shoes participated in the study. None of the participants had any orthopedic or neurologic alterations. Static balance was assessed using a force plate. Oscillations from the center of pressure in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions were measured both when barefoot and when wearing high-heeled shoes [7 centimeters (cm) in height and 1cm in diameter] under the conditions of eyes open and eyes closed. Two-way analysis of variance was employed for the statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p<.05). The results revealed statistically significant differences between tests when barefoot and when wearing high-heeled shoes as well as with eyes open and eyes closed (p<.01). With the use of high-heeled shoes, there was a significant increase in mediolateral oscillation with eyes closed (p<.01). The present study demonstrates that the use of seven-cm high heels altered static balance in the healthy young women analyzed, increasing the oscillation of the center of pressure, regardless of visual restriction. PMID:22742722

Gerber, Susana Bacelete; Costa, Rafael Vital; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Pasini, Hugo; Marconi, Nádia Fernanda; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

2012-10-01

144

Thinking while walking: experienced high-heel walkers flexibly adjust their gait.  

PubMed

Theories of motor-skill acquisition postulate that attentional demands of motor execution decrease with practice. Hence, motor experts should experience less attentional resource conflict when performing a motor task in their domain of expertise concurrently with a demanding cognitive task. We assessed cognitive and motor performance in high-heel experts and novices who were performing a working memory task while walking in gym shoes or high heels on a treadmill. Surprisingly, neither group showed lower working memory performance when walking than when sitting, irrespective of shoe type. However, high-heel experts adapted walking regularity more flexibly to shoe type and cognitive load than novices, by reducing the variability of time spent in the single-support phase of the gait cycle in high heels when cognitively challenged. We conclude that high-heel expertise is associated with more flexible adjustments of movement patterns. Future research should investigate whether a more demanding walking task (e.g., wearing high heels on uneven surfaces and during gait perturbations) results in expertise-related differences in the simultaneous execution of a cognitive task. PMID:23760158

Schaefer, Sabine; Lindenberger, Ulman

2013-01-01

145

Vascular access in haemodialysis: strengthening the Achilles' heel.  

PubMed

Despite all the progress achieved since Scribner first introduced the arteriovenous (AV) shunt in 1960 and Cimino and Brescia introduced the native AV fistula in 1962, we have continued to face a conundrum in vascular access for dialysis, in that dialysis vascular access is at the same time both the 'lifeline' and the 'Achilles' heel' of haemodialysis. Indeed, findings from a multitude of published articles in this area, unfortunately mainly observational studies, reflect both our frustration and our limited knowledge in this area. Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology of stenosis and thrombosis of the vascular access, we have unfortunately not been very successful in translating these advances into either improved therapies or a superior process of care. As a result, we continue to face an epidemic of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure, a proliferation of relatively ineffective interventions such as angioplasty and stent placement, an extremely high incidence of catheter use, and more doubts rather than guidance with regard to the role (or lack thereof) of surveillance. An important reason for these problems is the lack of focused translational research and robust randomized prospective studies in this area. In this Review, we will address some of these critical issues, with a special emphasis on identifying the best process of care pathways that could reduce morbidity and mortality. We also discuss the potential use of novel therapies to reduce dialysis vascular access dysfunction. PMID:23591442

Riella, Miguel C; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

2013-06-01

146

Use of primary corticosteroid injection in the management of plantar fasciopathy: is it time to challenge existing practice?  

PubMed

Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is characterized by degeneration of the fascia at the calcaneal enthesis. It is a common cause of foot pain, accounting for 90% of clinical presentations of heel pathology. In 2009-2010, 9.3 million working days were lost in England due to musculoskeletal disorders, with 2.4 million of those attributable to lower-limb disorders, averaging 16.3 lost working days per case. Numerous studies have attempted to establish the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections in the management of PF. Earlier studies have not informed clinical practice. As the research base has developed, evidence has emerged supporting clinical efficacy. With diverse opinions surrounding the etiology and efficacy debate, there does not seem to be a consensus of opinion on a common treatment pathway. For example, in England, the National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence does not publish strategic guidance for clinical practice. Herein, we review and evaluate core literature that examines the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injection as a treatment for PF. Outcome measures were wide ranging but largely yielded results supportive of the short- and long-term benefits of this modality. The analysis also looked to establish, where possible, "proof of concept." This article provides evidence supporting the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections, in particular those guided by imaging technology. The evidence challenges existing orthodoxy, which marginalizes this treatment as a secondary option. This challenge is supported by recently revised guidelines published by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons advocating corticosteroid injection as a primary treatment option. PMID:24072372

Kirkland, Paul; Beeson, Paul

2013-01-01

147

Heel effect adaptive flat field correction of digital x-ray detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Anode heel effect renders large-scale background nonuniformities in digital radiographs. Conventional offset/gain calibration is performed at mono source-to-image distance (SID), and disregards the SID-dependent characteristic of heel effect. It results in a residual nonuniform background in the corrected radiographs when the SID settings for calibration and correction differ. In this work, the authors develop a robust and efficient computational method for digital x-ray detector gain correction adapted to SID-variant heel effect, without resorting to physical filters, phantoms, complicated heel effect models, or multiple-SID calibration and interpolation.Methods: The authors present the Duo-SID projection correction method. In our approach, conventional offset/gain calibrations are performed only twice, at the minimum and maximum SIDs of the system in typical clinical use. A fast iterative separation algorithm is devised to extract the detector gain and basis heel patterns from the min/max SID calibrations. The resultant detector gain is independent of SID, while the basis heel patterns are parameterized by the min- and max-SID. The heel pattern at any SID is obtained from the min-SID basis heel pattern via projection imaging principles. The system gain desired at a specific acquisition SID is then constructed using the projected heel pattern and detector gain map.Results: The method was evaluated for flat field and anatomical phantom image corrections. It demonstrated promising improvements over interpolation and conventional gain calibration/correction methods, lowering their correction errors by approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. The separation algorithm was able to extract the detector gain and heel patterns with less than 2% error, and the Duo-SID corrected images showed perceptually appealing uniform background across the detector.Conclusions: The Duo-SID correction method has substantially improved on conventional offset/gain corrections for digital x-ray imaging in an SID-variant environment. The technique is relatively simple, and can be easily incorporated into multiple-point gain calibration/correction techniques. It offers a potentially valuable tool for preprocessing digital x-ray images to boost image quality of mammography, chest and cardiac radiography, as well as automated computer aided diagnostic radiology.

Yu, Yongjian [X-ray Products, Varian Medical Systems Inc., Liverpool, New York 13088 (United States)] [X-ray Products, Varian Medical Systems Inc., Liverpool, New York 13088 (United States); Wang, Jue [Department of Mathematics, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308 (United States)

2013-08-15

148

Journal of Biomechanics 34 (2001) 13871398 Contributions of the individual ankle plantar flexors to support,  

E-print Network

Journal of Biomechanics 34 (2001) 1387­1398 Contributions of the individual ankle plantar flexors coordination of many muscles. Previous biomechanical studies, based primarily on analyses of the net ankle the individual contributions of the ankle plantar flexors (gastrocnemius (GAS); soleus (SOL)) to the body segment

149

Proportional EMG Control of Ankle Plantar Flexion in a Powered Transtibial Prosthesis  

E-print Network

Proportional EMG Control of Ankle Plantar Flexion in a Powered Transtibial Prosthesis Jing Wang plantar flexion in the trailing prosthetic ankle increases. Not surprisingly, excessive loads to control a powered ankle- foot prosthesis using a volitional electromyographic (EMG) control to directly

Herr, Hugh

150

Contributions of the individual ankle plantar flexors to support, forward progression and swing initiation during walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walking is a motor task requiring coordination of many muscles. Previous biomechanical studies, based primarily on analyses of the net ankle moment during stance, have concluded different functional roles for the plantar flexors. We hypothesize that some of the disparities in interpretation arise because of the effects of the uniarticular and biarticular muscles that comprise the plantar flexor group have

R. R. Neptune; S. A. Kautz; F. E. Zajac

2001-01-01

151

Design and Test of a Soft Plantar Force Measurement System for Gait Detection  

PubMed Central

This work describes a plantar force measurement system. The MEMS pressure sensor, as the key sensing element, is designed, fabricated and embedded into a flexible silicon oil-filled bladder made of silicon rubber to constitute a single sensing unit. A conditioning circuit is designed for signal processing and data acquisition. The characteristics of the plantar force sensing unit are investigated by both static and dynamic tests. A comparison of characteristics between the proposed plantar force sensing unit and a commercial flexible force sensor is presented. A practical experiment of plantar force measurement has been carried out to validate the system. The results demonstrate that the proposed measurement system has a potential for success in the application of plantar force measurement during normal gait. PMID:23208558

Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yulong; Duan, Zhengyong; Liu, Yan

2012-01-01

152

Prediction of plantar shear stress distribution by artificial intelligence methods.  

PubMed

Shear forces under the human foot are thought to be responsible for various foot pathologies such as diabetic plantar ulcers and athletic blisters. Frictional shear forces might also play a role in the metatarsalgia observed among hallux valgus (HaV) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Due to the absence of commercial devices capable of measuring shear stress distribution, a number of linear models were developed. All of these have met with limited success. This study used nonlinear methods, specifically neural network and fuzzy logic schemes, to predict the distribution of plantar shear forces based on vertical loading parameters. In total, 73 subjects were recruited; 17 had diabetic neuropathy, 14 had HaV, 9 had RA, 11 had frequent foot blisters, and 22 were healthy. A feed-forward neural network (NN) and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (NFIS) were built. These systems were then applied to a custom-built platform, which collected plantar pressure and shear stress data as subjects walked over the device. The inputs to both models were peak pressure, peak pressure-time integral, and time to peak pressure, and the output was peak resultant shear. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) values were calculated to test the models' accuracy. RMSE/actual shear ratio varied between 0.27 and 0.40 for NN predictions. Similarly, NFIS estimations resulted in a 0.28-0.37 ratio for local peak values in all subject groups. On the other hand, error percentages for global peak shear values were found to be in the range 11.4-44.1. These results indicate that there is no direct relationship between pressure and shear magnitudes. Future research should aim to decrease error levels by introducing shear stress dependent variables into the models. PMID:19725696

Yavuz, Metin; Ocak, Hasan; Hetherington, Vincent J; Davis, Brian L

2009-09-01

153

Kangaroo Care Modifies Preterm Infant Heart Rate Variability in Response to Heel Stick Pain: Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Heel stick is the most common painful procedure for preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. Resultant pain causes adverse physiological effects in major organ systems. Kangaroo Care (KC), involving mother-infant skin-to-skin contact is a promising analgesic for infant pain; however, the effect of KC on the autonomic nervous system's response to pain is unknown. Aim To determine if KC results in improved balance in autonomic responses to heel stick pain than the standard method where infants remain in an incubator care (IC) for the heel stick. Study Design A randomized cross-over trial. Subjects Fourteen preterm infants, 30-32 weeks gestational age and less than 9 days postnatal age. Outcome Measures Infant behavioral state, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) indices including low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power, and the LF/HF ratio measured over Baseline, Heel Warming, Heel Stick, and Recovery periods in KC and IC conditions. Results HRV differences between KC and IC were that LF was higher in KC at Baseline (p<.01) and at Heel Stick (p< .001), and HF was higher in KC at Baseline than in the IC condition (p< .05). The LF/HF ratio had less fluctuation across the periods in KC than in IC condition and was significantly lower during Recovery in KC than in IC (p< .001). Conclusions Infants experienced better balance in response in KC than IC condition as shown by more autonomic stability during heel stick. KC may be helpful in mediating physiologic response to painful procedures in preterm infants. PMID:19505775

Cong, Xiaomei; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; McCain, Gail; Fu, Pingfu

2009-01-01

154

Resistance exercise prevents plantar flexor deconditioning during bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because resistance exercise (REX) and unloading induce opposing neuromuscular adaptations, we tested the efficacy of REX against the effects of 14 d of bed rest unloading (BRU) on the plantar flexor muscle group. Sixteen men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NOE, N = 8) or REX (N = 8). REX performed 5 sets x 6-10 repetitions to failure of constant resistance concentric/eccentric plantar flexion every other day during BRU. One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength was tested on the training device. The angle-specific torque-velocity relationship across 5 velocities (0, 0.52, 1.05, 1.75, and 2.97 rad.s-1) and the full range-of-motion power-velocity relationship were assessed on a dynamometer. Torque-position analyses identified strength changes at shortened, neutral, and stretched muscle lengths. Concentric and eccentric contractile work were measured across ten repetitions at 1.05 rad.s-1. Maximal neural activation was measured by surface electromyography (EMG). 1RM decreased 9% in NOE and improved 11% in REX (P < 0.05). Concentric (0.52 and 1.05 rad.s-1), eccentric (0.52 and 2.97 rad.s-1), and isometric angle-specific torques decreased (P < 0.05) in NOE, averaging 18%, 17%, and 13%, respectively. Power dropped (P < 0.05) in NOE at three eccentric (21%) and two concentric (14%) velocities. REX protected angle-specific torque and average power at all velocities. Concentric and eccentric strength decreased at stretched (16%) and neutral (17%) muscle lengths (P < 0.05) in NOE while REX maintained or improved strength at all joint positions. Concentric (15%) and eccentric (11%) contractile work fell in NOE (P < 0.05) but not in REX. Maximal plantar flexor EMG did not change in either group. In summary, constant resistance concentric/eccentric REX completely prevented plantar flexor performance deconditioning induced by BRU. The reported benefits of REX should prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity and for patients susceptible to functional decline during bed- or chair-bound hospital stays.

Bamman, M. M.; Hunter, G. R.; Stevens, B. R.; Guilliams, M. E.; Greenisen, M. C.

1997-01-01

155

Differences in Plantar Flexor Fascicle Length and Pennation Angle between Healthy and Poststroke Individuals and Implications for Poststroke Plantar Flexor Force Contributions  

PubMed Central

Poststroke plantar flexor muscle weakness has been attributed to muscle atrophy and impaired activation, which cannot collectively explain the limitations in force-generating capability of the entire muscle group. It is of interest whether changes in poststroke plantar flexor muscle fascicle length and pennation angle influence the individual force-generating capability and whether plantar flexor weakness is due to uniform changes in individual muscle force contributions. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles for the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius were measured using ultrasound and compared between ten hemiparetic poststroke subjects and ten healthy controls. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions to poststroke plantar flexor torque were estimated for each muscle. No statistical differences were observed for any muscle fascicle lengths or for the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus pennation angles between paretic, nonparetic, and healthy limbs. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the paretic medial gastrocnemius pennation angle compared to both nonparetic and healthy limbs. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions were smaller on the paretic side. Additionally, bilateral muscle contributions to plantar flexor torque remained the same. While the architecture of each individual plantar flexor muscle is affected differently after stroke, the relative contribution of each muscle remains the same. PMID:25147753

Ramsay, John W.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Higginson, Jill S.

2014-01-01

156

Effect of shockwave therapy on plantar fasciopathy. A biomechanical prospective.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that extracorporeal shockwave therapy is a safe and effective treatment for pain relief from recalcitrant plantar fasciopathy (PF). However, the changes in gait and associated biomechanical parameters have not been well characterised. We recruited 12 female patients with recalcitrant PF who had a mean age of 59 years (50 to 70) and mean body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) (22 to 30). The patients reported a mean duration of symptoms of 9.3 months (6 to 15). Shockwave therapy consisting of 1500 impulses (energy flux density 0.26 mJ/mm(2)) was applied for three sessions, each three weeks apart. A pain visual analogue scale (VAS) rating, plantar pressure assessment and motion analysis were carried out before and nine weeks after first shock wave therapy. It was demonstrated that patients increased their walking velocity and cadence as well indicating a decrease in pain after shockwave therapy. In the symptomatic foot, the peak contact pressure over the forefoot increased and the contact area over the digits decreased. The total foot impulse also decreased as did stance duration. The duration the centre of pressure remained in the hindfoot increased in the symptomatic foot after shockwave therapy. The differences in centre of pressure trajectory at baseline decreased at final follow-up. In conclusion, shockwave therapy not only decreased the pain VAS rating but also improved the gait parameters of the symptomatic foot in PF patients. PMID:23908425

Hsu, W-H; Lai, L-J; Chang, H-Y; Hsu, R W-W

2013-08-01

157

The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also warrant further studies since it is likely that other robust paradigms of AG that employ various exercise strategies may be more effective in counteracting long duration unloading states as anticipated on the platforms of the Moon and Mars.

Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

2007-01-01

158

Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men.  

PubMed

Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 < R(2) < 0.322) and with muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 < R(2) < 0.494). While muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size. PMID:24371016

Baxter, Josh R; Piazza, Stephen J

2014-03-01

159

Free medial plantar artery flap for the reconstruction of great toe pulp.  

PubMed

The great toe is an important body structure both functionally and cosmetically. The defect over the great toe is very challenging to treat. Our patient was a 9-year-old boy, presenting with posttraumatic loss of partial right great toe pulp. The mode of injury was the toe getting caught in the cycle wheel and sustaining amputation of the plantar aspect of the great toe. The great toe with exposed bone was reconstructed with a free medial plantar artery flap, harvested from the same limb. To our best knowledge, this was the first reported case of free medial plantar artery flap used for the reconstruction of great toe defects. PMID:24472390

Jyoshid, R B; Vardhan, Harsha; Anto, Francis

2014-06-01

160

Pathological anatomy and dynamic effect of the displaced plantar plate and the importance of the integrity of the plantar plate-deep transverse metatarsal ligament tie-bar.  

PubMed Central

Normal and deformed forefeet have been investigated by cadaver anatomical dissections and experiments, by radiographs, CT and MRI scanning, and by clinical studies. Evidence is presented to show that the skeleton of the foot rests on and is controlled by a multi-segmental ligamentous and fascial tie-bar system. Transversely across the plantar aspect of the forefoot, the plantar plates and the deep transverse metatarsal ligaments form a strong ligamentous structure which prevents undue splaying of the forefoot. Longitudinally, the five digital processes of the deeper layer of the plantar fascia are inserted into the plantar plates and control the longitudinal arch of the foot. It is suggested that many forefoot deformities result from the failure of parts of the tie-bar system and the dynamic effect of displacement of the plantar plates. Understanding this allows a more logical approach to their treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:9038498

Stainsby, G. D.

1997-01-01

161

Liquid silicone to mitigate plantar pedal pressure: a literature review.  

PubMed

Disruption of the body's plantar fat pad can occur as a result of one of three mechanisms: simple fat pad atrophy associated with age-related degeneration, steroid use, or collagen vascular disease. Actual or relative displacement in to the underlying osseous prominences may be seen in association with structural deformity of the foot. Disease states such as diabetes may alter the normal structural integrity of soft tissues through nonenzymatic glycation leading to increased stiffness and thus reduced attenuating capacity. Fat pad atrophy, regardless of the cause, is often associated with substantial emotional, physical, productivity, and financial losses. In situations where the patient is sensate, the resultant skin on bone situation is extremely painful, especially when walking. PMID:20663447

Bowling, Frank L; Metcalfe, Stuart A; Wu, Stephanie; Boulton, Andrew J M; Armstrong, David G

2010-07-01

162

Liquid Silicone to Mitigate Plantar Pedal Pressure: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Disruption of the body’s plantar fat pad can occur as a result of one of three mechanisms: simple fat pad atrophy associated with age-related degeneration, steroid use, or collagen vascular disease. Actual or relative displacement in to the underlying osseous prominences may be seen in association with structural deformity of the foot. Disease states such as diabetes may alter the normal structural integrity of soft tissues through nonenzymatic glycation leading to increased stiffness and thus reduced attenuating capacity. Fat pad atrophy, regardless of the cause, is often associated with substantial emotional, physical, productivity, and financial losses. In situations where the patient is sensate, the resultant skin on bone situation is extremely painful, especially when walking. PMID:20663447

Bowling, Frank L.; Metcalfe, Stuart A.; Wu, Stephanie; Boulton, Andrew J. M.; Armstrong, David G.

2010-01-01

163

Effect of shoe type on plantar pressure: a gender comparison.  

PubMed

Despite the differences in materials, racing flats have begun to be used not only for racing, but also for daily training. As there are data suggesting a gender difference in overuse injuries in runners, shoe choice may affect loading patterns during running. The purpose was to determine differences in plantar pressure between genders when running in training shoes and racing flats. In-shoe plantar pressure data were collected from 34 subjects (17m, 17f) who ran over-ground in both a racing flat and training shoe. Contact area (CA), maximum force (MF), and contact time under the entire foot and beneath eight foot regions were collected. Each variable was analyzed using a shoe by gender repeated measures ANOVA (alpha=0.05). In men, MF was increased in the racing flats (p=0.016) beneath the medial midfoot (MMF), yet was increased beneath the medial forefoot (MFF) in the training shoe (p=0.018). Independent of gender, CA was decreased in the racing flats beneath the entire foot (p=0.029), the MMF (p=0.013), and the MFF (p=0.030), and increased beneath the lateral forefoot (LFF) (p=0.023). In the racing flats, MF was increased beneath the entire foot (p<0.001) and the LFF (p<0.001). Independent of the shoe, CA was decreased in men beneath the MFF (p=0.007) and middle forefoot (p<0.001), while MF was increased in the LFF (p=0.002). The LFF is an area of increased stress fracture risk in men. Based on the gender differences in loading, running shoe design should be gender specific in an attempt to prevent injuries. PMID:19765995

Queen, Robin M; Abbey, Alicia N; Wiegerinck, Johannes I; Yoder, Jordan C; Nunley, James A

2010-01-01

164

Plantar pressure distribution in normal, hallux valgus and hallux limitus feet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected dynamic plantar pressure measurements of 30 control, 30 hallux valgus and 30 hallux limitus subjects, using an EMED-SF system and a two-step method of data collection, were analysed for significant differences, with a one-way analysis of variance being performed with P<0.05. In comparison to normal control subjects, those with hallux valgus feet demonstrated significant medial plantar peak and mean

A. Bryant; P. Tinley; K. Singer

1999-01-01

165

Implementation guide for Hanford Tanks Initiative C-106 heel retrieval contract management HNF-2511  

SciTech Connect

This report is an Implementation Guide for Hanford Tanks Initiative C-106 heel retrieval contract management HNF-2511 to provide a set of uniform instructions for managing the two contractors selected. The primary objective is to produce the necessary deliverables and services for the HTI project within schedule and budget.

McDaniel, L.B.

1998-04-17

166

Chronic arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS). PMID:11869818

Hall, Alan H

2002-03-10

167

An investigation into plantar pressure measurement protocols for footwear research.  

PubMed

Many researchers investigate how footwear design affects plantar pressure (PP) and ask participants to walk in unfamiliar footwear as part of their studies. However, there are no clear guidelines for the required period of time or number of steps a healthy participant requires to acclimatise to unfamiliar footwear. Nor are there clear guidelines for how many steps should be collected to produce data that is representative of gait in each particular shoe being tested. There were therefore two aims to this study: (1) to investigate the number of steps required to produce an average step that is representative of normal gait; (2) to investigate the number of steps required for a participant to acclimatise to a range of footwear types. PP data were collected in 20 healthy participants whilst they walked for 400 m in a range of footwear. The results showed that the number of steps required for both acclimatisation and to ensure data quality are dependent on shoe type and the foot region being investigated. It is recommended that 30 steps from one foot are collected during data collection and an acclimatisation period of at least 166 steps is given for each shoe condition. The former recommendation is not met by most studies in the literature. PMID:25161007

Melvin, J M A; Preece, S; Nester, C J; Howard, D

2014-09-01

168

Cyclic impacts on heel strike: A possible biomechanical factor in the etiology of degenerative disease of the human locomotor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic impacts induced by heel strike when walking were studied using both a high-resonance-frequency force plate and a low-mass skin-mounted accelerometer. The data were computer analyzed. The results showed that during normal human walking, the locomotor system is subjected to repetitive impact loads at heel strike, lasting about 5 ms and consisting of frequency spectra up to and above

Yoram Folman; Joseph Wosk; Arkady Voloshin; Shimon Liberty

1986-01-01

169

The effects of isolation on the mechanics of the human heel pad.  

PubMed Central

In previous studies on the mechanical properties of the human heel pad (Bennett & Ker, 1990; Aerts et al. 1995) the fat pad and part of the calcaneus was removed from amputated test specimens. The present study tested whether this procedure influences the mechanical behaviour of the sample. Intact amputated feet were therefore mounted on steel rods driven through the calcaneus and placed in a mechanical test situation (pendulum or servohydraulic material tester). The mechanical properties of the pad were determined for a series of experiments in which the pad was gradually freed from the foot in the way done by Bennett & Ker (1990) and Aerts et al. (1995). The results showed no observable differences in the mechanics of the pad by isolating it from the rest of the foot. Thus, in relation to human locomotion, the load-deformation relation of heel pads as described by Aerts et al. (1995) is the most appropriate to date. PMID:8621341

Aerts, P; Ker, R F; de Clercq, D; Ilsley, D W

1996-01-01

170

Foot posture, range of motion and plantar pressure characteristics in obese and non-obese individuals.  

PubMed

Obesity is a world-wide health problem and is strongly associated with musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limb. The aim of this study was to evaluate plantar loading patterns in obese and non-obese individuals, while accounting for the contribution of foot structure, range of motion and walking speed. Sixty-eight participants (mean±SD age, 52.6±8.0 years), including 47 females (69%), underwent assessments of body mass index, foot pain and foot structure. Plantar pressures were also obtained, using a floor-mounted resistive sensor mat system. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine which variables were most strongly associated with plantar loading patterns. Obese individuals exhibited flatter feet, reduced inversion-eversion range of motion, and higher peak plantar pressures when walking. After accounting for foot structure and walking speed, bodyweight was found to be significantly associated with elevated loading of the foot, particularly the forefoot and midfoot. These findings suggest that obesity increases the stresses applied to the foot directly, via increased bodyweight, and indirectly, via alterations to foot structure, which may partly explain the link between obesity and the development of foot pain. Clinicians dealing with foot problems should consider the effect of increased bodyweight on plantar loading in obese patients. PMID:25482032

Butterworth, Paul A; Urquhart, Donna M; Landorf, Karl B; Wluka, Anita E; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Menz, Hylton B

2014-11-24

171

The Effects of Lower Extremity Angle According to Heel-height Changes in Young Ladies in Their 20s during Gait  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of heel-height changes on the low joint angles of the lower extremities of women in their 20s during gait. [Subjects and Methods] Qualisys Track Manager Software ver. 2.8 (Qualisys, Sweden) was used to perform measurements on 14 female university students in their 20s. To measure movements, the subjects were asked to walk while wearing high-heeled shoes and reflective stickers on their hip joints, knee joints, and ankle joints, the changes in joint angles were measured at heel strike, foot flat, and toe off. [Results] Analysis of the amount of change according to heel height changes during gait showed that the angle of the hip joints was reduced with an increase in heel-height. Although the changes were not significant, the angle of the knee joints was reduced during heel strike, foot flat, and midstance, and it was increased during toe off. In contrast, the angle of the ankle joints was increased by a significant amount during heel strike, foot flat, midstance, and toe off. [Conclusions] During gait with high heels, the movements of the lower extremities of women in their 20s were reduced significantly with an increase in heel height. Therefore, it is concluded that the restrictions on gait can only be reduced by wearing low-heeled shoes. PMID:25140096

Lee, ChangRyeol

2014-01-01

172

Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. METHODS: Preterm neonates (n = 61) between 28 0\\/7 and 31 6\\/7 weeks gestational

C Celeste Johnston; Francoise Filion; Marsha Campbell-Yeo; Celine Goulet; Linda Bell; Kathryn McNaughton; Jasmine Byron; Marilyn Aita; G Allen Finley; Claire-Dominique Walker

2008-01-01

173

Lower Limb Muscles SEMG Activity during High-Heeled Latin Dancing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a aim of this study is to provide information about surface electromyography (SEMG) activity pattern in lower limb muscles during\\u000a Latin dancing with different heel height shoes. SEMG signals from tibialis anterior, medial and lateral sides of gastrocnemius,\\u000a soleus and biceps femoris of ten professional female dancers were recorded. All the muscles average EMG (aEMG) values except\\u000a biceps femoris were significantly

Y. D. Gu; J. S. Li; G. Q. Ruan; Y. C. Wang; M. J. Lake; X. J. Ren

174

Investigations on the viscoelastic behaviour of a human healthy heel pad: in vivo compression tests and numerical analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of the human heel pad by comparing the stress-relaxation curves obtained from a compression device used on an in vivo heel pad with those obtained from a three-dimensional computer-based subject-specific heel pad model subjected to external compression. The three-dimensional model was based on the anatomy revealed by magnetic resonance imaging of a 31-year-old healthy female. The calcaneal fat pad tissue was described with a viscohyperelastic model, while a fibre-reinforced hyperelastic model was formulated for the skin. All numerical analyses were performed to interpret the mechanical response of heel tissues, with loading conditions and displacement rate in agreement with experimental tests. The heel tissues showed a non-linear, viscoelastic behaviour described by characteristic hysteretic curves, stress-relaxation and viscous recovery phenomena. The reliability of the investigations was validated by the interpretation of the mechanical response of heel tissues under the application of three pistons with diameter of 15, 20 and 40 mm, at the same displacement rate of about 1.7 mm/s. The maximum and minimum relative errors were found to be less than 0.95 and 0.064, respectively. PMID:23662350

Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, Chiara G; Carniel, Emanuele L; Wilhjelm, Jens E; Virga, Antonio; Corbinz, Nadège; Corvi, Andrea; Natali, Arturo N

2013-03-01

175

Anatomy of the foot venous pump: physiology and influence on chronic venous disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the location of the venous foot pump using an anatomical study. Four hundred cadaveric feet were injected with green neoprene latex followed by a dissection. A coloured segmentation of the venous system was achieved. The Lejars' concept of the venous sole of the foot is incorrect: the true blood venous reservoir of the foot is located deeply in the plantar veins, between the plantar muscles. The medial and mostly lateral plantar veins converge into the plexus shaped calcaneal crossroad, where the blood is ejected upwards into the two posterior tibial veins. In addition, the several medial perforators of the foot directly connect the deep system (medial plantar veins) to the superficial venous system (medial marginal vein). This forms a true 'medial functional unit' which is unique in the limb given its directional flow is from deep to superficial. In conclusion, the plantar veins play an important role in the physiology of the venous return since a venous reservoir of 25 mL of blood is mobilized upwards with each step during walking. Therefore, the impairment of the foot pump by a static foot disorder should be considered as an important risk factor for chronic venous disease, and should be evaluated and corrected in any patient with venous insufficiency. PMID:22847928

Uhl, J-F; Gillot, C

2012-08-01

176

Influence of shoes and heel strike on the loading of the hip joint.  

PubMed

The forces and moments acting at the hip joint influence the long-term stability of the fixation of endoprostheses and the course of coxarthrosis. These loads may depend on the kind of footwear and the walking or running style. These factors were investigated in a patient with instrumented hip implants. He wore different sports shoes, normal leather shoes, hiking boots and clogs and walked barefoot with soft, normal and hard heel strikes. The loads were lowest while walking and jogging without shoes. All shoes increased the joint force and the bending moment at the implant slightly but the torsional moment rose by up to 50%. No relation was found between the different type of shoes and the load increase, only shoes with very hard soles were clearly disadvantageous. Soft heels, soles or insoles did not offer advantages. Gait stability seems to play the most important role in increasing the joint loading and should be the criterion for the choice of footwear. Smooth gait patterns with soft heel strikes are the only means to reduce joint loading during slow jogging. PMID:7657680

Bergmann, G; Kniggendorf, H; Graichen, F; Rohlmann, A

1995-07-01

177

Design and Reliability of a Novel Heel Rise Test Measuring Device for Plantarflexion Endurance  

PubMed Central

Background. Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. Methods. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. Findings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98). Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. Interpretation. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings. PMID:24877089

Sman, Amy D.; Hiller, Claire E.; Ocsing, Aldrin; Refshauge, Kathryn M.

