Sample records for chronic spinal epidural

  1. Chronic spontaneous lumbar epidural hematoma simulating extradural spinal tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hiroki; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hirano, Kenichi; Tauchi, Ryoji; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disorder, and chronic SEHs are rarer than acute SEHs. However, there is few reported involving the bone change of the vertebral body in chronic SEHs. We present a case report of lumbar epidural hematoma that required differentiation from extramedullary spinal tumors by a long process because the CT scan revealed scalloping of the vertebral body and review the relevant literature. A 78-year-old man had experienced a gradual onset of low back pain and excruciating pain in both legs. Lumbar MRI on T1-weighted images revealed a space-occupying lesion with a hyperintense signal relative to the spinal cord with no enhancement on gadolinium adminisration. Meanwhile, T2-weighted images revealed a heterogeneous intensity change, accompanying a central area of hyperintense signals with a hypointense peripheral border at the L4 vertebra. Moreover, the CT scan demonstrated scalloping of the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body which is generally suspected as the CT finding of spainal tumor. During the epidural space exploration, we found a dark red-colored mass surrounded by a capsular layer, which was fibrous and adhered to the flavum and dura mater. Microscopic histological examination of the resected mass revealed a mixture of the relatively new hematoma and the hematoma that was moving into the connective tissue. Accordingly, the hematoma was diagnosed as chronic SEH. The particular MRI findings of chronic SEHs are helpful for making accurate preoperative diagnoses of this pathology. PMID:25130006

  2. Full-endoscopic interlaminar removal of chronic lumbar epidural hematoma after spinal manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen-Po; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Lin, Ping-Yi; Huang, Abel Po-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Chien-Min; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spinal manipulation is widely used for low back pain treatments. Complications associated with spinal manipulation are seen. Lumbar epidural hematoma (EDH) is one of the complications reported in the literature. If lumbar chronic EDH symptoms are present, which are similar to those of a herniated nucleus pulposus, surgery may be considered if medical treatment fails. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy utilizing an interlaminar approach can be successfully applied to those with herniated nucleus pulposus. We use the same technique to remove the lumbar chronic EDH, which is the first documented report in the related literature. Methods: We present a case with chronic lumbar EDH associated with spinal manipulation. Neurologic deficits were noted on physical examination. We arranged for a full-endoscopic interlaminar approach to remove the hematoma for the patient with the rigid endoscopy (Vertebris system; Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany). Results: After surgery, the patient's radiculopathy immediately began to disappear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up 10 days after the surgery revealed no residual hematoma. No complications were noted during the outpatient department follow up. Conclusions: Lumbar EDH is a possible complication of spinal manipulation. Patient experiencing rapidly progressive neurologic deficit require early surgical evacuation, while conservative treatment may only be applied to those with mild symptoms. A percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar approach may be a viable alternative for the treatment of those with chronic EDH with progressive neurologic deficits. PMID:24872917

  3. Primary spinal epidural lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Cugati, Goutham; Singh, Manish; Pande, Anil; Ramamurthi, Ravi; Balasubramanyam, Mahalakshmi; Sethi, Sumer K.; Singh, Ajai Kumar

    2011-01-01

    An epidural location for lymphoma is observed in 0.1–6.5% of all the lymphomas. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL) is a subset of lymphomas, where there are no other recognizable sites of lymphomas at the time of diagnosis. The incidence of this subset of lymphomas is much less. It, however, is increasingly diagnosed, due to the increased use of more sensitive imaging modalities. For the electronic search, Pubmed was used to identify journals that enlisted and enumerated PSEL from 1961 to January 2011. The following combination of terms: “primary,” “spinal,” “epidural,” and “lymphoma” were used. The most significant articles and their bibliographies were analyzed by the authors. The symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnostic workup, histopathology, treatment, and outcome have been analyzed in a systematic manner PMID:22013369

  4. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiying Zhong; Haifeng Chen; Chao You; Jin Li; Yi Liu; Siqing Huang

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare emergent condition. It may result in paraplegia, quadriplegia and even death. Prompt diagnosis and emergent decompressive surgical management have been recommended to prevent mortality and morbidity. Although several factors have been associated with prognosis, controversy remains, partly due to its rarity. Thus, the history, clinical presentation, physical examination findings, radiological images, and

  5. Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Chibbaro; G Mirone; M Nouri; P Di Emidio; M Polivka; M Marsella; B George

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the

  6. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  7. Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370

  8. Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370

  9. Acute spinal epidural abscess

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Peter; C. F. Kieck; J. C. De Villiers

    1992-01-01

    Twelve children under the age of 14 years were operated upon for acute epidural abscess during the period 1968–1990. Four presented with abdominal pain and tenderness, 2 with pain in the back attributed to local trauma, 3 had a sudden simultaneous onset of back pain and paraplegia, 1 developed quadriplegia after drainage of tibial osteitis, 1 was suspected of having

  10. Dorsal spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Kulkarni, Bijal; Kumar, Abhaya

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient presented with diffuse pain in the dorsal region of the back of 3 months duration. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an extramedullary, extradural space occupative lesion on the right side of the spinal canal from D5 to D7 vertebral levels. The mass was well marginated and there was no bone involvement. Compression of the adjacent thecal sac was observed, with displacement to the left side. Radiological differential diagnosis included nerve sheath tumor and meningioma. The patient underwent D6 hemilaminectomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, the tumor was purely extradural in location with mild extension into the right foramina. No attachment to the nerves or dura was found. Total excision of the extradural compressing mass was possible as there were preserved planes all around. Histopathology revealed cavernous hemangioma. As illustrated in our case, purely epidural hemangiomas, although uncommon, ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural soft tissue masses. Findings that may help to differentiate this lesion from the ubiquitous disk prolapse, more common meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors are its ovoid shape, uniform T2 hyperintense signal and lack of anatomic connection with the neighboring intervertebral disk or the exiting nerve root. Entirely extradural lesions with no bone involvement are rare and represent about 12% of all intraspinal hemangiomas. PMID:21572634

  11. Spinal Cord Stimulation in a Patient with Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhang; Monica J. Wood; Christopher Gilligan

    2011-01-01

    Background and ObjectiveSpinal cord stimulation is the most commonly used implantable neurostimulation modality for management of pain syndromes. For treatment of lower extremity pain, the spinal cord stimulator lead is typically placed in the thoracic epidural space, at the T10–T12 levels. Typically, satisfactory stimulation can be obtained relatively easily. Anatomical variability in the epidural space, such as epidural scarring, has

  12. Epidural Angiolipoma With Spinal Cord Compression

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Tung P.; Behbahani, M.; Matoso, Ivone M.; Katz, Marcia A.; Pearl, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    A case of epidural angiolipoma is reported. This tumor rarely occurs in the spinal canal. The most common location is in the thoracic region, and its histogenesis is probably congenital. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:3351973

  13. Spinal subdural abscess following epidural steroid injection.

    PubMed

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Bozzay, Joseph D; Walker, Matthew P; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a cervicothoracolumbosacral spinal subdural abscess about a month after receiving an epidural steroid injection for management of low-back pain due to L5-S1 disc herniation. Although he presented with symptoms concerning for a spinal etiology, the subdural empyema was not evident on the initial MRI study and was observed on imaging 5 days later. This patient was successfully managed with surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment, and he is doing well more than 21 months after the operation. It is possible that a prior history of disc herniation or other spinal abnormality may increase a patient's risk of developing spinal subdural empyema. This case illustrates the risk of infection following spinal epidural steroid injections and the importance of early recognition and intervention to successfully treat an extensive subdural abscess. PMID:25343407

  14. MRI Features of Spinal Epidural Angiolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Su; Hu, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xi-ming; Dai, Hui; Fang, Xiang-ming; Cui, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the MRI findings in ten patients of spinal epidural angiolipoma for differentiated diagnosis presurgery. Materials and Methods Ten surgically proved cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas were retrospectively reviewed, and the lesion was classified according to the MR findings. Results Ten tumors were located in the superior (n = 4), middle (n = 2), or inferior (n = 4) thoracic level. The mass, with the spindle shape, was located in the posterior epidural space and extended parallel to the long axis of the spine. All lesions contained a fat and vascular element. The vascular content, correlating with the presence of hypointense regions on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signals on T2-weighted imaging, had marked enhancement. However, there were no flow void signs on MR images. All tumors were divided into two types based on the MR features. In type 1 (n = 3), the mass was predominantly composed of lipomatous tissue (> 50%) and contained only a few small angiomatous regions, which had a trabeculated or mottled appear. In type 2 (n = 7), the mass, however, was predominantly composed of vascular components (> 50%), which presented as large foci in the center of the mass. Conclusion Most spinal epidural angiolipomas exhibit hyperintensity on T1WI while the hypointense region on the noncontrast T1WI indicates to be vascular, which manifests an obvious enhancement with gadolinium administration. PMID:24043978

  15. The Effect of Epidural Saline Injection on Analgesic Level During Combined Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia Assessed Clinically and Myelographically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Takiguchi; Takatoshi Okano; Hirotoshi Egawa; Yoshinori Okubo; Kyoko Saito; Toshimitsu Kitajima

    1997-01-01

    An epidural injection of physiological saline solution after spinal anesthesia may produce a higher level of analgesia than spinal anesthesia alone because of a vol- ume effect. The purpose of this study was to clarify the volume effect caused by epidural injection of saline af- ter spinal anesthesia. Twenty patients undergoing com- bined spinal and epidural anesthesia for elective sur-

  16. Efficacy of Epidural Injections in the Treatment of Lumbar Central Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan David; Manchikanti, Kavita; Boswell, Mark; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Hirsch, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lumbar central spinal stenosis is common and often results in chronic persistent pain and disability, which can lead to multiple interventions. After the failure of conservative treatment, either surgical or nonsurgical modalities such as epidural injections are contemplated in the management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Evidence Acquisition: Recent randomized trials, systematic reviews and guidelines have reached varying conclusions about the efficacy of epidural injections in the management of central lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of all three anatomical epidural injection approaches (caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal) in the treatment of lumbar central spinal stenosis. A systematic review was performed on randomized trials published from 1966 to July 2014 of all types of epidural injections used in the management of lumbar central spinal stenosis. Methodological quality assessment and grading of the evidence was performed. Results: The evidence in managing lumbar spinal stenosis is Level II for long-term improvement for caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections. For transforaminal epidural injections, the evidence is Level III for short-term improvement only. The interlaminar approach appears to be superior to the caudal approach and the caudal approach appears to be superior to the transforaminal one. Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that epidural injections with local anesthetic alone or with local anesthetic with steroids offer short- and long-term relief of low back and lower extremity pain for patients with lumbar central spinal stenosis. However, the evidence is Level II for the long-term efficacy of caudal and interlaminar epidural injections, whereas it is Level III for short-term improvement only with transforaminal epidural injections. PMID:25789241

  17. Spinal epidural abscess: contemporary trends in etiology, evaluation, and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Rigamonti; Leon Liem; Prakash Sampath; Nachshon Knoller; Yuji Numaguchi; David L Schreibman; Michael A Sloan; Aizik Wolf; Seth Zeidman

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDespite advances in neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment, spinal epidural abscess remains a challenging problem; early diagnosis is often difficult and treatment is delayed. Optimal management is unclear, and morbidity and mortality are significant. To define contemporary trends in etiology and management, and establish diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines, we reviewed our 10-year experience with spinal epidural abscess.METHODSWe examined medical records, laboratory

  18. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tok, Chung Hong, E-mail: rogertok@gmail.com; Kaur, Shaleen [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine (Malaysia); Gangi, Afshin [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

    2011-02-15

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  19. Spinal epidural hematoma after epidural anesthesia in a patient receiving enoxaparin -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Han, In Soo; Hahn, Yun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma is a rare but serious neurological complication of neuraxial anesthesia. Enoxaparin sodium is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for use in preventing deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Hemorrhage is an uncommon but documented adverse reaction when using LMWH. We report a case of epidural hematoma after lumbar epidural anesthesia in a patient who administered enoxaparin in perioperative period. PMID:20740218

  20. A rare presentation of spinal epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Crowest, Paul Robert Oliver; Hughes, Paul James; Elkins, Andrew; Jackson, Mark; Ranu, Harpreet

    2011-01-01

    A 77-year-old retired engineer presented to accident and emergency with deteriorating shortness of breath that had been troubling him for several months. At that time, he was being investigated by a chest physician who had identified bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis on ultrasound and was awaiting further imaging. Clinical assessment and nerve conduction studies on this admission were compatible with a diagnosis of motor neuron disease but specialist neurology input recommended an MRI to rule out cord pathology. This proved problematic as the patient was non-invasive ventilation dependent and unable to lay supine as this further compromised his respiratory function. To ensure that a potentially reversible cause for his symptoms was identified, the patient was intubated for an MRI which subsequently demonstrated multi level spinal epidural empyema. The benefits of neurosurgical intervention were judged to be uncertain at best, and following discussion with the family, active care was withdrawn. The patient passed away shortly thereafter. PMID:22675058

  1. Cervicothoracic Spinal Epidural Hematoma after Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a rare case of a cervicothoracic spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) after anterior cervical spine surgery. A 60-year-old man complained of severe neck and arm pain 4 hours after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the C5-6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a postoperative SEH extending from C1 to T4. Direct hemostasis and drainage of loculated hematoma at the C5-6 level completely improved the patient's condition. When a patient complains of severe neck and/or arm pain after anterior cervical spinal surgery, though rare, the possibility of a postoperative SEH extending to non-decompressed, adjacent levels should be considered as with our case. PMID:21430984

  2. Idiopathic spinal epidural lipomatosis: urgent decompression in an atypical case

    PubMed Central

    Resurrección Giner, M.

    2007-01-01

    Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is very rare and frequently associated to chronic exogenous steroid use, obesity and Cushing syndrome. The idiopathic cases where no identifiable association with SEL are found constitute only 17% of all cases. The usual clinical manifestations of this entity consist of dorsal or lumbar pain with paresthesias and weakness in lower limbs, but acute symptoms of myelopathy are exceptional. We report a case of acute paraparesis and urinary retention caused by thoracic SEL in a 55-year-old male who did not have any recognized predisposing factor for this condition. Urgent surgical decompression was performed in order to relieve the symptoms. Slow but progressive improvement was assessed after surgery. We consider this case to be exceptional due to the needing to perform an urgent decompressive laminectomy to treat a rapidly progressive myelopathy caused by idiopathic SEL. PMID:17876611

  3. Multimodal Therapy for Localized Spinal Epidural Follicular Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Kahl; Carsten Hirt; Susanne Decker; Dietrich Gläser; Sebastian Rohde; Kirsten Jost; Inken Hilgendorf; Eva Respondek-Dryba; Malte Leithäuser; Christian Junghanss; Mathias Freund

    2010-01-01

    SummaryBackground: Myelopathy due to epidural spinal cord compression is rare in patients with malignant lymphoma and most of these patients are diagnosed with high-grade lymphoma. An epidural growth of low-grade lymphoma is even more unusual. Due to this low incidence, therapeutic experience for this entity is limited. Patients and Methods: We report the outcome of 3 consecutive patients with primary

  4. The evolution of spinal/epidural neostigmine in clinical application: Thoughts after two decades

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Since the first clinical application of analgesia following spinal anticholinesterase by 1940's, several clinical double-blind studies have been conducted to date, where intrathecal doses of neostigmine in humans ranged from 750 to 1 ?g, due to side-effects. Conversely, epidural neostigmine has been evaluated in proportionally higher doses and represents an alternative, but still deserves more investigation concerning both acute and chronic pain, as it seems devoid of important side-effects. PMID:25558203

  5. Potential intrathecal leakage of solutions injected into the epidural space following combined spinal epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Vartis, A; Collier, C B; Gatt, S P

    1998-06-01

    A combined spinal epidural anaesthetic (CSE), by design, produces a deliberate multicompartment block across a breached dural membrane. Since the lateral holes of the epidural catheter may lie in close proximity to the dural puncture site, a bolus solution of drug injected via the epidural catheter has the potential to leak through the dural puncture into the subarachnoid space. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intrathecal leak by performing an epidurogram. Fifteen patients undergoing surgery with a CSE anaesthetic using a 16 gauge Tuohy/26 gauge pencil point needle were studied. Within three hours of catheter insertion, 12 ml of contrast (iohexol 300 mg/ml) was injected via the epidural catheter under fluoroscopic control with screen recording and exposure of lateral and anteroposterior X-ray plates. All films were later reviewed for evidence of intrathecal spread. We did not observe any evidence of intrathecal spread of contrast. However, caution should be observed during administration of an intraoperative bolus dose of analgesic agent via a catheter inserted as part of a combined spinal epidural anaesthetic technique, particularly with the use of hydrophilic opiods. PMID:9619218

  6. Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the spinal cord in a child: MR demonstration of spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Muñoz; James A. Barkovich; Fernando Mateos; Rogelio Simón

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in an 8-year-old girl with Cushing's syndrome secondary to longstanding high-dose steroid therapy for Crohn's disease. MR imaging of the spine revealed massive diffuse epidural fat compressing the entire spinal cord with T2 prolongation in the central gray matter of the cord suggesting ischemic myelopathy. This finding has not been previously demonstrated

  7. Primary cervical spinal epidural Extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, M; Asazuma, T; Iso, K; Koike, Y; Domoto, H; Aida, S; Fujikawa, K

    2004-09-01

    Cases of primary spinal epidural Extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) are rarely seen and a good prognosis for EES cannot be expected since a high incidence of local recurrence and metastasis frequently occur. We present a case of cervical spinal epidural EES in a 7-year-old girl with long survival after tumour resection. She also received adjuvant treatment with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). This management successfully improved her condition and she was in complete remission without neurological deficit 60 months after surgery. Such a good prognosis of EES in the cervical spine is very rare. It is likely that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lead to a diagnosis of this rare type of EES at an early stage of the disease. PBSCT could be useful as an adjuvant to prolong the period of complete remission. PMID:15340820

  8. The potential contributing effect of ketorolac and fluoxetine to a spinal epidural hematoma following a cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection: a case report and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Chien, George C Chang; McCormick, Zack; Araujo, Marco; Candido, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are commonly performed as one part of a multi-modal analgesic regimen in the management of upper extremity radicular pain. Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare complication with a reported incidence ranging from 1.38 in 10,000 to 1 in 190,000 epidurals. Current American Society of Regional Anesthesia (ASRA), American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), and the International Spine Intervention Society (ISIS) recommendations are that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do not need to be withheld prior to epidural anesthesia. We report a case wherein intramuscular ketorolac and oral fluoxetine contributed to a SEH and tetraplegia following a cervical interlaminar (ESI). A 66 year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency and neck pain radiating into her right upper extremity presented for evaluation and was deemed an appropriate CESI candidate. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multi-level neuroforaminal stenosis and degenerative intervertebral discs. Utilizing a loss of resistance to saline technique, an 18-gauge Tuohy-type needle entered the epidural space at C6-7. After negative aspiration, 4 mL of saline with 80 mg of methyl-prednisolone was injected. Immediately thereafter, the patient reported significant spasmodic-type localized neck pain with no neurologic status changes. A decision was made to administer 30 mg intramuscular ketorolac as treatment for the spasmodic-type pain. En route home, she developed a sudden onset of acute tetraplegia. She was brought to the emergency department for evaluation including platelet and coagulation studies which were normal. MRI demonstrated an epidural hematoma extending from C5 to T7. She underwent a bilateral C5-T6 laminectomy with epidural hematoma evacuation and was discharged to an acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Chronic renal insufficiency, spinal stenosis, female gender, and increasing age have been identified as risk factors for SEH following epidural anesthesia. In the present case, it is postulated that after the spinal vascular system was penetrated, hemostasis was compromised by the combined antiplatelet effects of ketorolac, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E. Although generally well tolerated, the role of ketorolac, a potent anti-platelet medication used for pain relief in the peri-neuraxial intervention period, should be seriously scrutinized when other analgesic options are readily available. Although the increased risk of bleeding for the alternative medications are minimal, they are nevertheless well documented. Additionally, their additive impairment on hemostasis has not been well characterized. Withholding NSAIDs, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E in the peri-procedural period is relatively low risk and should be considered for all patients with multiple risk factors for SEH. PMID:24850120

  9. Second occurrence of symptomatic metastatic spinal cord compression and findings of multiple spinal epidural metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Helweg-Larsen; Steen Werner Hansen; Per Soelberg Sørensen

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the frequency of initial multiple epidural metastases, and the occurrence of secondary spinal cord compression (SCC).Methods and Materials: To evaluate the frequency of a recurrent SCC after radiotherapy, and to compare among patients with single and multiple intraspinal metastases the risk of having a second SCC, we followed 107 patients with SCC from a histologically verified solid

  10. Cervical Spinal Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Posterior Laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old man who had lateral cervical disc herniation underwent cervical posterior laminoforaminotomy at C5-6 and C6-7 level right side. During the operation, there was no serious surgical bleeding event. After operation, he complained persistent right shoulder pain and neck pain. Repeated magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed diffuse cervical epidural hematoma (EDH) extending from C5 to T1 level right side and spinal cord compression at C5-6-7 level. He underwent exploration. There was active bleeding at muscular layer. Muscular active bleeding was controlled and intramuscular hematoma was removed. The patient's symptom was reduced after second operation. Symptomatic postoperative spinal EDH requiring reoperation is rare. Meticulous bleeding control is important before wound closure. In addition, if patient presents persistent or aggravated pain after operation, rapid evaluation using MRI and second look operation is needed as soon as possible. PMID:23560180

  11. Steroid induced spinal epidural lipomatosis--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rahul; Shah, Mobin; Reese, Carla M

    2011-01-01

    Steroids are one of the most commonly prescribed medications for a variety of medical conditions, often long term. Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a state of pathological fatty tissue overgrowth in the vertebral canal. It is a rare and dangerous complication of chronic steroid therapy that may lead to back pain, radiculopathy, or paraparesis. We describe a patient that was taking long term steroids and presented with progressively worsening weakness of the lower extremities. On the MRI scan, a long segment of unusual accumulation of fatty deposits in the posterior aspect of the spinal canal resulting in canal stenosis extending from C7 to the T10 level was observed. Despite an appropriate diagnosis and surgical intervention, his weakness did not resolve. We discuss the implications of this case in the primary care practice. PMID:21902101

  12. Epidural anesthesia for permanent spinal cord stimulation with a cylindrical type lead: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Eun; Kee, Rim; Lee, Kang Hun; Jeon, Sangyoon; Jung, Jae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Jin; Yoon, Jin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in trials involving external stimulation are easily conducted under local anesthesia. However, implantation of a permanent SCS system is painful, and can be intolerable in some patients. Epidural anesthesia can be used to perform the SCS implantation without discomfort if the patient can localize the area of paresthesia. However, little is known about epidural anesthesia for SCS. This paper reports 23 cases of permanent SCS with a cylindrical type lead implanted under the epidural anesthesia. Epidural anesthesia was sufficient in 22 patients without discomfort and significant complications. The remaining patient experienced incomplete epidural anesthesia and required additional analgesics to blunt the pain. All the leads were placed consistent with the patient's report of paresthesia area under epidural anesthesia. Thus, epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe method for the optimal placement of SCS to minimize the discomfort for patients without impairing patients' response to the intraoperative stimulation test. PMID:25844138

  13. Epidural hematoma occurred by massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section after combined spinal epidural anesthesia -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Jinhwan; Cha, Seung-Cheol; Jung, Taehyeng

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of acute lumbar epidural hematoma at the L2-3 level complicated by paraplegia, which occurred after coagulation disorder because of massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section. The preoperative coagulation laboratory finding was in normal range and so we tried combined spinal epidural anesthesia. Uterine atony occurred in the operation, and there was persistant bleeding during and after the operation. After the operation, she complained of paresthesia on her both legs and was diagnosed with epidural hematoma (EDH) by radiologic examination. Emergency laminectomy on lumbar spine was carried out for hematoma evacuation and decompression of the epidural space at once. In our experience, massive bleeding during surgery may potentially increase the risk of EDH postoperatively. PMID:22110889

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression and Recurrent Spinal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Simon Shek-Man; Ryu, Samuel; Chang, Eric L; Galanopoulos, Nicholas; Jones, Joshua; Kim, Edward Y; Kubicky, Charlotte D; Lee, Charles P; Rose, Peter S; Sahgal, Arjun; Sloan, Andrew E; Teh, Bin S; Traughber, Bryan J; Van Poznak, Catherine; Vassil, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is an oncologic emergency and if left untreated, permanent paralysis will ensue. The treatment of MESCC is governed by disease, patient, and treatment factors. Patient's preferences and goals of care are to be weighed into the treatment plan. Ideally, a patient with MESCC is evaluated by an interdisciplinary team promptly to determine the urgency of the clinical scenario. Treatment recommendations must take into consideration the risk-benefit profiles of surgical intervention and radiotherapy for the particular individual's circumstance, including neurologic status, performance status, extent of epidural disease, stability of the spine, extra-spinal disease status, and life expectancy. In patients with high spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) or retropulsion of bone fragments in the spinal canal, surgical intervention should be strongly considered. The rate of development of motor deficits from spinal cord compression may be a prognostic factor for ultimate functional outcome, and should be taken into account when a treatment recommendation is made. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25974663

  15. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Reirradiation for Recurrent Epidural Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Anand, E-mail: amahadev@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Floyd, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Wong, Eric; Jeyapalan, Suriya [Department of Neuro-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Groff, Michael; Kasper, Ekkehard [Department of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: When patients show progression after conventional fractionated radiation for spine metastasis, further radiation and surgery may not be options. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been successfully used in treatment of the spine and may be applicable in these cases. We report the use of SBRT for 60 consecutive patients (81 lesions) who had radiological progressive spine metastasis with epidural involvement after previous radiation for spine metastasis. Methods and Materials: SBRT was used with fiducial and vertebral anatomy-based targeting. The radiation dose was prescribed based on the extent of spinal canal involvement; the dose was 8 Gy Multiplication-Sign 3 = 24 Gy when the tumor did not touch the spinal cord and 5 to 6 Gy x 5 = 25 to 30 Gy when the tumor abutted the cord. The cord surface received up to the prescription dose with no hot spots in the cord. Results: The median overall survival was 11 months, and the median progression-free survival was 9 months. Overall, 93% of patients had stable or improved disease while 7% of patients showed disease progression; 65% of patients had pain relief. There was no significant toxicity other than fatigue. Conclusions: SBRT is feasible and appears to be an effective treatment modality for reirradiation after conventional palliative radiation fails for spine metastasis patients.

  16. Low dose combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pirlet, M; Baird, M; Pryn, S; Jones-Ritson, M; Kinsella, S M

    2000-07-01

    A patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy was scheduled for elective caesarean section after stabilization on medical therapy. Wer performed a combined spinal epidural using one ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (5 mg) with 0.3 mg diamorphine for the spinal. The epidural was topped up with 10 mL bupivacaine 0.5%. Significant haemodynamic changes consisted of reduction in heart rate and hypotension after the spinal, and tachycardia after delivery. The benefits and risks of this approach are discussed. PMID:15321091

  17. Spinal subdural hematoma with cauda equina syndrome: A complication of combined spinal epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neha; Sethi, Priyanka; Jain, Jitesh Kumar; Agarwal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSE) is considered safe in lower limb surgeries. We report a case of sudden neurological deterioration in a stable postoperative patient who was given CSE for total knee replacement and low molecular weight heparin in postoperative period. On the 4(th) postoperative day, she developed sudden onset weakness in left lower limb along with bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging spine revealed a subdural hematoma at L2-L3 level. Immediate laminectomy along with cord decompression was done and patient recovered well except for a persistent foot drop on left side. PMID:25948911

  18. Hemophilia A in a Senior Patient: A Case Report of Spinal Epidural Hematoma as First Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo Shik; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a hereditary coagulation disorder. Most cases are diagnosed at birth or at least during childhood. A spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma was developed in a 74-year-old male patient who hadn't had a family or past medical history of bleeding disorders. On magnetic resonance imaging, epidural hematoma at L1-2 was accompanied by spinal stenosis at L4-5 and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at L5. Hematoma evacuation and surgery for distal lumbar lesions were performed at once. After transient improvement, complete paraplegia was developed due to redevelopment of large epidural hematomas at L1-2 and L4-S1 which blocked epidural canal completely. Emergency evacuation was performed and we got to know that he had a hemophilia A. Factor VIII was 28% of normal value. Mild type hemophilia A could have not been diagnosed until adulthood. Factor VIII should have been replaced before the surgical decompression.

  19. [Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma as cause of incomplete spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Spalteholz, M; Rödel, L

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas are rare but are of differential diagnostic importance due to the potentially dramatic progression through to irreversible neurological deficits. At the beginning the clinical symptoms are non-specific and the development of neurological deficits leads to the diagnosis. We present the case of a 73-year-old female patient who initially reported uncharacteristic neck pain and developed incomplete quadriplegia during the next day as well as the case of a 78-year-old male patient, who complained of acute back pain and developed paraplegia a short time afterwards. Early microsurgery and spinal canal evacuation led to complete remission of the neurological deficits in both cases. PMID:23999927

  20. Spinal epidural hematoma caused by pseudogout: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    deSouza, R M; Uff, C; Galloway, M; Dorward, N L

    2014-06-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?We present the first reported case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma secondary to calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (pseudogout) in a 75-year-old woman. Methods?A retrospective review of the patient's case notes was undertaken and the limited literature on this subject reviewed. Results?This patient presented with sudden-onset lower limb paresis, sensory loss, urinary retention, and back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural hematoma, which was evacuated. Histologic specimens of the clot showed calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposits (pseudogout). Conclusion?The importance of histopathologic review of surgical specimens is highlighted when considering the differential diagnosis of apparently spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. PMID:25072005

  1. Spinal epidural abscess with gadolinium-enhanced MRI: serial follow-up studies and clinical correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sadato; Y. Numaguchi; D. Rigamonti; T. Kodama; E. Nussbaum; S. Sato; M. Rothman

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed serial MRI with and without gadolinium-DTPA in eight patients with spinal epidural abscess and correlated the findings and the clinical manifestations. In four patients, diffuse abscesses spanned four vertebral bodies or more; the others had focal abscesses associated with osteomyelitis and\\/or diskitis. In three of the four patients with diffuse abscesses, MRI (NCMRI) showed diffuse encasement of the

  2. Acute spinal cord compression due to epidural lipomatosis complicated by an abscess: magnetic resonance and pathology findings

    PubMed Central

    Pipitone, Nicolò; De Carli, Nicola; Vecchia, Luigi; Bartoletti, Stefano C.

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old male presented with rapidly progressive paraplegia. MR images of the thoracic spine were interpreted as being consistent with an abscess within an epidural lipomatosis compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed, and a large amount of pus was drained from the epidural lipomatosis, from which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. This is the first reported case of an abscess involving an epidural lipomatosis. PMID:20372939

  3. [From balanced analgesia to epidural analgesia or combined spinal-epidural analgesia for relief of labor pain].

    PubMed

    Okutomi, Toshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The trial of labor analgesia in Japan dates back to the year 1929. After the foundation of the original Japan Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology in 1961, various labor analgesia techniques were widely attempted. Some anesthetists relieved the labor pain with balanced anesthesia using intravenous (diazepam and pethidine during the 1st stage of labor, followed by pentobarbital or ketamine during the 2nd stage of labor) combined with inhalational anesthetic (methoxyflurane or enflurane), while the others tried regional anesthesia. In 1990's, epidural analgesia with bupivacaine became more popular as a standard method of labor analgesia. Recently, the choice of local anesthetic has changed to ropivacaine or levobupivacaine, and in most cases combined with an opioid. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia or patient-controlled epidural analgesia has also been accepted in some hospitals, because these techniques may lessen the total consumption of local anesthetics and also induce mothers' satisfaction. However, the ideal labor analgesia technique has been still controversial. We, obstetric anesthesiologists, should grope for safer and more comfortable anesthetics to the mother and fetus. In next 50 years, the standard method for labor analgesia may change to no needle system with non-placental transfer anesthetics. PMID:20229750

  4. Spinal epidural hematoma in a patient with hemophilia B presenting as acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Nirupam, Nilay; Pemde, Harish; Chandra, Jagdish

    2014-09-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare complication in patients of haemophilia. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy with severe haemophilia B who presented with acute abdomen of 5 days duration. Acute onset of neck/back pain,walking impairment and urinary retention has usually been described as symptom complex in SSEH. The hematoma was identified by magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal column. Our case calls attention to recognition of abdominal pain (with no other localizing features) as initial symptom of SSEH and prompt evaluation and management before more overt symptoms of spinal cord compression becomes evident. PMID:25332535

  5. Development of a multi-electrode array for spinal cord epidural stimulation to facilitate stepping and standing after a complete spinal cord injury in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stimulation of the spinal cord has been shown to have great potential for improving function after motor deficits caused by injury or pathological conditions. Using a wide range of animal models, many studies have shown that stimulation applied to the neural networks intrinsic to the spinal cord can result in a dramatic improvement of motor ability, even allowing an animal to step and stand after a complete spinal cord transection. Clinical use of this technology, however, has been slow to develop due to the invasive nature of the implantation procedures, the lack of versatility in conventional stimulation technology, and the difficulty of ascertaining specific sites of stimulation that would provide optimal amelioration of the motor deficits. Moreover, the development of tools available to control precise stimulation chronically via biocompatible electrodes has been limited. In this paper, we outline the development of this technology and its use in the spinal rat model, demonstrating the ability to identify and stimulate specific sites of the spinal cord to produce discrete motor behaviors in spinal rats using this array. Methods We have designed a chronically implantable, rapidly switchable, high-density platinum based multi-electrode array that can be used to stimulate at 1–100 Hz and 1–10 V in both monopolar and bipolar configurations to examine the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of spinal cord epidural stimulation in complete spinal cord transected rats. Results In this paper, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of using high-resolution stimulation parameters in the context of improving motor recovery after a spinal cord injury. We observed that rats whose hindlimbs were paralyzed can stand and step when specific sets of electrodes of the array are stimulated tonically (40 Hz). Distinct patterns of stepping and standing were produced by stimulation of different combinations of electrodes on the array located at specific spinal cord levels and by specific stimulation parameters, i.e., stimulation frequency and intensity, and cathode/anode orientation. The array also was used to assess functional connectivity between the cord dorsum to interneuronal circuits and specific motor pools via evoked potentials induced at 1 Hz stimulation in the absence of any anesthesia. Conclusions Therefore the high density electrode array allows high spatial resolution and the ability to selectively activate different neural pathways within the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord to facilitate standing and stepping in adult spinal rats and provides the capability to evoke motor potentials and thus a means for assessing connectivity between sensory circuits and specific motor pools and muscles. PMID:23336733

  6. Midline trough corpectomies for the evacuation of an extensive ventral cervical and upper thoracic spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vinay R

    2010-08-01

    The author reports on a 59-year-old woman with a history of a chronic, nonhealing skin ulcer who presented with sepsis, neck pain, and rapidly progressive quadriparesis. Precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging studies revealed a multifocal ventral cervical and upper thoracic spinal epidural abscess. Compression of the spinal cord from the abscess was greatest behind the disc space of C2-3 and C7-T1. Because of the patient's tenuous medical status, the author elected to apply a technique that would allow expeditious decompression without necessitating concomitant fusion and instrumentation. Multilevel, contiguous trough corpectomies were performed for evacuation of the compressive lesions. A high-speed matchstick bur was used to create a 5- to 7-mm midline trough in the vertebrae and intervening disc spaces from C-2 to T-3. Rapid and successful decompression of the entire ventral cervical and upper thoracic epidural space was achieved using this technique. Understanding that the surgical treatment of discitis or osteomyelitis can often result in a kyphotic deformity or frank instability, the patient was immobilized in a cervical collar following surgery and underwent vigilant monitoring with serial plain radiographs, CT scans, and MR images. These neuroimaging studies confirmed complete resolution of the abscess and the slow development of a mild, stable kyphotic deformity. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient was ambulating and had returned to work. A trough corpectomy is a viable surgical approach that allows for rapid decompression of ventral cervical and upper thoracic epidural abscesses while obviating the need for same-setting fusion and fixation. PMID:20672959

  7. Steroid for epidural injection in spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing; Cai, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods We performed a search on the CENTRAL, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to September 2014. We recovered 17 original articles, of which only 10 were in full compliance with the randomized controlled trial (RCT) criteria. These articles were reviewed in an independent and blinded way by two reviewers who were previously trained to extract data and score their quality by the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook (5.1.0). Results We accepted ten studies with 1,010 participants. There is minimal evidence that shows that epidural steroid injections are better than lidocaine alone, regardless of the mode of epidural injection. There is a fair short-term and long-term benefit for treating spinal stenosis with local anesthetic and steroids. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that epidural steroid injections provide limited improvement in short-term and long-term benefits in LSS patients. PMID:25678775

  8. [Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for a patient with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Taishi; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Mishima, Yasunori; Ushijima, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    An 81-year-old female with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was scheduled for transurethral lithotomy. She had had paresthesia and spastic paresis in the lower extremities for the past 15 years. The preoperative respiratory function test revealed a vital capacity of 1.3 l (58% of the predicted value). We selected combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for her to avoid postoperative respiratory complications due to general anesthesia. After placement of a thoracic epidural catheter, spinal anesthesia was achieved by administration of bupivacaine 7.5 mg, resulting in the sensory block level to T 6, five min later. The intraoperative blood pressure remained high at 150-200 mmHg, in spite of the administration of nicardipine. Postoperatively, neither the deterioration in the neurological findings of HAM nor the exacerbation of respiratory function was observed. The present report suggests that CSEA can be one of the choices of anesthesia for a patient with HAM. PMID:25199333

  9. Spinal Epidural Hematoma After Thrombolysis for Deep Vein Thrombosis with Subsequent Pulmonary Thromboembolism: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Young-Min, E-mail: ymhan@chonbuk.ac.kr; Kwak, Ho-Sung; Jin, Gong-Young; Chung, Gyung-Ho [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Departments of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Jin [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A 38-year-old male was initially admitted for left leg swelling. He was diagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left leg and a pulmonary thromboembolism by contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) with delayed lower extremity CT. The DVT was treated by thrombolysis and a venous stent. Four hours later, he complained of severe back pain and a sensation of separation of his body and lower extremities; he experienced paraplegia early in the morning of the following day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a spinal epidural hematoma between T11 and L2, which decompressed following surgery. We, therefore, report a case of a spinal epidural hematoma after thrombolysis in a case of DVT with a pulmonary thromboembolism.

  10. Early diagnosis and treatment of spinal epidural metastasis in breast cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Boogerd, W; van der Sande, J J; Kröger, R

    1992-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the usefulness of myelography in breast cancer patients who present with radiculopathy or myelopathy. A total of 124 consecutive myelograms were performed in 100 patients. Epidural metastasis (EM) was diagnosed in 67 myelograms (54%). Multiple epidural metastases were diagnosed in 15 (22%) of those, resulting in a total of 87 epidural lesions. A complete block was found in 13 EM (15%) and an incomplete block in 14 EM (16%). Clinical data could not predict the site of EM in 29 cases (33%). Fifteen asymptomatic EM were detected in myelograms with multiple EM. Plain radiographs were of no value in determining the site of EM in 29 cases (33%), including 13 cases (15%) without vertebral metastasis at the site of EM. Treatment consisted of radiotherapy (RT) with or without systemic treatment in 52 cases (80%), systemic treatment alone in 11 cases (17%) and surgery in two patients (3%). Clinical improvement was noticed in 72%, no change in 13%, and deterioration in 15%. No difference in response was noticed between RT and systemic therapy. Before treatment 21% and after treatment 15% of the patients could not walk. The one year survival was 42%. The ambulatory status at presentation was the most important prognostic factor. Examination of the spinal fluid, obtained at myelography, disclosed meningeal carcinomatosis in 9% of the patients. Imaging of the whole spinal canal with cytological examination of the spinal fluid is recommended in breast cancer patients suspected of epidural tumour with features of radiculopathy or myelopathy, irrespective of further clinical data and plain spinal radiographs. PMID:1479399

  11. Epidural Hematoma Complication after Rapid Chronic Subdural Hematoma Evacuation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Aykut; Ucler, Necati; Erdogan, Uzay; Yucetas, Cem Seyho

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic subdural hematoma generally occurs in the elderly. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation surgery, the development of epidural hematoma is a very rare entity. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 41-year-old man with an epidural hematoma complication after chronic subdural hematoma evacuation. Under general anesthesia, the patient underwent a large craniotomy with closed system drainage performed to treat the chronic subdural hematoma. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation, there was epidural leakage on the following day. CONCLUSIONS Although trauma is the most common risk factor in young CSDH patients, some other predisposing factors may exist. Intracranial hypotension can cause EDH. Craniotomy and drainage surgery can usually resolve the problem. Because of rapid dynamic intracranial changes, epidural leakages can occur. A large craniotomy flap and silicone drainage in the operation area are key safety points for neurosurgeons and hydration is essential. PMID:26147957

  12. Spinal Cord Simulation for Chronic Pain Management

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Spinal Cord Simulation for Chronic Pain Management: Towards an Expert System Kenneth M. Al'o 1 , Richard Al'o 2 , Andre de Korvin 2 , and Vladik Kreinovich 3 1 Pain and Health Management Center 17270 Red@cs.utep.edu Abstract Chronic pain is a serious health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Currently, spinal

  13. Spinal haematoma after removal of a thoracic epidural catheter in a patient with coagulopathy resulting from unexpected vitamin K deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ladha, A; Alam, A; Idestrup, C; Sawyer, J; Choi, S

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative epidural analgesia is effective and widely utilised after major abdominal surgery. Spinal haematoma is a rare and devastating complication after epidural analgesia. Well-established risk factors for the development of spinal haematoma after neuraxial procedures have been documented. We present the case of a patient with normal pre-operative coagulation parameters who developed a spinal haematoma more than 24 h after removal of an epidural catheter; she had been without oral intake for only 4 days during which time she developed vitamin K-deficient coagulopathy. Clinicians should consider pre-operative screening of coagulation (International Normalised Ratio), or giving vitamin K supplementation, before performing neuraxial procedures in patients who are at risk of developing vitamin K deficiency or coagulopathy in the peri-operative period. PMID:23672193

  14. A Fully Implantable Stimulator With Wireless Power and Data Transmission for Experimental Investigation of Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Hu, Dingyin; Duan, Bingyu; He, Jiping

    2015-07-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight-bearing therapy (PWBT) has been shown to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI). The investigation of neural mechanisms of recovery from SCI under this treatment has been conducted broadly in rodent models, yet a suitable ESCS system is still unavailable. This paper describes a practical, programmable, and fully implantable stimulator for laboratory research on rats to explore fundamental neurophysiological principles for functional recovery after SCI. The ESCS system is composed of a personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension, and stimulating electrodes. The stimulation parameters can be programmed and adjusted through a graphical user interface on the PDA. The external controller is placed on the rat back and communicates with the PDA via radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. An RF carrier from the class-E power amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the IPG through an inductive link. The IPG is built around a microcontroller unit to generate voltage-regulated pulses delivered to the bipolar electrode for ESCS in rats. The encapsulated IPG measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of  ?  3.78 g. This fully implantable batteryless stimulator provided a simplified and efficient method to carry out chronic experiments in untethered animals for medical electro-neurological research. PMID:25680207

  15. Activation of spinal locomotor circuits in the decerebrated cat by spinal epidural and/or intraspinal electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Igor; Musienko, Pavel E; Selionov, Victor A; Zdunowski, Sharon; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury

    2015-03-10

    The present study was designed to further compare the stepping-like movements generated via epidural (ES) and/or intraspinal (IS) stimulation. We examined the ability to generate stepping-like movements in response to ES and/or IS of spinal lumbar segments L1-L7 in decerebrate cats. ES (5-10 Hz) of the dorsal surface of the spinal cord at L3-L7 induced hindlimb stepping-like movements on a moving treadmill belt, but with no rhythmic activity in the forelimbs. IS (60 Hz) of the dorsolateral funiculus at L1-L3 (depth of 0.5-1.0mm from the dorsal surface of the spinal cord) induced quadrupedal stepping-like movements. Forelimb movements appeared first, followed by stepping-like movements in the hindlimbs. ES and IS simultaneously enhanced the rhythmic performance of the hindlimbs more robustly than ES or IS alone. The differences in the stimulation parameters, site of stimulation, and motor outputs observed during ES vs. IS suggest that different neural mechanisms were activated to induce stepping-like movements. The effects of ES may be mediated more via dorsal structures in the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord, whereas the effects of IS may be mediated via more ventral propriospinal networks and/or brainstem locomotor areas. Furthermore, the more effective facilitation of the motor output during simultaneous ES and IS may reflect some convergence of pathways on the same interneuronal populations involved in the regulation of locomotion. PMID:25446455

  16. Spinal epidural hematoma – A rare and debilitating complication of thrombolytic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kamal; Sharma, Rajni; Agrawal, Navin; Puttegowda, Beeresh; Basappa, Ramesh; Manjunath, Cholenhally Nanjappa

    2014-01-01

    Thrombolytic therapy directed to the achievement of early reperfusion in cases with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction can have significant complications which can be due to bleeding or in the form of allergic reactions. Sometimes these complications can cause mortality or significant and incapacitating morbidity which may at times surpass the risk possessed by the disease itself. We are reporting an interesting case of 63-year-old male, who presented to us with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction and developed acute onset paralysis following intravenous administration of streptokinase and heparin. MRI spine revealed spinal epidural hematoma. Patient was advised urgent surgical evacuation of hematoma, but opted for conservative management. Patient had significant residual neurological deficits at follow-up. In conclusion, spinal epidural hematoma is a rare complication following thrombolysis for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. Though rare, high index of suspicion is required by physicians, as prompt treatment may lead to complete recovery, which otherwise can lead to debilitating neurological sequel. PMID:24653587

  17. Multimodal Approach to the Management of Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression (MESCC) Due to Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tancioni, Flavio [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Navarria, Pierina, E-mail: piera.navarria@humanitas.i [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Lorenzetti, Martin A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Masci, Giovanna [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Alloisio, Marco [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Morenghi, Emanuela [Statistic Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Santoro, Armando [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Scorsetti, Marta [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a multidisciplinary approach for treatment of patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression in terms of feasibility, local control, and survival. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine consecutive patients treated between January 2004 and December 2007 were included. The most common primary cancers were lung, breast, and kidney cancers. Ninety-eight surgical procedures were performed. Radiotherapy was performed within the first month postoperatively. Clinical outcome was evaluated by modified visual analog scale for pain, Frankel scale for neurologic deficit, and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan. Nearly all patients (93%) had back pain before treatment, whereas major or minor preoperative neurologic deficit was present in 62 cases (63%). Results: Clinical remission of pain was obtained in the vast majority of patients (91%). Improvement of neurologic deficit was observed in 45 cases (72.5%). Local relapse occurred in 10%. Median survival was 11 months (range, 0-46 months). Overall survival at 1 year was 43.6%. Type of primary tumor significantly affected survival. Conclusions: In patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression, the combination of surgery plus radiotherapy is feasible and provides clinical benefit in most patients. The discussion of each single case within a multidisciplinary team has been of pivotal importance in implementing the most appropriate therapeutic approach.

  18. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma: Patients' profile, outcome, and prognostic factors: A multicenter Rare Cancer Network study

    SciTech Connect

    Monnard, Virginie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sun, Alex [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Epelbaum, Ron [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Centre, Haifa (Israel); Poortmans, Philip [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Instituut, Tilburg (Netherlands); Miller, Robert C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Verschueren, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology MAASTRO, University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands); Scandolaro, Luciano [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Villa, Salvador [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Barcelona (Spain); Majno, Sabine Balmer [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Geneve (HCUGE), Geneva (Switzerland); Ostermann, Sandrine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rene-olivier.mirimanoff@chuv.ch

    2006-07-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors in primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL). Methods and Materials Between 1982 and 2002, 52 consecutive patients with PSEL were treated in nine institutions of the Rare Cancer Network. Forty-eight patients had an Ann Arbor stage IE and four had a stage IIE. Forty-eight patients underwent decompressive laminectomy, all received radiotherapy (RT) with (n = 32) or without chemotherapy (n = 20). Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 6-50 Gy). Results Six (11%) patients progressed locally and 22 (42%) had a systemic relapse. At last follow-up, 28 patients were alive and 24 had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control were 69%, 57%, and 88%, respectively. In univariate analyses, favorable prognostic factors were younger age and complete neurologic response. Multivariate analysis showed that combined modality treatment, RT volume, total dose more than 36 Gy, tumor resection, and complete neurologic response were favorable prognostic factors. Conclusions Primary spinal epidural lymphoma has distinct clinical features and outcome, with a relatively good prognosis. After therapy, local control is excellent and systemic relapse occurs in less than half the cases. Combined modality treatment appears to be superior to RT alone.

  19. Low-dose combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with Eisenmenger’s syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Parneix; L. Fanou; E. Morau; P. Colson

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman (G3,P0) with Eisenmenger’s syndrome and positive HIV serology presented to hospital at 16 weeks of pregnancy. She was hospitalised at 20 weeks under the care of a multidisciplinary team. At 33 weeks caesarean section was performed under low-dose combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia using a needle-through-needle technique. Over a period of 10min, spinal anaesthesia produced a sensory block to

  20. Technical aspects and postoperative sequelae of spinal and epidural anesthesia: A prospective study of 3,230 orthopedic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risto Puolakka; Juhani Haasio; Mikko T. Pitkänen; Markku Kallio; Per H. Rosenberg

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Major complications after spinal or epidural anesthesia are extremely rare. The occurrence of less serious and transient sequelae and complaints may be underestimated if there is no established organization for the systematic and continuous surveillance of patients after anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between various block-related occurrences and the intra- and postoperative

  1. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for lumbar discectomy in a patient with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sung; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Shin Young; Lim, Byung Gun; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il-Ok; Kong, Myoung-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    The use of neuraxial anesthesia has traditionally been contraindicated in patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, general anesthesia can be riskier than neuraxial anesthesia for severe aortic stenosis patients undergoing spinal surgeries in the prone position as this can cause a major reduction in cardiac output secondary to diminished preload. In addition, general anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and positive-pressure ventilation can decrease venous return and reduce vascular tone, further compromising cardiac output. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with closely monitored, careful titration of the local anesthetic dose can be an efficient and safe anesthetic method for managing such patients. We describe the successful management of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in an asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis patient scheduled for lumbar discectomy. PMID:25237450

  2. The effect of chronic toxicity of pethidine on the spinal cord: an experimental model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pe?tean, C; Taulescu, M; Ober, C; C?toi, C; Micl?u?, V; Oana, L; Bodolea, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of chronic spinal analgesia with pethidine in a rabbit model. We introduced epidural catheters in twenty New Zealand white rabbits, divided into two groups, and we administered 0.5 mg/kg pethidine or the same volume of normal saline through the catheters, for three consecutive days. Throughout the experiment, the animals were evaluated in terms of neurological status using the Tarlov score. After the rabbit's euthanasia, 4 ?m sections of spinal cord stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin were analyzed by a pathologist blinded to the study for neurohistopathological changes. The results were statistically analyzed with Prism 5 software for Windows. No significant differences were noticed between the two groups in as far as body temperature (p=0.295) and weight (p=0.139) were concerned. In the group of animals, which received epidural pethidine, nine rabbits showed histological changes suggestive for neurotoxicity at the lumbar level of the spinal cord. These findings were significantly different compared with the control group which received only saline (no microscopic lesions revealed; p=0.0006). When combining the data from both groups or using the pethidine group alone, there was a significant correlation between the presence of neurological injury (Tarlov score) and the presence of the histopathological lesions in the spinal cord (r=-0.709, p=0.0002 and r=-0.635, p=0.013, respectively). Based on our findings, the chronic epidural administration of pethidine in rabbits induces moderate to severe histological changes on the spinal cord, but further investigations are needed to make a definitive statement about the histological effect of pethidine on the neurological tissue. PMID:24068413

  3. Sequential combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in a woman with a double-outlet right ventricle.

    PubMed

    Landau, R; Giraud, R; Morales, M; Kern, C; Trindade, P

    2004-08-01

    The number of women with complex cyanotic heart disease reaching childbearing age is continuously increasing. For anesthesiologists, management of this 'new' obstetric population is particularly challenging. We report the case of a parturient with a palliated double-outlet right ventricle, who underwent a cesarean section at 34 weeks with low-dose sequential combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with patient-controlled epidural postoperative analgesia. Anesthetic considerations and specific limitations of invasive monitoring are discussed, along with a review of recent literature on maternal and neonatal complications associated with pregnancies in women with cyanotic congenital heart disease. PMID:15242443

  4. Epidural Hematoma Complication after Rapid Chronic Subdural Hematoma Evacuation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Aykut; Ucler, Necati; Erdogan, Uzay; Yucetas, Cem Seyho

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Healty Symptoms: Headache Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Chronic subdural hematoma Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Chronic subdural hematoma generally occurs in the elderly. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation surgery, the development of epidural hematoma is a very rare entity. Case Report: We report the case of a 41-year-old man with an epidural hematoma complication after chronic subdural hematoma evacuation. Under general anesthesia, the patient underwent a large craniotomy with closed system drainage performed to treat the chronic subdural hematoma. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation, there was epidural leakage on the following day. Conclusions: Although trauma is the most common risk factor in young CSDH patients, some other predisposing factors may exist. Intracranial hypotension can cause EDH. Craniotomy and drainage surgery can usually resolve the problem. Because of rapid dynamic intracranial changes, epidural leakages can occur. A large craniotomy flap and silicone drainage in the operation area are key safety points for neurosurgeons and hydration is essential. PMID:26147957

  5. Cervical spinal cord injection of epidural corticosteroids: comprehensive longitudinal study including multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Adad, Julien; Buchbinder, Bradley; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-11-01

    Despite widespread use, the efficacy of epidural corticosteroid injections (ESI) for osteoarthritis-associated neck or radicular pain remains uncertain, so even rare serious complications enter into discussions about use. However, various factors impede investigation and publication of serious adverse events. To that end, we developed new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for spinal cord white matter quantification and used the best available physiological tests to characterize a cervical spinal cord lesion caused by inadvertent intramedullary injection of Depo-Medrol. A 29-year-old woman with mild cervical osteoarthritis had 2 years of headache and neck pain (concussion and whiplash) after 2 minor motor vehicle accidents. During C5-6 ESI, she developed new left-sided motor and sensory symptoms, and MRI demonstrated a new left dorsal spinal cord cavity. Mild left-sided motor and sensory symptoms have persisted for more than 2.5 years, during which time we performed serial neurological examinations, standard electrodiagnostics, somatosensory evoked potentials, and transcranial measurement of corticospinal central motor conduction time (CMCT). We used 3-Tesla MRI with a 32-channel coil developed for high-resolution cervical spinal cord structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetization transfer (MT). T(2)(?)-weighted signal and DTI and MT metrics showed delayed spread of the lesion across 4 vertebral levels rostrally, consistent with Wallerian degeneration within the ascending left dorsal columns. However, only CMCT metrics detected objective correlates of her left hemiparesis and bilateral hyperreflexia. DTI and MT metrics may better distinguish between post-traumatic demyelination and axonal degeneration than conventional MRI. These tests should be considered to better characterize similar spinal cord injuries. PMID:22964435

  6. Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma: A Retrospective Study on Prognostic Factors and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fedor, Mark; Kim, Eric S.; Ding, Kai; Muizelaar, J. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare clinical entity. Patients typically present with sudden onset back pain followed by neurological deficits. Methods Diagnosis of SSEH is usually made with MRI and standard treatment is surgical evacuation. In 1996, Groen published the most comprehensive review on the SSEH in which he analyzed 333 cases. We review 104 cases of SSEH presented in the English literature since the last major review and add three of our own cases, for a total of 107 cases. Results Our patients presented with back pain and neurologic deficits. Two made excellent functional recovery with prompt surgical decompression while one continued to have significant deficits despite evacuation. Better postoperative outcome was associated with less initial neurological dysfunction, shorter time to operation from symptom onset and male patients. Conclusion We discuss the etiology of SSEH and report current trends in diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

  7. Corticosteroid-induced spinal epidural lipomatosis in the pediatric age group: report of a new case and updated analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare complication of chronic corticosteroid treatment. We report a new pediatric case and an analysis of this and 19 pediatric cases identified in the international literature. The youngest of these combined 20 patients was 5 years old when lipomatosis was diagnosed. Lipomatosis manifested after a mean of 1.3 (+/- 1.5) years (SD) (median, 0.8 years; range, 3 weeks - 6.5 years) of corticosteroid treatment. The corticosteroid dose at the time of presentation of the lipomatosis ranged widely, between 5 and 80 mg of prednisone/day. Back pain was the most common presenting symptom. Imaging revealed that lipomatosis almost always involved the thoracic spine, extending into the lumbosacral region in a subset of patients. Predominantly lumbosacral involvement was documented in only two cases. Although a neurological deficit at presentation was documented in about half of the cases, surgical decompression was not performed in the cases reported after 1996. Instead, reducing the corticosteroid dose (sometimes combined with dietary restriction to mobilize fat) sufficed to induce remission. In summary, pediatric spinal epidural lipomatosis remains a potentially serious untoward effect of corticosteroid treatment, which, if recognized in a timely manner, can have a good outcome with conservative treatment. PMID:21284882

  8. Cost-effectiveness of surgery plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth C. [Departments of Surgery (Orthopedics) and Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Nosyk, Bohdan [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Fisher, Charles G. [Department of Orthopedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dvorak, Marcel [Department of Orthopedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Patchell, Roy A. [Departments of Surgery (Neurosurgery) and Neurology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD (United States); Loblaw, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bansback, Nick [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Guh, Daphne [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sun, Huiying [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Anis, Aslam [Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada) and Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]. E-mail: aslam.anis@ubc.ca

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: A recent randomized clinical trial has demonstrated that direct decompressive surgery plus radiotherapy was superior to radiotherapy alone for the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. The current study compared the cost-effectiveness of the two approaches. Methods and Materials: In the original clinical trial, clinical effectiveness was measured by ambulation and survival time until death. In this study, an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective. Costs related to treatment and posttreatment care were estimated and extended to the lifetime of the cohort. Weibull regression was applied to extrapolate outcomes in the presence of censored clinical effectiveness data. Results: From a societal perspective, the baseline incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was found to be $60 per additional day of ambulation (all costs in 2003 Canadian dollars). Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 50% of all generated ICERs were lower than $57, and 95% were lower than $242 per additional day of ambulation. This analysis had a 95% CI of -$72.74 to 309.44, meaning that this intervention ranged from a financial savings of $72.74 to a cost of $309.44 per additional day of ambulation. Using survival as the measure of effectiveness resulted in an ICER of $30,940 per life-year gained. Conclusions: We found strong evidence that treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression with surgery in addition to radiotherapy is cost-effective both in terms of cost per additional day of ambulation, and cost per life-year gained.

