Nine patients were examined in the chronic stage of spinal cord injury (12 to 56 months postinjury). Surface lumbosacral spinal cord evoked potentials (LSEPs) were obtained using electrodes placed over the S1, L2, L4, and T12 vertebral levels, referenced to a T6 surface electrode. Epidural LSEPs were obtained using a multielectrode lead placed percutaneously into the epidural space for evaluation of the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation for modification of pain and spasticity. The LSEPs resulting from supramaximal stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa were composed of propagating and stationary action potential components. Based on the surface LSEP amplitudes and latencies established in healthy subjects, the data was divided into normal (less than 2 SD), marginal (between 2 and 2.5 SD), and abnormal (greater than 2.5 SD) categories. Comparison of surface and epidural LSEPs at the T12 vertebral level for the normal group (n = 6, 4 incomplete and 2 complete) revealed a mean epidural/surface amplitude ratio of 9.44 and a latency for the major negative component of 15.2 +/- 0.6 ms for the epidural versus 14.8 +/- 0.6 ms for the surface LSEP. In cases where the lead was progressively removed and LSEPs recorded (n = 4) the propagating components rapidly attenuated and increased in duration while the stationary components attenuated but did not change in duration. The LSEPs for the marginal group (n = 2, 1 incomplete and 1 complete) showed similar epidural/surface amplitude ratios. In the abnormal case (n = 1, complete) surface LSEPs were absent but epidural LSEPs were present but with stationary and propagating components of low amplitude. This study demonstrates the ability of the epidural LSEP to provide more information than the surface LSEP of the functional condition of the lumbosacral spinal cord, particularly regarding the character of the propagating action potentials and in cases when the surface LSEPs appear to be of very low amplitude or absent. PMID:8258844
St?tkárová, I; Halter, J A; Dimitrijevic, M R
Background: Spinal manipulation is widely used for low back pain treatments. Complications associated with spinal manipulation are seen. Lumbar epidural hematoma (EDH) is one of the complications reported in the literature. If lumbar chronic EDH symptoms are present, which are similar to those of a herniated nucleus pulposus, surgery may be considered if medical treatment fails. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy utilizing an interlaminar approach can be successfully applied to those with herniated nucleus pulposus. We use the same technique to remove the lumbar chronic EDH, which is the first documented report in the related literature. Methods: We present a case with chronic lumbar EDH associated with spinal manipulation. Neurologic deficits were noted on physical examination. We arranged for a full-endoscopic interlaminar approach to remove the hematoma for the patient with the rigid endoscopy (Vertebris system; Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany). Results: After surgery, the patient's radiculopathy immediately began to disappear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up 10 days after the surgery revealed no residual hematoma. No complications were noted during the outpatient department follow up. Conclusions: Lumbar EDH is a possible complication of spinal manipulation. Patient experiencing rapidly progressive neurologic deficit require early surgical evacuation, while conservative treatment may only be applied to those with mild symptoms. A percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar approach may be a viable alternative for the treatment of those with chronic EDH with progressive neurologic deficits.
Cheng, Yen-Po; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Lin, Ping-Yi; Huang, Abel Po-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Chien-Min; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan
The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370
Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B
The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases.
Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B
Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare. We will discuss the clinical features and treatment of primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this paper, a 30-year-old male patient who presented with spinal epidural tumor at the T9–11 level is reported. Subtotal resection of the tumor was performed and the histological examination of the tumor specimen revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma. All other examinations were negative for an occult disease. Six courses of chemotheraphy containing adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine were given to the patient. Surgery is the first therapeutic approach in malignancies compressing the spinal cord. Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very chemo- and radio-sensitive tumor. The indications for surgery were reduced and limited to laminectomy or even biopsy only, leaving the major role to chemo- and radiotheraphy.
Yaman, Onur; Ozdemir, Nail; Sevin, Ismail Ertan; Ozer, Fusun Demircivi; Unluoglu, Saime
A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication.
Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook
A 67 year old man with longstanding rheumatoid disease was referred to the regional spinal surgery unit with acute onset of paraparesis due to an extensive spinal epidural abscess of the lumbar spine. Ten months previously, he had started antibiotic treatment at another hospital for an epidural abscess arising at the level of the L2-3 disc space. Despite completing seven months of medical treatment with appropriate antibiotics, he had a recrudescence of acute back pain shortly after restarting methotrexate treatment. Urgent anterior spinal decompression with excision of the necrotic vertebral bodies of L1-3 was performed. The indications for the surgical management of spinal epidural abscess are reviewed.??
Harrington, P; Millner, P; Veale, D
Involvement of the skeletal system is a common complication of brucellosis. However, muscle involvement or paraspinal abscess formation are rare complications. Paraspinal abscess usually develops secondary to spondylitis. A case is reported here of a 33-year-old woman with symptoms of night sweats, fever and low back pain. Rose-Bengal test for brucellosis was positive and Brucella standard tube agglutination test was positive at a titre of 1/160. The diagnosis was made on MRI. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampin daily for 16 weeks. On day 14 of treatment, decline was observed in the patient's symptoms. In the presence of inflammatory lower back pain and fever, brucellosis should be considered particularly in the endemic areas. Furthermore, tuberculosis should be remembered in the differential diagnosis when a spinal epidural abscess is determined. PMID:24072838
Boyaci, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Dokumaci, Dilek Sen
Summary We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with an acute paraplegia due to venous congestion of the spinal cord caused by an exclusive epidural arteriovenous fistula. Diagnosed by MRI and selective spinal angiography the fistula was embolized during emergency treatment via transarterial access. Immediately after the intervention the paraplegia declined and the patient recovered completely. Epidural AV fistulae are a very rare and therefore relatively unknown cause of vascular myelopathy. They may require emergency management to avoid permanent neurological deficits.
Reul, J.; Braun, V.
We investigated a novel treatment paradigm for developing functional ambulation in wheelchair-dependent individuals with chronic, incomplete spinal-cord injury. By coordinating epidural stimulation of the dorsal structures of the spinal cord with partial weight bearing treadmill therapy, we observed improvement in treadmill and over-ground ambulation in an individual with chronic incomplete tetraplegia. The application of partial weight-bearing therapy alone was not
Michael R. Carhart; Jiping He; Richard Herman; S. D'Luzansky; W. T. Willis
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare disease entity; its causative factors and the factors determining the outcome are still controversial. We reviewed our clinical experiences and analyzed the various factors related to the outcome for SSEH. We investigated 14 patients (11 men and 3 women) who underwent hematoma removal for SSEH from April 1998 to August 2004. We
Jun-Jae Shin; Sung-Uk Kuh; Yong-Eun Cho
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is an uncommon cause of cord compression in children, especially in infants. An 8-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital for a 40-day history of paraparesis in the lower extremities. This rapidly progressed to paraparesis with an inability to move the lower extremities. MRI of the cervicothoracic spine revealed an epidural mass with compression of the spinal cord. The infant underwent C7-T3 total laminectomies. The pathology and postoperative MRI confirmed spinal epidural hematoma from a vascular malformation. We present the case to highlight the significance of recognizing this chronic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma and discuss the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis.
Min, Shaoxiong; Duan, Yang; Jin, Anmin; Zhang, Li
Objective To describe the MRI findings in ten patients of spinal epidural angiolipoma for differentiated diagnosis presurgery. Materials and Methods Ten surgically proved cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas were retrospectively reviewed, and the lesion was classified according to the MR findings. Results Ten tumors were located in the superior (n = 4), middle (n = 2), or inferior (n = 4) thoracic level. The mass, with the spindle shape, was located in the posterior epidural space and extended parallel to the long axis of the spine. All lesions contained a fat and vascular element. The vascular content, correlating with the presence of hypointense regions on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signals on T2-weighted imaging, had marked enhancement. However, there were no flow void signs on MR images. All tumors were divided into two types based on the MR features. In type 1 (n = 3), the mass was predominantly composed of lipomatous tissue (> 50%) and contained only a few small angiomatous regions, which had a trabeculated or mottled appear. In type 2 (n = 7), the mass, however, was predominantly composed of vascular components (> 50%), which presented as large foci in the center of the mass. Conclusion Most spinal epidural angiolipomas exhibit hyperintensity on T1WI while the hypointense region on the noncontrast T1WI indicates to be vascular, which manifests an obvious enhancement with gadolinium administration.
Hu, Su; Hu, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xi-ming; Dai, Hui; Fang, Xiang-ming; Cui, Lei
Pulmonary embolism during or after regional anaesthesia is although very rare, it has been reported in cases undergoing lower limb orthopedic procedures. We presenting a 48 years old male, a known smoker since 25 years, with history of road traffic accident and open fracture right femur for external fixation. Combined spinal epidural anaesthesia was given. After 35 minutes patient complained dyspnea and chest pain. SpO2 decreased to 82% from 100%. Continuous positive airway pressure with 100% oxygen was given. SpO2 increased from 82% to 96%. Suddenly he had bouts of cough and SpO2 became 79-80% with unstable haemodynamics. On chest auscultation there was decreased breath sounds on right side with limited expansion. Trachea was intubated after inducing anaesthesia with fentanyl 70 ?g and thiopental 300 mg. Chest radiograph showed right sided pneumothorax. Intercostal drain with a water seal was put. After 5 minutes HR was 80/min, BP was 110/69 mmHg and SpO2 was 97%. Pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to deep vein thrombosis was suspected and was confirmed by D-dimer Elisa and color Doppler of lower limbs. Patient was shifted to intensive care unit after completion of surgery. Anticoagulant therapy was started. He was weaned from the ventilator on 3rd day and trachea was extubated. Chest drain was removed after 9 days and he was discharged from hospital on 15th post operative day
Bansal, Shivendu; Solanki, Sohan Lal; Jain, Neena; Vijayvergia, V K
We report a patient who developed paraplegia caused by a spinal epidural hematoma after removal of an epidural catheter, which resolved spontaneously. A 60-year-old woman underwent thoracoscopic partial resection of the left lung under general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. She neither was coagulopathic nor had received anticoagulants. Paraplegia occurred 40 minutes after removal of the epidural catheter on the first postoperative day. Magnetic resonance images revealed a spinal epidural hematoma. Surgery was not required as the paraplegia gradually improved until, within 1 hour, it had completely resolved. Hypoesthesia had completely resolved by the third postoperative day.
Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight bearing therapy (PWBT) has been reported to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI). Muscle activities were analyzed in this report to examine the modulation effect of ESCS on muscle recruitment during gait training. Two ISCI individuals participated in the study and both are
He Huang; Jiping He; Richard Herman; Michael R. Carhart
Summary: We report the CT myelography and MR find- ings of two cases of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma involving the spinal epidural and paravertebral spaces in a middle- aged man (case 1) and a young woman (case 2). In both cases CT myelography showed epidural and paravertebral masses on one side, with widening of the ipsilateral neural foramina at the C5-C6
Ji Hoon Shin; Ho Kyu Lee; Seung Chul Rhim; Kyung-Ja Cho; Choong Gon Choi; Dae Chul Suh
Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is a rare clinical entity that generally requires an urgent surgical evacuation. The combination of Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS) and Horner's syndrome (HS) as the presenting symptoms of a traumatic spinal epidural haematoma is very unusual, but it has never been observed in cases of spontaneous haematoma. We herein describe a case of SSEH presenting with simultaneous BSS and HS. The possibility of a conservative management in similar cases is discussed. PMID:19681448
Panciani, Pier Paolo; Forgnone, Sara; Fontanella, Marco; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele
A woman in her 90's received continuous epidural block for the pain of herpes zoster. Four days after epidural catheterization, she was found with cellutitis. Fourteen days after epidural catheterization, spinal epidural abscess was pointed out on MRI. Since there were no neurological symptoms, we performed conservative medical management with antibiotics. She recovered without sequela When the symptoms of cellutitis appeared after epidural block (even if there are neither neurological symptoms nor infectious signs), there is a possibility of progressing into spinal epidural abscess. PMID:24724451
Miyamoto, Tatsuhito; Nakatani, Toshihiko; Narai, Yasuhiro; Sakakibara, Manabu; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Saito, Youji
We present a case study of an 11-year-old boy with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) with macrocephaly, lipomatosis, and penile freckles. BRRS was confirmed by a germline mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. Repeated spinal imaging demonstrated an extensive progressive spinal epidural lipomatosis, compressing and dislocating the dural sac, so far without neurological deficits. Patients with BRRS are probably a risk for progressive spinal epidural lipomatosis and should be carefully monitored by neurological examinations and eventually neuroimaging follow-up studies. PMID:22911484
Toelle, Sandra; Poretti, Andrea; Scheer, Ianina; Huisman, Thierry; Boltshauser, Eugen
Background and Purpose: Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, spinal epidural abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus remains a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we describe the clinical features and outcomes of patients with spinal epidural abscess due to S. aureus. Methods: Thirty one cases of spinal epidural abscess due to S. aureus treated at the National Taiwan University Hospital
Wan-Chin Chen; Jiun-Ling Wang; Jann-Tay Wang; Yee-Chun Chen; Shan-Chwen Chang
To examine obstetrical epidural and spinal anesthesia use in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the relationship with MS clinical factors. This was a retrospective cohort study, linking clinical data from women with MS in the British Columbia (BC) MS database to obstetrical data (1998-2009) from the BC Perinatal Database Registry. We compared epidural use in 431 deliveries to women with MS and 2,959 deliveries from the general population, as well as spinal use in cesarean deliveries (128 to women with MS and 846 in the general population), considering parity and using multivariate models. We also examined the association between epidural or spinal anesthesia and MS clinical factors-disease duration and disability [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score]. Of 431 deliveries to women with MS, 116 were exposed to epidural anesthesia and of 128 cesarean deliveries, 82 were exposed to spinal anesthesia. The use of epidural anesthesia was similar in nullipara (adjusted OR = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.63-1.18, p = 0.36), but more likely in multipara with MS (adjusted OR = 1.75, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.54, p = 0.004). Spinal anesthesia use in cesarean deliveries was comparable between the MS and general population cohorts (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95 % CI = 0.55-1.31, p = 0.45). Women who delivered 5 to <10 years after MS onset were less likely to have an epidural (adjusted OR = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.34-0.95, p = 0.03) vs. those delivering within 5 years. EDSS was not associated with use of either type of anesthesia (adjusted p > 0.1). Contrary to previous studies, epidural anesthesia use differed between women with MS and the general population and was influenced by parity and MS disease duration; these findings warrant further investigation. PMID:23864398
Lu, Ellen; Zhao, Yinshan; Dahlgren, Leanne; Preston, Roanne; van der Kop, Mia; Synnes, Anne; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tremlett, Helen
Spinal epidural abscess is a rare clinical entity, presenting insidiously with nonspecific clinical manifestations. The diagnosis is usually difficult and, if not made early, the consequences may be disastrous. The therapeutic strategy consists of surgical drainage and systemic antibiotherapy for 4 to 6 weeks; in carefully selected patients, the surgical intervention may be avoided. We describe the case of a diabetic woman who presented with a spinal epidural abscess due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, a group C Streptococcus, treated successfully with parenteral antibiotherapy followed by oral antibiotherapy. Group C streptococci are bacteria typically associated with disease in animals, nowadays emerging as important human pathogens. This is the first reported case of spinal epidural abscess due to a Group C Streptococcus. PMID:17928789
Carragoso, Adelino; Capelo, Joana
OBJECTIVES—To remind clinicians of the dangers of delayed diagnosis and the importance of early treatment of spinal epidural abscess.?METHODS—A review of the literature on spinal epidural abscess and a comparison of the published literature with local experience.?RESULTS—Imaging with MRI or CT enables early diagnosis of spinal epidural abcess and optimal therapy is surgical evacuation combined with 6-12 weeks (median 8 weeks) of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinical features are fever, pain, and focal neurological signs and may be associated with preceding and pre-existing bone or joint disease. The commonest aetiological organism is S aureus.?CONCLUSION—Early diagnosis and appropriate early antimicrobial chemotherapy with surgery is associated with an excellent prognosis.??
Mackenzie, A; Laing, R; Smith, C; Kaar, G; Smith, F
We investigated the role of afferent information during recovery of coordinated rhythmic activity of the hindlimbs in rats with a complete spinal cord section (~T8) and unilateral deafferentation (T12-S2) to answer the following questions: 1) Can bilateral stepping be generated with only afferent projections intact on one side? 2) Can the sensory input from the non-deafferented side compensate for the loss of the afferent input from the deafferented side through the crossed connections within the lumbosacral spinal cord? 3) Which afferent projections to the spinal cord from the non-deafferented side predominantly mediate the effect of epidural stimulation to facilitate stepping? Recovery of stepping ability was tested under the facilitating influence of epidural stimulation at the S1 spinal segment or epidural stimulation plus quipazine, a 5-HT agonist. All chronic spinal rats were able to generate stepping-like patterns on a moving treadmill on the non-deafferented, but not deafferented, side 3–7 weeks after surgery when facilitated by epidural stimulation. Adaptation to the loss of unilateral afferent input was evident at 7 weeks after surgery, when some movements occurred on the deafferented side. Spinal cord evoked potentials were observed on both sides, although middle (monosynaptic) and late (long-latency) responses were more prominent on the non-deafferented side. The afferent information arising from the non-deafferented side, however, eventually could mediate limited restoration of hindlimb movements on the deafferented side. These data suggest that facilitation of stepping with epidural stimulation is mediated primarily through ipsilateral afferents that project to the locomotor networks.
Lavrov, Igor; Courtine, Gregoire; Dy, Christine J.; van den Brand, Rubia; Fong, Andy J.; Gerasimenko, Yuri; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie
Two recent observations of spinal epidural hematomas (SEH) are presented: one of them was associated with iatrogenic coagulopathy, the other, apparently “spontaneous”, required reoperation for early recurrence and was finally attributed to ruptured epidural arteriovenous malformation missed during the first procedure. Both patients underwent complete recovery. Although modern neuroimaging provides quick, noninvasive, and sensitive assessment of spinal epidural bleeding, we
A. Brunori; P. Scarano; G. Simonetti; A. Delitala; F. Chiappetta
The authors report on two cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. The clinical and radiological (CT, MRI) features as well as the pathogenesis of this rare disease are discussed in comparison with the literature. The authors emphasize the necessity for early diagnosis and treatment as the condition can compromise the functional and even vital prognosis of the patient. PMID:7651572
Yettou, H; Vinikoff, L; Marchal, J C; Auque, J
Intracranial bleeding is an important and dangerous complication associated with thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Spinal hemorrhage has been reported after systemic thrombolysis for various conditions other than acute ischemic stroke. Our patient presented with an acute ischemic stroke and showed significant clinical recovery during intravenous thrombolysis. CT scan of the brain, performed about 6 h later due to neurological deterioration did not reveal any bleeding or a new infarction. However, an acute epidural hematoma was noted on MRI of the cervical spine. She was treated conservatively and showed a satisfactory recovery. We report, probably the first case of spinal epidural hemorrhage after systemic thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Spinal hemorrhage should be considered as a differential diagnosis for neurological worsening after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, especially when the brain imaging studies do not reveal an appropriate intracranial pathology. PMID:19411083
Yeo, Leonard L L; Lim, Joline Si Jing; Sharma, Vijay K
Extravasation of blood in the spinal epidural space is an uncommon but often disastrous problem. Severe trauma, anticoagulants, bleeding diatheses, and intraspinal vascular malformations have been associated with such haemorrhage, but occasionally it occurs without apparent cause. It may then be confused with transverse myelopathy or vascular occlusion. Early diagnosis by myelography and treatment by surgery can result in good recovery, as illustrated by two cases.