2014-01-01

178

Effects of fatiguing isometric exercise upon achilles tendon reflex and plantar flexion reaction time components in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of three different fatiguing local muscular exercises upon plantar flexion reaction time and achilles tendon reflex time have been studied in 24 normal males. The Exercise Conditions, each involving a series of 30 maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the plantar flexors, differed by allowing either 5, 10 or 20 sec rest interval between each MVC. Decrements in strength

Keith C. Hayes

1975-01-01

179

The football: an intuitive dressing for offloading neuropathic plantar forefoot ulcerations.  

PubMed

A reproducible, affordable, efficacious and safe modality for offloading neuropathic plantar foot ulcerations was previously presented in a pilot study. A follow-up retrospective multicentre analysis of the football dressing is now presented. Wound healing rates are compared with published data on the total contact cast (TCC) and instant total contact cast (iTCC). Overall wound healing rates for University of Texas Health Science Center class 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2A, 2B, 2C and 3B plantar forefoot ulcerations is 2.91 weeks with a 95% confidence interval of 2.36-3.47 weeks for complete wound epithelialisation. The cost associated with this dressing technique is a fraction of that associated with the TCC and iTCC. The ease of application coupled with reliable healing rates and affordable materials makes the football dressing a worthy partner against the sequelae of plantar forefoot ulcerations. PMID:18179553

Rader, Andrew J; Barry, Timothy P

2008-03-01

180

Static Versus Dynamic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for Detection of Plantar Plate Pathology.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is a common modality used to examine plantar plate pathology. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of static versus dynamic ultrasound has not been previously published. The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the value of using preoperative static and dynamic ultrasound findings to diagnose plantar plate pathology using intraoperative inspection as the standard of reference. Patients attending a single foot and ankle specialty clinic from August 2012 to June 2013 with clinically suspected plantar plate pathology that was unresponsive to conservative care served as the study population. Static and dynamic ultrasound exams were performed by a single experienced rater and compared to intraoperative findings. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined for static and dynamic ultrasound exams. Thirty-six patients (45 lesser metatarsophalangeal joints) were included in this analysis. Of the 36 patients, 29 were females and 7 were males with average age of 57.9 ± 7.8 years (range, 38-73). There were 38 plantar plate tears (84.4%) noted on intraoperative examination. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the static US exam were 80.0%, 81.6%, 71.4%, 93.9%, and 41.7%, respectively. The same values for the dynamic US exam were 88.9%, 100%, 28.6%, 88.3%, and 100%, respectively. Static and dynamic ultrasound techniques are each highly sensitive methods for assessing plantar plate pathology. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of the exam is best when dynamic assessment of the plantar plate is employed. Caution should be used when relying solely on static images to diagnose subtle injuries in this area of the foot. PMID:25027985

Feuerstein, Catherine A; Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell Scott; Klein, Erin E; Fleischer, Adam; Argerakis, Nicholas G

2014-07-15

181

Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study  

PubMed Central

Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

2013-01-01

182

Augmentation of atrophic plantar soft tissue with an acellular dermal allograft: a series review.  

PubMed

Treatment of plantar fat pad migration and atrophy has caused concern for decades. Patients can present with pain, callus formation, or ulceration. The purpose of this article is to review the results of a consecutive series of patients treated for fat pad atrophy of the plantar foot, using a minimally invasive implantation of an acellular human dermal allograft as a tissue augmentation. This material was chosen for the fat pad supplementation because of previous reports of success in tendon and ligament augmentation, wound healing, and interpositional arthroplasty. PMID:19778688

Rocchio, Thomas M

2009-10-01

183

Methods for Heel Retrieval for Tanks C-101, C-102, and C-111 at the Hanford Site - 13064  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prospects of using bulk waste characteristics to determine the most appropriate heel retrieval technology. If the properties of hard to remove heels can be determined before bulk retrieval, then a heel retrieval technology can be selected before bulk retrieval is complete. This would save substantially on sampling costs and would allow the deployment of the heel retrieval technology immediately after bulk retrieval. The latter would also accelerate the heel removal schedule. A number of C-farm retrievals have been fully or partially completed at the time of this writing. Thus, there is already substantial information on the success of different technologies and the composition of the heels. There is also substantial information on the waste types in each tank based on historical records. Therefore, this study will correlate the performance of technologies used so far and compare them to the known waste types in the tanks. This will be used to estimate the performance of future C Farm heel retrievals. An initial decision tree is developed and employed on tanks C-101, C-102, and C 111. An assumption of this study is that no additional characterization information would be available, before or after retrieval. Note that collecting additional information would substantially increase the probability of success. Deploying some in-situ testing technologies, such as a water lance or an in-situ Raman probe, might substantially increase the probability of successfully selecting the process conditions without having to take samples from the tanks for laboratory analysis. (authors)

Sams, T.L.; Kirch, N.W.; Reynolds, J.H. [Washington River protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Washington River protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

184

Methods for heel retrieval for tanks C-101, C-102, and C-111 at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prospects of using bulk waste characteristics to determine the most appropriate heel retrieval technology. If the properties of hard to remove heels can be determined before bulk retrieval, then a heel retrieval technology can be selected before bulk retrieval is complete. This would save substantially on sampling costs and would allow the deployment of the heel retrieval technology immediately after bulk retrieval. The latter would also accelerate the heel removal schedule. A number of C-farm retrievals have been fully or partially completed at the time of this writing. Thus, there is already substantial information on the success of different technologies and the composition of the heels. There is also substantial information on the waste types in each tank based on historical records. Therefore, this study will correlate the performance of technologies used so far and compare them to the known waste types in the tanks. This will be used to estimate the performance of future C Farm heel retrievals. An initial decision tree is developed and employed on tanks C-101, C-102, and C 111. An assumption of this study is that no additional characterization information would be available, before or after retrieval. Note that collecting additional information would substantially increase the probability of success. Deploying some in-situ testing technologies, such as a water lance or an in-situ Raman probe, might substantially increase the probability of successfully selecting the process conditions without having to take samples from the tanks for laboratory analysis.

Sams, Terry L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Kirch, N. W. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Reynolds, Jacob G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-01-11

185

THE INFLUENCE OF HEEL HEIGHT ON VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCE DURING LANDING TASKS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND ATHLETIC COLLEGIATE FEMALES  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine if heel height alters vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Background: Increased vGRF during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Methods: Fifty collegiate females performed two single?limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a athletic shoe. Using a force plate, peak vGRF at landing was examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Results: Forward hop task? Peak vGRF (normalized for body mass) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 2.613±0.498, 2.616±0.497 and 2.495±0.518% BW, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p<.001) and 12 and 24 mm lifts (p=.004), but not between the 0 and 12 mm conditions (p=.927). Jump?landing task? No significant differences were found in peak vGRF (p=.192) between any of the heel lift conditions. Conclusions: The addition of a 24 mm heel lift to the bottom of a sneaker significantly alters peak vGRF upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a jumping maneuver. PMID:23439490

Carcia, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

186

Reduced plantar sole sensitivity induces balance control modifications to compensate ankle tendon vibration and vision deprivation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate if sensory reweighting occurred to control balance when the sensitivity of the plantar sole is reduced using cooling. To address this question, visual information was manipulated and/or ankle proprioception was altered by Achilles tendon vibration. It was expected that Achilles tendon vibration and vision deprivation would induce greater center of pressure (CoP) excursions and/or increase of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the ankle muscles (triceps surea and tibialis anterior) with than without cooling of the plantar sole. To verify these hypotheses, the CoP and EMG activity of the ankle muscles were simultaneously recorded during quiet standing trials of 30s before and after feet cooling procedure. Results showed that plantar sole sensitivity alteration did not lead to larger CoP excursions even during Achilles tendon vibration in absence of vision. This could be explained by an increase in the EMG activity of the triceps surae after the cooling procedure without modification of tibialis anterior EMG activity. This study suggests that to compensate alteration in plantar sole sensitivity, the central nervous system increased the muscular activity of the triceps surae to limit CoP excursions. PMID:24993669

Billot, Maxime; Handrigan, Grant A; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

2015-02-01

187

Scaling of plantar pressures in mammals F. Michilsens1,2  

E-print Network

with the substrate can teach a lot about an animal's gait mechanics. Unlike ground-reaction forces, plantar pressure distributions are rarely studied in animals, but they may provide more detailed information about the loading animals. Analysis focused on scaling effects of peak pressures, peak forces and foot contact areas. Peak

D'Août, Kristiaan

188

Sensory nerve conduction of the plantar nerve compared with other nerve conduction tests in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn rats the available techniques for evaluation of sensory nerve conduction are limited. We report a new method of sensory nerve conduction of the plantar nerve using needle electrodes as the recording electrodes behind the medial malleolus and ring electrodes as the stimulating electrodes around the three middle toes.

Katsumi Kurokawa; Diogo F de Almeida; Yun Zhang; Charles D Hébert; John G Page; Karen M Schweikart; Shin J Oh

2004-01-01

189

Plantar pressure in off-loading devices used in diabetic ulcer treatment.  

PubMed

Four off-loading devices used for the treatment of diabetic forefoot ulcers were compared: a custom-molded insole shoe, a cast MABAL shoe, a prefabricated pneumatic walking brace, and a bivalved total contact cast (BTCC). It was anticipated that all devices would significantly reduce forefoot plantar pressure compared with a control shoe. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated. Plantar pressures were evaluated using the Pedar system, while walking speed was determined using an optoelectric timer. Peak pressure (PP) of ten plantar areas and pressure-time integral for the first metatarsal area were analyzed statistically using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Forefoot pressures were significantly reduced compared with the control shoe for all devices (p<0.001). PP was most reduced (by 65.8%) for the BTCC, and pressure-time integral was most reduced for the BTCC and cast MABAL shoe. Small but significant differences between devices in walking speed (p<0.05) could not explain the substantial PP differences between the different devices. Although all off-loading devices resulted in a significant reduction of forefoot plantar pressure, devices differed significantly in the magnitude of pressure reduction. Further research will have to reveal the level of off-loading sufficient for effective treatment of diabetic ulcers. PMID:16283868

Beuker, Benn J; van Deursen, Robert W; Price, Patricia; Manning, Erik A; van Baal, Jeff G; Harding, Keith G

2005-01-01

190

Vuillerme et al., Neuroscience 1 CAN A PLANTAR PRESSURE-BASED TONGUE-PLACED ELECTROTACTILE BIOFEEDBACK  

E-print Network

Vuillerme et al., Neuroscience 1 CAN A PLANTAR PRESSURE-BASED TONGUE-PLACED ELECTROTACTILE.vuillerme@imag.fr Article published in Neuroscience (2008) hal-00286015,version1-6Jun2008 Author manuscript, published in "Neuroscience / Neurosciences (2008)" DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.05.018 #12;Vuillerme et al

Boyer, Edmond

191

In-Shoe Plantar Pressures and Ground Reaction Forces during Overweight Adults' Overground Walking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Because walking is highly recommended for prevention and treatment of obesity and some of its biomechanical aspects are not clearly understood for overweight people, we compared the absolute and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF), plantar pressures, and temporal parameters of normal-weight and overweight participants during…

de Castro, Marcelo P.; Abreu, Sofia C.; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

2014-01-01

192

Designing and Constructing Blood Flow Monitoring System to Predict Pressure Ulcers on Heel  

PubMed Central

Background: A pressure ulcer is a complication related to the need for the care and treatment of primarily disabled and elderly people. With the decrease of the blood flow caused by the pressure loaded, ulcers are formed and the tissue will be wasted with the passage of time. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct blood flow monitoring system on the heel tissue which was under external pressure in order to evaluate the tissue treatment in the ulcer. Methods: To measure the blood flow changes, three infrared optical transmitters were used at the distances of 5, 10, and 15 mm to the receiver. Blood flow changes in heels were assessed in pressures 0, 30, and 60 mmHg. The time features were extracted for analysis from the recorded signal by MATLAB software. Changes of the time features under different pressures were evaluated at the three distances by ANOVA in SPSS software. The level of significance was considered at 0.05. Results: In this study, 15 subjects, including both male and female, with the mean age of 54±7 participated. The results showed that the signal amplitude, power and absolute signal decreased significantly when pressure on the tissue increased in different layers (p<0.05). Heart rate only decreased significantly in pressures more than 30 mmHg (p=0.02). In pressures more than 30 mmHg, in addition to a decrease in the time features, the pattern of blood flow signal changed and it wasn’t the same as no-load signal. Conclusion: By detecting the time features, we can reach an early diagnosis to prognosticate the degeneration of the tissue under pressure and it can be recommended as a method to predict bedsores in the heel. PMID:25505771

Akbari, H; Younessi Heravi, MA

2014-01-01

193

SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL BY ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 12390  

SciTech Connect

High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

Keefer, M.

2012-01-12

194

[Shewanella algae infection after surgical treatment of Haglund's heel and rupture of the Achilles tendon.  

PubMed

This is a case report of soft tissue infection with the marine bacterium Shewanella algae that is rare in Denmark. The patient was a 43-year-old male and he was treated surgically for Haglund's heel, a bony protrusion at the calcaneus. After clinical healing the patient suffered a rupture of the Achilles tendon, which was treated surgically as well. The post-operative healing process proved to be protracted with a number of surgical wound revisions being necessary. A microbiology culture showed the presence of S. algae and after proper antibiotic treatment the patient recovered quickly. PMID:25353681

Prischl, Clemens; Bendtsen, Michael Melchior; Laursen, Malene

2014-10-20

195

Calcaneal osteosarcoma: a rare cause of heel pain in the paediatric population  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary non-haemopoietic malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents. However, it rarely occurs in the calcaneus with only a few case reports in the literature. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy with calcaneal osteosarcoma, who presented with heel pain followed by swelling. The pain was initially thought to be related to a benign process and treated with analgesics, delaying the diagnosis. We discuss the clinical presentation, the differential diagnosis, multi-imaging and pathological findings of a calcaneal osteosarcoma, its clinical outcome and the importance of early diagnosis to improve outcome. PMID:23386499

Taslakian, Bedros; Issa, Ghada; Saab, Raya; Jabbour, Mark N; Khoury, Nabil J

2013-01-01

196

Solitary erythematous, tender plaque of the heel in a young infant.  

PubMed

Calcinosis cutis is a rare disorder resulting from the precipitation and deposition of insoluble calcium and phosphate salts (hydroxyapatite crystals) in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It is generally divided into four main groups on the basis of etiology and pathogenesis. Clinical presentation of cutaneous calcinosis cutis varies according to the diagnosis and the underlying process. We report a case of calcinosis cutis of the heel in which both the extravasation of a calcium gluconate infusion and renal failure could have promoted the development of calcinosis cutis. PMID:24050291

Vaccari, Sabina; Ismaili, Alma; Barisani, Alessia; Neri, Iria; Patrizi, Annalisa

2013-09-01

197

Ergonomic procedure for heel sticks and shots in Kangaroo Care (skin-to-skin) position.  

PubMed

Kangaroo Care (KC) has been recommended as a pain-reducing strategy in neonates; however, KC has not been widely used to minimize procedural pain caused in part by nurses'/phlebotomists' discomfort when positioning themselves and the infant for blood drawing and injections. Therefore, an ergonomically designed setup incorporating the use of KC was introduced into clinical practice to facilitate blood draws and injections. The step-by-step procedure used for heel sticks and injections is presented in this manuscript. After implementing the ergonomic step-by-step protocol, complaints of discomfort by nurses and phlebotomists ceased, and an additional benefit was that infant pain responses were significantly reduced. PMID:23985473

Cong, Xiaomei; Ludington-Hoe, Susan; Vazquez, Victoria; Zhang, Di; Zaffetti, Sharon

2013-01-01

198

Assessment of Effective Ankle Joint Positioning in Strength Training for Intrinsic Foot Flexor Muscles: A Comparison of Intrinsic Foot Flexor Muscle Activity in a Position Intermediate to Plantar and Dorsiflexion with that in Maximum Plantar Flexion Using Needle Electromyography  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The effectiveness of intrinsic foot flexor strength training performed in the plantar flexion position was examined using needle electromyography. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 18 healthy men. [Methods] We used needle electromyography to measure the muscle activities of the flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), and the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) in maximum plantar and an intermediate position. [Results] Significant increases in muscle activities were observed for both FHB and FDB, and the rates of increase from the intermediate position to the plantar flexion position were 43% for FHB and 46% for FDB. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate intrinsic foot flexors, in addition to the numerous reports on treatment methods focusing on extrinsic foot flexors. Furthermore, the results suggest that toe flexion exercises performed during plantar flexion of the ankle joint are an effective method for intrinsic foot flexor strength training. PMID:24707106

Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

2014-01-01

199

[To reduce the pain of heel prick in the newborn: comparison of six types of lancets].  

PubMed

Heel prick is an usual method performed to get a blood sample for newborn screening. Its wide use justifies the effort in reducing the pain as much as possible and some simple steps, including the use of spring heelsticks, are recommended by national and international guide-lines. But not all the heelsticks cause the same pain and allow to get enough blood for the screening. The aim of this work was to test six automatic heelstick devices with regard to the pain in heel prick measured with NIPS scale and, at the same time, to value their effectiveness in getting a blood sample suitable for filter paper for newborn screening. The following devices were assessed: Amnes Minilet Lancets, Wuxi Xinda Ltd, Exxe Safe Blade, Lifescan Stik Johnson & Johnson, One Touch Ultra Soft, Accu-Chek Safe T Pro Plus. The device Exxe Safe Blade statistically differs from all others: it is the least painful and it doesn't need any prick repetition. PMID:23173410

Ballardini, G; Spruzzola, A; Boneschi, L; Visentin, R; Boscardini, L; Barbaglia, M; Guala, L A

2012-01-01

200

Cortical motor areas in plantar response: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the cerebral cortices in normal plantar response was investigated with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla in 12 right-handed normal subjects. During fMRI acquisition, the lateral (LS) and medial (MS) side of the left sole was mechanically stimulated every 16 s to evoke the plantar response under monitoring of the surface electromyogram. LS activated

Kenichi Oishi; Keiichiro Toma; Kayako Matsuo; Toshiharu Nakai; Kazuo Chihara; Hidenao Fukuyama

2003-01-01

201

Changes in plantar pressures during bipedal stance with different stance width.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of stance width and vision on the plantar pressures for the left and right foot during bipedal quiet standing on the pressure-sensitive insoles. The support widening shifted the left and right centers-of-foot-pressure (CFPs) laterally and forward (right foot), diminished SDs of: the left and right mean plantar pressures (MPPs), the anteroposterior and mediolateral displacements of left and right CFPs. It also decreased negative correlations between left and right MPPs and between mediolateral displacements of left and right CFP and increased positive correlation between anteroposterior displacements of left and right CFPs, more expressive with eyes-open. The later results suggested that support widening increased the weight of exploratory behaviour regarding anteroposterior equilibrium and decreased exploratory sway serving mediolateral equilibrium. Eyes' closure lead to a small left bias of the body-weight-bearing and forward shift of the left versus right CFP, thus suggesting that vision increased bilateral symmetry of stance. PMID:11695525

Gatev, P; Koleva, V; Petkova, G; Dimitrova, D; Ilieva, L

2001-01-01

202

Effectiveness of scalpel debridement for painful plantar calluses in older people: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Plantar calluses are a common cause of foot pain, which can have a detrimental impact on the mobility and independence of older people. Scalpel debridement is often the first treatment used for this condition. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of scalpel debridement of painful plantar calluses in older people. Methods This study was a parallel-group, participant- and assessor-blinded randomized trial. Eighty participants aged 65 years and older with painful forefoot plantar calluses were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: either real or sham scalpel debridement. Participants were followed for six weeks after their initial intervention appointment. The primary outcomes measured were the difference between groups in pain (measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale) immediately post-intervention, and at one, three and six weeks post-intervention. Results Both the real debridement and sham debridement groups experienced a reduction in pain when compared with baseline. Small, systematic between-group differences in pain scores were found at each time point (between 2 and 7 mm favoring real scalpel debridement); however, none of these were statistically significant and none reached a level that could be considered clinically worthwhile. Scalpel debridement caused no adverse events. Conclusions The benefits of real scalpel debridement for reducing pain associated with forefoot plantar calluses in older people are small and not statistically significant compared with sham scalpel debridement. When used alone, scalpel debridement has a limited effect in the short term, although it is relatively inexpensive and causes few complications. However, these findings do not preclude the possibility of cumulative benefits over a longer time period or additive effects when combined with other interventions. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012606000176561). PMID:23915078

2013-01-01

203

Gender Differences in Human Muscle and Joint Mechanical Properties During Plantar Flexion in Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle and joint mechanical properties during plantar flexion were investigated in 13 elderly women (EW) (age range 73-83 years) and 15 elderly men (EM) (age range 74-81 years). Maximal torque, at several angular velocities, was measured to construct torque-velocity relationship. This led to the calculation of an index of maximal shortening velocity (VImax )a t 10% of maximal isometric torque.

Julien Ochala; Denis Valour; Michel Pousson; Daniel Lambertz; Jacques Van Hoecke

2004-01-01

204

Case study: Epidermoid cyst following percutaneous Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

An epidermoid cyst is formed when there is proliferation of epidermal cells within an area of the dermis. They may be formed by the traumatic implantation of epidermal cells within the dermis as well as many other mechanisms. We present a case of epidermoid cyst formation following Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis; a complication we believe is yet to be reported in the literature. PMID:22265448

Ferguson, Kim; Thomson, Allan George; Moir, John Stuart

2012-03-01

205

Reduced plantar cutaneous sensation modifies gait dynamics, lower-limb kinematics and muscle activity during walking.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common long-term complication in diabetes and is involved in changes in diabetic gait and posture. The regression of nerve function leads to various deficits in the sensory and motor systems, impairing afferent and efferent pathways in the lower extremities. This study aimed to examine how reduced plantar-afferent feedback impacts the gait pattern. Cutaneous sensation in the soles of both feet was experimentally reduced by means of intradermal injections of an anaesthetic solution, without affecting foot proprioception or muscles. Ten subjects performed level walking at a controlled velocity before and after plantar anaesthesia. Muscle activity of five leg-muscles, co-contraction ratios for the knee and ankle joint, ground reaction forces (GRF), spatiotemporal characteristics, joint angles and moments of the hip, knee and ankle were analysed. The intervention significantly lowered plantar sensation, reducing it to the level of sensory neuropathy. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics remained unchanged. The ankle joint was more dorsiflexed which coincided with increased tibialis anterior and decreased gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity during foot flat to mid-stance. In addition, the knee joint was more flexed accompanied by increased biceps femoris activity and higher internal knee-extension moment. With regard to gait dynamics, a delay of the first peak of the vertical GRF was observed. Increased soleus and tibialis anterior muscle activity were found during the end of stance. Short-term loss of plantar sensation affects lower-limb kinematics and gait dynamics, particularly during the first half of stance, and contributes to modified muscle-activation patterns during locomotion. PMID:22391682

Höhne, Angela; Ali, Sufyan; Stark, Christian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

2012-11-01

206

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis. A double blind randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an increasingly popular therapeutic approach in the management of a number of tendinopathies. Benefit has been shown in calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff, but evidence for its use in non-calcific disorders is limited.Aims: To perform a double blind randomised controlled trial of moderate dose shock wave therapy in plantar fasciitis.Methods: Adults with

C. A. Speed; D. Nichols; J. Wies; H. Humphreys; C. Richards; S. Burnet; B. L. Hazleman

2003-01-01

207

Relationship between lumbar changes and modifications in the plantar arch in women with low back pain  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE : Evaluate the probable relationship among plantar arch, lumbar curvature, and low back pain. METHODS : Fifteen healthy women were assessed taking in account personal data and anthropometric measurements, photopodoscopic evaluation of the plantar arch, and biophotogrammetric postural analysis of the patient (both using the SAPO software), as well as evaluation of lumbar pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The average age of the participants was 30.45 (±6.25) years. RESULTS : Of the feet evaluated, there were six individuals with flat feet, five with high arch, and four with normal feet. All reported algic syndrome in the lumbar spine, with the highest VAS values for the volunteers with high arch. Correlation was observed between the plantar arch and the angle of the lumbar spine (r = -0.71, p = 0.004) Conclusion: High arch was correlated with more intense algic syndrome, while there was moderate positive correlation between flat foot and increased lumbar curvature, and between high arch and lumbar correction. Level of Evidence IV. Case Series. PMID:24453656

Borges, Cláudia dos Santos; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho; Bertoncello, Dernival

2013-01-01

208

Dose-Related Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the dose-related effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for plantar fasciitis. Methods Sixty patients with plantar fasciitis despite conservative treatment were enrolled. The patients were divided into a low-energy group (group L: n=30, 1,000 shocks/session, energy flux density [EFD] per shock 0.08 mJ/mm2) and a medium-energy group (group M: n=30, 1,000 shocks/session, EFD 0.16 mJ/mm2). The main outcome measures were visual analogue scale (VAS), Roles and Maudsley (RM) score, and thickness of plantar fascia (PF). To compare the effects between each group, follow-up was carried out 1 week after 3 and 6 sessions, and 1 and 3 months after ESWT. Results Significant VAS and RM score improvement, and PF thickness reduction were observed in both groups (p<0.01). After 3 sessions of ESWT, group M showed significant improvement in the VAS and RM score than group L, whereas after 3 additional sessions applied in group L, the main outcomes were no longer significantly different in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion Therapeutic effect might disclose a dose-related relationship; therefore, EFD and the times of the session are considerable factors when treating with ESWT. PMID:23869336

Lee, Su-Jin; Kang, Jung-Ho; Kim, Ja-Young; Kim, Jin-Hong; Jung, Kwang-Ik

2013-01-01

209

Effects of the lapidus arthrodesis and chevron bunionectomy on plantar forefoot pressures.  

PubMed

Hallux valgus with or without first ray insufficiency has been strongly implicated as a contributing factor in lesser metatarsal overload. The principle goals of a bunionectomy are to relieve the pain, correct the deformity, and restore first metatarsophalangeal joint congruity. Until now, little evidence has been available to assess the effects of bunionectomy procedures on forefoot pressure. The primary aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative plantar pressures after 2 specific bunionectomies: the chevron bunionectomy and Lapidus arthrodesis. A total of 68 subjects, 34 in each group, were included for radiographic and pedographic evaluation. Both procedures demonstrated radiographic improvements in the mean intermetatarsal and hallux abductus angles. The mean hallux plantar pressure decreased significantly in both procedure groups (p < .001). However, Lapidus group exhibited an increase in the mean fifth metatarsal head plantar pressure (p = .008) and pressure under the fifth metatarsal as a percentage of the total forefoot pressure (p = .01). Furthermore, the pressure under the second metatarsal as a percentage of the total forefoot pressure decreased significantly (p = .01). This study suggests that the Lapidus arthrodesis and chevron bunionectomy both provide correction for hallux valgus deformity, but when comparing forefoot load sharing pressures, the Lapidus arthrodesis appeared to have greater influence on the load sharing distribution of forefoot pressure than did the bunionectomy employing the chevron osteotomy. PMID:24958073

King, Christy M; Hamilton, Graham A; Ford, Lawrence A

2014-01-01

210

Effectiveness of local tenoxicam versus corticosteroid injection for plantar fasciitis treatment.  

PubMed

Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of foot pain in adults. In this prospective study, the outcomes of local tenoxicam injection and corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of plantar fasciitis were compared. Patients were randomly assigned to either the tenoxicam or corticosteroid group. The tenoxicam group (n=31) was treated using a local injection of 1 mL of tenoxicam (20 mg/2 mL) and 1 mL of 2% lidocaine, whereas the steroid group (n=30) was treated with a local 1-mL injection containing 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate and 1 mL of 2% lidocaine. Clinical evaluations, which were performed before the injection and 6 and 12 months after the injection, consisted of patient-assessed pain using a visual analog scale. In addition, patient satisfaction was measured using the Roles and Maudsley score. Comparison of pre- and posttreatment visual analog scale scores demonstrated a statistically significant difference in both groups (P<.05). Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the steroid and tenoxicam groups in terms of visual analog scale scores measured 12 months after injection (P>.05). The tenoxicam injection was not significantly more effective than the corticosteroid injection. However, both methods were effective and successful in treating patients with plantar fasciitis. Tenoxicam therapy appears to provide pain relief, but its effectiveness in the long term should be explored in additional studies. PMID:24093711

Guner, Savas; Onder, Haci; Guner, Sukriye Ilkay; Ceylan, Mehmet Fethi; Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Keskin, Siddik

2013-10-01

211

Fiber composition of the lateral plantar and superficial peroneal nerves in the rat foot.  

PubMed

This study examines the fiber composition of two nerves projecting to the rat hindpaw: the lateral plantar nerve (LPN), which innervates plantar glabrous skin and some plantar muscles, and the foot branch of the superficial peroneal nerve (fSPN), which projects to dorsal hairy skin. The LPN contains 872 (33%) myelinated axons with a size range of 1-7 microns and a peak at 4 microns. Some 200 of the myelinated axons are muscle efferents. There are 1,969 (67%) C-fibers. After neonatal capsaicin treatment, the number of C-fibers in the LPN is 61% below the normal level, but it is not significantly different from control levels after chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine. The fSPN is composed of 470 (20%) myelinated axons with a size range similar to that in the LPN. Virtually all myelinated fibers are sensory. There are 1,791 (80%) C-fibers. In neonatally capsaicin-treated animals, the occurrence of C-fibers is 65% below control levels. In chemically sympathectomized animals, the number of C-fibers in the fSPN is normal. This description of the fiber composition of the LPN and the fSPN in the rat provides a basis for future experimental studies. PMID:8092492

Povlsen, B; Stankovic, N; Danielsson, P; Hildebrand, C

1994-05-01

212

Influence of dorsiflexion shoes on neuromuscular fatigue of the plantar flexors after combined tapping-jumping exercises in volleyball players.  

PubMed

Dorsiflexion shoes could be useful to increase jumping performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of wearing shoes inducing moderate dorsiflexion (2°) on neuromuscular fatigue induced by volleyball exercises involving multiple stretch-shortening cycles. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, and plantar flexors isometric voluntary and evoked contractile properties were assessed in 10 unfamiliarized trained volleyball players before and after a 10-minute intensive combined tapping-jumping volleyball exercise performed, in blinded randomized conditions, with neutral (0°) or moderate dorsiflexion (2°). No significant difference was observed on SJ performance in neutral and moderate dorsiflexion conditions. However, CMJ height was initially lower with 2° dorsiflexion compared with 0° (p < 0.05). Height in CMJ was increased after exercise with 2° dorsiflexion shoes and remained unchanged in neutral 0° condition. Combined tapping-jumping volleyball exercise also induced a significant decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (p < 0.001), peak-twitch torque (p = 0.009), contraction time (p < 0.001) and twitch relaxation rate (p = 0.001) values without any significant difference between neutral and dorsiflexion conditions. Voluntary activation level (p = 0.014) and rate of force development (p = 0.05) were also decreased in both conditions. In conclusion, acute moderate dorsiflexion had no effect on jumping performance and neuromuscular fatigue in unfamiliarized trained subjects and altered the elastic energy store in plyometric condition (CMJ). Future studies are necessary to investigate the chronic effect of moderate dorsiflexion on jumping performance and neuromuscular fatigue in trained volleyball players. PMID:23085976

Lapole, Thomas; Ahmaidi, Said; Gaillien, Benjamin; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

2013-07-01

213

Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Plantar Warts; Randomized Comparative Open Trial in Comparison with Cryo-Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Various therapeutic modalities, which are available for treating plantar wart, have not been successful every time. Aims: To evaluate topical adapalene under occlusion in the treatment of plantar warts and compare it with cryo-therapy. Materials and Methods: 50 patients with 424 plantar warts were included in this single center, two arm, prospective, randomized, control, open study. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups consisting of 25 patients each. Group A patients having 299 plantar warts were treated using adapalene gel 0.1% under occlusion while Group B patients having 125 warts were treated using cryo-therapy. All the patients were evaluated weekly till the clearance of all the warts and the results compared. Result: All the warts of 25 patients of Group A that were treated using adapalene gel 0.1% cleared in 36.71 ± 19.24 (55.95-17.47) days except those in one patient. In Group B, warts in all except one treated by cryo-therapy cleared in 52.17 ± 30.06 (82.23-22.11) days. There were no side effects like scar formation, irritation, erythema, or infections with adapalene group while in the cryo group scar was seen in 2 patients, pain in 24, erythema in 10, and infection in 3 patients. Conclusion: Adapalene gel 0.1% under occlusion is an effective, safe and easy to use treatment for plantar warts and may help clear lesions faster than cryo-therapy.