  9. Delayed Diagnosis of Cauda Eqina Syndrome with Perineural Cyst after Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia in Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Sudo, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221

  10. Delayed diagnosis of cauda eqina syndrome with perineural cyst after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Shigeo; Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Sudo, Akihiro

    2013-09-01

    Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221

  11. Severity of presentation is associated with time to recovery in spinal epidural lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Praver, Moshe; Kennedy, Benjamin C; Ellis, Jason A; D'Amico, Randy; Mandigo, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We present a patient with prednisone-induced spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) and relatively acute neurologic deterioration followed by rapid recovery after surgical decompression. SEL is a rare disease characterized by hypertrophy of epidural fat, most commonly associated with exogenous steroid use. To our knowledge, an analysis of the dynamics of steroid dose related to time to onset has never been performed, or of patient presentation features with respect to patient outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the literature for English language series and case reports of SEL associated with prednisone use from 1975-2013. Data were compiled for 41 patients regarding the prescribed dose of prednisone and length of treatment, as well as the severity of symptoms on the Ranawat scale, time to onset, time to recovery, and degree of recovery of neurological symptoms. Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance were used for comparing proportions, and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. We found that the mean cumulative dose of prednisone trended towards an association with a lack of recovery (p=0.06) and may be related to rate of recovery. Prescribed prednisone dose varied inversely with the time before onset of neurological symptoms, but failed to reach statistical significance. Higher severity of presenting symptoms on the Ranawat scale were found to be associated with a higher likelihood of delayed recovery (p=0.035). Patients with symptoms lower on the Ranawat scale more frequently experienced complete neurologic recovery, though this did not reach significance. The acuity of neurological deterioration was not related to the time to recovery or ultimate degree of recovery. Severity of presentation on the Ranawat scale is associated with rate of recovery and may be related to degree of recovery in SEL patients. Cumulative dose of prednisone may be related to degree and rate of recovery. Prescribed dose of prednisone may be related to time to onset of neurological symptoms. Acuity of neurological deterioration is not related to rate or degree of recovery. PMID:26067546

  12. A randomized comparison of the effects of continuous thoracic epidural analgesia and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after posterior spinal fusion in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Cassady; George Lederhaas; Dawn D. Cancel; R. Jay Cummings; Eric A. Loveless

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pain and gastrointestinal dysfunction are primary factors that delay recovery after posterior spinal fusion. Previous reports suggest that the choice of analgesic management may effect the course of recovery. This prospective, randomized study compared continuous thoracic epidural analgesia and patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative care of adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis.Methods: Patients between 11

  13. Randomized trial of epidural injections for spinal stenosis published in the New England Journal of Medicine: further confusion without clarification.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Gharibo, Christopher G; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are considered the hallmark of evidence-based medicine. This conveys the idea that up-to-date evidence applied consistently in clinical practice, in combination with clinicians' individual expertise and patients own preference/expectations are enjoined to achieve the best possible outcome. Since its inception in 1990s, evidence-based medicine has evolved in conjunction with numerous changes in the healthcare environment. However, the benefits of evidence-based medicine have not materialized for spinal pain including surgical interventions. Consequently, the debate continues on the efficacy and medical necessity of multiple interventions provided in managing spinal pain. Friedly et al published a randomized controlled trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis in the July 2014 edition of the highly prestigious New England Journal of Medicine. This was accompanied by an editorial from Andersson. This manuscript provided significant sensationalism for the media and confusion for the spine community. This randomized trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis and accompanying editorial concluded that epidural injections of glucocorticoids plus lidocaine offered minimal or no short-term benefit as compared with epidural injections of lidocaine alone, with the editorial emphasizing proceeding directly to surgical intervention. In addition media statements by the authors also emphasized the idea that exercise or surgery might be better options for patients suffereing from narrowing of the spinal canal. The interventional pain management community believes that there are severe limitations to this study, manuscript, and accompanying editorial. The design, inclusion criteria, outcomes assessment, analysis of data and interpretation, and conclusions of this trial point to the fact that this highly sophisticated and much publicized randomized trial may not be appropriate and lead to misinformation. The design of the trial was inappropriate with failure to include existing randomized trials, with inclusion criteria that did not incorporate conservative management,or caudal epidural injections. Simultaneously, acute pain patients were included, multilevel stenosis and various other factors were not identified. The interventions included lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections with highly variable volumes of medication being injected per patient. Outcomes assessment was not optimal with assessment of the patients at 3 and 6 weeks for a procedure which provides on average 3 weeks of relief and utilizing an instrument which is more appropriately utilized in acute and subacute low back pain. Analysis of the data was hampered by inadequate subgroup analysis leading to inappropriate interpretation. Based on the available data epidural local anesthetic with steroids was clearly superior at 3 weeks and potentially at 6 weeks. Further, both treatments were effective considering the baseline to 3 week and 6 week assessment, appropriate subgroup analysis seems to have yielded significant superiority for interlaminar epidural injections compared to transforaminal epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids specifically with proportion of patients achieving greater than 50% improvement at 3 and 6 week levels. This critical assessment shows that this study suffers from a challenging design, was premised on the exclusion of available high-quality literature, and had inadequate duration of follow-up for an interventional technique with poor assessment criteria and reporting. Finally the analysis and interpretation of data has led to inaccurate and inappropriate conclusions which we do not believe is based on scientific evidence. PMID:25054398

  14. [Paradigm shift in the management of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression: the importance of preserving ambulation].

    PubMed

    Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-12-01

    In 2005, a Landmark study showed that direct decompressive surgery, followed by postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is superior to EBRT alone in patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC). Patients undergoing both surgery and EBRT had similar median survival but experienced longer ambulation than with EBRT alone. Additional studies have shown improvements in quality-of-life, higher cost-effectiveness, improved pain control, and higher functional status with surgery plus EBRT. Improved neurological outcome also improved the patients' ability to undergo postoperative adjuvant therapy. According to our experience, even patients over 65 or patients with aggressive primary tumors and additional metastases have benefited from surgical intervention, living longer than expected with preservation of ambulation and sphincter control until death or shortly before. Preserving ambulation is critical. With current surgical devices and techniques, patients with MESCC who present with a single area of cord compression, back pain, neurological deficit, or progressive deformity, may benefit from surgery prior to adjuvant radiation-based treatment or chemotherapy. PMID:24482995

  15. Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats

    E-print Network

    Schramm, Lawrence P.

    Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats JOHN W. OSBORN, ROBERT F cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258(Regulatory Integra spinal cord injury are proneto acute, marked,hypertensive episodes,i.e., autonomic hyperreflexia

  16. Epidural spinal cord stimulation with a multiple electrode paddle lead is effective in treating intractable low back pain.

    PubMed

    Barolat, G; Oakley, J C; Law, J D; North, R B; Ketcik, B; Sharan, A

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the outcomes of patients with intractable low-back pain treated with epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) utilizing paddle electrodes and a radio frequency (RF) stimulator. A multicenter prospective study was performed to collect data from patients suffering from chronic low-back pain. The study was designed to collect data from 60 patients at four centers and examine their outcomes at, or up to two years post implantation. Patients' participation included written responses to a series of preoperative questionnaires that were designed to collect previous surgical history information, leg and low back pain characteristics, and routine demographic information. Outcome measurements included the visual analog scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), and a patient satisfaction rating scale. Data were collected at each site during patient visits or by mail, at approximately six months, 12 months, and 24 months. A total of 44 patients have been implanted with a SCS system at the time of this writing. Follow-up data were available for 41 patients. Preoperatively, all patients reported more than 50% of their pain in the low back. All patients had pain in both their backs and legs. All patients showed a reported mean decrease in their 10-point VAS scores compared to baseline. The majority of patients reported fair to excellent pain relief in both the low back and legs. At six months 91.6% of the patients reported fair to excellent relief in the legs and 82.7% of the patients reported fair to excellent relief in the low back. At one year 88.2% of the patients reported fair to excellent relief in the legs and 68.8% of the patients reported fair to excellent relief in the low back. Significant improvement in function and quality of life was found at both the six-month and one-year follow-ups using the Oswestry and SIP, respectively. The majority of patients reported that the procedure was worthwhile (92% at six months, 88% at one year). No patient indicated that the procedure was not worthwhile. We conclude that SCS proved beneficial at one year for the treatment of patients with chronic low back and leg pain. PMID:22151612

  17. A comparison of the lateral, Oxford and sitting positions for performing combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, M W M; Paech, M J; Yentis, S M

    2005-06-01

    One hundred women were randomly allocated to the left lateral, Oxford or sitting position for induction of combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for Caesarean section using 2.5 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and 10 mug fentanyl. Women in the left lateral were then turned to the right lateral position; women in the Oxford position were turned to the same position on their opposite side; and women in the sitting group were turned to the supine left tilt position. Women remained in these positions until ready for surgery, which was conducted in the supine position with a wedge placed under the right hip. Ephedrine requirements before re-positioning for surgery were less in the sitting position than in the other two positions: median (IQR [range]) doses for the lateral, Oxford and sitting groups were 21 (12-30 [6-48]), 18 (7.5-24 [6-48]) and 12 (6-21 [6-42]) mg, respectively; p = 0.04. Sensory block to touch sensation at the T5 dermatomal level was most quickly achieved in the lateral position with median (IQR [range]) block onset times for the lateral, Oxford and sitting groups of 9 (6-13 [4-30]), 15.5 (9-22 [4-34]) and 14 (9-18[6-36]) min, respectively; p = 0.004. In the Oxford position, more epidural catheters required dosing to achieve a sensory block of T5 before surgery: the number of patients (proportion) bolused in the lateral, Oxford and sitting groups was 1 (3%), 7 (22%) and 1 (3%), respectively; p = 0.01. We did not demonstrate any advantage in using the Oxford position for combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section. PMID:15918823

  18. SPINAL CORD STIMULATION FOR CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS AN EXPERT SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    SPINAL CORD STIMULATION FOR CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS AN EXPERT SYSTEM Kenneth M. Al.uh.edu ABSTRACT Chronic pain is a serious health problem affect­ ing millions of people worldwide. Spinal cord; Spinal Cord Stimulation for

  19. Chronic complications of spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Nebahat; Akku?, Selami; U?urlu, Fatma Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition that causes functional, psychological and socioeconomic disorder. Therefore, patients with SCI experience significant impairments in various aspects of their life. The goals of rehabilitation and other treatment approaches in SCI are to improve functional level, decrease secondary morbidity and enhance health-related quality of life. Acute and long-term secondary medical complications are common in patients with SCI. However, chronic complications especially further negatively impact on patients’ functional independence and quality of life. Therefore, prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of chronic secondary complications in patients with SCI is critical for limiting these complications, improving survival, community participation and health-related quality of life. The management of secondary chronic complications of SCI is also important for SCI specialists, families and caregivers as well as patients. In this paper, we review data about common secondary long-term complications after SCI, including respiratory complications, cardiovascular complications, urinary and bowel complications, spasticity, pain syndromes, pressure ulcers, osteoporosis and bone fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of risk factors, signs, symptoms, prevention and treatment approaches for secondary long-term complications in patients with SCI. PMID:25621208

  20. A randomized, controlled trial of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis in chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain [ISRCTN 16558617

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Rivera, Jose J; Pampati, Vidya Sagar; Damron, Kim S; McManus, Carla D; Brandon, Doris E; Wilson, Sue R

    2005-01-01

    Background Postoperative epidural fibrosis may contribute to between 5% to 60% of the poor surgical outcomes following decompressive surgery. Correlations have been reported between epidural scarring and radicular pain, poor surgical outcomes, and a lack of any form of surgical treatment. The use of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis in recent years in the management of chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain has been described. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to determine the outcome of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis to reduce pain and improve function and psychological status in patients with chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain. A total of 83 patients were evaluated, with 33 patients in Group I and 50 patients in Group II. Group I served as the control, with endoscopy into the sacral level without adhesiolysis, followed by injection of local anesthetic and steroid. Group II received spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis, followed by injection of local anesthetic and steroid. Results Among the 50 patients in the treatment group receiving spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis, significant improvement without adverse effects was shown in 80% at 3 months, 56% at 6 months, and 48% at 12 months. The control group showed improvement in 33% of the patients at one month and none thereafter. Based on the definition that less than 6 months of relief is considered short-term and longer than 6 months of relief is considered long-term, a significant number of patients obtained long-term relief with improvement in pain, functional status, and psychological status. Conclusion Spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis with targeted delivery of local anesthetic and steroid is an effective treatment in a significant number of patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain without major adverse effects. PMID:16000173

  1. Combined Lumbar Spinal and Thoracic High-Epidural Regional Anesthesia as an Alternative to General Anesthesia for High-Risk Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal and Colorectal Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Skipworth; Attavar Srilekha; Dimitri Raptis; David O’Callaghan; Siri Siriwardhana; Romi Navaratnam

    2009-01-01

    Objective  A prospective study was undertaken to review the use of combined lumbar spinal and thoracic high-epidural regional anesthesia\\u000a in high-risk patients who underwent gastrointestinal\\/colorectal surgery from 2004 to 2006.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve high-risk patients underwent 13 gastrointestinal\\/colorectal surgical procedures, using a regional anesthetic technique,\\u000a which consisted of a thoracic epidural and lumbar subarachnoid block. All patients were classified as high risk based

  2. How Effective Is a Virtual Consultation Process in Facilitating Multidisciplinary Decision-Making for Malignant Epidural Spinal Cord Compression?

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, David [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada) [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); St Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Grabarz, Daniel [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada) [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Centro Oncologia Mendel and Associados, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Wang, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Division of Neurosurgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Division of Neurosurgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Fosker, Christopher [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Rampersaud, Raja [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Wong, Rebecca K.S., E-mail: rebecca.wong@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a virtual consultation (VC) process in determining treatment strategy for patients with malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC). Methods and Materials: A prospective clinical database was maintained for patients with MESCC. A virtual consultation process (involving exchange of key predetermined clinical information and diagnostic imaging) facilitated rapid decision-making between oncologists and spinal surgeons. Diagnostic imaging was reviewed retrospectively (by R.R.) for surgical opinions in all patients. The primary outcome was the accuracy of virtual consultation opinion in predicting the final treatment recommendation. Results: After excluding 20 patients who were referred directly to the spinal surgeon, 125 patients were eligible for virtual consultation. Of the 46 patients who had a VC, surgery was recommended in 28 patients and actually given to 23. A retrospective review revealed that 5/79 patients who did not have a VC would have been considered surgical candidates. The overall accuracy of the virtual consultation process was estimated at 92%. Conclusion: The VC process for MESCC patients provides a reliable means of arriving at a multidisciplinary opinion while minimizing patient transfer. This can potentially shorten treatment decision time and enhance clinical outcomes.

  3. Reduction of postoperative mortality and morbidity with epidural or spinal anaesthesia: results from overview of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Anthony; Walker, Natalie; Schug, S; McKee, A; Kehlet, H; van Zundert, A; Sage, D; Futter, M; Saville, G; Clark, T; MacMahon, S

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To obtain reliable estimates of the effects of neuraxial blockade with epidural or spinal anaesthesia on postoperative morbidity and mortality. Design Systematic review of all trials with randomisation to intraoperative neuraxial blockade or not. Studies 141 trials including 9559 patients for which data were available before 1 January 1997. Trials were eligible irrespective of their primary aims, concomitant use of general anaesthesia, publication status, or language. Trials were identified by extensive search methods, and substantial amounts of data were obtained or confirmed by correspondence with trialists. Main outcome measures All cause mortality, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, transfusion requirements, pneumonia, other infections, respiratory depression, and renal failure. Results Overall mortality was reduced by about a third in patients allocated to neuraxial blockade (103 deaths/4871 patients versus 144/4688 patients, odds ratio=0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.90, P=0.006). Neuraxial blockade reduced the odds of deep vein thrombosis by 44%, pulmonary embolism by 55%, transfusion requirements by 50%, pneumonia by 39%, and respiratory depression by 59% (all P<0.001). There were also reductions in myocardial infarction and renal failure. Although there was limited power to assess subgroup effects, the proportional reductions in mortality did not clearly differ by surgical group, type of blockade (epidural or spinal), or in those trials in which neuraxial blockade was combined with general anaesthesia compared with trials in which neuraxial blockade was used alone. Conclusions Neuraxial blockade reduces postoperative mortality and other serious complications. The size of some of these benefits remains uncertain, and further research is required to determine whether these effects are due solely to benefits of neuraxial blockade or partly to avoidance of general anaesthesia. Nevertheless, these findings support more widespread use of neuraxial blockade. PMID:11118174

  4. Distal chronic spinal muscular atrophy involving the hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J OSullivan; J G McLeod

    1978-01-01

    Six patients are described with a history of slowly progressive wasting of the muscle of the hands and forearms extending over periods of up to 20 years. The clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic anterior horn cell degeneration. It is suggested that the patients are affected by a form of distal chronic spinal muscular

  5. Effects of intrathecal baclofen on chronic spinal cord injury pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Loubser; Nafiz M. Akman

    1996-01-01

    The pain of 16 patients with spasticity secondary to spinal cord injury was assessed prior to intrathecal baclofen pump implantation and again 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Chronic pain was delineated into neurogenic and musculoskeletal components, noting changes in nature, quality, and severity of pain (visual analogue scale) and use of analgesic medications. Twelve of 16 patients had chronic pain

  6. Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Headache: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bronfort; Willem J. J. Assendelft; Roni Evans; Lex Bouter

    Background: Chronic headache is a preva- lent condition with substantial socioeco- nomic impact. Complementary or alterna- tive therapies are increasingly being used by patients to treat headache pain, and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is among the most common of these. Objective: To assess the efficacy\\/effectiveness of SMT for chronic headache through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Study Selection:

  7. Efficacy of spinal manipulation for chronic headache: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bronfort; Willem J. J. Assendelft; Roni Evans; Mitchell Haas; Lex Bouter

    2001-01-01

    Background: Chronic headache is a prevalent condition with substantial socioeconomic impact. Complementary or alternative therapies are increasingly being used by patients to treat headache pain, and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is among the most common of these.Objective: To assess the efficacy\\/effectiveness of SMT for chronic headache through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials on chronic

  8. Responses to dural puncture during institution of combined spinal-epidural analgesia: a comparison of 27 gauge pencil-point and 27 gauge cutting-edge needles.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A A; Ghatge, S; Armendariz, G; Cornelius, D; Wang, S

    2011-03-01

    Pencil-point spinal needles are popular for combined spinal-epidural analgesia because they cause less dural puncture headache than cutting-edge spinal needles. However many parturients move, grimace, vocalise or experience paraesthesia or dysaesthesia during dural puncture when performing 'needle through needle' combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We compared dural puncture responses induced by pencil-point and cutting-edge needles (both 27 gauge). With institutional approval, 115 parturients presenting for elective caesarean section or labour analgesia were audited. After lignocaine infiltration, a Tuohy-type needle was inserted to loss of resistance to saline at a mid-lumbar interspace, and either a 27 gauge cutting-edge or 27 gauge pencil-point needle was inserted 'needle through needle' through the dura. During dural penetration, the occurrence of patient movement, grimacing or vocalisation was noted by a blinded observer, as was the patient's response to the question "Did you feel that?" asked by the anaesthetist. The audit comprised two similar groups of patients (caesarean section, n=30; labour analgesia, n=85). In both groups, grimacing and movement during thecal penetration occurred more frequently with pencil-point needles (P < 0.05 and P < 0.025, respectively). Pooled data analysis revealed that pencil-point and cutting-edge needles induced grimacing and movement in 17 (22%) and 2 (5%), spontaneous vocalisation in 4 (5%) and 1 (3%) and was perceived by 13 (17%) and 3 (8%) parturients (P < 0.025, P=NS, P=NS), respectively. Overall, 34 and 6 objective and subjective patient responses (P < 0.005) occurred when inserting these needles, respectively. Dural puncture by a 27 gauge pencil-point needle inserted 'needle through needle' when instituting combined spinal-epidural analgesia induces more iatrogenic responses than a 27 gauge cutting-edge needle. PMID:21485674

  9. A Malignant Transformation of a Spinal Epidural Mass from Ganglioneuroblastoma to Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Bilge; Aras, Yavuz; Izgi, Nail

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice with very good prognosis. However, neuroblastomatous malignant transformation of ganglioneuromas was previously reported. We report a patient with spinal neuroblastoma recurrent from a ganglioneuroblastoma after disease free survival of 13 years. This is one of the rare examples of spinal neuroblastoma and to our knowledge the second case report with malignant transformation from a ganglioneuroblastoma or a ganglioneuroma. The present case is the only report in the literature with further genetic investigations. PMID:25810863

  10. Epidural blood patch placed in the presence of an unknown cervical epidural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Tsen, Lawrence C

    2003-09-01

    We discuss a case detailing a favorable outcome of an epidural blood patch performed in the presence of an unknown cervical epidural hematoma. The case highlights the use of a spinal needle for epidural space confirmation, the importance of waiting for final consultation and radiologic testing results before therapeutic intervention when possible, and the use of an epidural blood patch, even in the setting of a known epidural hematoma. PMID:12933422

  11. Chronic spinal pain syndromes: A clinical pilot trial comparing acupuncture, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynton G. F. Giles; Reinhold Müller

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare needle acupuncture, medication (tenoxicam with ranitidine), and spinal manipulation for managing chronic (>13 weeks duration) spinal pain syndromes. Design: Prospective, randomized, independently assessed preintervention and postintervention clinical pilot trial. Setting: Specialized spinal pain syndrome outpatient unit at Townsville General Hospital, Queensland, Australia. Subjects: Seventy-seven patients (without contraindication to manipulation or medication) were recruited. Interventions: One of three

  12. Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Duggins; J. G. McLeod; J. D. Pollard; L. Davies; F. Yang; E. O. Thompson; J. R. Soper

    1999-01-01

    Summary MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without

  13. Risk Factors for Chest Illness in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Brown, Robert; Tun, Carlos G.; Garshick, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chest illnesses commonly cause morbidity in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Risk factors remain poorly characterized because previous studies have not accounted for factors other than spinal cord injury. Design Between 1994 and 2005, 403 participants completed a respiratory questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Participants were contacted at a median of 1.7 yrs [interquartile range: 1.3–2.5 yrs] apart over a mean (SD) of 5.1 ± 3.0 yrs and asked to report chest illnesses that had resulted in time off work, spent indoors, or in bed since prior contact. Results In 97 participants, there were 247 chest illnesses (0.12/person-year) with 54 hospitalizations (22%). Spinal cord injury level, completeness of injury, and duration of injury were not associated with illness risk. Adjusting for age and smoking history, any wheeze (relative risk = 1.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.08), pneumonia or bronchitis since spinal cord injury (relative risk = 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 3.75), and physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (relative risk = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.37) were associated with a greater risk of chest illness. Each percent-predicted decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec was associated with a 1.2% increase in risk of chest illness (P = 0.030). Conclusions In chronic spinal cord injury, chest illness resulting in time spent away from usual activities was not related to the level or completeness of spinal cord injury but was related to reduced pulmonary function, wheeze, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a history of pneumonia and bronchitis, and smoking. PMID:20463565

  14. A new instrument for estimating the survival of patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression from esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rades, Dirk; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bajrovic, Amira; Karstens, Johann H.; Bartscht, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was initiated to create a predictive instrument for estimating the survival of patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) from esophageal cancer. Methods In 27 patients irradiated for MESCC from esophageal cancer, the following nine characteristics were evaluated for potential impact on survival: age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score, histology, number of involved vertebrae, ambulatory status before irradiation, further bone metastases, visceral metastases, and dynamic of developing motor deficits before irradiation. In addition, the impact of the radiation regimen was investigated. According to Bonferroni correction, p-values of < 0.006 were significant representing an alpha level of < 0.05. Results ECOG performance score (p < 0.001), number of involved vertebrae (p = 0.005), and visceral metastases (p = 0.004) had a significant impact on survival and were included in the predictive instrument. Scoring points for each characteristic were calculated by dividing the 6-months survival rates (in %) by 10. The prognostic score for each patient was obtained by adding the scoring points of the three characteristics. The prognostic scores were 4, 9, 10, 14 or 20 points. Three prognostic groups were formed, 4 points (n = 11), 9–14 points (n = 12) and 20 points (n = 4). The corresponding 6-months survival rates were 0%, 33% and 100%, respectively (p < 0.001). Median survival times were 1 month, 5 months and 16.5 months, respectively. Conclusions This new instrument allows the physician estimate the 6-months survival probability of an individual patient presenting with MESCC from esophageal cancer. This is important to know for optimally personalizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:25810707

  15. Head Elevation in Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia Provides Improved Hemodynamics and Appropriate Sensory Block Height at Caesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Hyeon; Kim, Eun Mi; Bae, Jun Hyeon; Park, Sung Ho; Chung, Mi Hwa; Choi, Young Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine whether head elevation during combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSE) and Caesarean section provided improved hemodynamics and appropriate sensory block height. Materials and Methods Forty-four parous women undergoing CSE for elective Caesarean section were randomly assigned to one of two groups: right lateral (group L) or right lateral and head elevated (group HE) position, for insertion of the block. Patients were positioned in the supine wedged position (group L) or the left lateral and head elevated position (group HE) until a block height of T5 to light touch was reached. Group HE was then turned to the supine wedged position with maintenance of head elevation until the end of surgery. Hemodynamics, including the incidence of hypotension, ephedrine dose required, and characteristics of the sensory blocks were analyzed. Results The incidence of hypotension (16 versus 7, p=0.0035) and the required dose of ephedrine [24 (0-40) versus 0 (0-20), p<0.0001] were greater in group L compared to group HE. In group L, the time to achieve maximal sensory block level (MSBL) was shorter (11.8±5.4 min versus 20.1±6.3 min, p<0.0001) and MSBL was also higher than in group HE [14 (T2) versus 12 (T4), p=0.0015]. Conclusion Head elevation during CSE and Caesarean section is superior to positioning without head elevation in the lateral to supine position, as it is associated with a more gradual onset, appropriate block height, and improved hemodynamics. PMID:26069138

  16. Windup of Flexion Reflexes in Chronic Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Marker for Neuronal Plateau Potentials?

    E-print Network

    Windup of Flexion Reflexes in Chronic Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Marker for Neuronal Plateau., W. Z. Rymer, E. N. Benz, and B. D. Schmit. Windup of flexion reflexes in chronic human spinal cord.2001. The physiological basis of flexion spasms in individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI) may involve alterations

  17. Mechanisms of Chronic Central Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hulsebosch, Claire E.; Hains, Bryan C.; Crown, Eric D.; Carlton, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Not all spinal contusions result in mechanical allodynia, in which non-noxious stimuli become noxious. The studies presented use the NYU impactor at 12.5 mm drop or the Infinite Horizons Impactor (150 kdyne, 1 sec dwell) devices to model spinal cord injury (SCI). Both of these devices and injury parameters, if done correctly, will result in animals with above level (forelimb), at level (trunk) and below level (hindlimb) mechanical allodynia that model the changes in evoked somatosensation experienced by the majority of people with SCI. The sections are as follows: 1) Mechanisms of Remote Microglial Activation and Pain Signaling in “Below-Level” Central Pain 2) Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms in Central Sensitization in “At-Level” Pain 3) Peripheral Sensitization Contributes to “Above Level” Injury Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury and 4) Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Central Sensitization in Regional Neuropathic Pain Following SCI. To summarize, differential regional mechanisms contribute to the regional chronic pain states. We propose the importance of understanding the mechanisms in the differential regional pain syndromes after SCI in the chronic condition. Targeting regional mechanisms will be of enormous benefit to the SCI population that suffer chronic pain, and will contribute to better treatment strategies for other chronic pain syndromes. PMID:19154757

  18. Clues to 'Brain Fog' in Chronic Fatigue Patients Found in Spinal Fluid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fog' in Chronic Fatigue Patients Found in Spinal Fluid Study reveals evidence that it's 'not made up,' ... pattern of immune system proteins in their spinal fluid -- a finding that could shed light on the " ...

  19. Unusual presentation of spinal lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, William; Kauflin, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of normal adipose tissue in the extradural space within the spinal canal that can lead to significant spinal cord compression. It is most commonly reported in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Other causes can include obesity and hypercortisolism. Occasionally, idiopathic SEL will occur in patients with no known risk factors, but cases are more generally reported in obesity and males. We present the case of a 35 year-old non-obese woman found to have rapidly progressive SEL that was not associated with any of the common causes of the disorder. PMID:25285024

  20. Nature Methods Chronic in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord using an

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Chris B.

    Nature Methods Chronic in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord using an implanted chamber Matthew the vertebral column and provided long-term optical access to the spinal cord. Supplementary Figure 2 A custom Anatomically myelin-poor regions of the spinal cord enable deep- tissue imaging Supplementary Figure 5

  1. Chronic in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord using an implanted chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J Farrar; Ida M Bernstein; Donald H Schlafer; Thomas A Cleland; Joseph R Fetcho; Chris B Schaffer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and treatment of spinal cord pathology is limited in part by a lack of time-lapse in vivo imaging strategies at the cellular level. We developed a chronically implanted spinal chamber and surgical procedure suitable for time-lapse in vivo multiphoton microscopy of mouse spinal cord without the need for repeat surgical procedures. We routinely imaged mice repeatedly for more than

  2. Synaptic Pathways to Phrenic Motoneurons Are Enhanced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Fuller; Stephen M. Johnson; E. Burdette Olson Jr; Gordon S. Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Spinal hemisection at C2 reveals caudal synaptic pathways that cross the spinal midline (crossed phrenic pathways) and can restore inspiratory activity in ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons. Intermittent hypoxia induces plasticity in the cervical spinal cord, resulting in enhanced inspiratory phrenic motor output. We hypothesized that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) (alternating 11% O2 and air; 5 min periods; 12 hr per night;

  3. Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery: Dose-Dependent Effects of Hyperbaric Bupivacaine on Maternal Hemodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Van de Velde; Dominique Van Schoubroeck; Jacques Jani; An Teunkens; Carlo Missant; Jan Deprest

    2006-01-01

    Hypotension remains an important side effect of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. There is limited evidence that reducing the spinal dose has a favorable effect on maternal hemodynamic stability. We designed the present randomized trial to test the hypothesis that reducing the spinal dose of local anesthetics results in equally effective anesthesia and less maternal hypotension. Fifty term pregnant patients

  4. The role of nitric oxide and prostaglandin signaling pathways in spinal nociceptive processing in chronic inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharron Dolan; Lois C Field; Andrea M Nolan

    2000-01-01

    Both nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) and their associated enzymes nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and cyclooxygenases (COX) (specifically COX-2) have been implicated in the development of hyperalgesia. This study examined the effects of naturally occurring chronic inflammation, chronic mastitis, on spinal nociceptive processing in sheep and focused on potential alterations in spinal PG and NO signaling pathways. Mechanical withdrawal

  5. Chronic spinal infusion of loperamide alleviates postsurgical pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Reeta, K H; Ray, Subrata Basu

    2014-04-01

    Plantar incision in rat generates spontaneous pain behaviour. The opioid drug, morphine used to treat postsurgical pain produces tolerance after long-term administration. Loperamide, a potent mu-opioid agonist, has documented analgesic action in various pain conditions. However, loperamide analgesia and associated tolerance following continuous spinal administration in postsurgical pain has not been reported. Chronic spinal infusion of drugs was achieved using intrathecal catheters connected to osmotic minipump. Coinciding with the onset of spinal infusion of loperamide or morphine, rats were subjected to plantar incision. Pain-related behaviour was assessed by Hargreaves apparatus (thermal hyperalgesia) and von Frey filaments (mechanical allodynia). Morphine and loperamide (0.5, 1 and 2 microL/h) induced analgesia was observed until 7th day post-plantar incision in Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphine and loperamide produced dose-dependent analgesia. Loperamide, in the highest dose, produced analgesia till 7th day. However, the highest dose of morphine produced inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia till 5th day and mechanical allodynia only till 3rd day post-plantar incision. Morphine and loperamide produced analgesia in postsurgical pain, which may be mediated through different mechanisms. Longer duration of analgesia with loperamide could probably be due sustained blockade of calcium channels. PMID:24772934

  6. Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%–50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (?50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 37–39 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain. PMID:22826642

  7. The Effects of Thoracic Epidural Analgesia with Bupivacaine 0.25% on Ventilatory Mechanics in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva M. Gruber; Edda M. Tschernko; Meinhard Kritzinger; Elena Deviatko; Wilfried Wisser; David Zurakowski; Wolfram Haider

    2001-01-01

    Optimal analgesia is important after thoracotomy in pulmonary-limited patients to avoid pain-related pul- monary complications. Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) can provide excellent pain relief. However, po- tential paralysis of respiratory muscles and changes in bronchial tone might be unfavorable in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, we evaluated the effect of TEA on maximal inspiratory pressure, pattern

  8. Repetitive intermittent hypoxia induces respiratory and somatic motor recovery after chronic cervical spinal injury.

    PubMed

    Lovett-Barr, Mary R; Satriotomo, Irawan; Muir, Gillian D; Wilkerson, Julia E R; Hoffman, Michael S; Vinit, Stéphane; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2012-03-14

    Spinal injury disrupts connections between the brain and spinal cord, causing life-long paralysis. Most spinal injuries are incomplete, leaving spared neural pathways to motor neurons that initiate and coordinate movement. One therapeutic strategy to induce functional motor recovery is to harness plasticity in these spared neural pathways. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) (72 episodes per night, 7 nights) increases synaptic strength in crossed spinal synaptic pathways to phrenic motoneurons below a C2 spinal hemisection. However, CIH also causes morbidity (e.g., high blood pressure, hippocampal apoptosis), rendering it unsuitable as a therapeutic approach to chronic spinal injury. Less severe protocols of repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia may elicit plasticity without associated morbidity. Here we demonstrate that daily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH; 10 episodes per day, 7 d) induces motor plasticity in respiratory and nonrespiratory motor behaviors without evidence for associated morbidity. dAIH induces plasticity in spared, spinal pathways to respiratory and nonrespiratory motor neurons, improving respiratory and nonrespiratory (forelimb) motor function in rats with chronic cervical injuries. Functional improvements were persistent and were mirrored by neurochemical changes in proteins that contribute to respiratory motor plasticity after intermittent hypoxia (BDNF and TrkB) within both respiratory and nonrespiratory motor nuclei. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia may be an effective and non-invasive means of improving function in multiple motor systems after chronic spinal injury. PMID:22423083

  9. Evidence for spinal cord hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury and in fibromyalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borut Banic; Steen Petersen-Felix; Ole K. Andersen; Bogdan P. Radanov; P. M. Villiger; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Michele Curatolo

    2004-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain after whiplash injury and fibromyalgia patients display exaggerated pain after sensory stimulation. Because evident tissue damage is usually lacking, this exaggerated pain perception could be explained by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (a spinal reflex) may be used to study the excitability state of spinal cord neurons. We tested the hypothesis

  10. Analysis of Efficacy Differences between Caudal and Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in Chronic Lumbar Axial Discogenic Pain: Local Anesthetic Alone vs. Local Combined with Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Boswell, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Comparative assessment of randomized controlled trials of caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in chronic lumbar discogenic pain. Objective: To assess the comparative efficacy of caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches of epidural injections in managing axial or discogenic low back pain. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections are commonly performed utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach to treat chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain, which is pain exclusive of that associated with a herniated intervertebral disc, or that is due to degeneration of the zygapophyseal joints, or due to dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints, respectively. The literature on the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic axial lumbar pain of presumed discogenic origin is limited. Methods: The present analysis is based on 2 randomized controlled trials of chronic axial low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain, utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach, with a total of 240 patients studied, and a 24-month follow-up. Patients were assigned to receive either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic with a steroid in each 60 patient group. Results: The primary outcome measure was significant improvement, defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of at least 50% from baseline, which was reported at 24-month follow-ups in 72% who received local anesthetic only with a lumbar interlaminar approach and 54% who received local anesthetic only with a caudal approach. In patients receiving local anesthetic with a steroid, the response rate was 67% for those who had a lumbar interlaminar approach and 68% for those who had a caudal approach at 12 months. The response was significantly better in the lumbar interlaminar group who received local anesthetic only, 77% versus 56% at 12 months and 72% versus 54% at 24 months. Conclusion: This assessment shows that in patients with axial or discogenic pain in the lumbar spine after excluding facet joint and SI Joint pain, epidural injections of local anesthetic by the caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach may be effective in managing chronic low back pain with a potential superiority for a lumbar interlaminar approach over a caudal approach. PMID:25678838

  11. Interventional Techniques: Evidence-based Practice Guidelines in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti

    2007-01-01

    Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of

  12. A central role for spinal dorsal horn neurons that express neurokinin-1 receptors in chronic itch.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tasuku; Nguyen, Tony; Curtis, Eric; Nishida, Katsuko; Devireddy, Jahnavi; Delahanty, Jeremy; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, Earl

    2015-07-01

    We investigated roles for spinal neurons expressing the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and/or gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic atopic dermatitis. Mice receiving repeated topical application of OVA exhibited atopic-like skin lesions and behavioral signs of chronic itch including spontaneous scratching, touch-evoked scratching (alloknesis), and enhancement of chloroquine-evoked scratching (hyperknesis). Substance P-saporin (SP-SAP) and bombesin-saporin (BB-SAP) were intrathecally injected into OVA-sensitized mice to neurotoxically ablate NK1R- or GRPR-expressing spinal neurons, respectively. SP-SAP diminished the expression of NK1R in the superficial spinal dorsal horn and significantly attenuated all behavioral signs of chronic itch. BB-SAP reduced the spinal dorsal horn expression of GRPR and significantly attenuated hyperknesis, with no effect on spontaneous scratching or alloknesis. To investigate whether NK1R-expressing spinal neurons project in ascending somatosensory pathways, we performed a double-label study. The retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), was injected into either the somatosensory thalamus or lateral parabrachial nucleus. In the upper cervical (C1-2) spinal cord, most neurons retrogradely labeled with FG were located in the dorsomedial aspect of the superficial dorsal horn. Of FG-labeled spinal neurons, 89% to 94% were double labeled for NK1R. These results indicate that NK1R-expressing spinal neurons play a major role in the expression of symptoms of chronic itch and give rise to ascending somatosensory projections. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-expressing spinal neurons contribute to hyperknesis but not to alloknesis or ongoing itch. NK1R-expressing spinal neurons represent a potential target to treat chronic itch. PMID:25830923

  13. An Unusual Cause of Paraparesis in a Patient on Chronic Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, R; Kumar, A. N; Gupta, V; Madhavan, Sethu M; Sharma, S. K

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Spinal epidural lipomatosis is the excessive deposition of unencapsulated fat in the epidural space. This is a rare disorder often associated with high levels of endogenous steroids or the administration of exogenous steroids. Case Description: A 32-year-old man with congenital kyphosis treated with prednisolone daily for 5 months for interstitial lung disease developed compressive myelopathy. Findings: Magnetic resonance imaging showed congenital kyphosis along with epidural lipomatosis compressing the cord. Cessation of steroid therapy was associated with improvement in the symptoms. Conclusions: Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare side effect of chronic steroid therapy that may occur with relatively short-term, low-dose regimens. In patients with congenital vertebral anomalies, spinal fat deposition may worsen the neurological status in an already compromised cord. Discontinuation of steroid therapy is beneficial; some patients may require surgical intervention for decompression. PMID:17385272

  14. Effectiveness of Spinal Endoscopic Adhesiolysis in Post Lumbar Surgery Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pacific Coast Pain; Salim M. Hayek; Standiford Helm; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vijay Singh; David A. Bryce

    2009-01-01

    Background: Post lumbar surgery syndrome with persistent chronic low back and lower extremity pain is common in the United States. Epidural fibrosis may account for as much as 20% to 36% of all cases of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Percutaneous adhesiolysis with a catheter or direct visualization of the spinal canal and the contents with an endoscope are techniques

  15. Chronic intrathecal morphine treatment does not cause down-regulation of spinal adenosine A 1 receptors in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pao-Luh Tao; Chih-Shung Wong; Mei-Chuan Lin

    1996-01-01

    We have shown previously that systemic chronic morphine treatment causes down-regulation of spinal adenosine A1 receptors in rats. Recently, we have found that chronic supraspinal morphine treatment also causes this effect. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic spinal morphine treatment has the same effect of down-regulation of spinal adenosine A1 receptors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered tolerant

  16. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy; Oomman, Sowmini; Badr, M. Safwan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with 2-5 times greater prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) than the general population. The contribution of SCI on sleep and breathing at different levels of injury using two scoring methods has not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sleep disturbances in the SCI population and the associated physiological abnormalities using quantitative polysomnography and to determine the contribution of SCI level on the SDB mechanism. Methods: We studied 26 consecutive patients with SCI (8 females; age 42.5 ± 15.5 years; BMI 25.9 ± 4.9 kg/m2; 15 cervical and 11 thoracic levels) by spirometry, a battery of questionnaires and by attended polysomnography with flow and pharyngeal pressure measurements. Inclusion criteria for SCI: chronic SCI (> 6 months post injury), level T6 and above and not on mechanical ventilation. Ventilation, end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), variability in minute ventilation (VI-CV) and upper airway resistance (RUA) were monitored during wakefulness and NREM sleep in all subjects. Each subject completed brief history and exam, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Berlin questionnaire (BQ) and fatigue severity scale (FSS). Sleep studies were scored twice, first using standard 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and second using new 2012 recommended AASM criteria. Results: Mean PSQI was increased to 10.3 ± 3.7 in SCI patients and 92% had poor sleep quality. Mean ESS was increased 10.4 ± 4.4 in SCI patients and excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ? 10) was present in 59% of the patients. Daytime fatigue (FSS > 20) was reported in 96% of SCI, while only 46% had high-risk score of SDB on BQ. Forced vital capacity (FVC) in SCI was reduced to 70.5% predicted in supine compared to 78.5% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Likewise forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) was 64.9% predicted in supine compared to 74.7% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Mean AHI in SCI patients was 29.3 ± 25.0 vs. 20.0 ± 22.8 events/h using the new and conventional AASM scoring criteria, respectively (p < 0.001). SCI patients had SDB (AHI > 5 events/h) in 77% of the cases using the new AASM scoring criteria compared to 65% using standard conventional criteria (p < 0.05). In cervical SCI, VI decreased from 7.2 ± 1.6 to 5.5 ± 1.3 L/min, whereas PETCO2 and VI-CV, increased during sleep compared to thoracic SCI. Conclusion: The majority of SCI survivors have symptomatic SDB and poor sleep that may be missed if not carefully assessed. Decreased VI and increased PETCO2 during sleep in patients with cervical SCI relative to thoracic SCI suggests that sleep related hypoventilation may contribute to the pathogenesis SDB in patients with chronic cervical SCI. Citation: Sankari A; Bascom A; Oomman S; Badr MS. Sleep disordered breathing in chronic spinal cord injury. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):65-72. PMID:24426822

  17. Chronic Morphine Induces Downregulation of Spinal Glutamate Transporters: Implications in Morphine Tolerance and Abnormal Pain Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianren Mao; Backil Sung; Ru-Rong Ji; Grewo Lim

    2002-01-01

    Tolerance to the analgesic effects of an opioid occurs after its chronic administration, a pharmacological phenomenon that has been associated with the development of abnormal pain sensitivity such as hyperalgesia. In the present study, we ex- amined the role of spinal glutamate transporters (GTs) in the development of both morphine tolerance and associated ther- mal hyperalgesia. Chronic morphine administered through

  18. A meta-analysis of surgery versus conventional radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic spinal epidural disease

    PubMed Central

    Klimo, Paul; Thompson, Clinton J.; Kestle, John R.W.; Schmidt, Meic H.

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy has been the primary therapy for managing metastatic spinal disease; however, surgery that decompresses the spinal cord circumferentially, followed by reconstruction and immediate stabilization, has also proven effective. We provide a quantitative comparison between the “new” surgery and radiotherapy, based on articles that report on ambulatory status before and after treatment, age, sex, primary neoplasm pathology, and spinal disease distribution. Ambulation was categorized as “success” or “rescue” (proportion of patients ambulatory after treatment and proportion regaining ambulatory function, respectively). Secondary outcomes were also analyzed. We calculated cumulative success and rescue rates for our ambulatory measurements and quantified heterogeneity using a mixed-effects model. We investigated the source of the heterogeneity in both a univariate and multivariate manner with a meta-regression model. Our analysis included data from 24 surgical articles (999 patients) and 4 radiation articles (543 patients), mostly uncontrolled cohort studies (Class III). Surgical patients were 1.3 times more likely to be ambulatory after treatment and twice as likely to regain ambulatory function. Overall ambulatory success rates for surgery and radiation were 85% and 64%, respectively. Primary pathology was the principal factor determining survival. We present the first known formal meta-analysis using data from nonrandomized clinical studies. Although we attempted to control for imbalances between the surgical and radiation groups, significant heterogeneity undoubtedly still exists. Nonetheless, we believe the differences in the outcomes indicate a true difference resulting from treatment. We conclude that surgery should usually be the primary treatment with radiation given as adjuvant therapy. Neurologic status, overall health, extent of disease (spinal and extraspinal), and primary pathology all impact proper treatment selection. PMID:15701283

  19. Sudden paraplegia following epidural lipomatosis and thoracal compression fracture after long-term steroid therapy: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suat Erol Çelik; Sait B. Erer; ?lker Güleç; Recai Gökcan; Sait Naderi

    Sudden paraplegia secondary to the posterior spinal epidural compression and vertebral compression fracture as a complication\\u000a in corticosteroid treatment is extremely rare. The authors presented a case 49-year-old man with chronic relapsing attack\\u000a of Still’s disease. After the identification of pathology, the surgical evacuation of lipid tissue and pedicle-based instrumentation\\u000a showed therapeutic success. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the

  20. Epidural steroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Mulligan; John C. Rowlingson

    2001-01-01

    Although possessing a long history of use, the therapeutic use of epidural steroid injections still needs substantiation.\\u000a Refinements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of radicular pain and in the techniques used to deliver depo-steroids\\u000a to the target tissue will lead to improved clinical outcomes and fewer technique and drug-related side effects. Administration\\u000a of epidural steroids at lumbar spine sites

  1. Chronic generalized spinal muscular atrophy of infancy and childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Pearn; J. Wilson

    1973-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the acute fatal form of infantile spinal muscular atrophy (acute Werdnig-Hoffmann disease or spinal muscular atrophy Type I) is a distinct genetic and clinical entity. This has prompted clinical re-examination of the disease known as `arrested Werdnig-Hoffmann disease' which hitherto was thought to be a spectrum variant of the acute fatal form. A total of

  2. Osteoporotic fractures and hospitalization risk in chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Battaglino, R. A.; Stolzmann, K. L.; Hallett, L. D.; Waddimba, A.; Gagnon, D.; Lazzari, A. A.; Garshick, E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a well acknowledged complication of spinal cord injury. We report that motor complete spinal cord injury and post-injury alcohol consumption are risk factors for hospitalization for fracture treatment. The clinical assessment did not include osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment considerations, indicating a need for improved clinical protocols. Introduction Treatment of osteoporotic long bone fractures often results in lengthy hospitalizations for individuals with spinal cord injury. Clinical features and factors that contribute to hospitalization risk have not previously been described. Methods Three hundred and fifteen veterans ? 1 year after spinal cord injury completed a health questionnaire and underwent clinical exam at study entry. Multivariate Cox regression accounting for repeated events was used to assess longitudinal predictors of fracture-related hospitalizations in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers 1996–2003. Results One thousand four hundred and eighty-seven hospital admissions occurred among 315 participants, and 39 hospitalizations (2.6%) were for fracture treatment. Median length of stay was 35 days. Fracture-related complications occurred in 53%. Independent risk factors for admission were motor complete versus motor incomplete spinal cord injury (hazard ratio = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.46–10.50). There was a significant linear trend in risk with greater alcohol consumption after injury. Record review indicated that evaluation for osteoporosis was not obtained during these admissions. Conclusions Assessed prospectively, hospitalization in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers for low-impact fractures is more common in motor complete spinal cord injury and is associated with greater alcohol use after injury. Osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment considerations were not part of a clinical assessment, indicating the need for improved protocols that might prevent low-impact fractures and related admissions. PMID:18581033

  3. A follow-up study of 60 cases of chronic spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schiffer; F. Brignolio; A. Chiò; M. T. Giordana; P. Meineri; M. G. Rosso; A. Tribolo

    1988-01-01

    60 cases of chronic spinal muscular atrophy (CSMA) were followed-up for a period varying from 5 to 40 years. The neuromuscular impairment was evaluated by Norris’ ALS score, both at the time of last examination and retrospectively at the time of diagnosis. Age at onset of symptoms was the most important factor in the progression of the neuromuscular damage. Monomelic

  4. Chronic childhood spinal muscular atrophy in Germany (West-Thüringen) — an epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Thieme I; Beate Mitulla; Friedemann Schulze; Aribert W. J. Spiegler

    1994-01-01

    This study presents the most extensive epidemiological data on chronic forms of spinal muscular atrophy in childhood (CSMA) in West-Thüringen in Germany. The incidence of CSMA was calculated to be 1 in 9,420 live births. The prevalence was 1.624 in 100,000 of the general population (as of 31 December 1980).

  5. Cardiovascular Responses to Endotracheal Intubation in Patients with Acute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Y. Yoo; Seong W. Jeong; Seok J. Kim; In H. Ha; JongUn Lee

    2003-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation usually causes transient hy- pertension and tachycardia. We investigated whether the cardiovascular responses to intubation change as a functionofthetimeelapsedinpatientswithspinalcord injury. One-hundred-six patients with traumatic com- plete spinal cord injury were grouped into acute and chronic groups according to the time elapsed (less than and more than 4 wk after injury) and into those with quadriplegia and paraplegia according

  6. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a child: clinical-spinal MR imaging correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Likasitwattanakul; P Visrutaratna

    Spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of a 3-year-old girl with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) showed thickened and marked enhancement of the lumbosacral nerve roots. These abnormalities resolved after steroid treatment. MR imaging of the cauda equina may be helpful in the diagnosis of CIDP.

  7. Supervised exercise, spinal manipulation, and home exercise for chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bronfort; Michele J. Maiers; Roni L. Evans; Craig A. Schulz; Yiscah Bracha; Kenneth H. Svendsen; Richard H. Grimm; Edward F. Owens; Timothy A. Garvey; Ensor E. Transfeldt

    2011-01-01

    Background contextSeveral conservative therapies have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP), including different forms of exercise and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The efficacy of less time-consuming and less costly self-care interventions, for example, home exercise, remains inconclusive in CLBP populations.

  8. Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

  9. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement.

  10. Analgesic action of suspended moxibustion in rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia correlates with enkephalins in the spinal cord?