Grollmus, J; Hoff, J
Extravasation of blood in the spinal epidural space is an uncommon but often disastrous problem. Severe trauma, anticoagulants, bleeding diatheses, and intraspinal vascular malformations have been associated with such haemorrhage, but occasionally it occurs without apparent cause. It may then be confused with transverse myelopathy or vascular occlusion. Early diagnosis by myelography and treatment by surgery can result in good recovery, as illustrated by two cases. PMID:1117304
Grollmus, J; Hoff, J
Two hundred one consecutive patients with cancer pain who received intrathecal pain treatment between 1985 and 1993 were included in this retrospective study undertaken to test the hypothesis that epidural metastasis is a common cause of "refractory" cancer pain and that its presence may affect the efficacy and the complication rates of intraspinal pain treatment. Fifty-seven (approximately 28%) patients were investigated by metrizamide myelography, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), laminectomy, or neurohistopathology. Epidural metastases were found in 40 (70%) and spinal stenosis in 33 (approximately 58%); 7 patients with total and 26 with partial occlusion of the spinal canal. Presence of epidural metastasis affected catheter insertion complications, daily dosages, and complications of the intrathecal pain treatment only when it was associated with spinal canal stenosis (partial or total). During the period of the intrathecal treatment, the patients with confirmed epidural metastasis and total spinal canal stenosis needed significantly (P < 0.05) higher daily doses of opioid (means = 77 +/- 103 versus 22 +/- 29 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (means = 65 +/- 44 versus 33 +/- 20 mg) and had significantly (P < 0.05) higher rates (14% versus 0%) of radicular pain at injection and poor distribution of analgesia than those without epidural metastasis and spinal canal stenosis. In contrast, the rate of occurrence of post-dural puncture headache was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in patients with partial (4%) and total (14%) spinal stenosis than in those without (29%). Unexpected paraplegia occurred in four patients and was due to accidental injury during attempted dural puncture (N = 1) and collapse (due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage leading to "medullary coning" of an unknown epidural metastasis (N = 3). PMID:9029859
Appelgren, L; Nordborg, C; Sjöberg, M; Karlsson, P A; Nitescu, P; Curelaru, I
Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are commonly performed as one part of a multi-modal analgesic regimen in the management of upper extremity radicular pain. Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare complication with a reported incidence ranging from 1.38 in 10,000 to 1 in 190,000 epidurals. Current American Society of Regional Anesthesia (ASRA), American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), and the International Spine Intervention Society (ISIS) recommendations are that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do not need to be withheld prior to epidural anesthesia. We report a case wherein intramuscular ketorolac and oral fluoxetine contributed to a SEH and tetraplegia following a cervical interlaminar (ESI). A 66 year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency and neck pain radiating into her right upper extremity presented for evaluation and was deemed an appropriate CESI candidate. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multi-level neuroforaminal stenosis and degenerative intervertebral discs. Utilizing a loss of resistance to saline technique, an 18-gauge Tuohy-type needle entered the epidural space at C6-7. After negative aspiration, 4 mL of saline with 80 mg of methyl-prednisolone was injected. Immediately thereafter, the patient reported significant spasmodic-type localized neck pain with no neurologic status changes. A decision was made to administer 30 mg intramuscular ketorolac as treatment for the spasmodic-type pain. En route home, she developed a sudden onset of acute tetraplegia. She was brought to the emergency department for evaluation including platelet and coagulation studies which were normal. MRI demonstrated an epidural hematoma extending from C5 to T7. She underwent a bilateral C5-T6 laminectomy with epidural hematoma evacuation and was discharged to an acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Chronic renal insufficiency, spinal stenosis, female gender, and increasing age have been identified as risk factors for SEH following epidural anesthesia. In the present case, it is postulated that after the spinal vascular system was penetrated, hemostasis was compromised by the combined antiplatelet effects of ketorolac, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E. Although generally well tolerated, the role of ketorolac, a potent anti-platelet medication used for pain relief in the peri-neuraxial intervention period, should be seriously scrutinized when other analgesic options are readily available. Although the increased risk of bleeding for the alternative medications are minimal, they are nevertheless well documented. Additionally, their additive impairment on hemostasis has not been well characterized. Withholding NSAIDs, fluoxetine, fish oil, and vitamin E in the peri-procedural period is relatively low risk and should be considered for all patients with multiple risk factors for SEH. PMID:24850120
Chien, George C Chang; McCormick, Zack; Araujo, Marco; Candido, Kenneth D
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare disease. Furthermore, Brown-Séquard syndrome due to spontaneous SEH has been rarely reported. Early detection of spontaneous SEH is not easy because early symptoms are often atypical and neurologic findings are often absent in the early stage. Early diagnosis and urgent surgical management are needed to prevent permanent neurologic deficits. We report a case of a 30-year-old patient who presented with Brown-Séquard syndrome due to spontaneous SEH. The patient has recovered successfully without any complications through surgical decompression within 12 hours of onset. PMID:23380090
Ko, Jung-In; Kim, Taikwan; Jwa, Cheol Su; Jang, Ji Yeon; Jeong, Ki Young; Suh, Gil Jun; Park, Taejin
Using the single level needle-through-needle technique for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSE) may in- troduce very fine metal particles abraded by the spinal needle from the inner ground edge of the Tuohy needle into the patient. Either the local anesthetic administered epidurally or the peridural catheter may also pass intra- thecally through the hole in the dura made by the spinal
Dietmar Holst; Michael Mollmann; Beate Schymroszcyk; Claudia Ebel; Michael Wendt
Neurogenic claudication is most frequently observed in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We describe a patient with lumbar epidural varices secondary to obstruction of the inferior vena cava by pathological lymph nodes presenting with this syndrome. Following a diagnosis of follicular lymphoma, successful chemotherapy led to the resolution of the varices and the symptoms of neurogenic claudication. The lumbar epidural venous plexus may have an important role in the pathogenesis of spinal stenosis. Although rare, epidural venous engorgement can induce neurogenic claudication without spinal stenosis. Further investigations should be directed at identifying an underlying cause. PMID:22933506
Dabasia, H; Rahim, N; Marshall, R
We tested the hypotheses that the primary mechanism of action of epidural fentanyl after cesarean delivery is spinal and that very small dose epidural bupivacaine with epinephrine enhances this effect. After elective ce- sarean delivery, 100 parturients were randomized in a double-blinded design to four groups. Group I and II patients received a continuous 12 mL\\/h epidural infu- sion of
Shaul Cohen; Carol B. Pantuck; David Amar; Elizabeth Burley; Eugene J. Pantuck
The importance of the in vivo dynamic nature of the circuitries within the spinal cord that generate locomotion is becoming increasingly evident. We examined the characteristics of hindlimb EMG activity evoked in response to epidural stimulation at the S1 spinal cord segment in complete mid-thoracic spinal cord transected rats at different stages of post-lesion recovery. A progressive and phase-dependent modulation of monosynaptic (middle) and long latency (late) stimulation-evoked EMG responses was observed throughout the step cycle. During the first three weeks after injury the amplitude of the middle response was potentiated during the EMG bursts, whereas after 4 weeks both the middle and late responses were phase-dependently modulated. The middle and late response magnitudes were closely linked to the amplitude and duration of the EMG bursts during locomotion facilitated by epidural stimulation. The optimum stimulation frequency that maintained consistent activity of the long latency responses ranged from 40 to 60 Hz, whereas the short latency responses were consistent from 5 to 130 Hz. These data demonstrate that both middle and late evoked potentials within a motor pool are strictly gated during in vivo bipedal stepping as a function of the general excitability of the motor pool and, thus as a function of the phase of the step cycle. These data demonstrate that spinal cord epidural stimulation can facilitate locomotion in a time-dependent manner post-lesion. The long latency responses to epidural stimulation are correlated with the recovery of weight-bearing bipedal locomotion and may reflect activation of interneuronal central pattern-generating circuits.
Lavrov, Igor; Dy, Christine J.; Fong, Andy J.; Gerasimenko, Yury; Courtine, Gregoire; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie
Solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are rare lesions, especially in paediatric age group. They are infrequently considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural masses in children. We report a case of solitary epidural cavernous angioma of the thoracic spine in a child presenting with acute onset of back pain and myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated a posterior epidural mass at T6-T8 levels with compression of the spinal cord. Using microsurgical technique and bipolar coagulation, total excision of the lesion was achieved. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. At the five-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the tumour. PMID:23673181
Khalatbari, Mahmoud Reza; Hamidi, Mehrdokht; Moharamzad, Yashar
Purpose: When patients show progression after conventional fractionated radiation for spine metastasis, further radiation and surgery may not be options. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been successfully used in treatment of the spine and may be applicable in these cases. We report the use of SBRT for 60 consecutive patients (81 lesions) who had radiological progressive spine metastasis with epidural involvement after previous radiation for spine metastasis. Methods and Materials: SBRT was used with fiducial and vertebral anatomy-based targeting. The radiation dose was prescribed based on the extent of spinal canal involvement; the dose was 8 Gy Multiplication-Sign 3 = 24 Gy when the tumor did not touch the spinal cord and 5 to 6 Gy x 5 = 25 to 30 Gy when the tumor abutted the cord. The cord surface received up to the prescription dose with no hot spots in the cord. Results: The median overall survival was 11 months, and the median progression-free survival was 9 months. Overall, 93% of patients had stable or improved disease while 7% of patients showed disease progression; 65% of patients had pain relief. There was no significant toxicity other than fatigue. Conclusions: SBRT is feasible and appears to be an effective treatment modality for reirradiation after conventional palliative radiation fails for spine metastasis patients.
Mahadevan, Anand, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Floyd, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Wong, Eric; Jeyapalan, Suriya [Department of Neuro-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Groff, Michael; Kasper, Ekkehard [Department of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel)
Both continuous spinal anaesthesia and continuous epidural anaesthesia are supposed to provide adequate post-operative pain relief. The purpose of this randomized, prospective study was to compare the quality of analgesia, occurrence of side effects and patient satisfaction between spinal and epidural administration of bupivacaine during the first post-operative 72 h. One hundred and two patients scheduled for hip arthroplasty were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Group 1 received continuous spinal anaesthesia for intra-operative and post-operative management, Group 2 received continuous epidural anaesthesia. Immediately after surgery, the continuous spinal anaesthesia-group received a 1-mL bolus (bupivacaine 0.25%), followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mL over 24 h. The continuous epidural anaesthesia-group received a 10-mL bolus (bupivacaine 0.25%), followed by 2 mL h-1. The level of pain was gauged from a verbal rating score and from a visual analogue scale; the degree of motor blockade was recorded using the Bromage score. In the continuous spinal anaesthesia-group 90.2% reported complete analgesia on the verbal rating scale, but only 21.6% of the continuous epidural anaesthesia-group did. The visual analogue scale scores given by the continuous spinal anaesthesia-group were significantly lower than those of the continuous epidural anaesthesia-group. The percentage of patients with a motor block was significantly higher in the continuous spinal anaesthesia-group on the day of surgery and at the first post-operative day. During the first 24 h, nausea and vomiting occurred more often in the continuous epidural anaesthesia-group. The satisfaction was considered excellent in 92.2% of the continuous spinal anaesthesia-group and in 70.6% of the continuous epidural anaesthesia-group. It is concluded that continuous spinal anaesthesia and continuous epidural anaesthesia are effective and safe for post-operative pain relief after hip replacement. Compared with continuous epidural anaesthesia, continuous spinal anaesthesia provides faster onset of pain relief, ensures better analgesia and results in more satisfied patients. PMID:10457877
Möllmann, M; Cord, S; Holst, D; Auf der Landwehr, U
Study design: It has been previously demonstrated that sustained nonpatterned electric stimulation of the posterior lumbar spinal cord from the epidural space can induce stepping-like movements in subjects with chronic, complete spinal cord injury. In the present paper, we explore physiologically related components of electromyographic (EMG) recordings during the induced stepping-like activity.Objectives: To examine mechanisms underlying the stepping-like movements activated
K Minassian; B Jilge; F Rattay; M M Pinter; H Binder; F Gerstenbrand; M R Dimitrijevic
Background A lipo-prostaglandin E1 agonist is effective for the treatment of neurological symptoms of spinal stenosis when administered by an oral or intravenous route. we would like to reveal the therapeutic effect of an epidural injection of lipo-prostaglandin E1 on hyperalgesia in foraminal stenosis. Methods A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were included. A small stainless steel rod was inserted into the L5/L6 intervertebral foramen to produce intervertebral foraminal stenosis and chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The rats were divided into three groups: epidural PGE1 (EP) (n = 15), saline (n = 15), and control (n = 10). In the EP group, 0.15 µg.kg-1 of a lipo-PGE1 agonist was injected daily via an epidural catheter for 10 days from postoperative day 3. In the saline group, saline was injected. Behavioral tests for mechanical hyperalgesia were performed for 3 weeks. Then, the target DRG was analyzed for the degree of chromatolysis, chronic inflammation, and fibrosis in light microscopic images. Results From the fifth day after lipo-PGE1 agonist injection, the EP group showed significant recovery from mechanical hyperalgesia, which was maintained for 3 weeks (P < 0.05). Microscopic analysis showed much less chromatolysis in the EP group than in the saline or control groups. Conclusions An epidurally administered lipo-PGE1 agonist relieved neuropathic pain, such as mechanical hyperalgesia, in a rat foraminal stenosis model, with decreasing chromatolysis in target DRG. We suggest that epidurally administered lipo-PGE1 may be a useful therapeutic candidate for patients with spinal stenosis.
Park, Sang Hyun; Choe, Ghee Young; Moon, Jee Yeon; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Kim, Yong Chul
Purpose: This report summarizes our experience with epidural cooling (EC) to achieve regional spinal cord hypothermia and thereby decrease the risk of spinal cord ischemic injury during the course of descending thoracic aneurysm (TA) and thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAA) repair.Methods: During the interval July 1993 to Dec. 1995, 70 patients underwent TA (n = 9, 13%) or TAA (n = 61)
Richard P. Cambria; J. Kenneth Davison; Simona Zannetti; Gilbert L'Italien; David C. Brewster; Jonathan P. Gertler; Ashby C. Moncure; Glenn M. LaMuraglia; William M. Abbott
We report a case of “dry tap” during spinal anaesthesia in a patient posted for incision and drainage of lower limb with cellulitis. When the patient was being given sub-arachnoid block (SAB) for regional anaesthesia, it turned out to be a case of pyogenic ilio-psoas abscess extended up to the paravertebral and epidural spaces. The causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first case reported when epidural abscess is diagnosed during SAB.
Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Kaul, Vinca; Parampill, Reena
Spinal solitary epidural cavernous angiomas are rare benign vascular malformations, which occur even less frequently in children than in adults. It is uncommon to find such lesions without adjacent vertebral involvement. Occasionally, these lesions can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intralesional hemorrhage. In this report the authors describe 2 children presenting with acute symptoms and neurological deficits caused by hemorrhage within solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas. A 13-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, previously healthy, were admitted to the authors' department due to acute radicular pain and neurological deficits. In both cases MR imaging revealed a solitary epidural mass with signs of bleeding and compression of the spinal cord. Complete resection of the lesion via a dorsal approach was performed in both patients. The histological examination of the lesions revealed the characteristic structures of a cavernous angioma with hemosiderin deposits and acute hemorrhage. Both patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the lesions. Review of the literature confirmed that spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are extremely rare in the pediatric patient population, described currently in only 2 instances, but without acute hemorrhage. These cases suggest that epidural cavernous angiomas also have to be considered in the pediatric patient population in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal lesions with acute or progressive neurological symptoms. Microsurgical resection of these cavernous malformations is an effective and curative treatment option. PMID:20043742
Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Gierga, Kristin; Wessalowski, Rüdiger; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel
Study design:Case report.Objectives:We report a case of spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) that appeared on the third postoperative day after lumbar spinal anesthesia, far from the needle puncture site. Possible mechanisms and etiological relation to patient's risk factors as well as diagnosis and management of SEH are briefly discussed.Setting:Asklepieion General Hospital of Voula, Athens, Greece.Methods and results:A 64-year-old woman underwent an uneventful total knee arthroplasty operation under a spinal anesthetic. A lumbar puncture was performed in the L2-L3 interspace, that was atraumatic and successful on the first attempt. The operation was uneventful. On the third postoperative day, the patient developed a SEH that expanded from C2 to T3 levels. She was presented with bilateral shoulder pain, muscle weakness of the upper extremities with normal sensation, followed by paraparesis. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large vascular malformation, partially ruptured forming a hematoma compressing the spinal cord toward the vertebral bodies The patient was treated conservatively and full recovery was achieved.Conclusion:The possibility of SEH must be considered whenever neurological symptoms occur in the postoperative period, especially after a neuraxial blockade. The causes are multiple, a not-known lesion predisposing to bleeding and hematoma formation may preexist and the anesthetic technique can be directly or indirectly connected to this complication. MRI is the preferred diagnostic method. PMID:24445973
Makris, A; Gkliatis, E; Diakomi, M; Karmaniolou, I; Mela, A
The presentation, investigation, and management of four patients with spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma is presented. In each case the diagnosis was made by MRI. At the time of diagnosis spontaneous recovery had started in each patient and therefore they were all treated conservatively. In each case follow up MRI confirmed rapid reduction in the size of the haematoma and no underlying cause was demonstrated. The presentation, diagnosis, and rationale for treatment are discussed. Conservative treatment is safe in some cases of spinal epidural haematoma if early neurological recovery has started.??
Duffill, J; Sparrow, O; Millar, J; Barker, C
The treatment of chronic limb ischemia involves the restoration of pulsatile blood flow to the distal extremity. Some patients cannot be treated with endovascular means or with open surgery; some may have medical comorbidities that render them unfit for surgery, while others may have persistent ischemia or pain even in the face of previous attempts at reperfusion. In spinal cord stimulation (SCS), a device with electrodes is implanted in the epidural space to stimulate sensory fibers. This activates cell-signaling molecules that in turn cause the release of vasodilatory molecules, a decrease in vascular resistance, and relaxation of smooth muscle cells. SCS also suppresses sympathetic vasoconstriction and pain transmission. When patient selection is based on microcirculatory parameters, SCS therapy can significantly improve pain relief, halt the progression of ulcers, and potentially achieve limb salvage.
Naoum, Joseph J.; Arbid, Elias J.
Crisis management during regional anesthesia including peripheral nerve block, epidural anesthesia and spinal anesthesia was reviewed. Common crisis which is encountered during regional anesthesia includes toxic reaction to local anesthetic drugs, allergic reaction induced by local anesthetic drugs, reaction induced by epinephrine, nerve injury, hematoma etc. Concerning peripheral nerve block, crisis encountered during brachial plexus block, interscalene block and supraclavicular block used for surgical operation of upper extremity was discussed. On the other hands, there are various common crises encountered during epidural anesthesia and spinal anesthesia. These crises include hypotension, bradycardia, total spinal anesthesia, postspinal headache and infection, and hematoma in the spinal canal. Especially, epidural hematoma and epidural abcess have possibility to cause nerve defect symptoms such as motor paralysis and sensory disturbance if appropriate treatment was not started in early stage. Moreover crisis such as cauda equina syndrome and anterior spinal cord syndrome have possibility to remain permanent and hard to cure. We anesthesiologists should make efforts to prevent crisis, to detect crisis in early stage, and to treat it in early stage. PMID:19462797
Saeki, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Makiko; Miyake, Eri; Suzuki, Takahiro
Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is a rare clinical entity, especially in infants, in whom only a few cases have been reported. In a paediatric emergency setting, SSEH should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for acute extremity weakness and paraesthesia. Epidural vascular malformations are often suspected in these cases but have rarely been demonstrated. The authors report herein a case of SSEH in a 9-year-old boy arising from an epidural vascular malformation. He initially presented with sudden intense cervicodorsal pain followed by hypotonic lower extremities and progressive motor weakness, with no sensory change. The MRI showed an acute extradural haematoma extending from C7 to T4 with compression of the spinal cord. After submission to decompression surgery, he presented full recovery in 1 month. The histopathological analysis revealed a vascular malformation.
Cabral, Antonio Jorge; Barros, Andreia; Aveiro, Cristina; Vasconcelos, Rui
We report a case of spontaneous spinal epidural abscess (SEA) with initial chief complaint of shoulder pain and no appreciable neurologic symptoms. Since outcomes of SEA appear to be related to the degree of neurologic deficit at the time of intervention, we explore opportunities for earlier diagnosis.
McDonald, Andrew M.; Rollins, Jason L.
Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) has been suggested to improve microcirculatory blood flow and reduce amputation rates in patients with severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Pain relief, limb salvage, and skin circulation were studied in 177 patients with ischemic pain caused by nonreconstructible PAOD who were receiving ESCS. Medical or surgical therapy had failed and vascular reconstruction was impossible
Svante Horsch; Luc Claeys
Effects of epidural anesthesia (EA) on early components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were studied and the objectiveness and efficiency of SSEP monitoring during interventions on the spine under EA were evaluated. Evoked potentials were studied in 21 patients operated on for vertebral disk hernias and extra-intradural tumors of the spine (lower thoracic and lumbar levels) under bupivacaine EA. Cortical SSEP were recorded and analyzed on a Viking IV neuroaverager (Nicolet, USA) stimulating n. tibialis posterior for obtaining a greater amplitude of evoked potentials. The following SSEP characteristics were measured: latency of PI (P37), NI (N45), and PII (P60) peaks, amplitude of PINI peak, and inter-peak latency of PI-NI and PI-PII. The major changes in cortical SSEP caused by EA (local anesthetic 0.5% bupivacaine) involve only PI and NI components which reflect the entry of information on an external stimulus into the cortex and objective physical parameters of this stimulus; this helps predict the onset of full-value epidural block and its duration. General anesthetic (propofol) affect mainly a later component of response, PII peak, which is responsible for processing of primary information about an external stimulus and reflects the activation of associative areas of the brain. Hence, SSEP regulation can be used together with traditional methods (pin prick test and Bromage scale) for evaluating epidural block in patients with spinal diseases. PMID:11013994
Solenkova, A V; Safronov, V A; Lubnin, A Iu; Shevelev, I N; Konovalov, N A
The authors describe the clinical findings, radiographic appearance and surgical treatment of a spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) associated with spinal fracture in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). An 81-year-old male patient injured after falling from a 2.5 m tree presented with severe back pain. On plain radiographs and CT images, DISH with anterolateral osteophytes and fused thoracolumbar vertebrae was found along with a T12 fracture. Patient was initially treated with bed rest followed by placement into a body cast. Three weeks later, he presented with incomplete paraplegia of his lower limbs. CT images did not reveal any fracture displacement, but MRI images showed an epidural hematoma compressing the dura mater. The patient was successfully treated by posterior fixation surgery using pedicle screws and rod with vertebroplasty. We aimed to report a unique case of a SEH complicating a spinal fracture in DISH. PMID:24535802
Tauchi, Ryoji; Imagama, Shiro; Satake, Kotaro; Iwase, Toshiki; Ishiguro, Naoki
Objective. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach. Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results. Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2-5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance. We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function.