Gupta, Ramji; Gupta, Sarthak

2015-01-01

214

The effects of fatigue of the plantar flexors on peak torque and voluntary activation in untrained and resistance-trained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of fatigue of the plantar flexors on peak torque and voluntary activation in untrained (UT) and resistance-trained (RT) men. Six men with no previous resistance training experience and 8 men with similar histories of chronic resistance training (9.8 ± 5.9 years, 3.8 ± 0.7 days/week) volunteered for this study. Subjects performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) before and immediately after unilateral dynamic isotonic contractions performed at 40% of MVC until volitional exhaustion. Voluntary activation of the plantar flexors was assessed using the interpolated twitch method (ITT) and central activation ratio (CAR). Surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) was measured during the MVC. There were significant reductions in MVC torque in both UT and RT groups after the fatiguing exercise (-10.7 ± 6.8%, p < 0.02; -9.1 ± 8.7%, p < 0.02, respectively), with no difference in the number of repetitions performed between groups. The UT and RT men experienced a significant decrease in ITT after the fatiguing exercise bout (-14.2 ± 11.8%, p = 0.03; -7.8 ± 9.3%, p = 0.045, respectively). The UT group experienced a significant decrease in CAR (99.5 ± 0.8% to 91.4 ± 6.4%, p = 0.025) with no change (p > 0.05) in the RT group. There was also a fatigue-induced decrease in normalized EMG amplitude for the soleus and MG muscles in both groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were determined between groups for ITT, CAR, or EMG. Despite similar reductions in MVC torque postexercise, the UT men had a significant decrease in CAR and experienced nearly twice the decline in ITT than the RT men. These results indicate that the neural adaptations associated with chronic resistance training may lead to less susceptibility to central fatigue as measured by ITT and CAR. PMID:20512071

Hartman, Michael J; Ryan, Eric D; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Michael G

2011-02-01

215

Buy good shoes that fit well. Shoes should fit snugly in the heel so that the foot does not slide back and forth  

E-print Network

Buy good shoes that fit well. Shoes should fit snugly in the heel so that the foot does not slide drug store. Bring some to school with you. 3. Seek medical help early for problems. Redness, heat, pain

Virginia Tech

216

Cálculo do índice do arco plantar de staheli e a prevalência de pés planos: estudo em 100 crianças entre 5 e 9 anos de idade  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The authors studied 100 normal children from the general population of both genders with ages ranging from 5 to 9 years old in order to evaluate the plantar arch index and the flat-feet prevalence. The flat-feet evaluation was obtained by means of the footprint and the plantar arch index (IP), which establishes the ratio between central and posterior regions

Arnaldo José Hernandez; Luiz Koichi Kimura; Marcos Henrique Ferreira Laraya; Edimar Fávaro

2007-01-01

217

The relation between bone mineral density in the heel and pixel intensity in the mandibular jaw bone among elderly women  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between pixel intensity (PI) in digital radiographs of the lower jaw and bone mineral density (BMD) in the heels of post-menopausal women (as measured with DXL, a combination of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and lasers). Methods Two intraoral periapical digital radiographs were taken in the right and left mandible premolar region, and the digital images were analysed by a computer program (Dimaxis) regarding PI. As the radiographs were taken, the BMD of the patient's left heel was measured via a portable Calscan device. The patient answered a questionnaire concerning risk factors. The correlation between variables was analysed using statistical tests. Results A significant correlation was found between the PI in the left (P = 0.001) and right (P = 0.004) mandible and the BMD of the left heel for the whole group. A pronounced correlation was found to exist for women > 70 years old. Based on a cut-off value of the PI, to differentiate between healthy individuals and those who required further analysis for osteoporosis, the following values were obtained: sensitivity 0.74, specificity 0.50, positive predictive value 0.77 and negative predictive value 0.46. Conclusion A positive correlation was found between PI in digital radiographs of the mandible and the BMD of the heel. The low predictive value does not allow any definite conclusions to be drawn from the present study. A reasonable recommendation could be for future studies to employ a larger study population to explore the effect on this value. PMID:20841458

Hedström, L; Baigi, A; Bergh, H

2010-01-01

218

Forefoot structural predictors of plantar pressures during walking in people with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Various foot structures are thought to influence forefoot plantar pressures during walking. High peak plantar pressures (PPP) during walking in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN) can cause skin breakdown. The question addressed by this study is "What are the primary forefoot structural factors that predict regional PPP during walking in groups of people with and without DM and PN?" Twenty people with DM and PN (mean age 55+/-9 years, 6 female, 14 male, BMI=33+/-8) and 20 people without DM, matched for gender, age, and BMI were tested. Measures of foot structure were taken from three-dimensional images constructed from spiral X-ray computed tomography. Peak plantar pressure data were recorded during walking. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to predict regional PPP at the great toe and five metatarsal heads from selected structural and walking variables. Metatarsal phalangeal joint angle (hammer toe deformity) was the most important variable predicting pressure, accounting for 19-45% of the PPP variance at five of the six locations in the DM group. Soft tissue thickness, hallux valgus, and forefoot arthropathy were the most important predictors of PPP in the control group. Combinations of structural and walking variables accounted for 47-71% of the variance in the DM group and 52-83% of the variance of PPP during walking in the control group. These structural variables, especially hammer toe deformity, should be considered in attempts to develop strategies to reduce excessive forefoot PPP that may contribute to skin breakdown or other injury. PMID:12757810

Mueller, Michael J; Hastings, Mary; Commean, Paul K; Smith, Kirk E; Pilgram, Thomas K; Robertson, Douglas; Johnson, Jeffrey

2003-07-01

219

Clinical determinants of plantar forces and pressures during walking in older people.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which clinical tests of structural characteristics of the foot and ankle could account for variation in the magnitude of regional forces and pressures under the foot during walking in older people. Plantar forces and pressures were obtained from 172 older people (53 men, 119 women) aged 62-96 years (mean 80.0, S.D. 6.4) using a floor-mounted resistive sensor mat system. Subjects also completed tests of foot posture, range of motion, strength, sensation and toe deformity. Multiple regression analysis was then used to determine which clinical variables were most strongly correlated with plantar forces and pressures. Maximum forces and peak pressures under most regions of the foot were largely explained by differences in bodyweight, with some important exceptions. Loading under the midfoot was associated with the arch index, loading under the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MPJ) was associated with 1st MPJ range of motion, and loading under the hallux was associated with hallux plantarflexor strength, 1st MPJ range of motion and the degree of hallux valgus deformity. Clinical measurements accounted for 13-53% of the variance in maximum force and 4-40% of the variance in peak pressures. These findings indicate that structural foot and ankle characteristics identified from clinical measurements can explain some key aspects of plantar loading patterns of the foot. This information provides further insights into the dynamic function of the foot, which might assist in the development of interventions for pressure-related foot complaints in older people. PMID:16214340

Menz, Hylton B; Morris, Meg E

2006-10-01

220

A survey of offloading practices for diabetes-related plantar neuropathic foot ulcers  

PubMed Central

Background Offloading is key to preventing or healing plantar neuropathic foot ulcers in diabetes. Total contact casts or walkers rendered irremovable are recommended in guidelines as first-line options for offloading, however the use of such devices has been found to be low. This study aimed to investigate offloading practices for diabetes-related plantar neuropathic ulcers. Methods An online survey of closed and open-ended questions was administered via SurveyMonkey®. Forty-one podiatrists experienced in high-risk foot practice, from 21 high-risk foot services around Australia, were approached to participate. Results The response rate was 88%. Participants reported using 21 modalities or combinations of modalities, for offloading this ulcer type. The most frequently used modalities under the forefoot and hallux were felt padding, followed by removable casts or walkers, then non-removable casts or walkers. Participants indicated that many factors were considered when selecting offloading modality, including: compliance, risk of adverse effects, psycho-social factors, restrictions on activities of daily living, work needs and features of the wound. The majority of participants (83%) considered non-removable casts or walkers to be the gold-standard for offloading this ulcer type, however they reported numerous, particularly patient-related, barriers to their use. Conclusions Selecting offloading for the management of foot ulceration is complex. Felt padding, not the gold-standard non-removable cast or walker, was reported as the most commonly selected modality for offloading plantar neuropathic ulceration. However, further evaluation of felt padding in high quality clinical trials is required to ascertain its effectiveness for ulcer healing. PMID:25694793

2014-01-01

221

Plantar loading during jumping while wearing a rigid carbon graphite footplate.  

PubMed

Fifth metatarsal stress fractures are common in sports and often result in delayed and non-union. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a rigid carbon graphite footplate (CGF) on plantar loading during take-off and landing from a jump. Nineteen recreational male athletes with no history of lower extremity injury in the past 6 months and no foot or ankle surgery in the past 3 years participated in this study. Subjects completed 7 jumping tasks while wearing a standard running shoe and then the shoe plus the CGF while plantar loading data was recorded. A series of paired t-tests were used to examine differences between the two footwear conditions independently for both takeoff and landing (a = 0.05). The contact area in the medial midfoot (p < .001) and forefoot (p = .010) statistically decreased when wearing the CGFP. The force–time integral was significantly greater when wearing the CGFP in the middle (p < .001) and lateral forefoot (p = .019). Maximum force was significantly greater beneath the middle (p < .001) and lateral forefoot (p < .001) when wearing the CGFP, while it was decreased beneath the medial midfoot (p < .001). During landing, the contact area beneath the medial (p = .017) and lateral midfoot (p = .004) were significantly decreased when wearing the CGFP. The force– time integral was significantly decrease beneath the medial midfoot (p < .001) when wearing the CGFP. The maximum force was significantly greater beneath the medial (p = .047) and middle forefoot (p = .001) when the subject was wearing the CGFP. The maximum force beneath the medial midfoot (p < .001) was significantly reduced when wearing the carbon graphite footplate. The results of the study indicate that the CGF is ineffective at reducing plantar loading during jumping and landing. PMID:24611163

Queen, Robin M; Verma, Ravi; Abbey, Alicia N; Nunley, James A; Butler, Robert J

2014-02-01

222

Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lesioning When Treating Recalcitrant Plantar Fasciitis: Clinical Results.  

PubMed

Purpose: We evaluated the effects of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lesioning (RTL) and the impact of obesity when treating patients with recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Materials and Methods: 30 consecutive patients were enrolled. The visual analog scale (VAS), American Orthopedic Foot-Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score, and plantar fascia thickness measured using US were recorded at baseline and at follow-up 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery under local anesthesia. Results: 12 patients in the obese (BMI ??30?kg/m(2)) group and 18 patients in the non-obese group.?There were significant postoperative decreases in VAS scores and in fascial thickness, and an increase in the AOFAS scores (all p?Plantar fascial thickness was correlated with VAS and AOFAS scores. PMID:25389914

Wu, P T; Lee, J S; Wu, K C; Wu, T T; Shao, C J; Liang, F W; Chern, T C; Su, F C; Jou, I M

2014-11-12

223

Can passive stretch inhibit motoneuron facilitation in the human plantar flexors?  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible inhibitory effect of passive plantar flexor muscle stretching on the motoneuron facilitatory system. Achilles tendon vibration (70 Hz) and triceps surae electrical stimulation (20 Hz) were imposed simultaneously in 11 subjects to elicit contraction through reflexive pathways in two experiments. In experiment 1, a vibration-stimulation protocol was implemented with the ankle joint plantar flexed (+10°), neutral (0°), and dorsiflexed (-10°). In experiment 2, the vibration-stimulation protocol was performed twice before (control), then immediately, 5, 10, and 15 min after a 5-min intermittent muscle stretch protocol. Plantar flexor torque and medial and lateral gastrocnemius and soleus (EMGSol) EMG amplitudes measured during and after (i.e., self-sustained motor unit firing) the vibration protocol were used as an indicator of this facilitatory pathway. In experiment 1, vibration torque, self-sustained torque and EMGSol were higher with the ankle at -10° compared with 0° and +10°, suggesting that this method is valid to assess motoneuronal facilitation. In experiment 2, torque during vibration was reduced by ?60% immediately after stretch and remained depressed by ?35% at 5 min after stretch (P < 0.05). Self-sustained torque was also reduced by ?65% immediately after stretch (P < 0.05) but recovered by 5 min. Similarly, medial gastrocnemius EMG during vibration was reduced by ?40% immediately after stretch (P < 0.05), and EMGSol during the self-sustained torque period was reduced by 44% immediately after stretch (P < 0.05). In conclusion, passive stretch negatively affected the motoneuronal amplification for at least 5 min, suggesting that motoneuron disfacilitation is a possible mechanism influencing the stretch-induced torque loss. PMID:25342705

Trajano, Gabriel S; Seitz, Laurent B; Nosaka, Kazunori; Blazevich, Anthony J

2014-12-15

224

Range of motion, neuromechanical, and architectural adaptations to plantar flexor stretch training in humans.  

PubMed

The neuromuscular adaptations in response to muscle stretch training have not been clearly described. In the present study, changes in muscle (at fascicular and whole muscle levels) and tendon mechanics, muscle activity, and spinal motoneuron excitability were examined during standardized plantar flexor stretches after 3 wk of twice daily stretch training (4 × 30 s). No changes were observed in a nonexercising control group (n = 9), however stretch training elicited a 19.9% increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and a 28% increase in passive joint moment at end ROM (n = 12). Only a trend toward a decrease in passive plantar flexor moment during stretch (-9.9%; P = 0.15) was observed, and no changes in electromyographic amplitudes during ROM or at end ROM were detected. Decreases in H(max):M(max) (tibial nerve stimulation) were observed at plantar flexed (gastrocnemius medialis and soleus) and neutral (soleus only) joint angles, but not with the ankle dorsiflexed. Muscle and fascicle strain increased (12 vs. 23%) along with a decrease in muscle stiffness (-18%) during stretch to a constant target joint angle. Muscle length at end ROM increased (13%) without a change in fascicle length, fascicle rotation, tendon elongation, or tendon stiffness following training. A lack of change in maximum voluntary contraction moment and rate of force development at any joint angle was taken to indicate a lack of change in series compliance of the muscle-tendon unit. Thus, increases in end ROM were underpinned by increases in maximum tolerable passive joint moment (stretch tolerance) and both muscle and fascicle elongation rather than changes in volitional muscle activation or motoneuron pool excitability. PMID:24947023

Blazevich, A J; Cannavan, D; Waugh, C M; Miller, S C; Thorlund, J B; Aagaard, P; Kay, A D

2014-09-01

225

A comparison of the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave and ultrasound therapy in the management of heel pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and ultrasound therapy (US) for managing heel pain. Thirty-seven subjects received either: ESWT (once a week), US (three times a week), or CONTROL (no treatment) for 3 consecutive weeks and were followed-up for 3 more weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS), the maximum tolerable duration for prolonged walking or standing, and the Mayo clinical scoring system (MCSS) were evaluated. Mixed models treating baseline measures as covariates were adopted for statistical analysis. By week 3, intensity of heel pain on palpation was reduced by 37% (VAS score from 7.5 to 4.6) in the ESWT group, 24% (from 5.3 to 4.2) in the US group, and increased by 3% (5.6-5.7) in the control group; this difference was significant after adjusting for baseline VAS scores ( p = 0.022). The improvements in the maximum tolerable duration of prolonged walking or standing was only significant in the ESWT group (157% increase, p = 0.043) but not the other two groups. Both active treatment groups maintained the treatment effect at the three-week follow-up. We conclude that ESWT is potentially more effective in reducing heel pain than ultrasound therapy but additional evidence is needed due to the various limitations of the study.

Cheing, G. L. Y.; Chang, H.; Lo, S. K.

2007-11-01

226

Anatomy and Biomechanical Properties of the Plantar Aponeurosis: A Cadaveric Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) and its biomechanical effects on the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and foot arch. Methods Anatomic parameters (length, width and thickness of each central PA bundle and the main body of the central part) were measured in 8 cadaveric specimens. The ratios of the length and width of each bundle to the length and width of the central part were used to describe these bundles. Six cadaveric specimens were used to measure the range of motion of the first MTP joint before and after releasing the first bundle of the PA. Another 6 specimens were used to evaluate simulated static weight-bearing. Changes in foot arch height and plantar pressure were measured before and after dividing the first bundle. Results The average width and thickness of the origin of the central part at the calcaneal tubercle were 15.45 mm and 2.79 mm respectively. The ratio of the length of each bundle to the length of the central part was (from medial to lateral) 0.29, 0.30, 0.28, 0.25, and 0.27, respectively. Similarly, the ratio of the widths was 0.26, 0.25, 0.23, 0.19 and 0.17. The thickness of each bundle at the bifurcation of the PA into bundles was (from medial to lateral) 1.26 mm, 1.04 mm, 0.91 mm, 0.84 mm and 0.72 mm. The average dorsiflexion of the first MTP joint increased 10.16° after the first bundle was divided. Marked acute changes in the foot arch height and the plantar pressure were not observed after division. Conclusions The first PA bundle was not the longest, widest, or the thickest bundle. Releasing the first bundle increased the range of motion of the first MTP joint, but did not acutely change foot arch height or plantar pressure during static load testing. PMID:24392127

Chen, Da-wei; Li, Bing; Aubeeluck, Ashwin; Yang, Yun-feng; Huang, Yi-gang; Zhou, Jia-qian; Yu, Guang-rong

2014-01-01

227

EM-21 ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROGRAM FOR SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary studies in the EM-21 Alternative Chemical Cleaning Program have focused on understanding the dissolution of Hematite (a primary sludge heel phase) in oxalic acid, with a focus on minimizing oxalic acid usage. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control, preferably using a supplemental proton source, is critical to oxalate minimization. With pH control, iron concentrations as high as 0.103 M have been obtained in 0.11 M oxalic acid. This is consistent with the formation of a 1:1 (iron:oxalate) complex. The solubility of Hematite in oxalic acid has been confirmed to increase by a factor of 3 when the final solution pH decreases from 5 to below 1. This is consistent with literature predictions of a shift in speciation from a 1:3 to 1:1 as the pH is lowered. Above a solution pH of 6, little Hematite dissolves. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid.

Hay, M.; King, W.; Martino, C.

2009-12-18

228

Immunoediting and Antigen Loss: Overcoming the Achilles Heel of Immunotherapy with Antigen Non-Specific Therapies  

PubMed Central

Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a mainstream therapy option in the battle against cancer. Pre-clinical data demonstrates the ability of immunotherapy to harness the immune system to fight disseminated malignancy. Clinical translation has failed to recapitulate the promising results of pre-clinical studies although there have been some successes. In this review we explore some of the short-comings of cancer immunotherapy that have limited successful clinical translation. We will give special consideration to what we consider the most formidable hurdle to successful cancer immunotherapy: tumor-induced immune suppression and immune escape. We will discuss the need for antigen-specific immune responses for successful immunotherapy but also consider the need for antigen specificity as an Achilles heel of immunotherapy given tumor heterogeneity, immune editing, and antigen loss. Finally, we will discuss how combinatorial strategies may overcome some of the pitfalls of antigen specificity and highlight recent studies from our lab which suggest that the induction of antigen non-specific immune responses may also produce robust anti-tumor effects and bypass the need for antigen specificity. PMID:23898464

Monjazeb, Arta Monir; Zamora, Anthony E.; Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Mirsoian, Annie; Sckisel, Gail D.; Murphy, William J.

2013-01-01

229

EM-31 ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROGRAM FOR SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL - 11220  

SciTech Connect

Mixtures of oxalic acid with nitric acid have been shown to be superior to oxalic acid alone for the dissolution of iron-rich High Level Waste sludge heels. Optimized conditions resulting in minimal oxalate usage and stoichiometric iron dissolution (based on added oxalate ion) have been determined for hematite (a primary sludge iron phase) in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures. The acid mixtures performed better than expected based on the solubility of hematite in the individual acids through a synergistic effect in which the preferred 1:1 Fe:oxalate complex is formed. This allows for the minimization of oxalate additions to the waste stream. Carbon steel corrosion rates were measured in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures to evaluate the impacts of chemical cleaning with these solutions on waste tank integrity. Manageable corrosion rates were observed in the concentration ranges of interest for an acid contact timescale of 1 month. Kinetics tests involving hematite and gibbsite (a primary sludge aluminum phase) have confirmed that {ge}90% solids dissolution occurs within 3 weeks. Based on these results, the chemical cleaning conditions recommended to promote minimal oxalate usage and manageable corrosion include: 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid/0.175 M nitric acid mixture, 50 C, 2-3 week contact time with agitation.

King, W.; Hay, M.; Wiersma, B.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-12-10

230

Chronic Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Learn more. Doctors ...

231

Instrument-assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization: Effects on the Properties of Human Plantar Flexors.  

PubMed

The effect of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (ISTM) on passive properties and inflammation in human skeletal muscle has not been evaluated. Passive properties of muscle, inflammatory myokines and subjective reporting of functional ability were used to identify the effects of ISTM on the plantar flexors. 11 healthy men were measured for passive musculotendinous stiffness (MTS), passive range of motion (PROM), passive resistive torque (PASTQ) and maximum voluntary contraction peak torque (MVCPT) for plantar flexor muscles of the lower leg. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were measured from muscle biopsies from the gastrocnemius, and subjective measurements of functional ability were taken using the perception of functional ability questionnaire (PFAQ). MTS, PROM, PRT and MVCPT were measured in the treatment leg (TL) and control leg (CL) before, immediately after, 24?h, 48?h and 72?h following IASTM. Biopsies for IL-6 and TNF-? and PFAQ responses were collected before as well as 24?h, 48?h and 72?h after IASTM. There were no significant differences in MTS, PROM, PASTQ, MVCPT, IL-6 and TNF-? between the TL or CL. A significant decrease in the perception of function and a significant increase in pain for the TL were found following IASTM. PMID:25347141

Vardiman, J P; Siedlik, J; Herda, T; Hawkins, W; Cooper, M; Graham, Z A; Deckert, J; Gallagher, P

2014-10-27

232

Decreased foot inversion force and increased plantar surface after maximal incremental running exercise.  

PubMed

Formulating the hypothesis that a maximal running exercise could induce fatigue of some foot muscles, we searched for electromyographic (EMG) signs of fatigue in the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles. We also searched for post-exercise alterations of the stationary upright standing in normal-arched feet subjects. Healthy subjects performed a maximal running exercise. Surface EMGs of the TA, PL, and GM muscles were analysed during maximal dynamic efforts. Before and after the running bout, we measured the evoked compound muscle potential (M-wave) in TA, the maximal force into inversion (MIF), and the repartition of the plantar and barycentre surfaces with a computerised stationary platform. During maximal running exercise, the median frequency of the EMG spectra declined in TA while it remained stable in the PL and GM muscles. After the exercise, MIF decreased, and both the rearfoot plantar surface and the barycentre surface increased. We concluded that a maximal running bout elicits EMG signs of fatigue, though only in the TA muscle. It also elicits post-exercise changes in the foot position during stationary upright standing which indicates a foot eversion. These data solely concern a maximal running test and they can not be extrapolated to walking or running at a low speed. PMID:23313412

Vie, Bruno; Brerro-Saby, Christelle; Weber, Jean Paul; Jammes, Yves

2013-06-01

233

Evidence of Preserved Oxidative Capacity and Oxygen Delivery in the Plantar Flexor Muscles With Age.  

PubMed

Studies examining the effect of aging on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity have yielded equivocal results; however, these investigations may have been confounded by differences in oxygen (O2) delivery, physical activity, and small numbers of participants. Therefore, we evaluated skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and O2 delivery in a relatively large group (N = 40) of young (22 ± 2 years) and old (73 ± 7 years) participants matched for physical activity. After submaximal dynamic plantar flexion exercise, phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis ((31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy), muscle reoxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy), and popliteal artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) were measured. The phosphocreatine recovery time constant (Tau) (young: 33 ± 16; old: 30 ± 11 seconds), maximal rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis (young: 25 ± 9; old: 27 ± 8 mM/min), and muscle reoxygenation rates determined by the deoxyhemoglobin/myoglobin recovery Tau (young: 48 ± 5; old: 47 ± 9 seconds) were similar between groups. Similarly, although tending to be higher in the old, there were no significant age-related differences in postexercise popliteal blood flow (area under the curve: young: 1,665 ± 227 vs old: 2,404 ± 357mL, p = .06) and convective O2 delivery (young: 293 ± 146 vs old: 404 ± 191 mL, p = .07). In conclusion, when physical activity and O2 delivery are similar, oxidative capacity in the plantar flexors is not affected by aging. These findings reveal that diminished skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is not an obligatory accompaniment to the aging process. PMID:25165028

Hart, Corey R; Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel D; Liu, Xin; Kim, Seong-Eun; Groot, H Jonathan; Le Fur, Yann; Sorensen, Jacob R; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

2014-08-27

234

[Dynamic plantar pressure distribution after percutaneous hallux valgus correction using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy.  

PubMed

Percutaneous surgical techniques are suitable for the correction of the hallux valgus deformity. Satisfactory aesthetic and functional results obtained with the Reverdin- Isham osteotomy have been reported. The aim of this study was to describe dynamic plantar pressure redistribution after the correction of the deformity using this technique. A sample of 20 feet with mild or moderate hallux valgus was conformed and surgically treated using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy. Clinical, radiological, surface and pressure assessments were performed pre and postoperatively. Postoperative mean (± SD) values of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, metatarsophalangeal, first intermetatarsal and proximal articular sect angles were 95.7 (3.3), 15.5° (5.4), 9.5° (1.5) y 5.3° (3.0), respectively. A significant decrease was observed in surface values of both lateral (P = 0.003) and medial (P = 0.001) masks of the forefoot. Mean pressure values of the lateral forefoot region denoted a significant increase (P < 0.001) while the medial forefoot region showed no change (P = 0.137). There is evidence that this particular surgical technique promotes a new plantar pressure pattern in the foot that might significantly favour the increase of the pressure observed under the lesser metatarsal heads and might not induce meaningful changes in the mean pressure registered under the first metatarsal head and hallux. PMID:25264801

Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; López-Gavito, Eduardo; Pérez-Sanpablo, Alberto Isaac; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín; Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Parra-Téllez, Patricia; Vázquez-Escamilla, Jesús; Quiñones-Urióstegui, Ivett

2014-07-01

235

Rotational flap closure of first and fifth metatarsal head plantar ulcers: adjunctive procedure when performing first or fifth ray amputation.  

PubMed

Partial ray amputation is a common treatment of diabetes-related neuropathic ulcers located beneath the metatarsal heads. The standard incision for partial first or fifth ray amputation involves a tennis racket incision, with the proximal arm made mid-line along the respective medial or lateral side of the metatarsal head and neck, creating equal dorsal and plantar flaps. This incision works well when the ulcer is located within the excised soft tissue distal to the incision or when the plantar ulcer is superficial and will heal secondarily once the underlying bone has been removed. This standard first or fifth ray amputation incision does not, however, allow excision and closure of plantar ulcers located beneath the first or fifth metatarsal head. Two cases are presented to demonstrate our surgical protocol for partial first or fifth ray amputation using a local rotational flap to cover plantar metatarsal head ulcers. These cases highlight our patient selection criteria, staging protocol when cellulitis or abscess is present, rotational flap design, surgical technique pearls, and the typical postoperative healing progress. PMID:23246295

Boffeli, Troy J; Peterson, Matthew C

2013-01-01

236

Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37 athletes (17 male and 20 female) were recruited for this

Johannes I. Wiegerinck; Jennifer Boyd; Jordan C. Yoder; Alicia N. Abbey; James A. Nunley; Robin M. Queen

2009-01-01

237

Ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexion torques measured by dynamometry in healthy subjects from 5 to 80?years  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle strength is often impaired in some of the most common neuromuscular disorders. Consequently, strength generated around this joint is important to assess, because it has a great impact on balance and gait. The objectives of this study were to establish normative data and predictive equations for both ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexion strength from a population of healthy subjects (children and adults), to assess the reliability of the measurements and to study the feasibility of using a novel dynamometer on a group of patients with a neuromuscular disorder. Methods Measurements of maximal isometric torque for dorsi- and plantar-flexion were performed on 345 healthy subjects from 5 to 80?years of age. The feasibility of the method was tested on nine patients diagnosed with type 2A limb girdle muscular dystrophy. Results The results documented normal strength values depending on gender and age on ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexion. The reliability of the technique was good with no evaluator effect and a small learning effect. The dynamometer was found suitable in the group of patients, even very weak. Conclusions The device developed was both reliable and accurate in assessing both ankle dorsi-flexion and plantar-flexion torque measurements from weak patients and children to strong healthy adults. Norms and predictive equations are provided for these two muscle functions. PMID:23522186

2013-01-01

238

A comparison of hallux valgus angles assessed with computerised plantar pressure measurements, clinical examination and radiography in patients with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Hallux valgus deformity is a common musculoskeletal foot disorder with a prevalence of 3.5% in adolescents to 35.7% in adults aged over 65 years. Radiographic measurements of hallux valgus angles (HVA) are considered to be the most reproducible and accurate assessment of HVA. However, in European countries, many podiatrists do not have direct access to radiographic facilities. Therefore, alternative measurements are desired. Such measurements are computerised plantar pressure measurement and clinical goniometry. The purpose of this study was to establish the agreement of these techniques and radiographic assessments. Methods HVA was determined in one hundred and eighty six participants suffering from diabetes. Radiographic measurements of HVA were performed with standardised static weight bearing dorsoplantar foot radiographs. The clinical goniometry for HVA was measured with a universal goniometer. Computerised plantar pressure measurement for HVA was executed with the EMED SF-4® pressure platform and Novel-Ortho-Geometry software. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and levels of agreement were analysed using Bland & Altman plots. Results Comparison of radiographic measurements to clinical goniometry for HVA showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 0.86; p<0.001). Radiographic measurement versus computerised plantar pressure measurement showed an ICC of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.68; p<0.001). In addition, clinical goniometry versus computerised plantar pressure measurement showed an ICC of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.82; p<0.001). The systematic difference of the computerised plantar pressure measurement compared with radiographic measurement and clinical goniometry was 7.0 degrees (SD 6.8) and 5.2 degrees (SD 5.0), respectively. The systemic difference of radiographic measurements compared with clinical goniometry was 1.8 degrees (SD 5.0). Conclusions The agreement of computerised plantar pressure measurement and clinical goniometry for HVA compared to radiographic measurement of HVA is unsatisfactory. Radiographic measurements of HVA and clinical goniometry for HVA yield better agreement compared to radiographic measurements and computerised plantar pressure measurement. The traditional radiographic measurement techniques are strongly recommended for the assessment of HVA. PMID:25075224

2014-01-01

239

The use of a kickstand modification for the prevention of heel decubitus ulcers in trauma patients with lower extremity external fixation.  

PubMed

External fixation is frequently used to manage patients with lower extremity trauma. Excessive pressure from contact surfaces must be avoided to prevent added morbidity from heel ulcers. The purpose of this article is to present a simple solution to off-load the heel by adding a "kickstand" to the external fixator. The kickstand modification is designed to prevent breakdown of the soft tissue covering of the heel that can complicate the treatment of the initial injury and may also result in calcaneal osteomyelitis. By preventing such damage, the kickstand modification may also help to avoid radical procedures for soft tissue coverage, prolonged treatment times, and, ultimately, amputations. The kickstand device is made by adapting 2 extra rods and clamps to the primary external fixator to obtain proper clearance of the heel when the foot is resting over a surface. In cases where traditional off-loading devices are difficult to apply and can interfere with proper wound care, the kickstand might provide a useful preventive solution. From January to August 2006, we applied this technique in 10 patients with lower extremity trauma (11 fractures) and have seen no heel ulcers or other complications as per the staging system from the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. PMID:19169108

Castro-Aragon, Oscar E; Rapley, Jay H; Trevino, Saul G

2009-02-01

240

The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?  

PubMed

Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an 'inverted pendulum', with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic 'M'-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse-vault-impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the 'M'-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel-sole-toe stance; it is maintained in tip-toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure--with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front--enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel-sole-toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all--largely avoiding the 'cost of muscle force'--during the passive vaulting phase. PMID:22572024

Usherwood, J R; Channon, A J; Myatt, J P; Rankin, J W; Hubel, T Y

2012-10-01

241

Platelet-rich plasma application in the management of chronic tendinopathies.  