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tao; Qi, Li; Wu, Huangan; Ma, Xiaopeng; Liu, Huirong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    Rats that modeled chronic visceral hyperalgesia received suspended moxibustion at bilateral Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) once daily over a period of 7 days. Results show that suspended moxibustion significantly depressed abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and increased enkephalin concentration in the spinal cord. The experimental findings suggest that spinal enkephalins contributed to the analgesic effect of suspended moxibustion in rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia. PMID:25767503

  11. Analgesic action of suspended moxibustion in rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia correlates with enkephalins in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yi, Tao; Qi, Li; Wu, Huangan; Ma, Xiaopeng; Liu, Huirong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2012-01-25

    Rats that modeled chronic visceral hyperalgesia received suspended moxibustion at bilateral Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) once daily over a period of 7 days. Results show that suspended moxibustion significantly depressed abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and increased enkephalin concentration in the spinal cord. The experimental findings suggest that spinal enkephalins contributed to the analgesic effect of suspended moxibustion in rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia. PMID:25767503

  12. Insidious Onset of Tetraparesis due to Cervical Epidural Abscess from Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr.; Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Starantzis, Konstantinos A.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of cervical epidural abscess from Enterococcus faecalis, which caused an insidious onset of tetraparesis. This 53-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure under hemodialysis presented with pain and progressive weakness of upper and lower extremities without fever. Although a recent MRI she did at the beginning of symptoms showed no significant pathologies, except for a cervical disc herniation and adjacent spinal degeneration, and stenosis that confused the diagnostic procedure, newer imaging with CT and MRI, which was performed due to progression of tetraparesis, revealed the formation of a cervical epidural abscess. Surgical drainage was done after a complete infection workup. The patient showed immediate neurological improvement after surgery. She received antibiotics intravenously for 3 weeks and orally for another 6 weeks. The patient was free from complications 24 months after surgery. A high index of suspicion is most important in making a rapid and correct diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess. The classic clinical triad (fever, local pain, and neurologic deficits) is not sensitive enough for early detection. Continuous clinical, laboratory, and imaging monitoring are of paramount importance. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention could optimize the final functional outcome. PMID:23573096

  13. Chronic asthma and chiropractic spinal manipulation: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Green

    2000-01-01

    Asthma affects one in seven children and one in 25 adults in the United Kingdom with a cost of £466.2 million to the NHS. Considering the cost and the adverse effects of long term use of ?-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids, an alternative approach reducing the need for medication would be valuable. The present paper presents a case of chronic asthma

  14. Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor mimicking as chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sophelia H S; Tsang, Dickson S F; Wong, Virginia C N; Chan, Godfrey C F

    2015-02-01

    We report a young boy who presented with progressive weakness of lower extremities associated with areflexia and abnormal electrophysiological findings initially suggestive of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Initial lumbosacral spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickened descending spinal nerve roots only. Immunomodulating therapy was given but with limited clinical response. Repeated spine magnetic resonance imaging showed cauda equina and also new spinal cord extramedullary contrast enhancement. The initial extensive investigations including open biopsy did not point to any specific diagnosis. Only through pursuing a repeated biopsy, the diagnosis of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor that could have an initial chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation. The literature review confirms that this is a rare condition and cauda equina origin has only been reported in adults and teenagers, and this is the first reported case in a young child. PMID:24659733

  15. Chronic Spinal Compression Model in Minipigs: A Systematic Behavioral, Qualitative, and Quantitative Neuropathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Roman; Juhas, Stefan; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Johe, Karl; Marsala, Silvia; Scadeng, Miriam; Lazar, Peter; Tomori, Zoltan; Schulteis, Gery; Beattie, Michael; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4–9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12 spinal segment was compressed in a dorso-ventral direction using a 5-mm-diameter circular bar with a progressively increasing peak force (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5?kg) at a velocity of 3?cm/sec. During recovery, motor and sensory function were periodically monitored. After survival, the animals were perfusion fixed and the extent of local SCI was analyzed by (1) post-mortem MRI analysis of dissected spinal cords, (2) qualitative and quantitative analysis of axonal survival at the epicenter of injury, and (3) defining the presence of local inflammatory changes, astrocytosis, and schwannosis. Following 2.5-kg spinal cord compression the animals demonstrated a near complete loss of motor and sensory function with no recovery over the next 4–9 months. Those that underwent spinal cord compression with 2?kg force developed an incomplete injury with progressive partial neurological recovery characterized by a restricted ability to stand and walk. Animals injured with a spinal compression force of 1.5?kg showed near normal ambulation 10 days after injury. In fully paralyzed animals (2.5?kg), MRI analysis demonstrated a loss of spinal white matter integrity and extensive septal cavitations. A significant correlation between the magnitude of loss of small and medium-sized myelinated axons in the ventral funiculus and neurological deficits was identified. These data, demonstrating stable neurological deficits in severely injured animals, similarities of spinal pathology to humans, and relatively good post-injury tolerance of this strain of minipigs to spinal trauma, suggest that this model can successfully be used to study therapeutic interventions targeting both acute and chronic stages of SCI. PMID:22029501

  16. Combination Drug Therapy for Pain following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    A number of mechanisms have been elucidated that maintain neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury (SCI). While target-based therapeutics are being developed based on elucidation of these mechanisms, treatment for neuropathic SCI pain has not been entirely satisfactory due in part to the significant convergence of neurological and inflammatory processes that maintain the neuropathic pain state. Thus, a combination drug treatment strategy, wherein several pain-related mechanism are simultaneously engaged, could be more efficacious than treatment against individual mechanisms alone. Also, by engaging several targets at once, it may be possible to reduce the doses of the individual drugs, thereby minimizing the potential for adverse side effects. Positive preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated improved efficacy of combination drug treatment over single drug treatment in neuropathic pain of peripheral origin, and perhaps such combinations could be utilized for neuropathic SCI pain. At the same time, there are mechanisms that distinguish SCI from peripheral neuropathic pain, so novel combination therapies will be needed. PMID:22550581

  17. Epidural Anesthesia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of epidural anesthesia for pelvic and leg operations. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  18. Quality of Life Among Veterans With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and Related Variables

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Soltani-Moghaddas, Seyed Hosein; Birjandinejad, Ali; Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Bozorgnia, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, the incidence of spinal cord injuries has increased. In a systemic review on epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in developing countries reported 25.5/million cases per year. Objectives: To assess the quality of life (QOL) of the veterans among Iran-Iraq war with chronic spinal cord injuries (SCI) and to evaluate long-term impressions of SCI on their quality of life. Patients and Methods: Fifty-two veterans, all male, with chronic spinal cord injury from Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) were interviewed and examined. The mean age of veterans at the time of interview was 49.3 years (38 to 80 years). Veterans were assessed by using a 36-item short-form (SF-36), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the Barthel index. The presence or absence of pressure sores and spasticity were documented as well. Results: The mean age of veterans at the time of study was 49.3 years. Pearson's correlation test showed that depression and anxiety have a reverse association with mental component summary (MCS) scale and physical component summary (PCS) scale scores, respectively. Regression analysis showed a negative effect of depression and pressure sore on PCS. Moreover, no association was found between the duration of injury and age with quality of life. Conclusions: Lower QOL was found among veterans with chronic SCI. More researches on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are needed to give us a better understanding of changes in life of patients with SCI and the ways to improve them. PMID:25147777

  19. Thoracic Extraosseous Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Asil, Kiyasettin; Ceylan, Davut; Erdem, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas were first reported in 1929 by Globus and Doshay, and are defined as benign vascular structures developed between the neural tissues occurring in the central nervous system, consisting of a dilated vascular bed. Cavernous hemangiomas comprise nearly 5-12% of all spinal vascular malformations; however, existence in the epidural space without bone involvement is rare. Only 4% of all cavernous hemangiomas (0.22/1.000.000) are purely epidural cavernous hemangiomas. In this case report, we removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass presenting with progressive neurological deficits in a 55-year-old male patient. We found this case to be appropriate for presentation due to the rare occurrence of this type of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:25674348

  20. No evidence for chronic demyelination in spared axons following spinal cord injury in a mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lasiene, Jurate; Shupe, Larry; Perlmutter, Steve; Horner, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of remyelination after traumatic spinal cord injury remains elusive, with animal and human studies reporting partial to complete demyelination followed by incomplete remyelination. In the present study, we found that spared rubrospinal tract (RST) axons of passage traced with actively transported dextrans and examined caudally to the lesion twelve weeks after mouse spinal cord contusion injury were fully remyelinated. Spared axons exhibited a marginally reduced myelin thickness and significantly shorter internodes. Contactin-associated protein (CASPR) and Kv1.2 channels were used to identify internodes and paranodal protein distribution properties were used as an index of myelin integrity. This is the first time the CNS myelin internode length was measured in a mouse. To better understand the significance of shortened internodes and thinner myelin in spared axons, we modeled conduction properties using McIntyre’s et al. model of myelinated axons. Mathematical modeling predicted a 21% decrease in the conduction velocity of remyelinated RST axons due to shortened internodes. To determine whether demyelination could be present on axons exhibiting a pathological transport system we utilized the retroviral reporter system. Virally delivered GFP unveiled a small population of dystrophic RST axons that persist chronically with evident demyelination or abnormal remyelination. Collectively these data show that lasting demyelination in spared axons is rare and that remyelination of axons of passage occurs in the chronically injured mouse spinal cord. PMID:18400887

  1. Upregulation of Inflammatory Mediators in a Model of Chronic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sandhir, Rajat; Gregory, Eugene; He, Yong-Yue

    2011-01-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is a disabling condition observed in large number of individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent progress points to an important role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain. The focus of the present study is to investigate the role of proinflammatory molecules IL-1?, TNF-?, MCP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in chronic neuropathic pain in a rodent model of SCI. Rats were subjected to spinal cord contusion using a controlled linear motor device with an injury epicenter at T10. The SCI rats had severe impairment in locomotor function at 7 days post-injury as assessed by the BBB score. The locomotor scores showed significant improvement starting at day 14 and thereafter showed no further improvement. The Hargreaves’ test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia for hindpaw, forepaw and tail. A significant reduction in withdrawal latency was observed for forepaw and tail of SCI rats at days 21 and 28, indicating the appearance of thermal hyperalgesia. Changes in expression of mRNAs for IL-1?, TNF-?, MCP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction in spinal cord including the injury epicenter along with regions above and below the level of lesion at day 28 post-injury. A significant increase was observed in the expression of MCP-1, TNF-?, TIMP-1 and IL-1? in the injury epicenter, whereas only TIMP-1 was upregulated in the area below the injury epicenter. The results of the study suggest that prolonged upregulation of inflammatory mediators might be involved in chronic neuropathic pain in SCI, and that TIMP-1 may play a role in maintenance of chronic below level pain. PMID:21287269

  2. Quality of life and the related factors in spouses of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injuries may be affected by several factors. Moreover, this issue is yet to be documented fully in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health related quality of life of spouses who act as primary caregivers of veterans with chronic spinal cord injuries in Iran. Methods The study consisted of 72 wives of 72 veterans who were categorized as spinal cord injured patients based on the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification. Health related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey. Pearson's correlation was carried out to find any correlation between demographic variables with SF-36 dimensions. To find the effect of the factors like age, employment status, duration of care giving, education, presence or absence of knee osteoarthritis, and mechanical back pain on different domains of the SF-36 health survey, Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.7 years. According to the ASIA classification 88.9% and 11.1% of the veterans were paraplegic and tetraplegic respectively. Fifty percent of them had a complete injury (ASIA A) and 85% of the spouses were exclusive care givers. All of the SF-36 scores of the spouses were significantly lower than the normal population. Pearson's correlation demonstrated a negative significant correlation between both age and duration of caring with the PF domain. The number of children had a negative correlation with RE and VT. Conclusion The burden of caregiving can impact the QOL of caregivers and cause health problems. These problems can cause limitations for caregiver spouses and it can lead to a decrease in the quality of given care. PMID:23506336

  3. Chronic tissue response to untethered microelectrode implants in the rat brain and spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersen, Ali; Elkabes, Stella; Freedman, David S.; Sahin, Mesut

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Microelectrodes implanted in the central nervous system (CNS) often fail in long term implants due to the immunological tissue response caused by tethering forces of the connecting wires. In addition to the tethering effect, there is a mechanical stress that occurs at the device–tissue interface simply because the microelectrode is a rigid body floating in soft tissue and it cannot reshape itself to comply with changes in the surrounding tissue. In the current study we evaluated the scar tissue formation to tetherless devices with two significantly different geometries in the rat brain and spinal cord in order to investigate the effects of device geometry. Approach. One of the implant geometries resembled the wireless, floating microstimulators that we are currently developing in our laboratory and the other was a (shank only) Michigan probe for comparison. Both electrodes were implanted into either the cervical spinal cord or the motor cortices, one on each side. Main results. The most pronounced astroglial and microglial reactions occurred within 20 ?m from the device and decreased sharply at larger distances. Both cell types displayed the morphology of non-activated cells past the 100 ?m perimeter. Even though the aspect ratios of the implants were different, the astroglial and microglial responses to both microelectrode types were very mild in the brain, stronger and yet limited in the spinal cord. Significance. These observations confirm previous reports and further suggest that tethering may be responsible for most of the tissue response in chronic implants and that the electrode size has a smaller contribution with floating electrodes. The electrode size may be playing primarily an amplifying role to the tethering forces in the brain whereas the size itself may induce chronic response in the spinal cord where the movement of surrounding tissues is more significant.

  4. Long-Term Facilitation of Ventilation in Humans with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, David D.; Fromm, Jason S.; Spiess, Martina R.; Behrman, Andrea L.; Mateika, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Intermittent stimulation of the respiratory system with hypoxia causes persistent increases in respiratory motor output (i.e., long-term facilitation) in animals with spinal cord injury. This paradigm, therefore, has been touted as a potential respiratory rehabilitation strategy. Objectives: To determine whether acute (daily) exposure to intermittent hypoxia can also evoke long-term facilitation of ventilation after chronic spinal cord injury in humans, and whether repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia enhances the magnitude of this response. Methods: Eight individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (>1 yr; cervical [n = 6], thoracic [n = 2]) were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (eight 2-min intervals of 8% oxygen) for 10 days. During all exposures, end-tidal carbon dioxide levels were maintained, on average, 2 mm Hg above resting values. Minute ventilation, tidal volume, and breathing frequency were measured before (baseline), during, and 30 minutes after intermittent hypoxia. Sham protocols consisted of exposure to room air and were administered to a subset of the participants (n = 4). Measurements and Main Results: Minute ventilation increased significantly for 30 minutes after acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia (P < 0.001), but not after sham exposure. However, the magnitude of ventilatory long-term facilitation was not enhanced over 10 days of intermittent hypoxia exposures. Conclusions: Ventilatory long-term facilitation can be evoked by brief periods of hypoxia in humans with chronic spinal cord injury. Thus, intermittent hypoxia may represent a strategy for inducing respiratory neuroplasticity after declines in respiratory function that are related to neurological impairment. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01272011). PMID:24224903

  5. Chronic neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury patients. What is the efficacy of pharmacological treatments with a general mode of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Title Chronic neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury patients. What is the efficacy of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) pain remains challenging despite new available drugs. Such treatment in SCI pain. Key words spinal cord injury pain ­ neuropathic pain ­ pregabalin ­

  6. Epidural steroid warning controversy still dogging FDA.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Singh, Vijay; Gharibo, Christopher G; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Grider, Jay S; Diwan, Sudhir; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    On April 23, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a letter of warning that injection of corticosteroids into the epidural space of the spine may result in rare, but serious adverse events, including "loss of vision, stroke, paralysis, and death." The advisory also advocated that patients should discuss the benefits and risks of epidural corticosteroid injections with their health care professionals, along with the benefits and risks associated with other possible treatments. In addition, the FDA stated that the effectiveness and safety of the corticosteroids for epidural use have not been established, and the FDA has not approved corticosteroids for such use. To raise awareness of the risks of epidural corticosteroid injections in the medical community, the FDA's Safe Use Initiative convened a panel of experts including pain management experts to help define the techniques for such injections with the aim of reducing preventable harm. The panel was unable to reach an agreement on 20 proposed items related to technical aspects of performing epidural injections. Subsequently, the FDA issued the above referenced warning and a notice that a panel will be convened in November 2014. This review assesses the inaccuracies of the warning and critically analyzes the available literature. The literature has been assessed in reference to alternate techniques and an understanding of the risk factors when performing transforaminal epidural injections in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions, ultimately resulting in improved safety. The results of this review show the efficacy of epidural injections, with or without steroids, in a multitude of spinal ailments utilizing caudal, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar interlaminar approaches as well as lumbar transforaminal epidural injections . The evidence also shows the superiority of steroids in managing lumbar disc herniation utilizing caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches without any significant difference as compared to transforaminal approaches, either with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids combined. In conclusion, the authors request that the FDA modify the warning based on the evidence. PMID:25054397

  7. Chronic inhibition of superoxide dismutase produces apoptotic death of spinal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, J D; Bristol, L A; Hosler, B; Brown, R H; Kuncl, R W

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been detected in some families with an autosomal dominant form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; these mutations appear to reduce the activity of this enzyme. To determine whether decreased SOD activity could contribute to motor neuron loss, SOD1 was inhibited chronically with either antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or diethyldithiocarbamate in spinal cord organotypic cultures. Chronic inhibition of SOD resulted in the apoptotic degeneration of spinal neurons, including motor neurons, over several weeks. Motor neuron loss was markedly potentiated by the inhibition of glutamate transport. In this paradigm, motor neuron toxicity could be entirely prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and, to a lesser extent, by the non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist 1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride. These data support the hypothesis that the loss of motor neurons in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis could be due to a reduction in SOD1 activity, possibly potentiated by inefficient glutamate transport. Images PMID:7910402

  8. The epidural blood patch--current practices and concerns.

    PubMed

    Weakland, H J

    1994-11-01

    Post dural puncture headache is a common sequelae of spinal and, sometimes, epidural anesthesia. Since 1960, the practice of placing autologous blood into the epidural space to treat spinal headache has been used with great success. The blood patch can provide immediate symptom relief from spinal headache and repair of the CSF leak, which is the basic mechanism of post dural puncture headache. Discrepancies exist in the literature and in today's common practice regarding technique and timing for this treatment. This is a procedure not without complications and requires caution. Contained herein are recommendations for safe and effective use of the epidural blood patch. Following these procedures, anesthetists will likely see an 85% to 98% immediate cure rate for post dural puncture headache with the fewest possible complications. PMID:7881353

  9. Determination of epidural catheter placement using nerve stimulation in obstetric patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ban C. H. Tsui; Sunil Gupta; Brendan Finucane

    1999-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Peripheral nerve and spinal cord stimulation techniques have been used for many years. However, electrical stimulation methods rarely have been used to confirm epidural catheter placement. This study examines the practicality of this technique to confirm epidural catheter placement in obstetric patients. Methods. Thirty-nine obstetric patients in labor were studied. An electrocardiography (ECG) adapter (Arrow-Johans) was attached

  10. Commentary on four recently published papers on chronic pain and spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Pawl, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This commentary evaluates four articles dealing with chronic pain from very different perspectives. The first paper by Tsantoulas and McMahon entitled "Opening paths to novel analgesics: the role of potassium channels in chronic pain" evaluates the membrane neurochemistry of the neural cells governing the transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and trigeminal systems. As potassium membrane potentials diminish excitability in the nociceptive pain pathways, damage to these pathways may result in excessive transmission of impulses that contribute to "chronic pain". Haneder et al. analyzed degeneration in lumbar discs utilizing 23Na magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine whether this would help analyze low back pain versus standard 1H MR imaging. As degenerated discs lose glycosaminoglycan, which attracts 23Na, this imaging could potentially be useful in detecting degenerating intervertebral discs. Mroz et al. analyzed how 445 spinal surgeons handled recurrent lumbar discs (first and second recurrences) herniations in the United States. Surgeons in practice for more than 15 years were more likely to select simple disc revision, while those with fewer years experience and performing more than 200 cases per year were more likely to select revision surgery that included some form of inter-body fusion. Lee et al. performed a multivariate analysis of more than 1532 patients to validate a predictive model of the risk of surgical site infection after various spine surgeries. Outcomes analyzed the frequency of reoperations for irrigation/debridement, and evaluated how patients' comorbidities helped predict the risk of infection (e.g. obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and the number of levels/extent of surgery). PMID:24843809

  11. Alleviation of chronic pain following rat spinal cord compression injury with multimodal actions of huperzine A

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dou; Thakor, Devang K.; Han, Inbo; Ropper, Alexander E.; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Sidman, Richard L.; Zafonte, Ross; Schachter, Steven C.; Teng, Yang D.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms including activation of NMDA receptors, microglial activation, reactive astrogliosis, loss of descending inhibition, and spasticity are responsible for ?40% of cases of intractable neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because conventional treatments blocking individual mechanisms elicit only short-term effectiveness, a multimodal approach with simultaneous actions against major pain-related pathways may have value for clinical management of chronic pain. We hypothesize that [-]-huperzine A (HUP-A), an alkaloid isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata, that is a potent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and NMDA receptors, could mitigate pain without invoking drug tolerance or dependence by stimulating cholinergic interneurons to impede pain signaling, inhibiting inflammation via microglial cholinergic activation, and blocking NMDA-mediated central hypersensitization. We tested our hypothesis by administering HUP-A i.p. or intrathecally to female Sprague–Dawley rats (200–235 g body weight) after moderate static compression (35 g for 5 min) of T10 spinal cord. Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits. PMID:23386718

  12. SUPPLEMENTAL CARE WITH MEDICATION-ASSISTED MANIPULATION VERSUS SPINAL MANIPULATION THERAPY ALONE FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Kohlbeck; Scott Haldeman; Eric L. Hurwitz; Simon Dagenais

    Objectives: To measure changes in pain and disability for chronic low-back pain patients receiving treatment with medication-assisted manipulation (MAM) and to compare these to changes in a group only receiving spinal manipulation. Study Design: Prospective cohort study of 68 chronic low-back pain patients. Methods: Outcomes were measured using the 1998 Version 2.0 American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons\\/Council of Musculoskeletal Specialty

  13. Cerebellar Infarction Following Epidural Abscess after Epidural Neuroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Yeong; Wang, Hui Sun; Ju, Chang Il

    2015-01-01

    Epidural neuroplasty is found to be effective in removing fibrous tissue occurring in the epidural space for various reasons. We report a case of cerebellar infarction caused by epidural abscess after epidural neuroplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cerebellar infarction developed as a result of epidural abscess accompanying bacterial meningitis after epidural neuroplasty. We also discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis of this rare pathologic entity. PMID:25883666

  14. Epidural emphysema associated with primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olgun Kadir Aribas; Niyazi Gormus; Demet Aydogdu Kiresi

    2001-01-01

    A 21-year-old male patient was admitted with spontaneous pneumothorax, and no history of asthma. Closed drainage treatment was unsuccessful. Chest computed tomography demonstrated pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema with multiple air bubbles within the spinal canal between the levels Th3 and Th11. Resection of bullae on the upper lobe and partial pleurectomy were performed. Postoperative period was uneventful. Epidural emphysema was

  15. Epidural emphysema associated with primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olgun Kadir Aribas; Niyazi Gormus; Demet Aydogdu Kiresi

    A 21-year-old male patient was admitted with spontaneous pneumothorax, and no history of asthma. Closed drainage treatment was unsuccessful. Chest computed tomography demonstrated pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema with multiple air bubbles within the spinal canal between the levels Th3 and Th11. Resection of bullae on the upper lobe and partial pleurectomy were performed. Postoperative period was uneventful. Epidural emphysema was

  16. [Spinal cord stimulation - evidence and personal experience].

    PubMed

    Klein-Weigel, P

    2010-08-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been successfully used to treat chronic pain syndromes for decades. For this purpose, an electrode is implanted into the epidural space under local anaesthesia and connected to a neurostimulator which applies a weak direct current to the dorsal roots of the spinal column. Besides pain control, SCS increases the blood supply in the stimulated area. This effect is mediated by a sympathicolytic effect and the liberation of vasodilatators within the stimulated skin area. A Cochrane meta-analysis has revealed a significantly increased limb salvage rate in patients with non-reconstructable critical limb ischaemia (CLI) treated with SCS. The effect of SCS in CLI might be predicted by the measurement of forefoot transcutaneous pO (2) in supine and dependent positions, which renders trial stimulation unnecessary in many cases. PMID:20806142

  17. Psychosocial factors and adjustment to chronic pain in spinal cord injury: Replication and cross-validation

    PubMed Central

    Molton, Ivan R.; Stoelb, Brenda L.; Jensen, Mark P.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Raichle, Katherine A.; Cardenas, Diana D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the importance of psychological factors in the experience of chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current study sought to replicate and extend previous work demonstrating associations among specific pain-related beliefs, coping, mental health, and pain outcomes in persons with SCI. A return-by-mail survey assessing psychological functioning and pain was completed by 130 individuals with SCI. Measures included short forms of the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. After factor analysis, multiple regression was used to predict pain outcomes (psychological functioning and pain interference) after controlling for pain intensity. Results indicated that psychological factors, particularly beliefs about pain (including catastrophizing) and pain-related coping strategies (including passive coping), were significant predictors of pain outcomes and accounted for 21% to 25% of unique variance. Zero-order correlations suggested that the specific variables most closely associated with negative pain outcomes were perception of oneself as disabled, perceptions of low control over pain, and tendency to catastrophize. In general, negative attributions and coping were stronger predictors of pain adjustment than were positive ones. Results highlight the importance of psychological factors in understanding chronic pain in persons with SCI and provide further support for the biopsychosocial model. PMID:19533518

  18. Systemic Inflammation and Reduced Pulmonary Function in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Morse, Leslie R.; Brown, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammation and pulmonary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants Fifty-nine men with chronic SCI participating in a prior epidemiologic study. Methods Standardized assessment of pulmonary function and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Main Outcome Measurements Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Persons with the highest values of IL-6 had the lowest %-predicted FEV1 and FVC. There was a significant inverse linear trend between quartile of IL-6 and %-predicted FEV1 (P < .001) and FVC (P < .006), unadjusted and adjusted for SCI level and completeness of injury, obstructive lung disease history, smoking, and body mass index (P = .010-.039). Although not as strong as for IL-6, there also were similar trends for %-predicted FEV1 and FVC with CRP. Conclusions In chronic SCI, higher levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, independent of level and completeness of injury. These results suggest that the reduction of pulmonary function after SCI is related not only to neuromuscular impairment but also to factors that promote systemic inflammation. PMID:21570031

  19. Spinal cord stimulation for patients with inoperable chronic critical leg ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-pei; Fu, Wei-min; Gu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the prevalence of diabetes, the treatment of diabetic foot is still challenging. Even an exactly proved effective and practical method can’t be listed except vascular surgery which is not a long-term way for it. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a very promising option in the treatment algorithm of inoperable chronic critical leg ischemia (CLI). DATA SOURCES: We searched Pubmed database with key words or terms such as “spinal cord stimulation”, “ischemic pain” and “limb ischemia” appeared in the last five years. RESULTS: The mechanism of SCS is unclear. Two theories have emerged to interpret the benefits of SCS. Pain relief from SCS can be confirmed by a majority of the studies, while limb salvage and other more ambitious improvements have not come to an agreement. The complications of SCS are not fatal, but most of them are lead migration, lead connection failure, and local infection. CONCLUSIONS: SCS is a safe, promising treatment for patients with inoperable CLI. It is effective in pain reduction compared with traditional medical treatment. PMID:25215020

  20. Post-Injury Estrogen Treatment of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Improves Locomotor Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sribnick, Eric A.; Samantaray, Supriti; Das, Arabinda; Smith, Joshua; Matzelle, D. Denise; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neurological function and, depending on serverity, may cause paralysis. The only recommended pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SCI is high-dose methylprednisolone and its use is controversial. We have previously shown that estrogen treatment attenuated cell death, axonal and myelin damage, calpain and caspase activities, and inflammation in acute SCI. The aim of this study was to examine whether post-treatment of SCI with estrogen would improve locomotor function by protecting cells and axons and reducing inflammation during chronic phase following injury. Moderately severe injury (40 g.cm force) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats following laminectomy at T10. Three groups of animals were used: sham (laminectomy only), vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide or DMSO) treated injury group, and estrogen treated injury group. Animals were treated with 4 mg/kg estrogen at 15 min and 24 h post-injury followed by 2 mg/kg estrogen daily for the next 5 days. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 weeks following injury, and 1-cm segments of spinal cord (lesion, rostral to lesion, and caudal to lesion) were removed for biochemical analyses. Estrogen treatment reduced COX-2 activity, blocked NF-?B translocation, prevented glial reactivity, attenuated neuron death, inhibited activation and activity of calpain and caspase-3, decreased axonal damage, reduced myelin loss in the lesion and penumbra, and improved locomotor function when compared with vehicle treated animals. These findings suggest that estrogen may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for prevention of damage and improvement of locomotor function in chronic SCI. PMID:20091771

  1. Postinjury estrogen treatment of chronic spinal cord injury improves locomotor function in rats.

    PubMed

    Sribnick, Eric A; Samantaray, Supriti; Das, Arabinda; Smith, Joshua; Matzelle, D Denise; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2010-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neurological function and, depending on serverity, may cause paralysis. The only recommended pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SCI is high-dose methylprednisolone, and its use is controversial. We have previously shown that estrogen treatment attenuated cell death, axonal and myelin damage, calpain and caspase activities, and inflammation in acute SCI. The aim of this study was to examine whether posttreatment of SCI with estrogen would improve locomotor function by protecting cells and axons and reducing inflammation during the chronic phase following injury. Moderately severe injury (40 g . cm force) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats following laminectomy at T10. Three groups of animals were used: sham (laminectomy only), vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO)-treated injury group, and estrogen-treated injury group. Animals were treated with 4 mg/kg estrogen at 15 min and 24 hr postnjury, followed by 2 mg/kg estrogen daily for the next 5 days. After treatment, animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 weeks following injury, and 1-cm segments of spinal cord (lesion, rostral to lesion, and caudal to lesion) were removed for biochemical analyses. Estrogen treatment reduced COX-2 activity, blocked nuclear factor-kappaB translocation, prevented glial reactivity, attenuated neuron death, inhibited activation and activity of calpain and caspase-3, decreased axonal damage, reduced myelin loss in the lesion and penumbra, and improved locomotor function compared with vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that estrogen may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for prevention of damage and improvement of locomotor function in chronic SCI. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20091771

  2. A review of epidural simulators: where are we today?

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N; Wee, Michael Y K; Isaacs, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-one central neural blockade simulators have been implemented into clinical practice over the last thirty years either commercially or for research. This review aims to provide a detailed evaluation of why we need epidural and spinal simulators in the first instance and then draws comparisons between computer-based and manikin-based simulators. This review covers thirty-one simulators in total; sixteen of which are solely epidural simulators, nine are for epidural plus spinal or lumbar puncture simulation, and six, which are solely lumbar puncture simulators. All hardware and software components of simulators are discussed, including actuators, sensors, graphics, haptics, and virtual reality based simulators. The purpose of this comparative review is to identify the direction for future epidural simulation by outlining necessary improvements to create the ideal epidural simulator. The weaknesses of existing simulators are discussed and their strengths identified so that these can be carried forward. This review aims to provide a foundation for the future creation of advanced simulators to enhance the training of epiduralists, enabling them to comprehensively practice epidural insertion in vitro before training on patients and ultimately reducing the potential risk of harm. PMID:23545132

  3. Five-Year Longitudinal Bone Evaluations in Individuals With Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Douglas E; Adkins, Rodney H; Stewart, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Knowledge of spinal cord injury (SCI) bone changes has been derived primarily through cross-sectional studies, many of which are controvertible. Longitudinal studies are sparse, and long-term longitudinal chronic studies are unavailable. The objective of this study was to provide a clearer perception of chronic longitudinal bone variations in people with complete SCI. Methods: Bone status of 31 individuals with chronic, complete SCI was assessed twice using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at an average interval of 5.06 ± 0.9 years. Because the sample of women was small (4), the primary analyses of change and comparisons of those with paraplegia vs tetraplegia were confined to the male participants. Results: Spine Z-scores showed a significant increase (P < 0.0001). The average Z-scores, initial and follow-up, were within the normal range. Hip Z-scores also showed a significant increase (P < 0.0001), and hip bone mineral density (BMD) increased in 48% of the participants. Knee BMD and lower extremity total bone mineral showed significant decreases (P < 0.003 and P < 0.02, respectively), but increases were seen in 33% and 26% at the respective sites. Individuals with tetraplegia had significantly lower values across all regions (P < 0.0001), and changes were significantly different compared with paraplegia (P < 0.0001). Bone values and changes in men vs women, despite the small sample of women, showed highly significant differences (P < 0.003–0.002). Conclusion: Chronic effects of complete SCI do not exclusively result in continued loss of BMD or a static state of lowered BMD; gain in BMD may occur. The nature and magnitude of the effects of complete SCI on BMD vary by site, with sex and level of injury, which has implications for treatment and its assessment. PMID:19086712

  4. Steadiness of Spinal Regions during Single-Leg Standing in Older Adults with and without Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Chiang, Pei-Tzu; Lee, Pei-Yun; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP) and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above) with chronic LBP and 13 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic volunteers participated in this study. Data collection was conducted in a university research laboratory. Measurements were steadiness index of spinal regions (trunk, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and pelvis) during single-leg standing including relative holding time (RHT) and relative standstill time (RST), and clinical balance tests (timed up and go test and 5-repetition sit to stand test). The LBP group had a statistically significantly smaller RHT than the control group, regardless of one leg stance on the painful or non-painful sides. The RSTs on the painful side leg in the LBP group were not statistically significantly different from the average RSTs of both legs in the control group; however, the RSTs on the non-painful side leg in the LBP group were statistically significantly smaller than those in the control group for the trunk, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant intra-group differences were found in the RHTs and RSTs between the painful and non-painful side legs in the LBP group. Measurements of clinical balance tests also showed insignificant weak to moderate correlations with steadiness index. In conclusion, older adults with chronic LBP demonstrated decreased spinal steadiness not only in the symptomatic lumbar spine but also in the other spinal regions within the kinetic chain of the spine. When treating older adults with chronic LBP, clinicians may also need to examine their balance performance and spinal steadiness during balance challenging tests. PMID:26024534

  5. Cervical Epidural Abscess: Rare Complication of Bacterial Endocarditis with Streptococcus Viridans: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Although many patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complain of joint, muscle, and back pain, infections at these sights are rare. The incidence of spinal abscess in cervical spine complicating endocarditis is very rare. Although the surgical management is the mainstay of treatment, conservative treatment can get success in selected patients. We report a patient with cervical epidural abscess due to Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Both epidural abscess and IE were managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics for 8 weeks, with recovery. It is important to remind spinal epidural abscess can occur in those patients with bacterial endocarditis. PMID:25883665

  6. Less incidence of coronary artery disease in general anesthesia compared to spinal-epidural anesthesia after total knee replacement: 90-day follow-up period by a population-based dataset.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Yang; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective and safe procedure. However, large-scale study to compare the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) after spinal or epidural anesthesia (SA-EA) or general anesthesia (GA) for TKR has not ever been conducted. To do so, we studied a population-based dataset from the Taiwan National Health Research Institute and hypothesized that the incidence of CAD might be different with regional than with general anesthesia. The risk of CAD-related events during a 90-day follow-up period among patients who received TKR under SA-EA or GA was evaluated in the present study. A total of 1500 patients from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database who underwent TKR from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2006, were allocated into two groups. Group 1 included 1012 patients who received SA-EA during TKR procedure. Group 2 included 488 patients who received GA during this procedure. The number of patients who developed CAD during the 90-day follow-up period was 31 (3.1 %) in group 1 and 6 (1.2 %) in group 2. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of IHD-free cumulative survival rate during the 90-day follow-up period for patients who underwent TKR was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. The hazard ratio for the occurrence of CAD was 2.80 (95 % CI 1.16-6.78), and the hazard was higher for patients who received SA-EA than for patients who received GA after adjusted potential confounding factors. After the performance of TKR, patients had a potentially increased risk for CAD in SA-EA compared to GA during the 90-day follow-up period. PMID:25761988

  7. A Retained Epidural Catheter Fragment Treated by Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Oda, Takaaki; Tono, Osamu; Suetsugu, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The breakage of an epidural catheter is an extremely rare complication. We describe a unique case where a retained epidural catheter fragment after epidural anesthesia was treated by surgery. The epidural catheter broke during its removal, requiring surgery to remove the retained catheter. Intraoperatively, the removal of the catheter was attempted by simple traction, but was impossible because of the adhesion. The adhesion of the dura mater surface was carefully exfoliated and the successful removal of the catheter was accomplished. Conventionally, it was said that this follow-up was enough for the retained catheter. However, if a catheter is retained within the spinal canal, surgical removal should thus be considered before the adhesion advances.

  8. A Retained Epidural Catheter Fragment Treated by Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Oda, Takaaki; Tono, Osamu; Suetsugu, Hiroyuki; Doi, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    The breakage of an epidural catheter is an extremely rare complication. We describe a unique case where a retained epidural catheter fragment after epidural anesthesia was treated by surgery. The epidural catheter broke during its removal, requiring surgery to remove the retained catheter. Intraoperatively, the removal of the catheter was attempted by simple traction, but was impossible because of the adhesion. The adhesion of the dura mater surface was carefully exfoliated and the successful removal of the catheter was accomplished. Conventionally, it was said that this follow-up was enough for the retained catheter. However, if a catheter is retained within the spinal canal, surgical removal should thus be considered before the adhesion advances. PMID:26097665

  9. Low back pain due to spinal chronic subdural hematoma mimicking intradural tumor in the lumbar area: a case report and literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serdar Kahraman; Sait ?irin; Hakan Kayali; Ilker Solmaz; Altay Bedük

    2003-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has dramatically enhanced the ability to diagnose spinal mass lesions, some lesions remain difficult to diagnose. We report a spinal chronic subdural hematoma that comprised the cauda equina ventrally in the lumbar area in a 51-year-old man who was under anticoagulant therapy. Low back pain was the only symptom of the patient after sports activity. Surgical

  10. Epidural lornoxicam administration – innocent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basak Canduz; Huseyin Aktug; Ömür Mavio?lu; Yüksel Erkin; Ozlem Yilmaz; Yi?it Uyan?kgil; Hülya Korkmaz; Meral Baka

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to determine the analgesic efficacy and clincial or histopathological neurotoxicity of epidural single-dose lornoxicam. Caudal epidural catheters were inserted into 28 rabbits, divided into four groups, on day 1. Pain latency and degree of motor and sensory loss for each animal for different concentrations of lornoxicam were determined on day 2. All animals were sacrificed on day 3

  11. A feasibility study of chiropractic spinal manipulation versus sham spinal manipulation for chronic otitis media with effusion in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Sawyer; Roni L. Evans; Patrick D. Boline; Richard Branson; Anne Spicer

    1999-01-01

    Background: Pediatric otitis media with effusion is a common and costly condition. Although chiropractors have anecdotally claimed success in treating otitis media, there is little research to support their claims. Objective: A pilot study was undertaken for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of conducting a full-scale randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for

  12. Focused review: spinal anesthesia in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Henke, Vanessa G; Bateman, Brian T; Leffert, Lisa R

    2013-09-01

    Spinal anesthesia is widely regarded as a reasonable anesthetic option for cesarean delivery in severe preeclampsia, provided there is no indwelling epidural catheter or contraindication to neuraxial anesthesia. Compared with healthy parturients, those with severe preeclampsia experience less frequent, less severe spinal-induced hypotension. In severe preeclampsia, spinal anesthesia may cause a higher incidence of hypotension than epidural anesthesia; however, this hypotension is typically easily treated and short lived and has not been linked to clinically significant differences in outcomes. In this review, we describe the advantages and limitations of spinal anesthesia in the setting of severe preeclampsia and the evidence guiding intraoperative hemodynamic management. PMID:23868886

  13. Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons Following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Jin; Itzhak Fischer; Alan Tessler; John D. Houle

    2002-01-01

    Transplants of fibroblasts genetically modified to express BDNF (Fb\\/BDNF) have been shown to promote regeneration of rubrospinal axons and recovery of forelimb function when placed acutely into the injured cervical spinal cord of adult rats. Here we investigated whether Fb\\/BDNF cells could stimulate supraspinal axon regeneration and recovery after chronic (4 week) injury. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats received a complete

  14. Respiratory motor function in seated and supine positions in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Terson de Paleville, Daniela; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Aslan, Sevda C.; Folz, Rodney J.; McKay, William B.; Ovechkin, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    This case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pulmonary function in individuals with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is affected by posture. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (PImax) and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (PEmax) were obtained from 27 individuals with chronic motor-complete (n=13, complete group) and motor-incomplete (n=14, incomplete group) C2-T12 SCI in both seated and supine positions. Seated-to-supine changes in spirometrical (FVC and FEV1) and airway pressure (PImax and PEmax) outcome measures had different dynamics when compared in complete and incomplete groups. Patients with motor-complete SCI had tendency to increase spirometrical outcomes in supine position showing significant increase in FVC (p=.007), whereas patients in incomplete group exhibited decrease in these values with significant decreases in FEV1 (p=.002). At the same time, the airway pressure values were decreased in supine position in both groups with significant decrease in PEmax (p=.031) in complete group and significant decrease in PImax (p=.042) in incomplete group. In addition, seated-to-supine percent change of PImax was strongly correlated with neurological level of motor-complete SCI (?= ?.77, p=.002). These results indicate that postural effects on respiratory performance in patients with SCI can depend on severity and neurological level of SCI, and that these effects differ depending on respiratory tasks. Further studies with adequate sample size are needed to investigate these effects in clinically specific groups and to study the mechanisms of such effects on specific respiratory outcome measures. PMID:25169115

  15. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) modulates neurological function when intravenously infused in acute and, chronically injured spinal cord of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Renno, Waleed M; Al-Khaledi, Ghanim; Mousa, Alyaa; Karam, Shaima M; Abul, Habib; Asfar, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe and long lasting motor and sensory deficits, chronic pain, and autonomic dysreflexia. (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown to produce neuroprotective effect in a broad range of neurodegenerative disease animal models. This study designed to test the efficacy of intravenous infusion of EGCG for 36 h, in acutely injured rats' spinal cord: within first 4 h post-injury and, in chronically SC injured rats: after one year of injury. Functional outcomes measured using standard BBB scale, The Louisville Swim Scale (LSS) and, pain behavior assessment tests. 72 Female adult rats subjected to moderate thoracic SCI using MASCIS Impactor, blindly randomized as the following: (I) Acute SCI + EGCG (II) Acute SCI + saline. (III) Chronic SCI + EGCG. (IV) Chronic SCI + saline and, sham SCI animals. EGCG i.v. treatment of acute and, chronic SCI animals resulted in significantly better recovery of motor and sensory functions, BBB and LSS (P < 0.005) and (P < 0.05) respectively. Tactile allodynia, mechanical nociception (P < 0.05) significantly improved. Paw withdrawal and, tail flick latencies increase significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, in the EGCG treated acute SCI animals the percentage of lesion size area significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) and, the number of neurons in the spinal cord increased (P < 0.001). Percent areas of GAP-43 and GFAP immunohistochemistry showed significant (P < 0.05) increase. We conclude that the therapeutic window of opportunity for EGCG to depict neurological recovery in SCI animals, is viable up to one year post SCI when intravenously infused for 36 h. PMID:24071567

  16. Effects of spinal manipulation versus therapeutic exercise on adults with chronic low back pain: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Merepeza, Alban

    2014-01-01

    Background Context: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a prevalent disorder that has a significant burden to society in terms of loss of work time and increased economic cost. Two common treatment choices of intervention for CLBP are spinal manipulation and prescribed exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of spinal manipulation vs prescribed exercise for patients diagnosed with CLBP. Studies that compared head-to-head spinal manipulation to an exercise group were included in this review. Methods: A search of the current literature was conducted using a keyword process in CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials Database, Medline, and Embase. The search was conducted on, and included studies available up to August 29th 2014. Studies were included based on PICOS criteria 1) individuals with CLBP defined as lasting 12 weeks or longer; 2) spinal manipulation performed by a health care practitioner; 3) prescribed exercise for the treatment of CLBP and monitored by a health care practitioner; 4) measurable clinical outcomes for reducing pain, disability or improving function; 5) randomized controlled trials. The quality of included articles was determined by the author using the criteria developed and used by the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Results: Three randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria of this systematic review and were included in this review. The outcomes used in these studies included Disability Indexes, Pain Scales and function improvement scales. The results included a mix of effects with one study finding spinal manipulation as more effective and another finding the exercises more so. The third study found both interventions offering equal effects in the long term. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this systematic review there is no conclusive evidence that clearly favours spinal manipulation or exercise as more effective in treatment of CLBP. More studies are needed to further explore which intervention is more effective. PMID:25550671

  17. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  18. Warming Moxibustion Relieves Chronic Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats: Relations to Spinal Dynorphin and Orphanin-FQ System

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Liu, Hui-Rong; Yi, Tao; Wu, Lu-Yi; Liu, Xi-Ru; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Yin; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Huan-Gan

    2013-01-01

    As a twin therapy of acupuncture in traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion has shown its effects in relieving abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and IBS rat models, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. In this paper, we determined the role of spinal dynorphin and orphanin-FQ system in analgesic effect of warming moxibustion (WM) on chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH) in IBS-like rat model. Here, we show that (1) repeated WM at bilateral ST25 and ST37 acupoints markedly attenuated the abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in CVH rats; (2) intrathecal administration of ? receptor antagonist prior to WM significantly attenuated the WM analgesia and dynorphinA (1-17) enhanced the WM analgesia. WM significantly reinforced the upregulation of spinal dynorphin mRNA/protein and ? receptor mRNA levels in CVH rats; (3) intrathecal administration of orphanin-FQ receptor antagonist prior to WM significantly attenuated the WM analgesia and orphanin-FQ enhanced the WM analgesia. WM reinforced the upregulation of spinal orphanin-FQ mRNA/protein and orphanin-FQ receptor mRNA levels in CVH rats. These results suggest that moxibustion may relieve CVH at least in part by activating spinal dynorphin and orphanin-FQ system. PMID:23573158

  19. Warming Moxibustion Relieves Chronic Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats: Relations to Spinal Dynorphin and Orphanin-FQ System.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Liu, Hui-Rong; Yi, Tao; Wu, Lu-Yi; Liu, Xi-Ru; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Yin; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Huan-Gan

    2013-01-01

    As a twin therapy of acupuncture in traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion has shown its effects in relieving abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and IBS rat models, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. In this paper, we determined the role of spinal dynorphin and orphanin-FQ system in analgesic effect of warming moxibustion (WM) on chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH) in IBS-like rat model. Here, we show that (1) repeated WM at bilateral ST25 and ST37 acupoints markedly attenuated the abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in CVH rats; (2) intrathecal administration of ? receptor antagonist prior to WM significantly attenuated the WM analgesia and dynorphinA (1-17) enhanced the WM analgesia. WM significantly reinforced the upregulation of spinal dynorphin mRNA/protein and ? receptor mRNA levels in CVH rats; (3) intrathecal administration of orphanin-FQ receptor antagonist prior to WM significantly attenuated the WM analgesia and orphanin-FQ enhanced the WM analgesia. WM reinforced the upregulation of spinal orphanin-FQ mRNA/protein and orphanin-FQ receptor mRNA levels in CVH rats. These results suggest that moxibustion may relieve CVH at least in part by activating spinal dynorphin and orphanin-FQ system. PMID:23573158

  20. Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Guertin, Pierre A

    2014-01-01

    Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs-from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS) networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns-specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of spinal cord-injured (SCI) should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic SCI patients. PMID:24910602

  1. What’s a nice patient like you doing with a complication like this? Diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of spinal hematoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terese T. Horlocker

    2004-01-01

    PINAL hematoma is a rare and potentially catastrophic complication of spinal or epidural anesthesia. The actual incidence of neurologic dysfunction resulting from hemorrhagic complications associated with central neural blockade is unknown. In an extensive review of the literature, Tryba identified 13 cases of spinal hematoma following 850,000 epidural anesthetics and seven cases among 650,000 spinal techniques. 1 Based on these

  2. Supression of chronic central pain by superoxide dismutase in rats with spinal cord injury: Inhibition of the NMDA receptor implicated

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YONG-GANG; MU, HONG-JIE; LI, ZHEN; MA, JIA-HAI; WANG, YUE-LAN

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is used to manage chronic pain, including neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, data regarding the clinical effectiveness are conflicting and the neurophysiological mechanism of SOD has yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether SOD relieved chronic central pain (CCP) following spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible underlying mechanisms. A CCP model was established using the Allen method and the CCP of the rats was measured using the paw withdrawal threshold. SOD was administered intraperitoneally following the establishment of CCP as a result of SCI. The results demonstrated that SOD relieved CCP in rats following SCI. In addition, the expression of spinal phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptor subunit 1 (pNR-1) was inhibited in the CCP rats that had been treated with SOD. These observations indicated that SOD reduced mechanical allodynia and attenuated the enhancement of spinal pNR1 expression in rats with CCP. In addition, the results indicated that superoxide, produced via xanthine oxidase, and the participation of superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) as a precursor of peroxynitrite in NMDA, were involved in the mediation of central sensitization. Therefore, the observations support the hypothesis that SOD may have a potential therapeutic role for the treatment of CCP following SCI via the manipulation of superoxide and NO. PMID:25187811

  3. Patterns of chronic adhesive arachnoiditis following Myodil myelography: the significance of spinal canal stenosis and previous surgery.

    PubMed

    Laitt, R; Jackson, A; Isherwood, I

    1996-08-01

    109 patients who had undergone Myodil myelography on at least one occasion were identified. The patterns of lumbar nerve root distribution in this group were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between these patterns and the presence of spinal stenosis or previous surgery was investigated. Chronic adhesive arachnoiditic nerve root patterns were seen in 68 patients and were classified into three groups according to Delemarter et al. Central clumping of nerve roots (type 1) and complete opacification of the thecal sac (type 3), extending over at least one vertebral level, were significantly related to spinal stenosis at an adjacent level (p < 0.0001). Peripheral adhesion of nerve roots to the theca (type 2) was significantly related to previous surgery at the level of abnormality (p < 0.00005). Only a single case of arachnoiditic nerve root patterns was seen in the absence of stenosis or previous surgery. We conclude that chronic adhesive arachnoiditis is significantly related to previous Myodil myelography in the presence of spinal stenosis or previous surgery but that Myodil alone rarely produces these changes. PMID:8949669

  4. Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios [University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine (Greece); Soultanis, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 1st Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Batistaki, Chrysanthi [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Kelekis, Alexis, E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University of Athens, 2nd Radiology Department, Attikon University Hospital (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

  5. Adaptive Locomotor Plasticity in Chronic Spinal Cats after Ankle Extensors Neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent J. G. Bouyer; Patrick J. Whelan; Keir G. Pearson; Serge Rossignol

    2001-01-01

    After lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LGS) nerve section in intact cats, a rapid locomotor compensation involving synergistic muscles occurs and is accompanied by spinal reflex changes. Only some of these changes are maintained after acute spinal- ization, indicating the involvement of descending pathways in functional recovery. Here, we address whether the develop- ment of these adaptive changes is dependent on descending pathways.