Sharpe, Abigail N.; Jackson, Andrew
Objective Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2–5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function.
Sharpe, Abigail N; Jackson, Andrew
Multiple myeloma, a multicentric hematological malignancy, is the most common primary tumor of the spine. As epidural myeloma causing spinal cord compression is a rare condition, its therapeutic approach and clinical results have been reported to be diverse, and no clear guidelines for therapeutic decision have been established. Three patients presented with progressive paraplegia and sensory disturbance. Image and serological studies revealed multiple myeloma and spinal cord compression caused by epidural myeloma. Emergency radiotherapy and steroid therapy were performed in all three cases. However, their clinical courses and results were distinctly different. Following review of our cases and the related literature, we suggest a systematic therapeutic approach for these patients to achieve better clinical results.
Ha, Kee-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Woo
We report 2 cases of spinal epidural cavernous angiomas revealed by paraplegia, and present the main cases reported in the literature since 1895. The diagnosis of this uncommon affection seems to be difficult to establish only upon clinical and radiological features. In spite of recent advances in neuroradiological imaging, these kinds of angiomas still remain an operative and histopathological discovery. A laminectomy was performed revealing a vascular lesion which was totally extirpated. Functional recovery was achieved in both cases. PMID:9161537
Yettou, H; Vinikoff, L; Baylac, F; Marchal, J C
This prospective study evaluated the usefulness of myelography in breast cancer patients who present with radiculopathy or myelopathy. A total of 124 consecutive myelograms were performed in 100 patients. Epidural metastasis (EM) was diagnosed in 67 myelograms (54%). Multiple epidural metastases were diagnosed in 15 (22%) of those, resulting in a total of 87 epidural lesions. A complete block was found in 13 EM (15%) and an incomplete block in 14 EM (16%). Clinical data could not predict the site of EM in 29 cases (33%). Fifteen asymptomatic EM were detected in myelograms with multiple EM. Plain radiographs were of no value in determining the site of EM in 29 cases (33%), including 13 cases (15%) without vertebral metastasis at the site of EM. Treatment consisted of radiotherapy (RT) with or without systemic treatment in 52 cases (80%), systemic treatment alone in 11 cases (17%) and surgery in two patients (3%). Clinical improvement was noticed in 72%, no change in 13%, and deterioration in 15%. No difference in response was noticed between RT and systemic therapy. Before treatment 21% and after treatment 15% of the patients could not walk. The one year survival was 42%. The ambulatory status at presentation was the most important prognostic factor. Examination of the spinal fluid, obtained at myelography, disclosed meningeal carcinomatosis in 9% of the patients. Imaging of the whole spinal canal with cytological examination of the spinal fluid is recommended in breast cancer patients suspected of epidural tumour with features of radiculopathy or myelopathy, irrespective of further clinical data and plain spinal radiographs. PMID:1479399
Boogerd, W; van der Sande, J J; Kröger, R
This prospective study evaluated the usefulness of myelography in breast cancer patients who present with radiculopathy or myelopathy. A total of 124 consecutive myelograms were performed in 100 patients. Epidural metastasis (EM) was diagnosed in 67 myelograms (54%). Multiple epidural metastases were diagnosed in 15 (22%) of those, resulting in a total of 87 epidural lesions. A complete block was found in 13 EM (15%) and an incomplete block in 14 EM (16%). Clinical data could not predict the site of EM in 29 cases (33%). Fifteen asymptomatic EM were detected in myelograms with multiple EM. Plain radiographs were of no value in determining the site of EM in 29 cases (33%), including 13 cases (15%) without vertebral metastasis at the site of EM. Treatment consisted of radiotherapy (RT) with or without systemic treatment in 52 cases (80%), systemic treatment alone in 11 cases (17%) and surgery in two patients (3%). Clinical improvement was noticed in 72%, no change in 13%, and deterioration in 15%. No difference in response was noticed between RT and systemic therapy. Before treatment 21% and after treatment 15% of the patients could not walk. The one year survival was 42%. The ambulatory status at presentation was the most important prognostic factor. Examination of the spinal fluid, obtained at myelography, disclosed meningeal carcinomatosis in 9% of the patients. Imaging of the whole spinal canal with cytological examination of the spinal fluid is recommended in breast cancer patients suspected of epidural tumour with features of radiculopathy or myelopathy, irrespective of further clinical data and plain spinal radiographs.
Boogerd, W; van der Sande, J J; Kroger, R
Background: Pyomyositis (PM), a rare pyogenic infection that involves skeletal muscles, if not immediately diagnosed, can be fatal. Most notably, this results in spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in typically unhealthy individuals. Case description: We present a very rare nontropical PM complicated with SEA in a previously healthy child revealed by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our patient recovered without complications 5 years after abscess drainage and antibiotics. Conclusion: PM remains a challenge to clinicians and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of musculoskeletal pain. MRI is the investigation of choice of spinal infection and should be undertaken at an early stage.
Boulyana, Mohamed; Kilani, Mohammad Saeed
Epidural abcessess can involve the intercranial or spinal compartments and can result in potentially devastating neurological injuries. Although rare, incidence of spinal epidural abscesses (SEAs) is increasing as predisposing factors such as injected-drug use, chronic immunosuppression, and spinal surgery become more common. Whereas symptoms of SEAs can include fever, back pain, and neurological dysfunction, the presentation of intracranial epidural abscesses (ICEAs) is less well defined. Neuroimaging narrows the potential diagnoses and enables prompt empirical therapy until specific microbiological diagnosis is made. Surgical intervention is an integral part of treatment for epidural abscesses in patients with neurological symptoms or who have not responded to medical management. Prognosis for both SEAs and ICEAs is typically poor because of delayed diagnosis and intervention and is dependent on the neurological status at the time of diagnosis. Increased clinical awareness can greatly improve outcomes by helping to diagnose patients earlier. PMID:19233039
Pradilla, Gustavo; Ardila, Gustavo Pradilla; Hsu, Wesley; Rigamonti, Daniele
OBJECTIVES—Prospective studies with a complete follow up in patients with spinal epidural metastases (SEM) are rare, so little is known of the incidence and relevance of recurrent spinal epidural metastases (RSEM). This prospective study was undertaken as a part of a previously started and extended prospective study to determine the occurrence and details of RSEM.?METHODS—Patients with SEM of various primary malignancies were followed up until death. The diagnosis was confirmed after neurological examination by imaging studies visualising not only the clinically suspected level, but also as much of the spinal canal as possible.?RESULTS—Recurrent spinal epidural metastases (RSEM) occurred in 21 of the 103 patients (20%) after a median interval of 7 months and, after treatment, a second recurrence occurred in 11 patients (11%), a third recurrence in two patients (2%), and a sixth recurrence in one patient (1%). RSEM developed about as often at the initial level (55%) as at a different level (45%), did not occur more often in patients with initially multiple SEM, but, not surprisingly, occurred much more often in patients with longer survival. About one half of the patients surviving 2 years, and nearly all patients surviving 3 years or longer developed RSEM. Ambulatory state could be preserved in most patients, even after their second recurrence.?CONCLUSION—RSEM are common and even several episodes of RSEM in the same patient are not rare. Patients with SEM who survive long enough have a high risk of RSEM and prompt treatment of RSEM to maintain the ambulatory state of the patient is valuable.??
van der Sande, J J; Boogerd, W; Kroger, R; Kappelle, A
In quadrupeds, spinalization in the thoracic region severely impairs postural control in the hindquarters. The goal of this study was to improve postural functions in chronic spinal rabbits by regular application of different factors: intrathecal injection of the 5-HT(2) agonist (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), epidural electrical spinal cord stimulation (EES), and specific postural training (SPT). The factors were used either alone (SPT group) or in combination (DOI+SPT, EES+SPT, and DOI+EES+SPT groups) or not used (control group). It was found that in none of these groups did normal postural corrective movements in response to lateral tilts of the supporting platform reappear within the month of treatment. In control group, reduced irregular electromyographic (EMG) responses, either correctly or incorrectly phased in relation to tilts, were observed. By contrast, in DOI+SPT and EES+SPT groups, a gradual threefold increase in the proportion of correctly phased EMG responses (compared with control) was observed. The increase was smaller in DOI+EES+SPT and SPT groups. Dissimilarly to these long-term effects, short-term effects of DOI and EES were weak or absent. In addition, gradual development of oscillatory EMG activity in the responses to tilts, characteristic for the control group, was retarded in DOI+SPT, EES+SPT, DOI+EES+SPT, and SPT groups. Thus regular application of the three tested factors and their combinations caused progressive, long-lasting plastic changes in the isolated spinal networks, resulting in the facilitation of spinal postural reflexes and in the retardation of the development of oscillatory EMG activity. The facilitated reflexes, however, were insufficient for normal postural functions. PMID:21653706
Lyalka, V F; Hsu, L-J; Karayannidou, A; Zelenin, P V; Orlovsky, G N; Deliagina, T G
Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight bearing therapy (PWBT) has been reported to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. This paper describes a low cost, fully implantable, advanced ESCS stimulator that can be manufactured in a research laboratory for use in small animals. The system is composed of four main parts: an external personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension and electrode. The PDA allows the experimenter to program the stimulation parameters through a user-friendly graphical interface. The external controller placed on the rat back communicates with PDA via RF telemetry. The IPG generates the biphasic charge-balanced voltage-regulated pulses, which are delivered to the bipolar electrode by the lead extension to achieve chronic ESCS in freely moving rats. A RF carrier from the Class-E amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the implanted circuitry through a closely coupled inductive link. The IPG is hermetically packaged using a silicon elastomer and measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of ~3.78 g. PMID:22256007
Xu, Qi; Li, Jun; Han, Wenjuan; Zhou, Houlun
Summary Background Repeated periods of stimulation of the spinal cord and training seems to have amplified the ability to consciously control movement. Methods An individual three years post C7-T1 subluxation presented with a complete loss of clinically detectable voluntary motor function and partial preservation of sensation below the T1 cord segment. Following 170 locomotor training sessions, a 16-electrode array was surgically placed on the dura (L1-S1 cord segments) to allow for chronic electrical stimulation. After implantation and throughout stand retraining with epidural stimulation, 29 experiments were performed. Extensive stimulation combinations and parameters were tested to achieve standing and stepping. Findings Epidural stimulation enabled the human lumbosacral spinal circuitry to dynamically elicit full weight-bearing standing with assistance provided only for balance for 4·25 minutes in a subject with a clinically motor complete SCI. This occurred when using stimulation at parameters optimized for standing while providing bilateral load-bearing proprioceptive input. Locomotor-like patterns were also observed when stimulation parameters were optimized for stepping. In addition, seven months after implantation, the subject recovered supraspinal control of certain leg movements, but only during epidural stimulation. Interpretation Even after a severe low cervical spinal injury, the neural networks remaining within the lumbosacral segments can be reactivated into functional states so that it can recognize specific details of ensembles of sensory input to the extent that it can serve as the source of neural control. In addition, newly formed supraspinal input to this same lumbosacral segments can re-emerge as another source of control. Task specific training with epidural stimulation may have reactivated previously silent spared neural circuits or promoted plasticity. This suggests that these interventions could be a viable clinical approach for functional recovery after severe paralysis. Funding National Institutes of Health and Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation.
Harkema, Susan; Gerasimenko, Yury; Hodes, Jonathan; Burdick, Joel; Angeli, Claudia; Chen, Yangsheng; Ferreira, Christie; Willhite, Andrea; Rejc, Enrico; Grossman, Robert G.; Edgerton, V. Reggie
Correlation between spinal cord compression and abnormal patterns of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in compressive cervical myelopathy: Comparison of surface and epidurally recorded responses
To investigate the correlation between the level of spinal cord lesion and the abnormal pattern of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), evoked spinal cord potentials (ESCPs) were also recorded from the posterior epidural space intraoperatively in 18 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy. Levels of symptomatic spinal cord compression were determined by ESCP findings. Spinal N13 potential of the SSEPs
Kazuo Kaneko; Shinya Kawai; Toshihiko Taguchi; Yasunori Fuchigami; Takashi Ito; Hideki Morita
It is known that after spinalization animals lose their ability to maintain lateral stability when standing or walking. A likely reason for this is a reduction of the postural limb reflexes (PLRs) driven by stretch and load receptors of the limbs. The aim of this study was to clarify whether spinal networks contribute to the generation of PLRs. For this purpose, first, PLRs were recorded in decerebrated rabbits before and after spinalization at T12. Second, the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) at L7 on the limb reflexes were studied after spinalization. To evoke PLRs, the vertebrate column of the rabbit was fixed, whereas the hindlimbs were positioned on the platform. Periodic lateral tilts of the platform caused antiphase flexion-extension limbs movements, similar to those observed in intact animals keeping balance on the tilting platform. Before spinalization, these movements evoked PLRs: augmentation of extensor EMGs and increase of contact force during limb flexion, suggesting their stabilizing postural effects. Spinalization resulted in almost complete disappearance of PLRs. After EES, however, the PLRs reappeared and persisted for up to several minutes, although their values were reduced. The post-EES effects could be magnified by intrathecal application of quipazine (5-HT agonist) at L4-L6. Results of this study suggest that the spinal cord contains the neuronal networks underlying PLRs; they can contribute to the maintenance of lateral stability in intact subjects. In acute spinal animals, these networks can be activated by EES, suggesting that they are normally activated by a tonic supraspinal drive. PMID:20018835
Musienko, P E; Zelenin, P V; Orlovsky, G N; Deliagina, T G
Purpose: To assess the impact of a multidisciplinary approach for treatment of patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression in terms of feasibility, local control, and survival. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine consecutive patients treated between January 2004 and December 2007 were included. The most common primary cancers were lung, breast, and kidney cancers. Ninety-eight surgical procedures were performed. Radiotherapy was performed within the first month postoperatively. Clinical outcome was evaluated by modified visual analog scale for pain, Frankel scale for neurologic deficit, and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan. Nearly all patients (93%) had back pain before treatment, whereas major or minor preoperative neurologic deficit was present in 62 cases (63%). Results: Clinical remission of pain was obtained in the vast majority of patients (91%). Improvement of neurologic deficit was observed in 45 cases (72.5%). Local relapse occurred in 10%. Median survival was 11 months (range, 0-46 months). Overall survival at 1 year was 43.6%. Type of primary tumor significantly affected survival. Conclusions: In patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression, the combination of surgery plus radiotherapy is feasible and provides clinical benefit in most patients. The discussion of each single case within a multidisciplinary team has been of pivotal importance in implementing the most appropriate therapeutic approach.
Tancioni, Flavio [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Navarria, Pierina, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Lorenzetti, Martin A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Masci, Giovanna [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Alloisio, Marco [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Morenghi, Emanuela [Statistic Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Santoro, Armando [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Scorsetti, Marta [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy)
Purpose To assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors in primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL). Methods and Materials Between 1982 and 2002, 52 consecutive patients with PSEL were treated in nine institutions of the Rare Cancer Network. Forty-eight patients had an Ann Arbor stage IE and four had a stage IIE. Forty-eight patients underwent decompressive laminectomy, all received radiotherapy (RT) with (n = 32) or without chemotherapy (n = 20). Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 6-50 Gy). Results Six (11%) patients progressed locally and 22 (42%) had a systemic relapse. At last follow-up, 28 patients were alive and 24 had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control were 69%, 57%, and 88%, respectively. In univariate analyses, favorable prognostic factors were younger age and complete neurologic response. Multivariate analysis showed that combined modality treatment, RT volume, total dose more than 36 Gy, tumor resection, and complete neurologic response were favorable prognostic factors. Conclusions Primary spinal epidural lymphoma has distinct clinical features and outcome, with a relatively good prognosis. After therapy, local control is excellent and systemic relapse occurs in less than half the cases. Combined modality treatment appears to be superior to RT alone.
Monnard, Virginie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sun, Alex [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Epelbaum, Ron [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Centre, Haifa (Israel); Poortmans, Philip [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Instituut, Tilburg (Netherlands); Miller, Robert C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Verschueren, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology MAASTRO, University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands); Scandolaro, Luciano [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Villa, Salvador [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Barcelona (Spain); Majno, Sabine Balmer [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Geneve (HCUGE), Geneva (Switzerland); Ostermann, Sandrine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of lumbosacral segments can restore a range of movements after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanisms and neural structures through which EES facilitates movement execution remain unclear. Here, we designed a computational model and performed in vivo experiments to investigate the type of fibers, neurons, and circuits recruited in response to EES. We first developed a realistic finite element computer model of rat lumbosacral segments to identify the currents generated by EES. To evaluate the impact of these currents on sensorimotor circuits, we coupled this model with an anatomically realistic axon-cable model of motoneurons, interneurons, and myelinated afferent fibers for antagonistic ankle muscles. Comparisons between computer simulations and experiments revealed the ability of the model to predict EES-evoked motor responses over multiple intensities and locations. Analysis of the recruited neural structures revealed the lack of direct influence of EES on motoneurons and interneurons. Simulations and pharmacological experiments demonstrated that EES engages spinal circuits trans-synaptically through the recruitment of myelinated afferent fibers. The model also predicted the capacity of spatially distinct EES to modulate side-specific limb movements and, to a lesser extent, extension versus flexion. These predictions were confirmed during standing and walking enabled by EES in spinal rats. These combined results provide a mechanistic framework for the design of spinal neuroprosthetic systems to improve standing and walking after neurological disorders. PMID:24305828
Capogrosso, Marco; Wenger, Nikolaus; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Musienko, Pavel; Beauparlant, Janine; Bassi Luciani, Lorenzo; Courtine, Grégoire; Micera, Silvestro
Despite widespread use, the efficacy of epidural corticosteroid injections (ESI) for osteoarthritis-associated neck or radicular pain remains uncertain, so even rare serious complications enter into discussions about use. However, various factors impede investigation and publication of serious adverse events. To that end, we developed new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for spinal cord white matter quantification and used the best available physiological tests to characterize a cervical spinal cord lesion caused by inadvertent intramedullary injection of Depo-Medrol. A 29-year-old woman with mild cervical osteoarthritis had 2 years of headache and neck pain (concussion and whiplash) after 2 minor motor vehicle accidents. During C5-6 ESI, she developed new left-sided motor and sensory symptoms, and MRI demonstrated a new left dorsal spinal cord cavity. Mild left-sided motor and sensory symptoms have persisted for more than 2.5 years, during which time we performed serial neurological examinations, standard electrodiagnostics, somatosensory evoked potentials, and transcranial measurement of corticospinal central motor conduction time (CMCT). We used 3-Tesla MRI with a 32-channel coil developed for high-resolution cervical spinal cord structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetization transfer (MT). T(2)(?)-weighted signal and DTI and MT metrics showed delayed spread of the lesion across 4 vertebral levels rostrally, consistent with Wallerian degeneration within the ascending left dorsal columns. However, only CMCT metrics detected objective correlates of her left hemiparesis and bilateral hyperreflexia. DTI and MT metrics may better distinguish between post-traumatic demyelination and axonal degeneration than conventional MRI. These tests should be considered to better characterize similar spinal cord injuries. PMID:22964435
Cohen-Adad, Julien; Buchbinder, Bradley; Oaklander, Anne Louise
Context Acute hemiparesis is a common initial presentation of ischemic stroke. Although hemiparesis due to spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon symptom, a few cases have been reported and misdiagnosed as cerebral infarction. Design Case reports of SSEH with acute hemiparesis. Findings In these two cases, acute stroke was suspected initially and administration of intravenous alteplase therapy was considered. In one case, the presentation was neck pain and in the other case, it was Lhermitte's sign; brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography were negative for signs of ischemic infarction, hemorrhage, or arterial dissection. Cervical MRI was performed and demonstrated SSEH. Conclusion Clinicians who perform intravenous thrombolytic treatment with alteplase need to be aware of this possible contraindication.
Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Miki, Takanori; Miyaji, Yuki; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yamaura, Ikuya; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Natsume, Shigeatsu; Yoshida, Kozo
Although research on neural tissue repair has made enormous progress in recent years, spinal cord injury remains a devastating condition for which there is still no cure. In fact, recent estimates of prevalence in the United States reveal that spinal cord injury has undergone a five-fold increase in the last decades. Though, it has become the second most common neurological problem in North America after Alzheimer's disease. Despite modern trauma units and intensive care treatments, spinal cord injury remains associated with several comorbid conditions and unbearable health care costs. Regular administration of a plethora of symptomatic drug treatments aimed at controlling related-secondary complications and life-threatening problems in chronic spinal cord-injured patients has recently been reported. This article provides a thorough overview of the main drug classes and products currently used or in development for chronic spinal cord injury. Special attention is paid to a novel class of drug treatment designed to provide a holistic solution for several chronic complications and diseases related with spinal cord injury. There is clear evidence showing that new class can elicit 'on-demand' episodes of rhythmic and stereotyped walking activity in previously completely paraplegic animals and may consequently constitute a simple therapy against several physical inactivity-related comorbid problems. Understanding further pharmacological approaches to chronic spinal cord injury may improve both life expectancy and overall quality of life while reducing unsustainable cost increases associated with this debilitation condition. PMID:23360274
Steuer, Inge; Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of chronic spinal analgesia with pethidine in a rabbit model. We introduced epidural catheters in twenty New Zealand white rabbits, divided into two groups, and we administered 0.5 mg/kg pethidine or the same volume of normal saline through the catheters, for three consecutive days. Throughout the experiment, the animals were evaluated in terms of neurological status using the Tarlov score. After the rabbit's euthanasia, 4 ?m sections of spinal cord stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin were analyzed by a pathologist blinded to the study for neurohistopathological changes. The results were statistically analyzed with Prism 5 software for Windows. No significant differences were noticed between the two groups in as far as body temperature (p=0.295) and weight (p=0.139) were concerned. In the group of animals, which received epidural pethidine, nine rabbits showed histological changes suggestive for neurotoxicity at the lumbar level of the spinal cord. These findings were significantly different compared with the control group which received only saline (no microscopic lesions revealed; p=0.0006). When combining the data from both groups or using the pethidine group alone, there was a significant correlation between the presence of neurological injury (Tarlov score) and the presence of the histopathological lesions in the spinal cord (r=-0.709, p=0.0002 and r=-0.635, p=0.013, respectively). Based on our findings, the chronic epidural administration of pethidine in rabbits induces moderate to severe histological changes on the spinal cord, but further investigations are needed to make a definitive statement about the histological effect of pethidine on the neurological tissue. PMID:24068413
Pe?tean, C; Taulescu, M; Ober, C; C?toi, C; Micl?u?, V; Oana, L; Bodolea, C
Clinical research indicates that the epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) has shown potential in promoting locomotor recovery in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI). This paper presents the development of a fully implantable voltage-regulated stimulator with bi-directional wireless communication for investigating underlying neural mechanisms of ESCS facilitating motor function improvement. The stimulation system consists of a computer, an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), a magnet, the extension leads and a stimulation electrode. The telemetry transmission between the IPG and the external controller is achieved by a commercially available transceiver chip with 2.4GHz carrier band. The magnet is used to activate the IPG only when necessary to minimize the power consumption. The encapsulated IPG measures 33mm×24mm×8mm, with a total mass of ?12.6g. Feasibility experiments are conducted in three Sprague-Dawley rats to validate the function of the stimulator, and to investigate the relationship between lumbar-sacral ESCS and hindlimb electromyography (EMG) responses. The results show that the stimulation system provides an effective tool for investigation of ESCS application in motor function recovery in small animals. PMID:22085835
Zhou, Hui; Xu, Qi; He, Jiping; Ren, Hangkong; Zhou, Houlun; Zheng, Kejia
Summary ?Background. This retrospective study evaluated the neurological outcome of 26 patients with spontaneous and non-spontaneous spinal epidural\\u000a haematoma (SEH) who underwent microsurgical clot removal. It was the objective of the present study to investigate whether\\u000a the aetiology of the SEH has an influence on the neurological outcome.\\u000a \\u000a ?Methods. The medical records and radiological investigations of 26 patients with SEH were
V. Rohde; W. Küker; M. H. T. Reinges; J. M. Gilsbach
In order to assess the clinical and biological effects of glucocorticoids in the therapy of epidural spinal cord compression, the T8-10 epidural space of 50 rats was implanted with Walker 256 tumor. The rats were studied 10 to 20 days later when they became paraparetic. The regional blood-spinal cord transport constant (K, a function of the blood-spinal cord barrier) of 14Carbon-labeled aminoisobutyric acid was measured with quantitative autoradiography 6 hours after intravenous injection of low-dose (0.1 mg/kg), intermediate dose (1 mg/kg), and high-dose (10 mg/kg) dexamethasone. The effects of dexamethasone in these doses on the clinical signs and water content of the compressed cord were also evaluated 40 hours after treatment began. The K factor increased 730% in compressed compared with noncompressed spinal cords (p less than 0.001). Dexamethasone induced a dose-related reduction of both K (p = 0.007) and water content of the compressed cord (p less than 0.0001). Stabilization or, more rarely, improvement of weakness at 24 and 40 hours posttreatment correlated with the dose of dexamethasone (r = 0.88, p less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that dexamethasone has a dose-related beneficial clinical effect associated with an improvement of blood-spinal cord barrier breakdown and a reduction of the water content of the compressed cord. This study supports the use of highdose dexamethasone for the initial treatment of epidural spinal cord compression. PMID:2715820
Delattre, J Y; Arbit, E; Thaler, H T; Rosenblum, M K; Posner, J B
Randomized controlled trials are considered the hallmark of evidence-based medicine. This conveys the idea that up-to-date evidence applied consistently in clinical practice, in combination with clinicians' individual expertise and patients own preference/expectations are enjoined to achieve the best possible outcome. Since its inception in 1990s, evidence-based medicine has evolved in conjunction with numerous changes in the healthcare environment. However, the benefits of evidence-based medicine have not materialized for spinal pain including surgical interventions. Consequently, the debate continues on the efficacy and medical necessity of multiple interventions provided in managing spinal pain. Friedly et al published a randomized controlled trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis in the July 2014 edition of the highly prestigious New England Journal of Medicine. This was accompanied by an editorial from Andersson. This manuscript provided significant sensationalism for the media and confusion for the spine community. This randomized trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis and accompanying editorial concluded that epidural injections of glucocorticoids plus lidocaine offered minimal or no short-term benefit as compared with epidural injections of lidocaine alone, with the editorial emphasizing proceeding directly to surgical intervention. In addition media statements by the authors also emphasized the idea that exercise or surgery might be better options for patients suffereing from narrowing of the spinal canal. The interventional pain management community believes that there are severe limitations to this study, manuscript, and accompanying editorial. The design, inclusion criteria, outcomes assessment, analysis of data and interpretation, and conclusions of this trial point to the fact that this highly sophisticated and much publicized randomized trial may not be appropriate and lead to misinformation. The design of the trial was inappropriate with failure to include existing randomized trials, with inclusion criteria that did not incorporate conservative management,or caudal epidural injections. Simultaneously, acute pain patients were included, multilevel stenosis and various other factors were not identified. The interventions included lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections with highly variable volumes of medication being injected per patient. Outcomes assessment was not optimal with assessment of the patients at 3 and 6 weeks for a procedure which provides on average 3 weeks of relief and utilizing an instrument which is more appropriately utilized in acute and subacute low back pain. Analysis of the data was hampered by inadequate subgroup analysis leading to inappropriate interpretation. Based on the available data epidural local anesthetic with steroids was clearly superior at 3 weeks and potentially at 6 weeks. Further, both treatments were effective considering the baseline to 3 week and 6 week assessment, appropriate subgroup analysis seems to have yielded significant superiority for interlaminar epidural injections compared to transforaminal epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids specifically with proportion of patients achieving greater than 50% improvement at 3 and 6 week levels. This critical assessment shows that this study suffers from a challenging design, was premised on the exclusion of available high-quality literature, and had inadequate duration of follow-up for an interventional technique with poor assessment criteria and reporting. Finally the analysis and interpretation of data has led to inaccurate and inappropriate conclusions which we do not believe is based on scientific evidence. PMID:25054398
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Gharibo, Christopher G; Hirsch, Joshua A
Epidural steroid injections are the most commonly used procedures to manage chronic low back pain in interventional pain management settings. Approaches available to access the epidural space in the lumbosacral spine include the interlaminar, transforaminal, and caudal. The overall effectiveness of epidural steroid injections has been highly variable. This study included 65 patients who underwent diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks utilizing comparative local anesthetic blocks and were shown to be negative for facet joint pain and other problems such as sacroiliac joint pain before enrollment into the study. They were randomly selected from 105 patients negative for facet joint pain allocated into three groups, with Group I consisting of 15 patients comprising a convenience control sample treated conservatively; Group II, consisting of 22 patients treated with caudal epidural with local anesthetic and Sarapin(R); and Group III, consisting of 33 patients treated with caudal epidural with a mixture of local anesthetic, and betamethasone. The study period lasted for 3 years. Results showed that there was significant improvement in patients receiving caudal epidural injections, with a decrease in pain associated with improved physical, functional and mental status; and decreased narcotic intake combined with return to work. The study showed that at 1 month 96% of the patients evaluated showed significant improvement, which declined to 56% at 3 months and 16% at 6 months, with administration of 1 to 3 injections. Cumulative relief with 1 to 12 injections was noted in 96% of the patients at 1 month, 95% at 3 months, 85% at 6 months, and 67% at 1 year. The study also showed cost effectiveness of this treatment, with a cost of $ 2550 for 1-year improvement of quality of life . In conclusion, caudal epidural injections with steroids or Sarapin are an effective modality of treatment in managing chronic, persistent low back pain that fails to respond to conservative modalities of treatments and is also negative for facet joint pain. The treatment is not only effective clinically but also is cost effective. PMID:16902678
Manchikanti, L; Pampati, V; Rivera, J J; Beyer, C; Damron, K S; Barnhill, R C
A case of complete angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery in a patient with a spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. Slow flow AVFs typically present with progressive myelopathy secondary to spinal venous hypertension (SVH). The lack of a normal venous phase during angiography and its restoration after treatment is commonly observed with these lesions, yet a similar phenomenon seems exceptional at the arterial level. Right T11 intercostal artery angiograms obtained before and after treatment of a left L4 epidural AVF documented the initial suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery, and their normal appearance immediately after correction of the SVH by embolization. This report confirms that SVH can angiographically suppress prominent and functionally important spinal arteries, re-emphasizing the potential role played by secondary arterial changes in SVH induced myelopathy. This hemodynamic phenomenon also represents a potential pitfall during diagnostic and therapeutic endovascular procedures. PMID:25028420
Eckart Sorte, Danielle; Pardo, Carlos A; Gailloud, Philippe
Among the multiple causes of chronic low back pain, axial and discogenic pain are common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing discogenic and axial low back pain including epidural injections. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. In an interventional pain management practice in the US, a randomized, double-blind, active control trial was conducted. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain of discogenic origin. However, disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joint pain, or sacroiliac joint pain were excluded. Two groups of patients were studied, with 60 patients in each group receiving either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measures included the pain relief-assessed by numeric rating scale of pain and functional status assessed by the, Oswestry Disability Index, Secondary outcome measurements included employment status, and opioid intake. Significant improvement or success was defined as at least a 50% decrease in pain and disability. Significant improvement was seen in 77% of the patients in Group I and 67% of the patients in Group II. In the successful groups (those with at least 3 weeks of relief with the first two procedures), the improvement was 84% in Group I and 71% in Group II. For those with chronic function-limiting low back pain refractory to conservative management, it is concluded that lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be an effective modality for managing chronic axial or discogenic pain. This treatment appears to be effective for those who have had facet joints as well as sacroiliac joints eliminated as the pain source.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin
Despite the increasing prevalence of spinal infections, the subcategory of holospinal epidural abscesses (HEAs) is extremely infrequent and requires unique management. Panspinal imaging (preferably MRI), modern aggressive antibiotic therapy, and prompt surgical intervention remain the standard of care for all spinal axis infections including HEAs; however, the surgical decision making on timing and extent of the procedure still remain ill defined for HEAs. Decompression including skip laminectomies or laminoplasties is described, with varied clinical outcomes. In this review the authors present the illustrative cases of 2 patients with HEAs who were treated using skip laminectomies and epidural catheter irrigation techniques. The discussion highlights different management strategies including the role of conservative (nonsurgical) management in these lesions, especially with an already identified pathogen and the absence of mass effect on MRI or significant neurological defects. Among fewer than 25 case reports of HEA published in the past 25 years, the most important aspect in deciding a role for surgery is the neurological examination. Nearly 20% were treated successfully with medical therapy alone if neurologically intact. None of the reported cases had an associated cranial infection with HEA, because the dural adhesion around the foramen magnum prevented rostral spread of infection. Traditionally a posterior approach to the epidural space with irrigation is performed, unless an extensive focal ventral collection is causing cord compression. Surgical intervention for HEA should be an adjuvant treatment strategy for all acutely deteriorating patients, whereas aspiration of other infected sites like a psoas abscess can determine an infective pathogen, and appropriate antibiotic treatment may avoid surgical intervention in the neurologically intact patient. PMID:25081960
Smith, Gabriel A; Kochar, Arshneel S; Manjila, Sunil; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Geertman, Robert T; Anderson, James S; Steinmetz, Michael P
BACKGROUND: The Special Interest Group of the Canadian Pain Society has produced consensus-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain. The society aimed to generate an additional guideline for other forms of neuropathic pain treatments. OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based recommendations for neuropathic pain interventional treatments. METHODS: A task force was created and engaged the Institute of Health Economics in Edmonton, Alberta, to survey the literature pertaining to multiple treatments. Sufficient literature existed on four interventions only: spinal cord stimulation; epidural injections; intravenous infusions; and nerve blocks. A comprehensive search was conducted for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and evidence-based clinical practice guidelines; a critical review was generated on each topic. A modified United States Preventive Services Task Force tool was used for quality rating and grading of recommendations. RESULTS: Investigators reviewed four studies of spinal cord stimulation, 19 studies of intravenous infusions, 14 studies of epidural injections and 16 studies of nerve blocks that met the inclusion criteria. The task force chairs rated the quality of evidence and graded the recommendations. Feedback was solicited from the members of the task force. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to support recommendations for some of these interventions for selected neuropathic pain conditions. This evidence is, at best, moderate and is often limited or conflicting. Pain practitioners are encouraged to explore evidence-based treatment options before considering unproven treatments. Full disclosure of risks and benefits of the available options is necessary for shared decision making and informed consent.
Mailis, Angela; Taenzer, Paul
Background and Objectives: Frequency of epidural steroid injections (ESI) and characteristics of patients receiving them are unknown or poorly described. Patients believed to respond better to ESI include young or middle-aged individuals, those with recent onset or a radicular pattern of pain, and patients without previous spinal surgery. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of ESI,
Gilbert J. Fanciullo; Brett Hanscom; Janette Seville; Perry A. Ball; Robert J. Rose
Lumbar epidural anesthesia is useful in a variety of chronic benign pain syndromes, including lumbar radiculopathy, low back pain syndrome, spinal stenosis, and vertebral compression fractures. Given the increased number of epidural nerve blocks being performed, some have reported unexplained complications of a transient or permanent nature and with varying degrees of severity. However, no case has been reported of a broken epidural needle tip retained in the lumbar facet joint area. This represents the first reported case presentation of foraminal stenosis developing in a patient after a retained epidural needle tip.
You, Ji Wong
Epidural steroid injections are the most commonly used procedures to manage chronic low back pain in interventional pain management settings. The overall effectiveness of epidural steroid injections has been highly variable, and in the role has not been evaluated in patients discographically evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients, without evidence of disc herniation or radiculitis, who had failed to respond to conservative management with physical therapy, chiropractic and/or medical therapy, underwent discography utilizing strict criteria of concordant pain, and negative adjacent discs, after being judged to be negative for facet joint and/or sacroiliac joint pain utilizing comparative local anesthetic blocks. Any other type of response was considered negative. This study included 62 patients, who underwent caudal epidural steroid injections with Sarapin. They included Group I, comprised of 45 of 55 patients negative on provocative discography; and Group II, with 17 of 45 patients with positive provocative discography. Results showed that there was significant improvement in patients receiving caudal epidural injections, with a decrease in pain associated with improved physical, functional, and mental status; decreased narcotic intake, and increased return to work. The study showed that at 1 month, 100% of the patients evaluated showed significant improvement in both groups; this declined to 86% at 3 months in Group I, but remained at 100% in Group II, declining to 60% and 64% at 6 months in Group I and Group II, respectfully, with administration of one to three injections. Analysis with one to three injections, which included all (62) patients showed significant relief in 71% and 65% of the patients at 1 month, in 67% and 65% at 3 months, and in 47% and 41% at 6 months, in Group I and Group II, respectively. In conclusion, caudal epidural injections with or without steroids is an effective modality of treatment in managing chronic, persistent low back pain failing to respond to conservative modalities of treatments, in patients negative for facet joint and sacroiliac joint pain, whether positive or negative, on evaluation with provocative discography. PMID:16896354
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Rivera, Jose J; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Beyer, Carla; Damron, Kim; Barnhill, Renee C
Anesthetic management of laboring parturients with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation poses a difficult challenge for the anesthesiologist. The increase in intracranial pressure during uterine contractions, coughing, valsalva maneuvers, and expulsion of the fetus can be detrimental to the mother during the process of labor and delivery. No concrete evidence has implicated high cerebral spinal fluid pressure on maternal and fetal complications. The literature on the use of neuraxial techniques for managing parturients with Arnold-Chiari is extremely scarce. While most anesthesiologists advocate epidural analgesia for management of labor pain and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, we are the first to report the use of combined spinal-epidural analgesia for managing labor pain in a pregnant woman with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation. Also, we have reviewed the literature and presented information from case reports and case series to support the safe usage of neuraxial techniques in these patients.
Choi, Clark K.; Tyagaraj, Kalpana
Spinal ultrasonography provides guidance for epidural insertion in obstetric patients. The primary objective of the study was to develop a training program in spinal ultrasound for anaesthetists and to determine its effect on the skill acquisition of anaesthetists with no prior spinal ultrasound experience. Eighteen anaesthetists underwent two structured workshops (one week apart), each followed by a practice session and videorecorded assessments. Participants were randomised to a protocol-driven or non-protocol driven spinal ultrasound teaching program. Two experts rated each individual's performance using a global rating scale (GRS), checklist and image quality scale. The primary outcome was the mean difference in GRS score between the two workshops, analysed using linear mixed models. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess agreement between assessors' ratings. A total of 108 ultrasound scans were performed on five pregnant volunteers during the assessment periods. After adjusting for confounders, GRS scores increased on all three rating scales at the second workshop, this increase being 6.01 points (95% confidence interval 4.56 to 7.46, P<0.001) from a mean score of 28.4 (95% confidence interval 24.8 to 32.0). There was no significant difference in the scores between the two teaching groups (difference in GRS scores=1.36 points, 95% confidence interval -0.77 to 3.50, P=0.211). Intraclass correlation coefficients showed substantial assessor agreement for all three assessment methods (range 0.59 to 0.89). The results demonstrate that programmed spinal ultrasound training sessions involving practice with guidance and feedback from an expert, whether protocol-based or non-protocol based, lead to improved performance. PMID:24967760
Terblanche, Ncs; Arzola, C; Wills, Ke; Lawson, R; Blackford, D; Balki, M
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a virtual consultation (VC) process in determining treatment strategy for patients with malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC). Methods and Materials: A prospective clinical database was maintained for patients with MESCC. A virtual consultation process (involving exchange of key predetermined clinical information and diagnostic imaging) facilitated rapid decision-making between oncologists and spinal surgeons. Diagnostic imaging was reviewed retrospectively (by R.R.) for surgical opinions in all patients. The primary outcome was the accuracy of virtual consultation opinion in predicting the final treatment recommendation. Results: After excluding 20 patients who were referred directly to the spinal surgeon, 125 patients were eligible for virtual consultation. Of the 46 patients who had a VC, surgery was recommended in 28 patients and actually given to 23. A retrospective review revealed that 5/79 patients who did not have a VC would have been considered surgical candidates. The overall accuracy of the virtual consultation process was estimated at 92%. Conclusion: The VC process for MESCC patients provides a reliable means of arriving at a multidisciplinary opinion while minimizing patient transfer. This can potentially shorten treatment decision time and enhance clinical outcomes.
Fitzpatrick, David [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada) [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); St Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Grabarz, Daniel [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada) [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Centro Oncologia Mendel and Associados, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Wang, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Division of Neurosurgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Division of Neurosurgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Fosker, Christopher [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Rampersaud, Raja [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Wong, Rebecca K.S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)
Background Postoperative epidural fibrosis may contribute to between 5% to 60% of the poor surgical outcomes following decompressive surgery. Correlations have been reported between epidural scarring and radicular pain, poor surgical outcomes, and a lack of any form of surgical treatment. The use of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis in recent years in the management of chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain has been described. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to determine the outcome of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis to reduce pain and improve function and psychological status in patients with chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain. A total of 83 patients were evaluated, with 33 patients in Group I and 50 patients in Group II. Group I served as the control, with endoscopy into the sacral level without adhesiolysis, followed by injection of local anesthetic and steroid. Group II received spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis, followed by injection of local anesthetic and steroid. Results Among the 50 patients in the treatment group receiving spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis, significant improvement without adverse effects was shown in 80% at 3 months, 56% at 6 months, and 48% at 12 months. The control group showed improvement in 33% of the patients at one month and none thereafter. Based on the definition that less than 6 months of relief is considered short-term and longer than 6 months of relief is considered long-term, a significant number of patients obtained long-term relief with improvement in pain, functional status, and psychological status. Conclusion Spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis with targeted delivery of local anesthetic and steroid is an effective treatment in a significant number of patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain without major adverse effects.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Rivera, Jose J; Pampati, Vidya Sagar; Damron, Kim S; McManus, Carla D; Brandon, Doris E; Wilson, Sue R
Summary: We report the MR imaging findings in a 44-year- old man with a low-grade synovial sarcoma. There was a right-sided epidural and paravertebral mass, widening of the ipsilateral neural foramen at the L4-L5 level, and focal erosion of the right superior articular process of the L5 vertebra. The mass was relatively homogeneous, hyperin- tense to muscle and isointense to
Sang-il Suh; Suk-Joo Hong; Joo Han Kim; Hyun Kim; Ju Han Lee; Myung Gyu Kim
Although epidural steroid injection has been commonly used to treat radicular pain, its clinical efficacy remains controversial. In a rat model of radicular pain induced by chronic compression of lumbar dorsal root ganglion (CCD), we examined the effect of epidural steroid on CCD-induced pain behavior. Triamcinolone [a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist] or RU38486 (a GR antagonist) was given epidurally once either on day 3 (early treatment) or day 10 (late treatment) after CCD. The results showed that 1) early treatment with triamcinolone and RU38486 alone, respectively, reduced and exacerbated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, 2) late treatment with triamcinolone alone failed to improve mechanical allodynia and only transiently attenuated thermal hyperalgesia, and 3) late treatment with RU38486 alone improved mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCD rats. Moreover, a second dose of triamcinolone given on day 10 paradoxically exacerbated pain behavior in CCD rats that received a first dose of triamcinolone on day 3. These results indicate that the effect of epidural steroid on radicular pain may be time-dependent. Clinical implications for epidural steroid treatment are discussed in light of these preclinical findings.