PubMed

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may represent a new therapeutic option for chronic tendinopathies. Platelets release various cytokines and growth factors which promote angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and wound healing. We made an extended literature review of the use of PRP in chronic tendinopathies: epicondylitis, rotator cuff, patellar and calcaneal tendinopathies, and plantar fasciitis. Medline, Embase and Google Scholar were used (until July 31, 2012). Clinical studies on PRP and tendinopathies published in English and French language peer-reviewed journals were included. Articles with a high level of evidence were given special consideration. Despite the proven efficacy of PRP on tissue regeneration in experimental studies, there is currently scanty tangible clinical evidence with respect to its efficacy in chronic tendon disorders. The few studies that have been performed appear unlikely to be comparable. Randomized controlled studies with appropriate placebo groups are needed to determine the real effectiveness of PRP for treating chronic musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:23547508

Kaux, Jean-François; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

2013-02-01

242

Chronic kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... kidney disease. If it worsens to end-stage renal disease , and how ... Kidney failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. ...

243

Plantar Fasciitis  

MedlinePLUS

... stand. Are there any exercises that will help? Stretching exercises for your foot are important. Do the stretches ... the arch supports and taking other measures? If stretching, arch supports, medicine and exercises don't help, your doctor can suggest other ...

244

Experience with extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this presentation is to summarize the literature and to report on single treatment, high-energy ESWT for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis and lateral epicondylitis. Fifty-three patients (60 heels) were treated with 3800 shock waves. Sixteen patients (19 heels) were active, 21 (22 heels), were moderately active, and 16 (19 heels) were sedentary. Twelve weeks post treatment, mean visual analog scores (VAS) for the entire group improved from 9.2 to 2.4 (p<0.05), RAND-Physical Functioning score improved from 40.4 to 91.5 (p<0.05), and RAND-Pain score improved from 33.3 to 90 (p<0.05). Fifty heels (83.3%) were assigned an excellent or good result. Thirty-six patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with 3200 shock waves. There were 9 workers compensation and 27 non-workers compensation patients. Twelve weeks post treatment, the mean VAS for the entire group improved from 8.0 to 2.5 (p<0.05), and the mean RAND-Physical Functioning score improved from 65.6 to 88.0 (p<0.05). Twenty-eight elbows (77.8%) were assigned an excellent or good result. In both trials, outcome was similar for each subgroup. There were no significant complications in either trial. Using the therapeutic parameters applied, ESWT is a safe and effective treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis and lateral epicondylitis.

Furia, John P.

2005-04-01

245

Plantar Pressure as a Risk Assessment Tool for Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Egyptian Patients with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Diabetic foot ulceration is a preventable long-term complication of diabetes. In the present study, peak plantar pressures (PPP) and other characteristics were assessed in a group of 100 Egyptian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers. The aim was to study the relationship between plantar pressure (PP) and neuropathy with or without ulceration and trying to clarify the utility of pedobarography as an ulceration risk assessment tool in patients with diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients having diabetes were selected. All patients had a comprehensive foot evaluation, including assessment for neuropathy using modified neuropathy disability score (MNDS), for peripheral vascular disease using ankle brachial index, and for dynamic foot pressures using the MAT system (Tekscan). The studied patients were grouped into: (1) diabetic control group (DC), which included 37 patients who had diabetes without neuropathy or ulceration and MNDS ?2; (2) diabetic neuropathy group (DN), which included 33 patients who had diabetes with neuropathy and MNDS >2, without current or a history of ulceration; and (3) diabetic ulcer group (DU), which included 30 patients who had diabetes and current ulceration, seven of those patients also gave a history of ulceration. RESULTS PP parameters were significantly different between the studied groups, namely, forefoot peak plantar pressure (FFPPP), rearfoot peak plantar pressure (RFPPP), forefoot/rearfoot ratio (F/R), forefoot peak pressure gradient (FFPPG) rearfoot peak pressure gradient (RFPPG), and forefoot peak pressure gradient/rearfoot peak pressure gradient (FFPPG/RFPPG) (P < 0.05). FFPPP and F/R were significantly higher in the DU group compared to the DN and DC groups (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between DN and DC. FFPPG was significantly higher in the DU and DN groups compared to the DC group (P < 0.05). RFPPP and FFPPG/RFPPG were significantly higher in the DU and DN groups compared to the DC group (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between the DN and DU groups (P > 0.05). FFPPP, F/R ratio, FFPPG, and FFPPG/RFPPG correlated significantly with the severity of neuropathy according to MNDS (P < 0.05). These same variables as well as MNDS were also significantly higher in patients with foot deformity compared to those without deformity (P < 0.05). Using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal cut-point of PPP for ulceration risk, as determined by a balance of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 335 kPa and was found at the forefoot. Multivariate logistical regression analysis for ulceration risk was statistically significant for duration of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.8), smoking (OR = 9.7), foot deformity (OR = 8.7), MNDS (OR = 1.5), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (2 h-PPG) (OR = 0.9), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (OR = 2.1), FFPPP (OR = 1.0), and FFPPG (OR = 1.0). CONCLUSION In conclusion, persons with diabetes having neuropathy and/or ulcers have elevated PPP. Risk of ulceration was highly associated with duration of diabetes, smoking, severity of neuropathy, glycemic control, and high PP variables especially the FFPPP, F/R, and FFPPG. We suggest a cut-point of 355 kPa for FFPPP to denote high risk for ulceration that would be more valid when used in conjunction with other contributory risk factors, namely, duration of diabetes, smoking, glycemic load, foot deformity, and severity of neuropathy. PMID:25520564

Fawzy, Olfat A; Arafa, Asmaa I; El Wakeel, Mervat A; Abdul Kareem, Shaimaa H

2014-01-01

246

[Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung associated with palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis].  

PubMed

Palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis (PPH) is a diffuse keratoderma of the palms and soles that has been reported to be associated with internal malignancies such as lung and esophageal carcinomas. When PPH is associated with malignancy the prognosis is poor. The present patient was a 48-year-old man with PPH who suffered from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The pathological stage was T4N2M1 and the patient died of recurrent tumor 17 months after surgery. Because the prognosis of lung carcinoma associated with PPH is poor, patients with these conditions should undergo frequent medical examinations, which should include chest radiography and cytologic examination of sputum. PMID:8717296

Nomori, H; Horio, H; Iga, R; Fuyuno, G; Kobayashi, R; Morinaga, S

1996-01-01

247

A Hybrid Soft-computing Method for Image Analysis of Digital Plantar Scanners  

PubMed Central

Digital foot scanners have been developed in recent years to yield anthropometrists digital image of insole with pressure distribution and anthropometric information. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm containing gray level spatial correlation (GLSC) histogram and Shanbag entropy is presented for analysis of scanned foot images. An evolutionary algorithm is also employed to find the optimum parameters of GLSC and transform function of the membership values. Resulting binary images as the thresholded images are undergone anthropometric measurements taking in to account the scale factor of pixel size to metric scale. The proposed method is finally applied to plantar images obtained through scanning feet of randomly selected subjects by a foot scanner system as our experimental setup described in the paper. Running computation time and the effects of GLSC parameters are investigated in the simulation results. PMID:24083133

Razjouyan, Javad; Khayat, Omid; Siahi, Mehdi; Mansouri, Ali Alizadeh

2013-01-01

248

Alteration in neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors following caffeine ingestion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors following caffeine or placebo administration. Thirteen subjects (25?±?3 years) ingested caffeine or placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1?h after caffeine or placebo intake. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque, and neural drive to the muscles were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation was assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100?ms, 100-200?ms) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during MVC, V-wave) and peak twitch torques were evaluated. The isometric maximum voluntary torque and evoked potentials were not different. However, we found a significant difference between groups for rate of torque development in the time intervals 0-100?ms [41.1?N·m/s (95% CI: 8.3-73.9?N·m/s, P?=?0.016)] and 100-200?ms [32.8?N·m/s (95% CI: 2.8-62.8?N·m/s, P?=?0.034)]. These changes were accompanied by enhanced neural drive to the plantar flexors. Data suggest that caffeine solely increased explosive voluntary strength of the triceps surae because of enhanced neural activation at the onset of contraction whereas MVC strength was not affected. PMID:24798789

Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Heise, Sandra; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

2015-02-01

249

Use of locally made off-loading techniques for diabetic plantar foot ulcer in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying locally made pressure off-loading techniques on plantar foot ulcer in individuals with diabetes. This prospective study of 70 diabetic patients was conducted at the foot clinic of Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology. Plantar foot ulcer, stages 1A and 2A according to the University of Texas classification, was treated by using three off-loading techniques: modified foot wear (sandal), modified plaster of Paris cast with plywood platform and Scotchcast boot. The outcome was assessed at either complete wound healing (defined as complete epithelialisation) or at 12 weeks, whichever came first. Of the 70 patients, 24 were in modified foot wear group, 23 in modified plaster of Paris cast and 23 in Scotchcast boot group. There was almost equal proportion of patients healed within 12 weeks period treated with these three off-loading techniques, i.e. 22 (95·7%) for modified foot wear group, 19 (95%) for modified plaster cast and 18 (94·7%) for Scotchcast boot group. No significant difference was observed in median healing time and cumulative wound survival at 12 weeks in the three off-loading techniques. Modified foot wear group was the most cost effective ($7) amongst the three off-loading techniques. It is concluded that in this cohort, no significant difference in healing time was observed in the three off-loading techniques, although modified foot wear (sandal) was found to be a more cost-effective treatment modality. PMID:23369009

Miyan, Zahid; Ahmed, Jameel; Zaidi, Syed I; Ahmedani, Muhammad Y; Fawwad, Asher; Basit, Abdul

2014-12-01

250

Enhanced vasoconstriction to ?1-adrenoceptor stimulation during cooling in mouse cutaneous plantar arteries.  

PubMed

Cutaneous arteries are known to constrict in response to cooling via ?2C-adrenoceptors. The involvement of ?1-adrenoceptors in the cooling response has also recently been suggested by in vivo studies in mice. The present study was thus aimed to confirm it in the isolated mouse cutaneous plantar artery. Changes in vessel diameter were measured by pressurized arteriography. Myogenic constriction was induced depending on intraluminal pressure, and was nearly abolished by the Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine or by lowering bath temperature to 24°C. The ?1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine produced two-phase constriction composed of phasic and tonic components, both of which were enhanced by the cooling to 24°C. Nifedipine partly inhibited the phenylephrine constriction at 37°C, and the nifedipine-resistant constriction was further inhibited by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor xestospongin C. Although the cooling to 24°C still enhanced the phenylephrine constriction in the presence of nifedipine, the enhancement was not observed in the presence of both nifedipine and xestospongin C. In Ca(2+)-free solution, phenylephrine produced two-phase constriction at 37°C, which was abolished by 30-min treatment with thapsigargin, an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). In contrast, short-term treatment with thapsigargin for 3min rather enhanced the phenylephrine constriction in Ca(2+)-free solution at 37°C; however, the enhanced constriction by the cooling to 24°C was not further enhanced by the SERCA inhibitor. These results suggest that cooling inhibits Ca(2+) re-uptake by SERCA, thereby enhancing constriction induced by Ca(2+) released via IP3 receptors in the mouse plantar artery. PMID:25176180

Goto, Kazunori; Saito, Shin-Ya; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

2014-11-01

251

SOLID PHASE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEEL SAMPLES FROM TANK 241-C-110  

SciTech Connect

During sluicing operations of tank 241-C-110, a significant amount of solids were unable to be retrieved. These solids (often referred to as the tank 'heel') were sampled in 2010 and chemically and mineralogically analyzed in the 222-S Laboratory. Additionally, dissolution tests were performed to identify the amount of undissolvable material after using multiple water contacts. This report covers the solid phase characterization of six samples from these tests using scanning electron microscopy, polarized light microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The chemical analyses, particle size distribution analysis, and dissolution test results are reported separately. Two of the samples were from composites created from as-received material - Composite A and Composite B. The main phase in these samples was sodium-fluoride-phosphate hydrate (natrophosphate) - in the X-ray diffraction spectra, this phase was the only phase identifiable. Polarized light microscopy showed the presence of minor amounts of gibbsite and other phases. These phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as sodium aluminosilicates, sodium diuranate, and sodium strontium phosphate hydrate (nastrophite) crystals. The natrophosphate crystals in the scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a variety of erosive and dissolution features from perfectly shaped octahedral to well-rounded appearance. Two samples were from water-washed Composites A and B, with no change in mineralogy compared to the as-received samples. This is not surprising, since the water wash had only a short period of water contact with the material as opposed to the water dissolution tests. The last two samples were residual solids from the water dissolution tests. These tests included multiple additions of water at 15 C and 45 C. The samples were sieved to separate a coarser fraction of > 710 {mu}m and a finer fraction of < 710 {mu}m. These two fractions were analyzed separately. The coarser fraction contained mostly gibbsite with minor amounts of sodium aluminosilicates (cancrinite) and bismuth aluminum-rich phases. The finer fraction was mostly composed of gibbsite, the sodium alumino silicate phase, cancrinite, and a poorly crystalline to non-crystalline phase containing varying amounts of iron, bismuth, aluminum, and phosphorus.

PAGE JS; COOKE GA; PESTOVICH JA; HUBER HJ

2011-12-01

252

Ultrasonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis after low-level laser therapy: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on plantar fasciitis documented by the\\u000a ultrasonographic appearance of the aponeurosis and by patients’ pain scores. Thirty individuals with diagnosis of unilateral\\u000a plantar fasciitis were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, but 25 participants completed the\\u000a therapeutic protocol. The contralateral asymptomatic fascia was used

Olga Kiritsi; Konstantinos Tsitas; Nikolaos Malliaropoulos; Grogorios Mikroulis

2010-01-01

253

Plantar Fibroma and Plantar Fibromatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... layers and may also wrap around the local digital nerves and arteries. Diagnosis There are a few ... complications; injury to local structures such as the digital nerves; and recurrence. Recovery Recovery may be hastened ...

254

Citral: a monoterpene with prophylactic and therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects in experimental models of acute and chronic pain.  

PubMed

Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal) is an open-chain monoterpenoid present in the essential oils of several medicinal plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of orally administered citral in experimental models of acute and chronic nociception, inflammation, and gastric ulcers caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Oral treatment with citral significantly inhibited the neurogenic and inflammatory pain responses induced by intra-plantar injection of formalin. Citral also had prophylactic and therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects against mechanical hyperalgesia in plantar incision surgery, chronic regional pain syndrome, and partial ligation of sciatic nerve models, without producing any significant motor dysfunction. In addition, citral markedly attenuated the pain response induced by intra-plantar injection of glutamate and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator), as well as by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid [NMDA] and 1-amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane [trans-ACPD], respectively), substance P, and cytokine tumour necrosis factor-?. However, citral potentiated behaviours indicative of pain caused by i.t., but not intra-plantar, injection of a transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) agonist. Finally, the anti-nociceptive action of citral was found to involve significant activation of the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. The effect of citral was accompanied by a gastro-protective effect against NSAID-induced ulcers. Together, these results show the potential of citral as a new drug for the treatment of pain. PMID:24792822

Nishijima, Catarine M; Ganev, Ellen G; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Martins, Daniel F; Rocha, Lúcia R M; Santos, Adair R S; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia A

2014-08-01

255

Force output during and following active stretches of rat plantar flexor muscles: effect of velocity of ankle rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the development of force deficits by repeated stretches, velocity-sensitive changes in the extra force produced during and after subsequent stretching has not been studied. In the present study, repeated dorsiflexion of the foot of rats with maximally contracting plantar flexor muscles was performed at two angular velocities [0.87 (slow muscle stretch) and 10.47rads?1 (fast muscle stretch)] to examine the

Mark E. T. Willems; William T. Stauber

2000-01-01

256

Static Progressive Stretch Brace as a Treatment of Pain and Functional Limitations Associated With Plantar FasciitisA Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantar fasciitis is a common and hard-to-treat disorder of the foot. Numerous studies have compared various stretching exercises, but the use of a day-wear static progressive stretch brace has not been studied. A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of a static progressive stretch brace to standard care of active stretching exercises. Thirteen subjects (12 women and

Neena K. Sharma; Janice K. Loudon

2010-01-01

257

The effects of enhanced plantar sensory feedback and foot orthoses on midfoot kinematics and lower leg neuromuscular activation.  

PubMed

Excessive foot pronation has been associated with injuries of the lower extremity. No research has investigated the effect of enhancing plantar sensory feedback on foot pronation. The aim of this study was to determine whether a shoe with enhanced plantar sensory feedback reduces midfoot pronation. Midfoot kinematics and electromyography of the peroneus longus, tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius of 21 males (age: 21.0±4.0 years, height: 176.8±5.0 cm, mass: 73.3±6.5 kg) were recorded whilst walking in a neutral shoe, a neutral shoe with a prefabricated foot orthotic and a neutral shoe with nodules located on the plantar-medial insole (experimental shoe). Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests were used to evaluate differences between shoe conditions. Mean midfoot-tibia angles during ground contact were significantly more supinated when wearing the experimental shoe (+7.14°, p=0.023) or orthotic (+3.83°, p=0.006) compared to the neutral shoe. During the loading phase, midfoot angles were significantly more supinated when wearing the experimental shoe compared to the orthotic (+5.53°, p=0.008) or neutral shoe (+6.20°, p=0.008). In the midstance phase, midfoot supination was significantly higher in the orthotic compared to the neutral shoe (+2.79°, p=0.006). Finally, supination was increased during the propulsive phase when wearing the experimental shoe compared to the orthotic (+7.43°, p=0.010) or neutral shoe (+10.83°, p=0.009). No significant (p<0.05) differences in muscle activation were observed. These results suggest that increasing plantar sensory feedback to the medial aspect of the foot reduces midfoot pronation during an acute bout of walking. Further work is needed to explore whether these effects remain over longer time periods. PMID:21353563

Ritchie, Callan; Paterson, Kade; Bryant, Adam L; Bartold, Simon; Clark, Ross A

2011-04-01

258

Preserving plantar flexion strength after surgical treatment for contracture of the triceps surae: a computer simulation study.  

PubMed

Contractures of the triceps surae commonly are treated by surgical lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis or the Achilles tendon. Although these procedures generally relieve contractures, patients sometimes are left with dramatically decreased plantar flexion strength (i.e., decreased capacity to generate plantar flexion moment). The purpose of this study was to examine the trade-off between restoring range of motion and maintaining plantar flexion strength after surgical treatment for contracture of the triceps surae. A computer model representing the normal moment-generating characteristics of the triceps surae was altered to represent two conditions: isolated contracture of the gastrocnemius and contracture of both the gastrocnemius and the soleus. The effects of lengthening the gastrocnemius aponeurosis and the Achilles tendon were simulated for each condition. The simulations showed that nearly normal moment-generating characteristics could be restored when isolated gastrocnemius contracture was treated with lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. However, when isolated gastrocnemius contracture was treated with lengthening of the Achilles tendon, the moment-generating capacity of the plantar flexors decreased greatly. This suggests that lengthening of the Achilles tendon should be avoided in persons with isolated gastrocnemius contracture. Our simulations also suggest that neither lengthening of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis nor lengthening of the Achilles tendon by itself is an effective treatment for combined contracture of the gastrocnemius and soleus. Lengthening the gastrocnemius aponeurosis did not decrease the excessive passive moment developed by the contracted soleus. Lengthening the Achilles tendon restored the normal passive range of motion but substantially decreased the active force-generating capacity of the muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7853110

Delp, S L; Statler, K; Carroll, N C

1995-01-01

259

Contributions of knee swing initiation and ankle plantar flexion to the walking mechanics of amputees using a powered prosthesis.  

PubMed

Recently developed powered prostheses are capable of producing near-physiological joint torque at the knee and/or ankle joints. Based on previous studies of biological joint impedance and the mechanics of able-bodied gait, an impedance-based controller has been developed for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis that integrates knee swing initiation and powered plantar flexion in late stance with increasing ankle stiffness throughout stance. In this study, five prosthesis configuration conditions were tested to investigate the individual contributions of each sub-strategy to the overall walking mechanics of four unilateral transfemoral amputees as they completed a clinical 10-m walk test using a powered knee and ankle prosthesis. The baseline condition featured constant ankle stiffness and no swing initiation or powered plantar flexion. The four remaining conditions featured knee swing initiation alone (SI) or in combination with powered plantar flexion (SI+PF), increasing ankle stiffness (SI+IK), or both (SI+PF+IK). Self-selected walking speed did not significantly change between conditions, although subjects tended to walk the slowest in the baseline condition compared to conditions with swing initiation. The addition of powered plantar flexion resulted in significantly higher ankle power generation in late stance irrespective of ankle stiffness. The inclusion of swing initiation resulted in a significantly more flexed knee at toe off and a significantly higher average extensor knee torque following toe off. Identifying individual contributions of intrinsic control strategies to prosthesis biomechanics could help inform the refinement of impedance-based prosthesis controllers and simplify future designs of prostheses and lower-limb assistive devices alike. PMID:25570499

Ingraham, Kimberly A; Fey, Nicholas P; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

2014-08-01

260

Assessment of Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Plantar Pressure in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Prevention of Diabetic Foot  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Risk assessment for development foot ulcer in diabetics is a key aspect in any plan and program for prevention of non-traumatic amputation of lower extremities. Material and methods: In the prospective research to assessed diabetic neuropathy in diabetic patients, to determined the dynamic function of the foot (plantar pressure), by using pedobarography (Group I), and after the use of orthopedic insoles with help of pedobarography, to determined the connection between the risk factors: deformity of the foot, limited joint movements, diabetic polyneuropathy, plantar pressure in effort preventing changes in the diabetic foot. Results: Out of 1806 patients, who are registered in one Team of family medicine examined 100 patients with diabetes mellitus Type 2. The average age of subjects was 59.4, SD11.38. The average HbA1c was 7.78% SD1.58. Combining monofilament and tuning fork tests, the diagnosis of polyneuropathy have 65% of patients. Comparing Test Symptom Score individual parameters between the first and second measurement, using pedobarography, in Group I, statistically significant difference was found for all of the assessed parameters: pain, burning sensation, paresthesia and insensitivity (p<0,05). The measurements of peak pressure, both first and the second measurement, for all of the subjects in Group I(45) show values above 200kPa. That’s a level of pressure that needs to be corrected. The study finds correlation between the foot deformation, diabetic polyneuropathy and plantar pressure (p>0,05). Conclusion: A detail clinical exam of diabetic food in a family doctor office equipped with pedobarography (plantar pressure measurements), use of orthopedic insoles, significantly reduces clinical symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy in patients with diabetes. PMID:25650237

Skopljak, Amira; Sukalo, Aziz; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Muftic, Mirsad; Tiric-Campara, Merita; Zunic, Lejla

2014-01-01

261

Low back pain - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... waist, leads to pain. Many people with chronic back pain have arthritis. Or they may have extra wear ...

262

Influence of the calcaneus morphology on the risk of posterior heel ulcer creation Vincent Luboz, Antoine Perrier, Marek Bucki, Bruno Diot, Francis Cannard, Nicolas Vuillerme,  

E-print Network

with three compartments of varying stiffness: under the calf, the Achilles tendon, and the heel back.495 for the skin, 30 kPa and 0.49 for the fat, 1 GPa and 0.495 for the tendon, and 60 kPa and 0.495 for the muscles

Payan, Yohan

263

Large heel soft tissue defects managed successfully with reverse medial crural fasciocutaneous flap: A 7-year single-center experience with 21 consecutive cases.  

PubMed

The medial crural fasciocutaneous flap is a reliable cutaneous flap that can be used for soft tissue reconstruction in the extremities. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the application and clinical significance of this surgical technique in the reconstruction of heel soft tissue defects. Twenty-one cases of heel soft tissue defect between March 2005 and March 2012 were included in this study. Wound sizes varied from 5.0 × 5.5 to 7.5 × 10.0 cm. All cases were managed with a reverse medial crural fasciocutaneous flap. Patient demographics and case information were analyzed and are reported. The sizes of the reverse medial crural fasciocutaneous flap varied from 6.5 × 10.0 to 9.0 × 15.0 cm; the average size was 7.7 × 13.8 cm. Out of the 21 consecutive cases, 20 flaps survived intact and one flap underwent partial necrosis. Follow-up observations were conducted for 6-36 months. The cosmetic results were satisfactory, without apparent bulkiness; the weight-bearing outcomes were satisfactory. The donor site can be closed primarily or by skin graft. Reverse medial crural fasciocutaneous flap transfer is appropriate for the reconstruction of heel soft tissue defects. The method is safe and can cover large heel defects. PMID:25448373

Jing-Chun, Zhao; Kai, Shi; Jia-Ao, Yu; Chun-Jing, Xian; Lai-Jin, Lu; Chun-Hui, Xie

2015-01-01

264

Discriminative Ability of Heel Quantitative Ultrasound in Postmenopausal Women With Prevalent Low-Trauma Fractures: Application of Optimal Threshold Cutoff Values Using CART Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel has been proposed as a screening tool to evaluate the bone status and risk of osteoporotic fragility fractures. The aim of this study was to define threshold values of QUS that would maximize the predictive ability of this technique to discriminate subjects with fragility fractures. A cross-sectional analysis was made of a cohort of

María del Carmen Navarro; Pedro Saavedra; María Jesús Gómez-de-Tejada; Mercedes Suárez; Diego Hernández; Manuel Sosa

2011-01-01

265

The Daily Tar Heel URL: http://www.dailytarheel.com/index.php/article/2010/09/grant_money_to_help_scholars  

E-print Network

The Daily Tar Heel URL: http://www.dailytarheel.com/index.php/article/2010/09/grant_money_to_help_scholars Current Date: Sun, 26 Sep 2010 13:05:26 -0400 Grant money to help scholars To benefit biomedical students in biology, physics and chemistry, as well as high-level math and applied sciences courses. The grant money

Sekelsky, Jeff

266

Chronic Diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... as: Disorders of the pancreas (e.g. chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme deficiencies, cystic fibrosis) Intestinal disorders (e. ... Altered immune function (e.g. immunoglobulin deficiencies, AIDS, autoimmune disease) Hereditary disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, enzyme ...

267

Chronic Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include sarcoidosis and certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

268

[Chronic migraine].  

PubMed

The classification of the International Headache Society (IHS) generally differentiates episodic from chronic headache. Chronic migraine is defined as headache on 15 and more days a month over more than 3 months and headache on 8 days or more fulfils the criteria for migraine or were triptan/ergot-responsive when thought to be migrainous in early stages of the attack. The prevalence of chronic migraine is estimated at 2-4?%. The quality of life is highly compromised in this condition and comorbidities are much more frequent compared to episodic migraine. Data from prospective randomized studies are scarce as most patients with chronic migraine were excluded from previous trials and only few studies were conducted for this condition. The efficacy for prophylactic treatment compared with placebo is proven for topiramate and onabotulinum toxin A. PMID:24337617

Diener, H C; Holle, D; Müller, D; Nägel, S; Rabe, K

2013-12-01

269

Changes in Plantar Loading Based on Shoe Type and Sex During a Jump-Landing Task  

PubMed Central

Context: Metatarsal stress fractures are common in cleated-sport athletes. Previous authors have shown that plantar loading varies with footwear, sex, and the athletic task. Objective: To examine the effects of shoe type and sex on plantar loading in the medial midfoot (MMF), lateral midfoot (LMF), medial forefoot (MFF), middle forefoot (MidFF), and lateral forefoot (LFF) during a jump-landing task. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven recreational athletes (14 men, 13 women) with no history of lower extremity injury in the last 6 months and no history of foot or ankle surgery. Main Outcome Measure(s): The athletes completed 7 jumping trials while wearing bladed-cleat, turf-cleat, and running shoes. Maximum force, contact area, contact time, and the force-time integral were analyzed in each foot region. We calculated 2 × 3 analyses of variance (? = .05) to identify shoe-condition and sex differences. Results: We found no shoe × sex interactions, but the MMF, LMF, MFF, and LFF force-time integrals were greater in men (P < .03). The MMF maximum force was less with the bladed-cleat shoes (P = .02). Total foot and MidFF maximum force was less with the running shoes (P < .01). The MFF and LFF maximum forces were different among all shoe conditions (P < .01). Total foot contact area was less in the bladed-cleat shoes (P = .01). The MMF contact area was greatest in the running shoes (P < .01). The LFF contact area was less in the running shoes (P = .03). The MFF and LFF force-time integrals were greater with the bladed-cleat shoes (P < .01). The MidFF force-time integral was less in the running shoes (P < .01). Conclusions: Independent of shoe, men and women loaded the foot differently during a jump landing. The bladed cleat increased forefoot loading, which may increase the risk for forefoot injury. The type of shoe should be considered when choosing footwear for athletes returning to activity after metatarsal stress fractures. PMID:24067149

DeBiasio, Justin C.; Russell, Mary E.; Butler, Robert J.; Nunley, James A.; Queen, Robin M.

2013-01-01

270

Evaluation of potential variables contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in a population of aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).  

PubMed

Bumblefoot (pododermatitis), often described as the most significant environmental disease of captive penguins, is commonly due to excessive pressure or trauma on the plantar surface of the avian foot, resulting in inflammation or necrosis and causing severe swelling, abrasions, or cracks in the skin. Although not formally evaluated in penguins, contributing factors for bumblefoot are thought to be similar to those initiating the condition in raptors and poultry. These factors include substrate, body weight, and lack of exercise. The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate variables potentially contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), including sex, weight, age, season, exhibit activity, and territory substrate. Results indicate that males develop significantly more plantar lesions than females. Penguins weighing between 3.51 and 4.0 kg develop plantar lesions significantly more often than penguins weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, and because male African penguins ordinarily weigh significantly more than females, weight is likely a contributing factor in the development of lesions in males compared with females. Significantly more plantar lesions were observed in penguins standing for greater than 50% of their time on exhibit than swimming. Penguins occupying smooth concrete territories developed more plantar lesions compared with penguins occupying grate territories. Recommendations for minimizing bumblefoot in African penguins include training penguins for monthly foot examinations for early detection of plantar lesions predisposing for the disease, encouraging swimming activity, and replacing smooth surfaces on exhibit with surfaces providing variable degrees of pressure and texture on the feet. PMID:21557300

Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Dunn, J Lawrence; Camp, Tracy; Macha, Laurie; Mazzaro, Lisa; Tuttle, Allison D

2012-01-01

271

Effectiveness of a heel cup with an arch support insole on the standing balance of the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background The use of insoles may enhance postural stability and prevent falls. The aim of this study was to design a new insole and to explore the effectiveness of the insole on the standing balance of the healthy elderly. Methods The study was conducted at a community hospital. Patients older than 65 years at an outpatient clinic without abnormal gait patterns, lower limb deformities, or foot pain were enrolled. The participants were assigned to good- and poor-stability groups on the basis of the stability index (SI), using the Biodex® Balance System. A heel cup with an arch support insole was provided. Participants wore the insole for 8 weeks for a minimum of 4 hours/day. A static balance test for SI was performed at the initial meeting and 8 weeks after the assigned insoles were worn for each participant. Results Five participants (10.0%) of 50 total did not finish the study. There were 25 patients in the good-stability group and 20 in the poor-stability group. The SI, before and after intervention, was significantly different for all 45 participants (3.244±0.688 versus 3.064±0.671; P<0.001). The differences in SI before and after the intervention both in the good-stability group (2.764±0.546 versus 2.592±0.538) and the poor-stability group (3.845±0.188 versus 3.655±0.128) were statistically significant (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference on changes of SI were seen between the two groups. Conclusion The results suggest a heel cup with arch support insole is effective in enhancing the standing balance of the elderly. This may be of benefit in preventing falls. PMID:24600215

Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Chou, Li-Wei; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lo, Ming-Jor; Kao, Mu-Jung

2014-01-01

272

An anatomically unbiased foot template for inter-subject plantar pressure evaluation.  