  6. Unspecific chronic low back pain – a simple functional classification tested in a case series of patients with spinal deformities

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Up to now, chronic low back pain without radicular symptoms is not classified and attributed in international literature as being "unspecific". For specific bracing of this patient group we use simple physical tests to predict the brace type the patient is most likely to benefit from. Based on these physical tests we have developed a simple functional classification of "unspecific" low back pain in patients with spinal deformities. Methods Between January 2006 and July 2007 we have tested 130 patients (116 females and 14 males) with spinal deformities (average age 45 years, ranging from 14 years to 69) and chronic unspecific low back pain (pain for > 24 months) along with the indication for brace treatment for chronic unspecific low back pain. Some of the patients had symptoms of spinal claudication (n = 16). The "sagittal realignment test" (SRT) was applied, a lumbar hyperextension test, and the "sagittal delordosation test" (SDT). Additionally 3 female patients with spondylolisthesis were tested, including one female with symptoms of spinal claudication and 2 of these patients were 14 years of age and the other 43yrs old at the time of testing. Results 117 Patients reported significant pain release in the SRT and 13 in the SDT (>/= 2 steps in the Roland & Morris VRS). 3 Patients had no significant pain release in both of the tests (< 2 steps in the Roland & Morris VRS). Pain intensity was high (3,29) before performing the physical tests (VRS-scale 0–5) and low (1,37) while performing the physical test for the whole sample of patients. The differences where highly significant in the Wilcoxon test (z = -3,79; p < 0,0001). In the 16 patients who did not respond to the SRT in the manual investigation we found hypermobility at L5/S1 or a spondylolisthesis at level L5/S1. In the other patients who responded well to the SRT loss of lumbar lordosis was the main issue, a finding which, according to scientific literature, correlates well with low back pain. The 3 patients who did not respond to either test had a fair pain reduction in a generally delordosing brace with an isolated small foam pad inserted at the level of L 2/3, leading to a lordosation at this region. Discussion With the exception of 3 patients (2.3%) a clear distribution to one of the two classes has been possible. 117 patients were supplied successfully with a sagittal realignment test-brace (physio-logic® brace) and 13 with a sagittal delordosing brace (spondylogic® brace). There were patients with scoliosies and hyperkyphosiesbrace). Therefore a clear distribution of the patients from this sample to either chronic postural or chronic instability back pain was possible. In 2.3% a combined chronic low back pain from the findings obtained seems reasonable. Conclusion Chronic unspecific low back pain is possible to clearly be classified physically. This functional classification is necessary to decide on which specific conservative approach (physical therapy, braces) should be used. Other factors than spinal deformities contribute to chronic low back pain. PMID:19222845

  7. MR of Leptomeningeal Spinal and Posterior Fossa Amyloid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Horowitz; Chinnamma Thomas; Gregory Gruener; Sucha Nand; John F. Shea

    Summary: We report an unusual cause of leptomeningeal MR enhancement, amyloid, along the surfaces of the spinal cord and brain stem and in the spinal subarachnoid space, with sacral intradural and epidural deposition. Type I familial amyloid polyneuropathy may cause amyloid depo- sition along the leptomeninges of the spinal cord and brain in addition to the visceral organs and the

  8. Spinally applied ketamine or morphine attenuate peripheral inflammation and hyperalgesia in acute and chronic phases of experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Weber, Konstanze; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Bräuer, Rolf; Schaible, Hans-Georg

    2010-03-01

    Inflammation causes sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive neurons. Pharmacological modulation of the latter has successfully been used for clinical pain relief. In particular, inhibitors of the NMDA glutamate receptor such as ketamine and agonists at the mu-opioid receptor such as morphine are broadly used. Besides driving the propagation of pain signals, spinal mechanisms are also discussed to modulate inflammation in the periphery. Here, we tested the hypothesis that intrathecally applied ketamine or morphine not only reduce pain-related behavior, but also attenuate induction and maintenance of the inflammatory response in a model of chronic antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Ketamine, morphine or vehicle was applied to the spinal cords of anesthesized animals with AIA. Swelling and histopathological changes were assessed after 6h (acute phase). Intrathecal catheters were implanted in another set of animals with AIA and substances were applied continuously. During the observation period of 21 days, inflammation and pain-related behavior were assessed. Ketamine and morphine significantly reduced arthritis severity as indicated by reduced joint swelling, but even more intriguingly by reduced infiltration with inflammatory cells and joint destruction in the acute and the chronic phase of arthritis. Morphine showed strong antinociceptive effects in the acute phase only, while the newly established effective dose for ketamine in a continuous application design reduced hyperalgesia in the acute and the chronic stage. In conclusion, both compounds exhibit anti-inflammatory effects during induction and maintenance of arthritis when applied intrathecally. These data thus propose a role of spinal NMDA- and opioid-receptors in the neuronal control of immune-mediated inflammation. PMID:20006700

  9. Postoperative intraspinal opioid analgesia after caesarean section; a randomised comparison of subarachnoid morphine and epidural pethidine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Paech; T. J. G. Pavy; C. E. P. Orlikowski; J. Kuh; S. T. Yeo; K. Lim; S. F. Evans

    2000-01-01

    A randomised, blinded clinical trial was performed to evaluate intraspinal opioid analgesic techniques after caesarean section. Healthy term parturients having elective caesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia were allocated to one of three groups. Postoperative analgesia, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, was provided using either pethidine patient-controlled epidural analgesia (group PCEA) or subarachnoid morphine 200 ?g, the latter supplemented as required

  10. Role of NKCC1 and KCC2 in the development of chronic neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hasbargen, Tera; Ahmed, Mostafa M; Miranpuri, Gurwattan; Li, Lin; Kahle, Kristopher T; Resnick, Daniel; Sun, Dandan

    2010-06-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common problem following spinal cord injury (SCI). Effective analgesic therapy has been hampered by the lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying post-SCI neuropathic pain. Current evidence suggests GABAergic spinal nociceptive processing is a critical functional node in this complex phenotype, representing a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Normal GABA neurotransmission is dependent on precise regulation of the level of intracellular chloride, which is determined by the coordinated activities of two cation/chloride cotransporters (CCCs) in the SLC12 family: the inwardly directed Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) and outwardly directed K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 2 (KCC2). Inhibition of NKCC1 with its potent antagonist bumetanide reduces pain behavior in rats following SCI. Moreover, the injured spinal cord tissues exhibit a significant transient upregulation of NKCC1 protein and a concurrent downregulation of KCC2 protein. Thus, imbalanced function of NKCC1 and KCC2 may contribute to the induction and maintenance of the chronic neuropathic pain following SCI. PMID:20536931

  11. Four Year Follow-up of Dual Electrode Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Aló, Kenneth M; Redko, Vladimir; Charnov, Jeffery

    2002-04-01

    This paper reports on 80 patients using dual electrode, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) over a four-year period Implant status, stimulation mode, anode-cathode configuration (array), cathode position, paresthesia overlap, explantation rates, complications, Visual Analog Scores (VAS), and overall satisfaction were examined in patients implanted with dual 8 contact, staggered, percutaneous electrodes. All patients had undergone implantation for chronic axial and extremity pain [e.g., Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS), Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)]. Outcomes were evaluated in view of our previous reports in this same group at 24 and 30 months (1,2). Data was collected by a disinterested third party. At 48 months, 18 of the original 80 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 62 patients contacted, 33 remained implanted and 29 (47%) had been explanted. After an average evaluation of 85 arrays (PainDoc, Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Plano, Texas), 88% of patients reported using one or two "best" arrays (bipolar or guarded tripolar) to maintain favorable paresthesia overlap (89%), VAS reduction (8.1 to 4.9), and overall patient satisfaction (63%). These arrays were most commonly positioned about the physiologic midline of the COL3-4 vertebral segments for upper extremity pain, and the T9-10 vertebral segments for low back and lower extremity pain. In contrast to our initial reports where essentially all patients preferred more than two arrays to maintain "best" paresthesia overlap and outcome, only 12% of these same patients maintained this trend in this long-term follow-up study. The arrays most commonly selected long-term as the "best" ones (88% of all electrodes) were narrow (adjacent contact) bipoles and guarded cathode tripoles (< 8 contacts). Thirty-five percent of patients with thoracic implants achieved paresthesia in the low back at 48 months. Explantation rates and overall patient satisfaction were significantly affected by painful radio frequency (RF) antenna coupling. This data supports the efficacy of dual electrodes in optimizing long-term SCS paresthesia overlap and complex pain outcomes. PMID:22151846

  12. Reliability and validity of the capabilities of upper extremity test (CUE-T) in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Marino, Ralph J; Kern, Stephen B; Leiby, Benjamin; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Mulcahey, M J

    2015-07-01

    Objective To determine the reliability and validity of the capabilities of upper extremity test (CUE-T), a measure of functional limitations, in patients with chronic tetraplegia. Design Repeated measures. Setting Outpatient rehabilitation center. Participants Fifty subjects (36 male/14 female) with spinal cord injury (SCI) of ?1-year duration participated. Subjects were 17-81 years old (mean 48.1 ± 18.2); neurological levels ranged from C2 through T6, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grades A-D. Interventions Not applicable. Outcome measures Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), weighted kappa and repeatability values for CUE-T; Spearman correlations of CUE-T with upper extremity motor scores (UEMS), and self-care and mobility portions of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, vIII (SCIM III). Results Score ranges for UEMS were 8-50, CUE-T 7-135, self-care SCIM 0-20, and mobility SCIM 0-40. The ICC values for total, right, and left side scores were excellent (0.97-0.98; 95% confidence interval 0.96-0.99). Item weighted kappa values were ?0.60 for all but five items, four of which were right and left pronation and supination. Repeatability of total score was 10.8 points, right and left sides 6.3 and 6.1 points. Spearman correlations of the total CUE-T with the UEMS and SCIM self-care and mobility scores were 0.83, 0.70, and 0.55 respectively. Conclusions The CUE-T displays excellent test-retest reliability, and good-excellent correlation with impairment and capacity measures in persons with chronic SCI. After revising pronation and supination test procedures, the sensitivity to change should be determined. PMID:25297342

  13. Unintended Complication of Intracranial Subdural Hematoma after Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ki; Kim, Kee D.; Lim, Young Jin

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a known interventional technique for the management of spinal pain. As with any procedures, PEN is associated with complications ranging from mild to more serious ones. We present a case of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN requiring surgical evacuation. We review the relevant literature and discuss possible complications of PEN and patholophysiology of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN. PMID:24851156

  14. Regulation of Neurotrophin-3 and Interleukin-1? and Inhibition of Spinal Glial Activation Contribute to the Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in Chronic Neuropathic Pain States of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wenzhan; Wang, Wansheng; Xi, Haiyan; He, Rong; Gao, Liping; Jiang, Songhe

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that neurotrophin-3, interleukin-1?, and spinal glia are involved in neuropathic pain derived from dorsal root ganglia to spinal cord. Electroacupuncture is widely accepted to treat chronic pain, but the precise mechanism underlying the analgesic effect of EA has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, the mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were recorded. We used immunofluorescence and western blots methods to investigate the effect of EA on the expression of NT-3 and IL-1? in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats; we also examined the expression of spinal GFAP and OX-42 in spinal cord. In present study, the MWT and TWL of CCI group rats were lower than those in the Sham CCI group rats, but EA treatment increased the pain thresholds. Furtherly, we found that EA upregulates the expression of NT-3 in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats, while EA downregulates the expression of IL-1?. Additionally, immunofluorescence exhibited that CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes was inhibited significantly by EA treatment. These results demonstrated that the analgesic effect of EA may be achieved through promoting the neural protection of NT-3 as well as the inhibition of IL-1? production and spinal glial activity. PMID:26161124

  15. Activation of protein kinase C in the spinal cord produces mechanical hyperalgesia by activating glutamate receptors, but does not mediate chronic muscle-induced hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sluka, KA; Audette, KM

    2006-01-01

    Background Protein kinase C (PKC) in the spinal cord appears to mediate chronic injury-induced pain, but not acute nociceptive pain. Muscle insult results in increased release of glutamate spinally, and hyperalgesia that is reversed by spinal blockade of NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Therefore, we hypothesized that spinal activation of PKC 1) mediates the late phase of hyperalgesia 1 week after muscle insult, and 2) produces mechanical hyperalgesia through activation of NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Results Rats were implanted with intrathecal catheters for delivery of drugs directly to the spinal cord. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the paw were determined using von Frey filaments. Intrathecal phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate (PDBu) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the paw that was prevented by pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Pretreatment with an NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5) or a AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist (NBQX) prevented the decrease in mechanical withdrawal threshold by PDBu. Two injections of acidic saline in the gastrocnemius muscle decreased the mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the paw bilaterally 24 h and 1 week after the second injection. However, blockade PKC in the spinal cord had no effect on the decreased withdrawal thresholds of the paw when compared to vehicle controls. Conclusion Spinal activation of PKC produces mechanical hyperalgesia of the paw that depends on activation of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. Chronic muscle-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, on the other hand, does not utilize spinal PKC. PMID:16584564

  16. A randomised controlled trial of preventive spinal manipulation with and without a home exercise program for patients with chronic neck pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanne Martel; Claude Dugas; Jean-Daniel Dubois; Martin Descarreaux

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that supervised home exercises, combined or not with manual therapy, can be beneficial for patients with non-specific chronic neck pain (NCNP). The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacy of preventive spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) compared to a no treatment group in NCNP patients. Another objective is to assess the efficacy of SMT with and

  17. Longitudinal study of bone loss in chronic spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Karapolat, Inanc; Karapolat, Hale Uzumcugil; Kirazli, Yesim; Capaci, Kazim; Akkoc, Yesim; Kumanlioglu, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This prospective longitudinal study evaluated the changes in bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density of spinal cord injury patients over 3?years. We also assessed the relationships among the bone mineral density, bone metabolism, and clinical data of spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] We assessed the clinical data (i.e., immobilization due to surgery, neurological status, neurological level, and extent of lesion) in 20 spinal cord injury patients. Bone mineral density, and hormonal and biochemical markers of the patients were measured at 0, 6, 12, and 36 months. [Results] Femoral neck T score decreased significantly at 36 months (p < 0.05). Among the hormonal markers, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D were significantly elevated, while bone turnover markers (i.e., deoxypyridinoline and osteocalcin) were significantly decreased at 12 and 36 months (p < 0.05). [Conclusion] Bone mineral density of the femoral neck decreases significantly during the long-term follow-up of patients with spinal cord injury due to osteoporosis. This could be due to changes in hormonal and bone turnover markers.

  18. Gliopathy Ensures Persistent Inflammation and Chronic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2009-01-01

    Research focused on improving recovery of function, including the reduction of central neuropathic pain (CNP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is essential. After SCI, regional neuropathic pain syndromes above, at and below the level or spinal injury develop and are thought to have different mechanisms, but may share common dysfunctional glial mechanisms. Detloff et al, 2008 describes events in the lumbar region of the spinal cord after a midthoracic SCI injury, the so called “below-level” pain and compares the findings to peripheral nerve lesion findings. This commentary briefly reviews glial contributions and intracellular signaling mechanisms, both neuronal and glial, that provide the substrate for CNP after SCI, including the persistent glial production of factors that can maintain sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in segments remote from the spinal injury; ie. dorsal horn hyperexcitability to formerly non noxious stimuli that become noxious after SCI resulting in allodynia. The term “gliopathy” is proposed to describe the dysfunctional and maladaptive response of glial cells, specifically astrocytes and microglia, to neural injury that is initiated by the sudden injury induced increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate and concomitant production of several proinflammatory molecules. It is important to understand the roles that different glia play in “gliopathy,” a condition that appears to persist after SCI. Furthermore, targeted treatment of gliopathy will attenuate mechanical allodynia in both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. PMID:18708053

  19. Quality of Life after Active Urological Management of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Eastern Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hann-Chorng Kuo

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Motor cycle accidents are the major cause of head injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) in Taiwan. The incidence of SCI in Hualien county is the highest in the world. In a community hospital in Hualien, active urological management was carried out for SCI patients with voiding dysfunctions and urological complications. This study was conducted to assess the success

  20. Intraspinal stimulation for bladder voiding in cats before and after chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Pikov, Victor; Bullara, Leo; McCreery, Douglas B

    2010-01-01

    The long-term objective of this study is to develop neural prostheses for people with spinal cord injuries who are unable to voluntarily control their bladder. This feasibility study was performed in 22 adult cats. We implanted an array of microelectrodes into locations in the sacral spinal cord that are involved in the control of micturition reflexes. The effect of microelectrode stimulation was studied under light Propofol anesthesia at monthly intervals for up to 14 months. We found that electrical stimulation in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus at S2 level or in adjacent ventrolateral white matter produced bladder contractions insufficient for inducing voiding, while stimulation at or immediately dorsal to the dorsal gray commissure at S1 level produced strong (at least 20 mmHg) bladder contractions as well as strong (at least 40 mm Hg) external urethral sphincter relaxation, resulting in bladder voiding in 14 animals. In a subset of three animals, spinal cord transection was performed. For several months after the transection, intraspinal stimulation continued to be similarly or even more effective in inducing the bladder voiding as before the transection. We speculate that in the absence of the supraspinal connections, the plasticity in the local spinal circuitry played a role in the improved responsiveness to intraspinal stimulation. PMID:18057503

  1. Chronic pediatric asthma and chiropractic spinal manipulation: A prospective clinical series and randomized clinical pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bronfort; Roni L. Evans; Paul Kubic; Patty Filkin

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: The first objective was to determine if chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in addition to optimal medical management resulted in clinically important changes in asthma-related outcomes in children. The second objective was to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale, randomized clinical trial in terms of recruitment, evaluation, treatment, and ability to deliver a sham SMT procedure. Study Design:

  2. Gliopathy ensures persistent inflammation and chronic pain after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hulsebosch, Claire E

    2008-11-01

    Research focused on improving recovery of function, including the reduction of central neuropathic pain (CNP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is essential. After SCI, regional neuropathic pain syndromes above, at and below the level or spinal injury develop and are thought to have different mechanisms, but may share common dysfunctional glial mechanisms. Detloff et al., [Detloff, M.R., Fisher, L.C., McGaughy, V., Longbrake, E.E., Popovich, P.G., Basso, D.M., Remote activation of microglia and pro-inflammatory cytokines predict the onset and severity of below-level neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury in rats. Exp. Neurol. (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.04.009.] describe events in the lumbar region of the spinal cord after a midthoracic SCI injury, the so called "below-level" pain and compares the findings to peripheral nerve lesion findings. This commentary briefly reviews glial contributions and intracellular signaling mechanisms, both neuronal and glial, that provide the substrate for CNP after SCI, including the persistent glial production of factors that can maintain sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in segments remote from the spinal injury; ie. dorsal horn hyperexcitability to formerly non noxious stimuli that become noxious after SCI resulting in allodynia. The term "gliopathy" is proposed to describe the dysfunctional and maladaptive response of glial cells, specifically astrocytes and microglia, to neural injury that is initiated by the sudden injury induced increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate and concomitant production of several proinflammatory molecules. It is important to understand the roles that different glia play in "gliopathy", a condition that appears to persist after SCI. Furthermore, targeted treatment of gliopathy will attenuate mechanical allodynia in both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. PMID:18708053

  3. Central effects of epidural and intravenous clonidine in patients anesthetized with enflurane/nitrous oxide. An electroencephalographic analysis.

    PubMed

    De Kock, M; Martin, N; Scholtes, J L

    1992-09-01

    Epidural clonidine produces regional anesthesia as well as sedation and a decrease in anesthetic requirements. To assess these effects, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded after epidural or intravenous (iv) injection of clonidine during enflurane/N2O anesthesia. Eighteen ASA physical status 1 women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy were allocated randomly to receive epidural clonidine (8 micrograms.kg-1 in 4 ml over 2 min) and iv saline (10 ml over 14 min); or epidural saline (4 ml over 2 min) and iv clonidine (8 micrograms.kg-1 in 10 ml over 14 min); or epidural saline (4 ml over 2 min) and iv saline (10 ml over 14 min). The level of anesthesia was kept constant beginning 10 min before and until 44 min after epidural injection. EEG power spectral analysis was performed throughout the study period using a 2-min average of 8-9-s epochs. Clonidine significantly reduced EEG total power only after epidural administration (P less than 0.05). Relative power increased in the delta band in both the epidural and iv clonidine groups (P less than 0.001). The depression of the total EEG power after epidural injection could be explained neither by systemic absorption alone nor by hemodynamic variations. It may represent the contribution of the direct spinal action of this alpha 2-adrenergic agonist to general anesthesia. PMID:1519783

  4. Chronic prenatal stress epigenetically modifies spinal cord BDNF expression to induce sex specific visceral hypersensitivity in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Winston, John H.; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with abdomen pain as one of the primary symptoms. The etiology of IBS remains unknown. Epidemiological studies found that a subset of these patients have a history of adverse early-life events. We tested the hypothesis that chronic prenatal stress (CPS) epigenetically enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in spinal cord to aggravate colon sensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD) differentially in male and female offspring. Methods We used heterotypic intermittent chronic stress (HeICS) protocols in pregnant dams from E11 until delivery. Results CPS induced significant visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) to CRD in male and female offspring. A second exposure to HeICS in adult offspring exacerbated VHS greater in female offspring that persisted longer than in male offspring. CPS upregulated BDNF expression in the lumbar-sacral dorsal horn that correlated with the exacerbation of VHS in female, but not in male offspring. The upregulation of BDNF was due to a significant increase in RNA Pol II binding, histone H3 acetylation and significant decrease in histone deacetylase 1 association with the core promoter of BDNF in female offspring. Other chronic prenatal and neonatal stress protocols were less effective than HeICS. Conclusion & Inferences The development of visceral hypersensitivity, which contributes to the symptom of intermittent abdominal pain, is a two-step process, chronic in utero stress followed by chronic stress in adult-life. This two-step process induces aggravated and persistent colon hypersensitivity in female than in male offspring. Our preclinical model explains several clinical features in IBS patients. PMID:24588943

  5. Chronic erythropoietin-mediated effects on the expression of astrocyte markers in a rat model of contusive spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Vitellaro-Zuccarello, L; Mazzetti, S; Madaschi, L; Bosisio, P; Fontana, E; Gorio, A; De Biasi, S

    2008-01-24

    Using a standardized rat model of contusive spinal cord injury (SCI; [Gorio A, Gokmen N, Erbayraktar S, Yilmaz O, Madaschi L, Cichetti C, Di Giulio AM, Vardar E, Cerami A, Brines M (2002) Recombinant human erythropoietin counteracts secondary injury and markedly enhances neurological recovery from experimental spinal cord trauma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:9450-9455]), we previously showed that the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) improves both tissue sparing and locomotory outcome. In the present study, to better understand rhEPO-mediated effects on chronic astrocyte response to SCI in rat, we have used immunocytochemical methods combined with confocal and electron microscopy to investigate, 1 month after injury, the effects of a single rhEPO administration on the expression of a) aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the main astrocytic water channel implicated in edema development and resolution, and two molecules (dystrophin and syntrophin) involved in its membrane anchoring; b) glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as markers of astrogliosis; c) chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix which are upregulated after SCI and can inhibit axonal regeneration and influence neuronal and glial properties. Our results show that rhEPO administration after SCI modifies astrocytic response to injury by increasing AQP4 immunoreactivity in the spinal cord, but not in the brain, without apparent modifications of dystrophin and syntrophin distribution. Attenuation of astrogliosis, demonstrated by the semiquantitative analysis of GFAP labeling, was associated with a reduction of phosphacan/RPTP zeta/beta, whereas the levels of lecticans remained unchanged. Finally, the relative volume of a microvessel fraction was significantly increased, indicating a pro-angiogenetic or a vasodilatory effect of rhEPO. These changes were consistently associated with remarkable reduction of lesion size and with improvement in tissue preservation and locomotor recovery, confirming previous observations and underscoring the potentiality of rhEPO for the therapeutic management of SCI. PMID:18065151

  6. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of complete and chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guanghui; Liu, Xuebin; Zhang, Zan; Yang, Zhijun; Dai, Yiwu; Xu, Ruxiang

    2013-10-01

    Neuronal injuries have been a challenging problem for treatment, especially in the case of complete and chronic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, particular attention is paid to the potential of stem cell in treating SCI, but there are only few clinical studies and insufficient data. This study explored the efficacy of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) transplantation in the treatment of SCI. Forty patients with complete and chronic cervical SCI were selected and randomly assigned to one of the two experimental groups, treatment group and control group. The treatment group received BMMSCs transplantation to the area surrounding injury, while the control group was not treated with any cell transplantation. Both the transplant recipients and the control group were followed up to 6 months, postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative neurological functions were evaluated with AIS grading, ASIA score, residual urine volume and neurophysiological examination. Results showed that in the treatment group 10 patients had a significant clinical improvement in terms of motor, light touch, pin prick sensory and residual urine volume, while nine patients showed changes in AIS grade. Neurophysiological examination was consistent with clinical observations. No sign of tumor was evident until 6 months postoperatively. In the control group, no improvement was observed in any of the neurological functions specified above. BMMSCs transplantation improves neurological function in patients with complete and chronic cervical SCI, providing valuable information on applications of BMMSCs for the treatment of SCI. PMID:23948102

  7. Superimposed myasthenia gravis in chronic spinal cord injury: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Kolli; K M Mathew; P Thumbikat; M R McClelland; K P S Nair

    2011-01-01

    Study design:Case reportBackground\\/objective:Myasthenia gravis (MG) complicating spinal cord injury (SCI) is extremely rare. We report a patient with SCI developing MG leading to death. There are no similar articles at present on literature search.Case report:A 54-year-old man, paralysed at the T12 level (ASIA A) for 40 years, was admitted for surgical repair of his grade IV sacral pressure sore. During

  8. Common questions about chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Christopher M; Zoberi, Kimberly Schiel; Gardner, Bruce J

    2015-05-15

    More than 30% of U.S. adults report having experienced low back pain within the preceding three months. Although most low back pain is nonspecific and self-limiting, a subset of patients develop chronic low back pain, defined as persistent symptoms for longer than three months. Low back pain is categorized as nonspecific low back pain without radiculopathy, low back pain with radicular symptoms, or secondary low back pain with a spinal cause. Imaging should be reserved for patients with red flags for cauda equina syndrome, recent trauma, risk of infection, or when warranted before treatment (e.g., surgical, interventional). Prompt recognition of cauda equina syndrome is critical. Patient education should be combined with evidence-guided pharmacologic therapy. Goals of therapy include reducing the severity of pain symptoms, pain interference, and disability, as well as maximizing activity. Validated tools such as the Oswestry Disability Index can help assess symptom severity and functional change in patients with chronic low back pain. Epidural steroid injections do not improve pain or disability in patients with spinal stenosis. Spinal manipulation therapy produces small benefits for up to six months. Because long-term data are lacking for spinal surgery, patient education about realistic outcome expectations is essential. PMID:25978200

  9. PCA, Continuous, & Epidural Narcotic Infusion Documentation (07.2013) Documentation

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    PCA, Continuous, & Epidural Narcotic Infusion Documentation (07.2013) Documentation Required Continuous Narcotic Infusions PCA Only PCA + Basal (Continuous) Infusion Epidural and Epidural PCA Continuous

  10. General versus epidural anesthesia for lumbar microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, Murat; Secer, Mehmet; Taskapilioglu, Ozgur; Karadas, Soner; Akyilmaz, Ahmet Aykut; Baydilek, Yunus; Kocamer, Betul; Ozboz, Ayse; Boyaci, Suat

    2015-08-01

    This study was a retrospective analysis of 850 lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD) under epidural anesthesia (EA; n=573) or general anesthesia (GA; n=277) performed by the same surgeon and paid by invoice to the Social Security Institution of the Turkish Republic between April 2003 and May 2013. Although GA is the most frequently used method of anesthesia during LMD, the choice of regional anesthetia (epidural, spinal or a combination of these) differs between surgeons and anesthetists. Studies have reported that EA in surgery for lumbar disc herniation may be more reliable than GA, as it enables the surgeon to communicate with the patient during surgery, but few studies have compared the costs of these two anesthetic methods in LMD. We found that EA patient costs were significantly lower than GA patient costs (p<0.01) and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the time spent in the operating room (p<0.01). There was no difference in the duration of surgery (p>0.05). The anesthetic method used during LMD affected the complication rate, cost and efficiency of operating room use. We suggest that EA is an anesthetic method that can contribute to health care cost savings and enable LMD to be completed with less nerve root manipulation and more comfort, efficacy, reliability and cost efficiency without affecting the success rate of the surgical procedure. PMID:26067543

  11. Glutamate receptor plasticity and activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein regulation in the phrenic motor nucleus may mediate spontaneous recovery of the hemidiaphragm following chronic cervical spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren J. Alilain; Harry G. Goshgarian

    2008-01-01

    High cervical spinal cord hemisection results in paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm; however, functional recovery of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm can occur spontaneously. The mechanisms mediating this recovery are unknown. In chronic, experimental contusive spinal cord injury, an upregulation of the NMDA receptor 2A subunit and a downregulation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit have been correlated with improved hind limb

  12. Comparison between a disposable and an electronic PCA device for labor epidural analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Sumikura; Marc van de Velde; Takeshi Tateda

    2004-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate if a disposable patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device can be used for labor analgesia and (2) to evaluate the device by midwives and parturients. Methods Forty healthy parturients were divided into two groups and received combined spinal epidural analgesia for labor pain relief. Following intrathecal administration of 3?mg ropivacaine and

  13. Patterns of tumor spread and risk of fracture and epidural impingement in metastatic vertebrae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Shah; Ricardo Pietrobon; Barry Myers; William Richardson

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: To describe patterns of tumor spread to the vertebral column and to identify risk factors for vertebral fracture and epidural impingement in patients with varying tumor histologies.Methods used: A retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal columns with metastatic disease was conducted. Two random samples were taken from a large population of patients with diverse

  14. Evaluation of the Neurological Safety of Epidural Milnacipran in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung Mo; Shin, Mee Ran; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hyun; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Kim, Baek Hui; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Sang Chul

    2012-01-01

    Background Milnacipran is a balanced serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with minimal side effects and broad safety margin. It acts primarily on the descending inhibitory pain pathway in brain and spinal cord. In many animal studies, intrathecal administration of milnacipran is effective in neuropathic pain management. However, there is no study for the neurological safety of milnacipran when it is administered neuraxially. This study examined the neurotoxicity of epidural milnacipran by observing behavioral and sensory-motor changes with histopathological examinations of spinal cords in rats. Methods Sixty rats were divided into 3 groups, with each group receiving epidural administration of either 0.3 ml (3 mg) of milnacipran (group M, n = 20), 0.3 ml of 40% alcohol (group A, n = 20), or 0.3 ml of normal saline (group S, n = 20). Results There were no abnormal changes in the behavioral, sensory-motor, or histopathological findings in all rats of groups M and S over a 3-week observation period, whereas all rats in group A had abnormal changes. Conclusions Based on these findings, the direct epidural administration of milnacipran in rats did not present any evidence of neurotoxicity in behavioral, sensory-motor and histopathological evaluations. PMID:23091683

  15. Age and motor score predict osteoprotegerin level in chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Morse, L.R.; Nguyen, H.P.; Jain, N.; Williams, S.; Tun, C.G.; Battaglino, R.A.; Stashenko, P.; Garshick, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop a severe form of osteoporosis below the level of injury that is poorly understood. We conducted a preliminary investigation to assess whether circulating markers of bone turnover and circulating RANKL/OPG levels are related to the severity of SCI, aging, or to differences in mobility (i.e., walking or using a wheelchair). Methods Sixty-four caucasian men ?1.6 years since injury selected based on locomotive mode provided blood samples and completed a health questionnaire at the VA Boston Healthcare System from 10/2003 to 6/2005. Plasma sRANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) levels were determined. Results Increasing age was significantly associated with increased OPG and CTx. Injury severity was predictive of OPG levels, and adjusting for age, participants with cervical motor complete and ASIA C SCI (n=11) had significantly lower mean OPG (46.1 pg/ml) levels than others (63.4 pg/ml). Locomotive mode was not associated with differences in bone markers. Conclusions Severe cervical spinal cord injury is associated with decreased circulating OPG levels placing these patients at risk for accelerated bone loss that appears unrelated to locomotive mode. PMID:18398265

  16. Total vertebrectomy for stabilisation of chronic spinal lumbar luxation in a paraplegic dog without nociception.

    PubMed

    Tertuliano Marinho, P V; Zani, C C; De Biasi, F; Bahr Arias, M V

    2014-10-01

    An adult male crossbred dog was referred with a history of a road traffic accident that took place 1 month earlier. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent nociception in the pelvic limbs. On epaxial palpation, significant curvature of the anatomical axis of the spine between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae was observed, with the presence of a bone end almost piercing the dog's skin. Survey radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed severe dislocation between L3 and L4 vertebrae. During surgery, the spinal cord was not visible between the dislocated segments. Because of difficulties in reducing the lumbar luxation during surgery, vertebrectomy and vertebral shortening were performed. After alignment between vertebrae L3 and L5, eight cortical orthopaedic screws and bone cement were used for fixation. After 30 days, the dog started to use a wheelchair and was considered by its owner to have a good quality of life with no evidence of pain. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of severe luxation treated by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening in a dog. This surgery can be considered as an option in the management of severe spine luxation when the spinal cord is physically transected. PMID:24962201

  17. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  18. Catatonia after epidural morphine.

    PubMed

    Engquist, A; Jørgensen, B C; Andersen, H B

    1981-10-01

    A 43-year-old male with bronchogenic carcinoma was treated with continuous morphine via a thoracic epidural catheter. On the fifth day, after a total dose of 24 mg morphine chloride in 10 or 20 ml saline, he developed hallucinations, hyperthermia, spasticity, narcolepsy and opisthotonos. Respiratory rate and blood pressure were unaffected. Intravenous naloxone reversed all neurological abnormalities. This unusual syndrome was probably caused by a rostal spread of morphine. The location of the catheter and volume seem to be important variables. Hallucinations are important signs of impending intoxication. PMID:6176094

  19. Accidental intradural injection during attempted epidural block -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Joo Sun; Kang, Seung Youn; Cho, Jin Sun; Choi, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Several cases of accidental subdural injection have been reported, but only few of them are known to be accidental intradural injection during epidural block. Therefore we would like to report our experience of accidental intradural injection. A 68-year-old female was referred to our pain clinic due to severe metastatic spinal pain. We performed a diagnostic epidural injection at T9/10 interspace under the C-arm guided X-ray view. Unlike the usual process of block, onset was delayed and sensory dermatomes were irregular range. We found out a dense collection of localized radio-opaque contrast media on the reviewed X-ray findings. These are characteristic of intradural injection and clearly different from the narrow wispy bands of contrast in the subdural space. PMID:21490823

  20. Tail nerve electrical stimulation combined with scar ablation and neural transplantation promotes locomotor recovery in rats with chronically contused spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; Holmberg, Eric G

    2012-05-25

    To date, few treatment strategies applying cellular transplantation to the chronically injured spinal cord have yielded significant functional improvement in animal experiments. Here we report that significant improvement of locomotor function was achieved in rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) by the application of combination treatments with tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can activate the central pattern generator, inducing active weight-supported stepping. Contusion injury (25 mm) to spinal cord T10 was produced by using the NYU impactor device in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Rats in 2 of 4 groups with SCI received basic treatments (scar ablation followed by transplantation of lamina propria of olfactory mucosa and cultured olfactory ensheathing cells into the lesion cavity) 6 weeks after SCI. Rats both with and without basic treatments were subjected to TANES one week after secondary surgery or 7 weeks after SCI. Sixteen weeks after secondary surgery or 22 weeks after SCI rats in two groups receiving TANES significantly improved their functional recovery compared with those without TANES, when evaluated with BBB open field rating scale (p<0.01). Among them, however, rats with basic treatments performed better than those without basic treatments. TANES may contribute to the activity-dependent plasticity below the injury level, which is critical for functional recovery. Additionally, TANES may promote axonal regeneration, including those from supraspinal level. Since TANES demonstrated considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in rat model, it would suggest a new strategy for chronic SCI. PMID:22516110

  1. Chronic thoracic spinal cord injury impairs CD8+ T-cell function by up-regulating programmed cell death-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces immune depression in patients, which contributes to their higher risk of developing infections. While defects in humoral immunity have been reported, complications in T-cell immunity during the chronic phase of SCI have not yet been explored. Methods To assess the impact of chronic SCI on peripheral T-cell number and function we used a mouse model of severe spinal cord contusion at thoracic level T9 and performed flow cytometry analysis on the spleen for T-cell markers along with intracellular cytokine staining. Furthermore we identified alterations in sympathetic activity in the spleen of chronic SCI mice by measuring splenic levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and norepinephrine (NE). To gain insight into the neurogenic mechanism leading to T-cell dysfunction we performed in vitro NE stimulation of T-cells followed by flow cytometry analysis for T-cell exhaustion marker. Results Chronic SCI impaired both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell cytokine production. The observed T-cell dysfunction correlated with increased expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) exhaustion marker on these cells. Blocking PD-1 signaling in vitro restored the CD8+ T-cell functional defect. In addition, we showed that chronic SCI mice had higher levels of splenic NE, which contributed to the T-cell exhaustion phenotype, as PD-1 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells was up-regulated following sustained exposure to NE in vitro. Conclusions These studies indicate that alteration of sympathetic activity following chronic SCI induces CD8+ T-cell exhaustion, which in turn impairs T-cell function and contributes to immune depression. Inhibition of the exhaustion pathway should be considered as a new therapeutic strategy for chronic SCI-induced immune depression. PMID:24690491

  2. Factors Associated with the Success of Trial Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients with Chronic Pain from Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Son, Byung-chul; Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won

    2013-01-01

    Objective Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an effective means of treatment of chronic neuropathic pain from failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Because the success of trial stimulation is an essential part of SCS, we investigated factors associated with success of trial stimulation. Methods Successful trial stimulation was possible in 26 of 44 patients (63.6%) who underwent insertion of electrodes for the treatment of chronic pain from FBSS. To investigate factors associated with successful trial stimulation, patients were classified into two groups (success and failure in trial). We investigated the following factors : age, sex, predominant pain areas (axial, limb, axial combined with limbs), number of operations, duration of preoperative pain, type of electrode (cylindrical/paddle), predominant type of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic, mixed), degree of sensory loss in painful areas, presence of motor weakness, and preoperative Visual Analogue Scale. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, degree of pain, number of operations, and duration of pain (p>0.05). Univariate analysis revealed that the type of electrode and presence of severe sensory deficits were significantly associated with the success of trial stimulation (p<0.05). However, the remaining variable, sex, type of pain, main location of pain, degree of pain duration, degree of sensory loss, and presence of motor weakness, were not associated with the trial success of SCS for FBSS. Conclusion Trial stimulation with paddle leads was more successful. If severe sensory deficits occur in the painful dermatomes in FBSS, trial stimulation were less effective. PMID:24527193

  3. Nociceptors as chronic drivers of pain and hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury: an adaptive-maladaptive hyperfunctional state hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Edgar T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes chronic peripheral sensitization of nociceptors and persistent generation of spontaneous action potentials (SA) in peripheral branches and the somata of hyperexcitable nociceptors within dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Here it is proposed that SCI triggers in numerous nociceptors a persistent hyperfunctional state (peripheral, synaptic, and somal) that originally evolved as an adaptive response to compensate for loss of sensory terminals after severe but survivable peripheral injury. In this hypothesis, nociceptor somata monitor the status of their own receptive field and the rest of the body by integrating signals received by their peripheral and central branches and the soma itself. A nociceptor switches into a potentially permanent hyperfunctional state when central neural, glial, and inflammatory signal combinations are detected that indicate extensive peripheral injury. Similar signal combinations are produced by SCI and disseminated widely to uninjured as well as injured nociceptors. This paper focuses on the uninjured nociceptors that are altered by SCI. Enhanced activity generated in below-level nociceptors promotes below-level central sensitization, somatic and autonomic hyperreflexia, and visceral dysfunction. If sufficient ascending fibers survive, enhanced activity in below-level nociceptors contributes to below-level pain. Nociceptor activity generated above the injury level contributes to at- and above-level sensitization and pain (evoked and spontaneous). Thus, SCI triggers a potent nociceptor state that may have been adaptive (from an evolutionary perspective) after severe peripheral injury but is maladaptive after SCI. Evidence that hyperfunctional nociceptors make large contributions to behavioral hypersensitivity after SCI suggests that nociceptor-specific ion channels required for nociceptor SA and hypersensitivity offer promising targets for treating chronic pain and hyperreflexia after SCI. PMID:22934060

  4. [Aseptic precautions in epidural catheterization for surgery].

    PubMed

    Haraga, Isao; Shono, Shinjiro; Abe, Shintarou; Higa, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    We describe aseptic precautions in epidural catheterization for surgery. Every patient has to be checked for immunodeficiency, atopic dermatitis, preoperative use of antibiotics, and local infection of the epidural puncture site. Physicians who perform epidural catheterization should wear a mask and a cap and take off a wrist watch and rings on the fingers before an epidural kit is opened. Fingers and hands should be disinfected before wearing surgical gloves. The skin for epidural puncture site should be disinfected with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 80% ethanol. A micropore filter should be used when epidural catheterization is expected to remain over 24 hours. PMID:20486569

  5. Lumbosacral plexopathy from iliopsoas haematoma after combined general-epidural anaesthesia for abdominal aneurysmectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward T. Crosby; Dennis R. Reid; Gina DiPrimio; Steven Grahovac

    1998-01-01

    Purpose  To report a case of iliopsoas haematoma after resection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm which resulted in a lumbosacral plexopathy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  An 81-yr-old man presented with an abdominal aortic aneurysm for aneurysmectomy and tube grafting. An epidural catheter was\\u000a placed at the L1?2 spinal level and combined epidural-general anaesthesia was provided for surgery. The surgery was complex and a suprarenal

  6. Results of laminectomy in spinal cord compression due to tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gorter

    1978-01-01

    Summary In the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Groningen 67 patients were admitted during 8 years with a diagnosis of spinal cord compression by a tumour. Fifthy-three patients had an epidural tumour mass and 14 an intradural tumour. Of the epidural tumour patients became ambulatory, 20 (37.7%) while in the intradural group 78.5% of the patients were improved.

  7. Body composition modifications in people with chronic spinal cord injury after supervised physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; Lopes, Guilherme Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of body composition variables is important for planning of better activities in relation to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objectives (1) To evaluate changes in body composition in patients with SCI after a supervised physical activity process; (2) To correlate total body fat with time since injury. Design Pre-post intervention. Setting Sarah Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brazil. Participants Fifty-three men with SCI aged 18–52 years with duration of injury >3 years. Interventions The subjects were divided into three groups: tetraplegia (TT) (C5–C8), high paraplegia (HP) (T1–T6), and low paraplegia (LP) (T7–L2). Body composition was estimated in the first and last weeks of hospitalization. Outcome measures Body weight (kg), skinfolds sum (mm), absolute (kg), and relative (%) fat and lean body mass. Results Body weight increased in TT and decreased in HP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.1–1.5; and ?1.0 kg, 95%CI ?2.0 to 0.0, respectively; P < 0.05). Skinfolds sum decreased only in HP (?13.1 mm, 95%CI ?20.7 to ?5.5; P < 0.05). Absolute and relative body fat decreased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Lean body mass (LBM) percentage increased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Absolute LBM increased in TT and LP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.3–1.3; and 1.3 kg, 95%CI 0.8 to 1.8, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between time since injury and skinfolds sum for the three groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion TT, HP, and LP demonstrated favorable changes in body composition after 29 days of supervised physical activity. However, these changes were different in direction and magnitude. PMID:22330114

  8. Chronic changes in cerebrospinal fluid pathways produced by subarachnoid kaolin injection and experimental spinal cord trauma in the rabbit: their relationship with the development of spinal deformity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Turgut; Emre Çullu; Ay?egül Uysal; Mine Ertem Yurtseven; Bülent Alparslan

    2005-01-01

    Post-traumatic cystic changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways such as ventriculomegaly and\\/or hydrosyringomyelia are not uncommon, but their characteristics have not yet been fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the alterations affecting the CSF pathways in rabbits at a late stage, and to clarify the relationship between these changes and the development of spinal deformity. In this study,

  9. Human Neural Stem Cells Differentiate and Promote Locomotor Recovery in an Early Chronic Spinal coRd Injury NOD-scid Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Desirée L.; Uchida, Nobuko; Hamers, Frank P. T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in partial or complete paralysis and is characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes, axonal injury, and demyelination/dysmyelination of spared axons. Approximately 1,250,000 individuals have chronic SCI in the U.S.; therefore treatment in the chronic stages is highly clinically relevant. Human neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) were prospectively isolated based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting for a CD133+ and CD24?/lo population from fetal brain, grown as neurospheres, and lineage restricted to generate neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. hCNS-SCns have recently been transplanted sub-acutely following spinal cord injury and found to promote improved locomotor recovery. We tested the ability of hCNS-SCns transplanted 30 days post SCI to survive, differentiate, migrate, and promote improved locomotor recovery. Methods and Findings hCNS-SCns were transplanted into immunodeficient NOD-scid mice 30 days post spinal cord contusion injury. hCNS-SCns transplanted mice demonstrated significantly improved locomotor recovery compared to vehicle controls using open field locomotor testing and CatWalk gait analysis. Transplanted hCNS-SCns exhibited long-term engraftment, migration, limited proliferation, and differentiation predominantly to oligodendrocytes and neurons. Astrocytic differentiation was rare and mice did not exhibit mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, differentiated hCNS-SCns integrated with the host as demonstrated by co-localization of human cytoplasm with discrete staining for the paranodal marker contactin-associated protein. Conclusions The results suggest that hCNS-SCns are capable of surviving, differentiating, and promoting improved locomotor recovery when transplanted into an early chronic injury microenvironment. These data suggest that hCNS-SCns transplantation has efficacy in an early chronic SCI setting and thus expands the “window of opportunity” for intervention. PMID:20806064

  10. Les amyotrophies spinales distales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Devic; P. Petiot

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionDistal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), also known as spinal muscular atrophy, represents a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases caused by degenerations of spinal motor neurons and leading to distal muscle weakness and wasting. Nerve conduction studies reveal a pure motor axonopathy and needle examination shows chronic denervation.

  11. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to manage chronic intractable neuropathic pain and to evaluate the adverse events and Ontario-specific economic profile of this technology. Clinical Need SCS is a reversible pain therapy that uses low-voltage electrical pulses to manage chronic, intractable neuropathic pain of the trunk or limbs. Neuropathic pain begins or is caused by damage or dysfunction to the nervous system and can be difficult to manage. The prevalence of neuropathic pain has been estimated at about 1.5% of the population in the United States and 1% of the population in the United Kingdom. These prevalence rates are generalizable to Canada. Neuropathic pain is extremely difficult to manage. People with symptoms that persist for at least 6 months or who have symptoms that last longer than expected for tissue healing or resolution of an underlying disease are considered to have chronic pain. Chronic pain is an emotional, social, and economic burden for those living with it. Depression, reduced quality of life (QOL), absenteeism from work, and a lower household income are positively correlated with chronic pain. Although the actual number is unknown, a proportion of people with chronic neuropathic pain fail to obtain pain relief from pharmacological therapies despite adequate and reasonable efforts to use them. These people are said to have intractable neuropathic pain, and they are the target population for SCS. The most common indication for SCS in North America is chronic intractable neuropathic pain due to failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), a term that describes persistent leg or back and leg pain in patients who have had back or spine surgery. Neuropathic pain due to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which can develop in the distal aspect of a limb a minor injury, is another common indication. To a lesser extent, chronic intractable pain of postherpetic neuralgia, which is a persistent burning pain and hyperesthesia along the distribution of a cutaneous nerve after an attack of herpes zoster, is also managed with SCS. For each condition, SCS is considered as a pain management therapy only after conventional pain therapies, including pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and surgical treatments, if applicable, have been attempted and have failed. The Technology The SCS technology consists of 3 implantable components: a pulse generator, an extension cable, and a lead (a small wire). The pulse generator is the power source for the spinal cord stimulator. It generates low-voltage electrical pulses. The extension cable connects the pulse generator to the lead. The lead is a small, insulated wire that has a set of electrodes at one end. The lead is placed into the epidural space on the posterior aspect of the spinal cord, and the electrodes are positioned at the level of the nerve roots innervating the painful area. An electrical current from the electrodes induces a paresthesia, or a tingling sensation that masks the pain. Before SCS is initiated, candidates must have psychological testing to rule out major psychological illness, drug habituation, and issues of secondary gain that can negatively influence the success of the therapy. Successful candidates will have a SCS test stimulation period (trial period) to assess their responsiveness to SCS. The test stimulation takes about 1 week to complete, and candidates who obtain at least 50% pain relief during this period are deemed suitable to receive a permanent implantation of a spinal cord stimulator Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) reviewed all published health technology assessments of spinal cord stimulation. Following this, a literature search was conducted from 2000 to January, 2005 and a systematic review of the literature was completed. The primary outcome for the systematic review was pain relief. Secondary outcomes included functional status and quality of life. After applying the predetermined inclusion and exclus

  12. A comparison of epidural tramadol and epidural morphine for postoperative analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anis Baraka; Samar Jabbour; Maroun Ghabash; Antoun Nader; Ghattas Khoury; Abla Sibai

    1993-01-01

    The present study compared epidural tramadol with epidural morphine for postoperative analgesia in 20 patients undergoing\\u000a major abdominal surgery. Intraoperatively, the patients were anaesthetized by a balanced technique of general anaesthesia\\u000a combined with lumbar epidural lidocaine. In ten of the patients 100 mg tramadol diluted in 10 ml normal saline was also injected\\u000a epidurally, while 4 mg epidural morphine was

  13. Treatment of the Chronically Injured Spinal Cord with Neurotrophic Factors Can Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Hui Ye; John D. Houle

    1997-01-01

    Axonal regeneration has been demonstrated by supraspinal neurons long after a spinal cord injury, although this potential seems limited to a few neurons in specific nuclear groups. Whether the regenerative response could be enhanced by exposure to neurotrophic factors was examined in this study. Neurons injured during a cervical spinal cord hemisection lesion were labeled with true blue (TB). Four

  14. Another cause of headache after epidural injection.

    PubMed

    Anwari, Jamil S; Hazazi, Abdulaziz A

    2015-04-01

    Headache is a potential complication of epidural injection. We report a patient who developed headache 5 days after a lumbar epidural steroid injection, which was not related to the epidural procedure, but caused by Duloxetine induced hyponatremia. Antidepressant drug induced headache should be considered in the differential diagnosis of post dural puncture headache. PMID:25864071

  15. A combination therapy of neural and glial restricted precursor cells and chronic quipazine treatment paired with passive cycling promotes quipazine-induced stepping in adult spinalized rats.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Elizabeth A; Shumsky, Jed S

    2014-10-20

    Introduction In order to develop optimal treatments to promote recovery from complete spinal cord injury (SCI), we examined the combination of: (1) a cellular graft of neural and glial restricted precursor (NRP/GRP) cells, (2) passive exercise, and (3) chronic quipazine treatment on behavioral outcomes and compared them with the individual treatment elements. NRP/GRP cells were transplanted at the time of spinalization. [Table: see text] Methods Daily passive exercise began 1 week after injury to give sufficient time for the animals to recover. Chronic quipazine administration began 2 weeks after spinalization to allow for sufficient receptor upregulation permitting the expression of its behavioral effects. Behavioral measures consisted of the BBB locomotor score and percent of weight-supported steps and hops on a treadmill. Results Rats displayed an increased response to quipazine (BBB?9) beginning at 8 weeks post-injury in all the animals that received the combination therapy. This increase in BBB score was persistent through the end of the study (12 weeks post-injury). Conclusion Unlike the individual treatment groups which never achieved weight support, the combination therapy animals were able to perform uncoordinated weight-supported stepping without a body weight support system while on a moving treadmill (6.5?m per minute) and were capable of supporting their own weight in stance during open field locomotion testing. No regeneration of descending serotonergic projections into and through the lesion cavity was observed. Furthermore, these results are a testament to the capacity of the lumbar spinal cord, when properly stimulated, to sustain functioning locomotor circuitry following complete SCI. PMID:25329574

  16. Structural and functional left ventricular impairment in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury and no overt cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Driussi, Caterina; Ius, Arianna; Bizzarini, Emiliana; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; d'Andrea, Antonello; Bossone, Eduardo; Vriz, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Context Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI). More specific recommendations for CVD prevention in this population are needed. Methods One hundred thirty male subjects (47 subjects with SCI and 83 able-bodied persons (ABPs), mean age 43.89 ± 1.9 and 45.44 ± 12.2 years; P = 0.48) underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). The effects of age, weight, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and level of physical training on cardiac adaptations were evaluated through multiple regression analysis. Results In subjects with SCI, TTE revealed increased wall thickness (P < 0.05), lower E wave, E/A ratio and early diastolic myocardial relaxation velocity on Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) (P < 0.05) and higher systolic myocardial contraction velocity on TDI (0.10 ± 0.02 vs. 0.09 ± 0.02 m/seconds, P = 0.002) and peak systolic pressure to end-systolic volume ratio (3.62 ± 1.39 vs. 2.82 ± 0.90, P < 0.001) compared with ABPs. Aortic diameters were larger in subjects with SCI than ABPs. Differences remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, weight, MAP, and level of physical training. Weight and age were found to be independent variables that substantially affected left ventricular structure and function in subjects with SCI. Conclusions Subjects with post-traumatic chronic SCI and no overt cardiovascular risk factors, exhibit initial left ventricular remodeling (as assessed by TTE) compared with ABPs. Lifestyle modifications, including regular physical exercise and weight control, should be implemented in all subjects with SCI, even at a very early stage, in order to reduce cardiovascular risk and prevent the development of CVD. PMID:24456485

  17. Bupivacaine crystal deposits after long-term epidural infusion.

    PubMed

    Balga, I; Gerber, H; Schorno, X H; Aebersold Keller, F; Oehen, H-P

    2013-07-01

    The case of a 45-year-old male patient (body weight 52 kg, height 1.61 m) with a locally invasive gastric carcinoma infiltrating into the retroperitoneal space is reported. Because of severe cancer pain a tunnelled thoracic epidural catheter (EC) was placed at thoracic spinal level 7/8 and a local anesthetic (LA) mixture of bupivacaine 0.25 % and morphine 0.005 % was infused continuously at 6 ml h(-1). To optimize pain therapy the concentration was doubled (bupivacaine 0.5 %, morphine 0.01 %) 3 months later but the infusion rate was reduced to 3 ml h(-1) thus the total daily dose did not change. The patient died 6 months after initiation of the epidural analgesia from the underlying disease. The total amount of bupivacaine infused was 69 g and of morphine 1.37 g. The patient never reported any neurological complications. The autopsy revealed large white crystalline deposits in the thoracic epidural space which were identified as bupivacaine base by infrared spectrometry. Morphine could not be detected. A histological examination showed unreactive fatty tissue necrosis within the crystalline deposits but nerve tissue could not be identified. It is concluded that the bupivacaine crystalline deposits arose due to precipitation but the clinical significance with regard to sensory level and neuraxial tissue toxicity is unknown. PMID:23670581

  18. Spontaneous epidural hematoma of spine associated with clopidogrel: A case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Khalid Javid; Kapoor, Sidhart; Watali, Yamin Zahoor; Sharma, Jaggatar Ram

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon neurological emergency which can present with the features ranging from simple back pain with radiculopathy to complete paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on the site and severity of the compression. Spinal hemorrhage associated with anti-platelet drugs is rarely seen. We report a case of SSEH in a 68-year-old hypertensive male who was on a low dose clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis and presented with bilateral lower limb paralysis, preceeded by severe back bain. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed which revealed a posterior epidural hematoma of the thoraco-lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, not more than four cases of clopidogrel related spinal epidural hematoma have been reported. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was done within 4 hours of the presentation with excellent clinical outcome. Clinicians should, therefore, consider the remote risk of SSEH in hypertensive patients who are on anti-platelet drugs as early decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the hematoma minimizes the permanent neurological damage. PMID:25767588

  19. Spontaneous epidural hematoma of spine associated with clopidogrel: A case study and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Khalid Javid; Kapoor, Sidhart; Watali, Yamin Zahoor; Sharma, Jaggatar Ram

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon neurological emergency which can present with the features ranging from simple back pain with radiculopathy to complete paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on the site and severity of the compression. Spinal hemorrhage associated with anti-platelet drugs is rarely seen. We report a case of SSEH in a 68-year-old hypertensive male who was on a low dose clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis and presented with bilateral lower limb paralysis, preceeded by severe back bain. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed which revealed a posterior epidural hematoma of the thoraco-lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, not more than four cases of clopidogrel related spinal epidural hematoma have been reported. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was done within 4 hours of the presentation with excellent clinical outcome. Clinicians should, therefore, consider the remote risk of SSEH in hypertensive patients who are on anti-platelet drugs as early decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the hematoma minimizes the permanent neurological damage. PMID:25767588

  20. Effect of acute intermittent hypoxia treatment on ventilatory load compensation and magnitude estimation of inspiratory resistive loads in an individual with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Poonam B; Tester, Nicole J; Davenport, Paul W

    2014-11-15

    Context Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes disruption of the efferent input to and afferent input from respiratory muscles, which impairs respiratory motor and sensory functions, respectively. This disturbs the injured individual's ability to respond to ventilatory loads and may alter the respiratory perceptual sensitivity of applied loads. Acute intermittent hypoxia with elevated CO2 (AIH treatment) has been shown to induce ventilatory long-term facilitation in individuals with chronic SCI. This study evaluated the effect of ten days of AIH treatment on ventilatory load compensation and respiratory perceptual sensitivity to inspiratory resistive loads (IRL), in an individual with chronic, incomplete cervical SCI. Methods Case report and literature review. Findings We report a case of a 55-year-old female with a C4 chronic, incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale D). The subject underwent evaluation at four time-points: Baseline, Post Sham, AIH Day 1 and AIH Day 10. Significant improvements in airflow generated in response to applied IRL were found after AIH treatment compared to Baseline. There were no significant changes in the respiratory perceptual sensitivity to applied IRL after AIH treatment. Clinical relevance Rehabilitative interventions after SCI demand restoration of the respiratory motor function. However, they must also ensure that the respiratory perceptual sensitivity of the injured individual does not hinder their capability to compensate to ventilatory challenges. PMID:25400130