Gu, Xiaoping; Wang, Shuxing; Yang, Liling; Sung, Backil; Lim, Grewo; Mao, Ji; Zeng, Qing; Chang, Yang; Mao, Jianren
A neonate male born cesarian due to a breech presentation was noted to have no spontaneous movements of the limbs after delivery. Radiographs were not demonstrative of pathology. However, MRI revealed a large intraspinal mass with significant distortion of the cervicothoracic spinal cord. At operation, a brown, fibro-gelatinous, moderately adherent mass was evident extradurally dorsal to the spinal cord. It
Jeffrey Blount; Kyle Doughty; R. Shane Tubbs; John C. Wellons; Alyssa Reddy; Charlie Law; Virginia Karle; W. Jerry Oakes
Epidural neuroblastoma xenografts in nude rats causing paraparesis were treated with intravenous injection of an anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody 3F8. Metastatic or primary epidural tumors in humans cause rapid neurologic compromise. Treatment is often unsatisfactory. An animal model was established to study antibody targeted therapy of epidural tumor. Human neuroblastoma was xenotransplanted into the thoracic epidural space of nude rats. When
Ira Bergman; Ehud Arbit; Marc Rosenblum; Steven M. Larson; Glenn Heller; Nai-Kong V. Cheung
Our objective is to develop neural prostheses based on an array of microelectrodes implanted into the sacral spinal cord, that will allow persons with spinal cord injuries to regain control of their bladder and bowels. For our chronic cat model, we have developed two microelectrode arrays, one type containing nine discrete activated iridium microelectrodes and the second utilizing silicon substrate
Douglas McCreery; Victor Pikov; Albert Lossinsky; Leo Bullara; William Agnew
Background Interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ILESIs) are commonly employed in the management of patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis despite little experimental evidence to guide technique optimization. One untested performance parameter is the intervertebral level at which the ILESI should be performed for maximum patient relief. Methods This study randomized patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis to receive an ILESI at the level of maximal spinal canal stenosis or at a normal/less stenotic intervertebral site 2 intervertebral levels cephalad to the level of maximal stenosis. Pain with ambulation and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire scores were collected prior to the procedure and at 1-, 4-, and 12-week follow-ups. Results Fifty-seven patients were enrolled. Thirty patients (Group 1) received an ILESI at the level of maximal stenosis; 27 patients (Group 2) received an ILESI at a less stenotic level. The mean baseline preprocedural maximal pain with ambulation and disability scores for the 2 groups were not significantly different (P=0.94 and P=0.13, respectively). Patients' pain with ambulation scores were significantly lower in Group 1 compared to Group 2 at 1 and 4 weeks postinjection, but they were not significantly lower at 12 weeks (1 week, P=0.045; 4 weeks, P=0.049; 12 weeks, P=0.08). The mean Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire scores at 1, 4, and 12 weeks postinjection were significantly lower in Group 1 as compared to Group 2 (P=0.001, P=0.009, P=0.003, respectively). Conclusion Results suggest that patient symptom improvement is optimized when the ILESI is performed at the intervertebral level of maximal stenosis.
Milburn, James; Freeman, Jeffrey; Steven, Andrew; Altmeyer, Wilson; Kay, Dennis
This review describes the changes of spinal neuronal function that occur after a motor complete spinal cord injury (cSCI) in humans. In healthy subjects, polysynaptic spinal reflex (SR) evoked by non-noxious tibial nerve stimulation consists of an early SR component and rarely a late SR component. Soon after a cSCI, SR and locomotor activity are absent. After spinal shock; however,
M Hubli; M Bolliger; V Dietz
Objectives: We aimed to assess the efficacy of surgical decompression of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients ?65 years and review our multidisciplinary surgical decision-making process. Methods: We identified all patients operated for MESCC from August 2008 to June 2012. Patients ?65 years, with a single area of cord compression, back/radicular pain, neurological signs of cord compression, surgery within 48 hours after onset of MESCC-related paraplegia, and follow-up for ?1 year or until death were included. Files were reviewed retrospectively. The requirement for informed consent was waived. Neurological status was assessed with the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS). Duration of ambulation and survival were assessed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results: Twenty-one patients met inclusion criteria (11 women/10 men; mean age 73 years, range 65-87). All presented with debilitating back/neck pain. Ten patients (48%) were not ambulatory before surgery and four suffered urinary incontinence/constipation (19%). Preoperative AIS was E in 5 patients (24%), D in 11 (62%), and C in 5 (24%). Motor symptoms had been present for a mean of 3·8 days (range 1-14). All patients regained ambulation. Overall, mean survival was 320 days (range 19-798) and mean ambulation was 302 days (range 18-747). On 31 March 2013, 7 patients (33%) were alive and ambulatory at a mean of 459 days (range 302-747); 14 patients had died (67%) at a mean of 251 days (range 19-798), with a mean ambulation of 223 days (range 18-730). Discussion: With careful patient selection, surgery may achieve long duration of ambulation in patients ?65 years with MESCC. PMID:24735349
Itshayek, Eyal; Or, Omer; Kaplan, Leon; Schroeder, Josh; Barzilay, Yair; Rosenthal, Guy; Shoshan, Yigal; Fraifeld, Shifra; Cohen, José E
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individual pain sensitivity on the results of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) for the patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Seventy-seven patients with LSS were included in this study. Prospectively planned evaluations were performed twice consecutively before and 2 months after TFESI. These included a detailed medical history, a physical examination, and completion of a series of questionnaires, including pain sensitivity questionnaire (PSQ), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain. The correlations were analyzed among variables between total PSQ/PSQ-moderate/PSQ-minor and pain and disability level measured by VAS for back/leg pain and ODI both before and 2 months after TFESI. Two months after TFESI, there were significant decreases in VAS for back/leg pain and ODI compared with those before injection. Before injection, VAS for back pain and leg pain was highly associated with the PSQ scores including total PSQ and PSQ subscores after adjustment for age, BMI, and grade of canal stenosis. However, any subscores of PSQ and total PSQ scores were not correlated with either VAS for back pain/leg pain or ODI 2 months after TFESI with adjustment made to age, BMI, gender, and grade of canal stenosis. This study highlights that individual pain sensitivity does not influence the outcomes of TFESI treatment in patients with LSS, even though pain sensitivity has a significant negative correlation with symptom severity of LSS. PMID:23734752
Kim, Ho-Joong; Yeom, Jin S; Lee, Joon Woo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Lee, Gun-Woo; Im, Seung-Bin; Kim, Han Jo
The pain of 16 patients with spasticity secondary to spinal cord injury was assessed prior to intrathecal baclofen pump implantation and again 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Chronic pain was delineated into neurogenic and musculoskeletal components, noting changes in nature, quality, and severity of pain (visual analogue scale) and use of analgesic medications. Twelve of 16 patients had chronic pain
Paul G. Loubser; Nafiz M. Akman
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been suggested to improve microcirculatory blood flow to relieve ischemic pain and to reduce amputation rate in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the specific prognostic parameters in the prediction of successful SCS, in diabetic patients, performing a retrospective data analysis. To perform this evaluation, 64
Ioannis E Petrakis; Vincenzo Sciacca
Chronic pain is a prevalent and challenging problem for most medical practitioners. Because of the complex pathologic mechanisms\\u000a involved in chronic pain, optimal treatment is still under development. The spinal cord is an important gateway for peripheral\\u000a pain signals transmitted to the brain. In chronic pain states, painful stimuli trigger afferent fibers in the dorsal horn\\u000a to release neuropeptides and
Hsinlin Thomas Cheng
Neurological degeneration can occur after compression of the spinal cord. It is widely accepted that spinal cord compression leads to ischemic lesions and ultimately neurological dysfunction due to a narrowed spinal canal. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of spinal cord compression injury is required to help develop effective clinical interventions. In the present study, we propose a new method of quantitative 3D micro-CT to observe microvascular events in a chronic spinal cord compression rat model. A total of 36 rats were divided into two groups: sham control group (n = 12) and compressive spinal cord injury group (n = 24). Rats were scarified at four weeks after surgery. In each group, CD34 micro-vessel immunohistochemical staining was performed in half of the animals, while micro-CT scanning was performed in the other half. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured after immunohistochemical staining, while the vascular index (VI) was measured in 3D micro-CT. In comparison with sham control, abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) can be seen in all 24 cases of the compression group, and VI shows the amount of microvessels reduced consistently and significantly (p < 0.01). A significant correlation is also found between MVD and VI (r = 0.95, p < 0.01). These data suggest that quantitative 3D micro-CT is a sensitive and promising tool for investigating microvascular changes during chronic compressive spinal cord injury. PMID:25003643
Long, Hou-Qing; Xie, Wen-Han; Chen, Wen-Li; Xie, Wen-Lin; Xu, Jing-Hui; Hu, Yong
The postoperative occurrence of cardio-respiratory adverse events in small infants undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective comparison of general anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia
Introduction This study was designed to compare the occurrences of postoperative cardio-respiratory adverse events during an 8-day follow-up\\u000a period in the neonatal intensive care unit in small infants who underwent elective gastrointestinal surgery under general\\u000a and combined spinal epidural anesthesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Fifty infants who underwent elective primary gastrointestinal surgery were randomly divided into two anesthetic techniques.\\u000a General anesthesia (25 patients) and combined
Mostafa Somri; Arnold G. Coran; Ibrahim Mattar; Christian Teszler; Ron Shaoul; Oren Tomkins; Riad Tome; Jorge G. Mogilner; Igor Sukhotnik; Luis Gaitini
Infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma (T.) gondii causes chronic infection of the central nervous system and can lead to life-threatening encephalomyelitis in immunocompromised patients. While infection with T. gondii has long time been considered asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, this view is challenged by recent reports describing links between seropositivity and behavioral alterations. However, past and current researches are mainly focused on the brain during Toxoplasma encephalitis, neglecting the spinal cord as a key structure conveying brain signals into motion. Therefore, our study aimed to fill the gap and describes the spinal cord pathology in an experimental murine model of toxoplasmosis. In the spinal cord, we found distinct histopathological changes, inflammatory foci and T. gondii cysts similar to the brain. Furthermore, the recruitment of immune cells from the periphery was detected. Moreover, resident microglia as well as recruited monocytes displayed an increased MHC classes I and II expression. Additionally, the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was enhanced in the brain as well as in the spinal cord. In summary, the pathology observed in the spinal cord was similar to the previously described changes in the brain during the infection. This study provides the first detailed description of histopathological and immunological alterations due to experimental T. gondii induced myelitis in mice. Thus, our comparison raises awareness of the importance of the spinal cord in chronic T. gondii infection. PMID:24678407
Möhle, L; Parlog, A; Pahnke, J; Dunay, I R
Study Design?Case study. Objectives?We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man, who presented with a 4-month history of increasing low back pain and gait difficulty. Objective neurologic examination revealed a severe paraparetic symptomatology without any sphincter involvement. Methods?Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extradural mass formation situated dorsally at the level of thoracic vertebrae T2 to T4. Results?A laminectomy was performed with total removal of the mass; histology suggested a highly vascularized lesion with lobular architecture, which seems a very rare case, compatible with a capillary hemangioma. Conclusions?A careful follow-up for the next 4 years, including control MRIs every postoperative year, showed a very good neurologic condition of the patient and no recurrence on imaging findings. PMID:24494182
Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Vyshka, Gentian; Bushati, Teona; Petrela, Mentor
Objective Several interventions promote axonal growth and functional recovery when initiated shortly after CNS injury, including blockade of myelin-derived inhibitors with soluble Nogo Receptor (NgR1, RTN4R) ‘decoy’ protein. We examined the efficacy of this intervention in the much more prevalent and refractory condition of chronic spinal cord injury. Methods We eliminated the NgR1 pathway genetically in mice by conditional gene targeting starting 8 weeks after spinal hemisection injury and monitored locomotion in the open field and by video kinematics over the ensuing 4 months. In a separate pharmacological experiment, intrathecal NgR1 decoy protein administration was initiated 3 months after spinal cord contusion injury. Locomotion and raphespinal axon growth were assessed during 3 months of treatment between 4 and 6 months after contusion injury. Results Conditional deletion of NgR1 in the chronic state results in gradual improvement of motor function accompanied by increased density of raphespinal axons in the caudal spinal cord. In chronic rat spinal contusion, NgR1 decoy treatment from 4–6 months after injury results in 29% (10 of 35) of rats recovering weight-bearing status compared to 0% (0 of 29) of control rats (P<0.05). Open field BBB locomotor scores showed a significant improvement in the NgR-treated group relative to the control group (P<0.005, repeated measures ANOVA). An increase in raphespinal axon density caudal to the injury is detected in NgR1-decoy-treated animals by immunohistology and by positron emission tomography using a serotonin reuptake ligand. Interpretation Antagonizing myelin-derived inhibitors signaling with NgR1 decoy augments recovery from chronic spinal cord injury.
Wang, Xingxing; Duffy, Philip; McGee, Aaron W.; Hasan, Omar; Gould, Grahame; Tu, Nathan; Harel, Noam Y.; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Weinzimmer, David; Ropchan, Jim; Benowitz, Larry I.; Cafferty, William B. J.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.
Recent studies have shown that the acute fatal form of infantile spinal muscular atrophy (acute Werdnig-Hoffmann disease or spinal muscular atrophy Type I) is a distinct genetic and clinical entity. This has prompted clinical re-examination of the disease known as `arrested Werdnig-Hoffmann disease' which hitherto was thought to be a spectrum variant of the acute fatal form. A total of 18 such patients with the chronic generalized form of spinal muscular atrophy has been known to The Hospital for Sick Children over the past 10 years. Patients with this characteristic clinical syndrome comprise approximately one-fifth of children with chronic spinal muscular atrophy. Clinically, no patient was even able to crawl normally or progress further with motor milestones. Median age of clinical onset is 6 months of age, and life expectancy ranges from 2 years to the third decade. Inevitable spinal and joint deformities occur by the second decade of life. Management should be based on vigorous antibiotic therapy, orthopaedic and neurological surveillance, and a carefully planned educational programme aimed at realistic employment in late adolescence. ImagesFIG. 4p772-b
Pearn, J. H.; Wilson, J.
As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895
Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E; Hurley, Robert W; Cohen, Steven P
Chronic pain is a prevalent and challenging problem for most medical practitioners. Due to complex pathological mechanisms involved in chronic pain, optimal treatment is still under development. The spinal cord is an important gateway for peripheral pain signals transmitted to the brain. In chronic pain states, painful stimuli trigger afferent fibers in the dorsal horn to release neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. These events induce multiple inflammatory and neuropathic processes in the spinal cord dorsal horn and trigger modification and plasticity of local neural circuits. As a result, ongoing noxious signals to the brain are amplified and prolonged, a phenomenon known as central sensitization. In this review, the molecular events associated with central sensitization as well as their clinical implications are discussed.
Cheng, Hsinlin Thomas
Abstract Chronic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly prevalent clinical condition that is difficult to treat. Using both von Frey filaments and radiant infrared heat to assess mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively, we have demonstrated that a one-time injection of fibronectin (50??g/mL) into the spinal dorsal column (1??L/min each injection for a total of 5??L) immediately after SCI inhibits the development of mechanical allodynia (but not thermal hyperalgesia) over an 8-month observation period following spinal cord dorsal column crush (DCC). DCC will only induce mechanical Allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia or overt motor deficits. By applying various fibronectin fragments as well as competitive inhibitors, these effects were shown to be dependent on the connecting segment-1 (CS-1) motif of fibronectin. Furthermore, we found that acute fibronectin treatment diminished inflammation and blood–spinal cord barrier permeability, which in turn leads to enhanced fiber sparing and sprouting. In particular, the reduction of serotonin (5-HT) in the superficial dorsal horn, an important descending brainstem system in the modulation of pain, was blocked with fibronectin treatment. We conclude that treatment of SCI with fibronectin preserves sensory regulation and prevents the development of chronic allodynia, providing a potential therapeutic intervention to treat chronic pain following SCI.
Lee, Yu-Shang; Lin, Vernon W.; Silver, Jerry
Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to treat postoperative and chronic pain. Animal studies suggest these drugs act in part by blocking prostaglandin production in the spinal cord. We tested intrathecal ketorolac in patients with chronic or postoperative pain. Methods Following Institutional Review Board and Food and Drug Administration approval, 3 clinical studies were performed. First, 15 patients receiving chronic intrathecal morphine received intrathecal ketorolac, 0.5 – 2.0 mg. Second, 12 patients receiving chronic intrathecal morphine received, in a double blinded, randomized, cross over design, intrathecal saline or ketorolac, 2.0 mg, with pain intensity as the primary outcome measure. Third, 30 patients undergoing total vaginal hysterectomy received, in a double blinded, randomized, controlled design, intrathecal saline or ketorolac, 2.0 mg with bupivacaine with time to first morphine dose after surgery as the primary outcome measure. Results Chronic pain patients had many symptoms prior to intrathecal injection, without worsening of these symptoms from ketorolac. Pain intensity was reduced by intrathecal ketorolac, but this did not differ from placebo. In the first study, pain was reduced by intrathecal ketorolac in patients with high cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations, but not in those with normal concentrations. Intrathecal ketorolac did not alter time to first morphine after surgery. Conclusions Intrathecal ketorolac did not relieve chronic pain or extend anesthesia or analgesia from intrathecal bupivacaine administered at the beginning of surgery. Under the conditions of these studies, spinal cylcooxygenase activity appears not contribute to chronic or postoperative pain.