PubMed

Pedobarographic images reflect the dynamic interaction between the plantar foot and supporting surfaces during gait and postural activities. Since intra-foot and inter-subject contact geometry are grossly similar, images may be spatially registered and directly compared. Previously arbitrary subjects have been selected as registration templates, but this can conceivably introduce anatomical bias. The purposes of this study were: (i) to compute an unbiased pedobarographic template from a large sample of healthy young adult subjects, and (ii) to demonstrate how the resulting template may be used for practical clinical and scientific analyses. Images were obtained from N=104 subjects and were registered (10,712 pairs) using (i) an optimal linear scaling technique and (ii) a nonlinear, locally affine, globally smooth technique. The nonlinear technique was found to offer biomechanically non-trivial advantages over the linear technique, most likely due to non-proportional inter-subject geometry. Specifically, the nonlinear template was able to detect morphological signals in a hallux valgus sample with greater sensitivity than the linear template. Validity of the approach was confirmed by independently assessing left and right feet, through a statistical comparison of local maximal pressures, and also through examination of random subject subsets. The current template, representative of an average healthy foot, could be a valuable resource for automated clinical and scientific analyses of foot morphology and function. PMID:21227692

Pataky, Todd C; Bosch, Kerstin; Mu, Tingting; Keijsers, Noël L W; Segers, Veerle; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Goulermas, John Y

2011-03-01

273

A two-phase model of plantar tissue: a step toward prediction of diabetic foot ulceration.  

PubMed

A new computational model, based on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory, has been recently proposed to predict tumor initiation and proliferation. A similar mathematical approach is proposed here as an aid in diabetic ulcer prevention. The common aspects at the continuum level are the macroscopic balance equations governing the flow of the fluid phase, diffusion of chemical species, tissue mechanics, and some of the constitutive equations. The soft plantar tissue is modeled as a two-phase system: a solid phase consisting of the tissue cells and their extracellular matrix, and a fluid one (interstitial fluid and dissolved chemical species). The solid phase may become necrotic depending on the stress level and on the oxygen availability in the tissue. Actually, in diabetic patients, peripheral vascular disease impacts tissue necrosis; this is considered in the model via the introduction of an effective diffusion coefficient that governs transport of nutrients within the microvasculature. The governing equations of the mathematical model are discretized in space by the finite element method and in time domain using the ?-Wilson Method. While the full mathematical model is developed in this paper, the example is limited to the simulation of several gait cycles of a healthy foot. PMID:24841993

Sciumè, G; Boso, D P; Gray, W G; Cobelli, C; Schrefler, B A

2014-11-01

274

Accuracy of plantar electrodes compared with hand and foot electrodes in fat-free-mass measurement.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM) by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI) with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI. PMID:24918180

Jaffrin, Michel Y; Bousbiat, Sana

2014-01-01

275

Correlation between maximum in-shoe plantar pressures and clubhead speed in amateur golfers.  

PubMed

Disagreements exist in the literature regarding the manner in which weight should be dynamically shared during the golf swing, both within-feet and between the back- and target-foot, to generate maximal clubhead speed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preferential foot-loading locations underlie weight sharing by examining the correlation between clubhead speed and maximum plantar pressure (PP) distributions. Thirty-two amateur golfers with handicap indexes ranging from 2.7 to 25 performed 10 driver swings on artificial turf following a warm-up. PP distributions were recorded at 100 Hz, and clubhead speed was recorded using a ball-tracking Doppler radar system. Maximum PPs were extracted from a 2-s window approximately centred on ball contact and were regressed against clubhead speed. Significance was assessed over the entire foot surface using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a spatially continuous technique. SPM revealed, at relatively high anatomical resolution, significant positive correlations between clubhead speed and PPs in the lateral target-foot (P < 0.05). This suggests that not only weight transfer but also weight-transfer location may be an important determinant of clubhead speed in amateur golfers. PMID:25010946

Pataky, Todd Colin

2015-01-01

276

Quantitative Estimation of Temperature Variations in Plantar Angiosomes: A Study Case for Diabetic Foot  

PubMed Central

Thermography is a useful tool since it provides information that may help in the diagnostic of several diseases in a noninvasive and fast way. Particularly, thermography has been applied in the study of the diabetic foot. However, most of these studies report only qualitative information making it difficult to measure significant parameters such as temperature variations. These variations are important in the analysis of the diabetic foot since they could bring knowledge, for instance, regarding ulceration risks. The early detection of ulceration risks is considered an important research topic in the medicine field, as its objective is to avoid major complications that might lead to a limb amputation. The absence of symptoms in the early phase of the ulceration is conceived as the main disadvantage to provide an opportune diagnostic in subjects with neuropathy. Since the relation between temperature and ulceration risks is well established in the literature, a methodology that obtains quantitative temperature differences in the plantar area of the diabetic foot to detect ulceration risks is proposed in this work. Such methodology is based on the angiosome concept and image processing. PMID:24688595

Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Morales-Hernandez, L. A.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J. J.; Avina-Cervantes, J. G.; Ramirez-Cortes, J. M.; Morales-Caporal, R.

2014-01-01

277

Effect of plantar intrinsic muscle training on medial longitudinal arch morphology and dynamic function.  

PubMed

A specific training program emphasizing the neuromuscular recruitment of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, colloquially referred to as "short foot" exercise (SFE) training, has been suggested as a means to dynamically support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) during functional tasks. A single-group repeated measures pre- and post-intervention study design was utilized to determine if a 4-week intrinsic foot muscle training program would impact the amount of navicular drop (ND), increase the arch height index (AHI), improve performance during a unilateral functional reaching maneuver, or the qualitative assessment of the ability to hold the arch position in single limb stance position in an asymptomatic cohort. 21 asymptomatic subjects (42 feet) completed the 4-week SFE training program. Subject ND decreased by a mean of 1.8 mm at 4 weeks and 2.2 mm at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). AHI increased from 28 to 29% (p < 0.05). Intrinsic foot muscle performance during a static unilateral balancing activity improved from a grade of fair to good (p < 0.001) and subjects experienced a significant improvement during a functional balance and reach task in all directions with the exception of an anterior reach (p < 0.05). This study offers preliminary evidence to suggest that SFE training may have value in statically and dynamically supporting the MLA. Further research regarding the value of this exercise intervention in foot posture type or pathology specific patient populations is warranted. PMID:23632367

Mulligan, Edward P; Cook, Patrick G

2013-10-01

278

Quantitative estimation of temperature variations in plantar angiosomes: a study case for diabetic foot.  

PubMed

Thermography is a useful tool since it provides information that may help in the diagnostic of several diseases in a noninvasive and fast way. Particularly, thermography has been applied in the study of the diabetic foot. However, most of these studies report only qualitative information making it difficult to measure significant parameters such as temperature variations. These variations are important in the analysis of the diabetic foot since they could bring knowledge, for instance, regarding ulceration risks. The early detection of ulceration risks is considered an important research topic in the medicine field, as its objective is to avoid major complications that might lead to a limb amputation. The absence of symptoms in the early phase of the ulceration is conceived as the main disadvantage to provide an opportune diagnostic in subjects with neuropathy. Since the relation between temperature and ulceration risks is well established in the literature, a methodology that obtains quantitative temperature differences in the plantar area of the diabetic foot to detect ulceration risks is proposed in this work. Such methodology is based on the angiosome concept and image processing. PMID:24688595

Peregrina-Barreto, H; Morales-Hernandez, L A; Rangel-Magdaleno, J J; Avina-Cervantes, J G; Ramirez-Cortes, J M; Morales-Caporal, R

2014-01-01

279

Chronic urticaria.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the pathophysiology of chronic urticaria in light of recent evidence for it being an autoimmune disease, and to recommend appropriate management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An extensive literature review was supplemented with a MEDLINE search. Articles from easily available journals were preferred. These consisted of the most recent basic articles on autoimmunity in relation to chronic urticaria and a selection of previous articles on pathophysiology, which illustrate consistencies with recent evidence. The investigation and management protocol is supported by original and relevant literature. MAIN FINDINGS: The histopathology and immunohistology of chronic urticaria and certain clinical studies were a prelude to definitive evidence that most instances of chronic urticaria are autoimmune. Although allergic and other causes are uncommon, these must be sought because identification can lead to cure or specific treatment. Management of the much more common autoimmune urticaria is based on principles derived from the demonstrated pathogenesis and on results of published clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: In most instances, chronic urticaria is an autoimmune disease, but uncommon allergic or other causes must be considered. PMID:9805172

Leznoff, A.

1998-01-01

280

Influence of pressure-relief insoles developed for loaded gait (backpackers and obese people) on plantar pressure distribution and ground reaction forces.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to test the effects of two pressure relief insoles developed for backpackers and obese people on the ground reaction forces (GRF) and plantar pressure peaks during gait; and to compare the GRF and plantar pressures among normal-weight, backpackers, and obese participants. Based on GRF, plantar pressures, and finite element analysis two insoles were manufactured: flat cork-based insole with (i) corkgel in the rearfoot and forefoot (SLS1) and with (ii) poron foam in the great toe and lateral forefoot (SLS2). Gait data were recorded from 21 normal-weight/backpackers and 10 obese participants. The SLS1 did not influence the GRF, but it relieved the pressure peaks for both backpackers and obese participants. In SLS2 the load acceptance GRF peak was lower; however, it did not reduce the plantar pressure peaks. The GRF and plantar pressure gait pattern were different among the normal-weight, backpackers and obese participants. PMID:24468683

Peduzzi de Castro, Marcelo; Abreu, Sofia; Pinto, Viviana; Santos, Rubim; Machado, Leandro; Vaz, Mario; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

2014-07-01

281

Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purposes of acute pain and the reason it is noxious are to interrupt ongoing activity in order to warn the sufferer of tissue damage, to discourage movement that might exacerbate injury or prevent healing, and to teach the organism to avoid the pain-producing circumstances. Therefore, it is no wonder that when pain persists to become chronic, many sufferers

Malcolm H. Johnson

282

Plantar pressure relief under the metatarsal heads - Therapeutic insole design using three-dimensional finite element model of the foot.  

PubMed

Therapeutic footwear with specially-made insoles is often used in people with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis to relieve ulcer risks and pain due to high pressures from areas beneath bony prominences of the foot, in particular to the metatarsal heads (MTHs). In a three-dimensional finite element study of the foot and footwear with sensitivity analysis, effects of geometrical variations of a therapeutic insole, in terms of insole thicknesses and metatarsal pad (MP) placements, on local peak plantar pressure under MTHs and stress/strain states within various forefoot tissues, were determined. A validated musculoskeletal finite element model of the human foot was employed. Analyses were performed in a simulated muscle-demanding instant in gait. For many design combinations, increasing insole thicknesses consistently reduce peak pressures and internal tissue strain under MTHs, but the effects reach a plateau when insole becomes very thick (e.g., a value of 12.7mm or greater). Altering MP placements, however, showed a proximally- and a distally-placed MP could result in reverse effects on MTH pressure-relief. The unsuccessful outcome due to a distally-placed MP may attribute to the way it interacts with plantar tissue (e.g., plantar fascia) adjacent to the MTH. A uniform pattern of tissue compression under metatarsal shaft is necessary for a most favorable pressure-relief under MTHs. The designated functions of an insole design can best be achieved when the insole is very thick, and when the MP can achieve a uniform tissue compression pattern adjacent to the MTH. PMID:25620685

Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Sung-Jae; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

2015-02-26

283

Endoscopic Transthoracic Limited Sympathotomy for Palmar-Plantar Hyperhidrosis: Outcomes and Complications During a 10-Year Period  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review surgical results of endoscopic transthoracic limited sympathotomy for palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis during the past decade. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 155 consecutive patients who underwent surgery from June 30, 2000, through December 31, 2009, for medically refractory palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis using a technique of T1-T2 sympathotomy disconnection, designed for successful palmar response and minimization of complications. RESULTS: Of the 155 patients, 44 (28.4%) were male, and 111 (71.6%) were female; operative times averaged 38 minutes. No patient experienced Horner syndrome, intercostal neuralgia, or pneumothorax. The only surgical complication was hemothorax in 2 patients (1.3%); in 1 patient, it occurred immediately postoperatively and in the other patient, 10 days postoperatively; treatment in both patients was successful. All 155 patients had successful (warm and dry) palmar responses at discharge. Long-term follow-up (>3 months; mean, 40.2 months) was obtained for 148 patients (95.5%) with the following responses to surgery: 96.6% of patients experienced successful control of palmar sweating; 69.2% of patients experienced decreased axillary sweating; and 39.8% of patients experienced decreased plantar sweating. At follow-up, 5 patients had palmar sweating (3 patients, <3 months; 1 patient, 10-12 months; 1 patient, 16-18 months). Compensatory hyperhidrosis did not occur in 47 patients (31.7%); it was mild in 92 patients (62.2%), moderate in 7 patients (4.7%), and severe in 2 patients (1.3%). CONCLUSION: In this series, a small-diameter uniportal approach has eliminated intercostal neuralgia. Selecting a T1-T2 sympathotomy yields an excellent palmar response, with a very low severe compensatory hyperhidrosis complication rate. The low failure rate was noted during 18 months of follow-up and suggests that longer follow-up is necessary in these patients. PMID:21803954

Atkinson, John L. D.; Fode-Thomas, Nicolee C.; Fealey, Robert D.; Eisenach, John H.; Goerss, Stephan J.

2011-01-01

284

In vivo evidence of an age-related increase in ATP cost of contraction in the plantar flexor muscles.  

PubMed

Impaired skeletal muscle efficiency potentially contributes to the age-related decline in exercise capacity and may explain the altered haemodynamic response to exercise in the elderly. Thus we examined whether (i) the ATP cost of contraction increases with age, and (ii) this results in altered convective O(2) delivery to maintain microvascular oxygenation in the calf muscle. To this aim, we used an integrative experimental approach combining (31)P-MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), Doppler ultrasound imaging and NIRS (near-IR spectroscopy) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise at 40% of WR(max) (maximal power output) in 20 healthy young and 20 older subjects matched for physical activity. The ATP cost of contraction was significantly higher in the old (7.2±4.1 mM/min per W) compared with the young (2.4±1.9 mM/min per W; P<0.05) and this was only significantly correlated with the plantar flexion WR(max) value in the old subjects (r=-0.52; P<0.05). Even when differences in power output were taken into account, end-exercise blood flow (old, 259±168 ml/min per W and young, 134±40 ml/min per W; P<0.05) and convective O(2) delivery (old, 0.048±0.031 l/min per W and young, 0.026±0.008 l/min per W; P<0.05) were greater in the old in comparison with the young subjects. In contrast, the NIRS oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin and microvascular oxygenation indices were not significantly different between the groups (P>0.05). Therefore the present study reveals that, although the peripheral haemodynamic responses to plantar flexion exercise appear to be appropriate, the elevated energy cost of contraction and associated reduction in the WR(max) value in this muscle group may play a role in limiting exercise capacity with age. PMID:24224517

Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel D; Hart, Corey R; Kim, Seong-Eun; Groot, Henderik Jonathan; Le Fur, Yann; Sorensen, Jacob R; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

2014-04-01

285

Chronic motor tic disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

286

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

MedlinePLUS

COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the ... develop COPD. But some people smoke for years and never get ...

287

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  

MedlinePLUS

... www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) An estimated 31 million people in the United States are living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). What is CKD? The term “chronic kidney ...

288

Chronic Pain Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Chronic Pain | Chronic Pain Medicines How is chronic pain treated? Treatment of chronic ... or she tells you how to use your pain medicine. If you have questions about side effects or ...

289

Plantar pressure distribution in a hyperpronated foot before and after intervention with an extraosseous talotarsal stabilization device-a retrospective study.  

PubMed

Plantar pressure measurements have long been used by clinicians to provide information regarding potential impairments and disorders of the foot and ankle. Elevations in peak plantar pressures or a poor distribution of these pressures can be an indication of pathomechanics in the foot. Lower extremity deficits such as sensory impairment, foot deformities, limited joint mobility, and reduced plantar tissue thickness have been associated with high plantar pressures. The total pressures, pressure distribution, and peak pressures provide useful information to evaluate the abnormal functioning of the talotarsal joint. Instability of the talotarsal joint can result in excessive forces exerted on the joints and surrounding tissues in the foot that can then lead to dysfunction of the proximal musculoskeletal kinetic chain. In the present study, we performed a retrograde analysis of the pre- and postoperative measurements of the peak plantar pressures, peak forces, and area of contact between the foot and the ground during each phase of the gait cycle for 6 patients (12 feet) who had undergone a bilateral extraosseous talotarsal stabilization procedure using a type II extraosseous talotarsal stabilization device. After the procedure, a significant reduction was seen in the peak pressures (42%) over the entire foot and a significant increase in the contact area (19.7%) between the foot and the floor. This could imply that the extraosseous talotarsal stabilization procedure was effective in stabilizing the talotarsal joint complex, thus eliminating abnormal hindfoot motion and restoring the normal biomechanics of the foot and ankle complex, as indicated by a reduction and realignment of the peak plantar pressures and forces. PMID:23632067

Fitzgerald, Ryan H; Vedpathak, Anuja

2013-01-01

290

Can we predict outcome of surgical reconstruction of Charcot neuroarthropathy by dynamic plantar pressure assessment?--A proof of concept study.  

PubMed

The joint deformity that arises as a result of Charcot neuroarthropathy, leads to gait modification. Ulceration risk associated with the deformity is generally assessed by measuring plantar pressure magnitude (PPM). However, as PPM is partially dependent on gait speed and treatment interventions may impact speed, the use of PPM to validate treatment is not ideal. This study suggests a novel assessment protocol, which is speed independent and can objectively (1) characterize abnormality in dynamic plantar loading in patients with foot Charcot neuroarthropathy and (2) screen improvement in dynamic plantar loading after foot reconstruction surgery. To examine whether the plantar pressure distribution (PPD) measured using EMED platform, was normal, a customized normal distribution curve was created for each trial. Then the original PPD was fitted to the customized normal distribution curve. This technique yields a regression factor (RF), which represents the similarity of the actual pressure distribution with a normal distribution. RF values may range from negative 1 to positive 1 and as the value increases positively so does the similarity between the actual and normalized pressure distributions. We tested this novel score on the plantar pressure pattern of healthy subjects (N=15), Charcot patients pre-operation (N=4) and a Charcot patient post-foot reconstruction (N=1). In healthy subjects, the RF was 0.46+/-0.1. When subjects increased their gait speed by 29%, PPM was increased by 8% (p<10(-5)), while RF was not changed (p=0.55), suggesting that RF value is independent of gait speed. In preoperative Charcot patients, the RF<0, however, RF increased post-surgery (RF=0.42), indicating a transition to normal plantar distribution after Charcot reconstruction. PMID:19836956

Najafi, Bijan; Crews, Ryan T; Armstrong, David G; Rogers, Lee C; Aminian, Kamiar; Wrobel, James

2010-01-01

291

Spinal plasticity in stroke patients after botulinum neurotoxin A injection in ankle plantar flexors  

PubMed Central

The effect of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) in stroke patients' upper limbs has been attributed to its peripheral action only. However, BoNT-A depressed recurrent inhibition of lumbar motoneurons, likely due to its retrograde transportation along motor axons affecting synapses to Renshaw cells. Because Renshaw cells control group Ia interneurons mediating reciprocal inhibition between antagonists, we tested whether this inhibition, particularly affected after stroke, could recover after BoNT-A. The effect of posterior tibial nerve (PTN) stimulation on tibialis anterior (TA) electromyogram (EMG) was investigated in 13 stroke patients during treadmill walking before and 1 month after BoNT-A injection in ankle plantar flexors. Before BoNT-A, PTN stimuli enhanced TA EMG all during the swing phase. After BoNT-A, the PTN-induced reciprocal facilitation in TA motoneurons was depressed at the beginning of swing and reversed into inhibition in midswing, but at the end of swing, the reciprocal facilitation was enhanced. This suggests that BoNT-A induced spinal plasticity leading to the recovery of reciprocal inhibition likely due to the withdrawal of inhibitory control from Renshaw cells directly blocked by the toxin. At the end of swing, the enhanced reciprocal facilitation might be due to BoNT-induced modification of peripheral afferent inputs. Therefore, both central and peripheral actions of BoNT-A can modify muscle synergies during walking: (1) limiting ankle muscle co-contraction in the transition phase from stance to swing, to assist dorsiflexion, and (2) favoring it from swing to stance, which blocks the ankle joint and thus assists the balance during the single support phase on the paretic limb. PMID:24400171

Aymard, Claire; Giboin, Louis-Solal; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

2013-01-01

292

Plantar Pressure Distribution During Robotic-Assisted Gait in Post-stroke Hemiplegic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the plantar pressure distribution during the robotic-assisted walking, guided through normal symmetrical hip and knee physiological kinematic trajectories, with unassisted walking in post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Methods Fifteen hemiplegic stroke patients, who were able to walk a minimum of ten meters independently but with asymmetric gait patterns, were enrolled in this study. All the patients performed both the robotic-assisted walking (Lokomat) and the unassisted walking on the treadmill with the same body support in random order. The contact area, contact pressure, trajectory length of center of pressure (COP), temporal data on both limbs and asymmetric index of both limbs were obtained during both walking conditions, using the F-Scan in-shoe pressure measurement system. Results The contact area of midfoot and total foot on the affected side were significantly increased in robotic-assisted walking as compared to unassisted walking (p<0.01). The contact pressure of midfoot and total foot on affected limbs were also significantly increased in robotic-assisted walking (p<0.05). The anteroposterior and mediolateral trajectory length of COP were not significantly different between the two walking conditions, but their trajectory variability of COP was significantly improved (p<0.05). The asymmetric index of area, stance time, and swing time during robotic-assisted walking were statistically improved as compared with unassisted walking (p<0.05). Conclusion The robotic-assisted walking may be helpful in improving the gait stability and symmetry, but not the physiologic ankle rocker function. PMID:24855607

Yang, Jin Kyu; Ahn, Na El; Kim, Dae Hyun

2014-01-01

293

Unique Hippocampal Changes and Allodynia in a Model of Chronic Stress  

PubMed Central

Sustained stress can have numerous pathologic effects. There have been several animal models for chronic stress. We tried to identify the changes of pain threshold and hippocampus in a model of chronic stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were kept in a cage filled with 23? water to a height of 2.2 cm for 7 days. Nociceptive thresholds, expressed in grams, were measured with a Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer. Golgi staining was used to identify hippocampal changes. To demonstrate how long allodynia was lasting, behavioral test was repeated daily on another experiment. Compared to control group, chronic stress group showed bilateral mechanical hyper-responsiveness on days 5 (P = 0.047) and 7 (P = 0.032). In general, dendrite atrophic changes within hippocampus of chronic stress model were much more prominent in comparison with control. Compared to control, decreased spine number (P < 0.001) and spine length (P < 0.001) on Golgi staining were seen in the hippocampus of animals with chronic stress. Bilateral mechanical hyperresponsiveness was recovered on day 19 in animals with chronic stress. Chronic stress may bring about central sensitization and hippocampal changes in rats. PMID:23772163

Moon, Il Soo; Park, In-Sick

2013-01-01

294

The effect of shoe toe box shape and volume on forefoot interdigital and plantar pressures in healthy females  

PubMed Central

Background Ill-fitting footwear can be detrimental to foot health with the forefoot being an area for most discomfort. Studies on footwear have primarily examined sports or orthopaedic prescription shoes and little is known about the effects that everyday flat shoes have on the forefoot. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of toe box shape in a popular slip-on pump on dorsal and plantar pressures with particular interest around the forefoot in a healthy female population. Method A convenience sample of 27 female participants with no known foot pathologies was recruited. After assessment of foot size, plantar foot pressure and interdigital pressures were recorded for each of the 3 different toe box styles; round, square and pointed. Participants walked at a self-selected speed over a 10 m walkway whilst wearing each of the 3 styles of shoe and also whilst barefoot. Processed and analysed data extracted included peak pressure, time to peak pressure, contact time and pressure time integral. ANOVA and Freidman analysis was used to test for statistical significance. Results Shoes with a round toe showed least pressure around the medial aspect of the toes whilst the pointed shoe had least pressure on the lateral toes. Contact times for the plantar regions were not altered in any shoe condition yet contact around the medial aspect of the toes was highest in the pointed shoe. Conclusion This study highlights that the shape of the toe box in footwear can significantly influence the amount of pressure applied to the forefoot. Furthermore, the contours of the shoe also have an impact on the contact time and pressure time integral around the forefoot and also the peak plantar pressure in the toe region. The changes observed could be significant in the development of pathology in certain footwear toe box shapes. Consideration should be given to footwear design around the toe box to improve fit and reduce pressure. Further work is required to investigate the effect of toe box shape and volume on a pathological population with pressure related lesions. PMID:23886242

2013-01-01

295

A case of tumour necrosis factor-? inhibitor- and rituximab-induced plantar pustular psoriasis that completely resolved with tocilizumab.  

PubMed

Rituximab, a chimeric B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, is a well-established therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. It is emerging that classical psoriatic lesions and plantar pustular psoriasis (PPP) are cutaneous side-effects of this drug. Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies have multiple documented side-effects including PPP and psoriasis. We report a patient who has rheumatoid arthritis, who failed on anti-TNF therapies and then was commenced on rituximab. Subsequently she developed localized PPP. Due to deterioration of her joint disease she was switched to the interleukin-6 blocker tocilizumab, and the PPP resolved. PMID:24890762

Jayasekera, P; Parslew, R; Al-Sharqi, A

2014-12-01

296

Hereditary epidermolytic palmo-plantar keratoderma (Vörner type)--report of a family and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We describe a patient in whose family 13 of 26 members have a palmo-plantar keratoderma. The histopathological findings in the proband, his brother and father were those of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. As in other families reported, this disorder was found to be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait. A review of the literature on the clinical, genetic and associated features of this genodermatosis is presented. We also review the cutaneous conditions that may exhibit the histopathological pattern of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. PMID:1794193

Requena, L; Schoendorff, C; Sanchez Yus, E

1991-09-01

297

Heel-strike in walking: assessment of potential sources of intra- and inter-subject variability in the activation patterns of muscles stabilizing the knee joint.  

PubMed

The electromyographic (EMG) signal is known to show large intra-subject and inter-subject variability. Adaptation to, and preparation for, the heel-strike event have been hypothesized to be major sources of EMG variability in walking. The aim of this study was to assess these hypotheses using a principal component analysis (PCA). Two waveform shapes with distinct characteristic features were proposed based on conceptual considerations of how the neuro-muscular system might prepare for, or adapt to, the heel-strike event. PCA waveforms obtained from knee muscle EMG signals were then compared with the predicted characteristic features of the two proposed waveforms. Surface EMG signals were recorded for ten healthy adult female subjects during level walking at a self-selected speed, for the following muscles; rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris. For a period of 200 ms before and after heel-strike, EMG power was extracted using a wavelet transformation (19-395 Hz). The resultant EMG waveforms (18 per subject) were submitted to intra-subject and inter-subject PCA. In all analyzed muscles, the shapes of the first and second principal component (PC-) vectors agreed well with the predicted waveforms. These two PC-vectors accounted for 50-60% of the overall variability, in both inter-subject and intra-subject analyses. It was also found that the shape of the first PC-vector was consistent between subjects, while higher-order PC-vectors differed between subjects. These results support the hypothesis that adaptation to, and preparation for, a variable heel-strike event are both major sources of EMG variability in walking. PMID:23518206

Huber, Cora; Federolf, Peter; Nüesch, Corina; Cattin, Philippe C; Friederich, Niklaus F; Tscharner, Vinzenz von

2013-04-26

298

The heel and toe of the cell's foot: a multifaceted approach for understanding the structure and dynamics of focal adhesions.  

PubMed

Focal adhesions (FAs) are large clusters of transmembrane receptors of the integrin family and a multitude of associated cytoplasmic "plaque" proteins, which connect the extracellular matrix-bound receptors with the actin cytoskeleton. The formation of nearly stationary FAs defines a boundary between the dense and highly dynamic actin network in lamellipodium and the sparser and more diverse cytoskeletal organization in the lamella proper, creating a template for the organization of the entire actin network. The major "mechanical" and "sensory" functions of FAs; namely, the nucleation and regulation of the contractile, myosin-II-containing stress fibers and the mechanosensing of external surfaces depend, to a major extent, on the dynamics of molecular components within FAs. A central element in FA regulation concerns the positive feedback loop, based on the most intriguing feature of FAs; that is, their dependence on mechanical tension developing by the growing stress fibers. FAs grow in response to such tension, and rapidly disassemble upon its relaxation. In this article, we address the mechanistic relationships between the process of FA development, maturation and dissociation and the dynamic molecular events, which take place in different regions of the FA, primarily in the distal end of this structure (the "toe") and the proximal "heel," and discuss the central role of local mechanical forces in orchestrating the complex interplay between FAs and the actin system. PMID:19598236

Wolfenson, Haguy; Henis, Yoav I; Geiger, Benjamin; Bershadsky, Alexander D

2009-11-01

299

Cortical and Spinal Excitability during and after Lengthening Contractions of the Human Plantar Flexor Muscles Performed with Maximal Voluntary Effort  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n?=?10) lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave), electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP) and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP). Enhanced torque of 17±8% and 9±8% was found during and 2.5–3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p?0.05) and a trend to greater V-waves (p?0.1). In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature. PMID:23166794

Hahn, Daniel; Hoffman, Ben W.; Carroll, Timothy J.; Cresswell, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

300

Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37 athletes (17 male and 20 female) were recruited for this study. Subjects had no history of lower extremity injuries in the past six months, no history of foot or ankle surgery within the past 3 years, and no history of metatarsal stress fractures. Subjects had to be physically active and run at least 10 miles per week. Each subject ran on a 10m runway 7 times wearing two different running shoe types, the Nike Air Pegasus (training shoe) and the Nike Air Zoom Katana IV (racing flat). A Pedar-X in-shoe pressure measurement system sampling at 50Hz was used to collect plantar pressure data. Peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area beneath eight different anatomical regions of the foot as well as beneath the total foot were obtained. The results of this study demonstrated a significant difference between training shoes and racing flats in terms of peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area. The significant differences measured between the two shoes can be of importance when examining the influence of shoe type on the occurrence of stress fractures in runners. PMID:19147359

Wiegerinck, Johannes I; Boyd, Jennifer; Yoder, Jordan C; Abbey, Alicia N; Nunley, James A; Queen, Robin M

2009-04-01

301

Classification of Forefoot Plantar Pressure Distribution in Persons with Diabetes: A Novel Perspective for the Mechanical Management of Diabetic Foot?  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify groups of subjects with similar patterns of forefoot loading and verify if specific groups of patients with diabetes could be isolated from non-diabetics. Methodology/Principal Findings Ninety-seven patients with diabetes and 33 control participants between 45 and 70 years were prospectively recruited in two Belgian Diabetic Foot Clinics. Barefoot plantar pressure measurements were recorded and subsequently analysed using a semi-automatic total mapping technique. Kmeans cluster analysis was applied on relative regional impulses of six forefoot segments in order to pursue a classification for the control group separately, the diabetic group separately and both groups together. Cluster analysis led to identification of three distinct groups when considering only the control group. For the diabetic group, and the computation considering both groups together, four distinct groups were isolated. Compared to the cluster analysis of the control group an additional forefoot loading pattern was identified. This group comprised diabetic feet only. The relevance of the reported clusters was supported by ANOVA statistics indicating significant differences between different regions of interest and different clusters. Conclusion/s Significance There seems to emerge a new era in diabetic foot medicine which embraces the classification of diabetic patients according to their biomechanical profile. Classification of the plantar pressure distribution has the potential to provide a means to determine mechanical interventions for the prevention and/or treatment of the diabetic foot. PMID:24278219

Deschamps, Kevin; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Roosen, Philip; Desloovere, Kaat; Bruyninckx, Herman; Spaepen, Pieter; Nobels, Frank; Tits, Jos; Flour, Mieke; Staes, Filip

2013-01-01

302

Correlation between Plantar Foot Temperature and Diabetic Neuropathy: A Case Study by Using an Infrared Thermal Imaging Technique  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic neuropathy consists of multiple clinical manifestations of which loss of sensation is most prominent. High temperatures under the foot coupled with reduced or complete loss of sensation can predispose the patient to foot ulceration. The aim of this study was to look at the correlation between plantar foot temperature and diabetic neuropathy using a noninvasive infrared thermal imaging technique. Methods Infrared thermal imaging, a remote and noncontact experimental tool, was used to study the plantar foot temperatures of 112 subjects with type 2 diabetes selected from a tertiary diabetes centre in South India. Results Patients with diabetic neuropathy (defined as vibration perception threshold (VPT) values on biothesiometry greater than 20 V) had a higher foot temperature (32–35 °C) compared to patients without neuropathy (27–30 °C). Diabetic subjects with neuropathy also had higher mean foot temperature (MFT) (p = .001) compared to non-neuropathic subjects. MFT also showed a positive correlation with right great toe (r = 0.301, p = .001) and left great toe VPT values (r = 0.292, p = .002). However, there was no correlation between glycated hemoglobin and MFT. Conclusion Infrared thermal imaging may be used as an additional tool for evaluation of high risk diabetic feet. PMID:21129334

Bagavathiappan, Subramnaiam; Philip, John; Jayakumar, Tammana; Raj, Baldev; Rao, Pallela Narayana Someshwar; Varalakshmi, Muthukrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

2010-01-01

303

Papillon-Lefevre syndrome-like presentation in chronic arsenicosis: A rare mimicry  

PubMed Central

Chronic arsenicosis is a major health and occupational problem in rural parts of West Bengal such as in parts of the Gangetic plain of India. Chronic arsenicosis occurs due to accidental ingestion of repeated amounts of small doses by those working with metal or by taking food or drink in which there are traces of arsenic. Chronic exposure may result accumulation in the hair, nail, and skin. Arsenic can also cross the placenta. Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome is a rare disease characterized by skin lesions caused by palmar-plantar hyperkeratosis and severe periodontal destruction involving both the primary and permanent dentitions. Until date, more than 200 cases have been reported worldwide. Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is a major manifestation in both chronic arsenicosis and Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. We report herein a rare case of chronic arsenicosis in a patient from rural Bengal, whose all features mimic Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. It is probably the first case of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome-like presentation in chronic arsenicosis from India. PMID:23776326

Das, Somak K.; Nath, Tanusree; Ghosal, Anirban; Jana, Chanchal K.