  1. Neurophysiologic effects of spinal manipulation in patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of SM to treat LBP, little is known on the mechanisms and physiologic effects of these treatments. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether SM alters the amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP) or the short-latency stretch reflex of the erector spinae muscles, and whether these physiologic responses depend on whether SM causes an audible joint sound. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit MEPs and electromechanical tapping to elicit short-latency stretch reflexes in 10 patients with chronic LBP and 10 asymptomatic controls. Neurophysiologic outcomes were measured before and after SM. Changes in MEP and stretch reflex amplitude were examined based on patient grouping (LBP vs. controls), and whether SM caused an audible joint sound. Results SM did not alter the erector spinae MEP amplitude in patients with LBP (0.80 ± 0.33 vs. 0.80 ± 0.30 ?V) or in asymptomatic controls (0.56 ± 0.09 vs. 0.57 ± 0.06 ?V). Similarly, SM did not alter the erector spinae stretch reflex amplitude in patients with LBP (0.66 ± 0.12 vs. 0.66 ± 0.15 ?V) or in asymptomatic controls (0.60 ± 0.09 vs. 0.55 ± 0.08 ?V). Interestingly, study participants exhibiting an audible response exhibited a 20% decrease in the stretch reflex (p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that a single SM treatment does not systematically alter corticospinal or stretch reflex excitability of the erector spinae muscles (when assessed ~ 10-minutes following SM); however, they do indicate that the stretch reflex is attenuated when SM causes an audible response. This finding provides insight into the mechanisms of SM, and suggests that SM that produces an audible response may mechanistically act to decrease the sensitivity of the muscle spindles and/or the various segmental sites of the Ia reflex pathway. PMID:21781310

  2. Acute motor weakness of opposite lower extremity after percutaneous epidural neuroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yong Seok; Jung, Ki Tea; Park, Cheon Hee; Wee, Sang Woo; Sin, Sung Sik; Kim, Joon

    2015-04-01

    Recently, percutaneous epidural neuroplasty has become widely used to treat radicular pain caused by spinal stenosis or a herniated intervertebral disc. A 19-year-old female patient suffering from left radicular pain caused by an L4-L5 intervertebral disc herniation underwent percutaneous epidural neuroplasty of the left L5 nerve root using a Racz catheter. After the procedure, the patient complained of acute motor weakness in the right lower leg, on the opposite site to where the neuroplasty was conducted. Emergency surgery was performed, and swelling of the right L5 nerve root was discovered. The patient recovered her motor and sensory functions immediately after the surgery. Theoretically, the injection of a large volume of fluid in a patient with severe spinal stenosis during epidural neuroplasty can increase the pressure on the opposite side of the epidural space, which may cause injury of the opposite nerve by barotrauma from a closed compartment. Practitioners should be aware of this potential complication. PMID:25852837

  3. 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 receptor agonists facilitate plantar stepping in chronic spinal rats through actions on different populations of spinal neurons

    PubMed Central

    S?awi?ska, Urszula; Miazga, Krzysztof; Jordan, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence from research in neonatal and adult rat and mouse preparations to warrant the conclusion that activation of 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A/7 receptors leads to activation of the spinal cord circuitry for locomotion. These receptors are involved in control of locomotor movements, but it is not clear how they are implicated in the responses to 5-HT agonists observed after spinal cord injury. Here we used agonists that are efficient in promoting locomotor recovery in paraplegic rats, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OHDPAT) (acting on 5-HT1A/7 receptors) and quipazine (acting on 5-HT2 receptors), to examine this issue. Analysis of intra- and interlimb coordination confirmed that the locomotor performance was significantly improved by either drug, but the data revealed marked differences in their mode of action. Interlimb coordination was significantly better after 8-OHDPAT application, and the activity of the extensor soleus muscle was significantly longer during the stance phase of locomotor movements enhanced by quipazine. Our results show that activation of both receptors facilitates locomotion, but their effects are likely exerted on different populations of spinal neurons. Activation of 5-HT2 receptors facilitates the output stage of the locomotor system, in part by directly activating motoneurons, and also through activation of interneurons of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). Activation of 5-HT7/1A receptors facilitates the activity of the locomotor CPG, without direct actions on the output components of the locomotor system, including motoneurons. Although our findings show that the combined use of these two drugs results in production of well-coordinated weight supported locomotion with a reduced need for exteroceptive stimulation, they also indicate that there might be some limitations to the utility of combined treatment. Sensory feedback and some intraspinal circuitry recruited by the drugs can conflict with the locomotor activation. PMID:25191231

  4. Atorvastatin Prevents Neuroinflammation in Chronic Constriction Injury Rats through Nuclear NF?B Downregulation in the Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Chu, Li-Wen; Chen, Jun-Yih; Wu, Pao-Chu; Wu, Bin-Nan

    2015-06-17

    Atorvastatin, traditionally used to treat hyperlipidemia, belongs to a class of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors. This study investigated the antineuroinflammatory and antihyperalgesic effects of atorvastatin in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord for chronic constriction injury (CCI) neuropathic pain in rats. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups including sham, CCI, and CCI+atorvastatin. Rats were orally administered atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) once daily for 2 weeks after surgery and sacrificed at days 3, 7, and 14. All animals were assessed for mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in both hindpaws. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect inflammatory proteins and proinflammatory cytokines at day 7 after surgery. Pain behaviors were significantly reduced in the CCI+atorvastatin group compared to the CCI group. Atorvastatin attenuated CCI-induced inflammatory mediators (pAkt/Akt, COX-2, iNOS, EP1, and EP4) and reduced proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? levels in DRG and spinal cord. Atorvastatin also inhibited nuclear pNF?B activation. Double immunofluorescent staining further demonstrated that pNF?B proteins were decreased by atorvastatin in DRG satellite cells and spinal microglia. Atorvastatin may primarily inhibit the nuclear translocation of pNF?B to prevent CCI-induced peripheral neuropathic pain. Atorvastatin exhibits antineuroinflammatory and antinociceptive properties in the central and peripheral nerve systems. PMID:25874913

  5. Increases in muscle activity produced by vibration of the thigh muscles during locomotion in chronic human spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Cotey; T. George Hornby; Keith E. Gordon; Brian D. Schmit

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle vibration applied to the quadriceps has potential for augmenting\\u000a muscle activity during gait in spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals. The effects of muscle vibration on muscle activity during\\u000a robotic-assisted walking were measured in 11 subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) that could tolerate weight-supported walking,\\u000a along with five neurologically

  6. Symptomatic Extensive Thoracolumbar Epidural Hematoma Following Lumbar Disc Surgery Treated by Single Level Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Youssef; Roux, François-Xavier; Meder, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematomas (SEHs) are rare complications following spine surgery, especially for single level lumbar discectomies. The appropriate surgical management for such cases remains to be investigated. We report a case of an extensive spinal epidural hematoma from T11-L5 following a L3-L4 discectomy. The patient underwent a single level L4. A complete evacuation of the SEH resulted in the patient's full recovery. When presenting symptoms limited to the initial surgical site reveal an extensive postoperative SEH, we propose: to tailor the surgical exposure individually based on preoperative findings of the SEH; and to begin the surgical exposure with a limited laminectomy focused on the symptomatic levels that may allow an efficient evacuation of the SEH instead of a systematic extensive laminectomy based on imaging. PMID:22708022

  7. Improvement of spinal non-viral IL-10 gene delivery by D-mannose as a transgene adjuvant to control chronic neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peri-spinal subarachnoid (intrathecal; i.t.) injection of non-viral naked plasmid DNA encoding the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 (pDNA-IL-10) suppresses chronic neuropathic pain in animal models. However, two sequential i.t. pDNA injections are required within a discrete 5 to 72-hour period for prolonged efficacy. Previous reports identified phagocytic immune cells present in the peri-spinal milieu surrounding the i.t injection site that may play a role in transgene uptake resulting in subsequent IL-10 transgene expression. Methods In the present study, we aimed to examine whether factors known to induce pro-phagocytic anti-inflammatory properties of immune cells improve i.t. IL-10 transgene uptake using reduced naked pDNA-IL-10 doses previously determined ineffective. Both the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, and the hexose sugar, D-mannose, were factors examined that could optimize i.t. pDNA-IL-10 uptake leading to enduring suppression of neuropathic pain as assessed by light touch sensitivity of the rat hindpaw (allodynia). Results Compared to dexamethasone, i.t. mannose pretreatment significantly and dose-dependently prolonged pDNA-IL-10 pain suppressive effects, reduced spinal IL-1? and enhanced spinal and dorsal root ganglia IL-10 immunoreactivity. Macrophages exposed to D-mannose revealed reduced proinflammatory TNF-?, IL-1?, and nitric oxide, and increased IL-10 protein release, while IL-4 revealed no improvement in transgene uptake. Separately, D-mannose dramatically increased pDNA-derived IL-10 protein release in culture supernatants. Lastly, a single i.t. co-injection of mannose with a 25-fold lower pDNA-IL-10 dose produced prolonged pain suppression in neuropathic rats. Conclusions Peri-spinal treatment with D-mannose may optimize naked pDNA-IL-10 transgene uptake for suppression of allodynia, and is a novel approach to tune spinal immune cells toward pro-phagocytic phenotype for improved non-viral gene therapy. PMID:24884664

  8. Effect of yogic colon cleansing (Laghu Sankhaprakshalana Kriya) on pain, spinal flexibility, disability and state anxiety in chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Haldavnekar, Richa Vivek; Tekur, Padmini; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that Integrated Yoga reduces pain, disability, anxiety and depression and increases spinal flexibility and quality-of-life in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of two yoga practices namely laghu shankha prakshalana (LSP) kriya, a yogic colon cleansing technique and back pain specific asanas (Back pain special technique [BST]) on pain, disability, spinal flexibility and state anxiety in patients with CLBP. Materials and Methods: In this randomized control (self as control) study, 40 in-patients (25 were males, 15 were females) between 25 and 70 years (44.05 ± 13.27) with CLBP were randomly assigned to receive LSP or BST sessions. The measurements were taken immediately before and after each session of either of the practices (30 min) in the same participant. Randomization was used to decide the day of the session (3rd or 5th day after admission) to ensure random distribution of the hang over effect of the two practices. Statistical analysis was performed using the repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Significant group * time interaction (P < 0.001) was observed in 11 point numerical rating scale, spinal flexibility (on Leighton type Goniometer) and (straight leg raise test in both legs), Oswestry Disability Index, State Anxiety (XI component of Spieldberger's state and trait anxiety inventory. There was significantly (P < 0.001, between groups) better reduction in LSP than BST group on all variables. No adverse effects were reported by any participant. Conclusion: Clearing the bowel by yoga based colon cleansing technique (LSP) is safe and offers immediate analgesic effect with reduced disability, anxiety and improved spinal flexibility in patients with CLBP. PMID:25035620

  9. Bilateral Heel Numbness due to External Compression during Obstetric Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kamphuis, Vivian P.; Zegers, Marie P.A.; Koppen, Hille

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman who developed bilateral heel numbness after obstetric epidural analgesia. We diagnosed her with bilateral neuropathy of the medial calcaneal nerve, most likely due to longstanding pressure on both heels. Risk factors for the development of this neuropathy were prolonged labour with spinal analgesia and a continuation of analgesia during episiotomy. Padded footrests decrease pressure and can possibly prevent this neuropathy. PMID:25802500

  10. Spinal Cord Ischemia Secondary to Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy KM; Yang, Eugene WR; Hee, Hwan-Tak

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable. PMID:25558328

  11. Chronic resistance training enhances the spinal excitability of the biceps brachii in the non-dominant arm at moderate contraction intensities.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Devin T G; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Forman, Davis; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C

    2015-01-12

    The purpose of the study was to assess corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii in the non-dominant arm of chronic resistance-trained (RT) and non-RT individuals. Seven chronic-RT and six non-RT male participants performed 4 sets of 5s pseudo-randomized contractions of the non-dominant elbow flexors at 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). During each contraction, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transmastoid electrical stimulation, and Erb's point electrical stimulation were administered to assess the amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEPs), and maximal muscle compound potentials (Mmax), respectively, in the biceps brachii. MEP and CMEP amplitudes were normalized to Mmax. Training did not affect (p>0.14) MEP amplitudes across any contraction intensity. CMEP amplitudes were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the chronic-RT group at 50% and 75% of MVC by 38% and 27%, respectively, and there was a trend for higher amplitudes at 25%, 90%, and 100% MVC by 25% (p=0.055), 36% (p=0.077), and 35% (p=0.078), respectively, compared to the non-RT group. Corticospinal excitability of the non-dominant biceps brachii was increased in chronic-RT individuals mainly due to changes in spinal excitability. PMID:25445370

  12. Self-sustained motor activity triggered by interlimb reflexes in chronic spinal cord injury, evidence of functional ascending propriospinal pathways.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Penelope A; Burke, David

    2013-01-01

    The loss or reduction of supraspinal inputs after spinal cord injury provides a unique opportunity to examine the plasticity of neural pathways within the spinal cord. In a series of nine experiments on a patient, quadriplegic due to spinal cord injury, we investigated interlimb reflexes and self-sustained activity in completely paralyzed and paretic muscles due to a disinhibited propriospinal pathway. Electrical stimuli were delivered over the left common peroneal nerve at the fibular head as single stimuli or in trains at 2-100 Hz lasting 1 s. Single stimuli produced a robust interlimb reflex twitch in the contralateral thumb at a mean latency 69 ms, but no activity in other muscles. With stimulus trains the thumb twitch occurred at variable subharmonics of the stimulus rate, and strong self-sustained activity developed in the contralateral wrist extensors, outlasting both the stimuli and the thumb reflex by up to 20 s. Similar behavior was recorded in the ipsilateral wrist extensors and quadriceps femoris of both legs, but not in the contralateral thenar or peroneal muscles. The patient could not terminate the self-sustained activity voluntarily, but it was abolished on the left by attempted contractions of the paralyzed thumb muscles of the right hand. These responses depend on the functional integrity of an ascending propriospinal pathway, and highlight the plasticity of spinal circuitry following spinal cord injury. They emphasize the potential for pathways below the level of injury to generate movement, and the role of self-sustained reflex activity in the sequelae of spinal cord injury. PMID:23936543

  13. A Prospective Evaluation of Iodinated Contrast Flow Patterns with Fluoroscopically Guided Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections: The Lateral Parasagittal Interlaminar Epidural Approach Versus the Transforaminal Epidural Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth D. Candido; Meda S. Raghavendra; Mariadas Chinthagada; Soraya Badiee; Donald W. Trepashko

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lumbar midline interlaminar and transforaminal (TF) epidural ste- roid injections are treatments for low back pain with radiculopathy secondary to degenerative disk disease. Since pain generators are located anteriorly in the epidural space, ventral epidural spread is the logical target for placement of antiinflammatory medications. In this randomized, prospective, observational study, we compared contrast flow patterns in the epidural

  14. Spinal manipulation compared with back school and with individually delivered physiotherapy for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a randomized trial with one-year follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Cecchi; Raffaello Molino-Lova; Massimiliano Chiti; Guido Pasquini; Anita Paperini; Andrea A Conti; Claudio Macchi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare spinal manipulation, back school and individual physiotherapy in the treatment of chronic low back pain.Design: Randomized trial, 12-month follow-up.Setting: Outpatient rehabilitation department.Participants: 210 patients with chronic, non-specific low back pain, 140\\/210 women, age 59 ± 14 years.Interventions: Back school and individual physiotherapy scheduled 15 1-hour-sessions for 3 weeks. Back school included: group exercise, education\\/ ergonomics; individual physiotherapy:

  15. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of thoracic epidural space presenting with dorsal compressive myelopathy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amandeep; Satyarthee, Guru Dutt; Sable, Mukund; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Bhawani S.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma Cell neoplasms result from monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas (SEMPs) are rare and constitute 5% of all plasma cell disorders. SEMPs most commonly involve upper aerodigestive tract. Isolated spinal epidural space involvement by SEMPs is extremely rare and to best of our knowledge only 7 such cases have been reported previously in available English literature. We hereby present a rare case of thoracic epidural SEMP in a 32-year-old female who presented with thoracic compressive myelopathy and discuss the pertinent literature.

  16. A broken catheter in the epidural space.

    PubMed

    Anwari, Jamil S; Al-Wahbi, Yahya; Al-Nahdi, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    The Arrow FlexTip epidural catheter has reinforced coiled stainless steel wire, which facilitates its insertion and is less likely to puncture the blood vessels. However, as compared with non-reinforced, reinforced epidural catheters are more vulnerable to break. We report a case from Saudi Arabia on a retained fragment of a broken epidural catheter. Measures to prevent this mishap and its management are discussed. PMID:24739413

  17. Epidural Venous Plexus Engorgement: What Lies Beneath?

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Fuldem Yildirim

    2015-01-01

    Epidural venous plexus engorgement may occur due to several conditions that prevent the normal venous circulation. Inferior vena cava agenesis is a very rare cause of epidural venous enlargement. We present a case with a very thin inferior vena cava and left iliac vein agenesis who presented with back pain due to epidural vein engorgement and lacked other venous problems such as deep vein thrombosis. PMID:25722912

  18. Low back pain (chronic)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Over 70% of people in resource-rich countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non-recent-onset patients still experience pain one year later. Many chronic patients who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 74 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural steroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulative therapy, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445791

  19. Characteristics of Spinal Cord-Evoked Responses in Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Dimitrijevic; L. D. Lehmkuhl; E. M. Sedgwick; A. M. Sherwood; W. B. McKay

    1980-01-01

    The averaged electrical potentials evoked by the stimulation of the peripheral nerves were recorded with surface electrodes over the lumbosacral, lower thoracic and cervical spine and with epidurally placed electrodes in the cervical area. The waveforms of the lumbosacral and cervical spinal cord potentials show similar complexity reflecting peripheral and central generators. The larger negative wave with at least two

  20. Spinal extradural angiolipoma: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Gelabert-González; Alfredo García-Allut

    2009-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account\\u000a for only 0.04–1.2% of all spinal tumors. We report two cases of lumbar extradural angiolipoma and review previously reported\\u000a cases. We found 118 cases of spinal epidural angiolipoma (70 females and 48 males; age range 1.5–85 years, mean 44.03) spanning\\u000a from 1890 to 2006.

  1. [Formation of a posterior fossa cyst after evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas from spinal surgery-induced liquorrhea: a case report].

    PubMed

    Naruse, Hirotsune; Morita, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leaks following spinal surgery are relatively common complications. However, subdural hematomas are uncommon, and infratentorial subdural hemorrhages are extremely rare. An 80-year-old man who had a history of myocardial infarction and was being treated with antiplatelet drugs underwent excision of a nerve sheath tumor of the upper cervical spine. Postoperatively, the patient developed headache and experienced weakness in both lower extremities 1 week after the surgery. In addition, he developed vomiting 2 weeks later. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebrospinal fluid retention behind the upper cervical spine, subdural hematomas in the right supra- and infra-tentorial regions, and subdural hygromas in the left supra- and infra-tentorial regions. The chronic subdural hematoma in the right supratentorial region was evacuated through a burr hole. Marked cerebellar ptosis and hydrocephalus developed postoperatively. Thereafter, cerebellar symptoms appeared. The infratentorial subdural hematoma and hygromas diminished in size;however, a posterior fossa cyst was found behind the fourth ventricle. Ten weeks after the burr hole surgery, a ventriculoperitoneal(VP)shunt was installed to decrease the cerebrospinal fluid retention behind the fourth ventricle and to cure the liquorrhea by reducing cerebrospinal fluid flow into the subarachnoid space of the posterior cranial fossa and the spinal canal. The patient's postoperative course was satisfactory, and the liquorrhea disappeared. PMID:25748806

  2. Effects of Self-Hypnosis Training and Emg Biofeedback Relaxation Training on Chronic Pain in Persons with Spinal-Cord Injury1

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Barber, Joseph; Romano, Joan M.; Hanley, Marisol A.; Raichle, Katherine A.; Molton, Ivan R.; Engel, Joyce M.; Osborne, Travis L.; Stoelb, Brenda L.; Cardenas, Diana D.; Patterson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven adults with spinal-cord injury and chronic pain were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of self-hypnosis (HYP) or EMG biofeedback relaxation (BIO) training for pain management. Participants in both treatment conditions reported sub-stantial, but similar, decreases in pain intensity from before to after the treatment sessions. However, participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, reported statistically significant decreases in daily average pain pre- to posttreatment. These pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain reported by the HYP participants were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, also reported significant pre- to posttreatment increases in perceived control over pain, but this change was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:19459087

  3. Thoracic epidural anesthesia does not affect functional recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Meissner; Thomas P. Weber; Hugo Van Aken; Michael Weyand; Michael Booke; Norbert Rolf

    1998-01-01

    Objective: A beneficial effect of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on recovery from myocardial stunning was previously shown in awake dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TEA on recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs.Design: Randomized animal study.Setting: Animal laboratory of a university hospital.Participants: Chronically instrumented mongrel dogs.Interventions: Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement

  4. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated nuclear factor-?B activation in spinal cord contributes to chronic morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liying; Zhai, Caihong; Han, Kun; Li, Zhisong; Qian, Junliang; Jing, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Ji-Tian

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in the spinal cord is involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated pain facilitation. However, the role of NF-?B activation in chronic morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we found that the level of phosphorylated NF-?B p65 (p-p65) was increased in the dorsal horn of the lumbar 4-6 segments after intrathecal administration of morphine for 7 consecutive days, and the p-p65 was co-localized with neurons and astrocytes. The expression of TNF-? and IL-1? was also increased in the same area. In addition, pretreatment with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) or SN50, inhibitors of NF-?B, prevented the development of morphine analgesic tolerance and alleviated morphine withdrawal-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. The increase in TNF-? and IL-1? expression induced by chronic morphine exposure was also partially blocked by PDTC pretreatment. In another experiment, rats receiving PDTC or SN50 beginning on day 7 of morphine injection showed partial recovery of the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine and attenuation of the withdrawal-induced abnormal pain. Meanwhile, intrathecal pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an antagonist of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), blocked the activation of NF-?B, and prevented the development of morphine tolerance and withdrawal-induced abnormal pain. These data indicated that TLR4-mediated NF-?B activation in the spinal cord is involved in the development and maintenance of morphine analgesic tolerance and withdrawal-induced pain hypersensitivity. PMID:25446875

  5. The Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview Short Form (ZBI-12) in spouses of Veterans with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury, Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi-Mashhadi, Mohammad T; Mashhadinejad, Hosein; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Ebrahimi, Hanieh; Zarei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: To test the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-12) in the Iranian population. Methods: After translating and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire into Persian, 100 caregiver spouses of Iran- Iraq war (1980-88) veterans with chronic spinal cord injury who live in the city of Mashhad, Iran, invited to participate in the study. The Persian version of ZBI-12 accompanied with the Persian SF-36 was completed by the caregivers to test validity of the Persian ZBI-12.A Pearson`s correlation coefficient was calculated for validity testing. In order to assess reliability of the Persian ZBI-12, we administered the ZBI-12 randomly in 48 caregiver spouses again 3 days later. Results: Generally, the internal consistency of the questionnaire was found to be strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.77). Intercorrelation matrix between the different domains of ZBI-12 at test-retest was 0.78. The results revealed that majority of questions the Persian ZBI_12 have a significant correlation to each other. In terms of validity, our results showed that there is significant correlations between some domains of the Persian version the Short Form Health Survey -36 with the Persian Zarit Burden Interview such as Q1 with Role Physical (P=0.03),General Health (P=0.034),Social Functional (0.037), Mental Health (0.023) and Q3 with Physical Function (P=0.001),Viltality (0.002), Socil Function (0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the Zarit Burden Interview Persian version is both a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the burden of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:25692171

  6. Cell cycle activation contributes to increased neuronal activity in the posterior thalamic nucleus and associated chronic hyperesthesia after rat spinal cord contusion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Raver, Charles; Piao, Chunshu; Keller, Asaf; Faden, Alan I

    2013-07-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes not only sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, but frequently also severe chronic pain that is difficult to treat (SCI pain). We previously showed that hyperesthesia, as well as spontaneous pain induced by electrolytic lesions in the rat spinothalamic tract, is associated with increased spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in the posterior thalamic nucleus (PO). We have also demonstrated that rodent impact SCI increases cell cycle activation (CCA) in the injury region and that post-traumatic treatment with cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors reduces lesion volume and motor dysfunction. Here we examined whether CCA contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability of PO and hyperpathia after rat contusion SCI, as well as to microglial and astroglial activation (gliopathy) that has been implicated in delayed SCI pain. Trauma caused enhanced pain sensitivity, which developed weeks after injury and was correlated with increased PO neuronal activity. Increased CCA was found at the thoracic spinal lesion site, the lumbar dorsal horn, and the PO. Increased microglial activation and cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 expression was also observed in the PO after SCI. In vitro, neurons co-cultured with activated microglia showed up-regulation of cyclin D1 and cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 expression. In vivo, post-injury treatment with a selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CR8) significantly reduced cell cycle protein induction, microglial activation, and neuronal activity in the PO nucleus, as well as limiting chronic SCI-induced hyperpathia. These results suggest a mechanistic role for CCA in the development of SCI pain, through effects mediated in part by the PO nucleus. Moreover, cell cycle modulation may provide an effective therapeutic strategy to improve reduce both hyperpathia and motor dysfunction after SCI. PMID:23775067

  7. The Lack of Association Between Changes in Functional Outcomes and Work Retention in a Chronic Disabling Occupational Spinal Disorder Population: Implications for the Minimum Clinical Important Difference

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Hilary D.; Mayer, Tom G.; Gatchel, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design A prospective study in a chronic pain/disability population, relating changes in the Oswestry Disability Inventory (ODI), as well as the Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) of the SF-36, to work retention (WR) status at one year post-rehabilitation. Objectives To explore the relationship between WR status and change in ODI, and the MCS and PCS of the SF-36, and determine if an MCID can be identified utilizing WR as an external criterion for the group of patients under consideration. Summary of Background Data Clinically meaningful change may be defined through self-report, physician-based, or objective criteria of improvement, although most assessments have been based on self-report assessment of improvement. The disability occurring after work-related spinal disorders lends itself to anchoring self-report measures to objective work status outcomes 1 year post-treatment. Additional research is needed to evaluate the relationship between change and objective markers of improvement. Methods A consecutive cohort of patients (n=2,024) with chronic disabling occupational spinal disorders (CDOSDs) completed an interdisciplinary functional restoration program, and underwent a structured clinical interview for objective, socioeconomic outcomes at one year post-treatment. The average percent change in the ODI, as well as the MCS and PCS of the SF-36, were calculated for patients who successfully retained work and those who had not after completing a functional restoration program. Predictive ability of the percent change scores were evaluated through logistic regression analysis. Results No percent difference variables were strong predictors of work retention status one-year following treatment. Conclusions The current analyses suggest that the ODI and SF-36 MCS and PCS measures are not responsive at the individual patient level when WR data are employed as the external criterion utilizing an anchor-based approach. This finding contrasts to reports of responsiveness based on distributional methods, or methods using self-report anchors of change. PMID:20881518

  8. Spinal cord stimulation reduces mechanical hyperalgesia and glial cell activation in animals with neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Karina L.; Johanek, Lisa M.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used to manage chronic intractable neuropathic pain. We examined parameters of SCS in rats with spared nerve injury by modulating frequency (4Hz vs. 60Hz), duration (30m vs. 6h), or intensity (50%, 75%, or 90% MT). To elucidate potential mechanisms modulated by SCS, we examined immunoreactivity glial markers in the spinal cord after SCS). An epidural SCS lead was implanted in the upper lumbar spinal cord. Animals were tested for mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) of the paw before and 2 weeks after SNI, before and after SCS daily for 4 days, and for 9 days after SCS. Seperate groups of animals were tested for glial immunoreactivity after 4 days of 6h SCS. All rats showed a decrease in MWT 2 weeks after nerve injury and an increase in glial activation. For frequency, 4Hz or 60Hz SCS reversed the MWT when compared to sham SCS. For duration, 6h of SCS showed a greater reduction in MWT when compared to 30 min. For intensity, 90% MT was greater than 75% MT and both were greater than 50% MT or sham SCS. SCS decreased glial activation (GFAP, MCP-1 and OX-42) in the spinal cord dorsal horn when compared to sham. In conclusion, 4Hz and 60Hz SCS for a 6h at 90% MT were the most effective parameters for reducing hyperalgesia, suggesting parameters of stimulation are important for effectiveness of SCS. SCS reduced glial activation at the level of the spinal cord suggesting reduction in central excitability. PMID:24361846

  9. The use of the three-pronged Mayfield head clamp resulting in an intracranial epidural hematoma in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael J; Lin, Eric L

    2010-07-01

    Complications from the use of a three-pronged Mayfield head clamp have been reported in the pediatric population, usually in children with intracranial pathology or hydrocephalus resulting in a thinner skull. We report the occurrence of an intracranial epidural hematoma in an adult patient without any prior intracranial pathology after the use of a Mayfield head clamp during posterior cervical spine surgery. The purpose of the study was to report an occurrence of epidural hematoma from the use of a Mayfield head clamp in an adult patient and to review the literature. The diagnosis of intracranial epidural hematoma should be considered in the presence of persistent headache and nausea after the use of a head clamp in spinal or intracranial surgery. PMID:20155477

  10. Spinal Angiolipoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hungs, Marcel; Paré, Laura S

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Spinal angiolipoma (SAL) is an uncommon clinico-pathological entity. Design: Single case report. Methods: Retrospective data analysis. Findings: An obese woman with a 1-year history of progressive spastic paraparesis and acute deterioration underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine, the results of which suggested a tumor compressing the thoracic spinal cord. The histopathological examination of the completely resected tumor revealed an epidural angiolipoma. Conclusions: This case report offers a reminder that SAL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of long-standing, slowly progressive paraparesis. It remains unclear whether an increased body mass index might be a contributing factor to the development of SAL. PMID:18795485

  11. Comparison of general exercise, motor control exercise and spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain: A randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela L. Ferreira; Paulo H. Ferreira; Jane Latimer; Robert D. Herbert; Paul W. Hodges; Matthew D. Jennings; Christopher G. Maher; Kathryn M. Refshauge

    2007-01-01

    Practice guidelines recommend various types of exercise and manipulative therapy for chronic back pain but there have been few head-to-head comparisons of these interventions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare effects of general exercise, motor control exercise and manipulative therapy on function and perceived effect of intervention in patients with chronic back pain. Two hundred and forty adults

  12. Cost analysis related to dose-response of spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vavrek, Darcy A; Sharma, Rajiv; Haas, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this analysis is to report the incremental costs and benefits of different doses of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Methods We randomized 400 patients with chronic LBP to receive a dose of 0, 6, 12, or 18 sessions of SMT. Participants were scheduled for 18 visits over 6 weeks and received SMT or light massage control from a doctor of chiropractic. Societal costs in the year following study enrollment were estimated using patient reports of healthcare utilization and lost productivity. The main health outcomes were the number of pain-free days and disability-free days. Multiple regression was performed on outcomes and log-transformed cost data. Results Lost productivity accounts for a majority of societal costs of chronic LBP. Cost of treatment and lost productivity ranged from $3398 for 12 SMT sessions to $3815 for 0 SMT sessions with no statistically significant differences between groups. Baseline patient characteristics related to increase in costs were greater age (P=0.03), greater disability (P=0.01), lower QALY scores (P=0.01), and higher costs in the period preceding enrollment (P<0.01). Pain-free and disability-free days were greater for all SMT doses compared to control, but only SMT 12 yielded a statistically significant benefit of 22.9 pain-free days (P=0.03) and 19.8 disability-free days (P=0.04). No statistically significant group differences in QALYs were noted. Conclusions A dose of 12 SMT sessions yielded a modest benefit in pain-free and disability-free days. Care of chronic LBP with SMT did not increase the costs of treatment plus lost productivity. PMID:24928639

  13. Cervical myelopathy due to chronic overshunting in a pediatric patient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nils Harry-Bert; Maier, Matthias; Bernays, Rene-Ludwig; Krayenbuhl, Niklaus; Kollias, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare cause of cervical myelopathy produced by an engorged suboccipital epidural venous plexus due to chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage. A 17-year-old boy with obstructive hydrocephalus due to a retrocerebellar cyst and secondary implantation of a ventricloperitoneal shunt (VP-shunt) presented with progressive spastic tetraparesis. MRI imaging revealed myelopathy due to significant compression of the cervical spinal cord by engorged epidural veins. Further assessment at a low-pressure setting revealed a broken shunt valve. The VP-shunt valve was changed with an additional anti-siphon device leading to a gradual increase of the intracranial pressure (ICP). After intensive physiotherapy, the patient showed slight clinical improvement. Follow-up imaging within nine days showed distinct regression of the dilated venous plexus at the cranial-cervical junction (CCJ) with the resolution of cord compression. Engorgement of the epidural venous plexus should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy in long-term shunt patients even when classical clinical and radiological signs of overshunting are missing. PMID:23756987

  14. Systemic effects of epidural methylprednisolone injection on glucose tolerance in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that in diabetic patients, the glycemic profile was disturbed after intra-articular injection of corticosteroids. Little is known about the impact of epidural injection in such patients. The goal of this study was double, at first comparing the glycaemic profile in diabetic patients after a unique injection of 80 mg of acetate methylprednisolone either intra-articular or epidural and secondly to compare the amount of systemic diffusion of the drug after both procedures. Methods Seventeen patients were included. Glycemic changes were compared in 9 diabetic patients following intra-articular (4 patients) and epidural injections (5 patients). Epidural injections were performed using the sacral route under fluoroscopic control in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes control had to stable for more than 10 days and the renal function to be preserved. Blood glucose was monitored using a validated continuous measuring device (GMS, Medtronic) the day before and for two days following the injection. Results were expressed in the form of daily glycemic profiles and as by mean, peak and minimal values +/- SD. The urinary excretion of methylprednisolone after the 2 routes of injection was analyzed in 8 patients (4 in each group). Urine samples were cropped one hour before the injections, then 4 times during the first day and 3 times a week for 2 weeks. The measurements included the free and conjugated fraction Results The glycaemic profile remains unchanged with no significant changes in the group of the 5 diabetic patients receiving epidural injections. On the other end, the average peak and and mean values were enhanced up to 3 mmol/l above baseline two days after the infiltration in the groups of the 4 diabetic patients infiltrated intra-articular. The mean urinary excretion of the steroid was about ten times higher in the intra-articular versus epidural group: 7000 ng/ml versus 700 ng/ml. Looking at each individual there were marked differences especially after intra-articular injections. Conclusion This is the first study to show that a single epidural steroid injection of 80 mg depot methylprednisolone had no effect on the glycemic control in diabetic patients. The absence of glycemic control changes correlated well with the very low urinary excretion of the drug after epidural injection. Trial registration NCT01420497 PMID:22185681

  15. Randomized trial demonstrates that extended-release epidural morphine may provide safe pain control for lumbar surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Offley, Sarah C.; Coyne, Ellen; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rubery, Paul T.; Zeidman, Seth M; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Safe and effective postoperative pain control remains an issue in complex spine surgery. Spinal narcotics have been used for decades but have not become commonplace because of safety or re-dosing concerns. An extended release epidural morphine (EREM) preparation has been used successfully in obstetric, abdominal, thoracic, and extremity surgery done with epidural anesthesia. This has not been studied in open spinal surgery. Methods: Ninety-eight patients having complex posterior lumbar surgery were enrolled in a partially randomized clinical trial (PRCT) of low to moderate doses of EREM. Surgery included levels from L3 to S1 with procedures involving combinations of decompression, instrumented arthrodesis, and interbody grafting. The patients were randomized to receive either 10 or 15 mg of EREM through an epidural catheter placed under direct vision at the conclusion of surgery. Multiple safety measures were employed to prevent or detect respiratory depression. Postoperative pain scores, narcotic utilization, and adverse events were recorded. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups as to supplemental narcotic requirements, pain scores, or adverse events. There were no cases of respiratory depression. The epidural narcotic effect persisted from 3 to 36 hours after the injection. Conclusion: By utilizing appropriate safety measures, EREM can be used safely for postoperative pain control in lumbar surgery patients. As there was no apparent advantage to the use of 15 mg, the lower 10 mg dose should be used. PMID:23646274

  16. The effect of impedance-controlled robotic gait training on walking ability and quality in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the use of robotic gait-training devices in walking rehabilitation of incomplete spinal cord injured (iSCI) individuals. These devices provide promising opportunities to increase the intensity of training and reduce physical demands on therapists. Despite these potential benefits, robotic gait-training devices have not yet demonstrated clear advantages over conventional gait-training approaches, in terms of functional outcomes. This might be due to the reduced active participation and step-to-step variability in most robotic gait-training strategies, when compared to manually assisted therapy. Impedance-controlled devices can increase active participation and step-to-step variability. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of impedance-controlled robotic gait training on walking ability and quality in chronic iSCI individuals. Methods A group of 10 individuals with chronic iSCI participated in an explorative clinical trial. Participants trained three times a week for eight weeks using an impedance-controlled robotic gait trainer (LOPES: LOwer extremity Powered ExoSkeleton). Primary outcomes were the 10-meter walking test (10MWT), the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II), the six-meter walking test (6MWT), the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the Lower Extremity Motor Scores (LEMS). Secondary outcomes were spatiotemporal and kinematics measures. All participants were tested before, during, and after training and at 8 weeks follow-up. Results Participants experienced significant improvements in walking speed (0.06 m/s, p?=?0.008), distance (29 m, p?=?0.005), TUG (3.4 s, p?=?0.012), LEMS (3.4, p?=?0.017) and WISCI after eight weeks of training with LOPES. At the eight-week follow-up, participants retained the improvements measured at the end of the training period. Significant improvements were also found in spatiotemporal measures and hip range of motion. Conclusion Robotic gait training using an impedance-controlled robot is feasible in gait rehabilitation of chronic iSCI individuals. It leads to improvements in walking ability, muscle strength, and quality of walking. Improvements observed at the end of the training period persisted at the eight-week follow-up. Slower walkers benefit the most from the training protocol and achieve the greatest relative improvement in speed and walking distance. PMID:24594284

  17. Spinal computed tomography and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in the early diagnosis of metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, T.; George, C.B.; Redmond, J. 3d.; Davidson, H.; Cornett, P.; Fill, W.L.; Spring, D.B.; Sobel, D.; Dabe, I.B.; Karl, R.D. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    New lesions were shown by Tc99m bone scans to have developed in sixty patients with known metastatic cancer or high-risk primary cancer and normal neurologic examinations; they were further evaluated with plain radiographs, spinal computed tomography (CT), and CT myelography (CT-M) according to an algorithm. Three groups were identified based on plain radiographs: group 1 (normal radiograph), group 2 (compression fracture as indicated by radiograph), group 3 (evidence of metastasis as indicated by radiograph). In group 1 (n = 18), spinal CT revealed that 33% of the patients had benign disease and 67%, metastases; epidural compression was seen in 25% of the patients with metastasis as indicated by CT-M. In group 2 (n = 26), CT-M disclosed that 38% had a benign compression fracture and 62% had metastases and that 63% of the patients with metastases had an epidural compression. In group 3 (n = 16), spinal CT revealed that 15 patients had metastases (one patient had benign disease). Epidural cord compression was seen in 47% of the patients with metastatic disease. In all groups, the presence of cortical bone discontinuity around the neural canal (seen in 31 patients) was highly associated with epidural compression (seen in 20 patients). Our approach allowed the early and accurate diagnosis of spinal metastasis and epidural tumor as well as the diagnosis of benign disease and was useful in planning optimal local therapy.

  18. An unusual case of high cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Velnar, Tomaz; Smrkolj, Vladimir; Cerovic, Ognjen; Pecaric Meglic, Nuska; Tauscher, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Isolated spinal cord injuries can rarely be found in patients with no traumatic radiological abnormalities of the spine. Stenoses of the medullary canal and degeneration of cervical spine are the predisposing factors. A case report of a 68-year-old patient is described, who developed quadriplegia with cardiac arrest due to isolated cervical spinal cord injury while jumping on a trampoline. Compressions of the spinal cord with intramedullary and epidural haemorrhage between vertebrae C3 and C6 were observed with no traumatic radiological abnormalities of the spine skeleton. PMID:20602295

  19. Neuroendocrine and cardiac metabolic dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in adipose tissue and pancreas following chronic spinal cord injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bigford, Gregory E; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie C; Keane, Robert W; Nash, Mark S; Bethea, John R

    2013-01-01

    CVD (cardiovascular disease) represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury). Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immuno-histochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y) expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus) and PVN (paraventricular nucleus), 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb), JAK2 (Janus kinase)/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase) signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue) and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures. PMID:23924318

  20. Administering 'top-ups' of epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Millerchip, Susan

    Repeated annual audit cycles revealed an unacceptable failure rate of 38%-46% in epidural analgesia for surgical patients in our organisation. Reasons for failure included unilateral block, missed segments and catheter migration. In spite of interventions to remedy the situation, the success rate could not be improved. The aim of the initiative outlined in this article was to improve the efficacy of epidural analgesia and to reduce the failure rate. We found that following the appropriate training and assessment, nurse-administered diamorphine top-ups are a safe and effective way to improve the efficacy of epidural analgesia and can be integrated into acute pain team practice. PMID:26182601

  1. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension from calcified thoracic disc protrusions causing CSF leak successfully treated with targeted epidural blood patch.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrew M; Lee, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are increasingly recognized in patients presenting with orthostatic headache and ultimately diagnosed with intracranial hypotension. While the precise cause of these spontaneous leaks is unknown, it is thought to result from underlying weakness in the spinal meninges and may be associated with meningeal diverticula or Tarlov cysts. Rarely, calcified intervertebral discs or bony osteophytes can result in CSF leakage, which has been described in the surgery literature but not well recognized in the radiology literature. The authors present three cases of patients presenting with CSF leaks from calcified thoracic disc protrusions that were successfully treated with epidural blood patches. PMID:23395554

  2. Spinal epidural abscess: an unusual cause of sciatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kotilainen; P. Sonninen; P. Kotilainen

    1996-01-01

    A previously healthy patient was admitted to our hospital because of low back pain and sciatica. For 4 weeks preceding the admission, he had been treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory analgetics and bed rest with a clinical diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation. On admission, the patient was subfebrile but developed general symptoms of septic infection by the next day. Computed tomography

  3. Side effects of intrathecal and epidural opioids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Chaney

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the side effects of intrathecal and epidural opioids. English-language\\u000a articles were identified through a MEDLINE search and through review of the bibliographies of identified articles. With the\\u000a increasing utilization of intrathecal and epidural opioids in humans during the 1980s, a wide variety of clinically relevant\\u000a side effects have been

  4. The Effects of Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia on Functional Recovery from Myocardial Stunning in Propofol-Anesthetized Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Rolf; Andreas MeiiJner; Hugo Van Aken; Thomas P. Weber; Dieter Hammel; Thomas Mijllhoff

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myo- cardial stunning during propofol anesthesia. Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Experi- ments

  5. Chronic activity-based therapy does not improve body composition, insulin-like growth factor-I, adiponectin, or myostatin in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Harness, Eric T; Witzke, Kara A

    2014-08-17

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces dramatic changes in body composition including reductions in fat-free mass (FFM) and increases in fat mass (FM). Objective To examine changes in body composition in response to chronic activity-based therapy (ABT) in persons with SCI. Design Longitudinal exercise intervention. Methods Seventeen men and women with SCI (mean age = 36.1 ± 11.5 years) completed 6 months of supervised ABT consisting of load bearing, resistance training, locomotor training, and functional electrical stimulation. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of ABT, body weight, body fat, and FFM were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood samples were obtained to assess changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), adiponectin, and myostatin. Results Across all subjects, there was no change (P > 0.05) in body weight, percent body fat, or FFM of the leg, arm, or trunk, whereas whole-body FFM declined (P = 0.02, 50.4 ± 8.4 to 49.2 ± 7.4 kg). No changes (P = 0.21-0.41) were demonstrated in IGF-I, adiponectin, or myostatin during the study. Conclusions Chronic ABT focusing on the lower extremity does not slow muscle atrophy or alter body fat, body mass, or regional depots of FFM in persons with SCI. Further, it does not induce beneficial changes in adiponectin, myostatin, or IGF-I. Alternative exercise-based therapies are needed in SCI to reverse muscle atrophy and minimize the onset of related health risks. PMID:25130192

  6. Changes in traditional chronic disease risk factors over time and their relationship with leisure-time physical activity in people living with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Andrea C; Horrocks, Julie; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Bray, Steven R; Craven, B Catharine; Hicks, Audrey L; Hayes, Keith C; Latimer, Amy E; McColl, Mary Ann; Potter, Patrick J; Smith, Karen; Wolfe, Dalton L

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether levels of chronic disease risk factors change over time, and whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can explain any of the variation in those risk factors that change, in a sample of community-dwelling people living with spinal cord injury (SCI) in or near Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. LTPA was measured using the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with SCI at baseline (n = 76 adults with chronic (?1 year) paraplegia or tetraplegia), at 6 months (n = 71) and at 18 months (n = 63). Body mass index, waist circumference at the lowest rib (WC(lowest rib)) and iliac crest (WC(iliac crest)), fat mass, blood pressure, and biochemical data were collected at all 3 time points. Women's BMI was higher at baseline (least square means (LSM) = 26.2 ± SE = 1.56 kg·m(-2), p = 0.0004) and 6 months (25.9 ± 1.6, p = 0.0024) than at 18 months (22.1 ± 1.72). Men's WC(lowest rib) increased from baseline (92.1 ± 1.87 cm) to 18 months (93.6 ± 1.87, p = 0.0253). Women who were active vs. inactive at baseline had a lower BMI at 6 months (23.1 ± 2.91 vs. 29.7 ± 2.52, p = 0.0957) and WC(iliac crest) at 6 months (82.8 ± 6.59 vs. 97.7 ± 5.10, p = 0.0818). Women who were active vs. inactive at 6 months had a lower WC(iliac crest) at 18 months (73.4 ± 14.3 vs. 102.5 ± 6.41, p = 0.0723). There was little change in traditional risk factors over 18 months. Future studies should extend beyond 18 months in a larger sample, and explore traditional vs. novel risk factors and onset of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the SCI population. PMID:22924761

  7. Determinants of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Brown, Robert; Tun, Carlos G.; Gagnon, David; Garshick, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess factors that influence pulmonary function, because respiratory system dysfunction is common in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting Veterans Affairs Boston SCI service and the community. Participants Between 1994 and 2003, 339 white men with chronic SCI completed a respiratory questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC. Results Adjusting for SCI level and completeness, FEV1 (?21.0mL/y; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?26.3 to ?15.7 mL/y) and FVC (?17.2mL/y; 95% CI, ?23.7 to ?10.8mL/y) declined with age. Lifetime cigarette use was also associated with a decrease in FEV1 (?3.8mL/pack-year; 95% CI, ?6.5 to ?1.1mL/pack-year), and persistent wheeze and elevated body mass index were associated with a lower FEV1/FVC. A greater maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) was associated with a greater FEV1 and FVC. FEV1 significantly decreased with injury duration (?6.1mL/y; 95% CI, ?11.7 to ?0.6mL/y), with the greatest decrement in the most neurologically impaired. The most neurologically impaired also had a greater FEV1/FVC, and their FEV1 and FVC were less affected by age and smoking. Conclusions Smoking, persistent wheeze, obesity, and MIP, in addition to SCI level and completeness, were significant determinants of pulmonary function. In SCI, FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC may be less sensitive to factors associated with change in airway size and not reliably detect the severity of airflow obstruction. PMID:17023241

  8. Intermittent epidural TOP-UPS vs. patient control epidural analgesia during labor.

    PubMed

    Marijic, Vlatka; Bukovic, Damir; Mihaljevic, Slobodan; Oreskovic, Slavko; Persec, Jasminka; Zupic, Tomislav; Juras, Josip; Milinovic, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Pain during labor and delivery is often very unpleasant and stressful for the parturients. Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been found to be both safe and effective, providing optimal pain relief and allowing women to participate in their own analgesia). Compared to other epidural techniques, intermittent epidural top-ups and continuous epidural analgesia (CEA), PCEA uses diluted local anesthetic solutions with less motor block and less unscheduled clinician interventions. The purpose of our study was to compare intermittent bolus epidural top-ups and PCEA in labor. Sixty ASA I patients who requested epidural analgesia for labor and had written consent were included in the study. 30 patients in the first group received intermittent bolus epidural top-ups, while patients in the second group received PCEA. We evaluated duration of labor, maternal sense of pain using VAS scale and maternal satisfaction during fetal descent in both groups. We found that the duration of labor was significantly shorter and maternal sense of pain was lower in the PCEA group than in the group receiving epidural bolus top-ups. There were no differences between groups in maternal satisfaction during fetal descent. PMID:24611353

  9. Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:23576361

  10. Calcium and vitamin D plasma concentration and nutritional intake status in patients with chronic spinal cord injury: A referral center report

    PubMed Central

    Javidan, Abbas Norouzi; Sabour, Hadis; Latifi, Sahar; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Abbas; Razavi, Seyed-Hassan Emami

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutritional status influences bone health spinal cord injury (SCI). This study evaluates serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D and calcium along with dietary intakes in patients with chronic SCI. Materials and Methods: Total of 160 patients participated in this investigation. Dietary intakes were assessed by semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH)-vitamin-D level were measured. Results: Mean of serum calcium and 25(OH)-vitamin-D were 9.54 ± 0.64 mg/dl (standard error of the mean [SE]: 0.05) and 13.6 ± 10.99 ?g/dl (SE: 0.9), respectively. Dairy intake was below recommended amount (1.8 ± 0.74 per serving (SE: 0.06), recommended: 4). A high prevalence (53.1%) of Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) Vitamin D <13 ng/ml) was found. Conclusion: This study shows below adequate intake of calcium and Vitamin D in Iranian patients with SCI. These results insist on the importance of dietary modifications among these patients. PMID:25535504

  11. Chronic ibuprofen administration reduces neuropathic pain but does not exert neuroprotection after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Castro, Elena; Navarro, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Ibuprofen is commonly used as an anti-inflammatory analgesic drug, although it is not amongst the first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Its main effects are mediated by non-specific inhibition of COX enzymes, but it also exerts some COX-independent effects, such as the inhibition of RhoA signaling and the modulation of glial activity. These effects have boosted the use of ibuprofen as a tool to promote axonal regeneration and to increase functional recovery after neural injuries, although with controversial results showing positive and negative outcomes of ibuprofen treatment in several experimental models. We have evaluated the effects of ibuprofen administered at 60 mg/kg twice a day to rats subjected to a mild spinal cord contusion. Our results indicate that ibuprofen ameliorates mechanical hyperalgesia in rats by reducing central hyperexcitability, but failed to produce improvements in the recovery of locomotion. Despite an early effect on reducing microglial reactivity, the ibuprofen treatment did not provide histological evidence of neuroprotection; indeed the volume of cord tissue spared rostral to the lesion was decreased in ibuprofen treated rats. In summary, the early modulation of neuroinflammation produced by the administration of ibuprofen seems to eventually lead to a worse resolution of detrimental events occurring in the secondary injury phase, but also to reduce the development of neuropathic pain. PMID:24246280

  12. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the spine. Other surgery, such as a diskectomy , laminectomy , or a foraminotomy , is almost always done first. ... procedures for spinal stenosis , such as foraminotomy or laminectomy After diskectomy in the neck Spinal fusion may ...