Eisenach, James C.; Curry, Regina; Rauck, Richard; Pan, Peter; Yaksh, Tony L.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental\\u000a factors. In the last years, it has been suggested that an abnormal venous drainage due to stenosis or malformation of the\\u000a internal jugular and\\/or azygous veins may play a major pathogenetic role in MS. This abnormality called chronic cerebro-spinal\\u000a venous insufficiency
A. Ghezzi; G. Comi; A. Federico
BACKGROUND: To assess prospectively the incidence of chronic and neuropathic pain in patients undergoing anteroaxillary thoracotomy with postoperative epidural analgesia or controlled-release oxycodone pain regimen. METHODS: 77 patients who underwent anteroaxillary thoracotomy were enrolled in our observational study. 40 patients received postoperatively a standardized oral analgesic protocol with controlled-release oxycodone and IV non opioid (CRO Group), and 37 patients received epidural analgesia with ropivacaine 0.1% + 1 mug/ml sufentanil (EDA Group) and IV non opioid. The painDETECT questionnaire was completed from the patients with one of the authors (JL) on the 7th postoperative day and six months postoperatively. RESULTS: The data of 60 patients were eligible for statistical analysis, 28 patients in the CRO Group and 32 patients in the EDA Group. 17 patients did not reach the 6-months follow-up interval (12 drop outs in the CRO Group and 5 drop outs in the EDA Group).79% percent of patients in the CRO Group and 74% percent of patients in the EDA Group had a numeric rating scale score (NRS) = 0 after 6 months. 22% percent of patients in the CRO Group and 16% percent of patients in the EDA Group experienced a NRS 1--3 6-months postoperatively. No patient in the CRO Group and 9% percent of patients in the EDA Group had 6-months postoperatively a NRS 4--6. Neither in the CRO Group nor in the EDA Group we could detect a neuropathic pain 6 months postoperatively corresponding to a painDETECT score > 18. Overall, with regard to NRS, there was no statistical difference between the two groups (p = 0.13). 90% percent of patients in the CRO Group and 90% percent of patients in the EDA Group showed 6-months postoperatively a painDETECT score < 13 (definitely no neuropathic pain), and 9% percent in the EDA Group and 11% in the CRO Group had a 6-months painDETECt score 13--18 (p = not significant). CONCLUSION: These pilot data indicate that epidural analgesia is not superior to systemic postoperative analgesia with regard to preventing chronic or neuropathic pain after thoracotomy. PMID:23668669
Kampe, Sandra; Lohmer, Joachim; Weinreich, Gerhard; Hahn, Moritz; Stamatis, Georgios; Welter, Stefan
Objective. Initial presentation with primary spinal involvement in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of childhood (CRMO) is rare. Our objective was to review the imaging appearances of three patients who had CRMO who initially presented with isolated primary spinal involvement.Design and patients. The imaging, clinical, laboratory and histology findings of the three patients were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging included seven spinal MR
S. E. Anderson; P. Heini; M. J. Sauvain; E. Stauffer; L. Geiger; J. O. Johnston; A. Roggo; D. Kalbermatten; L. S. Steinbach
We report a case of surgically proven tophaceous gout of the lumbar spine at the L5-S1 level that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess on magnetic resonance (MR) images in a 65-year-old woman. The spinal tophi were hypointense on T1-weighted images; focally and strongly hyperintense on T2-weighted images; and heterogeneously, marginally enhancing on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The aim of this report is to emphasize the importance of considering this disease entity in the differential diagnosis of an epidural mass in a patient with chronic back pain. PMID:15639411
Yen, Pao-Sheng; Lin, Jui-Feng; Chen, Shin-Yuan; Lin, Shinn-Zong
Perioperative management of opioid-dependent patients can be a challenge to surgeons, anesthesiologists and pain specialist. Our case illustrates the consequences of poor management of this subset of patients. A 60-year-old male with history left renal mass was scheduled for a left open nephrectomy. Preoperative pain medications included fentanyl 50 mcg every 72 hours plus hydromorphone 4mg PO PRN for breakthrough pain. An epidural was placed for post-operative pain control, and opioids were discontinued during hospitalization. Forty-eight to seventy-two hours after surgery, the patient developed withdrawal symptoms. Home medications were restarted and symptoms resolved. PMID:19715249
Grewal, P K; Firnhaber-Burgos, Juan B
Plantar incision in rat generates spontaneous pain behaviour. The opioid drug, morphine used to treat postsurgical pain produces tolerance after long-term administration. Loperamide, a potent mu-opioid agonist, has documented analgesic action in various pain conditions. However, loperamide analgesia and associated tolerance following continuous spinal administration in postsurgical pain has not been reported. Chronic spinal infusion of drugs was achieved using intrathecal catheters connected to osmotic minipump. Coinciding with the onset of spinal infusion of loperamide or morphine, rats were subjected to plantar incision. Pain-related behaviour was assessed by Hargreaves apparatus (thermal hyperalgesia) and von Frey filaments (mechanical allodynia). Morphine and loperamide (0.5, 1 and 2 microL/h) induced analgesia was observed until 7th day post-plantar incision in Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphine and loperamide produced dose-dependent analgesia. Loperamide, in the highest dose, produced analgesia till 7th day. However, the highest dose of morphine produced inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia till 5th day and mechanical allodynia only till 3rd day post-plantar incision. Morphine and loperamide produced analgesia in postsurgical pain, which may be mediated through different mechanisms. Longer duration of analgesia with loperamide could probably be due sustained blockade of calcium channels. PMID:24772934
Kumar, Rakesh; Reeta, K H; Ray, Subrata Basu
Objective. Epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) activity may be more reliable and stable than single-unit-activity or local field potential. Invasive brain computer interface (BCI) devices are limited by mechanical mismatching and cellular reactive responses due to differences in the elastic modulus and the motion of stiff electrodes. We propose a mesh-shaped electrode to enhance the contactability between surface of dura and electrode. Approach. We designed a polyimide (PI) electrode with a mesh pattern for more conformal contact with a curved surface. We compared the contact capability of mesh PI electrodes with conventionally used sheet PI electrode. The electrical properties of the mesh PI electrode were evaluated for four weeks. We recorded the epidural ECoG (eECoG) activity on the surface of rhesus monkey brains while they performed a saccadic task for four months. Main results. The mesh PI electrode showed good contact with the agarose brain surface, as evaluated by visual inspection and signal measurement. It was about 87% accurate in predicting the direction of saccade eye movement. Significance. Our results indicate that the mesh PI electrode was flexible and good contact on the curved surface and can record eECoG activity maintaining close contact to dura, which was proved by in vivo and in vitro test. PMID:25024292
Baek, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jeyeon; Byeon, Hang Jin; Choi, Hoseok; Young Kim, In; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Jungho Pak, James; Pyo Jang, Dong; Lee, Sang-Hoon
Objective We investigated longitudinal risk factors of hospitalization for circulatory and pulmonary diseases among veterans with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Circulatory and respiratory system illnesses are leading causes of death in chronic SCI patients, yet risk factors for related hospitalizations have not been characterized. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Veterans Affairs (VA) Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts. Participants / Data Source(s) 309 veterans ? 1 year post-SCI from the VA-Boston Chronic SCI cohort who completed a health questionnaire and underwent spirometry at study entry. Baseline data was linked to 1996–2003 hospitalization records from the VA National Patient Care Database. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Cardiopulmonary hospital admissions, the predictors of which were assessed by Multivariate Cox regression. Results Of 1,478 admissions observed, 143 were due to cardiopulmonary (77 circulatory and 66 respiratory) illnesses. Independent predictors were greater age (3% increase /year), hypertension, and if in the lowest BMI quintile (<22.4 kg/m2). A greater %-predicted FEV1 was associated with reduced risk. SCI level and completeness of injury was not statistically significant after adjusting for these risk factors. Conclusion Cardiopulmonary hospitalization risk in persons with chronic SCI is related to greater age and medical factors that, if recognized, may result in strategies for reducing future hospitalizations.
Waddimba, Anthony C.; Jain, Nitin; Stolzmann, Kelly; Gagnon, David R.; Burgess, James F.; Kazis, Lewis E.; Garshick, Eric
Spinal inhibition is significantly reduced after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. In this work, we examined if locomotor training can improve spinal inhibition exerted at a presynaptic level. Sixteen people with chronic SCI received an average of 45 training sessions, 5 days/wk, 1 h/day. The soleus H-reflex depression in response to low-frequency stimulation, presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferent terminals following stimulation of the common peroneal nerve, and bilateral EMG recovery patterns were assessed before and after locomotor training. The soleus H reflexes evoked at 1.0, 0.33, 0.20, 0.14, and 0.11 Hz were normalized to the H reflex evoked at 0.09 Hz. Conditioned H reflexes were normalized to the associated unconditioned H reflex evoked with subjects seated, while during stepping both H reflexes were normalized to the maximal M wave evoked after the test H reflex at each bin of the step cycle. Locomotor training potentiated homosynaptic depression in all participants regardless the type of the SCI. Presynaptic facilitation of soleus Ia afferents remained unaltered in motor complete SCI patients. In motor incomplete SCIs, locomotor training either reduced presynaptic facilitation or replaced presynaptic facilitation with presynaptic inhibition at rest. During stepping, presynaptic inhibition was modulated in a phase-dependent manner. Locomotor training changed the amplitude of locomotor EMG excitability, promoted intralimb and interlimb coordination, and altered cocontraction between knee and ankle antagonistic muscles differently in the more impaired leg compared with the less impaired leg. The results provide strong evidence that locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after SCI in humans at rest and during walking. PMID:24598526
Knikou, Maria; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K
The flexor reflex of acute (40–48 h after mid-thoracic spinal transection) and chronic (at least 2 months after transection) spinal rats was evoked by tetanic electrical stimulation of both hindfeet and recorded on a polygraph using a transducer connected to the left hindfoot. The flexor reflex in the chronic spinal rat was more responsive to electrical stimulation and to the
M. Nozaki; J. A. Bell; D. B. Vaupel; W. R. Martin
BACKGROUND: Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. METHODS: Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The
Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Mark V Boswell; Vijay Singh; Vidyasagar Pampati; Kim S Damron; Carla D Beyer
Sleep-disordered breathing has been shown to be more prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) than the general population. The pathogenesis of increased sleep-disordered breathing in individuals with chronic SCI is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SCI level affects upper airway (UA) collapsibility and neuromuscular compensatory responses to obstruction. Twenty-four participants (8 cervical SCI, 8 thoracic SCI, and 8 controls) were studied. The ventilation, timing, UA resistance, and pharyngeal collapsibility, defined by critical closing pressure, were determined during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Inspiratory duty cycle and minute ventilation were observed in response to increasing severity of UA obstruction. Compared with controls, both cervical and thoracic SCI participants demonstrated elevated passive critical closing pressure (0.5 ± 2.2 and 0.9 ± 2.7 vs. -2.5 ± 1.0 cmH2O, respectively; P = 0.01). No difference in UA resistance was observed between groups. Cervical and thoracic SCI individuals exhibited a similar degree of hypoventilation and dose-dependent increase in inspiratory duty cycle in response to UA obstruction. Passive UA collapsibility is increased in both cervical and thoracic SCI compared with control. The neuromuscular compensatory responses to UA obstruction during sleep are preserved in chronic SCI and are independent of the level of injury. PMID:24744387
Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy T; Badr, M Safwan
Patients with chronic pain after whiplash injury and fibromyalgia patients display exaggerated pain after sensory stimulation. Because evident tissue damage is usually lacking, this exaggerated pain perception could be explained by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (a spinal reflex) may be used to study the excitability state of spinal cord neurons. We tested the hypothesis
Borut Banic; Steen Petersen-Felix; Ole K. Andersen; Bogdan P. Radanov; P. M. Villiger; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Michele Curatolo
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a compensatory mechanism occurring in patients with chronic anemia, which occurs most frequently with thalassemia. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old man, with no history of clinical or hematological disease, presenting with spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a homogeneous posterior epidural mass extending from T-3 to T-6. Following decompressive surgery, the patient's symptoms improved. Histological analysis showed features consistent with a diagnosis of EMH. Subsequent workup was remarkable for an asymptomatic spherocytosis without anemia. There was no family history of anemia. An EMH-related presentation of mild spherocytosis has been described in the literature, but its epidural location led to spinal cord compression. The MR imaging features were suggestive of EMH, but in the presence of spinal cord compression and in the absence of a history of chronic anemia, the authors did not believe that nonsurgical management would have been reasonable. PMID:15871492
Jalbert, Florian; Chaynes, Patrick; Lagarrigue, Jacques
Widerstr[ouml ]m-Noga EG, Felipe-Cuervo E, Yezierski RP. Chronic pain after spinal injury: interference with sleep and daily activities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1571-7. Objectives: To determine how chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) interfered with sleep, exercise, work, household chores, and other daily activities and to define which clinical aspects of pain and psychosocial factors best predicted the extent
Ernesto Felipe-Cuervo; Robert P. Yezierski
Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of
Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti
Summary. \\u000a ?Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of local application of morphine or ropivacaine for treatment of local and radicular pain\\u000a after lumbar disc operations. Critical review of the literature about the possibilities of management of postoperative pain\\u000a after spinal operations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ?Methods: A total of 113 patients were randomly given 5 mg morphine sulfate (N=42), 10 ml 0,25% ropivacaine (N=42) or
B. Al-Khalaf; F. Loew; M. Fichtl; E. Donauer
Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of axial or discogenic pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Summary of Background Data: Cervical discogenic pain without disc herniation is a common cause of suffering and disability in the adult population. Once conservative management has failed and facet joint pain has been excluded, cervical epidural injections may be considered as a management tool. Despite a paucity of evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic axial or disc-related neck pain. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain as determined by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups. Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL), whereas Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL or 6 mg of nonparticulate betamethasone. The primary outcome measure was ? 50% improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional improvement (? 50%) was present at the end of 2 years in 73% of patients receiving local anesthetic only and 70% receiving local anesthetic with steroids. In the successful group of patients, however, defined as consistent relief with 2 initial injections of at least 3 weeks, significant improvement was illustrated in 78% in the local anesthetic group and 75% in the local anesthetic with steroid group at the end of 2 years. The results reported at the one-year follow-up were sustained at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and functioning in patients with chronic discogenic or axial pain that is function-limiting and not related to facet joint pain.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh
Inflammation is a major factor shaping outcome during the early, acute phase of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). It is known that pro-inflammatory signaling within the injured spinal cord drives pathological alterations in neurosensory processing and shapes functional outcome early after injury. However, it is unclear whether inflammation persists into the chronic phase of injury or shapes sensory processing long after injury. In order to investigate these possibilities, we have performed biochemical and behavioral assessments 9 months after moderate thoracic spinal contusion injury in the rat. We have found that levels of the pro-inflammatory lipid mediators leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 are elevated in the chronic spinal cord lesion site. Additionally, using metabolomic profiling, we have detected elevated levels of pro-oxidative and inflammatory metabolites, along with alterations in multiple biological pathways within the chronic lesion site. We found that 28-day treatment of chronically-injured rats with the dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor licofelone elevated levels of endogenous anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory metabolites within the lesion site. Furthermore, licofelone treatment reduced hypersensitivity of hindpaws to mechanical, but not thermal, stimulation, indicating that mechanical sensitivity is modulated by pro-inflammatory signaling in the chronic phase of injury. Together, these findings provide novel evidence of inflammation and oxidative stress within spinal cord tissue far into the chronic phase of SCI, and demonstrate a role for inflammatory modulation of mechanical sensitivity in the chronic phase of injury.
Dulin, Jennifer N.; Karoly, Edward D.; Wang, Ying; Strobel, Henry W.; Grill, Raymond J.
Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots.
Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent
Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots. PMID:23741553
Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent; Izci, Yusuf
Study Objectives: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with 2-5 times greater prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) than the general population. The contribution of SCI on sleep and breathing at different levels of injury using two scoring methods has not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sleep disturbances in the SCI population and the associated physiological abnormalities using quantitative polysomnography and to determine the contribution of SCI level on the SDB mechanism. Methods: We studied 26 consecutive patients with SCI (8 females; age 42.5 ± 15.5 years; BMI 25.9 ± 4.9 kg/m2; 15 cervical and 11 thoracic levels) by spirometry, a battery of questionnaires and by attended polysomnography with flow and pharyngeal pressure measurements. Inclusion criteria for SCI: chronic SCI (> 6 months post injury), level T6 and above and not on mechanical ventilation. Ventilation, end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), variability in minute ventilation (VI-CV) and upper airway resistance (RUA) were monitored during wakefulness and NREM sleep in all subjects. Each subject completed brief history and exam, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Berlin questionnaire (BQ) and fatigue severity scale (FSS). Sleep studies were scored twice, first using standard 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and second using new 2012 recommended AASM criteria. Results: Mean PSQI was increased to 10.3 ± 3.7 in SCI patients and 92% had poor sleep quality. Mean ESS was increased 10.4 ± 4.4 in SCI patients and excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ? 10) was present in 59% of the patients. Daytime fatigue (FSS > 20) was reported in 96% of SCI, while only 46% had high-risk score of SDB on BQ. Forced vital capacity (FVC) in SCI was reduced to 70.5% predicted in supine compared to 78.5% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Likewise forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) was 64.9% predicted in supine compared to 74.7% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Mean AHI in SCI patients was 29.3 ± 25.0 vs. 20.0 ± 22.8 events/h using the new and conventional AASM scoring criteria, respectively (p < 0.001). SCI patients had SDB (AHI > 5 events/h) in 77% of the cases using the new AASM scoring criteria compared to 65% using standard conventional criteria (p < 0.05). In cervical SCI, VI decreased from 7.2 ± 1.6 to 5.5 ± 1.3 L/min, whereas PETCO2 and VI-CV, increased during sleep compared to thoracic SCI. Conclusion: The majority of SCI survivors have symptomatic SDB and poor sleep that may be missed if not carefully assessed. Decreased VI and increased PETCO2 during sleep in patients with cervical SCI relative to thoracic SCI suggests that sleep related hypoventilation may contribute to the pathogenesis SDB in patients with chronic cervical SCI. Citation: Sankari A; Bascom A; Oomman S; Badr MS. Sleep disordered breathing in chronic spinal cord injury. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):65-72.
Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy; Oomman, Sowmini; Badr, M. Safwan
The computed tomographic findings in 45 patients with post-traumatic epidural hemotomas are subdivided into three categories (acute, subacute, and chronic) and correlated with the severity of bleeding, clot formation, and clot resorption. Active epidural bleeding may be identified in acute cases.
Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.
Neuraxial anesthesia is a term that denotes all forms of central blocks, involving the spinal, epidural, and caudal spaces. Epidural anesthesia is a versatile technique widely used in anesthetic practice. Its potential to decrease postoperative morbidity and mortality has been demonstrated by numerous studies. To maximize its perioperative benefits while minimizing potential adverse outcomes, the knowledge of factors affecting successful block placement is essential. This paper will provide an overview of the pertinent anatomical, pharmacological, immunological, and technical aspects of epidural anesthesia in both adult and pediatric populations and will discuss the recent advances, the related rare but potentially devastating complications, and the current recommendations for the use of anticoagulants in the setting of neuraxial block placement.
Bauer, Maria; George, John E.; Seif, John; Farag, Ehab
Amongst complications arising from spinal cord injury (SCI), chronic gastointestinal (G-I) problems and bowel dysfunction have not received as much research attention as many other medical and rehabilitation problems, even although their incidence is not negligible. We therefore investigated chronic G-I problems and bowel dysfunction in SCI patients where the degree of these was such that activities of daily living
Tai Ryoon Han; Jin Ho Kim; Bum Sun Kwon
Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) dramatically disrupts synaptic inputs and triggers biochemical, as well as morphological, plasticity in relation to the phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) pool. Accordingly, our primary purpose was to determine if chronic SCI induces fundamental changes in the recruitment profile and discharge patterns of PhMNs. Individual PhMN action potentials were recorded from the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to lateral cervical (C2) hemisection injury (C2Hx) in anesthetized adult male rats at 2, 4 or 8 wks post-injury and in uninjured controls. PhMNs were phenotypically classified as early (Early-I) or late inspiratory (Late-I), or silent according to discharge patterns. Following C2Hx, the distribution of PhMNs was dominated by Late-I and silent cells. Late-I burst parameters (e.g., spikes per breath, burst frequency and duration) were initially reduced but returned towards control values by 8wks post-injury. In addition, a unique PhMN burst pattern emerged after C2Hx in which Early-I cells burst tonically during hypocapnic inspiratory apnea. We also quantified the impact of gradual reductions in end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PETCO2) on bilateral phrenic nerve activity. Compared to control rats, as PETCO2 declined, the C2Hx animals had greater inspiratory frequencies (breaths?min(-1)) and more substantial decreases in ipsilateral phrenic burst amplitude. We conclude that the primary physiological impact of C2Hx on ipsilateral PhMN burst patterns is a persistent delay in burst onset, transient reductions in burst frequency, and the emergence of tonic burst patterns. The inspiratory frequency data suggest that plasticity in brainstem networks is likely to play an important role in phrenic motor output after cervical SCI. PMID:23954215
Lee, Kun-Ze; Dougherty, Brendan J; Sandhu, Milapjit S; Lane, Michael A; Reier, Paul J; Fuller, David D
We describe an animal model to study neurotransmitter changes in parallel with urodynamic testing following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Urodynamic access was achieved using a subcutaneously placed 7 French dual lumen portacatheter. Spinal cord injury was induced by weight drop technique onto exposed dura at T8. The L6-S1 detrusor nuclei were localized stereotactically and microdialysis probe placement was confirmed through
Christopher P Smith; George T Somogyi; Erin T Bird; Michael B Chancellor; Timothy B Boone
A previously healthy 64-year-old man developed an Escherichia coli spinal epidural abscess (SEA) isolated to the cervical vertebrae posturinary tract infection 9 days previously. He subsequently underwent emergent surgical decompression followed by a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics. He is symptom free at 1-year follow-up. SEA is an uncommon condition. Even with modern surgical techniques and antimicrobial agents, the mortality remains significant. Intravenous drug use, spinal procedures and medical conditions such as diabetes, Crohn's disease and chronic renal failure are all known risk factors for SEA and the majority of cases are associated with at least one of these risk factors. The case report highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for this condition even in patients without established risk factors who present with red flag symptoms: back pain, fever and neurological deficit, as the consequences of a delayed diagnosis can be severe. PMID:24473426
O'Neill, Shane C; Baker, Joseph F; Ellanti, Prasad; Synnott, Keith
Proper movement execution relies on precise input processing by spinal motoneurons (MNs). Spinal MNs are activated by limb joint rotations. Typically, their movement-related receptive fields (MRRFs) are sharply focused and joint-specific. After acute spinal transection MRRFs become wide, but their manifestation is not apparent, as intrinsic excitability, primarily resulting from the loss of persistent inward currents (PICs), dramatically decreases. PICs undergo a remarkable recovery with time after injury. Here we investigate whether MRRFs undergo a recovery that parallels that of the PIC. Using the chronic spinal cat in acute terminal decerebrate preparations, we found that MRRFs remain expanded 1 month after spinal transaction, whereas PICs recovered to >80% of their preinjury amplitudes. These recovered PICs substantially amplified the expanded inputs underlying the MRRFs. As a result, we show that single joint rotations lead to the activation of muscles across the entire limb. These results provide a potential mechanism for the propagation of spasms throughout the limb.
Kajtaz, Elma; Cain, Charlette M.; Heckman, C.J.