2012-01-01

304

Gender differences in both active and passive parts of the plantar flexors series elastic component stiffness and geometrical parameters of the muscle-tendon complex.  

PubMed

Men are reportedly at higher risk of plantar flexor muscle injury and Achilles tendon ruptures than women. Biomechanical parameters are thought to play a role in the higher frequency of injury to males. One parameter is the stiffness of tissues; a stiff tissue cannot absorb sufficient energy with loading, and subsequently may be more likely to be injured. Thus, our purpose was to investigate the gender difference in the geometrical parameters of plantar flexor's muscle-tendon complex and the stiffness of both active and passive parts of the series elastic component (S(SEC1) and S(SEC2) , respectively). Using the alpha method on data obtained from quick stretches to the plantar flexors performed during isometric contractions, S(SEC1) and S(SEC2) were assessed. Plantar flexor muscles and Achilles tendon cross-sectional areas (CSA(TS) and CSA(AT) , respectively) were determined in young healthy men (n?=?49) and women (n?=?31). The findings showed that S(SEC2) was higher in men (p??0.05). In contrast, S(SEC1) was lower in men (p?

Fouré, Alexandre; Cornu, Christophe; McNair, Peter J; Nordez, Antoine

2012-05-01

305

The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Removable plug insoles appear to be beneficial for patients with diabetic neuropathic feet to offload local plantar pressure. However, quantitative evidence of pressure reduction by means of plug removal is limited. The value of additional insole accessories, such as arch additions, has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing plugs from foam based insoles, and subsequently adding extra arch support, on plantar pressures. Methods In-shoe plantar pressure measurements were performed on 26 patients with diabetic neuropathic feet at a baseline condition, in order to identify the forefoot region with the highest mean peak pressure (MPP). This was defined as the region of interest (ROI) for plug removal.The primary outcome was measurement of MPP using the pedar® system in the baseline and another three insole conditions (pre-plug removal, post-plug removal, and post-plug removal plus arch support). Results Among the 26 ROIs, a significant reduction in MPP (32.3%, P<0.001) was found after removing the insole plugs. With an arch support added, the pressure was further reduced (9.5%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in MPP at non-ROIs between pre- and post-plug removal conditions. Conclusions These findings suggest that forefoot plantar pressure can be reduced by removing plugs and adding arch support to foam-based insoles. This style of insole may therefore be clinically useful in managing patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23895323

2013-01-01

306

Effects of long-term wearing of high-heeled shoes on the control of the body's center of mass motion in relation to the center of pressure during walking.  

PubMed

High-heeled shoes are associated with instability and falling, leading to injuries such as fracture and ankle sprain. This study investigated the effects of habitual wearing of high-heeled shoes on the body's center of mass (COM) motion relative to the center of pressure (COP) during gait. Fifteen female experienced wearers and 15 matched controls walked with high-heeled shoes (7.3cm) while kinematic and ground reaction force data were measured and used to calculate temporal-distance parameters, joint moments, COM-COP inclination angles (IA) and the rate of IA changes (RCIA). Compared with inexperienced wearers, experienced subjects showed significantly reduced frontal IA with increased ankle pronator moments during single-limb support (p<0.05). During double-limb support (DLS), they showed significantly increased magnitudes of the frontal RCIA at toe-off and contralateral heel-strike, and reduced DLS time (p<0.05) but unaltered mean RCIA over DLS. In the sagittal plane experienced wearers showed significantly increased mean RCIA (p<0.05) and significant differences in the RCIA at toe-off and contralateral heel-strike (p<0.05). Significantly increased hip flexor moments and knee extensor moments at toe-off (p<0.05) were needed for forward motion of the trailing limb. The current results identified the change in the balance control in females after long-term use of high-heeled shoes, providing a basis for future design of strategies to minimize the risk of falling during high-heeled gait. PMID:24508016

Chien, Hui-Lien; Lu, Tung-Wu; Liu, Ming-Wei

2014-04-01

307

Correlation between computerised findings and Newman's scaling on vascularity using power Doppler ultrasonography imaging and its predictive value in patients with plantar fasciitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to correlate findings on small vessel vascularity between computerised findings and Newman's scaling using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) imaging and its predictive value in patients with plantar fasciitis. Methods PDU was performed on 44 patients (age range 30–66 years; mean age 48 years) with plantar fasciitis and 46 healthy subjects (age range 18–61 years; mean age 36 years). The vascularity was quantified using ultrasound images by a customised software program and graded by Newman's grading scale. Vascular index (VI) was calculated from the software program as the ratio of the number of colour pixels to the total number of pixels within a standardised selected area of proximal plantar fascia. The 46 healthy subjects were examined on 2 occasions 7–10 days apart, and 18 of them were assessed by 2 examiners. Statistical analyses were performed using intraclass correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. Results Good correlation was found between the averaged VI ratios and Newman's qualitative scale (? = 0.70; p<0.001). Intratester and intertester reliability were 0.89 and 0.61, respectively. Furthermore, higher VI was correlated with less reduction in pain after physiotherapeutic intervention. Conclusions The computerised VI not only has a high level of concordance with the Newman grading scale but is also reliable in reflecting the vascularity of proximal plantar fascia, and can predict pain reduction after intervention. This index can be used to characterise the changes in vascularity of patients with plantar fasciitis, and it may also be helpful for evaluating treatment and monitoring the progress after intervention in future studies. PMID:22167513

Chen, H; Ho, H M; Ying, M; Fu, S N

2012-01-01

308

Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks  

SciTech Connect

A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

2000-01-01

309

Effect of a rocker non-heeled shoe on EMG and ground reaction forces during gait without previous training.  

PubMed

Unstable shoes have been designed to promote "natural instability" and during walking they should simulate barefoot gait, enhancing muscle activity and, thus, attributing an advantage over regular tennis shoes. Recent studies showed that, after special training on the appropriate walking pattern, the use of the Masai Barefoot Technology (MBT) shoe increases muscle activation during walking. Our study presents a comparison of muscle activity as well as horizontal and vertical forces during gait with the MBT, a standard tennis shoe and barefoot walking of healthy individuals without previous training. These variables were compared in 25 female subjects and gait conditions were compared using ANOVA repeated measures (effect size:0.25). Walking with the MBT shoe in this non-instructed condition produced higher vertical forces (first vertical peak and weight acceptance rate) than walking with a standard shoe or walking barefoot, which suggests an increase in the loads received by the musculoskeletal system, especially at heel strike. Walking with the MBT shoe did not increase muscle activity when compared to walking with the standard shoe. The barefoot condition was more effective than the MBT shoe at enhancing muscle activation. Therefore, in healthy individuals, no advantage was found in using the MBT over a standard tennis shoe without a special training period. Further studies using the MBT without any instruction over a longer period are needed to evaluate if the higher loads observed in the present study would return to their baseline values after a period of adaptation, and if the muscle activity would increase over time. PMID:22424760

Sacco, Isabel C N; Sartor, Cristina D; Cacciari, Licia P; Onodera, Andrea N; Dinato, Roberto C; Pantaleão, Elcio; Matias, Alessandra B; Cezário, Fernanda G; Tonicelli, Lucas M G; Martins, Maria Cecília S; Yokota, Mariane; Marques, Paulo Eduardo C; Costa, Paulo Henrique C

2012-06-01

310

Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries") or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

Zeigler, K. E.; Hogan, P.; Hughes, C.; Kurota, A.

2011-06-01

311

Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries") or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

Zeigler, K. E.; Hughes, C.; Kurota, A.; Hogan, P.

2010-12-01

312

Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: November 11, 2014 General Information About Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of ...

313

Using effect size to quantify plantar pressure asymmetry of gait of nondisabled adults and patients with hemiparesis.  

PubMed

In the literature, numerous statistical analyses are used to quantify asymmetry in gait. This study tested the effect size (ES) statistic for quantifying asymmetry in nondisabled and pathological populations. The plantar pressure peaks on eight footprint locations of 27 nondisabled subjects and 18 patients with hemiparesis were bilaterally compared. Asymmetry quantifications were performed with ES and standard statistical tests (index of asymmetry, symmetry index, and ratio index). The results show an advantage in using ES to quantify asymmetry when confidence limits are also calculated. Conversely, traditional asymmetry indexes immediately implied asymmetry without statistical basis. These findings should be considered when one is attempting to diagnose pathological walking patterns or guide rehabilitation processes. PMID:18247231

Potdevin, François J; Femery, Virginie G; Decatoire, Aurélien; Bosquet, Laurent; Coello, Yann; Moretto, Pierre

2007-01-01

314

Plantar Temperature Response to Walking in Diabetes with and without Acute Charcot: The Charcot Activity Response Test  

PubMed Central

Objective. Asymmetric plantar temperature differences secondary to inflammation is a hallmark for the diagnosis and treatment response of Charcot foot syndrome. However, little attention has been given to temperature response to activity. We examined dynamic changes in plantar temperature (PT) as a function of graduated walking activity to quantify thermal responses during the first 200 steps. Methods. Fifteen individuals with Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) and 17 non-CN participants with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were recruited. All participants walked for two predefined paths of 50 and 150 steps. A thermal image was acquired at baseline after acclimatization and immediately after each walking trial. The PT response as a function of number of steps was examined using a validated wearable sensor technology. The hot spot temperature was identified by the 95th percentile of measured temperature at each anatomical region (hind/mid/forefoot). Results. During initial activity, the PT was reduced in all participants, but the temperature drop for the nonaffected foot was 1.9 times greater than the affected side in CN group (P = 0.04). Interestingly, the PT in CN was sharply increased after 50 steps for both feet, while no difference was observed in non-CN between 50 and 200 steps. Conclusions. The variability in thermal response to the graduated walking activity between Charcot and non-Charcot feet warrants future investigation to provide further insight into the correlation between thermal response and ulcer/Charcot development. This stress test may be helpful to differentiate CN and its response to treatment earlier in its course. PMID:22900177

Najafi, Bijan; Wrobel, James S.; Grewal, Gurtej; Menzies, Robert A.; Talal, Talal K.; Zirie, Mahmoud; Armstrong, David G.

2012-01-01

315

Specific modulation of spinal and cortical excitabilities during lengthening and shortening submaximal and maximal contractions in plantar flexor muscles.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of the torque produced by plantar flexor muscles on cortical and spinal excitability during lengthening and shortening voluntary contractions. To that purpose, modulations of motor-evoked potential (MEP) and Hoffmann (H) reflex were compared in the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) during anisometric submaximal and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexor muscles. For the submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions, the target torque was set at 50% of their respective MVC force. The results indicate that the amplitudes of both MEP and H-reflex responses, normalized to the maximal M wave, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during lengthening compared with shortening submaximal contraction. For these two parameters, the reduction reached, respectively, 22.1 and 31.9% for the SOL and 34.5 and 29.3% for the MG. During MVC, normalized MEP and H reflex of the SOL were both reduced significantly by 19.9% (P < 0.05) and 29.9% (P < 0.001) during lengthening and shortening contraction, respectively, whereas no significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for MG. In addition, the silent period in the ongoing electromyogram (EMG) activity following the MEP was significantly (P < 0.01) briefer during lengthening than shortening contractions but did not differ (P > 0.05) between contraction intensities and muscles. Together, these results indicate that cortical and spinal mechanisms involved in the modulation of muscle activation during shortening and lengthening contractions differ between synergistic muscles according to the torque produced. Data further document previous studies reporting that the specific modulation of muscle activation during lengthening contraction is not torque dependent. PMID:25324516

Duclay, Julien; Pasquet, Benjamin; Martin, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

2014-12-15

316

The Relationships between Foot Arch Volumes and Dynamic Plantar Pressure during Midstance of Walking in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the foot arch volume measured from static positions and the plantar pressure distribution during walking. Methods A total of 27 children, two to six years of age, were included in this study. Measurements of static foot posture were obtained, including navicular height and foot arch volume in sitting and standing positions. Plantar pressure, force and contact areas under ten different regions of the foot were obtained during walking. Results The foot arch index was correlated (r?=?0.32) with the pressure difference under the midfoot during the foot flat phase. The navicular heights and foot arch volumes in sitting and standing positions were correlated with the mean forces and pressures under the first (r?=??0.296??0.355) and second metatarsals (r?=??0.335??0.504) and midfoot (r?=??0.331??0.496) during the stance phase of walking. The contact areas under the foot were correlated with the foot arch parameters, except for the area under the midfoot. Conclusions The foot arch index measured in a static position could be a functional index to predict the dynamic foot functions when walking. The foot arch is a factor which will influence the pressure distribution under the foot. Children with a lower foot arch demonstrated higher mean pressure and force under the medial forefoot and midfoot, and lower contact areas under the foot, except for the midfoot region. Therefore, children with flatfoot may shift their body weight to a more medial foot position when walking, and could be at a higher risk of soft tissue injury in this area. PMID:24736650

Chang, Hsun-Wen; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Chien-Ju; Su, Fong-Chin; Tsai, Ming-June

2014-01-01

317

Contribution of central vs. peripheral factors to the force loss induced by passive stretch of the human plantar flexors.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present research was to identify the contribution of central vs. peripheral factors to the force loss after passive muscle stretching. Thirteen men randomly performed both a 5-min constant-torque stretch of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic dynamometer and a resting condition on 2 separate days. The triceps surae electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously with plantar flexor isometric torque. Measures of central drive, including the EMG amplitude normalized to the muscle compound action potential amplitude (EMG/M), percent voluntary activation and first volitional wave amplitude, and measures of peripheral function, including the twitch peak torque, 20-to-80-Hz tetanic torque ratio and torque during 20-Hz stimulation preceded by a doublet, were taken before and immediately and 15 min after each condition. Peak torque (-15.7%), EMG/M (-8.2%), and both twitch (-9.4%) and 20-Hz peak torques (-11.5%) were reduced immediately after stretch but recovered by 15 min. There were strong correlations between the torque loss and the reductions in central drive parameters (r = 0.65-0.93). Torque recovery was also strongly correlated with the recovery in EMG/M and percent voluntary activation (r = 0.77-0.81). The moderate decreases in measures of peripheral function were not related to the torque loss or recovery. These results suggest that 1) central factors were strongly related to the torque reduction immediately after stretch and during torque recovery; and 2) the muscle's contractile capacity was moderately reduced, although these changes were not associated with the torque reduction, and changes in excitation-contraction coupling efficiency were not observed. PMID:23661620

Trajano, Gabriel S; Seitz, Laurent; Nosaka, Kasunori; Blazevich, Anthony J

2013-07-15

318

Reduction of peak plantar pressure in people with diabetes-related peripheral neuropathy: an evaluation of the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™  

PubMed Central

Background Offloading plantar pressure is a key strategy for the prevention or healing of neuropathic plantar ulcers in diabetes. Non-removable walking casts, such as total contact casts, are currently considered the gold-standard for offloading this type of wound. However, alternative methods for offloading that are more cost effective and easier to use are continually being sought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ to offload high pressure areas under the neuropathic foot in diabetes. Methods A within-subjects, repeated measures design was used. Sixteen participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were recruited and three footwear conditions were evaluated in a randomised order: a canvas shoe (the control), the participants’ own standard shoe, and the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™. The primary outcome was peak plantar pressure, measured using the pedar-X® mobile in-shoe system between the three conditions. Results Data analysis was conducted on 14 out of the 16 participants because two participants could not complete data collection. The mean peak pressure values in kPa (±SD) for each condition were: control shoe 315.9 (±140.7), participants’ standard shoe 273.0 (±127.1) and DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ 155.4 (±89.9). There was a statistically significant difference in peak plantar pressure between the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ compared to both the control shoe (p?=?0.002) and participants’ standard shoe (p?=?0.001). The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ decreased plantar pressures by 51% compared to the control shoe and by 43% compared to participants’ standard shoe. Importantly, for a couple of study participants, the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ appeared unsuitable for day-to-day wearing. Conclusions The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ reduced plantar pressures more than the other two shoe conditions. The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ may be a useful alternative to current offloading modalities used in clinical management of diabetic foot ulceration. However, clinical trials are needed to test their effectiveness for ulcer healing and to ensure they are useable and safe for patients in everyday activities. PMID:23021860

2012-01-01

319

CHRONIC URTICARIA  

PubMed Central

Chronic urticaria (CU) is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ‘idiopathic’ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented. PMID:22345759

Sachdeva, Sandeep; Gupta, Vibhanshu; Amin, Syed Suhail; Tahseen, Mohd

2011-01-01

320

The validity and reliability of a portable slip meter for determining floor slipperiness during simulated heel strike.  

PubMed

A previously developed test rig was used as starting point for designing a portable slip meter with two new features. First, an inflatable pneumatic test wheel, consisting of six slider units, was introduced as the impacting contact element relative to floor surface. Second, an inductive trigger was built into the system to facilitate a precise timing of the slider-floor contact during the test. This new test rig was designed to measure transitional friction properties of contaminated floor surfaces during simulated heel strike, which is considered the most critical phase of gait from the slip and fall point of view. Another objective was to quantify the validity and reliability of this test method in the laboratory, but not yet in the field. The measurement process was evaluated on eight wet and oily floor surfaces (vinyl and ceramic tile floorings) using two slider materials (plain, profiled), two normal loads (100, 200 N), and two sliding velocities (0.15, 0.30 m/s) as independent variables. The outputs of the portable slip meter, in terms of transitional friction coefficients, were compared to force platform-based friction values and to slip resistance values obtained with a slip simulator apparatus for laboratory testing of shoes and floor surfaces. The outputs were also evaluated against slipperiness ratings made by three male subjects in paired comparison trials, in which the subjects walked over eight wet floor surfaces wearing shoes with the plain soling material. The results showed that test option 200 N and 0.15m/s led to optimum validity despite its tendency to promote frictional vibrations (stick-slip) in the contact surface. Compared to the lower sliding speed, the higher speed reduced both stick-slip and measurement bias. Test option 200 N and 0.30 m/s was the most reliable one in this experiment. It yielded lower friction coefficients than any other test option and reduced the likelihood of underestimating slip and fall hazards. The results implied that the minimum friction coefficient was 0.25 for preventing a fall on wet floor surfaces, whereas the limit for preventing a slip was in the range 0.30-0.35. Transitional friction measurement was found to be a valid and reliable indicator for slip resistance. A more accurate control of the normal force during testing is needed for actual field use of the test method. PMID:12504142

Grönqvist, Raoul; Hirvonen, Mikko; Rajamäki, Erkki; Matz, Simon

2003-03-01

321

Feynman's Achilles' Heel?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feynman1 argued that a ratchet of the type used in heavy machinery could be used, in a scaled-down version, to show that the second law of thermodynamics is not just a statistical law, but has absolute status. Hidden is the assumption that this model represented the completely general example of this device—and that it remained so, across the complete range of magnitudes from macro- to micro-domains. It will be argued here, that Feynman's example is only one construct of a ratchet and cannot represent the general case. A mechanism, with sufficient difference and confined to the micro-domain, is the subject of the present discussion. Its unique feature is the compressible nature of the pawl as it librates in pawl-space. The motions of the gear and the pawl are governed by the energy exchanges between them and with the ambient gas. The average linear pressure on the pawl which varies with the magnitude of pawl-space is associated with the compressibility of the pawl. Feynman's objective was to show that the prototypal ratchet is incapable of converting heat into work in a manner contrary to the second law. The dubious nature of his examination is not due to an incorrect analysis of his thought experiment, but lies within the assumption that his example represented the general case. In contrast, the ratchet analyzed here does not conform to the principle of detailed balance and thereby the absolute status of the law remains an open question.

Gordon, Lyndsay G. M.

2011-12-01

322

Calcaneus (Heel Bone) Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... may persist a er recovery include: • Skin irritation. Footwear can irritate the skin or tendons in the ... 7 ) AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, products, or physicians referenced herein. This information is provided ...

323

Powered ankle exoskeletons reveal the metabolic cost of plantar flexor mechanical work during walking with longer steps at constant step frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We examined the metabolic cost of plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanical work during human walking. Nine healthy subjects walked at constant step frequency on a motorized treadmill at speeds corresponding to 80% (1.00 m s -1 ), 100% (1.25 m s -1 ), 120% (1.50 ms -1 ) and 140% (1.75 m s -1 ) of their preferred step length

Gregory S. Sawicki; Daniel P. Ferris

2009-01-01

324

Comparison of plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness, geometry, and architecture in male runners with and without a history of tibial stress fracture.  

PubMed

Greater lower extremity joint stiffness may be related to the development of tibial stress fractures in runners. Musculotendinous stiffness is the largest contributor to joint stiffness, but it is unclear what factors contribute to musculotendinous stiffness. The purpose of this study was to compare plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness, architecture, geometry, and Achilles tendon stiffness between male runners with and without a history of tibial stress fracture. Nineteen healthy runners (age = 21 ± 2.7 years; mass = 68.2 ± 9.3 kg; height = 177.3± 6.0 cm) and 19 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (age = 21 ± 2.9 years; mass = 65.3 ± 6.0 kg; height = 177.2 ± 5.2 cm) were recruited from community running groups and the university's varsity and club cross-country teams. Plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness was estimated from the damped frequency of oscillatory motion about the ankle follow perturbation. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure architecture and geometry of the medial gastrocnemius. Dependent variables were compared between groups via one-way ANOVAs. Previously injured runners had greater plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness (P < .001), greater Achilles tendon stiffness (P = .004), and lesser Achilles tendon elongation (P = .003) during maximal isometric contraction compared with healthy runners. No differences were found in muscle thickness, pennation angle, or fascicle length. PMID:25580550

Pamukoff, Derek N; Blackburn, J Troy

2015-02-01

325

Comparison of plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness, geometry, and architecture in male runners with and without a history of tibial stress fracture.  

PubMed

Greater lower extremity joint stiffness may be related to the development of tibial stress fractures in runners. Musculotendinous stiffness is the largest contributor to joint stiffness, but it is unclear what factors contribute to musculotendinous stiffness. The purpose of this study was to compare plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness, architecture, geometry, and Achilles tendon stiffness between male runners with and without a history of tibial stress fracture. Nineteen healthy runners (age = 21 ± 2.7 years; mass = 68.2 ± 9.3 kg; height = 177.3 ± 6.0 cm) and 19 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (age = 21 ± 2.9 years; mass = 65.3 ± 6.0 kg; height = 177.2 ± 5.2 cm) were recruited from community running groups and the university's varsity and club cross-country teams. Plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness was estimated from the damped frequency of oscillatory motion about the ankle follow perturbation. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure architecture and geometry of the medial gastrocnemius. Dependent variables were compared between groups via one-way ANOVAs. Previously injured runners had greater plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness (P < .001), greater Achilles tendon stiffness (P = .004), and lesser Achilles tendon elongation (P = .003) during maximal isometric contraction compared with healthy runners. No differences were found in muscle thickness, pennation angle, or fascicle length. PMID:25320911

Pamukoff, Derek N; Blackburn, J Troy

2015-02-01

326

[Acute hyponatraemic encephalopathy in a patient on chronic hemodialysis program -- a case report].  

PubMed

By the end of a dialysis session the patient had a generalized convulsive seizure. Then meningeal syndrome, right-sided hemiparesis with central lesion of right facial nerve and bilaterally positive extensor plantar response were found. Because of the increase of blood pressure and then increased body temperature the diagnosis of acute hyponatraemic encephalopathy was not made only on the basis of the plasma ionogram (Na+ 110mEq/1) but also after excluding possible subarachnoid haemorrhage and acute cerebrospinal meningitis and encephalitis by cerebrospinal fluid examination. Hyponatraemia found in some patients suffering from chronic renal insufficiency is increased by haemodialysis session. Cerebral oedema which is proportional to natraemia is caused by urea disolation from intracellular to extracellular fluid. This process increases concentration gradient between intracellular and extracellular fluids. The perceptible neurological signs occur as natraemia declines below 120 mEq/l. PMID:8502350

Nadgrodkiewicz, K

1993-01-01

327

Understanding Chronic Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Stop Smoking Get Involved Donate Lung Disease Asthma COPD Influenza Lung Cancer Disparities Reports Lung Disease Finder ... commonly referred to as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). How Serious is Chronic Bronchitis? People often ignore ...

328

Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Morphine-Mediated Analgesic Patterns in a Plantar Incision-Induced Pain Model  

PubMed Central

Electroacupuncture (EA) is a complementary therapy to improve morphine analgesia for postoperative pain, but underlying mechanism is not well-known. Herein, we investigated EA-induced analgesic effect in a plantar incision (PI) model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PI was performed at the left hind paw. EA of 4?Hz and high intensity or sham needling was conducted at right ST36 prior to PI and repeated for another 2 days. Behavioral responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli, spinal phospho-ERK, and Fos expression were all analyzed. In additional groups, naloxone and morphine were administered to elucidate involvement of opioid receptors and for comparison with EA. EA pretreatment significantly reduced post-PI tactile allodynia for over 1 day; repeated treatments maintained analgesic effect. Intraperitoneal naloxone could reverse EA analgesia. Low-dose subcutaneous morphine (1?mg/kg) had stronger inhibitory effect on PI-induced allodynia than EA for 1?h. However, analgesic tolerance appeared after repeated morphine injections. Both EA and morphine could equally inhibit PI-induced p-ERK and Fos inductions. We conclude that though EA and morphine attenuate postincision pain through opioid receptor activations, daily EA treatments result in analgesic accumulation whereas daily morphine injections develop analgesic tolerance. Discrepant pathways and mechanisms underlying two analgesic means may account for the results. PMID:25530786

Tsai, Shih-Ying; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Julia Yi-Ru

2014-01-01

329

Increased peripherin in sympathetic axons innervating plantar metatarsal arteries in STZ-induced type I diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

A common characteristic of axonopathy is the abnormal accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins. We recently reported that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes produced a change in the morphology of sympathetic nerve fibers supplying rat plantar metatarsal arteries (PMAs). Here we investigated whether these morphological changes are associated with axonal accumulation of the type III intermediate filament peripherin and the microtubule protein ?-tubulin III, as both are implicated in axonal remodeling. PMAs from hyperglycemic STZ-treated rats receiving a low dose of insulin (STZ-LI) were compared with those from normoglycemic STZ-treated rats receiving a high dose of insulin (STZ-HI) and vehicle-treated controls. Western blotting revealed an increase in protein expression level for peripherin in PMAs from STZ-LI rats but no change in that for ?-tubulin III. In addition, there was an increase in the number of peripherin immunoreactive nerve fibers in the perivascular nerve plexus of PMAs from STZ-LI rats. Co-labeling for peripherin and neuropeptide Y (a marker for sympathetic axons) revealed that peripherin immunoreactivity increased in sympathetic axons. None of these changes were detected in PMAs from STZ-HI rats, indicating that increased peripherin in sympathetic axons of STZ-LI rats is likely due to hyperglycemia and provides a marker of diabetes-induced nerve damage. PMID:24847201

Johansen, Niloufer J.; Frugier, Tony; Hunne, Billie; Brock, James A.

2014-01-01

330

Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a meaning for the term chronic poverty “in a nutshell” and explores the concepts of poverty, vulnerability and poverty dynamics that underpin this meaning. Subsequently, it reviews “who” is chronically poor, “why” they stay poor and what is known about policies to reduce chronic poverty. Despite the limited knowledge available it is clear that hundreds of millions

Andrew Shepherd

2003-01-01

331

Use of a pressure plate to analyse the toe-heel load redistribution underneath a normal shoe and a shoe with a wide toe in sound warmblood horses at the walk and trot.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to use a pressure plate to quantify the toe-heel load redistribution in the forelimbs of sound warmblood horses with normal shoes and shoes with a wide toe and narrow branches, used empirically in the treatment of superficial digital flexor tendon or suspensory ligament injuries. In a crossover-design study, six horses, randomly shod with normal shoes and shoes with a wide toe, were led over a dynamically calibrated pressure plate to record data from both forelimbs. There were no significant differences between both shoes in the toe-heel index of stance time, peak vertical force and vertical impulse. For the adapted shoe, the peak vertical pressure was slightly lower and was exerted slightly earlier in the stance phase, albeit not significantly. However, the significantly larger toe contact area of the adapted shoe resulted in a significantly lower total vertical pressure in the toe region. Hence, the pressure plate adequately visualised the individual loading of the toe and heel region, and clearly demonstrated the altered pressure distribution underneath the shoe with a wide toe. Although further research on a deformable surface is needed to confirm this hypothesis, the pressure redistribution from the toe to the heels could promote sinking of the heels in arena footing, thereby mimicking the biomechanical effects of a toe wedge and providing a rationale for its application in the treatment of SDFT or SL injuries. The pressure measuring equipment used in this study can offer to the clinician a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of the load distribution underneath the equine hoof and for the fine-tuning of corrective shoeing. PMID:22342126

Oomen, A M; Oosterlinck, M; Pille, F; Sonneveld, D C; Gasthuys, F; Back, W

2012-10-01

332

Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Is Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Chronic Recalcitrant Plantar Fasciitis Results of a Confirmatory Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy proved significantly superior to placebo with a reduction of the visual ana- log scale composite score of 72.1% compared with 44.7% (P = .0220), and an overall success rate of 61.0% compared with 42.2% in the placebo group (P = .0020) at 12 weeks. Superiority was even more pronounced at 12 months, and all

Ludger Gerdesmeyer; Carol Frey; Johannes Vester; Lowell Weil Jr; Lowell Weil Sr; Martin Russlies; John Stienstra; Barry Scurran; Keith Fedder; Peter Diehl; Heinz Lohrer; Mark Henne; Hans Gollwitzer

333

Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by as much as 400%, to increase the frequency and duration of hospitalization, and to decrease the quality of life of affected patients. The cost of treating pressure ulcers has been estimated at approximately $9,000 (Cdn) per patient per month in the community setting. Considering the high prevalence of pressure ulcers in the Ontario health care system, the total cost of treating pressure ulcers is substantial. Technology Wounds normally heal in 3 phases (inflammatory phase, a proliferative phase of new tissue and matrix formation, and a remodelling phase). However, pressure ulcers often fail to progress past the inflammatory stage. Current practice for treating pressure ulcers includes treating the underlying causes, debridement to remove necrotic tissues and contaminated tissues, dressings to provide a moist wound environment and to manage exudates, devices and frequent turning of patients to provide pressure relief, topical applications of biologic agents, and nutritional support to correct nutritional deficiencies. A variety of adjunctive physical therapies are also in use. Method Health technology assessment databases and medical databases were searched from 1996 (Medline), 1980 (EMBASE), and 1982 (CINAHL) systematically up to March 2008 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the following treatments of pressure ulcers: cleansing, debridement, dressings, biological therapies, pressure-relieving devices, physical therapies, nutritional therapies, and multidisciplinary wound care teams. Full literature search strategies are reported in appendix 1. English-language studies in previous systematic reviews and studies published since the last systematic review were included if they had more than 10 subjects, were randomized, and provided objective outcome measures on the healing of pressure ulcers. In the absence of RCTs, studies of the highest level of evidence available were included. Studies on wounds other than pressure ulcers and on surgical treatment of pressure ulcers were excluded. A total of 18 systematic reviews, 104 RCTs, and 4 observational

2009-01-01

334

Environmental pollution and chronic arsenicosis in south Calcutta.  