  13. Spinal Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edzard Ernst; Elaine Harkness

    2001-01-01

    For many years, spinal manipulation has been a popular form of treatment. Yet the debate about its clinical efficacy continues. The research question remains: Does spinal manipulation convey more than a placebo effect? To summarize the evidence from sham-controlled clinical trials of spinal manipulation as a treatment of various conditions, and to assess the methodological quality of these studies, a

  14. Influence of a Locomotor Training Approach on Walking Speed and Distance in People With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Impaired walking limits function after spinal cord injury (SCI), but training-related improvements are possible even in people with chronic motor incomplete SCI. Objective The objective of this study was to compare changes in walking speed and distance associated with 4 locomotor training approaches. Design This study was a single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Setting This study was conducted in a rehabilitation research laboratory. Participants Participants were people with minimal walking function due to chronic SCI. Intervention Participants (n=74) trained 5 days per week for 12 weeks with the following approaches: treadmill-based training with manual assistance (TM), treadmill-based training with stimulation (TS), overground training with stimulation (OG), and treadmill-based training with robotic assistance (LR). Measurements Overground walking speed and distance were the primary outcome measures. Results In participants who completed the training (n=64), there were overall effects for speed (effect size index [d]=0.33) and distance (d=0.35). For speed, there were no significant between-group differences; however, distance gains were greatest with OG. Effect sizes for speed and distance were largest with OG (d=0.43 and d=0.40, respectively). Effect sizes for speed were the same for TM and TS (d=0.28); there was no effect for LR. The effect size for distance was greater with TS (d=0.16) than with TM or LR, for which there was no effect. Ten participants who improved with training were retested at least 6 months after training; walking speed at this time was slower than that at the conclusion of training but remained faster than before training. Limitations It is unknown whether the training dosage and the emphasis on training speed were optimal. Robotic training that requires active participation would likely yield different results. Conclusions In people with chronic motor incomplete SCI, walking speed improved with both overground training and treadmill-based training; however, walking distance improved to a greater extent with overground training. PMID:21051593

  15. Examining the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen on spasticity in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Amanda; Mays, Rachel; Mehta, Swati; Janzen, Shannon; Townson, Andrea; Hsieh, Jane; Wolfe, Dalton; Teasell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence on the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen in the treatment of spasticity in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) at least 6 months post-injury or diagnosis. Data sources A literature search of multiple databases (Pub Med, CINAHL, EMBASE) was conducted to identify articles published in the English language. Study selection Studies were included for review if: (1) more than 50% of the sample size had suffered a traumatic or non-traumatic SCI; (2) there were more than three subjects; (3) subjects received continuous intrathecal baclofen via an implantable pump aimed at improving spasticity; and (4) all subjects were ?6 months post-SCI, at the time of the intervention. Data extraction Data extracted from the studies included patient and treatment characteristics, study design, method of assessment, and outcomes of the intervention. Data synthesis Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black (D&B) tool for non-RCTs. A level of evidence was assigned to each intervention using a modified Sackett scale. Conclusion The literature search resulted in 677 articles. No RCTs and eight non-RCTs (D&B scores 13–24) met criteria for inclusion, providing a pooled sample size of 162 individuals. There was substantial level 4 evidence that intrathecal baclofen is effective in reducing spasticity. Mean Ashworth scores reduced from 3.1–4.5 at baseline to 1.0–2.0 (P < 0.005) at follow-up (range 2–41 months). Average dosing increased from 57–187 µg/day at baseline to 218.7–535.9 µg/day at follow-up. Several complications from the use of intrathecal baclofen or pump and catheter malfunction were reported. PMID:24089997

  16. Spinal cord stimulation: therapeutic benefits and movement generation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tator, Charles H; Minassian, Karen; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition that leads to loss of motor and sensory function. It commonly causes impairments in limb movements, respiration, bowel and bladder function, as well as secondary complications including pain, spasticity, and pressure ulcers. Numerous interventions such as neuroprotection, regeneration, pharmacology, rehabilitation training, and functional electrical stimulation are under investigation for improving function after SCI. This chapter discusses the use of spinal cord stimulation (epidural and intraspinal electrical stimulation) for alleviating pain and spasticity, and restoring standing and walking. Epidural stimulation is effective in reducing the intensity of intractable pain, but its effectiveness in the treatment of spasticity remains unclear. It can induce rhythmic, locomotor-like movements in the legs, presumably due to the activation of afferent pathways. Intraspinal microstimulation is a new electrical stimulation approach that activates locomotor-related networks within the ventral regions of the lumbosacral spinal cord. In animals, this approach is capable of producing prolonged, fatigue-resistant standing and stepping of the hindlegs. While the results in animals have been very encouraging, technical advancements are necessary prior to its implementation in humans with SCI. Taken collectively, spinal cord stimulation holds substantial promise in restoring function after neural injury or disease. PMID:23098720

  17. A Novel Balloon-Inflatable Catheter for Percutaneous Epidural Adhesiolysis and Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Soo; Joo, Eun Young; Hwang, Beom Sang; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Gunn; Suh, Jeong Hun; Leem, Jeong Gill

    2014-01-01

    Epidural adhesions cause pain by interfering with the free movement of the spinal nerves and increasing neural sensitivity as a consequence of neural compression. To remove adhesions and deliver injected drugs to target sites, percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis (PEA) is performed in patients who are unresponsive to conservative treatments. We describe four patients who were treated with a newly developed inflatable balloon catheter for more effective PEA and relief of stenosis. In the present patients, treatments with repetitive epidural steroid injection and/or PEA with the Racz catheter or the NaviCath did not yield long-lasting effects or functional improvements. However, PEA and decompression with the inflatable balloon catheter led to maintenance of pain relief for more than seven months and improvements in the functional status with increases in the walking distance. The present case series suggests that the inflatable balloon catheter may be an effective alternative to performing PEA when conventional methods fail to remove adhesions or sufficiently relieve stenosis. PMID:24748948

  18. Low back pain (chronic)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Over 70% of people in developed countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Many patients with chronic LBP who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? What are the effects of non-surgical and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-surgical interventional therapies (intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency denervation), spinal manipulative therapy, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:21418678

  19. Large Animal Model for Development of Functional Restoration Paradigms Using Epidural and Intraspinal Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hachmann, Jan T.; Jeong, Ju Ho; Grahn, Peter J.; Mallory, Grant W.; Evertz, Loribeth Q.; Bieber, Allan J.; Lobel, Darlene A.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of movement following spinal cord injury (SCI) has been achieved using electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles. However, practical limitations such as the rapid onset of muscle fatigue hinder clinical application of these technologies. Recently, direct stimulation of alpha motor neurons has shown promise for evoking graded, controlled, and sustained muscle contractions in rodent and feline animal models while overcoming some of these limitations. However, small animal models are not optimal for the development of clinical spinal stimulation techniques for functional restoration of movement. Furthermore, variance in surgical procedure, targeting, and electrode implantation techniques can compromise therapeutic outcomes and impede comparison of results across studies. Herein, we present a protocol and large animal model that allow standardized development, testing, and optimization of novel clinical strategies for restoring motor function following spinal cord injury. We tested this protocol using both epidural and intraspinal stimulation in a porcine model of spinal cord injury, but the protocol is suitable for the development of other novel therapeutic strategies. This protocol will help characterize spinal circuits vital for selective activation of motor neuron pools. In turn, this will expedite the development and validation of high-precision therapeutic targeting strategies and stimulation technologies for optimal restoration of motor function in humans. PMID:24339929

  20. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  1. Occult Spinal Dysraphism in Obstetrics: A Case Report of Caesarean Section with Subarachnoid Anaesthesia after Remifentanil Intravenous Analgesia for Labour

    PubMed Central

    Valente, A.; Frassanito, L.; Natale, L.; Draisci, G.

    2012-01-01

    Neuraxial techniques of anaesthesia and analgesia are the current choice in obstetrics for efficacy and general low risk of major complications. Concern exists about neuraxial anaesthesia in patients with occult neural tube defects, regarding both labour analgesia and anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Recently, remifentanil infusion has been proposed as an analgesic technique alternative to lumbar epidural, especially when epidural analgesia appears to be contraindicated. Here, we discuss the case of a pregnant woman attending at our institution with occult, symptomatic spinal dysraphism who requested labour analgesia. She was selected for remifentanil intravenous infusion for labour pain and then underwent urgent operative delivery with spinal anaesthesia with no complications. PMID:22844625

  2. Epidural vs intramuscular administration of lecirelin, a GnRH analogue, for the resolution of follicular cysts in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Annalisa, Rizzo; Campanile, Debora; Debora, Campanile; Mutinati, Maddalena; Maddalena, Mutinati; Minoia, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Minoia; Spedicato, Massimo; Massimo, Spedicato; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi; Luigi, Sciorsci Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Bovine follicular cysts are an ovarian disorder of dairy cows associated with abnormal estrous behaviour and infertility. The treatment of choice is intramuscular administration of a GnRH analogue, which acts by triggering pituitary release of LH. However, the presence of GnRH and GnRH receptors on spinal cord and ovary in some species, and the kind of innervation of the ovary, let us hypothesize that GnRH and its analogues may also act when administered by epidural route, as happens for other drugs. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the effects of epidural vs intramuscular administration of lecirelin (a GnRH analogue) on FC regression, estrus detection and pregnancy outcomes. The study was conducted on 220 Friesian cows affected by follicular cysts, divided among 4 groups: Group L(epid) and Group L(im) received, respectively 50 ?g of lecirelin in the epidural space and intramuscular; Group C(epid) and Group C(im) were used as control groups. In Group L(epid), estrus induction and pregnancy rates were significantly higher than in Group L(im). The results of this study show that the epidural administration of lecirelin promoted the remission of follicular cysts and an improvement of reproductive parameters compared to intramuscular administration. Thus, an alternative therapeutical approach is available for FC treatment, in order to obtain an easier restoration of the ovarian activity, especially in those cases refractory to classical therapeutic approaches. PMID:21571459

  3. Paraplegia Following Intercostal Nerve Neurolysis with Alcohol and Thoracic Epidural Injection in Lung Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Ho; No, Min Young; Han, Sang Ju; Park, Cheol Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of cancer treatment is generally pain reduction and function recovery. However, drug therapy does not treat pain adequately in approximately 43% of patients, and the latter may have to undergo a nerve block or neurolysis. In the case reported here, a 42-year-old female patient with lung cancer (adenocarcinoma) developed paraplegia after receiving T8-10 and 11th intercostal nerve neurolysis and T9-10 interlaminar epidural steroid injections. An MRI results revealed extensive swelling of the spinal cord between the T4 spinal cord and conus medullaris, and T5, 7-11, and L1 bone metastasis. Although steroid therapy was administered, the paraplegia did not improve. PMID:25852838

  4. Paraplegia following intercostal nerve neurolysis with alcohol and thoracic epidural injection in lung cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Ho; No, Min Young; Han, Sang Ju; Park, Cheol Hwan; Kim, Jae Hun

    2015-04-01

    The goal of cancer treatment is generally pain reduction and function recovery. However, drug therapy does not treat pain adequately in approximately 43% of patients, and the latter may have to undergo a nerve block or neurolysis. In the case reported here, a 42-year-old female patient with lung cancer (adenocarcinoma) developed paraplegia after receiving T8-10 and 11(th) intercostal nerve neurolysis and T9-10 interlaminar epidural steroid injections. An MRI results revealed extensive swelling of the spinal cord between the T4 spinal cord and conus medullaris, and T5, 7-11, and L1 bone metastasis. Although steroid therapy was administered, the paraplegia did not improve. PMID:25852838

  5. [Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of systemic and epidurally applied xylazine in general anesthesia with isoflurane in dogs and the effect of atipamezole infection on postoperative analgesia].

    PubMed

    Rector, E; Kramer, S; Kietzmann, M; Hart, S; Nolte, I

    1998-01-01

    The alpha 2-selective adrenergic agonist xylazine has a long lasting antinociceptive effect (> 4 hours) after lumbosacral injection in dogs (Rector, 1996). The present study was performed to find out if epidurally administered xylazine acts locally as well as systemically. In a clinical investigation 30 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen (1.9 Vol.% ET) were examined before and after epidural and intramuscular injection of xylazine (0.25 mg/kg) during surgery and over a 240-minute postoperative period. All dogs underwent surgery caudal the costal arch. The surgical patients were divided into three groups: group I: xylazine (0.25 mg/kg) epidural and aqua pro injectione i.m. (n = 10 dogs); group II: aqua pro injectione epidural and xylazine (0.25 mg/kg) i.m. (n = 10 dogs); group III: aqua pro injectione epidural and aqua pro injectione i.m. (n = 10 dogs). The division of xylazine epidural or i.m. or aqua pro injectione only was randomized. Prior to surgery, in all three groups somatic stimuli were exerted by pressure on the nailbed of a hind- and a forelimb before and after the epidural injection under general anesthesia. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure and rate of ventilation were used to determine the analgesic effect. During surgery, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured every 15 minutes. At the end of the operation, all patients were treated with the (alpha 2-selective adrenergic-antagonist atipamezole. During a 240 minute post operative examination heart rate, mean arterial pressure, rate of ventilation and reaction to pressure on the surgery site were used to determine the analgesic properties of xylazine. In this study it could be shown, that the concurrent epidural (group I) or intramuscular injection (group II) of xylazine in isoflurane anesthetized dogs leads to a better analgesic effect than isoflurane alone (group III) after somatic stimulation of a hind- and forelimb. From the antinociceptive effect in the forelimb after epidural administration of xylazine it was concluded that xylazine acts both locally as well as systemically. This was also confirmed by the hemodynamic changes, which were similar in group I (xylazine epidurally) and group II (xylazine i.m.). In the two groups treated with xylazine (group I and II), bradycardia and AV-blocks I and II were observed in three dogs during the first 30 minutes after epidural and intramuscular injection of xylazine. Hemodynamic changes were seen at the time of maximal plasma xylazine concentrations. One dog in the control group also had a bradycardia in connection with an AV-block II. During surgery no hemodynamic differences could be observed between the three groups. Heart rate was within normal limits and mean arterial pressure showed a slight hypotension. In agreement with the investigation of Rector (1996) it was shown in this study that xylazine has a long lasting (> 4 hours) antinociceptive effect after lumbosacral injection in the epidural space (group I). This analgesic effect is of local, spinal cord origin, as it was impossible to antagonize the analgesia by systemic application of atipamezole. In contrast to this, atipamezole reversed all analgesic properties totally after systemically administered xylazine in group II. However, sufficient analgesic plasma xylazine concentrations could only be detected in group II up to 180 minutes after injection. After this time period, an analgesic effect could not be expected anyway, even without antagonization. It can be concluded that the epidural administration of xylazine offers advantages in contrast to a systemic administration, as a longer lasting analgesic effect can be observed (after the epidural application), and systemic side effects can be reversed without effecting spinal analgesia. PMID:9880940

  6. Sciatica caused by lumbar epidural gas

    PubMed Central

    Belfquih, Hatim; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; Gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Gas production as a part of disc degeneration can occur but rarely causes nerve compression syndromes. The clinical features are similar to those of common sciatica. CT is very useful in the detection of epidural gas accumulation and nerve root compression. We report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation originating from vacuum phenomenon in the intervertebral disc, causing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy. A 45-year-old woman suffered from sciatica for 9 months. The condition worsened in recent days. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, and accumulation of gas in the lumbar epidural space compressing the dural sac and S1 nerve root. After evacuation of the gas, her pain resolved without recurrence. PMID:25422680

  7. [Risks and recommendations in Bechterew disease. Paraparesis after epidural anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Allen, D; Dahlgren, N; Nellgård, B

    1997-12-10

    We describe a case of paraparesis caused by an epidural haematoma in a 74-year-old man with advanced ankylosing spondylitis who received combined epidural and general anaesthesia for graft repair of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Before the induction of general anaesthesia, an epidural catheter was inserted at the level of thoracic vertebrae 10-11 without difficulty or signs of bleeding. Total analgesia and paralysis of the legs in the early postoperative period raised suspicions of the presence of an epidural haematoma, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance tomography. Aspiration of the epidural catheter yielded 13 ml of blood. Despite early surgical decompression after transfer to a regional hospital, the patient remains paraparetic. We wish to highlight the risks of epidural anaesthesia in cases of ankylosing spondylitis, and to stress the need of routine control of motor function after epidural anaesthesia. PMID:9445957

  8. Pregnancy following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, L. L.; Meythaler, J. M.; Tuel, S. M.; Cross, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Each year about 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States have a spinal cord injury. Only a few mostly anecdotal reports describe pregnancy after such an injury. In a retrospective study of 16 women with a spinal cord injury, half of whom have a complete injury and about half quadriplegia, 25 pregnancies occurred, with 21 carried to full term. The women delayed pregnancy an average of 6.5 years after their injury, with an average age at first pregnancy of 26.8 years. Cesarean section was necessary in 4 patients because of inadequate progress of labor. In 5 deliveries an episiotomy and local anesthesia were required, 7 required epidural anesthesia, including all cesarean sections, and 10 did not require anesthesia. Several complications have been identified in the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods including autonomic hyperreflexia, premature labor, pressure sores, urinary tract infections, abnormal presentation, and failure to progress. Ultrasonography and amniocentesis were used selectively. Women with spinal cord injuries can have healthy children, although there are significant risks and these women have special needs. PMID:1866960

  9. Incidence of Urinary Retention in Patients with Thoracic Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (TPCEA) Undergoing Thoracotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salima S. J. Ladak; Rita Katznelson; Meredith Muscat; Monakshi Sawhney; William Scott Beattie; Gerald O'Leary

    2009-01-01

    Up to 100% of patients treated with epidural analgesia can experience urinary retention, which may be related to dermatomal level of the epidural block, epidural medication, and surgical procedure. This study was designed to identify the incidence of urinary retention in patients who receive thoracic patient-controlled epidural analgesia (TPCEA) after thoracotomy. Forty-nine patients were enrolled and received epidural infusion of

  10. Impact of epidural analgesia on quality of life and pain in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    He, Qun-Hui; Liu, Qing-Ling; Li, Zhen; Li, Ke-Zhong; Xie, Yong-Gang

    2015-06-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience chronic postoperative pain and poor quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine if epidural self-controlled analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic pain and improved the quality of life when compared with intravenous self-controlled analgesia. A total of 50 patients diagnosed with advanced cancer who received analgesia treatment were randomly divided into two groups, epidural self-controlled analgesia group (EA group, n = 26) and intravenous self-controlled analgesia group (IA group, n = 24). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Karnofsky score were used to assess the pain and the quality of life, respectively. A multifunction monitor was used to continuously record the physical signs of patients after treatment. The physical signs, such as heart failure, respiration, pulse, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation, in the two groups were better after analgesia treatment. Meanwhile, the respiration and oxygen saturation in the EA group were significantly improved compared with that of the IA group (p < .05). The VAS in the EA group was significantly lower than that in the IA group (p < .05), and the Karnofsky score in the EA group was significantly higher than that in the IA group (p < .05). Moreover, patients treated with EA felt more satisfied and experienced fewer complications than those with IA (p < .05). The epidural self-controlled analgesia may greatly improve the quality of life and relieve the pain in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:25439118

  11. Occult spinal dysraphism: a challenge in pain management.

    PubMed

    Gerges, Frederic J; Manchanda, Chhavi; Novak, Gordon; Al-Kimawi, Magid; Semenovski, Michael; Williams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Spina bifida is a common birth defect affecting the central nervous system and represents a group of neural tube defects caused by congenital dysraphic malformations of the vertebral column and/or spinal cord. The anatomy in these patients is challenging and includes structural and vascular abnormalities including arteriovenous malformation or fistulae, and fatty substitution of paravertebral tissues. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) is needed for management of patients with lumbar radiculopathy and clinical features suspicious of occult spinal dysraphism. Risks and benefits of lumbar epidural steroids should be discussed comprehensively with those patients and in the best case scenario be avoided. Occult spinal dysraphism poses a clinical dilemma for interventional pain specialists managing those patients with lumbar radiculopathy. We report a case of occult spinal dysraphism discovered following the development of post-traumatic radicular symptoms. PMID:25794223

  12. Use of a Thrombin-gelatin Hemostatic Matrix (Surgiflo) in Spinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; De Bonis, Costanzo; Galarza, Marcelo

    2014-11-01

    A variety of techniques have been used to stop venous bleeding from the spinal epidural space. These generally consist of packing with Surgicel®, fibrillar collagen or Gelfoam®. Bipolar coagulation may also be used to control bleeding from spinal venous plexus, but it may bear the risk of healthy nervous tissue injury: dissipation of heat from the tips of the bipolar forceps may induce thermal injury to adjacent neural structures. In the case of intraspinal bleeding, quick and safe hemostasis is mandatory to ensure adequate visualization and safe preparation so as to avoid damaging nerves and spinal medulla. In addition, quick and safe hemostasis reduces the duration of surgery. Efficient control of bleeding can thereby reduce perioperative morbidity. During 6 months, the authors performed more than 170 major spinal surgeries, and in 67 procedures they used injection of thrombin-gelatin hemostatic matrix (Surgiflo, Johnson & Johnson Wound Management, Somerville, NJ) into spinal epidural space to assist in hemostasis. When the venous bleeding continued from the epidural space after packing with hemostatic agents as Surgicel and fibrillar collagen, gelatin matrix was used to stop venous bleeding. In all cases, the results were judged to be excellent, with immediate stoppage of epidural bleeding, or good. No complications related to the thrombin-gelatin hemostatic matrix were encountered. The thrombin-gelatin matrix could represent a valuable tool when other hemostatic strategies are ineffective or suboptimal. It is safe and biocompatible when compared with hemostatic agents currently in use. This is the first study reporting the use of Surgiflo hemostatic matrix in spinal surgery. PMID:25419955

  13. Presumed Group B Streptococcal Meningitis After Epidural Blood Patch.

    PubMed

    Beilin, Yaakov; Spitzer, Yelena

    2015-06-15

    Bacterial meningitis after epidural catheter placement is rare. We describe a case in which a parturient received labor epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery complicated by dural puncture. The patient developed postdural puncture headache and underwent 2 separate epidural blood patch procedures. She subsequently developed a headache with fever and focal neurologic deficits. She was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics for presumed meningitis, and she made a full recovery. Blood cultures subsequently grew group B streptococcus. PMID:26050248

  14. Cervical dural arteriovenous malformation and large epidural venous varices in a rare adult presentation of congenital vascular bone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vasant; Manjila, Sunil; Corriveau, Mark; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    61-year-old male presented with shortness of breath and chest pain. Workup for acute myocardial infarction was negative; however, computed tomography angiography visualized what a vascular malformation within the cervical spinal canal. Given the patient's history of Servelle-Martorell syndrome, neurovascular imaging was performed. We present the unique vascular findings of a right thyrocervical trunk-based dural arteriovenous malformation (dAVM) and a large epidural venous varix. The cervical dAVM induced intervertebral foraminal widening and polyradiculopathy, representing a rare adult case of congenital vascular bone syndrome. PMID:25797094

  15. A rare case of spontaneous Aspergillus spondylodiscitis with epidural abscess in a 45-year-old immunocompetent female

    PubMed Central

    Raj, K. Ambedkar; Srinivasamurthy, Banushree C.; Nagarajan, Krishnan; Sinduja, M. G. Ilavarasi

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis are mainly due to bacterial infections though fungal infections are one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus involving intervertebral disc space is extremely rare. We report a case of aspergillosis of intervertebral L5-S1 disc space with spinal epidural abscess in an immunocompetent 45-year-old female which can add on to a few case reports described in literature as well as an insight for clinicians regarding this rare spontaneous infection in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:24744568

  16. Spinal Tap

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the area. The sample is sent to a lab for analysis and testing. Your doctor might ask you to lie on your back for a few hours after the procedure. Safety A spinal tap is considered a safe procedure ...

  17. Spinal Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the spinal cord and nerve roots pass. Ligaments. Elastic bands of tissue that support the spine by ... explanations from researchers, and links to how to search for a trial or enroll in a research- ...

  18. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010

  19. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome? Is ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome? Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurological ...

  20. Surgical Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis Complicated with Extensive ABSCESS

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Joaquim Soares Do; Tirado, António; Fernandes, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tuberculosis can be responsible for extensive spinal lesions. Despite the efficacy of medical treatment, surgery is indicated to avoid or correct significant deformity, treat spinal instability, prevent neurological compromise, and to eradicate an extensive tuberculous abscess. In this paper we present our experience in the surgical management of spinal tuberculosis complicated with large abscess. Patients and Methods Fifteen patients with spinal tuberculosis complicated with extensive abscess were identified; and nine of those patients had extension of the infection into the epidural space. The average age at treatment was 34 years old. Seven patients had thoracic infection, seven patients had lumbar infection and one had thoracolumbar infection. Six patients had neurological deficit at presentation. All patients were surgically treated with abscess debridement, spinal stabilization and concurrent antituberculous chemotherapy. A single anterior surgical approach was used in three cases, a posterior approach was used in four others and a combined approach was performed in eight patients. Results Surgical management allowed for effective abscess debridement and sspinal stabilization in this cohort. In combination with antituberculous drugs, surgical treatment resulted in infection eradication and bone fusion in all patients at 24 month average follow-up. Satisfactory neurological outcomes with improved American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores were observed in 100% of patients. Conclusion Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis abscess can lead to satisfactory clinical outcomes. PMID:25328472

  1. Over-expression of P2X7 receptors in spinal glial cells contributes to the development of chronic postsurgical pain induced by skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yan-Lu; Wei, Xu-Hong; Xu, Xue-Bing; She, Shou-Zhang; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lv, Jing; Li, Dai; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Many patients suffer from chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) following surgery, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present work, with use of the skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) model, the role of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in spinal glial cells in the development of CPSP was evaluated. Consistent with previous reports, we found that SMIR decreased the ipsilateral 50% paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), lasting for at least 2weeks. No injury was done to L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and no axonal or Schwann cell damage at the retraction site in the saphenous nerve was observed 7days after SMIR. The results of immunofluorescence showed that both microglia and astrocytes were activated in the spinal dorsal horn following SMIR. In addition, both P2X7Rs and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were up-regulated following SMIR. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that the up-regulated P2X7R immunoreactivity was mainly located in microglia, and to a lesser extent in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Intrathecal delivery of specific P2X7R antagonist BBG (10?M in 10?l volume) or A438079 (10?M in 10?l volume), started 30min before the surgery and once daily thereafter for 7days, prevented the mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal injection of BBG inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and the up-regulation of TNF-? induced by SMIR. These data suggest that P2X7Rs in the spinal dorsal horn might mediate the development of CPSP via activation of glial cells and up-regulation of TNF-?. PMID:25242211

  2. Spinal computed tomography scanning in the evaluation of metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Spring, D.B.; Munderloh, S.H.; George, C.B.; Mansour, R.P.; Volk, S.A.

    1984-07-15

    Twenty patients with known metastatic cancer or high-risk primary cancer developed new lesions on Tc/sup 99m/ bone scans and had normal plain radiographs. Spinal computed tomography (CT) was performed on all new bone-scan-positive lesions in minimal examination time. Fifteen patients had extensive metastatic vertebral disease and received local radiotherapy. One patient with new metastatic vertebral disease on CT was treated only with chemotherapy and developed acute spinal cord compression. Four patients had discogenic disease or degenerative disease but no evidence of metastases. Radionuclide bone scans are more sensitive but less specific than plain radiographs in detecting early bone metastases. Early and accurate diagnosis of metastasis is particularly important in the axial spine to prevent epidural compression and fracture. Spinal CT is valuable for identifying the presence and extent of vertebral metastases, as well as the presence of benign disease in cancer patients.

  3. Intercostal bleeding that developed during thoracic epidural catheterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumio Amagasa; Ayuko Igarashi; Noriko Yokoo; Masayoshi Sato

    2008-01-01

    To the editor: Various complications related to thoracic epidural catheterization have been reported, including epidural hematoma or abscess, dural puncture, nerve injuries, intrapleural catheter placement, and pneumothorax (1,2). However, to our knowledge, intercostal bleeding has not been reported; this complication may be rare. We report a case of intercostal bleeding associated with hemothorax and a hematoma external to the parietal

  4. Thoracic epidural angiolipoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jun; Du, Yong; Yang, Han-Feng; Hu, Fu-Bi; Huang, Ya-Yong; Li, Bing; Zee, Chi-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Angiolipoma of the spine is a benign neoplasm consisting of both mature fatty tissue and abnormal vascular elements, and usually presents with a slow progressive clinical course. Our patient presented with bilateral lower extremity weakness and chest-back numbness. Physical examination revealed adipose elements superficial hypesthesia below the T5 level and analgesia below the T6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed an avidly and heterogeneously enhancing mass which was located in the posterior epidural space. Compression of the thoracic cord by the fusiform mass was seen between T3-T4. During the operation, a flesh pink vascular mass (4.7 cm × 1.0 cm × 1.0 cm) with obscure margin and strong but pliable texture was found in the posterior epidural space extending from T3 to T4. There was no infiltration of the dura or the adjacent bony spine. Histopathological study of the surgical specimen showed a typical angiolipoma. We review the previously documented cases of spinal extradural angiolipomas performed with MRI. PMID:23671756

  5. Spinal deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, J.K.; Riseborough, E.J.; Jaffe, N.; Nehme, M.E.

    1981-02-01

    Of seventy-four children who were treated at a mean age of seventeen months for neuroblastoma and survived more than five years, fifty-six had spinal deformity due either to the disease or to the treatment after a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Of these fifty-six, 50 per cent had post-radiation scoliosis, and 16 per cent had post-radiation kyphosis, most frequently at the thoracolumbar junction, at the time of follow-up. Two kyphotic thoracolumbar curve patterns were identified: an angular kyphosis with a short radius of curvature and its apex at the twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and a thoracic kyphosis with a long radius of curvature that extended into the lumbar spine. The post-radiation deformity - both the scoliosis and the kyphosis - progressed with growth, the scoliosis at a rate of 1 degree per year and the kyphosis at a rate of 3 degrees per year. Epidural spread of the neuroblastoma was associated with most of the cases of severe scoliosis and kyphosis. The deformity was due either to the laminectomy or to the paraplegia acting in conjunction with the radiation. Eighteen per cent of 419 children with this malignant disease survived more than five years, and of the survivors, 20 per cent had spinal deformity severe enough to warrant treatment. The factors associated with the development of spinal deformity in patient treated for neuroblastoma were: orthovoltage radiation exceeding 3000 rads, asymmetrical radiation of the spine, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and epidural spread of the tumor.

  6. Invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation for treatment of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Leis, Stefan; Höller, Peter; Thon, Natasha; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Context Past evidence has shown that invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation may be effective for relieving central pain. Objective To perform a topical review of the literature on brain neurostimulation techniques in patients with chronic neuropathic pain due to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess the current evidence for their therapeutic efficacy. Methods A MEDLINE search was performed using following terms: “Spinal cord injury”, “Neuropathic pain”, “Brain stimulation”, “Deep brain stimulation” (DBS), “Motor cortex stimulation” (MCS), “Transcranial magnetic stimulation” (TMS), “Transcranial direct current stimulation” (tDCS), “Cranial electrotherapy stimulation” (CES). Results Invasive neurostimulation therapies, in particular DBS and epidural MCS, have shown promise as treatments for neuropathic and phantom limb pain. However, the long-term efficacy of DBS is low, while MCS has a relatively higher potential with lesser complications that DBS. Among the non-invasive techniques, there is accumulating evidence that repetitive TMS can produce analgesic effects in healthy subjects undergoing laboratory-induced pain and in chronic pain conditions of various etiologies, at least partially and transiently. Another very safe technique of non-invasive brain stimulation – tDCS – applied over the sensory-motor cortex has been reported to decrease pain sensation and increase pain threshold in healthy subjects. CES has also proved to be effective in managing some types of pain, including neuropathic pain in subjects with SCI. Conclusion A number of studies have begun to use non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques therapeutically to relieve neuropathic pain and phantom phenomena in patients with SCI. However, further studies are warranted to corroborate the early findings and confirm different targets and stimulation paradigms. The utility of these protocols in combination with pharmacological approaches should also be explored. PMID:24090372

  7. [Epidural lipomatosis as a complication of a long-term glucocorticoid therapy].

    PubMed

    Bischoff, C

    1988-12-16

    In a 47-year-old patient with asymmetrical proximal paraparesis a long cervical and thoracic spinal epidural lipomatosis was found, by computed tomography and (the first such case) magnetic resonance imaging, to be the cause of the signs of a transverse cord lesion. Such a space-occupying mass is a rare complication of long-term corticosteroid medication--in this case administered for over seven years for bronchial asthma. Contrary to the majority of similar reported cases, no decompression operation was performed, because the neurological signs had not progressed and the clinical findings in fact quickly regressed once the steroid dosage had been reduced and they showed a clear dependence on the amount of steroid administered. PMID:3058451

  8. Spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wiater, J M; Bigliani, L U

    1999-11-01

    Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can lead to dysfunction of the trapezius. The trapezius is a major scapular stabilizer and is composed of three functional components. It contributes to scapulothoracic rhythm by elevating, rotating, and retracting the scapula. The superficial course of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle makes it susceptible to injury. Iatrogenic injury to the nerve after a surgical procedure is one of the most common causes of trapezius palsy. Dysfunction of the trapezius can be a painful and disabling condition. The shoulder droops as the scapula is translated laterally and rotated downward. Patients present with an asymmetric neckline, a drooping shoulder, winging of the scapula, and weakness of forward elevation. Evaluation should include a complete electrodiagnostic examination. If diagnosed within 1 year of the injury, microsurgical reconstruction of the nerve should be considered. Conservative treatment of chronic trapezius paralysis is appropriate for older patients who are sendentary. Active and healthy patients in whom 1 year of conservative treatment has failed are candidates for surgical reconstruction. Studies have shown the Eden-Lange procedure, in which the insertions of the levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, and rhomboideus major muscles are transferred, relieves pain, corrects deformity, and improves function in patients with irreparable injury to the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:10613148

  9. Transient Glaucoma after an Epidural Steroid Injection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Manjiani, Deepak; Said, Salam; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background Steroids are recognized as a beneficial treatment for various medical conditions, yet clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic, ranging from a minor case of acne to a potentially life-threatening Addisonian crisis. In anesthetic medicine, the use of epidural steroid injections (ESIs) for chronic low back pain and other radicular pain-related conditions has become standard practice in interventional pain management. Case Report We report the case of a patient who experienced sudden bilateral blurred vision after receiving an ESI and required urgent ophthalmic interventions and follow-up care. The main clinical findings from this case showed that the patient had high intraocular pressure (IOP) that caused unexpected short-term vision loss. The symptom resolved after 3½ months without ophthalmic treatment. Conclusion Clinicians should inform patients about the possibility of visual complications associated with pain procedures involving steroids. Among the high-risk groups with predisposing factors, such as uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus, routine eye tests that include measuring IOP prior to ESI should be recommended as a preventive measure. Alternative pain management therapies should be considered if possible. Comprehensive planning of patient care will also ensure safety and prevent unwanted outcomes, particularly with high-risk patients receiving steroids for pain procedures. PMID:25829885

  10. The spinal cord dura mater reaction to nitinol and titanium alloy particles: a 1-year study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rhalmi, Souad; Charette, Sylvie; Assad, Michel; Coillard, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to simulate in an animal model the particles released from a porous nitinol interbody fusion device and to evaluate its consequences on the dura mater, spinal cord and nerve roots, lymph nodes (abdominal para-aortic), and organs (kidneys, spleen, pancreas, liver, and lungs). Our objective was to evaluate the compatibility of the nitinol particles with the dura mater in comparison with titanium alloy. In spite of the great use of metallic devices in spine surgery, the proximity of the spinal cord to the devices raised concerns about the effect of the metal debris that might be released onto the neural tissue. Forty-five New Zealand white female rabbits were divided into three groups: nitinol (treated: N = 4 per implantation period), titanium (treated: N = 4 per implantation period), and sham rabbits (control: N = 1 per observation period). The nitinol and titanium alloy particles were implanted in the spinal canal on the dura mater at the lumbar level L2–L3. The rabbits were sacrificed at 1, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. Histologic sections from the regional lymph nodes, organs, from remote and implantation sites, were analyzed for any abnormalities and inflammation. Regardless of the implantation time, both nitinol and titanium particles remained at the implantation site and clung to the spinal cord lining soft tissue of the dura mater. The inflammation was limited to the epidural space around the particles and then reduced from acute to mild chronic during the follow-up. The dura mater, sub-dural space, nerve roots, and the spinal cord were free of reaction. No particles or abnormalities were found either in the lymph nodes or in the organs. In contact with the dura, the nitinol elicits an inflammatory response similar to that of titanium. The tolerance of nitinol by a sensitive tissue such as the dura mater during the span of 1 year of implantation demonstrated the safety of nitinol and its potential use as an intervertebral fusion device. PMID:17334794

  11. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Abe, Madoka; Kunitake, Naonobu; Matsumoto, Keiji; Ohga, Saiji; Sasaki, Tomonari; Uehara, Satoru; Okushima, Kazuhiro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. PMID:25852151

  12. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Abe, Madoka; Kunitake, Naonobu; Matsumoto, Keiji; Ohga, Saiji; Sasaki, Tomonari; Uehara, Satoru; Okushima, Kazuhiro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. PMID:25852151

  13. Solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma mimicking a spinal meningioma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng-Jun; Zhan, Ren-Ya; Chen, Man-Tao; Cao, Fei; Zheng, Xiu-Jue

    2014-01-01

    Dural granuloma is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there has no case reported solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma worldwide so far. Here we report our findings in a 49-year-old woman, who presented with 10-year progressive left lower-limb numbness and two weeks of right lower-limb numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhanced spindle-shaped lesion, 2.9 × 1.5 cm in size, occupying the spinal intradural extramedullary space, at the level of Thoracic (T)-2/3, which mimicked the appearance of spinal meningioma. The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test titer of 1:8, and the venereal diseases research laboratory of cerebral spinal fluid (VDRL-CSF) was reactive, so confirmed neurosyphilis was considered. After formal anti-syphilis treatment, posterior laminectomy surgery was performed, and the lesion was completely separated and extirpated. Final histopathologic diagnosis of the lesion was confirmed as chronic granulomatous inflammation, combined with the neurosyphilis history, spinal dural syphilis granuloma was finally diagnosed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without any further treatment. PMID:24831378

  14. [Severe and prolonged post-dural puncture headache: from pathological basis to therapeutic role and correct timing for epidural blood patch].

    PubMed

    Wetzl, R G; Taglione, G; Ceresa, F; D'Agostino, R; Foresta, S; Guarnerio, C; Ladiana, N; Megaro, F; Zanesi, R; De Vietro, A; Pavani, M

    2001-09-01

    Believed to be due to unbalance between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production rate and its loss through the spinal dural puncture hole, post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is often considered as a physiological syndrome, usually reversible without pathological sequelae after dural hole's closure. The clinical case here presented (incapacitating headache associated with diagnostic dural puncture in a leukaemic young female patient who underwent bone marrow transplantation) shows potentially fatal pathological sequelae following prolonged headache (untreated, due to the severe postransplant immunodeficiency and coagulopathy). The observed RMI lesions suggest interesting conclusions about the clinical indications and correct timing of autologous epidural blood patch (EBP). We also suggest the ways to preventing rebound intracranial hypertension following autologous epidural blood patch in patients suffering from incapacitating and prolonged headache. PMID:11778123

  15. Extraosseous, Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ozkal, Birol; Yaldiz, Can; Yaman, Onur; Ozdem?r, Nail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cavernous malformations are characterized by enlarged vascular structures located in benign neural tissues within the cerebellum and spinal cord of the central nervous system. Cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) account for 5% to 12% of all spinal vascular malformations. Case Report We removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with progressive neurological deficits. Conclusions We found it appropriate to present this case due to its rarity. PMID:25960818

  16. Spinal extra-dural metastasis from Merkel cell carcinoma: a rare cause of paraplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamath Vijay; Krishna Venkateswaran; Ajoy P. Shetty; S. Rajasekaran

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare case of Merkel cell carcinoma with extra-dural spinal metastasis causing paraplegia. There are only four\\u000a reported cases in literature. A 57-year-old lady presented with a breast lump, multiple truncal skin swellings, low back pain\\u000a and rapidly progressive paraplegia. MRI showed multiple epidural soft tissue masses causing neural compression. A biopsy from\\u000a the truncal skin lesion was

  17. Small-Dose Hyperbaric Versus Plain Bupivacaine During Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel P. Vercauteren; Hilde C. Coppejans; Vincent L. Hoffmann; Vera Saldien; Hugo A. Adriaensen

    1998-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized trial, 98 parturients un- dergoing cesarean section received either hyperbaric or plain bupivacaine 6.6 mg combined with sufentanil 3.3 pg as part of a combined spinal-epidural procedure. To prevent hypotension, 1000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution, 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch 6%, and ephed- rine 5 mg were administered IV. The height of the block was

  18. Neuromodulation of motor-evoked potentials during stepping in spinal rats

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Parag; Lavrov, Igor; Shah, Prithvi; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Gerasimenko, Yury

    2013-01-01

    The rat spinal cord isolated from supraspinal control via a complete low- to midthoracic spinal cord transection produces locomotor-like patterns in the hindlimbs when facilitated pharmacologically and/or by epidural electrical stimulation. To evaluate the role of epidural electrical stimulation in enabling motor control (eEmc) for locomotion and posture, we recorded potentials evoked by epidural spinal cord stimulation in selected hindlimb muscles during stepping and standing in adult spinal rats. We hypothesized that the temporal details of the phase-dependent modulation of these evoked potentials in selected hindlimb muscles while performing a motor task in the unanesthetized state would be predictive of the potential of the spinal circuitries to generate stepping. To test this hypothesis, we characterized soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle responses as middle response (MR; 4–6 ms) or late responses (LRs; >7 ms) during stepping with eEmc. We then compared these responses to the stepping parameters with and without a serotoninergic agonist (quipazine) or a glycinergic blocker (strychnine). Quipazine inhibited the MRs induced by eEmc during nonweight-bearing standing but facilitated locomotion and increased the amplitude and number of LRs induced by eEmc during stepping. Strychnine facilitated stepping and reorganized the LRs pattern in the soleus. The LRs in the TA remained relatively stable at varying loads and speeds during locomotion, whereas the LRs in the soleus were strongly modulated by both of these variables. These data suggest that LRs facilitated electrically and/or pharmacologically are not time-locked to the stimulation pulse but are highly correlated to the stepping patterns of spinal rats. PMID:23761695

  19. A rare case of pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis after epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Xhang-Xian; Hsieh, Sun-Wung; Lu, Chueng-He; Wu, Zhi-Fu; Ju, Da-Tong; Huh, Billy; Wang, Jia-Chang; Kuo, Chan-Yang

    2015-03-01

    Both pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis are rare but serious complications following epidural anesthesia. We report a rare case of simultaneous pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis in a patient after undergoing epidural anesthesia. The patient lost consciousness and received emergent external ventricular drainage for pneumocephalus in another medical center. The patient was clear after external ventricular drain placement until 4 days later, when sudden onset of subdural hemorrhage occurred and an emergent craniectomy was performed. The patient passed away 2 days after craniectomy, due to multiorgan failure. Pneumocephalus with or without pneumorrhachis should be kept in mind when there is a sudden change of consciousness or persistent convulsions after epidural anesthesia. PMID:25702950

  20. Cervical Epidural Abscess Mimicking as Stroke - Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Velpula, Jagan Mohana Reddy; Gakhar, Harinder; Sigamoney, Kohilavani; Bommireddy, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a common provisional diagnosis in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with unilateral neurological deficit. Cervical epidural abscess (CEA) may also present clinically with a unilateral neurological deficit. Objects: To highlight the inherent problems with diagnosing cervical epidural abscess and possible consequences of delay in diagnosis. Case Report: We would like to highlight two cases provisionally diagnosed as stroke. Both cases turned out to be cervical epidural abscesses. The delay in diagnosis and treatment led to suboptimal outcome in both cases. Summary: Cases with suspected stroke who deteriorate while under treatment or whose diagnosis is doubtful should have MRI whole spine in order to avoid potential complications. PMID:24551026

  1. [Epidural extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Rafael; Bernal-García, Luis Miguel; Pineda-Palomo, Manuel; Botana-Fernández, Marcos; Gilete-Tejero, Ignacio Javier; Cabezudo-Artero, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant tumour of the bone that sometimes presents extraskeletal involvement, with the epidural location being rare. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with paresthesia, paresis and urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass from C6 to D3. Laminectomy from C7 to D2 and partial resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological analysis was consistent with Ewing sarcoma. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, without evidence of disease at 8 months follow-up. A review of the literature on all published cases of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma with epidural involvement is presented. PMID:25497289

  2. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury Association - ...

  3. Spinal Cord Infarction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Spinal Cord Infarction Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Spinal Cord Infarction? Spinal cord infarction is a stroke either ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  5. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such ...

  6. Spinal Metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Sherman; Dawit G. Aregawi; Mark E. Shaffrey; David Schiff

    Spinal cord metastases are a common complication of systemic malignancy, most commonly from lung, breast, and prostate cancer.\\u000a Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, most notably pain and weakness. The ultimate goals in managing these patients\\u000a include maximizing neurologic function, length of survival, and quality of life. These goals can best be reached via early,\\u000a accurate diagnosis followed

  7. Spinal cord contusion

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result. PMID:25206890

  8. Acquired lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Deasy, JoAnn

    2015-04-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most frequent reason for spinal surgery in patients over age 65 years. In this condition, narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal and nerve root canals leads to painful, debilitating compression of spinal nerves and blood vessels. As the population ages, an increasing number of patients will be diagnosed and treated for lumbar spinal stenosis by primary care providers. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of lumbar spinal stenosis in adults over age 50 years. PMID:25763664

  9. Clinical Outcome of Dose-Escalated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenberger, Matthias, E-mail: guckenberger_m@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Goebel, Joachim; Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Bratengeier, Klaus; Flentje, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes after dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT) for spinal metastases and paraspinal tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients, 12 with spinal metastases and a long life expectancy and 2 with paraspinal tumors, were treated for 16 lesions with intensity-modulated, image-guided RT. A median biologic effective dose of 74 Gy{sub 10} (range, 55-86) in a median of 20 fractions (range, 3-34) was prescribed to the target volume. The spinal canal was treated to 40 Gy in 20 fractions using a second intensity-modulated RT dose level in the case of epidural involvement. Results: After median follow-up of 17 months, one local recurrence was observed, for an actuarial local control rate of 88% after 2 years. Local control was associated with rapid and long-term pain relief. Of 11 patients treated for a solitary spinal metastasis, 6 developed systemic disease progression. The actuarial overall survival rate for metastatic patients was 85% and 63% after 1 and 2 years, respectively. Acute Grade 2-3 skin toxicity was seen in 2 patients with no late toxicity greater than Grade 2. No radiation-induced myelopathy was observed. Conclusion: Dose-escalated irradiation of spinal metastases was safe and resulted in excellent local control. Oligometastatic patients with a long life expectancy and epidural involvement are considered to benefit the most from fractionated RT.

  10. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2013;19(4):279287 2013 Thomas Land Publishers, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Milos R.

    279 Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2013;19(4):279­287 © 2013 Thomas Land Publishers, Inc. www Voluntary Grasping Function in Individuals with Incomplete Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Pilot Study Naaz Kapadia, MSc (PT),1 Vera Zivanovic, MD,1 and Milos R. Popovic, PhD2 1 Spinal Cord Injury Research Program

  11. Epidural fibrosis after permanent catheter insertion and infusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Antonio Aldrete

    1995-01-01

    Forty-six permanent epidural catheters and life-port units were implanted in 43 patients with severe, recurrent low back pain who had been considered not to be candidates for surgical intervention and in whom other therapeutic modalities had failed. Eight cases developed epidural fibrosis (EF). For analgesia, patients received either infusions with preservative-free solutions of fentanyl and bupivacaine or daily boluses of

  12. Predictors of Recommendation and Acceptance of Intrapartum Epidural Analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyal Sheiner; Einat K. Sheiner; Ilana Shoham-Vardi; Gabriel M. Gurman; Moshe Mazor; Miriam Katz

    2000-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to characterize the obstetric and sociodemographic variables that pre- dict physicians' recommendations and patients' accep- tance of intrapartum epidural analgesia. The study population consisted of 447 consecutive, low-risk par- turients in early active labor. Epidural analgesia was recommended to 393 patients (87.9%), however only 164 (41.7%) consented to receive it. A multiple logistic regression analysis

  13. Characterization of Morphine Self-Administration Following Spinal Cord Injury

    E-print Network

    Woller, Sarah Ann

    2013-07-16

    Approximately two-thirds of patients will experience pain following spinal cord injury (SCI). This pain can arise as an immediate consequence of SCI, or can develop over time into chronic, neuropathic pain. Individuals are frequently prescribed...

  14. Advanced therapy learning algorithm for spinal cord stimulation

    E-print Network

    Gaudreau Balderrama, Amanda Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) is a technique used to treat chronic pain and has been shown to be an effective method of treatment, both financially and socioeconomically. Stimulating electrodes are surgically implanted ...

  15. Pneumocephalus during cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Joong; Park, Hae-Gyun; Park, Yong-Hee; Shin, Mee-Ran; Koo, Gill-Hoi; Shin, Hwa-Yong

    2015-01-01

    A cervical transforaminal epidural injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids (CTFESI) is a frequently used procedure for cervical radiculopathy. Most cases of pneumocephalus after an epidural block occur when using an interlaminar approach with the loss-of-resistance technique. The authors present the first case of pneumocephalus after cervical transforaminal epidural injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids. A 64-yr-old woman with left C7 radiculopathy was undergoing C6-7 transforaminal epidural injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids. The epidural spread of contrast was checked by fluoroscope, and 5 mg of dexamethasone in 4 ml of 0.1875% ropivacaine was injected. She lost consciousness 5 mins after the procedure and regained awareness after manual ventilation. She subsequently complained of nausea and headache, and a computed tomography brain scan revealed pneumocephalus. After carefully assessing the fluoroscopic images, the authors believe that the needle may have punctured the dura mater of the nerve root sleeve, allowing air to enter the subdural space. Thus, fluoroscopic images should be carefully examined to reduce dural puncture when performing cervical transforaminal epidural injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids, and air should be completely removed from the needle, extension tube, and syringe. PMID:25133619

  16. Spinal stimulator peri-electrode masses: case report.

    PubMed

    Scranton, Robert A; Skaribas, Ioannis M; Simpson, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a case of delayed spastic quadriparesis caused by a peri-electrode mass following the implantation of a minimally invasive percutaneous spinal cord stimulator (SCS). Prior reports with paddle-type electrodes are reviewed, and a detailed histological and pathophysiological comparison with the present case is made. The patient developed tolerance to a cervical percutaneous SCS 4 months after implantation, followed by the onset of spastic quadriparesis 9 months after implantation. The stimulator was removed, and contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an enhancing epidural mass where the system had been placed, with severe spinal cord compression. Decompression was carried out, and the patient experienced neurological improvement. Pathological examination revealed fibrotic tissue with granulomatous and multinucleated giant cell reactions. No evidence of infection or hemorrhage was found. Professionals treating patients with SCSs or contemplating their insertion should be aware of this delayed complication and associated risk factors. PMID:25380541

  17. Intracranial Somatosensory Responses with Direct Spinal Cord Stimulation in Anesthetized Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Flouty, Oliver E.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Reddy, Chandan G.; Fredericks, Douglas C.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Jeffery, Nicholas D.; Gillies, George T.; Howard, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of spinal cord stimulators is dependent on the ability of the device to functionally activate targeted structures within the spinal cord, while avoiding activation of near-by non-targeted structures. In theory, these objectives can best be achieved by delivering electrical stimuli directly to the surface of the spinal cord. The current experiments were performed to study the influence of different stimulating electrode positions on patterns of spinal cord electrophysiological activation. A custom-designed spinal cord neurostimulator was used to investigate the effects of lead position and stimulus amplitude on cortical electrophysiological responses to spinal cord stimulation. Brain recordings were obtained from subdural grids placed in four adult sheep. We systematically varied the position of the stimulating lead relative to the spinal cord and the voltage delivered by the device at each position, and then examined how these variables influenced cortical responses. A clear relationship was observed between voltage and electrode position, and the magnitude of high gamma-band oscillations. Direct stimulation of the dorsal column contralateral to the grid required the lowest voltage to evoke brain responses to spinal cord stimulation. Given the lower voltage thresholds associated with direct stimulation of the dorsal column, and its possible impact on the therapeutic window, this intradural modality may have particular clinical advantages over standard epidural techniques now in routine use. PMID:23457542

  18. Simultaneous appearance of cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematomas as rare cause of headache in puerperium following epidural analgesia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Župan, Željko; Sotošek Tokmadži?, Vlatka; Matani?-Manestar, Marinka; Šusti?, Alan; Anton?i?, Igor; Dunatov, Siniša; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Antulov, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the first case of simultaneous appearance of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and bilateral subdural hematomas (SDHs) following epidural analgesia for labor and delivery and to point out the difficulty of establishing such a diagnosis in the presence of postpartum headache. A 26-year old primigravida with a history of epilepsy received epidural analgesia for delivery. Three days after the uneventful spontaneous vaginal delivery she complained about the headache. Patient responded very well to the pain medication and oral hydration, and the headache was relieved. Ten days after the delivery, the headache reoccurred, and an epidural blood patch was performed that successfully relieved her symptom. Stronger progressive headache with nausea reappeared two days later and the parturient was readmitted to hospital. Urgent neuroimaging examinations detected CVT of right the transverse sinus, ipsilateral cortical veins, and partially occluded superior sagittal sinus, as well as bilateral subacute/chronic SDHs. The treatment of the patient with low molecular weight heparin and antiaggregation therapy was effective. In this case, the diagnosis was delayed because of atypical clinical presentation and potentially confounding events (epidural analgesia and assumption that it was a case of PDPH). It is important to carefully observe patients in such conditions and promptly conduct suitable diagnostic tests. Otherwise, unrecognized intracranial complications and delay of appropriate therapy could be life-threatening. PMID:22911532

  19. A case of uncommon withdrawal symptoms after a short period of spinal morphine administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Devulder; Peter Bohyn; Frédéric Castille; Martine De Laat; Georges Rolly

    1996-01-01

    A 54-year-old female with chronic failed back surgery syndrome and pain in the back and the right leg was treated by chronic spinal morphine administration by an external pump. After a positive test instillation over a 3-week period the spinal catheter was removed. Within 24 h the patient developed fever, leucocytosis, impaired sense of smell and allodynia and hyperpathia in

  20. Labor Epidural Anesthesia, Obstetric Factors and Breastfeeding Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Howard, Cynthia R.; Brownell, Elizabeth A.; Wissler, Richard N.; Glantz, J. Christopher; Ternullo, Sharon R.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly N.; Childs, Cynthia K.; Lawrence, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Breastfeeding benefits both infant and maternal health. Use of epidural anesthesia during labor is increasingly common and may interfere with breastfeeding. Studies analyzing epidural anesthesia’s association with breastfeeding outcomes show mixed results; many have methodological flaws. We analyzed potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breast-feeding cessation within 30 days postpartum while adjusting for standard and novel covariates and uniquely accounting for labor induction. Methods A pooled analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and modified Cox Proportional Hazard models included 772 breastfeeding mothers from upstate New York who had vaginal term births of healthy singleton infants. Subjects were drawn from two cohort studies (recruited postpartum between 2005 and 2008) and included maternal self-report and maternal and infant medical record data. Results Analyses of potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breastfeeding cessation within one month included additional covariates and uniquely accounted for labor induction. After adjusting for standard demographics and intrapartum factors, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (hazard ratio 1.26 [95%confidence interval 1.10, 1.44], p<.01) as did hospital type, maternal age, income, education, planned breastfeeding goal, and breastfeeding confidence. In post hoc analyses stratified by Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH) status, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (BFH: 1.19 [1.01,1.41], p<.04; non-BFH: 1.65 [1.31, 2.08], p<.01). Conclusions A relationship between epidural anesthesia and breastfeeding was found but is complex and involves institutional, clinical, maternal and infant factors. These findings have implications for clinical care and hospital policies and point to the need for prospective studies. PMID:22696104

  1. GABA and Central Neuropathic Pain following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Young S.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury induces maladaptive synaptic transmission in the somatosensory system that results in chronic central neuropathic pain. Recent literature suggests that glial-neuronal interactions are important modulators in synaptic transmission following spinal cord injury. Neuronal hyperexcitability is one of the predominant phenomenon caused by maladaptive synaptic transmission via altered glial-neuronal interactions after spinal cord injury. In the somatosensory system, spinal inhibitory neurons counter balance the enhanced synaptic transmission from peripheral input. For a decade, the literature suggests that hypofunction of GABAergic inhibitory tone is an important factor in the enhanced synaptic transmission that often results in neuronal hyperexcitability in dorsal horn neurons following spinal cord injury. Neurons and glial cells synergistically control intracellular chloride ion gradients via modulation of chloride transporters, extracellular glutamate and GABA concentrations via uptake mechanisms. Thus, the intracellular “GABA-glutamate-glutamine cycle” is maintained for normal physiological homeostasis. However, hyperexcitable neurons and glial activation after spinal cord injury disrupts the balance of chloride ions, glutamate and GABA distribution in the spinal dorsal horn and results in chronic neuropathic pain. In this review, we address spinal cord injury induced mechanisms in hypofunction of GABAergic tone that results in chronic central neuropathic pain. PMID:21216257

  2. Ephedrine, but Not Phenylephrine, Increases Bispectral Index Values During Combined General and Epidural Anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadahiko Ishiyama; Takeshi Oguchi; Tetsuya Iijima; Takashi Matsukawa; Satoshi Kashimoto; Teruo Kumazawa

    2003-01-01

    Ephedrine and phenylephrine are used to treat hypo- tension during combined general and epidural anesthe- sia, and they may change anesthetic depth. In the cur- rent study, we evaluated the effects of ephedrine versus phenylephrine on bispectral index (BIS) during com- bined general and epidural anesthesia. After injection of ropivacaine through the epidural catheter, general anesthesia was induced with propofol