A 6-year-old neutered female cat was examined for chronic and progressive pelvic limb ataxia that progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis over 1 month. Haematological and serum analyses were mainly within normal ranges. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs did not reveal any morphological abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the thoraco-lumbar spine demonstrated a well-defined, extradural mass that extended into the epidural space from the L2 to L3 vertebral bodies and expanded in the L2 to L3 left intervertebral foramen. During surgery, a long, narrow, white parasite which was weakly adherent to the phlogistic epidural fat tissue was gently removed from the spinal canal. Histological examination of the pathological tissue supported a diagnosis of epidural steatitis surrounding a female adult Dirofilaria immitis. This is a novel case of natural D immitis infection with spinal localisation in a cat, well documented with magnetic resonance investigation, and cytological and histological examinations, introducing a novel differential diagnosis for extradural spinal masses in cats. PMID:23792333
Favole, Paolo; Cauduro, Alberto; Opreni, Mauro; Zanzani, Sergio; Albonico, Francesca; Manfredi, Maria; Cantile, Carlo; Lorenzo, Valentina
Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an overgrowth of the normally encapsulated adipose tissue in the epidural space around the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar spine causing compression of the neural components. Idiopathic SEL in non-obese patients is exceptional. Idiopathic SEL can result in thoracic myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy. A thoracic radiculopathy due to idiopathic SEL has not been reported yet. We report a case of idiopathic SEL with intractable chest pain and paresthesia. We suggest that idiopathic SEL should be considered as a cause of chest pain.
Lee, Sang-Beom; Chang, Jae-Chil; Jin, So-Young
Study Design: A retrospective review. Objectives: Evaluation of the prevalence of facet or zygapophy- sial joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar origin by using controlled, comparative local anesthetic blocks and evaluation of false-positive rates of single blocks in the diagnosis of chronic spinal pain of facet joint origin. Summary of Background Data: Facet or zygapophysial
Rajeev Manchukonda; Kavita N. Manchikanti; Kimberly A. Cash; Vidyasagar Pampati; Laxmaiah Manchikanti
Study design:Cross-sectional observation.Objectives:To explore the association between muscle size and function, and indices of bone strength among a sample of adults with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Ontario, Canada.Methods:Sixty-five participants (n=47 men) with chronic SCI (C1-T12 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A–D) were recruited, mean±s.d. age 49.4±12.8 years and years post-injury 14.3±10.7. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and indices of
J O Totosy de Zepetnek; B C Craven; L M Giangregorio; JO Totosy de Zepetnek
The endogenous opioid enkephalin is known to inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission. Here we investigated activation of spinal enkephalinergic neurons by determining the proportions of c-Fos expressing (activated) spinal neurons that were enkephalinergic after different acute and chronic peripheral nociceptive stimuli. The number of c-Fos-activated neurons in the dorsal horn was increased after hind paw injection of capsaicin, formalin or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 1.5 hrs - 4 days). The numbers of these neurons that were enkephalinergic increased after paraformaldehyde, and at 20 hrs, but not 1.5 hrs or 4 days post-CFA as compared to saline. In the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain, c-Fos expression was increased acutely (2 hrs) and chronically (2 weeks), and a greater number of these were enkephalinergic in the nerve-injured animals acutely compared to controls (sham-SNI). Combining all acute (=2 hrs) versus chronic (?20 hrs) treatment groups, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of activated neurons that were enkephalinergic in superficial layers, but a significant increase in the deeper layers of the dorsal horn in the chronic treatment group. It is concluded that the overall percentage of c-Fos activated neurons that contained enkephalin was not significantly different between acute and chronic pain phases. However, the shift in localization of these neurons within the spinal dorsal horn indicates a noxious stimulus directed activation pattern. PMID:24231552
Hossaini, Mehdi; Duraku, Liron S; Kohli, Somesh K; Jongen, Joost L M; Holstege, Jan C
In this study, we investigated the role of the spinal GABAergic system in central neuropathic painlike outcomes following spinal cord injury (SCI) produced by a spinal hemitransection at T13 of the rat. After SCI, mechanical allodynia develops bilaterally in both hind paws of the rat, lasting longer than 40 days, as evidenced by an increase in paw withdrawal frequency in response to a weak von Frey filament. In naive rats, intrathecal (i.t.) administration in the lumbar spinal cord of GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists, bicuculline (1-5 microg) and phaclofen (0.1-5 microg), respectively, causes a dose-dependent increase in the magnitude of mechanical allodynia. The SCI-induced mechanical allodynia in both hind-paws is attenuated by i.t. administration in the lumbar spinal cord of GABAA or GABAB receptor agonists, muscimol (1 microg) or baclofen (0.5 microg), respectively. In electrophysiological experiments, rats with SCI show a bilateral increase in hyperexcitability in response to natural stimuli in wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn. The topical application of muscimol (1 microg) or baclofen (0.5 microg) onto the lumbar cord surface reduce the SCIinduced increased responsiveness of WDR neurons. Inhibitory effects of muscimol and baclofen on both the behavioral mechanical allodynia and the hyperexcitability in WDR neuron with SCI compared to controls, were antagonized by pre-treatment of bicuculline (10 microg) and phaclofen (5 microg), respectively. This study provides behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for the important role of the loss of spinal inhibitory tone, mediated by activation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors, in the development of central neuropathic pain following SCI. PMID:16866624
Gwak, Young Seob; Tan, Huai Yu; Nam, Taick Sang; Paik, Kwang Se; Hulsebosch, Claire E; Leem, Joong Woo
Pneumorachis or epidural emphysema is defined as free air in the spinal canal which is seen following trauma, head trauma, manipulations, epidural injections, and spinal surgery. We report on the case of a 62-year-old with cervical and thoracic pneumorachis following a traffic accident.
Botchu, R.; Shah, A.; Burli, P.
Summary Osteoporosis is a well acknowledged complication of spinal cord injury. We report that motor complete spinal cord injury and\\u000a post-injury alcohol consumption are risk factors for hospitalization for fracture treatment. The clinical assessment did not\\u000a include osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment considerations, indicating a need for improved clinical protocols.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction Treatment of osteoporotic long bone fractures often results in lengthy hospitalizations for
L. R. Morse; R. A. Battaglino; K. L. Stolzmann; L. D. Hallett; A. Waddimba; D. Gagnon; A. A. Lazzari; E. Garshick
First described over 25 years ago, epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) involves the mechanical dissolution of epidural scar tissue, which may directly alleviate pain and facilitate the spread of analgesic substances to area(s) of pain generation. Although it most commonly performed for lumbar failed back surgery syndrome, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests it may be effective for spinal stenosis and radicular pain stemming from a herniated disc. There is weak positive evidence that LOA is more effective than conventional caudal epidural steroid injections for failed back surgery syndrome and spinal stenosis, and that LOA is more effective than sham adhesiolysis and conservative management for lumbosacral radiculopathy. For cervical disc herniation and spinal stenosis, there is only anecdotal evidence suggesting effectiveness and safety. Factors that may contribute to the enhanced efficacy compared to traditional epidural steroid administration include the high volume administered, the use of hypertonic saline, and to a lesser extent the use of hyaluronidase and a navigable catheter to mechanically disrupt scar tissue and guide medication administration. Although LOA is widely considered a safe intervention, the complication rates are higher than for conventional epidural steroid injection. PMID:24819483
Jamison, D E; Hsu, E; Cohen, S P
Endotracheal intubation usually causes transient hy- pertension and tachycardia. We investigated whether the cardiovascular responses to intubation change as a functionofthetimeelapsedinpatientswithspinalcord injury. One-hundred-six patients with traumatic com- plete spinal cord injury were grouped into acute and chronic groups according to the time elapsed (less than and more than 4 wk after injury) and into those with quadriplegia and paraplegia according
Kyung Y. Yoo; Seong W. Jeong; Seok J. Kim; In H. Ha; JongUn Lee
The effects of pudendal nerve stimulation on reflex bladder activity were investigated in cats with chronic spinal cord injury (6–12 months) under ?-chloralose anesthesia. Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve on one side at different frequencies and intensities induced either inhibitory or excitatory effects on bladder activity. The inhibitory effect peaked at a stimulation frequency of 3 Hz and gradually
Changfeng Tai; William C. de Groat; James R. Roppolo
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying postinjury immune suppression are not known. Data presented herein indicate that AD causes immune suppression. Using in vivo telemetry, we show that AD develops spontaneously in SCI mice with the frequency of dysreflexic episodes increasing as a function of time postinjury. As the frequency of AD increases, there is a corresponding increase in splenic leucopenia and immune suppression. Experimental activation of spinal sympathetic reflexes in SCI mice (e.g., via colorectal distension) elicits AD and exacerbates immune suppression via a mechanism that involves aberrant accumulation of norepinephrine and glucocorticoids. Reversal of postinjury immune suppression in SCI mice can be achieved by pharmacological inhibition of receptors for norepinephrine and glucocorticoids during the onset and progression of AD. In a human subject with C5 SCI, stimulating the micturition reflex caused AD with exaggerated catecholamine release and impaired immune function, thus confirming the relevance of the mouse data. These data implicate AD as a cause of secondary immune deficiency after SCI and reveal novel therapeutic targets for overcoming infectious complications that arise due to deficits in immune function.
Zhang, Yi; Guan, Zhen; Reader, Brenda; Shawler, Todd; Mandrekar-Colucci, Shweta; Huang, Kun; Weil, Zachary; Bratasz, Anna; Wells, Jonathan; Powell, Nicole D.; Sheridan, John F.; Whitacre, Caroline C.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.; Nash, Mark S.
We report a case of cervical epidural abscess from Enterococcus faecalis, which caused an insidious onset of tetraparesis. This 53-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure under hemodialysis presented with pain and progressive weakness of upper and lower extremities without fever. Although a recent MRI she did at the beginning of symptoms showed no significant pathologies, except for a cervical disc herniation and adjacent spinal degeneration, and stenosis that confused the diagnostic procedure, newer imaging with CT and MRI, which was performed due to progression of tetraparesis, revealed the formation of a cervical epidural abscess. Surgical drainage was done after a complete infection workup. The patient showed immediate neurological improvement after surgery. She received antibiotics intravenously for 3 weeks and orally for another 6 weeks. The patient was free from complications 24 months after surgery. A high index of suspicion is most important in making a rapid and correct diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess. The classic clinical triad (fever, local pain, and neurologic deficits) is not sensitive enough for early detection. Continuous clinical, laboratory, and imaging monitoring are of paramount importance. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention could optimize the final functional outcome.
Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr.; Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Starantzis, Konstantinos A.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J.
We report a case of cervical epidural abscess from Enterococcus faecalis, which caused an insidious onset of tetraparesis. This 53-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure under hemodialysis presented with pain and progressive weakness of upper and lower extremities without fever. Although a recent MRI she did at the beginning of symptoms showed no significant pathologies, except for a cervical disc herniation and adjacent spinal degeneration, and stenosis that confused the diagnostic procedure, newer imaging with CT and MRI, which was performed due to progression of tetraparesis, revealed the formation of a cervical epidural abscess. Surgical drainage was done after a complete infection workup. The patient showed immediate neurological improvement after surgery. She received antibiotics intravenously for 3 weeks and orally for another 6 weeks. The patient was free from complications 24 months after surgery. A high index of suspicion is most important in making a rapid and correct diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess. The classic clinical triad (fever, local pain, and neurologic deficits) is not sensitive enough for early detection. Continuous clinical, laboratory, and imaging monitoring are of paramount importance. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention could optimize the final functional outcome. PMID:23573096
Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Starantzis, Konstantinos A; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J
A recent survey of paraplegics indicates that regaining sexual function is of the highest priority for both males and females (Anderson, K.D. (2004) Targeting recovery: priorities of the spinal cord-injured population J. Newrotrauma, 21: 1371–1383). Our understanding of the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying sexual behavior and function is limited at the present time. More studies are obviously needed to
Charles H. Hubscher
Study design:Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial.Objective:Assess safety and efficacy of sustained-release fampridine in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury.Setting:A total of 11 academic rehabilitation research centers in the United States.Methods:A total of 91 subjects with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), randomized to three arms: fampridine, sustained release, 25 mg b.i.d. (Group I), 40 mg b.i.d. (Group II), and placebo
D D Cardenas; J Ditunno; V Graziani; A B Jackson; D Lammertse; P Potter; M Sipski; R Cohen; A R Blight
Continuous epidural blockade remains the cornerstone of pediatric regional anesthesia. However, the risk of catastrophic trauma to the spinal cord when inserting direct thoracic and high lumbar epidural needles in anesthetized or heavily sedated pediatric patients is a concern. To reduce this risk, research has focused on low lumbar or caudal blocks (ie, avoiding the spinal cord) and threading catheters from distal puncture sites in a cephalad direction. However, with conventional epidural techniques, including loss-of-resistance for localization of the needle, optimal catheter tip placement is difficult to assess because considerable distances are required during threading. Novel approaches include electrical epidural stimulation for physiological confirmation and segmental localization of epidural catheters, and ultrasound guidance for assessing related neuroanatomy and real-time observation of the needle puncture and, potentially, catheter advancement. The present article provides a brief and focused review of these two advances, and outlines recent clinical experiences relevant to pediatric epidural anesthesia.
Tsui, Ban CH
Opioids have been used for spinal analgesia for more than a century, and their injection epidurally and intrathecally has a key role in the control of postoperative pain. Since the discovery of the endogenous opioid system, 3 decades ago, their use has become more generalized in obstetric analgesia, the management of chronic pain, and acute postoperative pain. To use opioids effectively for this type of analgesia, it is important to understand the pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology of these drugs, specifically those that produce analgesia by an intrinsic spinal mechanism. Evidence from animal and human experiments indicates that hydrophilic opioids (such as hydromorphone and morphine) bind more strongly to specific receptors within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord than lipophilic opioids (such as alfentanil, fentanyl, and sufentanil). This can be understood by considering the spinal cord selectivity and bioavailability of these opioids. This difference is attributable to differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the 2 groups. It is more difficult for lipophilic opioids to reach and remain at sufficiently high concentrations at the site of action due to their sequestration in epidural fat and rapid plasma clearance from both epidural and intrathecal spaces, resulting in analgesia with a limited spread and duration, as well as the appearance of early supraspinal side effects. In contrast, morphine has very different properties, including greater spinal bioavailability and therefore administered neuraxially, it is suitable choice for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. However, when using morphine, a greater incidence of adverse effects can be expected, and it requires careful patient selection. PMID:23834413
Bujedo, Borja Mugabure
Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare cause of cauda equina syndrome (CES), which must be diagnosed with MRI in conjunction with a high level of clinical suspicion. Most reported cases are associated with obesity, steroid use or are secondary to endocrinopathies, frequently present subacutely or chronically, and have been managed with both surgical decompression and non-operative measures. We describe an obese 55-year-old man with rapid onset CES secondary to idiopathic lumbosacral SEL which was managed successfully with surgical decompression. Although often thought to be a trivial radiological finding, it is important not to be dismissive of patients presenting with compressive neuropathy and MRI evidence of space-occupying SEL. PMID:24472240
Wells, Adam J; McDonald, Matthew J; Sandler, Simon J I; Vrodos, Nikitas J
Study design:Cross-sectional, observational study.Objective:Estimate prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes in community-dwelling men and women with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Ontario, Canada.Methods:In-home interviewer administered multiple-pass 24-h recalls were collected at baseline (n=77) and at 6 months (n=68). Dietary intake (adjusted to remove intra-individual variation) was compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs), specifically the estimated average requirement, adequate intake (AI) and
J L Walters; A C Buchholz; K A Martin Ginis
THE childhood-onset spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) describe a heterogeneous group of disorders that selectively affect the alpha motoneuron. We have shown that chronic childhood-onset SMA (SMA II and III) maps to a single locus on chromosome 5q (ref. 1). Acute SMA (SMA Type I\\/Werdnig-Hoffmann\\/severe\\/infantile) is the main cause of heritable infant mortality. Mapping the acute SMA locus by conventional methods
T. C. Gilliam; L. M. Brzustowicz; L. H. Castilla; T. Lehner; G. K. Penchaszadeh; R. J. Daniels; B. C. Byth; J. Knowles; J. E. Hislop; Y. Shapira; V. Dubowitz; T. L. Munsat; J. Ott; K. E. Davies
A number of mechanisms have been elucidated that maintain neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury (SCI). While target-based therapeutics are being developed based on elucidation of these mechanisms, treatment for neuropathic SCI pain has not been entirely satisfactory due in part to the significant convergence of neurological and inflammatory processes that maintain the neuropathic pain state. Thus, a combination drug treatment strategy, wherein several pain-related mechanism are simultaneously engaged, could be more efficacious than treatment against individual mechanisms alone. Also, by engaging several targets at once, it may be possible to reduce the doses of the individual drugs, thereby minimizing the potential for adverse side effects. Positive preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated improved efficacy of combination drug treatment over single drug treatment in neuropathic pain of peripheral origin, and perhaps such combinations could be utilized for neuropathic SCI pain. At the same time, there are mechanisms that distinguish SCI from peripheral neuropathic pain, so novel combination therapies will be needed.
Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline
Intradural spinal cord abscesses especially in the cervical spine are a rare occurrence. We report a rare presentation of an intradural extramedullary abscess at the atlantoaxial level, initially misdiagnosed as an epidural collection. The patient presented with worsening quadriparesis preceded by a 2-week history of upper respiratory tract infection and neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of an epidural abscess on the left side abutting the cervicomedullary junction. We performed occipitocervical fixation and surgical decompression. Absence of a suspected epidural abscess led us to consider a durotomy, and an intradural abscess was recognized and drained. Presence of an intradural abscess, though extremely rare, must always be considered in suspected spinal epidural collections as radiological and clinical findings are indistinguishable between the two conditions. PMID:24436877
Hasan, Muhammed Yaser; Kumar, K Karuppiah; Lwin, Sein; Lau, Leok-Lim; Kumar, Naresh
Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D
Background: Inadequate levels of vitamin D increase the risk of osteoporosis, a highly prevalent condition in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Reduced sunlight and dark skin further contribute to low vitamin D levels. Objectives: To compare serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [vitamin D25(OH)] levels in acute and chronic SCI and to explore seasonal and ethnic differences among patients with acute and chronic SCI. Patients/Methods: Patients (N ?=? 96) aged 19 to 55 years with C3-T10 motor complete SCI participated. Acute SCI was 2 to 6 months after injury, whereas chronic SCI was at least 1 year from injury. Serum vitamin D25(OH), calcium, and parathyroid hormone were drawn during summer or winter months. Vitamin D deficiency (<13 ng/mL), insufficiency (<20 ng/mL), and subtherapeutic (<32 ng/mL) levels were compared for all groups. A 3-way analysis of covariance was adopted to determine significant main effects of season, chronicity, and ethnicity. Interactions between season and chronicity, season and ethnicity, and chronicity and ethnicity were evaluated. Evaluation of a 3-way interaction among season, chronicity, and ethnicity was completed. Results: In summer, 65% of patients with acute SCI and 81% of patients with chronic SCI had subtherapeutic vitamin D levels, whereas in winter, 84% with acute SCI and 96% with chronic SCI had vitamin D25(OH) (<32ng/mL). Lower vitamin D25(OH) levels were observed in African Americans relative to whites. Significant main effects were noted for season (P ?=? 0.017), chronicity (P ?=? 0.003), and ethnicity (P < 0.001). However, interactions between 2 or more factors were not found. Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are found in the majority of patients with chronic SCI and in many with acute SCI. Initial screening for serum vitamin D25(OH) levels should be performed early in rehabilitation. Periodic monitoring in the chronic setting is highly recommended.
Oleson, Christina V; Patel, Payal H; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann
A better understanding of autonomic influence on motor reflex pathways in spinal cord injury is important to the clinical management of autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity in spinal cord injured patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of flexor reflex windup during episodes of induced sympathetic activity in chronic human spinal cord injury (SCI). We simultaneously measured peripheral vascular conductance and the windup of the flexor reflex in response to conditioning stimuli of electrocutaneous stimulation to the opposite leg and bladder percussion. Flexor reflexes were quantified using torque measurements of the response to a noxious electrical stimulus applied to the skin of the medial arch of the foot. Both bladder percussion and skin conditioning stimuli produced a reduction (43-67%) in the ankle and hip flexor torques (p<0.05) of the flexor reflex. This reduction was accompanied by a simultaneous reduction in vascular conductance, measured using venous plethysmography, with a time course that matched the flexor reflex depression. While there was an overall attenuation of the flexor reflex, windup of the flexor reflex to repeated stimuli was maintained during periods of increased sympathetic activity. This paradoxical depression of flexor reflexes and minimal effect on windup is consistent with inhibition of afferent feedback within the superficial dorsal horn. The results of this study bring attention to the possible interaction of motor and sympathetic reflexes in SCI above and below the T5 spinal level, and have implications for clinicians in spasticity management and for researchers investigating motor reflexes post SCI.
Garrison, M. Kevin; Schmit, Brian D.