PubMed Central

Careless handling of industrial wastes often creates problems for human health and the environment. Chronic arsenic toxicity, resulting from household use of arsenic-contaminated water occurred in 53 out of 79 members (67%) of 17 families residing in South Calcutta close to a factory that manufactured Paris-green (copper acetoarsenite). Clinical investigation of 20 of these affected persons showed typical skin pigmentation as well as palmar and plantar keratosis in all of them, while gastrointestinal symptoms, anaemia and signs of liver disease and peripheral neuropathy were seen in many. The water used by the affected families for drinking and cooking had been taken from shallow tubewells and had arsenic levels from 5.0 to 58 mg/l (WHO permissible limit, 0.05 mg/l). Other residents in the same area whose drinking-water came from deep tubewells or from tap water supplied by the Calcutta Municipal Corporation (arsenic levels, less than 0.05 mg/l) were not affected. The study confirms that arsenic in the shallow tubewells was due to the waste discharged by the factory producing Paris-green. PMID:1394782

Mazumder, D. N.; Das Gupta, J.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Chatterjee, A.; Das, D.; Chakraborti, D.

1992-01-01

335

Adjuvant role of a new emollient cream in patients with palmar and/or plantar psoriasis: a pilot randomized open-label study.  

PubMed

Emollients are considered important adjunctive tools for the therapeutic management of psoriasis patients. In spite of the widespread use, the actual impact of emollients on psoriasis is far to be completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new emollient cream containing milk proteins and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts in patients with palmar and/or plantar psoriasis treated with topical corticotherapy. This pilot open parallel-group trial was carried out in 40 patients with palmar and/or plantar psoriasis. Patients were randomized to receive monotherapy with mometasone furoate ointment, applied once daily to the palmoplantar lesions until remission and for a maximum of 4 weeks (N=20), or the same topical corticotherapy in combination with the emollient cream (N=20). The emollient was applied twice a day for 4 weeks. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks after the start of treatment. All patients completed the study and showed a progressive improvement of their palmo-plantar psoriasis over the treatment period, achieving at week 4 a statistical significant reduction in the severity of all clinical signs (erythema, desquamation and infiltration) and in the surface area affected. The comparison between the two groups showed no differences in the mean average duration of corticosteroid therapy, whereas a significantly greater improvement of desquamation, surface area affected, and subjective symptoms was observed at week 4 in the group treated with the corticotherapy combined with the emollient as compared to patients who received the corticotherapy alone. This pilot experience suggests the importance of the adjuvant role of particular emollients in the management of psoriasis. PMID:21139557

Cassano, N; Mantegazza, R; Battaglini, S; Apruzzi, D; Loconsole, F; Vena, G A

2010-12-01

336

Adherence to Wearing Prescription Custom-Made Footwear in Patients With Diabetes at High Risk for Plantar Foot Ulceration  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Prescription custom-made footwear can only be effective in preventing diabetic foot ulcers if worn by the patient. Particularly, the high prevalence of recurrent foot ulcers focuses the attention on adherence, for which objective data are nonexisting. We objectively assessed adherence in patients with high risk of ulcer recurrence and evaluated what determines adherence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 107 patients with diabetes, neuropathy, a recently healed plantar foot ulcer, and custom-made footwear, footwear use was measured during 7 consecutive days using a shoe-worn, temperature-based monitor. Daily step count was measured simultaneously using an ankle-worn activity monitor. Patients logged time away from home. Adherence was calculated as the percentage of steps that prescription footwear was worn. Determinants of adherence were evaluated in multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS Mean ± SD adherence was 71 ± 25%. Adherence at home was 61 ± 32%, over 3,959 ± 2,594 steps, and away from home 87 ± 26%, over 2,604 ± 2,507 steps. In 35 patients with low adherence (<60%), adherence at home was 28 ± 24%. Lower BMI, more severe foot deformity, and more appealing footwear were significantly associated with higher adherence. CONCLUSIONS The results show that adherence to wearing custom-made footwear is insufficient, particularly at home where patients exhibit their largest walking activity. This low adherence is a major threat for reulceration. These objective findings provide directions for improvement in adherence, which could include prescribing specific off-loading footwear for indoors, and they set a reference for future comparative research on footwear adherence in diabetes. PMID:23321218

Waaijman, Roelof; Keukenkamp, Renske; de Haart, Mirjam; Polomski, Wojtek P.; Nollet, Frans; Bus, Sicco A.

2013-01-01

337

Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report  

PubMed Central

Background The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Methods Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. Results The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). Conclusion The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments. PMID:24456711

2014-01-01

338

Changes in length of the plantar aponeurosis during the stance phase of gait--an in vivo dynamic fluoroscopic study.  

PubMed

In locomotion, ligaments and muscles have been recognized to support the arch of the foot. However, it remains unclear to what extent the passive and active structures of the lower extremity support the longitudinal arch of the foot during walking. In this study, the mechanical function of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) is investigated by elongation measurements in vivo during the stance phase of gait, in combination with measurements of the mechanical properties of the PA in vitro. Fluoroscopy was used to measure the dynamic changes in PA length and the angular motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the first ray, measured during the stance phase (StPh) in 11 feet. Simultaneously, ground forces were measured. Additionally, four cadaver feet delivered topographic information relating to the PA, and three autopsy specimens of PA served to determine the in vitro mechanical properties of PA. The present study revealed a non-significant peak average PA shortening of 0.48% at about 32.5% StPh, followed by a significant average peak elongation of 3.6% at 77.5% StPh. This average peak elongation of 3.6% corresponds to a force of 292N, as estimated by mechanical testing of the autopsy PA specimens. Considering the maximum peak elongation measured in one volunteer of 4.8% at 76% StPh, a peak PA load of 488N might be expected. Hence, with an average body weight of 751N, as allocated to the 11 investigated feet, this maximum peak force would correspond to about 0.65×body weight. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on a dynamic fluoroscopic study of the PA in gait with an appreciable number of feet (11 feet). In conclusion, muscles contribute to support of the longitudinal arch of the foot and can possibly relax the PA during gait. The 'windlass effect' for support of the arch in this context is therefore questionable. PMID:25113063

Fessel, G; Jacob, H A C; Wyss, Ch; Mittlmeier, Th; Müller-Gerbl, M; Büttner, A

2014-12-01

339

Neuromuscular adjustments of the knee extensors and plantar flexors following match-play tennis in the heat  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that impairments in lower limb maximal strength and voluntary activation (VA) are exacerbated following match-play tennis in hot compared with cool conditions. Methods Torque and VA were evaluated during brief (5?s) and sustained (20?s) maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) in 12 male tennis players before (pre) and after (post, 24?h and 48?h) ?115?min of play in hot (?37°C) and cool (?22°C) conditions. Results Rectal temperature was higher following play in hot than in cool (?39.2 vs ?38.5°C; p<0.05). Torque production decreased from prematch to postmatch during the brief and sustained contractions in hot (KE: ?22%; PF: ?13%) and cool (KE: ?9%, PF: ?7%) (p<0.05). KE strength losses in hot were greater than in cool (p<0.05) and persisted for 24?h (p<0.05). Postmatch brief and sustained KE VA was lower in hot than in cool (p<0.05), in which VA was maintained. PF VA was maintained throughout the protocol. Peak twitch torque and maximum rates of torque development and relaxation in the KE and PF were equally reduced postmatch relative to prematch in hot and cool conditions (p<0.05), and were restored near baseline within 24?h. Conclusions Neuromuscular system integrity of the lower limbs is compromised immediately following match-play tennis in hot and cool conditions due to the development of peripheral fatigue. The larger and persistent KE strength losses observed under heat stress are associated with greater levels of central fatigue especially during sustained contractions. PMID:24668379

Périard, Julien D; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien

2014-01-01

340

EFFECT OF ATHLETIC TAPING AND KINESIOTAPING® ON MEASUREMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS WITH CHRONIC INVERSION ANKLE SPRAINS  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic inversion ankle sprains are common in basketball players. The effect of taping on functional performance is disputed in the literature. Kinesiotaping® (KT®) is a new method that is being used as both a therapeutic and performance enhancement tool. To date, it appears that no study has investigated the effect of ankle KT® on functional performance. Purpose: To investigate the effects of different types of taping (KT® using Kinesio Tex®, athletic taping) on functional performance in athletes with chronic inversion sprains of the ankle. Study Design: Crossover Study Design Methods: Fifteen male basketball players with chronic inversion ankle sprains between the ages of 18 and 22 participated in this study. Functional performance tests (Hopping test by Amanda et al, Single Limb Hurdle Test, Standing Heel Rise test, Vertical Jump Test, The Star Excursion Balance Test [SEBT] and Kinesthetic Ability Trainer [KAT] Test) were used to quantify agility, endurance, balance, and coordination. These tests were conducted four times at one week intervals using varied conditions: placebo tape, without tape, standard athletic tape, and KT®. One-way ANOVA tests were used to examine difference in measurements between conditions. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for repeated testing. Results: There were no significant differences among the results obtained using the four conditions for SEBT (anterior p=0.0699; anteromedial p=0.126; medial p=0.550; posteromedial p=0.587; posterior p=0.754; posterolateral p=0.907; lateral p=0.124; anterolateral p=0.963) and the KAT dynamic measurement (p=0.388). Faster performance times were measured with KT® and athletic tape in single limb hurdle test when compared to placebo and non-taped conditions (Athletic taping- placebo taping: p=0.03; athletic taping- non tape p=0.016;KT®- Placebo taping p=0.042; KT®-Non tape p=0.016). In standing heel rise test and vertical jump test, athletic taping led to decreased performance. (Standing heel rise test: Athletic taping- placebo taping p=0.035; athletic taping- non tape p=0.043; athletic tape- KT® p<0.001) (Vertical jump test: Athletic taping- placebo taping p=0.002: athletic taping- non tape p=0.002; KT®- athletic tape p<0.001) Conclusion: Kinesiotaping® had no negative effects on a battery of functional performance tests and improvements were seen in some functional performance tests. Clinical Relevance: Ankle taping using Kinesio Tex® Tape did not inhibit functional performance. PMID:22530190

Karatas, Nihan; Baltaci, Gul

2012-01-01

341

Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain.  

PubMed

High-load eccentric exercises have been a key component in the conservative management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. This study investigated the effects of a 12-wk progressive, home-based eccentric rehabilitation program on ankle plantar flexors' glucose uptake (GU) and myoelectric activity and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task. The results indicated that the symptomatic leg was weaker (P < 0.05) than the asymptomatic leg at baseline, but improved (P < 0.001) with eccentric rehabilitation. Additionally, the rehabilitation resulted in greater GU in both soleus (P < 0.01) and lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.001) in the symptomatic leg, while the asymptomatic leg displayed higher uptake for medial gastrocnemius and flexor hallucis longus (P < 0.05). While both patient legs had higher tendon GU than the controls (P < 0.05), there was no rehabilitation effect on the tendon GU. Concerning SEMG, at baseline, soleus showed more relative activity in the symptomatic leg compared with both the asymptomatic and control legs (P < 0.05), probably reflecting an effort to compensate for the decreased force potential. The rehabilitation resulted in greater SEMG activity in the lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.01) of the symptomatic leg with no other within- or between-group differences. Eccentric rehabilitation was effective in decreasing subjective severity of Achilles tendinopathy. It also resulted in redistribution of relative electrical activity, but not metabolic activity, within the triceps surae muscle. PMID:24855138

Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija

2014-07-15

342

New surgical approach to the plantar fetlock joint through the digital flexor tendon sheath wall and suspensory ligament apparatus in cases of concurrent septic synovitis in two cattle.  

PubMed

A new surgical approach to the infected fetlock joint is described in two cattle suffering from septic tenosynovitis of the lateral digital flexor tendon sheaths of the right lateral hind-digits with concurrent septic serofibrinous arthritis of the adjoining fetlock joints, caused by penetrating wounds. In both patients, the infected sheaths were opened and the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons were removed. Intraoperatively, a small entry through the fetlock joint capsule was detected, directly distal to the lateral proximal sesamoid bone. The tract was surgically enlarged and a second approach into the plantar fetlock joint pouch was created proximally by making a 3 cm long and 0.5 cm wide incision between the two lateral suspensory ligament branches. This allowed easy access to the plantar joint pouch, removal of fibrin clots and an effective joint lavage using 5L of sterile saline solution. The incisions of the fetlock joint capsules remained unsutured and were drained using soft polyurethane foam to preclude premature closure. The tendon sheath wounds remained unsutured. In both patients, the digital flexor tendon sheath and the fetlock joint were lavaged daily for the following three days. The infection was eliminated in both cattle and both fully recovered without residual lameness. PMID:15848779

Kofler, J; Martinek, B

2005-05-01

343

Chronic Pain and Fatigue  

E-print Network

Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center Department of Anesthesiology 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Dr, information regarding this condition The UMHS Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center (CPFRC) offers of other pain syndromes such as irritable bowel, pelvic pain, and headaches. The FM Workshop is conducted

Shyy, Wei

344

Chronic pelvic pain.  

PubMed

Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. PMID:24280400

Stein, Sharon L

2013-12-01

345

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

346

Which is the better option: recombinant human PDGF-BB 0.01% gel or standard wound care, in diabetic neuropathic large plantar ulcers off-loaded by a customized contact cast?  

PubMed

This study compares the efficacy of 0.01% rh-PDGF-BB with standard wound care in 20 patients with diabetes mellitus with neuropathic large plantar ulcers off-loaded with modified total contact cast. The incidence, duration and rate of healing were compared. An accelerated rate of healing in rhPDGF group was observed. PMID:19081156

Bhansali, Anil; Venkatesh, S; Dutta, Pinaki; Dhillon, M S; Das, Sambit; Agrawal, Aditya

2009-01-01

347

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)? Is there any treatment? ...

348

The heel and toe of the cell’s foot: A multifaceted approach for understanding the structure and dynamics of focal adhesions  

PubMed Central

Focal adhesions (FAs) are large clusters of transmembrane receptors of the integrin family and a multitude of associated cytoplasmic “plaque” proteins, which connect the extracellular matrix-bound receptors with the actin cytoskeleton. The formation of nearly stationary focal adhesions defines a boundary between dense and highly dynamic actin network in lamellipodium and the sparser and more diverse cytoskeletal organization in the lamella proper, creating a template for the organization of entire actin network. The major “mechanical” and “sensory” functions of FAs, namely, the nucleation and regulation of the contractile, myosin-II-containing, stress fibers and the mechanosensing of external surfaces depend, to a major extent, on the dynamics of molecular components within FAs. A central element in FA regulation concerns the positive feedback loop, based on the most intriguing feature of FAs, namely, their dependence on mechanical tension developing by the growing stress fibers. FAs grow in response to such tension, and rapidly disassemble upon its relaxation. In this article we address the mechanistic relationships between the process of FA development, maturation and dissociation and the dynamic molecular events, which take place in different regions of the FA, primarily in the distal end of this structure (the “toe”) and the proximal “heel”, and discuss the central role of local mechanical forces in orchestrating the complex interplay between FAs and the actin system. PMID:19598236

Wolfenson, Haguy; Henis, Yoav I.; Geiger, Benjamin; Bershadsky, Alexander D.

2010-01-01

349

Short term analgesic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in horses with proximal palmar metacarpal\\/plantar metatarsal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an accepted form of treatment for chronic cases of proximal suspensory desmitis (PSD). Subjective evaluation of horses shortly after being treated with ESWT has led clinicians to comment on an immediate reduction in lameness. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic effect of ESWT on 16 horses with PSD or PSD-like pain in a

Isabel Imboden; Nina M. Waldern; Thomas Wiestner; Christoph J. Lischer; Gottlieb Ueltschi; Michael A. Weishaupt

2009-01-01

350

Chronic Arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Chronic Arsenic Toxicity may have varied clinical presentations ranging from non-cancerous manifestations to malignancy of skin and different internal organs. Dermal lesions such as hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis, predominantly over palms and soles are diagnostic of Chronic Arsenicosis. We report two cases from a family living in Sukkur who presented with classical skin lesions described in Chronic Arsenicosis. The urine, nail and hair samples of these patients contained markedly elevated levels of arsenic. Also the water samples from their household and the neighbouring households were found to have alarming levels of inorganic Arsenic. PMID:19260576

Ahsan, Tasnim; Zehra, Kaneez; Munshi, Alia; Ahsan, Samiah

2009-02-01

351

INTRODUCTION Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION · Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome affects 5-10% of men pathophysiological correlates of CP/CPPS pain (prostate inflammation, endocrine abnormalities, pelvic floor muscle in Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome M. A. Farmer1, M. L. Chanda1, E. L. Parks1, M. N

Apkarian, A. Vania

352

Supportive Care for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... lymphocytic leukemia Radiation therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Leukapheresis for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Supportive care for chronic ... treatment information about chronic lymphocytic leukemia Previous Topic Leukapheresis for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Next Topic Stem cell ...

353

Anemia of chronic disease  

MedlinePLUS

Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

354

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells. CML causes an uncontrolled growth of immature cells that make ...

355

Chronic Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

356

[Angiosarcoma in chronic lymphedema].  

PubMed

Angiosarcoma that develops on a limb with chronic lymphedema is called Stewart-Treves syndrome. This typically appears as a complication of a long course lymphedema located on the arm, after mastectomy and/or radiotherapy due to breast cancer. There are cases of Stewart-Treves syndrome in chronic lymphedema in the upper limb contralateral to the breast treated for cancer and in chronic lymphedema of the leg. We present two cases of this syndrome. The first corresponds to a typical syndrome of Stewart-Treves in an 83-year-old woman who was diagnosed of angiosarcoma in a chronic lymphedema territory secondary to mastectomy and radiotherapy due to breast cancer. The second case is much rarer, since it is a case of diffuse angiosarcoma of the leg in a 42-year-old man with a history of lymphedema. Due to the aggressive nature of this syndrome, knowledge and research on its treatment are necessary. PMID:17067532

Rodríguez-Bujaldón, Alfonso; Vázquez-Bayo, Maria Carmen; Galán-Gutiérrez, Manolo; Jiménez-Puya, Rafael; Vélez García-Nieto, Antonio; Moreno-Giménez, José Carlos; Vidal-Jiménez, Alfredo; Barroso-Casamitjana, Elisa

2006-10-01

357

Cortical pathophysiology of chronic pain  

E-print Network

Cortical pathophysiology of chronic pain A. Vania Apkarian Department of Physiology multiple non-invasive brain imaging techniques to study the characteristics of patients with chronic pain in chronic pain are summarized, emphasizing the unique role of the prefrontal cortex in chronic, especially

Apkarian, A. Vania

358

The Acute Effects of Unilateral Ankle Plantar Flexors Static- Stretching on Postural Sway and Gastrocnemius Muscle Activity During Single-Leg Balance Tasks  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static- stretching on surface electromyography (sEMG) and the center of pressure (COP) during a single-leg balance task in both lower limbs. Fourteen young healthy, non-athletic individuals performed unipodal quiet standing for 30s before and after (stretched limb: immediately post-stretch, 10 and 20 minutes and non-stretched limb: immediately post-stretch) a unilateral ankle plantar flexor static- stretching protocol [6 sets of 45s/15s, 70-90% point of discomfort (POD)]. Postural sway was described using the COP area, COP speed (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions) and COP frequency (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions). Surface EMG (EMG integral [IEMG] and Median frequency[FM]) was used to describe the muscular activity of gastrocnemius lateralis. Ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion increased in the stretched limb before and after the static-stretching protocol (mean ± SD: 15.0° ± 6.0 and 21.5° ± 7.0 [p < 0.001]). COP area and IEMG increased in the stretch limb between pre-stretching and immediately post-stretching (p = 0.015 and p = 0.036, respectively). In conclusion, our static- stretching protocol effectively increased passive ankle ROM. The increased ROM appears to increase postural sway and muscle activity; however these finding were only a temporary or transient effect. Key Points The postural control can be affected by static- stretching protocol. The lateral gastrocnemius muscle action was increased after the static- stretching protocol. The static- stretching effects remain for less than 10 minutes. PMID:25177183

Lima, Bráulio N.; Lucareli, Paulo R.G.; Gomes, Willy A.; Silva, Josinaldo J.; Bley, Andre S.; Hartigan, Erin H.; Marchetti, Paulo H.

2014-01-01

359

Significance of including field non-uniformities such as the heel effect and beam scatter in the determination of the skin dose distribution during interventional fluoroscopic procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current version of the real-time skin-dose-tracking system (DTS) we have developed assumes the exposure is contained within the collimated beam and is uniform except for inverse-square variation. This study investigates the significance of factors that contribute to beam non-uniformity such as the heel effect and backscatter from the patient to areas of the skin inside and outside the collimated beam. Dose-calibrated Gafchromic film (XR-RV3, ISP) was placed in the beam in the plane of the patient table at a position 15 cm tube-side of isocenter on a Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system. Separate exposures were made with the film in contact with a block of 20-cm solid water providing backscatter and with the film suspended in air without backscatter, both with and without the table in the beam. The film was scanned to obtain dose profiles and comparison of the profiles for the various conditions allowed a determination of field non-uniformity and backscatter contribution. With the solid-water phantom and with the collimator opened completely for the 20-cm mode, the dose profile decreased by about 40% on the anode side of the field. Backscatter falloff at the beam edge was about 10% from the center and extra-beam backscatter decreased slowly with distance from the field, being about 3% of the beam maximum at 6 cm from the edge. Determination of the magnitude of these factors will allow them to be included in the skin-dose-distribution calculation and should provide a more accurate determination of peak-skin dose for the DTS.

Rana, Vijay; Gill, Kamaljit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

2012-03-01

360

Predictive control of ankle stiffness at heel contact is a key element of locomotor adaptation during split-belt treadmill walking in humans.  

PubMed

Split-belt treadmill walking has been extensively utilized as a useful model to reveal the adaptability of human bipedal locomotion. While previous studies have clearly identified different types of locomotor adaptation, such as reactive and predictive adjustments, details of how the gait pattern would be adjusted are not fully understood. To gain further knowledge of the strategies underlying split-belt treadmill adaptation, we examined the three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF) and lower limb muscle activities during and after split-belt treadmill walking in 22 healthy subjects. The results demonstrated that the anterior component of the GRF (braking force) showed a clear pattern of adaptation and subsequent aftereffects. The muscle activity in the tibialis anterior muscle during the early stance phase was associated with the change of braking force. In contrast, the posterior component of GRF (propulsive force) showed a consistent increase/decrease in the fast/slow leg during the adaptation period and was not followed by subsequent aftereffects. The muscle activity in the gastrocnemius muscle during the stance phase gradually decreased during the adaptation phase and then showed a compensatory reaction during the washout phase. The results indicate that predictive feedforward control is required to set the optimal ankle stiffness in preparation for the impact at the heel contact and passive feedback control is used for the production of reflexively induced propulsive force at the end of the stance phase during split-belt treadmill adaptation. The present study provides information about the detailed mechanisms underlying split-belt adaptation and should be useful for the construction of specific rehabilitation protocols. PMID:24225544

Ogawa, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Noritaka; Ogata, Toru; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

2014-02-01

361

Task failure during standing heel raises is associated with increased power from 13 to 50 Hz in the activation of triceps surae  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper was to investigate the amplitude and sub-100 Hz frequency content of surface electromyography (EMG) signals obtained from agonist, antagonist and synergist muscles during a heel-raise task sustained to failure. Twenty-two healthy adults, 14 men and 8 women participated in the study. Surface EMG data from the raising and lowering phases of the movement were studied in the time (EMG amplitude) and frequency (wavelet transform) domains. For the raising phase, we found a significant increase in the EMG amplitude of all muscles studied throughout the task (P < 0.02); however, for the lowering phase, we found a decrease in overall muscle activation for the medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior. Additionally, we found higher 13–30 and 30–50 Hz normalized power during the raising phase for the triceps surae prior to task failure and at task failure compared with the beginning and midway of the task (P < 0.05); during the lowering phase, however, we found higher normalized power from 30 to 50 Hz for the triceps surae (P < 0.01) and higher 13–30 Hz normalized power for the tibialis anterior (P < 0.01) at task failure compared with the beginning and midway of the task. Finally, we showed that a dynamic task performed until failure can induce different activation strategies for agonist, antagonist and synergist muscles, and that the frequency content below 100 Hz contains useful information about the neural activation of these muscles in relation to task failure that is not evident from the EMG amplitude. PMID:20455068

Pereira, Rafael; Schettino, Ludmila; Machado, Marco; Victor da Silva, Pierre Augusto; Neto, Osmar Pinto

2010-01-01

362

Management of Chronic Paronychia  

PubMed Central

Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:24470654

Relhan, Vineet; Goel, Khushbu; Bansal, Shikha; Garg, Vijay Kumar

2014-01-01

363

Lower extremity function during gait in participants with first time acute lateral ankle sprain compared to controls.  

PubMed

Laboratory analyses of chronic ankle instability populations during gait have elucidated a number of anomalous movement patterns. No current research exists analysing these movement patterns in a group in the acute phase of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury. It is possible that participants with an acute LAS display movement patterns continuous with their chronically impaired counterparts. Sixty eight participants with acute LAS and nineteen non-injured participants completed five gait trials. 3D lower extremity temporal kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 200ms pre- to 200ms post-heel strike (period 1) and from 200ms pre- to 200ms post-toe off (period 2). During period 1, the LAS group displayed increased knee flexion with increased net extensor pattern at the knee joint, increased ankle inversion with a greater inversion moment, and reduced ankle plantar flexion, compared to the non-injured control group. During period 2, the LAS group displayed decreased hip extension with a decrease in the flexor moment at the hip, and decreased ankle plantar flexion with a decrease in the net plantar flexion moment, compared to the non-injured control group. These results indicate that participants with acute LAS display coordination strategies which may play a role in the onset of chronicity or recovery. PMID:25443172

Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

2015-02-01

364

EBV Chronic Infections  

PubMed Central

The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpes viruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS) aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA), really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.). However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious). Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse. Thanks to both these studies it was possibile to confirm the etiologic links between the syndrome and EBV or other herpesviruses or other persistent infectious agents. The mechanisms of EBV latency have been carefully examined both because they represent the virus strategy to elude the response of the immune system of the host, and because they are correlated with those oncologic conditions associated to the viral persistence, particularly lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Just these malignancies, for which a pathogenetic role of EBV is clearly documented, should represent the main clinical expression of a first group of chronic EBV infections characterized by a natural history where the neoplastic event aroused from the viral persistence in the resting B cells for all the life, from the genetic predisposition of the host and from the oncogenic potentialities of the virus that chronically persists and incurs reactivations. Really, these oncological diseases should be considered more complications than chronic forms of the illness, as well as other malignancies for which a viral – or even infectious - etiology is well recognized. The chronic diseases, in fact, should be linked in a pathogenetic and temporal way to the acute infection, from whom start the natural history of the following disease. So, as for the chronic liver diseases from HBV and HCV, it was conied the acronym of CAEBV (Chronic Active EBV infection), distinguishing within these pathologies the more severe forms (SCAEBV) mostly reported in Far East and among children or adolescents. Probably only these forms have to be considered expressions of a chronic EBV infection “sensu scrictu”, together with those forms of CFS where the etiopathogenetic and temporal link with the acute EBV infection is well documented. As for CFS, also for CAEBV the criteria for a case definition were defined, even on the basis of serological and virological findings. However, the lymphoproliferative disorders are excluded from these for

Eligio, Pizzigallo; Delia, Racciatti; Valeria, Gorgoretti

2010-01-01

365

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Share Compartir Data ... and other residential care Percent of residents with COPD: 10.8% Source: 2010 NSRCF Data Dictionary: Resident ...

366

CYBERWAR-2012/13: Siegel 2011 Predicted Cyberwar Via ACHILLES-HEEL DIGITS BEQS BEC ZERO-DIGIT BEC of/in ACHILLES-HEEL DIGITS Log-Law Algebraic-Inversion to ONLY BEQS BEC Digit-Physics U Barabasi Network/Graph-Physics BEQS BEC JAMMING Denial-of-Access(DOA) Attacks 2012-Instantiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newcomb-Benford(NeWBe)-Siegel log-law BEC Digit-Physics Network/Graph-Physics Barabasi et.al. evolving-``complex''-networks/graphs BEC JAMMING DOA attacks: Amazon(weekends: Microsoft I.E.-7/8(vs. Firefox): Memorial-day, Labor-day,), MANY U.S.-Banks:WF,BoA,UB,UBS,instantiations AGAIN militate for MANDATORY CONVERSION to PARALLEL ANALOG FAULT-TOLERANT but slow(er) SECURITY-ASSURANCE networks/graphs in parallel with faster ``sexy'' DIGITAL-Networks/graphs:``Cloud'', telecomm: n-G,, because of common ACHILLES-HEEL VULNERABILITY: DIGITS!!! ``In fast-hare versus slow-tortoise race, Slow-But-Steady ALWAYS WINS!!!'' (Zeno). Euler [#s(1732)] ?-( )-Riemann[Monats. Akad. Berlin (1859)] ?-( )- Kummer-Bernoulli (#s)-Newcomb [Am.J.Math.4(1),39 (81) discovery of the QUANTUM!!!]-Planck (01)]-Einstein (05)]-Poincar e [Calcul Probabilités,313(12)]-Weyl[Goett. Nach.(14); Math.Ann.77,313(16)]-(Bose (24)-Einstein(25)]-VS. --Fermi (27)-Dirac(27))-Menger [Dimensiontheorie(29)]-Benford [J.Am. Phil.Soc.78,115(38)]-Kac[Maths Stats.-Reason. (55)]- Raimi [Sci.Am.221,109(69)]-Jech-Hill [Proc.AMS,123,3,887(95)] log-function

Race Huffmann, Master; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2013-03-01

367

Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion  

MedlinePLUS

... of blindness among adults. 6 Top of page Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases Health risk behaviors ... of page The Cost of Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Behaviors The majority of US health care and ...

368

Prucalopride for chronic constipation.  

PubMed

Chronic constipation is a frequently reported medical disorder that reduces patients' quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden on the health care system. Symptoms of constipation are diverse and include infrequent bowel movements, hard stool, straining at stool, sensations of anorectal obstruction and feelings of incomplete evacuation. Patients with chronic constipation can be categorized into one of three main groups based on their underlying pathophysiology: normal transit constipation; colonic inertia; and pelvic floor dyssynergia. Specialized tests (i.e., anorectal manometry, radio-opaque marker study) may be required in some patients to help distinguish the different subtypes of constipation and to guide appropriate therapy. Although the underlying mechanism of constipation differs among patients, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) appears to have an important role in colonic motility in some patients. Previous research has demonstrated that stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors improves symptoms of chronic constipation in some patients. Prucalopride, a selective 5-HT4 agonist, relieved symptoms of constipation in phase II and phase III clinical trials. In this monograph, we review the pharmacology, mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of the selective 5-HT4 agonist prucalopride in patients with chronic constipation. PMID:20135019

Lacy, Brian E; Loew, Burr; Crowell, Michael D

2009-12-01

369

Chronic manganese intoxication  

SciTech Connect

We report six cases of chronic manganese intoxication in workers at a ferromanganese factory in Taiwan. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing increased manganese concentrations in the blood, scalp, and pubic hair. In addition, increased manganese levels in the environmental air were established. The patients showed a bradykinetic-rigid syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease that responded to treatment with levodopa.

Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S.; Lu, C.S.; Wang, J.D.; Tsai, J.L.; Tzeng, J.L.; Wolters, E.C.; Calne, D.B. (Chang Gung Medical College Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China))

1989-10-01

370

Depression and Chronic Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... and one-fifth with terminal cancer experience a depressive disorder. Sadly, less than half of those receive treatment for depression. Facing a chronic illness naturally leads to ... treatment as soon as depressive symptoms appear because early treatment is more likely ...