  3. Minimally invasive surgical decompression for lumbar spinal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Jon; Kusnezov, Nicholas A.; Pezeshkian, Patrick; Lu, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of significant morbidity and mortality often outweighs the benefit of surgical resection as palliative treatment for patients with high systemic disease burden, poor cardiopulmonary status, and previous spinal surgeries. Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches to decompressing metastatic epidural cord compression (MECC) can address these issues and thereby make palliation a feasible option for these patients. Case Description: We present the cases of three consecutively collected patients with severe neurological compromise secondary to lumbar epidural metastases who underwent MIS decompression and achieved improved functional outcome and quality of life. The first patient is a 23-year-old female with metastatic Ewing's sarcoma who presented with 2 weeks of a right foot drop and radiculopathic pain. The next case is that of a 71-year-old male with metastatic prostate cancer who presented with significant radiculopathic L5-S1 pain and severe motor deficits in his lower extremities. The last case is that of a 73-year-old male with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma who presented with worsening left leg weakness, paresthesia, and dysethesia. Postoperatively, each patient experienced significant improvement and almost complete enduring return of function, strength, and resolution of pain. Conclusion: We demonstrate that MIS approaches to spinal decompression as palliative treatment for metastatic disease is a viable treatment in patients with a focal symptomatic lesion and comes with the benefits of decreased surgical morbidity inherent to the minimally invasive approach as well as excellent functional outcomes. PMID:23869278

  4. Evolving patterns of spinal cord stimulation in patients implanted for intractable low back and leg pain.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Ashwini; Cameron, Tracy; Barolat, Giancarlo

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the programming strategies used in patients with intractable low-back pain treated with epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) utilizing paddle electrodes and a radio frequency (RF) stimulator. Programming strategies were examined in a group of patients implanted with a 16-contact paddle electrode and a dual channel RF receiver to treat chronic low-back pain. Baseline data included previous surgical history information, leg and low back pain severity and characteristics, and routine demographic information. Outcome measurements included the visual analog scale (VAS) (1), patient pain relief rating scale, and programming parameters. Patients rated their pain relief on a 5-point scale where 4 = excellent, 3 = good, 2 = fair, 1 = poor and 0 = none. Success was determined to be a pain relief score of "fair" or above. Data were collected during patient visits or by mail, at approximately 6, 12, and 24 months, postoperatively. Immediate postop data were available in 16 patients, 6-month data in 21 patients, 1-year data in 20 patients, and 2-year data in 10 patients, and analyzed for the purposes of examining programming strategies. The most common location for the tip of the electrode (lead) was found to be in the middle of the 8th thoracic vertebrae (N = 26). At the immediate postop assessment, the majority of cathodes were activated in the upper half of T9. By the 6-month follow-up, the majority of cathodes had shifted to the bottom of T9 and top of T10. Overall 88% of cathode locations were changed at one or more study visits. At 2 years, 86% of the programs used four or more active contacts. At 6 months, 83% of the patients reported that the therapy was a success, at 1 year, success was 94%, and by 2 years, success was 75%. Both SCS and chronic pain are dynamic processes. Complex pain patterns, such as the ones of patients who have pain in the low back and in one or both lower extremities, require a high degree of flexibility in the implanted SCS system. The system must provide the capability to redirect the current electronically over at least two segments of the spinal canal, to electronically steer the current in a medio-lateral direction, and to activate multiple electrical contacts simultaneously. The willingness and ability to provide extensive reprogramming in the long term follow-up is also of the utmost importance. Pain and its treatment with SCS is a dynamic process. PMID:22150814

  5. Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS): a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    pharmacy and medical) will be applied to participants’ health system utilization using a reimburse- ment databasepharmacy and medi- cal use). Randomization Treatment assignments are stored centrally in a secure database

  6. The physiological basis of neurorehabilitation - locomotor training after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the physiological basis of locomotion enable us to optimize the neurorehabilitation of patients with lesions to the central nervous system, such as stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI). It is generally accepted, based on work in animal models, that spinal neuronal machinery can produce a stepping-like output. In both incomplete and complete SCI subjects spinal locomotor circuitries can be activated by functional training which provides appropriate afferent feedback. In motor complete SCI subjects, however, motor functions caudal to the spinal cord lesion are no longer used resulting in neuronal dysfunction. In contrast, in subjects with an incomplete SCI such training paradigms can lead to improved locomotor ability. Appropriate functional training involves the facilitation and assistance of stepping-like movements with the subjects’ legs and body weight support as far as is required. In severely affected subjects standardized assisted locomotor training is provided by body weight supported treadmill training with leg movements either manually assisted or moved by a driven gait orthosis. Load- and hip-joint related afferent input is of crucial importance during locomotor training as it leads to appropriate leg muscle activation and thus increases the efficacy of the rehabilitative training. Successful recovery of locomotion after SCI relies on the ability of spinal locomotor circuitries to utilize specific multisensory information to generate a locomotor pattern. It seems that a critical combination of sensory cues is required to generate and improve locomotor patterns after SCI. In addition to functional locomotor training there are numbers of other promising experimental approaches, such as tonic epidural electrical or magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord, which both promote locomotor permissive states that lead to a coordinated locomotor output. Therefore, a combination of functional training and activation of spinal locomotor circuitries, for example by epidural/flexor reflex electrical stimulation or drug application (e.g. noradrenergic agonists), might constitute an effective strategy to promote neuroplasticity after SCI in the future. PMID:23336934

  7. Epidural catheter with integrated light guides for spectroscopic tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Astorga, R. P.; West, S.; Putnis, S.; Hebden, J. C.; Desjardins, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Epidural catheters are used to deliver anesthetics and opioids for managing pain in many clinical scenarios. Currently, epidural catheter insertion is performed without information about the tissues that are directly ahead of the catheter. As a result, the catheter can be incorrectly positioned within a blood vessel, which can cause toxicity. Recent studies have shown that optical reflectance spectroscopy could be beneficial for guiding needles that are used to insert catheters. In this study, we investigate the whether this technique could benefit the placement of catheters within the epidural space. We present a novel optical epidural catheter with integrated polymer light guides that allows for optical spectra to be acquired from tissues at the distal tip. To obtain an initial indication of the information that could be obtained, reflectance values and photon penetration depth were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and optical reflectance spectra were acquired during a laminectomy of a swine ex vivo. Large differences between the spectra acquired from epidural adipose tissue and from venous blood were observed. The optical catheter has the potential to provide real-time detection of intravascular catheter placement that could reduce the risk of complications. PMID:24298420

  8. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Under Epidural Anesthesia: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Ranendra; Khariong, Peter Daniel S.; Baruah, Arup J.; Anand, Madhur; Khongwar, Donkupar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is normally performed under general anesthesia. But of late this operation has been tried under regional anesthesia successfully without any added complications like epidural anesthesia. Aims: The aim of the study was to study the feasibility of performing LC under epidural anesthesia in normal patients so that the benefits could be extended to those high-risk patients having symptomatic gallstone disease and compromised cardio-pulmonary status where general anesthesia is contraindicated. Materials and Methods: In all, 20 patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologist's class I or II were enrolled in the study. The level of epidural block and satisfaction score, both for the patient and the surgeon, were noted in the study. Results: The LC was performed successfully under epidural anesthesia in all but two patients who had severe shoulder pain in spite of giving adequate analgesia and were converted to general anesthesia. Conclusions: The LC can be performed safely under epidural anesthesia with understanding between patient and surgeon. However, careful assessment of complications in the patients should be done to make the procedure safer. PMID:25535604

  9. Spinal dysraphisms in the parturient: implications for perioperative anaesthetic care and labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C J; Stanley, E; Kavanagh, E; Lenane, P E; McCaul, C L

    2015-08-01

    Anaesthetists may encounter parturients with a spectrum of anatomical and functional abnormalities secondary to spinal dysraphisms, which are among the most common neurodevelopmental anomalies. These range from surgically corrected open dysraphisms to previously undiagnosed closed dysraphisms. Both bony and neural structures may be abnormal. In true bony spina bifida, which occurs in up to 50% of the population, failure of fusion of the vertebral arch is seen and neural structures are normal. Ninety percent of such cases are confined to the sacrum. In open dysraphisms, sensory preservation is variable and may be present even in those with grossly impaired motor function. Both epidural and spinal blockade have been described for labour analgesia and operative anaesthesia in selected cases but higher failure and complication rates are reported. Clinical assessment should be performed on an outpatient basis to assess neurological function, evaluate central nervous system shunts and determine latex allergy status. Magnetic resonance imagining is recommended to clarify anatomical abnormalities and to identify levels at which neuraxial techniques can be performed. Of particular concern when performing neuraxial blockade is the possibility of a low-lying spinal cord or conus medullaris and spinal cord tethering. Previous corrective de-tethering surgery frequently does not result in ascent of the conus and re-tethering may be asymptomatic. Ultrasound is not sufficiently validated at the point of care to reliably detect low-lying cords. Epidurals should be performed at anatomically normal levels but spread of local anaesthetic may be impaired by previous surgery. PMID:26072279

  10. Safety and Efficacy of At-Home Robotic Locomotion Therapy in Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective, Pre-Post Intervention, Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Rüdiger; Schließmann, Daniel; Plewa, Harry; Schuld, Christian; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Norbert; Hofer, Eberhard P.; Knestel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait) was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern. Objective Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia) participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD) years) sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II): Interquartile range 9 to 16) completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks). Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. Results After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100%) for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD)) and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD)) speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD)). One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe) occurred in over 800 training sessions. Conclusions Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor function beyond in-patient rehabilitation. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DKRS) DRKS00005587 PMID:25803577

  11. The epidural and intrathecal administration of ketamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego P. C. Beltrutti; Anna C. Trompeo; Salvatore Di Santo

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the spinal administration of ketamine is presented. Ketamine acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA\\u000a receptor Ca++ channel pore. This effect provides interesting possibilities in pain therapy. However, there are still contrasting\\u000a results that seem to be due to a lack of comparative controlled studies. The presence of systemic and neurotoxic effects presently\\u000a limits clinical use.

  12. Differentiation of idiopathic spinal cord herniation from CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions displacing the cord.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc D; Nguyen, Dustin D; Li, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Focal spinal cord displacement can be caused by idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), in which the cord protrudes through a dural defect into the epidural space, causing cord displacement and tethering. ISCH is uncommon and often is misdiagnosed initially, which results in delayed management. ISCH can be mimicked by space-occupying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions, such as epidermoid cysts or teratomas, intradural arachnoid cysts, epidural hematomas or abscesses, cystic nerve sheath tumors, synovial or Tarlov cysts, meningoceles, and pseudomeningoceles. Initial computed tomography (CT) and unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies may depict focal cord displacement and a widened CSF space but often are not sufficient to identify the underlying cause. High-resolution thin-section MR imaging can delineate the exact location of the dural defect and the protrusion of the herniated cord through this defect into the epidural space. At imaging, unimpeded CSF pulsation artifacts seen within a widened CSF space exclude a space-occupying lesion. A filling defect seen at conventional or CT myelography can help confirm a CSF-isointense space-occupying lesion; intravenous contrast agent administration can help exclude a rim-enhancing cystic extramedullary lesion. The clinical presentation usually is nonspecific, but symptom acuity, fever, and trauma can guide the imaging evaluation and help narrow the differential diagnosis. A multimodality imaging approach is essential to differentiate ISCH from space-occupying CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions. PMID:24617681

  13. History of spinal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Dennis S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2014-07-01

    Spinal deformity is one of the oldest known diseases with descriptions documented many of the earliest civilizations. Historical treatments have had little efficacy, especially in adults. However, in the modern era, there has been a rapid expansion of new technologies and surgical techniques aided by advances in supportive care that now allow the spinal surgeon to have powerful tools to correct spinal deformity. In this manuscript, we review the origins of spinal deformity surgery and the development of spinal instrumentation. The focus of the manuscript is to review the relationship of these developments to the implementation of spinal osteotomies for deformity correction. PMID:24390043

  14. Cerebral venous air embolism during epidural injection in adult

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sharmili; Ray, Banambar

    2015-01-01

    A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel. PMID:25722555

  15. Cerebral venous air embolism during epidural injection in adult.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sharmili; Ray, Banambar

    2015-02-01

    A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel. PMID:25722555

  16. Meperidine prolongs lidocaine caudal epidural anaesthesia in the horse.

    PubMed

    Derossi, Rafael; Medeiros, Ulisses; de Almeida, Ricardo G; Righetto, Fernando R; Frazílio, Fabrício O

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of caudal epidural administration of meperidine (MP), lidocaine (LD), and a combination of the two (MPLD) in six mature saddle horses. Horses were randomly assigned to receive three treatments (MP 0.3 mg/kg; LD 0.2 mg/kg; and MPLD: MP 0.3 mg/kg and LD 0.2 mg/kg), with at least 1 week between treatments. Drugs were injected into the epidural space between the first and second coccygeal areas in conscious standing horses. Analgesia, ataxia, sedation, cardiovascular and respiratory effects, and rectal temperature were recorded at different intervals before (baseline) and after administration. Epidural administration of MPLD resulted in a longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, and upper hind limb regions than did administration of MP or LD alone. PMID:17892957

  17. Thoracic epidural anesthesia improves functional recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Rolf, N; Van de Velde, M; Wouters, P F; Möllhoff, T; Weber, T P; Van Aken, H K

    1996-11-01

    The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on the contractile performance of ischemic and postischemic myocardium have not been well investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of TEA on severity and duration of myocardial stunning in an experimental model for sublethal acute myocardial ischemia. Seven dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate (HR), left atrial (LAP), aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP/dtmax' and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischemia. TEA was performed with lidocaine 4 mg/kg through a chronically implanted epidural catheter at the second thoracic level. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over design on separate days: Experiment 1, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia without TEA; and Experiment 2, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia with TEA. WTF was measured at baseline (BL) and predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. LAD ischemia caused a significant decrease of LAD-WTF with (-28% +/- 5.1% versus BL) and without TEA (-15.5% +/- 5.3% versus BL). After 3 h of reperfusion, WTF as percent of BL values was significantly higher with TEA (P < 0.001). BL values of WTF were reached after 24 h with TEA and after more than 48 h without TEA (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), LVP, LAP, and LVdP/dtmax between the groups during ischemia and reperfusion. In nonischemic myocardium TEA caused an increase of subendocardial blood flow. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/ normal zone blood flow was affected by TEA. TEA attenuates myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. This finding is consistent with data regarding a reduction of infarct size due to TEA. PMID:8895266

  18. Model of Induced Leakage of Polymethylmethacrilate Inside Epidural Space and Prevertebral Muscles During Vertebroplasty in Pigs: Clinical, Macroscopical, and Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso Olmos, Matías; Villas Tomé, Carlos; Angulo, Marcela Gallegos

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Experimental study in animals. Purpose Study the clinical behavior of animals after an induced leakage of cement during vertebroplasty in pigs. Study the distribution of polymethylmetacrilate inside the epidural space and prevertebral muscle. Study the histological findings of the spinal cord and muscles, which contact with cement. Overview of Literature Although vertebroplasty has a low rate of complication, leakage of cement is highly frequent. There is paucity, in how cement is distributed inside the spinal canal and what occurs when soft tissue comes into contact with polymethylmetacrilate. Methods We performed vertebroplasty on six pigs. We performed a leakage of cement into the epidural space and into prevertebral muscles. Two weeks later we performed an anatomic evaluation regarding the spreading of polymethylmetacrilate and a histological analysis of soft tissues that came into contact with it. Results No clinical alterations were observed. We observed a laminar distribution of the cement surrounding dura mater, and creating a fusiform cavity inside muscles. Spinal cord was normal in all the animals. In dura mater, we observed: synovialmetaplasia, inflammatory reaction, crystal deposits, and giant-cell-reaction. In muscles, we observed: inflammatory reaction, crystal deposits, giant-cell-reaction, muscular atrophy, fibrosis, and synovial metaplasia. Conclusions The spinal cord was normal; it is likely that dura mater and cerebrospinal fluid are responsible to isolate neural structures from cement. Dura mater and muscle showed similar histological changes than other publications. Synovial metaplasia was observed in dura mater and muscles that came into contact with cement. The pulsatile rubbing between the tissue and cement could be responsible of this phenomenon. PMID:24066209

  19. Spontaneous rapid resolution of acute epidural hematoma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gül?en, Ismail; Ak, Hakan; Sösüncü, Enver; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Kiymaz, Nejmi

    2013-01-01

    Acute epidural hematoma is a critical emergency all around the world, and its aggressive diagnosis and treatment are of vital importance. Emergent surgical evacuation of the hematoma is known as standard management; however, conservative procedures are also used for small ones. Spontaneous rapid resolution of these hematomas has also been reported in eight pediatric cases. Various theories have been proposed to explain the underlying pathophysiology of this resolution. Herein, we are reporting a new pediatric case with spontaneously resolving acute epidural hematoma 12 hours after admission to the emergency room. PMID:24489555

  20. Spontaneous Rapid Resolution of Acute Epidural Hematoma in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gül?en, Ismail; Ak, Hakan; Sösüncü, Enver; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Kiymaz, Nejmi

    2013-01-01

    Acute epidural hematoma is a critical emergency all around the world, and its aggressive diagnosis and treatment are of vital importance. Emergent surgical evacuation of the hematoma is known as standard management; however, conservative procedures are also used for small ones. Spontaneous rapid resolution of these hematomas has also been reported in eight pediatric cases. Various theories have been proposed to explain the underlying pathophysiology of this resolution. Herein, we are reporting a new pediatric case with spontaneously resolving acute epidural hematoma 12 hours after admission to the emergency room. PMID:24489555

  1. Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Sinescu, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha–adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as deep vein thrombosis and long–term risk for coronary heart disease and systemic atherosclerosis are also described. Proper prophylaxis, including non–pharmacologic and pharmacological strategies, diminishes the occurrence of the vascular dysfunction following SCI. Each vascular disturbance requires a specific treatment. PMID:20945818

  2. An update of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in chronic spinal pain. Part I: introduction and general considerations.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Racz, Gabor B; Helm, Standiford; Caraway, David L; Calodney, Aaron K; Snook, Lee T; Smith, Howard S; Gupta, Sanjeeva; Ward, Stephen P; Grider, Jay S; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2013-04-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) re-engineered its definition of clinical guidelines as follows: "clinical practice guidelines are statements that include recommendations intended to optimize patient care that are informed by a systematic review of evidence and an assessment of the benefit and harms of alternative care options." This new definition departs from a 2-decade old definition from a 1990 IOM report that defined guidelines as "systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances." The revised definition clearly distinguishes between the term "clinical practice guideline" and other forms of clinical guidance derived from widely disparate development processes, such as consensus statements, expert advice, and appropriate use criteria. The IOM committee acknowledged that for many clinical domains, high quality evidence was lacking or even nonexistent. Even though the guidelines are important decision-making tools, along with expert clinical judgment and patient preference, their value and impact remains variable due to numerous factors. Some of the many factors that impede the development of clinical practice guidelines include bias due to a variety of conflicts of interest, inappropriate and poor methodological quality, poor writing and ambiguous presentation, projecting a view that these are not applicable to individual patients or too restrictive with elimination of clinician autonomy, and overzealous and inappropriate recommendations, either positive, negative, or non-committal. Consequently, a knowledgeable, multidisciplinary panel of experts must develop guidelines based on a systematic review of the existing evidence, as recently recommended by the IOM. Chronic pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon associated with significant economic, social, and health outcomes. Interventional pain management is an emerging specialty facing a disproportionate number of challenges compared to established medical specialties, including the inappropriate utilization of ineffective and unsafe techniques. In 2000, the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) created treatment guidelines to help practitioners. There have been 5 subsequent updates. These guidelines address the issues of systematic evaluation and ongoing care of chronic or persistent pain, and provide information about the scientific basis of recommended procedures. These guidelines are expected to increase patient compliance; dispel misconceptions among providers and patients, manage patient expectations reasonably; and form the basis of a therapeutic partnership between the patient, the provider, and payers. PMID:23615882

  3. Spinal cord, hypothalamic, and air temperature: interaction with arousal states in the marmot.

    PubMed

    Miller, V M; South, F E

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventris, prepared with U-shaped thermodes in the epidural space of the thoracic vertebral canal, a thermode in the preoptic hypothalamus, and cortical surface and hippocampal electrodes, were used to investigate the interaction of arousal states with temperature regulation. It was found that arousal state of the animal influences the thermoregulatory responses initiated in either the spinal cord or hypothalamus. Further, changes in ambient temperature affected both the gain and the threshold of these responses. The interaction of the hypothalamus and spinal cord was not an additive function, however the threshold for shivering of each could be altered by temperature manipulation of the other. Future studies in modeling of temperature regulation should consider the contributions of temperature receptors of the spinal cord and the arousal state of the animal during the stimulation period. PMID:434182

  4. Advances in Imaging of Vertebral and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Andrew L; Kershah, Sharif M

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Imaging technology is an important part of the diagnosis and management of spinal trauma. Indications and findings in post-traumatic imaging of the vertebral column and spinal cord are reviewed. Methods: An extensive literature review was performed on the imaging of vertebral and spinal cord injury. Relevant images from a Level I trauma center were included as examples. Results: Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of acute and chronic spinal injury. Spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries are best evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whereas spinal fractures are better characterized by computed tomography (CT). Vascular injuries can be evaluated using CT or MR angiography. Conclusions: Imaging using CT and MRI is essential in the management of spinal cord injuries, both in the acute and in the chronic settings. MRI shows the status of ligamentous integrity and visualizes internal derangement of the spinal cord. Vascular compromise can be diagnosed by MR and CT angiography. Plain radiography now has a more limited, adjunctive role, and the need for higher risk myelography has been minimized. PMID:20486529

  5. Spinal cord stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses a mild electric current to block nerve impulses ... stretched into the space on top of your spinal cord. These wires will be connected to a small ...

  6. What Is Spinal Stenosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public 3 One type of spinal stenosis, cauda equine syndrome, is very serious. This type occurs when ... spinal stenosis, such treatments include chiropractic treatment and acupuncture. More research is needed on the value of ...

  7. The Prevalence of Anemia of Chronic Disease in Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries and Pressure Ulcers and the Impact of Erythropoietin Supplementation on Wound Healing: A Descriptive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vair, Audra; Keast, David; LeMesurier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is thought to impair the responsiveness of erythroid progenitor cells, but research has shown treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) can improve patient hemoglobin levels and, subsequently, overall patient health status and quality of life. A prospective pilot study was designed to estimate the prevalence of ACD in outpatients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pressure ulcers (PUs) and examine the impact of rhuEPO on PU healing in this population. The charts of 49 SCI patients with PUs were reviewed; of those, 17 had anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L). The prevalence of anemia in SCI patients with PUs was found to be approximately 35%. From these 17 potential participants, 5 had improved hemoglobin levels during the screening period (rendering them ineligible), 1 withdrew due to illness, and 7 died, leaving 4 participants to complete the study. Four patients (2 men, 2 women, average age 57 ± 16.5 years) ultimately were enrolled. Wound area and depth and cytokines were measured before, during, and after 6 weeks of treatment with rhuEPO, with a 3-month follow-up. Laboratory tests measuring hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and prealbumin were used to monitor nutritional status and treatment response. No statistically significant changes were observed with treatment. Wound surface area and depth had mean decreases of 1.35 cmÇ and 0.58 cm, respectively, immediately post-treatment. Participants' elevated C-reactive protein levels (91.1-14.2 mg/L) decreased with rhuEPO treatment, but returned to baseline levels post-treatment (83.2-14.3 mg/L). Prealbumin levels were consistently low (range of 0.1-0.21 g/L). This research indicates rhuEPO treatment may improve some outcomes for ACD-SCI PU patients, but larger randomized controlled trials are required. The results of this study suggest the prevalence of ACD in the SCI outpatient population with PUs is at least 35%, and increased vigilance of patient nutrition is recommended. PMID:26061404

  8. Epidural hematoma of the newborn due to birth trauma.

    PubMed

    Gama, C H; Fenichel, G M

    1985-01-01

    Epidural hematoma due to birth trauma is unusual. The presentation is similar to subdural hematoma in the newborn, but the results of subdural puncture may be normal. The CT scan is diagnostic and early surgical evacuation may be lifesaving. PMID:3880390

  9. Caudal epidural blockade for major orthopedic hip surgery in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, Brian; Martin, David; Tripi, Jennifer; Klingele, Kevin; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There continues to be a significant focus on the value of regional and neuraxial anesthesia techniques for adjunctive use when combined with general anesthesia. The reported advantages include decreased patient opiate exposure, decreased medication-related adverse effects, decreased postanesthesia recovery room time and hospital stay, and increased patient satisfaction. Materials and Methods: The authors present a case-controlled series evaluating the use of a single caudal epidural injection prior to incision as an adjunct to general anesthesia for the open repair of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Opiate consumption, pain scores, and hospital stay were compared between the two cohorts of 16 adolescent patients. All patients received a demand-only patient-controlled opiate delivery system. Results: Although the failed block rate was high (31%), there was decreased opioid use in the perioperative arena as well as during the first 24 postoperative hours in patients who had a successful caudal epidural block. Furthermore, discharge home was possible in 27% of patients who received a caudal epidural block compared to 0% of patients who did not receive a caudal block. Conclusion: The potential utility of caudal epidural block as an adjunct to general anesthesia during major hip surgery in adolescents is presented. Factors resulting in a failed block in this patient population as well as the use of the ultrasound as an added modality to increase block success are reviewed. PMID:25829898

  10. Oral Clonidine Premedication Enhances Postoperative Analgesia by Epidural Morphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Goyagi; Makoto Tanaka; Toshiaki Nishikawa

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral clonidine premedication on postoperative analgesia by epidural morphine in a prospective, randomized, double- blinded design. Sixty consenting patients, scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy, were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n 5 20 each); the clonidine- morphine group received oral clonidine 5 mg\\/kg 90 min before arriving in the

  11. Clinical effects of epidurally administered ketamine and xylazine in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Aithal; Amarpal K. Pratap; G. R. Singh

    1997-01-01

    Xylazine has been shown to provide longer duration of hindquarter analgesia in ruminants than conventional lignocaine hydrochloride when administered in the caudal epidural space. However, cardiopulmonary depression remains the single greatest disadvantage associated with its use. The present study was, therefore, proposed with the hypothesis that ketamine, a good analgesic and cardiovascular stimulant, would reduce the cardiopulmonary depression produced by

  12. Cervical Epidural Lipoblastomatosis: Changing MR Appearance after Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussein A. M. Kamel; Paul R. Brennan; Michael A. Farrell

    Summary: Lipoblastomatosis is a locally infiltrative tumor of embryonic fat. We describe the MR appearance of cer- vical lipoblastomatosis with epidural extension. The initial MR study showed features of a soft-tissue mass; a subse- quent MR examination, performed after chemotherapy, de- picted the lesion as a typical lipoma of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and of intermediate signal on

  13. Rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry in four patients with abnormal routine coagulation studies before removal of epidural catheters after major surgery: a case series and research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Routine coagulation tests have a low predictability for perioperative bleeding complications, and spinal hematoma after removal of epidural catheters is very infrequent. Thromboelastometry and point-of-care platelet aggregometry may improve hemostatic monitoring but have not been studied in the context of safety around epidural removal. Methods Twenty patients who received an epidural catheter for major thoracoabdominal and abdominal surgery were included prospectively. In addition to routine coagulation tests, rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry were carried out. Results A coagulation deficit was suggested by routine coagulation tests on the intended day of epidural catheter removal in four out of 20 patients. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio was elevated to 1.5 in one patient (normal range: 0.9 to 1.2) while rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry parameters were within normal limits. Activated partial thromboplastin time was elevated to 47 to 50 seconds in the remaining three patients (normal range 28 to 45 seconds). Rotational thromboelastometry showed that one of the patients’ results was due to heparin effect: the clotting time with the HEPTEM® activator was 154 seconds as compared to 261 seconds with INTEM. The three remaining patients with prolonged routine coagulation test results had all received over 1L of hydroxyethyl starch (Venofundin®) and thrombosis prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin). Rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometrygave normal or hypercoagulative signals in most patients. Conclusions This case series is new in that it examines rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry postoperatively in the context of epidural analgesia and shows that they may be clinically useful. These methods should be validated before they can be used for standard patient care. PMID:24377397

  14. [A case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension successfully treated with an epidural blood patch].

    PubMed

    Ihara, M; Yanagihara, C; Nishimura, Y

    1998-09-01

    A 76-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of a three-day history of severe postural headache without any apparent cause. Neurological examination revealed nuchal rigidity, and right auditory nerve paresis. Lumbar puncture yielded a low opening pressure of 50mmH2O and an elevated total protein up to 77mg/dl. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium revealed diffuse dural enhancement, and effacement of the prepontine cistern. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension was strongly suspected, and to ascertain the presence of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, radionuclide cisternography (RNC) was performed, which demonstrated a spinal CSF leak along the nerve root at the level of the lower lumbar spine. Interestingly, computed tomography-myelography (CTM) did not detect these abnormalities. An epidural blood patch with 15 ml of autologous blood at the L3-L4 interspace brought a dramatic symptomatic relief. Follow-up MRI, RNC, and CSF analysis demonstrated that the abnormal findings had disappeared. It is speculated that RNC is more sensitive for detecting small dural tears and CTM for anatomical anomalies including meningeal diverticula and perineural (Tarlov) cysts. We wish to stress, however, that RNC and CTM are complementary and sometimes interchangeable diagnostic modalities, and should be actively employed for detecting CSF leakage in SIH and for appropriate treatment. PMID:10078037

  15. Molecular basis of vascular events following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, A; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Popa, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the effects of the molecular basis of vascular events following spinal cord injury and their contribution in pathogenesis. First of all, we reviewed the anatomy of spinal cord vessels. The pathophysiology of spinal cord injuries revealed two types of pathogenic mechanisms. The primary event, the mechanic trauma, results in a disruption of neural and vascular structures into the spinal cord. It is followed by secondary pathogenesis that leads to the progression of the initial lesion. We reviewed vascular responses following spinal cord injury, focusing on both primary and secondary events. The intraparenchymal hemorrhage is a direct consequence of trauma; it has a typical pattern of distribution into the contused spinal cord, inside the gray matter and, it is radially extended into the white matter. The intraparenchymal hemorrhage is restricted to the dorsal columns, into adjacent rostral and caudal spinal segments. Distribution of chronic lesions overlaps the pattern of the early intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We described the mechanisms of action, role, induction and distribution of the heme oxygenase isoenzymes 1 and 2. Posttraumatic inflammatory response contributes to secondary pathogenesis. We analyzed the types of cells participating in the inflammatory response, the moment of appearance after the injury, the decrease in number, and the nature of their actions. The disruption of the blood–spinal cord barrier is biphasic. It exposes the spinal cord to inflammatory cells and to toxic effects of other molecules. Endothelin 1 mediates oxidative stress into the spinal cord through the modulation of spinal cord blood flow. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in blood–spinal cord barrier disruption, inflammation, and angiogenesis are reviewed. PMID:20945816

  16. Step training reinforces specific spinal locomotor circuitry in adult spinal rats.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Ronaldo M; Courtine, Grégoire; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Yang, Grace J; van den Brand, Rubia; Lavrov, Igor A; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2008-07-16

    Locomotor training improves function after a spinal cord injury both in experimental and clinical settings. The activity-dependent mechanisms underlying such improvement, however, are sparsely understood. Adult rats received a complete spinal cord transection (T9), and epidural stimulation (ES) electrodes were secured to the dura matter at L2. EMG electrodes were implanted bilaterally in selected muscles. Using a servo-controlled body weight support system for bipedal stepping, five rats were trained 7 d/week for 6 weeks (30 min/d) under quipazine (0.3 mg/kg) and ES (L2; 40 Hz). Nontrained rats were handled as trained rats but did not receive quipazine or ES. At the end of the experiment, a subset of rats was used for c-fos immunohistochemistry. Three trained and three nontrained rats stepped for 1 h (ES; no quipazine) and were returned to their cages for 1 h before intracardiac perfusion. All rats could step with ES and quipazine administration. The trained rats had higher and longer steps, narrower base of support at stance, and lower variability in EMG parameters than nontrained rats, and these properties approached that of noninjured controls. After 1 h of stepping, the number of FOS+ neurons was significantly lower in trained than nontrained rats throughout the extent of the lumbosacral segments. These results suggest that training reinforces the efficacy of specific sensorimotor pathways, resulting in a more selective and stable network of neurons that controls locomotion. PMID:18632941

  17. Why women prefer epidural analgesia during childbirth: The role of beliefs about epidural analgesia and pain catastrophizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Van den Bussche; Geert Crombez; Christopher Eccleston; Michael J. L. Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the reasons that might lead women to choose or not choose epidural analgesia as a strategy for the management of pain in childbirth. In our sample 55% of 114 women chose EA. Logistic regression resulted in a statistical model with four unique and independent predictors: Parity status and the fear of the side effects of EA each

  18. Safety of instrumentation and fusion at the time of surgical debridement for spinal infection.

    PubMed

    Talia, Adrian J; Wong, Michael L; Lau, Hui C; Kaye, Andrew H

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to assess the results of single-stage instrumentation and fusion at the time of surgical debridement of spinal infections; vertebral osteomyelitis or epidural abscess. Nine patients with spinal infection were treated with instrumentation and fusion after radical debridement in a single-stage operation. Predisposing factors and comorbidities, pain, American Spinal Injury Association motor scores, primary pathologies, microbiology and perioperative markers were recorded. Seven patients with pyogenic and two with tuberculous spinal infection were encountered; the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Five patients were predisposed to infection because of diabetes mellitus. Duration of antibiotic therapy lasted up to 12months. Six patients had thoracic infection, two lumbar and one cervical. No post-operative complications were encountered. There was a significant reduction in pain scores compared to pre-operatively. All patients with neurological deficits improved post-operatively. Despite introduction of hardware, no patients had a recurrence of their infection in the 12month follow up period. Single-stage debridement and instrumentation appeared to be a safe and effective method of managing spinal infections. The combination of debridement and fusion has the dual benefit of removing a focus of infection and stabilising the spine. The current series confirms that placing titanium cages into an infected space is safe in a majority of patients. Stabilisation and correction of spinal deformity reduces pain, aids neurologic recovery and improves quality of life. The small patient population and retrospective nature limit the present study. PMID:25911501

  19. Spinal segment-specific transcutaneous stimulation differentially shapes activation pattern among motor pools in humans.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Atkinson, Darryn A; Dy, Christine J; Gurley, Katelyn M; Smith, Valerie L; Angeli, Claudia; Harkema, Susan J; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury P

    2015-06-01

    Transcutaneous and epidural electrical spinal cord stimulation techniques are becoming more valuable as electrophysiological and clinical tools. Recently, we observed selective activation of proximal and distal motor pools during epidural spinal stimulation. In the present study, we hypothesized that the characteristics of recruitment curves obtained from leg muscles will reflect a relative preferential activation of proximal and distal motor pools based on their arrangement along the lumbosacral enlargement. The purpose was to describe the electrophysiological responses to transcutaneous stimulation in leg muscles innervated by motoneurons from different segmental levels. Stimulation delivered along the rostrocaudal axis of the lumbosacral enlargement in the supine position resulted in a selective topographical recruitment of proximal and distal leg muscles, as described by threshold intensity, slope of the recruitment curves, and plateau point intensity and magnitude. Relatively selective recruitment of proximal and distal motor pools can be titrated by optimizing the site and intensity level of stimulation to excite a given combination of motor pools. The slope of the recruitment of particular muscles allows characterization of the properties of afferents projecting to specific motoneuron pools, as well as to the type and size of the motoneurons. The location and intensity of transcutaneous spinal electrical stimulation are critical to target particular neural structures across different motor pools in investigation of specific neuromodulatory effects. Finally, the asymmetry in bilateral evoked potentials is inevitable and can be attributed to both anatomical and functional peculiarities of individual muscles or muscle groups. PMID:25814642

  20. Recovery of airway protective behaviors after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.; Jefferson, Stephanie C.; Rose, Melanie J.; Tester, Nicole J.; Reier, Paul J.; Fuller, David D.; Davenport, Paul W.; Howland, Dena R.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary morbidity is high following spinal cord injury and is due, in part, to impairment of airway protective behaviors. These airway protective behaviors include augmented breaths, the cough reflex, and expiration reflexes. Functional recovery of these behaviors has been reported after spinal cord injury. In humans, evidence for functional recovery is restricted to alterations in motor strategy and changes in the frequency of occurrence of these behaviors. In animal models, compensatory alterations in motor strategy have been identified. Crossed descending respiratory motor pathways at the thoracic spinal cord levels exist that are composed of crossed premotor axons, local circuit interneurons, and propriospinal neurons. These pathways can collectively form a substrate that supports maintenance and/or recovery of function, especially after asymmetric spinal cord injury. Local sprouting of premotor axons in the thoracic spinal cord also can occur following chronic spinal cord injury. These mechanisms may contribute to functional resiliency of the cough reflex that has been observed following chronic spinal cord injury in the cat. PMID:19635591

  1. Is spinal instrumentation a risk factor for late-onset infection in cases of distant infection or surgery? Case report.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Sait; Acar, Feridun; Mertol, Tansu

    2003-09-15

    As a cause of revision spinal surgery, spinal epidural abscess after instrumentation-assisted fusion is rare in neurosurgical practice. Postoperative infections are frequently seen in the time period soon after surgery. The authors report on the case of a 45-year-old woman who had undergone posterior instrumentation-augmented fusion for L4-5 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Ten months after the operation she presented to the neurosurgery clinic with complaints of severe low-back pain and radicular right lower-extremity pain. She had undergone laparoscopic surgery for acute cholecystitis 1 month prior to readmission. Radiological study revealed a spinal epidural abscess in communication with a right psoas abscess at L4-5. The abscess was drained percutaneously with the aid of C-arm fluoroscopic guidance, and a 6-week course of parenteral antibiotic therapy was administered. Retrograde lymphatic bacterial translocation, hematopoietic spread, and the suitable characteristics in the host may facilitate the development of infection around the implant. Thus, distant surgery and infection may be a risk factor in cases in which spinal instrumentation is placed. In such cases a prolonged antibiotic therapy for distant infection after surgery is recommended. PMID:15347233

  2. Spontaneous epidural emphysema and pneumomediastinum during an asthmatic attack in a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Caramella; Alessandra Bulleri; Luigi Battolla; Massimo Pifferi; Giuliano Baldini; Carlo Bartolozzi

    1997-01-01

    CT revealed the presence of epidural emphysema as an incidental finding in a 13-year-old boy in whom mild infrequent coughing\\u000a during an asthmatic attack resulted in a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. Epidural emphysema was not associated\\u000a with neurological symptoms. The CT images demonstrated the pathway of air leakage from the posterior mediastinum through the\\u000a intervertebral foramina into the epidural space.

  3. Clinical applicability of biologically effective dose calculation for spinal cord in fractionated spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jinho; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kil, Se Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to investigate whether biologically effective dose (BED) based on linear-quadratic model can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered in 4 or more fractions. Patients and methods. Sixty-three metastatic spinal lesions in 47 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The most frequently prescribed dose was 36 Gy in 4 fractions. In planning, we tried to limit the maximum dose to the spinal cord or cauda equina less than 50% of prescription or 45 Gy2/2. BED was calculated using maximum point dose of spinal cord. Results. Maximum spinal cord dose per fraction ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 Gy (median 4.3 Gy). Except 4 patients with 52.7, 56.4, 62.4, and 67.9 Gy2/2, equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction of the patients was not more than 50 Gy2/2 (12.1–67.9, median 32.0). The ratio of maximum spinal cord dose to prescription dose increased up to 82.2% of prescription dose as epidural spinal cord compression grade increased. No patient developed grade 2 or higher radiation-induced spinal cord toxicity during follow-up period of 0.5 to 53.9 months. Conclusions. In fractionated spine SBRT, BED can be used to estimate spinal cord tolerance dose, provided that the dose per fraction to the spinal cord is moderate, e.g. < 6.0 Gy. It appears that a maximum dose of up to 45–50 Gy2/2 to the spinal cord is tolerable in 4 or more fractionation regimen.

  4. Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body to combat the infection rather than to interfere with it. The combination of radical debridement and instrumentation has lots of merits such as, restoration and maintenance of the sagittal alignment of the spine, stabilization of the spinal column and reduction of bed rest period. This issue must be viewed in the context of the overall and detailed health conditions of the subjecting patient. We think the culprit for the recurrence of infection is not the implants itself, but is the compromised general health condition of the patients. In this review, we focus on surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with special attention to the role of spinal instrumentation in the presence of pyogenic infection. PMID:17106664

  5. A Symptomatic Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Yoshinori; Yuguchi, Takamichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (EAC) is a rare, usually asymptomatic condition of unknown origin, which typically involves the lower thoracic spine. We report a case of posttraumatic symptomatic EAC with lumbar disc herniation. A 22-year-old man experienced back pain and sciatica after a traffic accident. Neurological examination revealed a right L5 radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic lesion at the L3 to L5 level and an L4-5 disc herniation; computed tomography myelography showed that the right L5 root was sandwiched between the cyst and the herniation. A dural defect was identified during surgery. The cyst was excised completely and the defect was repaired. A herniation was excised beside the dural sac. Histology showed that the cyst wall consisted of collagen and meningothelial cells. Postoperatively the symptoms resolved. Lumbar spinal EACs are rare; such cysts may arise from a congenital dural crack and grow gradually. The 6 cases of symptomatic lumbar EAC reported in the literature were not associated with disc herniation or trauma. In this case, the comorbid disc herniation was involved in symptom progression. Although many EACs are asymptomatic, comorbid spinal disorders such as disc herniation or trauma can result in symptom progression. PMID:25861499

  6. Epidural saline solution prior to local anaesthetic produces differential nerve block

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Okutomi; Sumio Hoka

    1998-01-01

    Purpose  The loss-of-resistance technique is generally used to identify the epidural space usually with normal saline. However, the\\u000a effect of epidural saline on anaesthetic spread has not been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether\\u000a epidural saline affected the anaesthetic level and the quality of analgesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventy patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery received thoracic epidural anaesthesia combined with

  7. Normal intraoperative spinal sonography.

    PubMed

    Quencer, R M; Montalvo, B M

    1984-12-01

    The normal intraoperative sonographic features of the spinal canal, spinal cord, conus medullaris, and cauda equina are described and illustrated. Important observations concerning the normal spinal cord include its highly reflective dorsal and ventral surfaces, its uniform hypoechogenicity, and the presence of a central echo. Other easily identified structures within the spinal canal include the dura-arachnoid layer, subarachnoid space, denticulate ligament, dorsal arachnoid septations, and the roots of the cauda equina. In addition the sonographic appearance of commonly encountered iatrogenically introduced material including Gelfoam, Pantopaque, cottonoid pledgets, suture material, Harrington rods, and freeze-dried dura is also demonstrated. These normal images can serve as a baseline for the interpretation of various pathologic conditions of the spinal canal and its contents as seen with intraoperative spinal sonography. PMID:6388284

  8. Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma in an 11-Month-Old Girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Poonai; M. J. Rieder; A. Ranger

    2007-01-01

    An 11-month-old girl was admitted for a 2-month history of regression of motor milestones and lateralizing neurologic findings. Tests for hypercoagulability were all within normal limits except for a moderately elevated fibrinogen level. Urine and blood cultures were negative for growth. Complete MRI of the spine revealed a well-defined extradural inhomogeneous signal intensity extending from C4 to T3 suggestive of

  9. Unusual Spinal Dysraphic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Pollyana; Wanderley, Luiz Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Human tail and multiple spinal dysraphism are unusual congenital malformations. Human tail appeared as a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region, generally without connection between the tail and the neurospinal axis. Spinal dysraphisms are usually isolated, reaching 0.038% of incidence of multiple spinal dysraphisms in the same child. There were three cases described of unusual spinal dysraphic lesions: two cases of human tail and a case of a multiple thoracic myelomeningocele. The literature about diagnosis and treatment was reviewed. Microsurgical technique was performed to provide better exploration of the lesions, and resection could be done in those congenital malformations, without morbidity. PMID:24194997

  10. A review article on the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas and dural tears occurring during spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spinal surgery, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas attributed to deliberate dural opening (e.g., for tumors, shunts, marsupialization of cysts) or inadvertent/traumatic dural tears (DTs) need to be readily recognized, and appropriately treated. Methods: During spinal surgery, the dura may be deliberately opened to resect intradural lesions/tumors, to perform shunts, or to open/marsupialize cysts. DTs, however, may inadvertently occur during primary, but are seen more frequently during revision spinal surgery often attributed to epidural scarring. Other etiologies of CSF fistulas/DTs include; epidural steroid injections, and resection of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL). Whatever the etiology of CSF fistulas or DTs, they must be diagnosed utilizing radioisotope cisternography (RIC), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed axial tomography (CT) studies, and expeditiously repaired. Results: DTs should be repaired utilizing interrupted 7-0 Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore and Associates Inc., Elkton, MD, USA) sutures, as the suture itself is larger than the needle; the larger suture occludes the dural puncture site. Closure may also include muscle patch grafts, dural patches/substitutes (bovine pericardium), microfibrillar collagen (Duragen: Integra Life Sciences Holdings Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ), and fibrin glues or dural sealants (Tisseel: Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA). Only rarely are lumbar drains and wound-peritoneal and/or lumboperitoneal shunts warranted. Conclusion: DTs or CSF fistulas attributed to primary/secondary spinal surgery, trauma, epidural injections, OPLL, OYL, and other factors, require timely diagnosis (MRI/CT/Cisternography), and appropriate reconstruction. PMID:24163783

  11. [Prolonged epidural analgesia with ultracaine for labor pain relief].

    PubMed

    Semenikhin, A A; Kim En Din

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged epidural analgesia (PEA) for labor pain relief and effect of this method of conduction blockade on the main vital systems of mother and newborn were studied. PEA with ultracain was used in 486 women aged 18-38 years. Puncture and catheterization of the epidural space was made at the level of the second-third lumbar vertebrae; a single dose of 1% ultracain was 1.0-1.2 mg/kg. Effects of this method on the hemodynamics, external respiration function, autonomic status, and newborn status were evaluated. PEA with ultracain proved to be highly effective and safe for the mother and exerted no depressive effect on the newborn. Positive characteristics of ultracain are the minimum latent period, long (86.8 +/- 5.1 min) duration of sensory blocking, and no side effects. PMID:11494895

  12. Changes in sensory-evoked synaptic activation of motoneurons after spinal cord injury in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Norton; David J. Bennett; Michael E. Knash; Katie C. Murray; Monica A. Gorassini

    2008-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), prolonged muscle spasms are readily triggered by brief sensory stimuli. Animal and indirect human studies have shown that a substantial portion of the depolarization of motoneurons during a muscle spasm comes from the activation of persistent inward currents (PICs). The brief (single pulse) sensory stimuli that trigger the PICs and muscle spasms in chronically spinalized

  13. Effects of Intrathecal Glutamatergic Drugs on Locomotion I. NMDA in Short-Term Spinal Cats

    E-print Network

    Manitoba, University of

    Effects of Intrathecal Glutamatergic Drugs on Locomotion I. NMDA in Short-Term Spinal Cats CONNIE cats. J Neurophysiol 88: 3032­3045, 2002; 10.1152/jn.00138.2002. Excitatory amino acids (EAA) have been, the aim of this study is to examine the potential of NMDA in initiating locomotion in chronic spinal cats

  14. Hemodynamic effects of oral clonidine premedication in lumbar epidural anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Nishikawa; Keiichi Tajima; Tetsu Kimura; Tsuyoshi Satsumae

    1996-01-01

    Clonidine, an ?2-adrenergic agonist, has a potent sympatholytic effect and augments the pressor effect of ephedrine during general anesthesia.\\u000a We evaluated whether oral clonidine premedication would alter the hemodynamic changes and enhance the pressor response to\\u000a intravenous ephedrine during epidural anesthesia in 35 adult patients. They were randomly administered either premedication\\u000a with clonidine approximately 5 ?g·kg?1 po (n=17) or no

  15. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Does Not Augment Epidural Labor Analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence C Tsen; John Thomas; Scott Segal; Sanjay Datta; Angela M Bader

    2001-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate whether transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can increase the quality and duration of an initiation dose of bupivacaine used for the establishment of epidural labor analgesia.Design: Randomized, double-blind study.Setting: Tertiary-care academic medical center.Patients: 40 ASA physical status I and II parturients in early, active spontaneous labor with a singleton, vertex term fetus, and requesting analgesia.Interventions: A

  16. Disseminated blastomycosis presenting as mastoiditis and epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Makary, Chadia A; Roberts, Thomas D; Wetmore, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection that affects primarily the lungs. Head and neck involvement has been reported most commonly in the larynx as well as oral and nasal mucosa. Temporal bone involvement is extremely rare. We report a case of disseminated blastomycosis presenting as mastoiditis and epidural abscess. We discuss the importance of early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment for optimal outcome. PMID:24640274

  17. Efficacy of ultrasound imaging in obstetric epidural anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Grau; Rudiger Wolfgang Leipold; Renate Conradi; Eike Martin; Johann Motsch

    2002-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess the clinical use of ultrasonographic localization of the epidural space, and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound diagnostics in obstetric anesthesia.Design: Randomized prospective study.Setting: University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology.Patients: 300 parturients, 85 of whom had conventional delivery and 65 who underwent cesarean section.Interventions: Patients underwent ultrasonography for the identification of the intervertebral structures. Puncture

  18. Epidural cooling for selective brain hypothermia in porcine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Cheng; J. Shi; L. Zhang; Q. Zhang; H. Yin; L. Wang

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Background. Hypothermia has been shown to be neuroprotective in many animal models and several human trials of brain ischemic and trauma.\\u000a However systemic hypothermia may result in fatal complications. This study was undertaken to test epidural cooling as a new\\u000a method of inducing selective brain hypothermia.\\u000a \\u000a Method. Six adult swine (mean mass, 33.8 3.6?kg) were studied. Anesthesia was maintained with

  19. Panorama Ultrasound for Navigation and Guidance of Epidural Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rafii-Tari, Hedyeh; Lessoway, Victoria A; Kamani, Allaudin A; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Despite the common use of epidural anesthesia in obstetrics and surgery, the procedure can be challenging, especially for obese patients. We propose the use of an ultrasound guidance system employing a transducer-mounted camera to create 3-D panorama ultrasound volumes of the spine, thereby allowing identification of vertebrae and selection of puncture site, needle trajectory and depth of insertion. The camera achieves absolute position estimation of the transducer with respect to the patient using a specialized marker strip attached to the skin surface. The guidance system is validated first on a phantom against a commercial optical tracking system and then in vivo by comparing panorama images from human subjects against independent measurements by an experienced sonographer. The results for measuring depth to the epidural space, intervertebral spacing and registration of interspinous gaps to the skin prove the potential of the system for improving guidance of epidural anesthesia. The tracking and visualization are implemented in real time using the 3D Slicer software package. PMID:25964065

  20. Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection for Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy: Comparison of Midline and Paramedian Approaches for Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Young; Yoon, Young Cheol; Lee, Jongseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Results Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis. PMID:25995690

  1. Activation of the inspiratory intercostal muscles by electrical stimulation of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, A F; Altose, M D; Cropp, A; Durand, D

    1987-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord was evaluated as a method of activating the inspiratory intercostal muscles. Studies were performed in anesthetized dogs after hyperventilation-induced apnea. A stainless steel electrode, rubberized along its entire length except for 2 to 3 mm at the distal tip, was introduced epidurally onto the dorsal surface of the thoracic spinal cord. Stimulating electrodes were also placed in each hemidiaphragm. Intercostal electromyograms, inspired volume, and thoracoabdominal movements were monitored. The inspiratory capacity was determined in each animal as the volume required to achieve an airway pressure of +25 cm H2O during passive lung inflation. Spinal cord stimulation at the T2-T3 spinal level resulted in maximal inspired volume generation and electrical activation of the parasternal, external, and internal intercostal muscles of the upper and midrib cage regions as determined by electromyograms. Intrathoracic pressure swings increased progressively with increasing stimulus amplitude and frequency until plateaus were reached at 6 mA and 40 Hz, respectively. Postphrenicotomy spinal cord stimulation resulted in expansion of the rib cage and reduction in circumference of the abdominal compartment. Inspired volumes during spinal cord stimulation were 537 +/- 49 ml (prephrenicotomy, prone), 347 +/- 19.6 ml (postphrenicotomy, prone), and 303 +/- 30.6 ml (postphrenicotomy, supine). Bilateral diaphragm activation alone resulted in inspired volumes of 404 +/- 39 ml. Combined diaphragm and postphrenicotomy spinal cord stimulation (supine) resulted in an inspired volume of 712 +/- 72 ml, which approximated the inspiratory capacity (803 +/- 35 ml). Our results suggest that spinal cord stimulation may be a useful physiologic and clinical tool to produce coordinated contraction of the inspiratory intercostal muscles. PMID:3688644

  2. Spinal extradural angiolipoma: report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    García-Allut, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account for only 0.04–1.2% of all spinal tumors. We report two cases of lumbar extradural angiolipoma and review previously reported cases. We found 118 cases of spinal epidural angiolipoma (70 females and 48 males; age range 1.5–85 years, mean 44.03) spanning from 1890 to 2006. Prior to diagnosis 40.6% of the patients had weakness of the lower limbs. The interval between the initial symptoms and tumor diagnosis ranged from 1 day to 17 years (mean 20.2 months). Except for four cases diagnosed at autopsy, 109 patients underwent surgery and gross-total resection was performed in 79 cases (72.4%). Spinal angiolipomas are tumors containing angiomatous and lipomatous tissue, predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. All angiolipomas show iso- or hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and most lesions enhance with gadolinium administration. The treatment for spinal extradural angiolipomas is total surgical resection and no adjuvant therapy should be administered. PMID:19127373

  3. Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petur Ludvigsson; Elias Olafsson; W. Allen Hauser

    1999-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is among the commonest degenerative disorders of the nervous system in childhood. This is an inherited autosomal recessive disease which results in premature death of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and is manifested by progressive weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles. Few studies have looked at the frequency of the disease in a defined

  4. Spinal tuberculosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

    2011-01-01

    Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

  5. Spinal Crawlers: Deformable Organisms for Spinal Cord Segmentation and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    Spinal Crawlers: Deformable Organisms for Spinal Cord Segmentation and Analysis Chris Mc, Canada {cmcintos, hamarneh}@cs.sfu.ca Abstract. Spinal cord analysis is an important problem relating to the study of various neurological diseases. We present a novel approach to spinal cord segmentation

  6. Three Sudden Postoperative Respiratory Arrests Associated with Epidural Opioids in Patients with Sleep Apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas M. Ostermeier; Michael F. Roizen; Martin Hautkappe; P. Allan Klock; Jerome M. Klafta

    1997-01-01

    urrent prominent textbooks on anesthesiology mention sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) only briefly. However, three patients in Illinois (two at one hospital) had sudden postoperative arrests as- sociated with epidural opioids and sleep apnea. We therefore reevaluated the literature, which suggests that epidural opioids are the therapy of choice for patients with sleep apnea (1). Of the 15 patients with SAS

  7. ¿Se debe mantener la analgesia epidural como técnica de base en la UDA?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Caba

    2010-01-01

    Epidural analgesia has become a routine process in the peri-operative management of surgical patients which has been extended from the operating rooms and high dependency units to hospital wards. The irruption into this new scenario has improved post-surgical analgesia with acceptable safety margins, and has secured a predominant place in the analgesia guidelines of Acute Pain Units (APU). Epidural analgesia