371

The chronically ill patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatry's renewed interest in its identity as a medical specialty and its increased therapeutic armamentarium make its involvement with chronically medically ill patients more feasible than ever before. These patients face problems which include economic ones, conflicts between independency and dependency, those connected with self-image, intra-family stresses including sexual ones, social isolation and the threat of death. Patients respond to

Norman B. Levy

1979-01-01

372

Chronic and recurrent meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic meningitis is defined as the persistence of clinical symptoms and signs of meningitis, with or without abnormal cerebrospinal fluid, for more than four weeks. In as many as one third of cases, no cause is found. In the remainder, infective, neoplastic and so-called aseptic disorders may be identified. Important infective causes include partially treated bacterial (pyogenic), tuberculous, syphilitic, Lyme

L Ginsberg; D Kidd

2008-01-01

373

Reductions in heel bone quality across gestation are attenuated in pregnant adolescents with higher prepregnancy weight and greater increases in PTH across gestation.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the effect of maternal calcium intake and vitamin D status on bone health across gestation in pregnant adolescents. This study aimed to characterize maternal bone quality and determinants of bone-quality change across gestation in pregnant adolescents. Healthy pregnant adolescents (n?=?156; aged 13 to 18 years) with singleton pregnancies and at 12 to 30 weeks gestation at enrollment were recruited from two urban maternity clinics in Baltimore, MD, and Rochester, NY, for this prospective longitudinal study. Maternal serum was collected at midgestation and at delivery for assessment of bone biomarkers and calcitropic hormones. Maternal bone quality (assessed by heel ultrasound) and sonographic fetal biometry were measured up to three times across pregnancy. Racially diverse teens (64.7% African American, 35.3% white) were followed from 21.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 17.3, 27.0) weeks of gestation until delivery at 40.0 (IQR 39.0, 40.7) weeks. Significant decreases in calcaneal speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) (-9.2?±?16.1?m/s, -3.2 (-8.0, 2.1) dB/MHz and -5.3?±?8.8, respectively) were evident across pregnancy. Multivariate analysis controlling for baseline measures and measurement intervals was used to identify independent predictors of normalized (per week) calcaneal bone loss. Weekly decreases in bone quality were not significantly associated with maternal calcium intake or 25(OH)D concentration. Greater weekly reductions in calcaneal bone quality were evident in teens with lower prepregnancy weight (BUA, p?=?0.006 and QUI, p?=?0.012) and among those with lower weekly increase in PTH (SOS, p?=?0.046). Overall, significant decreases in calcaneal bone quality occurred across pregnancy in adolescents, but the magnitude of this loss was attenuated in those with greater prepregnancy weight and weekly increases in PTH. Further studies are needed to understand the role of elevated PTH and greater prepregnancy weight in preserving adolescent bone during pregnancy. PMID:24676885

Whisner, Corrie M; Young, Bridget E; Witter, Frank R; Harris, Zena Leah; Queenan, Ruth A; Cooper, Elizabeth M; O'Brien, Kimberly O

2014-09-01

374

Functionally Different Pads on the Same Foot Allow Control of Attachment: Stick Insects Have Load-Sensitive “Heel” Pads for Friction and Shear-Sensitive “Toe” Pads for Adhesion  

PubMed Central

Stick insects (Carausius morosus) have two distinct types of attachment pad per leg, tarsal “heel” pads (euplantulae) and a pre-tarsal “toe” pad (arolium). Here we show that these two pad types are specialised for fundamentally different functions. When standing upright, stick insects rested on their proximal euplantulae, while arolia were the only pads in surface contact when hanging upside down. Single-pad force measurements showed that the adhesion of euplantulae was extremely small, but friction forces strongly increased with normal load and coefficients of friction were 1. The pre-tarsal arolium, in contrast, generated adhesion that strongly increased with pulling forces, allowing adhesion to be activated and deactivated by shear forces, which can be produced actively, or passively as a result of the insects' sprawled posture. The shear-sensitivity of the arolium was present even when corrected for contact area, and was independent of normal preloads covering nearly an order of magnitude. Attachment of both heel and toe pads is thus activated partly by the forces that arise passively in the situations in which they are used by the insects, ensuring safe attachment. Our results suggest that stick insect euplantulae are specialised “friction pads” that produce traction when pressed against the substrate, while arolia are “true” adhesive pads that stick to the substrate when activated by pulling forces. PMID:24349156

Labonte, David; Federle, Walter

2013-01-01

375

Assessment of forearm and plantar foot load in the elderly using a four-wheeled walker with armrest and the effect of armrest height  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with hand and/or wrist pathology are recommended to have a four-wheeled walker with an arm rest (FWW-AR) rather than a standard walker or a standard four-wheeled walker (FWW). However, only a few quantitative studies have been performed to compare upper and lower extremity weight bearing. The aim of this study was to evaluate forearm and foot weight bearing using a FWW-AR and the effect of the armrest height. Methods Eleven elderly women (mean age 80.1±5.3 years; mean height 148.5±4.0 cm; mean weight 51.2±9.0 kg) were enrolled. The subjects walked with an FWW-AR, with the elbow in either 90 degree (D90) or 130 degree (D130) flexion, for a distance of 10 m. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded for the upper, middle, and lower trapezius, anterior deltoid, and erector spinae muscles; walking velocity was measured with the subjects weight bearing on their feet and forearms while walking. Simultaneously, the maximum plantar and forearm loads during walking with an FWW-AR were measured. Results The normalized foot plantar loads were lower at D90 than at D130, while the normalized forearm load was higher at D90 than at D130 (all P<0.05; left foot, 7.9±0.1 N/kg versus 8.8±0.1 N/kg; right foot, 8.6±0.2 N/kg versus. 9.6±0.1 N/kg; left forearm, 1.8±0.5 N/kg versus 0.8±0.2 N/kg; and right forearm, 2.0±0.5 N/kg versus 1.0±0.2 N/kg, respectively). The surface electromyographic activity of the muscles involved in shoulder elevation and the walking velocity were both lower with the elbow at D90 than at D130 (all P<0.05; left upper trapezius, 98.7%±19.5% versus 132.6%±16.9%; right upper trapezius, 83.4%±10.6% versus 108.1%±10.5%; left anterior deltoid, 94.1%±12.8% versus 158.6%±40.4%; right anterior deltoid, 99.1%±15.0% versus 151.9%±19.4%; and velocity, 0.6±0.1 m/sec versus 0.7±0.1 m/sec, respectively). Conclusion Weight bearing on the lower extremities is significantly reduced when the upper extremities are supported during walking with an FWW-AR. Furthermore, the weight bearing profile is dependent on the armrest height. PMID:25342894

Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Sol-Bi; Choi, Hyuk-Jae; Chang, Yunhee; Kang, Sungjae; Heo, Yoon; Ryu, Jeicheong; Kim, Gyoosuk; Mun, Museong

2014-01-01

376

Chronic Poverty Research Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC) is an international organization made up of partnerships with universities and research organizations all working to "stimulate national and international debate; deepen understanding of the causes of chronic poverty; and provide research, analysis and policy guidance." The CPRC's website has more than 400 publications that visitors can download. There are "Working Papers Series" for India, Bangladesh and West Africa, which address everything from child laborers, spatial inequality in social progress, and technological change in food production. There are also "Policy Briefs" and "Journal Articles" visitors can download. The "Toolbox" is an excellent and unique resource for researchers, donor agencies, and students to learn how to use a mix of methodological approaches to better reflect the multi-dimensionality and complexity of poverty. Visitors will find such areas of guidance as "Designing Research," "Collecting Data," "Dissemination," and "Impact Assessment" that can aid in producing relevant and rigorous research.

377

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) experience a constellation of symptoms including abdominal pain,\\u000a nausea, fullness, and malaise which fluctuates in severity and invariably result in a diminished quality of life. Though surgical\\u000a resection or transplantation may be an option for some, there currently is no cure for CIP. Thus, management strategies utilize\\u000a pharmacologic, intravenous, endoscopic, and surgical techniques

Greg Lyford; Amy Foxx-Orenstein

2004-01-01

378

Chronic cough in children.  

PubMed

The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830

Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S

2013-08-01

379

Chronic Pancreatitis: Evolving Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and\\/or loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. With the identification and characterization of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the pathogenesis of CP and pancreatic fibrosis is now better understood. Molecular mediators shown to regulate the pathogenesis include transforming growth factor-?, platelet-derived growth factor, and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and

Rupjyoti Talukdar; Nripen Saikia; Dinesh Kumar Singal; Rakesh Tandon

2006-01-01

380

Chronic pneumonitis of infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected

Katsumi Abe; Noriko Kamata; Eiwa Okazaki; Sachiko Moriyama; Nobuaki Funata; Junko Takita; Hideo Yamada; Naohide Takayama

2002-01-01

381

Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

2013-01-01

382

Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 12931300 The neuromuscular demands of toe walking: A forward dynamics  

E-print Network

and prolonged ankle plantar flexor electromyographic activity. The goal of this study was to use a detailed to understand why, despite an increase in muscle activity in the ankle plantar flexors during toe walking, the internal ankle joint moment decreases relative to heel-toe walking. The simulations were analyzed to assess

383

Arthroscopic removal of axial osteochondral fragments of the plantar/palmar proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx in horses: 119 cases (1988-1992).  

PubMed

Medical records from 119 horses that had undergone arthroscopic surgery for removal of axial osteochondral fragments of the palmar/plantar proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx were reviewed. Standardbred racehorses represented 109 (92%) of those affected. Ninety-three (78%) of the horses were < 3 years old. Gender distribution was consistent with that of the equine hospital population. Fragments most commonly were observed in the hind limbs (155/164; 95%), specifically, on the medial aspect of the left hind limb (72/164; 44%). Bilateral fragmentation occurred in 21 of 119 (18%) horses, and 15 of 119 (13%) horses had fragments in the medial and lateral aspect within the same joint. Fifteen (13%) horses had a concurrent osteochondritis dissecans lesion on the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia, and 30 of 119 (25%) had radiographic signs of osteoarthritis involving the centrodistal (distal intertarsal) and tarsometatarsal articulations. In 55 of 87 (63%) racehorses and in 100% of the 9 nonracehorses, performance returned to preoperative levels after surgery. Fragment numbers or distribution, concurrent osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia, or tarsal osteoarthritis were not significantly associated with outcome. Abnormal surgical findings, consisting of articular cartilage fibrillation or synovial proliferation, were significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with adverse outcome; these findings were documented in 31% of the 32 horses without successful outcome and in only 2% of the 55 horses with successful outcomes. PMID:7744667

Fortier, L A; Foerner, J J; Nixon, A J

1995-01-01

384

Probabilistic model for individual assessment of central hyperexcitability using the nociceptive withdrawal reflex: a biomarker for chronic low back and neck pain  

PubMed Central

Background The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) has been proven to be a valuable tool in the objective assessment of central hyperexcitability in the nociceptive system at spinal level that is present in some chronic pain disorders, particularly chronic low back and neck pain. However, most of the studies on objective assessment of central hyperexcitability focus on population differences between patients and healthy individuals and do not provide tools for individual assessment. In this study, a prediction model was developed to objectively assess central hyperexcitability in individuals. The method is based on statistical properties of the EMG signals associated with the nociceptive withdrawal reflex. The model also supports individualized assessment of patients, including an estimation of the confidence of the predicted result. Results up to 80% classification rates were achieved when differentiating between healthy volunteers and chronic low back and neck pain patients. EMG signals recorded after stimulation of the anterolateral and heel regions and of the sole of the foot presented the best prediction rates. Conclusions A prediction model was proposed and successfully tested as a new approach for objective assessment of central hyperexcitability in the nociceptive system, based on statistical properties of EMG signals recorded after eliciting the NWR. Therefore, the present statistical prediction model constitutes a first step towards potential applications in clinical practice. PMID:24088299

2013-01-01

385

Interventions for chronic blepharitis  

PubMed Central

Background Blepharitis, an inflammatory condition associated with itchiness, redness, flaking, and crusting of the eyelids, is a common eye condition that affects both children and adults. It is common in all ethnic groups and across all ages. Although infrequent, blepharitis can lead to permanent alterations to the eyelid margin or vision loss from superficial keratopathy (abnormality of the cornea), corneal neovascularization, and ulceration. Most importantly, blepharitis frequently causes significant ocular symptoms such as burning sensation, irritation, tearing, and red eyes as well as visual problems such as photophobia and blurred vision. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but suspected to be multifactorial, including chronic low-grade infections of the ocular surface with bacteria, infestations with certain parasites such as demodex, and inflammatory skin conditions such as atopy and seborrhea. Blepharitis can be categorized in several different ways. First, categorization is based on the length of disease process: acute or chronic blepharitis. Second, categorization is based on the anatomical location of disease: anterior, or front of the eye (e.g. staphylococcal and seborrheic blepharitis), and posterior, or back of the eye (e.g. meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)). This review focuses on chronic blepharitis and stratifies anterior and posterior blepharitis. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of chronic blepharitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 February 2012. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (CCTs) in which participants were adults aged 16 years or older and clinically diagnosed with chronic blepharitis. We also included trials where participants with chronic blepharitis were a subset of the participants included in the study and data were reported separately for these participants. Interventions within the scope of this review included medical treatment and lid hygiene measures. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed search results, reviewed full-text copies for eligibility, examined risk of bias, and extracted data. Data were meta-analyzed for studies comparing similar interventions and reporting comparable outcomes with the same timing. Otherwise, results for included studies were summarized in the text. Main results There were 34 studies (2169 participants with blepharitis) included in this review: 20 studies (14 RCTs and 6 CCTs) included 1661 participants with anterior or mixed blepharitis and 14 studies (12 RCTs and 2 CCTs) included 508 participants with posterior blepharitis (MGD). Due to the heterogeneity of study characteristics among the included studies, with respect to follow-up periods and types of interventions, comparisons, and condition of participants, our ability to perform meta-analyses was limited. Topical antibiotics were shown to provide some symptomatic relief and were effective in eradicating bacteria from the eyelid margin for anterior blepharitis. Lid hygiene may provide symptomatic relief for anterior and posterior blepharitis. The effectiveness of other treatments for blepharitis, such as topical steroids and oral antibiotics, were inconclusive. Authors’ conclusions Despite identifying 34 trials related to treatments for blepharitis, there is no strong evidence for any of the treatments in

Lindsley, Kristina; Matsumura, Sueko; Hatef, Elham; Akpek, Esen K

2012-01-01

386

Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

2013-01-16

387

[Zinc and chronic enteropathies].  

PubMed

In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself. PMID:6100131

Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

1984-01-01

388

Chronic actinic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) is an immunologically mediated photodermatosis characterized by pruritic eczematous and lichenified plaques located predominantly on sun-exposed areas with notable sparing of eyelids, skin folds, and postauricular skin. CAD is thought to be due to secondary photosensitization of an endogenous antigen in the skin. Management of CAD should include strict photoprotection and topical agents, including corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Other treatments with noted efficacy include oral prednisone, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Photoprotection and avoidance of allergens, if identified, may lead to spontaneous resolution of CAD in 50% of patients over 15 years. PMID:24891057

Paek, So Yeon; Lim, Henry W

2014-07-01

389

[Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)].  

PubMed

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is an important and frequent disease for dermatologists, phlebologists and general practitioners. There are various hypotheses for the ethiopathology in CVI, e. g. hormone receptors and impairments concerning the venous contraction or relaxation of the vessel wall and the venous valves might play an important role. At the moment, colour doppler-duplex sonography seems to be the diagnostic method of choice. Modern therapeutic options include compression systems alone or in combination with topical or systemic treatment including minimal invasive methods like endovenous laser or radiofrequency obliteration or foam sclerotherapy. PMID:19826982

Renner, R; Simon, J

2009-10-01

390

Chronic suppurative otitis media  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common cause of hearing impairment, disability, and poor scholastic performance, and can occasionally lead to fatal intracranial infections and acute mastoiditis, especially in resource-poor countries. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media in adults; and in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 48 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear cleansing, systemic antibiotics, topical antibiotics, topical antiseptics, topical corticosteroids, tympanoplasty (with or without mastoidectomy). PMID:19454051

2007-01-01

391

Tropical chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Tropical chronic pancreatitis (TCP) is a juvenile form of chronic calcific non-alcoholic pancreatitis, seen almost exclusively in the developing countries of the tropical world. The classical triad of TCP consists of abdominal pain, steatorrhoea, and diabetes. When diabetes is present, the condition is called fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) which is thus a later stage of TCP. Some of the distinctive features of TCP are younger age at onset, presence of large intraductal calculi, more aggressive course of the disease, and a high susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic calculi are the hallmark for the diagnosis of TCP and in non-calcific cases ductal dilation on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, computed tomography, or ultrasound helps to identify the disease. Diabetes is usually quite severe and of the insulin requiring type, but ketosis is rare. Microvascular complications of diabetes occur as frequently as in type 2 diabetes but macrovascular complications are uncommon. Pancreatic enzyme supplements are used for relief of abdominal pain and reducing the symptoms related to steatorrhoea. Early diagnosis and better control of the endocrine and exocrine dysfunction could help to ensure better survival and improve the prognosis and quality of life of TCP patients. PMID:14654569

Barman, K K; Premalatha, G; Mohan, V

2003-11-01

392

ICON: chronic rhinosinusitis.  

PubMed

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a public health problem that has a significant socio-economic impact. Moreover, the complexity of this disease due to its heterogeneous nature based on the underlying pathophysiology - leading to different disease variants - further complicates our understanding and directions for the most appropriate targeted treatment strategies. Several International/national guidelines/position papers and/or consensus documents are available that present the current knowledge and treatment strategies for CRS. Yet there are many challenges to the management of CRS especially in the case of the more severe and refractory forms of disease. Therefore, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), a collaboration between EAACI, AAAAI, ACAAI, and WAO, has decided to propose an International Consensus (ICON) on Chronic Rhinosinusitis. The purpose of this ICON on CRS is to highlight the key common messages from the existing guidelines, the differences in recommendations as well as the gaps in our current knowledge of CRS, thus providing a concise reference. In this document we discuss the definition of the disease, its relevance, pharmacoeconomics, pathophysiology, phenotypes and endotypes, genetics and risk factors, natural history and co-morbidities as well as clinical manifestations and treatment options in both adults and children comprising pharmacotherapy, surgical interventions and more recent biological approaches. Finally, we have also highlighted the unmet needs that wait to be addressed through future research. PMID:25379119

Bachert, Claus; Pawankar, Ruby; Zhang, Luo; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Fokkens, Wytske J; Hamilos, Daniel L; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Kern, Robert; Meltzer, Eli O; Mullol, Joaquim; Naclerio, Robert; Pilan, Renata; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Suzaki, Harumi; Voegels, Richard; Blaiss, Michael

2014-01-01

393

Chronic suppurative otitis media  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common cause of hearing impairment and disability. Occasionally it can lead to fatal intracranial infections and acute mastoiditis, especially in developing countries. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media in adults and in children? What are the effects of treatments for cholesteatoma in adults and in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 51 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical ear cleansing, surgery for cholesteatoma, systemic antibiotics, topical antibiotics, topical antibiotics plus topical corticosteroids, topical antiseptics, topical corticosteroids, tympanoplasty (with or without mastoidectomy). PMID:23870746

2012-01-01

394

Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

In three patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia who were heterozygous at the X-linked glucose-6-phospháte dehydrogenase locus, lymphocytes were studied to determine if they had the same stem cell origin as the leukemic myeloid cells. Normal tissues such as skin had both B and A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes, but the leukemic myelogenous cells displayed only one isoenzyme type, consistent with their clonal origin. A population of cells with undoubted thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte characteristics had both isoenzymes. Presumably, then, these T cells did not arise from the leukemic stem cell, either because they antedated the development of leukemia in that stem cell or, more likely, because they arose from progenitors not involved by the disease. In contrast, another population of lymphocytes showed only one isoenzyme type, suggesting that it arose from the chronic myelocytic leukemia stem cell. However, although this population contained many cells with the characteristics of bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes, it is not certain that the single enzyme produced by the cells over all can be attributed to B lymphocytes rather than to contaminating non-B-lymphoid cells. PMID:308953

Fialkow, Philip J.; Denman, A. Michael; Jacobson, Robert J.; Lowenthal, Mark N.

1978-01-01

395

Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Undifferentiated Myeloproliferative Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase of Disease; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase of Disease; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Recurrent Disease

2015-02-03

396

Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Undifferentiated Myeloproliferative Disorders  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase of Disease; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase of Disease; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Recurrent Disease

2014-11-21

397

ACUTE TO CHRONIC ESTIMATION SOFTWARE FOR WINDOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic No-Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC) are commonly determined by either using acute-to-chronic ratios or by performing an ANOVA on chronic test data; both require lengthy and expensive chronic test results. Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE) software was developed to p...

398

Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory effects of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata were evaluated in acute and chronic inflammation induced in Wistar albino rats. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and some antioxidants produced during chronic inflammation were quantitated. Hexane (320mg/kg of body weight in 25% DMSO), chloroform (320mg/kg body weight in 25% DMSO), ethyl acetate (160mg/kg body weight in 25% DMSO), aqueous (320mg/kg of body weight in ddH(2)O) fractions, two negative control groups (25% DMSO and ddH(2)O) and two anti-inflammatory drugs (Diclofenac: 25mg/kg of body weight; Indomethacin: 10mg/kg of body weight both in ddH(2)O) were administered by oral intubations to the eight groups of rats consisting six animals, each. In acute study, 1% carrageenan was injected subcutaneously in the sub-plantar region of the right hind paw after 1h of administration of test doses. The increased paw edema was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24h intervals. In the chronic study, the oral administration was carried out for seven consecutive days. On eighth day, four sterile cotton pellets (50mg each) were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of the rats. On the sixteenth day, the rats were sacrificed and the cotton pellets with granulomatous tissue were dissected out and weighed (fresh and dry). Both in chronic and acute inflammation, ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were effective. EAF is comparable with the positive standards in chronic inflammation. The results indicate that EAF's anti-inflammatory activity is largely due to its ability to modulate in vivo antioxidants. PMID:21783894

Arumugam, P; Priya, N Gayatri; Subathra, M; Ramesh, A

2008-07-01

399

The plantar reflex: additional value of stroking the lateral border of the foot to provoke an upgoing toe sign and the influence of experience.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the value of stroking the lateral dorsal border of the foot, in addition to stroking the sole in patients with a suspected pyramidal tract lesion. In addition, we studied the differences in interpretation between neurologists, residents, and medical students. We included subjects who had weakness of at least one leg and in whom a pyramidal tract lesion was suspected. After testing muscle power, tone, reflexes, and foot tapping, a decision on the presence of a pyramidal syndrome had to be made by each observer. After stimulating the sole as well as the lateral border of the foot, observers made a decision about the presence of a pyramidal syndrome again. Twenty-two legs of 18 patients were examined. Testing the plantar reflex (according to both methods) led to a change of opinion on the presence of a pyramidal syndrome in 45 of 69 (65 %) observations. On analysis according to level of experience, a change of opinion occurred in 19 (86 %) observations by medical students, 15 (65 %) by residents, and 11 (46 %) by neurologists. On eight occasions, the change was prompted by stimulation of the lateral border; in five of these cases the examiner (three medical students and two residents) found a new pathological response. Consecutively stroking the sole and the lateral border may be of added value, especially for less-experienced physicians. It seems that more-experienced physicians need fewer tests in the physical examination in order to identify a pyramidal syndrome of the leg. PMID:22544298

van Munster, Caspar E P; Weinstein, Henry C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; van Gijn, Jan

2012-11-01

400

Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Chronic Hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among patients with chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, serum samples were collected between January and December 2004 from patients with chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C. Methods: There were 190 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 174 with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

A. Bayram; F. Eksi; M. Mehli; E. Sözen

2007-01-01

401

Chronic allograft nephropathy: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic allograft nephropathy: An update.Chronic allograft nephropathy is the most prevalent cause of renal transplant failure in the first post-transplant decade, but its pathogenesis has remained elusive. Clinically, it is characterized by a slow but variable loss of function, often in combination with proteinuria and hypertension. The histopathology is also not specific, but transplant glomerulopathy and multilayering of the peritubular

L. C. Paul

1999-01-01

402

Program for the Chronically Ill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

403

Hyperphosphatemia of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational studies have determined hyperphosphatemia to be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease. Mechanistic studies have elucidated that hyperphosphatemia is a direct stimulus to vascular calcification, which is one cause of morbid cardiovascular events contributing to the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease. This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that develops as a consequence of positive phosphate

Keith A Hruska; Suresh Mathew; Richard Lund; Ping Qiu; Raymond Pratt

2008-01-01

404

Children Coping with Chronic Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

Perez, Lissette M.

405

Chronic hibernating myocardium: Interstitial changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic left ventricular dysfunctional but viable myocardium of patients with chronic hibernation is characterized by structural changes, which consist of depletion of contractile elements, accumulation of glycogen, nuclear chromatin dispersion, depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial shape changes. These alterations are not reminiscent of degeneration but are interpreted as de-differentiation of the cardiomyocytes. The above mentioned changes are accompanied by

Jannie Ausma; Jack Cleutjens; Fred Thoné; Willem Flameng; Frans Ramaekers; Marcel Borgers

1995-01-01

406

Phenylethylamine in Paranoid Chronic Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylethylamine (PEA) is an endogenous amine that is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. Urinary PEA excretion is significantly higher in paranoid chronic schizophrenics than in nonparanoid chronic schizophrenics and normal controls. Diet, hospitalization, and medication do not account for differences in PEA concentrations. These findings offer some indication that PEA may be an endogenous amphetamine.

Steven G. Potkin; Farouk Karoum; Lin-Whei Chuang; H. E. Cannon-Spoor; Ingrid Phillips; Richard Jed Wyatt

1979-01-01

407

Chronic poverty and entitlement theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines chronic poverty in the developing country context within the entitlement theory approach. The dialogue on entitlement theory originally introduced by Sen is extended here to explore poverty and its persistence, or chronic poverty. A conceptual framework is presented, in which poverty and its persistence are explained within the context of the individual's economic and non-economic situation and

Meera Tiwari

2007-01-01

408

Psychologists' Role in Treating Chronically Ill Persons  

MedlinePLUS

... diseases (CDC, 2009). What are the financial and economic costs of chronic illness? Chronic diseases are among ... Bedroussian, A., & DeVol, R. An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease Charting a New Course ...

409

Hyperphosphatemia of Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Observational studies have determined hyperphosphatemia to be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease. Mechanistic studies have elucidated that hyperphosphatemia is a direct stimulus to vascular calcification, which is one cause of morbid cardiovascular events contributing to the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease. This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that develops as a consequence of positive phosphate balance in chronic kidney disease and the mechanisms by which hyperphosphatemia acts on neointimal vascular cells that are stimulated to mineralize in chronic kidney disease. The characterization of hyperphosphatemia of chronic kidney disease as a distinct syndrome in clinical medicine with unique disordered skeletal remodeling, heterotopic mineralization and cardiovascular morbidity is presented. PMID:18449174

Hruska, Keith A; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard; Qiu, Ping; Pratt, Raymond

2009-01-01

410

[Conservative therapy of chronic sinusitis].  

PubMed

The chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as chronic inflammation of the nose and nasal sinuses, with or without nasal polyps. Patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis report about nasal obstruction and secretion, olfactory impairment, head and facial pain. These symptoms cause also considerable impact on quality of life. Therefore, an adequate rhinological diagnostics as well as therapies are essential. This paper reviews the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis. First choice of therapy should be topical glucocorticoids. The application of glucocorticoids causes anti-inflammatory and certain curative effects. Hypertonic salt solutions improve nasal symptoms. Long-term therapy with oral macrolides might improve median to severe symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. An additional therapy with antihistamines is possible in patients with an allergy. Adaptive desensitization in patients suffering from analgesic-intolerance associating among other with nasal polyps is currently the single causal therapy. Therefore, frequency of endonasal revision surgery is reduced after desensitization. PMID:22332307

Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe

2012-01-01

411

[Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].  

PubMed

This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism. PMID:12488928

Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

2003-02-01

412

Endotherapy in chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disease with irreversible changes in the pancreas. Patients commonly present with pain and with exocrine or endocrine insufficiency. All therapeutic efforts in CP are directed towards relief of pain as well as the management of associated complications. Endoscopic therapy offers many advantages in patients with CP who present with ductal calculi, strictures, ductal leaks, pseudocyst or associated biliary strictures. Endotherapy offers a high rate of success with low morbidity in properly selected patients. The procedure can be repeated and failed endotherapy is not a hindrance to subsequent surgery. Endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy is helpful in patients with CP with minimal ductal changes while minor papilla sphincterotomy provides relief in patients with pancreas divisum and chronic pancreatitis. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the standard of care in patients with large pancreatic ductal calculi. Long term follow up has shown pain relief in over 60% of patients. A transpapillary stent placed across the disruption provides relief in over 90% of patients with ductal leaks. Pancreatic ductal strictures are managed by single large bore stents. Multiple stents are placed for refractory strictures. CP associated benign biliary strictures (BBS) are best treated with multiple plastic stents, as the response to a single plastic stent is poor. Covered self expanding metal stents are increasingly being used in the management of BBS though further long term studies are needed. Pseudocysts are best drained endoscopically with a success rate of 80%-95% at most centers. Endosonography (EUS) has added to the therapeutic armamentarium in the management of patients with CP. Drainage of pseudcysts, cannulation of inaccessible pancreatic ducts and celiac ganglion block in patients with intractable pain are all performed using EUS. Endotherapy should be offered as the first line of therapy in properly selected patients with CP who have failed to respond to medical therapy and require intervention. PMID:24115811

Tandan, Manu; Nageshwar Reddy, D

2013-10-01

413

Temsirolimus and Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2013-01-11

414

General Information about Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: November 11, 2014 General Information About Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of ...

415

Chronic inflammation and gallbladder cancer.  

PubMed

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common biliary tract malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. Epidemiological data have demonstrated that chronic inflammation resulting from infection of gallbladder or gallstones predispose individuals to GBC. Recent studies have begun to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GBC in the setting of chronic inflammation. It is possible that persistently local inflammatory reactions may contribute to the development and progression of GBC through inducing genetic alterations, and subsequent promoting survival and proliferation of mutated sells, inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. This article reviews the current understanding of the involvement of chronic inflammation in gallbladder tumorigenesis. PMID:23981574

Li, Yumin; Zhang, Junqiang; Ma, Haizhen

2014-04-10

416

Pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive fibrotic destruction of the pancreatic secretory parenchyma. Despite the heterogeneity in pathogenesis and involved risk factors, processes such as necrosis/apoptosis, inflammation or duct obstruction are involved. This fibrosing process ultimately leads to progressive loss of the lobular morphology and structure of the pancreas, deformation of the large ducts and severe changes in the arrangement and composition of the islets. These conditions lead to irreversible morphological and structural changes resulting in impairment of both exocrine and endocrine functions. The prevalence of the disease is largely dependent on culture and geography. The etiological risk-factors associated with CP are multiple and involve both genetic and environmental factors. Throughout this review the M-ANNHEIM classification system will be used, comprising a detailed description of risk factors such as: alcohol-consumption, nicotine-consumption, nutritional factors, hereditary factors, efferent duct factors, immunological factors and miscellaneous and rare metabolic factors. Increased knowledge of the different etiological factors may encourage the use of further advanced diagnostic tools, which potentially will help clinicians to diagnose CP at an earlier stage. However, in view of the multi factorial disease and the complex clinical picture, it is not surprising that treatment of patients with CP is challenging and often unsuccessful. PMID:24259953

Brock, Christina; Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Lelic, Dina; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

2013-01-01

417

Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIP) experience a constellation of symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea, fullness, and malaise which fluctuates in severity and invariably result in a diminished quality of life. Though surgical resection or transplantation may be an option for some, there currently is no cure for CIP. Thus, management strategies utilize pharmacologic, intravenous, endoscopic, and surgical techniques to promote transit, minimize painful bloating, reduce complications of stasis, and improve quality of life. Prokinetic agents such as erythromycin, metoclopramide, cisapride, neostigmine, and tegaserod may be effective for acute exac