  8. Is intercostal block for pain management in thoracic surgery more successful than epidural anaesthesia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Wurnig; H. Lackner; C. Teiner; P. H. Hollaus; M. Pospisil; B. Fohsl-Grande; M. Osarowsky; N. S. Pridun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Currently epidural anesthesia is the gold standard for postoperative pain management in thoracic surgery. In a prospective randomised study, the effect of an intercostal nerve block applied at the end of the operation was compared to that of epidural anesthesia. Methods: Thirty patients undergoing thoracotomy were randomised to each group. Patients with resection of the parietal pleura, rib resection

  9. The Efficacy of Epinephrine or Vasopressin for Resuscitation During Epidural Anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anette C. Krismer; Quinn H. Hogan; Volker Wenzel; Karl H. Lindner; Ulrich Achleitner; Stephan Oroszy; Bernd Rainer; Alaa Wihaidi; Viktoria D. Mayr; Priska Spencker; Anton Amann

    2001-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during epidural anesthesia is considered difficult because of diminished coronary perfusion pressure. The efficacy of epineph- rine and vasopressin in this setting is unknown. There- fore, we designed this study to assess the effects of epi- nephrine versus vasopressin on coronary perfusion pressure in a porcine model with and without epidural anesthesia and subsequent cardiac arrest. Thirty

  10. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Xu; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a modified topical formalin irrigation method in refractory hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). METHODS: Patients with CRP who did not respond to previous medical treatments and presented with grade II-III rectal bleeding according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were enrolled. Patients with anorectal strictures, deep ulcerations, and fistulas were excluded. All patients underwent flexible endoscopic evaluation before treatment. Patient demographics and clinical data, including primary tumor, radiotherapy and previous treatment options, were collected. Patients received topical 4% formalin irrigation in a clasp-knife position under spinal epidural anesthesia in the operating room. Remission of rectal bleeding and related complications were recorded. Defecation, remission of bleeding, and other symptoms were investigated at follow-up. Endoscopic findings in patients with rectovaginal fistulas were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (19 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 9.5 years were enrolled. The mean time from the end of radiotherapy to the onset of bleeding was 11.1 ± 9.0 mo (range: 2-24 mo). Six patients (25.0%) were blood transfusion dependent. The median preoperative Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was 3 points. Nineteen patients (79.2%) received only one course of topical formalin irrigation, and five (20.8%) required a second course. No side effects were observed. One month after treatment, bleeding cessation was complete in five patients and obvious in 14; the effectiveness rate was 79.1% (19/24). For long-term efficacy, 5/16, 1/9 and 0/6 patients complained of persistent bleeding at 1, 2 and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Three rectovaginal fistulas were found at 1 mo, 3 mo and 2 years after treatment. Univariate analysis showed associations of higher endoscopic VRS and ulceration score with risk of developing rectovaginal fistula. CONCLUSION: Modified formalin irrigation is an effective and safe method for hemorrhagic CRP, but should be performed cautiously in patients with a high endoscopic VRS. PMID:25834325

  11. Elective cesarean delivery in non-dialyzed parturient with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Ankichetty, Saravanan P; Murphy, Caitriona; Angle, Pamela; Halpern, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is rare in pregnancy and often results in significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. When possible, preoperative dialysis is useful to optimize fluid and electrolyte balance. We describe the perioperative management of a parturient who persistently refused dialysis, had an uneventful cesarean delivery under graded epidural anesthesia. PMID:23493669

  12. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions. PMID:24831995

  13. Intrapartum Temperature Elevation, Epidural Use, and Adverse Outcome in Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace; Ringer, Steven A.; Johnson, Lise C.; Rivkin, Michael J.; Lieberman, Ellice

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of intrapartum temperature elevation with adverse neonatal outcome among low-risk women receiving epidural analgesia and evaluate the association of epidural with adverse neonatal outcome without temperature elevation. METHODS: We studied all low-risk nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies ?37 weeks delivering at our hospital during 2000, excluding pregnancies where infants had documented sepsis, meningitis, or a major congenital anomaly. Neonatal outcomes were compared between women receiving (n = 1538) and not receiving epidural analgesia (n = 363) in the absence of intrapartum temperature elevation (?99.5°F) and according to the level of intrapartum temperature elevation within the group receiving epidural (n = 2784). Logistic regression was used to evaluate neonatal outcome while controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Maternal temperature >100.4°F developed during labor in 19.2% (535/2784) of women receiving epidural compared with 2.4% (10/425) not receiving epidural. In the absence of intrapartum temperature elevation (?99.5°F), no significant differences were observed in adverse neonatal outcomes between women receiving and not receiving epidural. Among women receiving epidural, a significant linear trend was observed between maximum maternal temperature and all neonatal outcomes examined including hypotonia, assisted ventilation, 1- and 5-min Apgar scores <7, and early-onset seizures. In regression analyses, infants born to women with fever >101°F had a two- to sixfold increased risk of all adverse outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of infants experiencing adverse outcomes increased with the degree of epidural-related maternal temperature elevation. Epidural use without temperature elevation was not associated with any of the adverse outcomes we studied. PMID:22291120

  14. An in vitro comparison of the electrical conducting properties of multiport versus single-port epidural catheters for the epidural stimulation test.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ban C H; Sze, Corey K C

    2005-11-01

    Effective conduction of electricity through a catheter is essential for the success of the epidural stimulation test. In this in vitro study we examined the electrical conductivity of single and multiport epidural catheters (with and without embedded metal elements) after being primed with normal saline. Seven different types of 19-gauge catheters (n = 5), either single-port or multiport catheters, with or without embedded metal elements, were studied. The proximal end of each epidural catheter was connected to the cathode of a nerve stimulator via an electrode adapter. The catheter, primed with normal saline, was placed at the bottom of a syringe filled with 5 different volumes of saline (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mL) and attached to an electrode adapter. The voltage of the peripheral nerve stimulator was measured using an oscilloscope. The electrical resistance between the proximal and distal end of the catheter was calculated using Ohm's Law. In catheters without metal elements the electrical resistances were too high to be measured. In catheters that had metal elements, the mean electrical resistances of the same catheter design (single-port or multiport) were similar. However, the electrical resistances of the multiport metal reinforced epidural catheters were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the single-port metal coil reinforced epidural catheters. The volume of saline in the syringe had no impact on the measured electrical resistances. This study suggests that multiport metal reinforced epidural catheters have low electrical resistances and, thus, are a reasonable alternative to single-port catheters for transmitting sufficient current for performing the epidural stimulation test. On the other hand, epidural catheters without metal elements (single-port or multiport) are not suitable for performing the stimulation test. PMID:16244025

  15. Nanofiber nets in prevention of cicatrization in spinal procedures. Experimental study.

    PubMed

    Andrychowski, Jaros?aw; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Ma?gorzata; Sulejczak, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Czernicki, Zbigniew; Kowalewski, Tomasz Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Excessive cicatrisation or epidural fibrosis in the operative field is an inappropriate event occasionally occurring after neurosurgical procedures (i.e., spine procedures and craniotomies). This excessive process may disturb the postoperative course and render reoperations more difficult and risky. The literature describes this phenomenon as accompanying up to 20% of neurosurgical procedures. The scar tissue that forms postoperatively adheres to the dura mater, penetrates into the spinal canal and can cause narrowing symptoms, neurological deficits and pain. The incidence and spread of this excessive scar or epidural fibrosis can be prevented through the modification of the surgical technique by incorporating endoscopic or microscopic access to minimize the operative field and the use of isolating substances (autogenous or heterogeneous) administered intraoperatively. The aim of this experimental study was to morphologically assess the cicatrization process, adhesion and to prevent excessive scar formation with the local use of membranes manufactured by an electrospinning process (nanotechnology). We also investigated whether the biodegradable nanofibrous net triggers or modifies the immunological response or the local inflammatory process. Micro-nanofibrous membranes were produced by the electrospinning process. A biodegradable, medically certified copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) was used as the electrospun material. An experimental rat model was used in this study. Experimental and control groups were formed with specified follow-up times of 4, 14 and 30 days. During the operation, a two-level laminectomy in the thoracic segment was performed. The operative field was divided into two regions. Isolating material was used on the dura mater and surface of the spinal cord in the area where the laminectomy was performed. The material was analysed with the use of light and electron microscopy. Local cicatrisation can be modified using nanomaterials. Scar formation and epidural fibrosis can be limited and modified locally. No local inflammation process was observed. Initial observations indicate the potential for the effective use of materials obtained in the electrospinning process to prevent cicatrization. PMID:23821387

  16. Rehabilitation of a child with a spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Zidek; Rajashree Srinivasan

    2003-01-01

    The incidence and sex distribution of spinal cord injury (SCI) changes with age. Motor vehicle accidents, bicycle accidents, sports accidents, and violence are major causes in the pediatric population. Pulmonary complications may be severe and life-threatening in the acute phase. Chronically, the degree of ventilatory support needed depends on the level of the injury, with high cervical injuries typically requiring

  17. Posterior Epidural Migration of Sequestrated Cervical Disc Fragment: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gopalan Senthil; Mahesha, Kanthila Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study was undertaken to delineate the characteristics of non-traumatic sequestrated epidurally migrated cervical disc prolapse. Purpose To present first case series of eight such cases diagnosed preoperatively and to discuss their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and their management. Overview of Literature Non-traumatic spontaneous migration of the sequestrated disc fragment epidurally behind cervical vertebral body is rare. Only ten cases have been reported in literature. Methods Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of these 8 cases are presented. In six cases their clinical picture was suggestive of cervical myelopathy. MRI scan showed single level epidural migrated disc behind body of C4, C6, and C7 in six patients and two cases with multiple levels (C5-C6). In six cases, anterior corpectomy with excision of the disc was performed and the seventh patient underwent dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient chose not to undergo surgery. Results T1 images of the MRI scan showed an isointense signal in all the 8 cases. T2 images revealed a varying intensity. In six cases who underwent anterior corpectomy, there was a rent in the posterior longitudinal ligament. Among those in two cases multiple disc fragments were seen. In the rest four cases, a single large fragment was observed. These patients improved after anterior corpectomy and disc excision. There was no improvement in the patient who had undergone dorsal laminectomy. The eighth patient who refused surgery progressively deteriorated. Conclusions We opine that MRI scan especially T1 images are useful in these cases. We prefer to treat these cases through anterior corpectomy with excision of the sequestrated disc which proved to result in excellent outcome. PMID:22164316

  18. Chronic blockade of melanocortin receptors alleviates allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Gispen; D. H. Vrinten; R. A. H. Adan; G. J. Groen

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of the spinal cord melanocortin (MC) system in neuropathic pain. Because we recently demonstrated that MC receptor ligands acutely alter nociception in an animal model of neuropathic pain, in this study we tested whether chronic administration was also effective. We hypothesized that chronic blockade of the spinal MC system might decrease sensory abnormalities associated with this

  19. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the nervous system and ... given within the first 8 hours after injury. Rehabilitation programs combine physical therapies with skill-building activities ...

  20. Use of pressure waves to confirm the correct placement of epidural needles in dogs.

    PubMed

    Iff, I; Moens, Y; Schatzmann, U

    2007-07-01

    An epidural puncture was performed using the lumbosacral approach in 18 dogs, and the lack of resistance to an injection of saline was used to determine that the needle was positioned correctly. The dogs' arterial blood pressure and epidural pressure were recorded. They were randomly assigned to two groups: in one group an injection of a mixture of local anaesthetic agents was made slowly over 90 seconds and in the other it was made over 30 seconds. After 10 minutes contrast radiography was used to confirm the correct placement of the needle. The mean (sd) initial pressure in the epidural space was 0.1 (0.7) kPa. After the injection the mean maximum epidural pressure in the group injected slowly was 5.5 (2.1) kPa and in the group injected more quickly it was 6.0 (1.9) kPa. At the end of the period of measurement, the epidural pressure in the slow group was 0.8 (0.5) kPa and in the rapid group it was 0.7 (0.5) kPa. Waves synchronous with the arterial pulse wave were observed in 15 of the dogs before the epidural injection, and in all the dogs after the epidural injection. PMID:17617541

  1. Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.

    2011-08-01

    We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ? 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.

  2. Enhanced pain management for post-gastrectomy patients with combined epidural morphine and fentanyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Tanaka; Seiji Watanabe; Naoki Matsumiya; Minako Okada; Tsukasa Kondo; Shinji Takahashi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose  To determine whether clinical advantages could be demonstrated by epidural fentanyl given in addition to epidural morphine\\u000a for postgastrectomy analgesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One-hundred and twenty two patients undergoing elective gastrectomy were prospectively studied in a randomised, double-blind\\u000a fashion. All patients received epidural lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine (1:200,000) followed by light general anaesthesia\\u000a for surgical anaesthesia. They were assigned to four groups according

  3. Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Epidural Anaesthesia Following Posterior Instrumented Scoliosis Correction.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Simon; Gunn, Lucinda; Madhavan, Pradeep

    2015-02-01

    An 11-year-old girl underwent T4 to L1 posterior instrumented scoliosis correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Postoperative clinical examination revealed left-sided Horner's syndrome which was preceded by left-sided C8 paraesthesia. The Horner's syndrome resolved after 14 hours following weaning and removal of the epidural catheter. Horner's syndrome following posterior instrumented scoliosis correction associated to epidural use is extremely rare. Surgeons must be aware of the risks of epidural placement and the need for close monitoring of associated complications. Alternative aetiology producing a Horner's syndrome must always be considered because of its devastating long term sequela if missed. PMID:25705345

  4. Intraventricular Hemorrhage after Epidural Blood Patching: An Unusual Complication

    PubMed Central

    Couldwell, William T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors present two cases of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) believed to be a result of epidural blood patching. The first was a 71-year-old woman who had new onset of nontraumatic IVH on computed tomography (CT) scan after undergoing an epidural blood patch (EBP). This amount of intraventricular blood was deemed an incidental finding since it was of very small volume to account for her overall symptoms. The second patient, a 29-year-old woman, was found to have nontraumatic IVH three days after undergoing an EBP. This was seen on CT scan of the head for workup of pressure-like headaches, nausea, vomiting, and absence seizures. Conservative management was followed in both instances. Serial CT scan of the head in our first patient displayed complete resolution of her IVH. The second patient did not have follow-up CT scans because her overall clinical picture had improved significantly. This highlights a potential sequel of EBP that may be observed on CT scan of the head. In the event that IVH is detected, signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus should be closely monitored with the consideration for a future workup if warranted by the clinical picture. PMID:25544916

  5. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Denys

    2013-06-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain is based on 3 concepts: 1) lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (cordotomy, radicotomy...), they are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain; 2) neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory mechanisms, using chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation...) to treat chronic neuropathic pain; 3) intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. PMID:23923757

  6. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... with SCI is the lowest point on the spinal cord below which sensory feeling and motor movement diminish ...

  7. Living with Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... techniques that may prevent injury and disease. A spinal cord injury (SCI) can result from trauma, such as ... with daily living skills. What can persons with spinal cord injuries and their friends and families do? ? Get ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips Preventing SCI Biking prevention tips While many cycling injuries are head injuries, the ... NeurosurgeryToday.org Every year, an estimated 11,000 spinal cord injury (SCI) accidents occur in the United States. ...

  9. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the ...

  10. Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ... Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury What's ...

  11. Transient loss of motor-evoked responses associated with caudal injection of morphine in a patient with spondylolisthesis undergoing spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter R J; Johnston, Sarah; Lagopoulos, Jim; Cummine, John L

    2006-05-01

    A 7-year-old girl having posterior spinal fusion for Grade 3 anterior spondylolisthesis at the L5/S1 level was administered 2.5 mg of morphine in 10 ml saline via the caudal epidural route before surgery. Motor-evoked responses were markedly diminished in her lower limbs for 1 h following this but returned spontaneously. She suffered no neurological injury. The cause for this is postulated to be transient cauda equina compression from the volume of injectate. This complication of caudal injection has not been reported before. The possible mechanisms for this are discussed. We believe that significant L5/S1 spondylolisthesis should be considered a contraindication to the use of caudal epidural injections. PMID:16677268

  12. Delayed Pneumocephalus Following Fluoroscopy Guided Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: A Rare Complication and Anatomical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Dong; Ham, Hyang-Do; Moon, Hyun-Seog; Kim, Soo-Han

    2015-05-01

    Cervical epidural steroid injection is indicated for radicular symptoms with or without axial neck pain. Complications are rare but can be serious. Here, we report the case of a 54-year-old man with cervical radicular pain who was treated with cervical epidural steroid injection. Injection was administered twice under fluoroscopic guidance with the loss-of-resistance technique using air to confirm the epidural space. After the second procedure, the patient complained of severe persistent headache and was diagnosed with pneumocephalus on brain computed tomography. The patient returned home without any neurological complication, after a few days of conservative treatment. Though, a fluoroscopic guidance cervical epidural injection is also known to diminish the risk of complications. Physicians should always keep in mind that it does not guarantee safety, particularly in the cervical region, related to its anatomical considerations. PMID:26113967

  13. Delayed Pneumocephalus Following Fluoroscopy Guided Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: A Rare Complication and Anatomical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyang-Do; Moon, Hyun-Seog; Kim, Soo-Han

    2015-01-01

    Cervical epidural steroid injection is indicated for radicular symptoms with or without axial neck pain. Complications are rare but can be serious. Here, we report the case of a 54-year-old man with cervical radicular pain who was treated with cervical epidural steroid injection. Injection was administered twice under fluoroscopic guidance with the loss-of-resistance technique using air to confirm the epidural space. After the second procedure, the patient complained of severe persistent headache and was diagnosed with pneumocephalus on brain computed tomography. The patient returned home without any neurological complication, after a few days of conservative treatment. Though, a fluoroscopic guidance cervical epidural injection is also known to diminish the risk of complications. Physicians should always keep in mind that it does not guarantee safety, particularly in the cervical region, related to its anatomical considerations. PMID:26113967

  14. Hyperbaric spinal anesthesia with ropivacaine coadministered with sufentanil for cesarean delivery: a dose-response study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dongyue; Wu, Guowei; Qin, Peishun; Ji, Bin; Ye, Lisha; Shi, Tong; Huang, Huang; Jin, Lexiao

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant sufentanil could achieve effective spinal anesthesia with low dose of hyperbaric ropivacaine for cesarean delivery. Two previous studies had calculated the 50% effective dose (ED50) of intrathecal ropivacaine coadministered with sufentanil for cesarean delivery. However, the 95% effective dose (ED95) of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine coadministered with sufentanil for cesarean delivery remains uncertain. This study determined the ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine coadministered with sufentanil for cesarean delivery. 80 ASA physical status I or II parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blind investigation. A combined spinal and epidural anesthesia was performed at the L3-L4 interspace. Patients received a dose of spinal ropivacaine coadministered with sufentanil 5 ?g diluted to 3.0 ml with normal saline and 0.5 ml of 10% dextrose: 7.5 mg (n = 20), 9.0 mg (n = 20), 10.5 mg (n = 20), or 12 mg (n = 20). An effective dose was defined as a dose that provided bilateral sensory block to T7 within 10 min after intrathecal drug administration and required no epidural top-up for surgery to be completed. The ED50 and ED95 values for successful anesthesia were determined using a logistic regression model. The ED50 (95% confidence interval [CI]) for successful anesthesia was 8.4 (4.0-9.8) mg and the ED95 (95% CI) was 11.4 (9.7-13.9) mg. The results show that the ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine coadministered with sufentanil 5 ?g for cesarean delivery was 11.4 mg. The addition of sufentanil could significantly reduce the dosage of ropivacaine. PMID:26131159

  15. Spinal muscular atrophy in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moosa; V. Dubowitz

    1973-01-01

    A coarse tremor was noted in 13 children suffering from the childhood form of spinal muscular atrophy. Tremor has not been seen in any other condition producing proximal muscle weakness in childhood, and its presence should therefore suggest the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy.In addition, the feet of patients with spinal muscular atrophy tended to evert, whereas in Duchenne muscular

  16. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the apparent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery of

  17. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G. Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the appar- ent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery

  18. Epidural morphine reduces the riskof postoperative myocardial ischaemia in patients with cardiac risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wm. Scott Beattie; D. Norman Buckley; James B. Forrest

    1993-01-01

    Perioperative myocardial ischaemia is a predictor of postoperative cardiac morbidity (PCM). Epidural anaesthesia and adequate\\u000a perioperative analgesia have been shown to improve myocardial oxygen dynamics due to interruption of pain and sympathetic\\u000a pathways. The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of ischaemia after either general anaesthesia followed\\u000a by parenteral analgesia with morphine or combined epidural\\/general anaesthesia

  19. Epidural morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section: a report of 4880 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Fuller; Graham H. McMorland; M. Joanne Douglas; Lynne Palmer

    1990-01-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of epidural morphine in providing analgesia following\\u000a Caesarean section under epidural anaesthesia. The morphine was administered as a single bolus, following delivery, in doses\\u000a ranging from 2 to 5 mg. The charts of 4880 Caesarean sections, performed on 4500 patients, were reviewed. The duration of\\u000a analgesia and the occurrence

  20. Uterine and umbilical blood flow velocity during epidural anaesthesia for Caesarean section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Halpern; Phyllis Glanc; Terri Myhr; Marylou Ryan; Katherine Fong; Kofi Amankwah; Arne Ohlsson

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use colour Doppler to determine the effect of epidural anaesthesia on the uterine and umbilical\\u000a blood flow velocities. After determining the precision of the technique, Doppler insonation of the uterine and umbilical arteries\\u000a was performed in consenting non-labouring patients requesting epidural anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Patients in Group\\u000a I were normal and those

  1. A sheared Racz catheter in cervical epidural space for thirty months: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Hyuk; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jin Sung; Lee, Min Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty may lead to complications such as hematoma, infection, epidural abscess, meningitis, hypotension, respiratory depression, urinary and fecal dysfunction, sexual dysfunction and paresthesia. Other technical complications may include shearing or tearing, misplacement, blockage and migration of the catheter. We report a case of a 41-year-old female patient, who underwent surgical removal of a sheared catheter, which was retained for 30 months after cervical Racz neuroplasty. PMID:25844142

  2. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  3. Spinal neuroaxonal dystrophy and angioneuromatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Martin; P. Cras; E. De Schutter

    1987-01-01

    A man of 75 years of age had had lightning pains in the legs for 8 years. Clinical examination demonstrated mild pyramidal signs and involvement of the posterior columns. A morphine pump was placed in the epidural space in the lumbar region to treat the pain. He died two weeks later from a massive pulmonary embolism. The nervous system was

  4. Microbial examination of kidney lithotripter tub water and epidural anesthesia catheters.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G L; Roberts, J T; O'Brien, A; Kelleher, M; Dretler, S P; Battit, G E; Hopkins, C C

    1986-04-01

    Kidney lithotripsy patients frequently receive epidural anesthesia via indwelling epidural catheters. In our hospital, patients are immersed in a tub of warm, continuously-flowing tap water. The epidural catheter-entry site is covered by a transparent occlusive dressing. To determine the risk of microbial colonization of the epidural catheter during lithotripsy, we performed quantitative cultures of tub water and semiquantitative cultures of catheters in 63 lithotripsy procedures. Most of the tub water organisms were typical tap water and skin flora isolates. Total colony counts were generally low with no significant progression during the course of serial procedures. Forty-two epidural catheters were cultured; 34 (81%) were sterile, 8 (19%) were colonized with small numbers of flavobacteria or coagulase-negative staphylococci. Only four catheters had organisms present on catheter segments covered by the transparent occlusive dressing (in each case there was a single colony forming unit per semiquantitative plate) and these organisms were probable contaminants. We conclude that with our current lithotripsy procedures, the risk for the development of epidural catheter-associated infection seems to be low. PMID:3634759

  5. Acceptability of epidural analgesia for pain relief during labour among Kelantanese women.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Mohamad, N A; Monga, D; Achana, S

    1996-12-01

    Three hundred and five primigravid women were interviewed at term to assess the acceptability of epidural during labour, and reasons for the decisions. Data was collected on a prestructured proforma which consisted of background information, socio-economic status, knowledge about epidural analgesia, source of information and reasons for choice. Of the 305 patients only 17.3% were willing to receive epidural analgesia. This group consisted of 56.6% non-Malay women. Those employed in professional or skilled jobs (56.6%) also readily consented for epidural. Nearly half the women willing for epidural had received college (tertiary) education (43.3%) and more than a quarter (26.4%) were over 30 years of age. The majority of those who were unwilling had no prior knowledge about the procedure, and refused either out of fear, ignorance, resistance from husbands, on religious grounds or following poor feedback from friends. In order to advocate epidural analgesia, knowledge has to be targeted to the relatively less educated, unemployed women, mainly through the media or personally in the antenatal clinic by doctors and nurses. Services have to be improved as substandard analgesia may send out wrong messages and actually do more harm than good. PMID:10968033

  6. Laparoscopic Extracorporeal Ligation of Hernia Defects Using an Epidural Needle and Preperitoneal Hydrodissection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This article presents the extracorporeal ligation of inguinal hernia defects using an epidural needle and preperitoneal hydrodissection. Patients and Methods Thirteen children underwent laparoscopic extracorporeal ligation of their hernia defect using an epidural needle and preperitoneal hydrodissection. A 5-mm trocar for an operative laparoscope was placed through an infraumbilical incision, a Veress needle for forceps was inserted halfway between the umbilicus and the anterior superior iliac spine on the contralateral side of the hernia, and a 17-gauge epidural needle was inserted at the point of the internal inguinal ring. The hernia defect was closed extracorporeally by a nonabsorbable suture, which was introduced into the abdomen through the epidural needle on the lower half of the hernia defect and withdrawn on the opposite side by a wire-loop through the epidural needle going along the upper half side of the hernia defect in a series of movements. When a contralateral hernia defect is present, laparoscopic-assisted extracorporeal ligation of the contralateral hernia defect is performed during the same operation. Results All patients were discharged uneventfully from the hospital within 24 hours postoperatively. The mean follow-up period is 6.1 months (range 2–12 mos), and no recurrence has been observed to date. Conclusions This article describes a unique technique of extracorporeal circuit suturing of inguinal hernia defects using a minimally invasive technique as afforded by an epidural needle. PMID:22168769

  7. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Spinal Inflammation Impairs Respiratory Motor Plasticity by a Spinal p38 MAP Kinase-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Huxtable, Adrianne G; Smith, Stephanie M C; Peterson, Timothy J; Watters, Jyoti J; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-04-29

    Inflammation is characteristic of most clinical disorders that challenge the neural control of breathing. Since inflammation modulates neuroplasticity, we studied the impact of inflammation caused by prolonged intermittent hypoxia on an important form of respiratory plasticity, acute intermittent hypoxia (three, 5 min hypoxic episodes, 5 min normoxic intervals) induced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Because chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits neuroinflammation and pLTF is undermined by lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that one night of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1) elicits spinal inflammation, thereby impairing pLTF by a p38 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. pLTF and spinal inflammation were assessed in anesthetized rats pretreated with IH-1 (2 min hypoxia, 2 min normoxia; 8 h) or sham normoxia and allowed 16 h for recovery. IH-1 (1) transiently increased IL-6 (1.5 ± 0.2-fold; p = 0.02) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (2.4 ± 0.4-fold; p = 0.01) mRNA in cervical spinal homogenates, (2) elicited a sustained increase in IL-1? mRNA (2.4 ± 0.2-fold; p < 0.001) in isolated cervical spinal microglia, and (3) abolished pLTF (-1 ± 5% vs 56 ± 10% in controls; p < 0.001). pLTF was restored after IH-1 by systemic NSAID administration (ketoprofen; 55 ± 9%; p < 0.001) or spinal p38 MAP kinase inhibition (58 ± 2%; p < 0.001). IH-1 increased phosphorylated (activated) p38 MAP kinase immunofluorescence in identified phrenic motoneurons and adjacent microglia. In conclusion, IH-1 elicits spinal inflammation and impairs pLTF by a spinal p38 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. By targeting inflammation, we may develop strategies to manipulate respiratory motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage when the respiratory control system is compromised (e.g., sleep apnea, apnea of prematurity, spinal injury, or motor neuron disease). PMID:25926462

  8. Catheter-Based Transepidural Approach to Cervical and Thoracic Posterior and Perineural Epidural Spaces: A Cadaveric Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Malik, Ahmed A.; Khan, Asif A.; Sohail, Amna; Saed, Aveen; Jadhav, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Approaching the cervical and high thoracic level epidural space through transepidural route from lumbar region represents a method to lower the occurrence of complications associated with direct approach. The authors performed a cadaveric pilot project to determine the feasibility of various catheter-based manipulation and cephalad advancement using the transepidural route. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Two cadavers were used to determine the following: 1. Ability to place a guide sheath over a guidewire using a percutaneous approach within the posterior lumbar epidural space; 2. The highest vertebral level catheter can be advanced within the posterior epidural space; 3. Ability to cross midline within the posterior epidural space; and 4. Ability to catheterize the perineural epidural sheaths of the nerve roots exiting at cervical and thoracic vertebral levels. RESULTS We were able to advance the catheters up to the level of cervical vertebral level of C2 within the posterior epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance from a sheath inserted via oblique parasagittal approach at the lumbar L4–L5 intervertebral space. We were able to cross midline within the posterior epidural space and catheterize multiple perineural epidural sheaths of the nerve roots exiting at cervical vertebral level of C2, C3, and C4 on ipsilateral or contralateral sides. We also catheterized multiple epidural sheaths that surround the nerve roots exiting at the thoracic vertebral level on ipsilateral or contralateral sides. CONCLUSIONS We were able to advance a catheter or microcatheter up to the cervical vertebral level within the posterior epidural space and catheterize the perineural epidural sheath of the nerve root exiting at cervical and thoracic vertebral levels. Such observations support further exploration of percutaneous catheter based transepidural approach to cervical and thoracic dorsal epidural spaces for therapeutic interventions.

  9. Congenital spinal lipomatous malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natarajan Muthukumar

    2009-01-01

    Background  To report this author’s experience with patients with a congenital spinal lipomatous malformation with special emphasis on\\u000a variations in clinical presentation, operative findings, and outcome based on the classification scheme proposed in the first\\u000a part of this two part article.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From January 1995 to July 2005, 80 patients with a congenital spinal lipomatous malformation were treated. All patients underwent\\u000a routine

  10. Spinal Cord Injury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses how spinal cord injuries are caused and their treatment options. It also includes tips on how to prevent spinal cord injuries. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  11. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    PubMed Central

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome. PMID:25552812

  12. Dexmedetomidine and clonidine in epidural anaesthesia: A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Gurpreet; Arora, Vikramjit; Gupta, Sachin; Kulshrestha, Ashish; Singh, Amarjit; Parmar, SS; Singh, Anita; Goraya, SPS

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to find a better adjuvant in regional anaesthesia are underway since long. Aims and objectives are to compare the efficacy and clinical profile of two ?-2 adrenergic agonists, dexmedetomidine and clonidine, in epidural anaesthesia with special emphasis on their sedative properties and an ability to provide smooth intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. A prospective randomized study was carried out which included 50 adult female patients between the ages of 44 and 65 years of (American Society of Anaesthesiologists) ASAI/II grade who underwent vaginal hysterectomies. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine (RD) and ropivacaine + clonidine (RC), comprising of 25 patients each. Group RD was administered 17 ml of 0.75% epidural ropivacaine and 1.5 ?g/kg of dexmedetomidine, while group RC received admixture of 17 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine and 2 ?g/kg of clonidine. Onset of analgesia, sensory and motor block levels, sedation, duration of analgesia and side effects were observed. The data obtained was subjected to statistical computation with analysis of variance and chi-square test using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 10.0 for windows and value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.0001 as highly significant. The demographic profile, initial and post-operative block characteristics and cardio-respiratory parameters were comparable and statistically non-significant in both the groups. However, sedation scores with dexmedetomidine were better than clonidine and turned out to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). The side effect profile was also comparable with a little higher incidence of nausea and dry mouth in both the groups which was again a non-significant entity (P > 0.05). Dexmedetomidine is a better neuraxial adjuvant compared to clonidine for providing early onset of sensory analgesia, adequate sedation and a prolonged post-operative analgesia. PMID:21712865

  13. The effect of ketamine as an additive in epidural block on the intractable herpetic neuralgia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Kyung Mi; Oh, Min Seok; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine has been shown to have analgesic effect by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, thus preventing and reducing central sensitization caused by peripheral nociceptive stimulation. However, due to lack of knowledge about its safety and toxicity in the central nervous system, either epidural or intrathecal injection of ketamine still remains controversial. Here, we describe a case report of satisfactory pain relief after the addition of ketamine in epidural injection in a patient with severe herpes zoster pain that was refractory to conventional medication, intravenous opioids and continuous epidural block. This case indicates the viability of epidural ketamine injection in patients with intractable herpetic neuralgia. PMID:24567816

  14. Lumbar spinal stenosis: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Nasca, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Spinal stenosis is an acquired or congenital narrowing of the spinal or nerve-root canals. Surgical treatment is often effective. Acquired spinal stenosis most commonly occurs in those with degenerative disk disease and arthritic facets. If the degenerative process stabilizes and there is adequate room to accommodate the neural contents, symptomatic patients become asymptomatic. Residual stability after decompression must be assessed in patients having multilevel decompression. Fusion maybe indicated. In women with osteoporosis coexisting with degenerative scoliosis and spinal stenosis, decompression for concave nerve-root compression and fusion are necessary. Spinal fusion is not indicated in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis having unilateral decompression for lateral stenosis. Patients with central-mixed stenosis may not need fusion. Patients with spinal stenosis after laminectomies and diskectomies had better results when arthrodesis was done in conjunction with repeated decompression. Arthrodesis with instrumentation and decompression is recommended for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:12539936

  15. Spinal Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi

    2012-01-01

    The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions. PMID:23275816

  16. Microglia and Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity in Persistent Pain

    PubMed Central

    Berta, Temugin

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are regarded as macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in neuroinflammation in the CNS. Microglial activation has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in the brain. Increasing evidence also suggests an important role of spinal cord microglia in the genesis of persistent pain, by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?), Interleukine-1beta (IL-1?), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this review, we discuss the recent findings illustrating the importance of microglial mediators in regulating synaptic plasticity of the excitatory and inhibitory pain circuits in the spinal cord, leading to enhanced pain states. Insights into microglial-neuronal interactions in the spinal cord dorsal horn will not only further our understanding of neural plasticity but may also lead to novel therapeutics for chronic pain management. PMID:24024042

  17. Does abdominal obesity cause increase in the amount of epidural fat?

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Armagan; Tokuc, Burcu

    2008-01-01

    It is known that epidural fat does not alter in obese people. This study aims to find out a possible relationship with epidural fat and abdominal obesity. In this cross-sectional study, 63 patients who were referred to our clinic for lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination were evaluated. Patients with the history of steroid treatment, thyroid disease or Cushing disease were excluded. Waist circumferences (WC), body weight and height were measured and subsequently body-mass index (BMI) was calculated (kg/m²). On midsagittal T1-weighted images, anterior epidural fat (AEF), posterior epidural fat (PEF) and posterior subcutaneous fat (SCF) thicknesses were measured at the S1 level. The results were compared with age, gender, body weight, height, WC and BMI. There were 31 men and 32 women, age ranged 19–77 years (mean 49). The mean BMI was 29.25 kg/m² (20.7–52.7); the mean WC was 97.4 ± 13.2 cm (72–122) in women and 97.6 ± 9.8 cm (72–118) in men. Cutoff value of WC was considered as 88 cm for women and 95 cm for men. BMI > 27.5 was considered to be obese. No statistical difference with respect to epidural fat thickness between genders was determined in AEF and PEF (P = 0.237, P = 0.616). SCF was significantly thicker in women (P = 0.021). A very poor and negative correlation was found between age and PEF (r = 0.373, P = 0.003), and a very poor and positive correlation between weight and PEF was found (r = 396, P = 0.001). The thickness of the epidural fat was not differ between obese and nonobese people (p = 0.571 for AEF and p = 0.307 for PEF). The thickness of the epidural fat was not different in people whose WC was greater than normal values in both gender (p > 0.05). Epidural fat is not affected by age, gender, BMI and WC which means that epidural fatty layer. A clear correlation has not been found between epidural fat amount and obesity or abnormal fat distribution yet. PMID:18663486

  18. Management of spinal metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank D Vrionis; Rafael Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Spinal metastasis is a frequent oncologic and neurosurgical emergency in patients with cancer. Most patients present with back pain and the diagnosis is established with a screening MRI of the spine. Treatment options include steroids, biphosphonates, radiation therapy, surgery and radiosurgery. Pain management is a very important aspect and includes opioids, anti-inflammatory agents, newer anticonvulsants and tricyclic anti-depressants, as well

  19. Spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Winter; Hina Pattani

    2008-01-01

    The annual incidence of acute spinal cord injury in the UK is 15–40 cases per million. More than half these injuries are the result of road traffic accidents, with falls, industrial accidents, sports or violence making up most of the remainder. Violent injury accounts for only a small percentage of cases in this country. The typical patient is male (male

  20. Spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Winter; Hina Pattani

    2011-01-01

    The annual incidence of acute spinal cord injury in the UK is 15–40 cases per million. More than half of these injuries are the result of road traffic accidents, with falls, industrial accidents, sports or violence making up most of the remainder. Violent injury accounts for only a small percentage of cases in the UK. The typical patient is male

  1. Posterior spinal anatomy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The vertebral column is divided into the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar region. It provides structural support for the trunk and surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The vertebral column also provides attachment points for the muscles of the back and ribs.

  2. Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Witiw, Christopher D; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiological processes that comprise the early secondary phases of spinal cord injury such as spinal cord ischemia, cellular excitotoxicity, ionic dysregulation, and free-radical mediated peroxidation is far greater now than ever before, thanks to substantial laboratory research efforts. These discoveries are now being translated into the clinical realm and have led to targeted upfront medical management with a focus on tissue oxygenation and perfusion and include avoidance of hypotension, induction of hypertension, early transfer to specialized centers, and close monitoring in a critical care setting. There is also active exploration of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agents; a number of which are currently in late stage clinical trials including minocycline, riluzole, AC-105, SUN13837, and Cethrin. Furthermore, new data have emerged demonstrating that the timing of spinal cord decompression after injury impacts recovery and that early decompression leads to significant improvements in neurological recovery. With this review we aim to provide a concise, clinically relevant and up-to-date summary of the topic of acute spinal cord injury, highlighting recent advancements and areas where further study is needed. PMID:26098670

  3. Spinal Interneurons and Forelimb Plasticity after Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa Janine; Rombola, Angela M; Rousseau, Celeste A; Mercier, Lynne M; Fitzpatrick, Garrett M; Reier, Paul J; Fuller, David D; Lane, Michael A

    2015-06-15

    Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) disrupts bulbospinal projections to motoneurons controlling the upper limbs, resulting in significant functional impairments. Ongoing clinical and experimental research has revealed several lines of evidence for functional neuroplasticity and recovery of upper extremity function after SCI. The underlying neural substrates, however, have not been thoroughly characterized. The goals of the present study were to map the intraspinal motor circuitry associated with a defined upper extremity muscle, and evaluate chronic changes in the distribution of this circuit following incomplete cSCI. Injured animals received a high cervical (C2) lateral hemisection (Hx), which compromises supraspinal input to ipsilateral spinal motoneurons controlling the upper extremities (forelimb) in the adult rat. A battery of behavioral tests was used to characterize the time course and extent of forelimb motor recovery over a 16 week period post-injury. A retrograde transneuronal tracer - pseudorabies virus - was used to define the motor and pre-motor circuitry controlling the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscle in spinal intact and injured animals. In the spinal intact rat, labeling was observed unilaterally within the ECRL motoneuron pool and within spinal interneurons bilaterally distributed within the dorsal horn and intermediate gray matter. No changes in labeling were observed 16 weeks post-injury, despite a moderate degree of recovery of forelimb motor function. These results suggest that recovery of the forelimb function assessed following C2Hx injury does not involve recruitment of new interneurons into the ipsilateral ECRL motor pathway. However, the functional significance of these existing interneurons to motor recovery requires further exploration. PMID:25625912

  4. Spinal stimulation for pain: future applications.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Konstantin V

    2014-07-01

    With continuous progress and rapid technological advancement of neuromodulation it is conceivable that within next decade or so, our approach to the electrical stimulation of the spinal cord used in treatment of chronic pain will change radically. The currently used spinal cord stimulation (SCS), with its procedural invasiveness, bulky devices, simplistic stimulation paradigms, and frustrating decline in effectiveness over time will be replaced by much more refined and individually tailored modality. Better understanding of underlying mechanism of action will allow us to use SCS in a more rational way, selecting patient-specific targets and techniques that properly fit each patient with chronic pain based on pain characteristics, distribution, and cause. Based on the information available today, this article will summarize emerging applications of SCS in the treatment of pain and theorize on further developments that may be introduced in the foreseeable future. An overview of clinical and technological innovations will serve as a basis for better understanding of SCS landscape for the next several years. PMID:24696306

  5. Effects of epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural analgesia on immune function in esophageal carcinoma patients undergoing thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    GU, CHENG-YONG; ZHANG, JIN; QIAN, YAN-NING; TANG, QI-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) has been demonstrated to significantly reduce stress and immune dysfunction in trauma patients. In esophageal carcinoma patients undergoing thoracic surgery, TEA combined with general anesthesia during surgery and subsequent postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) may improve plasma cortisol (Cor), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17 levels and helper T-cell differentiation. A total of 60 esophageal carcinoma patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly allocated into groups I, II, III and I (n=15 per group). During surgery, groups I and II received total intravenous general anesthesia (TIVA), whereas groups III and IV received combined TEA and TIVA. Postoperatively, groups I and III received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA), while groups II and IV received PCEA. The Cor, IL-6, IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-17 levels were measured in peripheral blood samples collected prior to anesthesia (T0), at 2 h after incision (T1), at 4 h postoperatively (T2), at 24 h postoperatively (T3) and at 48 h postoperatively (T4). The plasma Cor, IL-17 and IL-6 levels increased significantly at the beginning of the operation in groups I, II and III, while in group IV there were no significant differences during the entire period, concurrent with enhanced Th0 to Th2 shift, contributing to a Th2-dominant Th1/Th2 ratio. General anesthesia with TEA more efficiently inhibited the onset of the Th2-dominant status and decreased the plasma levels of Cor and IL-6 compared to general anesthesia alone and PCEA inhibited the Th2-dominant status more efficiently compared to PCIA. Therefore, general anesthesia combined with TEA and sole administration of PCEA were demonstrated to inhibit the stress response and minimize immune dysfunction, generating most pronounced results upon combination TEA/PCEA treatment. PMID:25469293

  6. Upregulation of persistent and ramp sodium current in dorsal horn neurons after spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Lampert; Bryan C. Hains; Stephen G. Waxman

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results not only in motor impairment, but also in chronic central neuropathic pain, which often is refractory to conventional treatment approaches. Upregulated expression of sodium channel Nav1.3 has been observed within the spinal dorsal horn neurons after SCI, and appears to contribute to neuronal hyperresponsiveness and pain-related behaviors. In this study we characterized the changes

  7. Adverse events from spinal manipulation in the pregnant and postpartum periods: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The safety of spinal manipulation during pregnancy and the postpartum periods has been a matter of debate among manual therapists. Spinal manipulative therapy during these periods is a commonly performed intervention as musculoskeletal pain is common in these patients. To date there has not been an evaluation of the literature on this topic exclusively. Methods A literature search was conducted on PubMed, CINAHL and the Index to Chiropractic Literature along with reference searching for articles published in English and French in the peer-reviewed literature that documented adverse effects of spinal manipulation during either pregnancy or postpartum. Case reports, case series, and any other clinical study designs were deemed acceptable for inclusion, as were systematic reviews. The appropriate Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tools were used to rate included articles for quality when applicable. Results Five articles identifying adverse events in seven subjects following spinal manipulation were included in this review, along with two systematic reviews. The articles were published between 1978 and 2009. Two articles describing adverse effects from spinal manipulation on two postpartum patients were included, while the remaining three articles on five patients with adverse effects following spinal manipulation were on pregnant patients. Injury severity ranged from minor injury such as increasing pain after treatment that resolved within a few days to more severe injuries including fracture, stroke, and epidural hematoma. SIGN scores of the prospective observational cohort study and systematic reviews indicated acceptable quality. Conclusions There are only a few reported cases of adverse events following spinal manipulation during pregnancy and the postpartum period identified in the literature. While improved reporting of such events is required in the future, it may be that such injuries are relatively rare. PMID:22455720

  8. Chitosan implants in the rat spinal cord: biocompatibility and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Howard; Tator, Charles H; Shoichet, Molly S

    2011-06-15

    Biomaterials are becoming increasingly popular for use in spinal cord repair, but few studies have investigated their long-term biocompatibility in central nervous system tissue. In this study, chitosan was compared with two commercial materials, degradable polyglycolide (vicryl and polyglactin 910) and nondegradable expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Gore-Tex and ePTFE), in terms of host tissue response and biodegradation in the rat spinal cord in two different spinal cord implantation models. In an uninjured model, implants were placed in the spinal cord intrathecal space for up to 6 months. At 1 month, vicryl implants elicited an elevated macrophage/microglia response compared to chitosan and Gore-Tex, which subsided in all groups by 6 months. Fibrous encapsulation was observed for all three materials. At 6 months, the in vivo degradation of vicryl was complete, while Gore-Tex showed no signs of degradation, as assessed by mass loss and SEM. Chitosan implants showed evidence of chain degradation at 6 months as demonstrated by differential hematoxylin and eosin staining; however, this did not result in mass loss. In the second model, implants were placed directly into the spinal cord for up to 12 months. This resulted in increased immune and inflammatory responses but did not alter degradation profiles. The same trends observed for the materials in the intrathecal space were mirrored in the spinal cord tissue. These results demonstrate that chitosan is a relatively inert biomaterial that does not elicit a chronic immune response and is suitable for long-term applications for repair of the spinal cord. PMID:21465644

  9. Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty: Prospective evaluation of 0.9% NaCl versus 10% NaCl with or without hyaluronidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Heavner; Gabor B. Racz; Prithvi Raj

    1999-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (epidural neurolysis, lysis of epidural adhesions) is an interventional pain management technique that has emerged over approximately the last 10 years as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating radiculopathy with low back pain. In addition to local anesthetic and corticosteroid, hypertonic saline (10% NaCl) and hyaluronidase are used for the technique. The objective

  10. A Study on Epidural Tramadol Compared with Epidural Fentanyl Combined with Low Dose Bupivacaine for the Control of Metastatic Cancer Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Resham Bahadur Rana; Zerzina Rahman; Lutful Aziz; AKM Akhtaruzzaman; Kazi Mesbahuddin Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite advances in the knowledge of pathophysiology of pain and its management, patients continue to suffer from pain in many terminal stage cancer. Tramadol hydrochloride is a weak opioid with analgesic properties, and can be tried for cancer pain management. Objectives: This study was performed to find out the efficacy of the analgesic property of Tramadol through epidural route

  11. Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Matis, Georgios K.; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed. PMID:24653807

  12. Spinal and paraspinal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate injections - Michigan, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    2013-05-17

    As of May 6, 2013, Michigan had reported 167 (52%) of the 320 paraspinal or spinal infections without meningitis associated with the 2012-2013 fungal meningitis outbreak nationally. Although the index patient had a laboratory-confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus infection, the fungus most often identified, including in unopened vials of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), remains Exserohilum rostratum, a common black mold found on plants and in soil. Exposures have occurred through epidural, paraspinal, peripheral nerve, and intra-articular injection with MPA from contaminated lots compounded by the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Massachusetts. The Michigan Department of Community Health and CDC conducted case ascertainment to describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of Michigan patients and to determine factors that might have contributed to the high percentage of spinal and paraspinal infections reported from Michigan. A distinct epidemiologic or clinical difference was not observed between patients with paraspinal or spinal infection with and without meningitis. Lengthy periods (range: 12-121 days) were observed from date of last injection with contaminated MPA to date of first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding indicative of infection. Clinicians should continue to maintain a higher index of suspicion for patients who received injections with contaminated MPA but have not developed infection. PMID:23677044

  13. A Procedure for Implanting a Spinal Chamber for Longitudinal In Vivo Imaging of the Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Matthew J.; Schaffer, Chris B.

    2014-01-01

    Studies in the mammalian neocortex have enabled unprecedented resolution of cortical structure, activity, and response to neurodegenerative insults by repeated, time-lapse in vivo imaging in live rodents. These studies were made possible by straightforward surgical procedures, which enabled optical access for a prolonged period of time without repeat surgical procedures. In contrast, analogous studies of the spinal cord have been previously limited to only a few imaging sessions, each of which required an invasive surgery. As previously described, we have developed a spinal chamber that enables continuous optical access for upwards of 8 weeks, preserves mechanical stability of the spinal column, is easily stabilized externally during imaging, and requires only a single surgery. Here, the design of the spinal chamber with its associated surgical implements is reviewed and the surgical procedure is demonstrated in detail. Briefly, this video will demonstrate the preparation of the surgical area and mouse for surgery, exposure of the spinal vertebra and appropriate tissue debridement, the delivery of the implant and vertebral clamping, the completion of the chamber, the removal of the delivery system, sealing of the skin, and finally, post-operative care. The procedure for chronic in vivo imaging using nonlinear microscopy will also be demonstrated. Finally, outcomes, limitations, typical variability, and a guide for troubleshooting are discussed. PMID:25548864

  14. Chronic Ankle Instability Alters Central Organization of Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Hass; Mark D. Bishop; Douglas Doidge; Erik A. Wikstrom

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chronic ankle instability alters spinal level sensorimotor function and is hypothesized to alter supraspinal motor control mechanisms. Gait initiation is a functional task modulated by supraspinal pathways, but the effect of chronic ankle instability, a peripheral musculoskeletal impairment, on gait initiation and thus supraspinal motor control mechanisms remains unknown.Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if supraspinal aspects of

  15. Characterization of Morphine Self-Administration Following Spinal Cord Injury 

    E-print Network

    Woller, Sarah Ann

    2013-07-16

    , it remains difficult to treat (Heutink et al., 2012). Currently, chronic pain is treated with a variety of pharmaceuticals including opioids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants (e.g. gabapentin), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and N... to develop through a number of pathways, and is yet to be fully explained. Pain can result from the loss of cells, and the secondary processes initiated as a result of the mechanical trauma. For instance, traumatic injury to the spinal 3 cord results...

  16. 3D interactive model of lumbar spinal structures of anesthetic interest.

    PubMed

    Prats-Galino, Alberto; Reina, Miguel A; Mavar Haramija, Marija; Puigdellivol-Sánchez, Anna; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; De Andrés, José A

    2015-03-01

    A 3D model of lumbar structures of anesthetic interest was reconstructed from human magnetic resonance (MR) images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The MR images were analyzed using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data. Models generated from manually delimited volumes of interest and selected MR images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language format and were presented in a PDF document containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D file and the corresponding instructions and license files can be downloaded freely at http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/44844?locale=en. The 3D PDF interactive file includes reconstructions of the L3-L5 vertebrae, intervertebral disks, ligaments, epidural and foraminal fat, dural sac and nerve root cuffs, sensory and motor nerve roots of the cauda equina, and anesthetic approaches (epidural medial, spinal paramedial, and selective nerve root paths); it also includes a predefined sequential educational presentation. Zoom, 360° rotation, selective visualization, and transparency graduation of each structure and clipping functions are available. Familiarization requires no specialized informatics knowledge. The ease with which the document can be used could make it valuable for anatomical and anesthetic teaching and demonstration of patient information. PMID:25352014

  17. Electrophysiological mapping of rat sensorimotor lumbosacral spinal networks after complete paralysis.

    PubMed

    Gad, Parag; Roy, Roland R; Choe, Jaehoon; Zhong, Hui; Nandra, Mandheeraj Singh; Tai, Yu-Chong; Gerasimenko, Yury; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the spinal cord has been shown to have great potential for improving function after motor deficits caused by injury or pathological conditions. Using a wide range of animal models, many studies have shown that stimulation applied to the neural networks intrinsic to the spinal cord can result in a dramatic improvement of motor ability, even allowing an animal to step and stand after a complete spinal cord transection. Clinical use of this technology, however, has been slow to develop due to the invasive nature of the implantation procedures and the difficulty of ascertaining specific sites of stimulation that would provide optimal amelioration of the motor deficits. Moreover, the development of tools available to control precise stimulation chronically via biocompatible electrodes has been limited. In this chapter, we outline the use of a multisite electrode array in the spinal rat model to identify and stimulate specific sites of the spinal cord to produce discrete motor behaviors in spinal rats. The results demonstrate that spinal rats can stand and step when the spinal cord is stimulated tonically via electrodes located at specific sites on the spinal cord. The quality of stepping and standing was dependent on the location of the electrodes on the spinal cord, the specific stimulation parameters, and the orientation of the cathode and anode. The spinal motor evoked potentials in selected muscles during standing and stepping are shown to be critical tools to study selective activation of interneuronal circuits via responses of varying latencies. The present results provide further evidence that the assessment of functional networks in the background of behaviorally relevant functional states is likely to be a physiological tool of considerable importance in developing strategies to facilitate recovery of motor function after a number of neuromotor disorders. PMID:25890138

  18. Conversion disorder presenting in a patient with an implantable morphine pump and an epidural abscess resulting in paraplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Shell; H. Lee Mitchell; Michael W. Loes; Andrew P. Beldn

    1997-01-01

    Conversion disorders are symptoms or deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function that suggest a neurological or medical condition. The psychological symptoms associated with the medical condition must be preceded by conflict or other stressors. We present an individual who developed conversion disorder and paraplegia secondary to a sterile epidural abscess near the tip of her surgically implanted, epidural morphine

  19. Retroclival Epidural Hematoma in a Child Affected by Whiplash Cervical Injury: A Typical Case of a Rare Condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Becco de Souza; Guilherme Brasileiro de Aguiar; Marcelo Eduardo Sette dos Santos; Marcus André Acioly

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematomas are uncommon lesions. Among these lesions, retroclival epidural hematomas (REDH) are particularly rare conditions that usually occur in the pediatric population due to predisposing anatomical features in this patient group. We describe a typical case of traumatic REDH from the mechanism of trauma to outcome. This 8-year-old girl was involved in a motor vehicle accident

  20. The Use of Brain Positron Emission Tomography to Identify Sites of Postoperative Pain Processing With and Without Epidural Analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asokumar Buvanendran; Amjad Ali; Travis R. Stoub; Richard A. Berger; Jeffrey S. Kroin

    2007-01-01

    It is not known how different analgesic regimes affect the brain when reducing postoperative pain. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) scans on a 69-yr-old woman in the presence of moderate postoperative pain and then with epidural analgesia producing complete analgesia, during the first 2 days after total knee arthroplasty. Day 2 postsurgery PET scan data (no pain with epidural