OBJECTIVES—This prospective study was designed to assess the effects of omental transpostion in patients with a chronic spinal injury.?METHODS—Neurological status was established to be stable and multiple baseline across patient studies were done preoperatively and repeated postoperatively. Assessments included activities of daily living (ADL), functional ability, degree of spasticity, motor power, sensation, pain perception, urodynamic studies, electromyography, sensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and infrared thermography to measure peripheral and general skin vascular responses. Each patient had MRI. Assessments were done at 3, 6, and 12 months after omental transposition in 17patients.?RESULTS—The detailed assessments failed to show significant improvement, although some patients showed minor objective and subjective change in some categories. Neurological deterioration occurred in one patient. There were 20 surgical complications including urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, wound infection, and incisional hernia.?CONCLUSIONS—Omental transposition has not been shown to improve neurological function in 17 patients with chronic spinal cord injury, and continued use of this operation in this situation is not supported by this study. Further advances in spinal cord repair may utilise the pedicled omental graft to provide an alternative vascular supply, but its current use should be limited to experimental models.??
Duffill, J; Buckley, J; Lang, D; Neil-Dwyer, G; McGinn, F; Wade, D
Although L-dopa continues to be the gold standard for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), it presents long-term complications. Deep brain stimulation is effective, but only a small percentage of idiopathic PD patients are eligible. Based on results in animal models and a handful of patients, dorsal column stimulation (DCS) has been proposed as a potential therapy for PD. To date, the long-term effects of DCS in animal models have not been quantified. Here, we report that DCS applied twice a week in rats treated with bilateral 6-OHDA striatal infusions led to a significant improvement in symptoms. DCS-treated rats exhibited a higher density of dopaminergic innervation in the striatum and higher neuronal cell count in the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to a control group. These results suggest that DCS has a chronic therapeutical and neuroprotective effect, increasing its potential as a new clinical option for treating PD patients. PMID:24452435
Yadav, Amol P; Fuentes, Romulo; Zhang, Hao; Vinholo, Thais; Wang, Chi-Han; Freire, Marco Aurelio M; Nicolelis, Miguel A L
The objective of the report is to evaluate (1) the measurement of central neuropathic pain (CNP) after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), (2) the prevalence of acute and chronic CNP, (3) predictive factors for chronic CNP, and (4) the effectiveness and ...
A. Jadad D. Wingerchuk M. A. O'Brien
This article summarizes the experience gained with implantation of 509 plate electrodes performed by a single neurosurgeon. 350 patients were subjected to implantation of plate electrodes in the dorsal epidural space. 227 patients were implanted for chronic pain management (reflex sympathetic dystrophy, failed back syndrome/arachnoiditis, pain following spinal cord injury, nerve injury pain and other miscellaneous pain conditions), 105 patients for motor disorders (spasms/spasticity following spinal cord or head injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, spasmodic torticollis and other miscellaneous conditions) and 18 patients for both. A total of 509 electrodes were implanted in the dorsal epidural space. The electrodes types were: 442 Medtronic Resume, 39 Medtronic Resume-TL and 25 Neuromed Lamitrode. 378 electrodes were implanted for chronic pain management, 106 for motor disorders and 25 in patients presenting with both pain and motor disorders. 192 electrodes were implanted in the cervical area and 317 in the thoracic area. 3.7% of the implanted electrodes became infected and had to be surgically removed. Electrode migration occurred in 1.1% of the patients and electrode breakage in 4 patients. 288 (70%) of the implanted electrodes are still being used. Technical factors relevant to the surgical implantation of plate electrodes at various levels in the spine are presented and discussed. PMID:8197329
Spasticity is a common feature of spinal cord injury (SCI). Spasticity exacerbation is commonly encountered with nociceptive and exteroceptive stimuli including bladder and bowel dysfunction, pressure sores, contracture, tight-fitting leg bags and clothing, and ingrown toenail. This report describes a patient with chronic SCI (T4 level) who complained of increasing spasticity of bilateral lower extremities for 5 weeks. He also had skin lesions on different parts of his body, accompanied by itching above the spinal cord lesion level. A clinical diagnosis of scabies was made and pharmacologic treatment was initiated. Following treatment, spasticity was significantly reduced and the skin rash with itching faded out. This report is the first of scabies skin infestation lesions triggering exacerbation of spasticity in an SCI patient. PMID:9421996
Hassan, N F; Nasser, I; Bennett, M M
Because there currently is no treatment for spinal cord injury, most patients are living with long-standing injuries. Therefore, strategies aimed at promoting restoration of function to the chronically injured spinal cord have high therapeutic value. For successful regeneration, long-injured axons must overcome their poor intrinsic growth potential as well as the inhibitory environment of the glial scar established around the lesion site. Acutely injured axons that regenerate into growth-permissive peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) reenter host tissue to mediate functional recovery if the distal graft– host interface is treated with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to cleave inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the scar matrix. To determine whether a similar strategy is effective for a chronic injury, we combined grafting of a peripheral nerve into a highly relevant, chronic, cervical contusion site with ChABC treatment of the glial scar and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulation of long-injured axons. We tested this combination in two grafting paradigms: (1) a peripheral nerve that was grafted to span a chronic injury site or (2) a PNG that bridged a chronic contusion site with a second, more distal injury site. Unlike GDNF–PBS treatment, GDNF–ChABC treatment facilitated axons to exit the PNG into host tissue and promoted some functional recovery. Electrical stimulation of axons in the peripheral nerve bridge induced c-Fos expression in host neurons, indicative of synaptic contact by regenerating fibers. Thus, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that administering ChABC to a distal graft interface allows for functional axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons.
Tom, Veronica J.; Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R.; Miller, Kassi; Santi, Lauren; Connors, Theresa; Lemay, Michel A.; Houle, John D.
Background and Objectives. Peripheral nerve and spinal cord stimulation techniques have been used for many years. However, electrical stimulation methods rarely have been used to confirm epidural catheter placement. This study examines the practicality of this technique to confirm epidural catheter placement in obstetric patients. Methods. Thirty-nine obstetric patients in labor were studied. An electrocardiography (ECG) adapter (Arrow-Johans) was attached
Ban C. H. Tsui; Sunil Gupta; Brendan Finucane
Two patients with spontaneous epidural hematoma of the thoracic spine are presented. The magnetic resonance (MR) examination performed within the first hours following the onset of symptoms demonstrated an epidural elongated lesion impinging on the spinal cord, compatible with hematoma. In one of the patients this finding was surgically confirmed. The second patient improved under steroid treatment. The MR findings
E. Avrahami; R. Tadmor; Z. Ram; M. Feibel; Y. Itzhak
Previous studies have shown sex-specific oxidative changes in spinal cord of rats submitted to chronic stress, which may be\\u000a due to gonadal hormones. Here, we assessed total radical-trapping potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione\\u000a peroxidase (GPx) activities and lipid peroxidation (evaluated by the TBARS test) in the spinal cord of ovariectomized (OVX)\\u000a female rats. Female rats were subjected to
Leonardo M. Crema; Luisa A. Diehl; Ana P. Aguiar; Lúcia Almeida; Fernanda U. Fontella; Letícia Pettenuzzo; Deusa Vendite; Carla Dalmaz
Chronic spinal cord compression is the result of mechanical pressure on the spinal cord, which in contrast to traumatic spinal cord injury, leads to slowly progressing nerve degeneration. These two types of spinal cord injuries may trigger similar mechanisms, including motoric nerve cell apoptosis and autophagy, however, depending on differences in the underlying injury severity, nerve reactions may predominantly involve the conservation of function or the initiation of functions for the removal of irreversibly damaged cells. p62 is a multidomain adapter protein, which is involved in apoptosis and cell survival as well as autophagy, and is a common component of protein aggregations in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, a rat chronic spinal cord compression model was used, in which the spinal cord was progressively compressed for six weeks and then constantly compressed for another 10 weeks. As a result Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scaling revealed a gradual score decrease until the 6th week followed by constant recovery until the 16th week after spinal cord compression was initiated. During the first eight weeks of the experiment, p62 and nuclear factor??B (NF??B) were increasingly expressed up to a constant plateau at 12?16 weeks, whereas caspase 3 exhibited a marginally enhanced expression at 8 weeks, however, reached a constant maximum peak 12?16 weeks after the beginning of spinal cord compression. It was hypothesized that, in the initial phase of spinal cord compression, enhanced p62 expression triggered NF??B activity, directing the cell responses mainly to cell survival and autophagy, whereas following eight weeks of spinal cord compression, caspase 3 was additionally activated indicating cumulative elimination of irreversibly damaged nerve cells with highly activated autophagy. PMID:24715058
Chen, Zhi; Fu, Qingge; Shen, Baoliang; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Kun; He, Ping; Li, Fengning; Zhang, Fan; Shen, Hongxing
Pneumorrhachis, which involves the entrapment of air or gas within the spinal canal, is a rare clinical entity, and the pathogenesis and etiologies of this uncommon entity are various and can present a diagnostic challenge. Usually, pneumorrhachis represents an asymptomatic epiphenomenon but it can produce symptoms associated with its underlying pathology. Here, we report a rare case of symptomatic epidural pneumorrhachis accompanying pneumothorax. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed and a review of the literature is included.
Seo, Hong Ju
Epidural spinal myelolipoma was diagnosed in an 11.5-year-old castrated male Husky-cross that was evaluated at the veterinary teaching hospital due to progressive thoracolumbar spinal hyperaesthesia and mild proprioceptive pelvic limb ataxia. A focal, ill-defined mildly inhomogenous extradural mass lesion was detected by MRI. The dog was euthanized. At necropsy an extradurally located reddish mass of about 2.5 cm in diameter was present in the vertebral canal. The mass was identified histopathologically as an epidural myelolipoma.
Three groups of patients with upper motor neuron lesions were studied. A first group consisted of 19 patients with complete lesions and 3 patients with incomplete lesions. All had an unbalanced bladder function which required surgical interventions. A second group consisted of 9 patients with chronic complete lesions who achieved balanced bladder function spontaneously. A third group consisted of 11 patients in the acute stage of injury. Polygraph recordings of pressure within the bladder, urethra, rectum and external anal sphincter were carried out with the help of video-tape monitoring and radiographic image intensification. Special catheter ballons with radiopaque markings were employed for pressure measurements. The behavior of the external urethral sphincter during spinal shock and the sequence of return of sacral somatic and visceral motor reflexes during recovery from spinal shock were investigated. It was shown that in spinal shock, the majority of patients retained sacral segment somatomotor reflex activity, in the absence of visceromotor activity, and that resistance values at the external urethral sphincter remained high. The highest resistance recorded in the membranous urethra was found to be located at the distal external sphincter, just before the bulb of the urethra. PMID:1265929
Rossier, A B; Ott, R
Background In the present study, we examined spinal glial cell activation as a central nervous system mechanism of widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in rats that experienced chronic post-cast pain (CPCP) 2 weeks after cast immobilization. Activated spinal microglia and astrocytes were investigated immunohistologically in lumbar and coccygeal spinal cord segments 1 day, 5 weeks, and 13 weeks following cast removal. Results In the lumbar cord, astrocytes were activated after microglia. Astrocytes also were activated after microglia in the coccygeal cord, but with a delay that was longer than that observed in the lumbar cord. This activation pattern paralleled the observation that mechanical hyperalgesia occurred in the hindleg or the hindpaw before the tail. The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) immune response in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on the last day of cast immobilization suggested that nerve damage might not occur in CPCP rats. The neural activation assessed by the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immune response in DRG arose 1 day after cast removal. In addition, L-?-aminoadipate (L-?-AA), an inhibitor of astrocyte activation administered intrathecally 5 weeks after cast removal, inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia in several body parts including the lower leg skin and muscles bilaterally, hindpaws, and tail. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation of lumbar cord astrocytes is an important factor in widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in CPCP.
Potentially noxious stimuli are sensed by specialized nerve cells named nociceptors, which convey nociceptive signals from peripheral tissues to the central nervous system. The spinal dorsal horn and the trigeminal nucleus serve as first relay stations for incoming nociceptive signals. At these sites, nociceptor terminals contact a local neuronal network consisting of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons as well as of projection neurons. Blockade of neuronal inhibition in this network causes an increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli (hyperalgesia), painful sensations occurring after activation of non-nociceptive fibers (allodynia), and spontaneous pain felt in the absence of any sensory stimulation. It thus mimics the major characteristics of chronic pain states. Diminished inhibitory pain control in the spinal dorsal horn occurs naturally, e.g., through changes in the function of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors or through altered chloride homeo-stasis in the course of inflammation or nerve damage. This review summarizes our current knowledge about endogenous mechanisms leading to diminished spinal pain control and discusses possible ways that could restore proper inhibition through facilitation of fast inhibitory neurotransmission. PMID:21854227
Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Benke, Dietmar; Yevenes, Gonzalo E
Olfactory bulb ensheathing glia (OB-OEG) promote repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats after transplantation at acute or subacute (up to 45 days) stages. The most relevant clinical scenario in humans, however, is chronic SCI, in which no more major cellular or molecular changes occur at the injury site; this occurs after the third month in rodents. Whether adult OB-OEG grafts promote repair of severe chronic SCI has not been previously addressed. Rats with complete SCI that were transplanted with OB-OEG 4 months after injury exhibited progressive improvement in motor function and axonal regeneration from different brainstem nuclei across and beyond the SCI site. A positive correlation between motor outcome and axonal regeneration suggested a role for brainstem neurons in the recovery. Functional and histological outcomes did not differ at subacute or chronic stages. Thus, autologous transplantation is a feasible approach as there is time for patient stabilization and OEG preparation in human chronic SCI; the healing effects of OB-OEG on established injuries may offer new therapeutic opportunities for chronic SCI patients.
Munoz-Quiles, Cintia; Santos-Benito, Fernando F.; Llamusi, M. Beatriz; Ramon-Cueto, Almudena
The spinal cord injury (SCI) microenvironment undergoes dynamic changes over time, which could potentially affect survival or differentiation of cells in early versus delayed transplantation study designs. Accordingly, assessment of safety parameters, including cell survival, migration, fate, sensory fiber sprouting, and behavioral measures of pain sensitivity in animals receiving transplants during the chronic postinjury period is required for establishing a potential therapeutic window. The goal of the study was assessment of safety parameters for delayed transplantation of human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) by comparing hCNS-SCns transplantation in the subacute period, 9 days postinjury (DPI), versus the chronic period, 60 DPI, in contusion-injured athymic nude rats. Although the number of surviving human cells after chronic transplantation was lower, no changes in cell migration were detected between the 9 and 60 DPI cohorts; however, the data suggest chronic transplantation may have enhanced the generation of mature oligodendrocytes. The timing of transplantation did not induce changes in allodynia or hyperalgesia measures. Together, these data support the safety of hCNS-SCns transplantation in the chronic period post-SCI.
Piltti, Katja M.; Salazar, Desiree L.; Uchida, Nobuko; Cummings, Brian J.
Although Chiari malformations are much more prevalent than once believed, no study has described treatment with an interventional spinal procedure. The purpose of this report was to discuss the clinical course of a patient who was diagnosed with a Chiari malformation and treated with three cervical epidural injections. In 2012, a 50-yr-old woman presented to a neurology clinic with chronic suboccipital headaches, diplopia, and increasing numbness/tingling in her upper extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a type I Chiari malformation and a cervical syrinx. The patient was treated with three cervical epidural injections, after which her symptoms exacerbated. Consequently, a posterior fossa suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy and excision of extradural and intradural adhesions was performed. After surgical intervention, notable neurologic improvements were observed. Given the marked worsening of symptoms, the present report suggests that interventional spinal procedures may be a contraindication in the presence of a Chiari malformation with a syrinx. PMID:24743463
Smith, Jason A; Cuccurullo, Sara J; Protzman, Nicole M; Kooch, Jason E
In the majority of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) some axonal projections remain intact. We examined the functional status of these surviving axons, since they represent a prime therapeutic target. Using a novel electrophysiological preparation, adapted from techniques used to study primary demyelination, we quantified conduction failure across a SCI and studied conduction changes over time in adult rats with a moderate severity spinal contusion (150 kilodyne, Infinite Horizon impactor). By recording antidromically activated single units from teased dorsal root filaments we demonstrate complete conduction block in ascending dorsal column axons acutely (1-7 days) post-injury, followed by a period of restored conduction over the sub-acute phase (2-4 weeks), with no further improvements in conduction at chronic stages (3-6 months). By cooling the lesion site additional conducting fibres could be recruited, thus revealing a population of axons that are viable but unable to conduct under normal physiological conditions. Importantly, this phenomenon is still apparent at the most chronic (6 month) time point. The time course of conduction changes corresponded with changes in behavioural function, and ultrastructural analysis of dorsal column axons revealed extensive demyelination during the period of conduction block, followed by progressive remyelination. A proportion of dorsal column axons remained chronically demyelinated, suggesting that these are the axons recruited with the cooling paradigm. Thus, using a clinically relevant SCI model we have identified a population of axons present at chronic injury stages which are intact but fail to conduct and are therefore a prime target for therapeutic strategies to restore function.
James, Nicholas D.; Bartus, Katalin; Grist, John; Bennett, David L. H.; McMahon, Stephen B.; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.
Background: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy has been shown to be one of the most promising approaches for improving voluntary grasping function in individuals with subacute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To determine the effectiveness of FES therapy, as compared to conventional occupational therapy (COT), in improving voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic (?24 months post injury), incomplete (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] B-D), C4 to C7 SCI. Methods: Eight participants were randomized to the intervention group (FES therapy; n = 5) or the control group (COT; n = 3). Both groups received 39 hours of therapy over 13 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), and the secondary outcome measures were Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care subscore, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) self-care subscore. Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, after 39 sessions of therapy, and at 6 months following the baseline assessment. Results: After 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 5.8 points on the TRI-HFT’s Object Manipulation Task, whereas the control group changed by only 1.17 points. Similarly, after 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 4.6 points on the FIM self-care subscore, whereas the control group did not change at all. Conclusion: The results of the pilot data justify a clinical trial to compare FES therapy and COT alone to improve voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic incomplete tetraplegia.
Recordings of pressure within the bladder, urethra, rectum, and external anal sphincter with image intensification and videotaping were carried out in spinal cord injury patients with complete and incomplete lesions, during spinal shock and in the chronic stage. The behavior of the external urethral sphincter and the somatic and visceral motor reflexes of the sacral segments were studied, during and after spinal shock. During spinal shock the majority of patients retained sacral somatomotor activity, in the absence of visceromotor activity, and resistance values at the external urethral sphincter remained high. Vascular oscillations were recorded in the membranous urethra. The highest resistance found in the membranous urethra was at the distal part of the external sphincter. PMID:1137470
Rossier, A B; Ott, R; Roussan, M S
Diverse mechanisms including activation of NMDA receptors, microglial activation, reactive astrogliosis, loss of descending inhibition, and spasticity are responsible for ?40% of cases of intractable neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because conventional treatments blocking individual mechanisms elicit only short-term effectiveness, a multimodal approach with simultaneous actions against major pain-related pathways may have value for clinical management of chronic pain. We hypothesize that [-]-huperzine A (HUP-A), an alkaloid isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata, that is a potent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and NMDA receptors, could mitigate pain without invoking drug tolerance or dependence by stimulating cholinergic interneurons to impede pain signaling, inhibiting inflammation via microglial cholinergic activation, and blocking NMDA-mediated central hypersensitization. We tested our hypothesis by administering HUP-A i.p. or intrathecally to female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-235 g body weight) after moderate static compression (35 g for 5 min) of T10 spinal cord. Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits. PMID:23386718
Yu, Dou; Thakor, Devang K; Han, Inbo; Ropper, Alexander E; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Sidman, Richard L; Zafonte, Ross; Schachter, Steven C; Teng, Yang D
This commentary evaluates four articles dealing with chronic pain from very different perspectives. The first paper by Tsantoulas and McMahon entitled "Opening paths to novel analgesics: the role of potassium channels in chronic pain" evaluates the membrane neurochemistry of the neural cells governing the transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and trigeminal systems. As potassium membrane potentials diminish excitability in the nociceptive pain pathways, damage to these pathways may result in excessive transmission of impulses that contribute to "chronic pain". Haneder et al. analyzed degeneration in lumbar discs utilizing 23Na magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine whether this would help analyze low back pain versus standard 1H MR imaging. As degenerated discs lose glycosaminoglycan, which attracts 23Na, this imaging could potentially be useful in detecting degenerating intervertebral discs. Mroz et al. analyzed how 445 spinal surgeons handled recurrent lumbar discs (first and second recurrences) herniations in the United States. Surgeons in practice for more than 15 years were more likely to select simple disc revision, while those with fewer years experience and performing more than 200 cases per year were more likely to select revision surgery that included some form of inter-body fusion. Lee et al. performed a multivariate analysis of more than 1532 patients to validate a predictive model of the risk of surgical site infection after various spine surgeries. Outcomes analyzed the frequency of reoperations for irrigation/debridement, and evaluated how patients' comorbidities helped predict the risk of infection (e.g. obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and the number of levels/extent of surgery). PMID:24843809
This commentary evaluates four articles dealing with chronic pain from very different perspectives. The first paper by Tsantoulas and McMahon entitled “Opening paths to novel analgesics: the role of potassium channels in chronic pain” evaluates the membrane neurochemistry of the neural cells governing the transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and trigeminal systems. As potassium membrane potentials diminish excitability in the nociceptive pain pathways, damage to these pathways may result in excessive transmission of impulses that contribute to “chronic pain”. Haneder et al. analyzed degeneration in lumbar discs utilizing 23Na magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine whether this would help analyze low back pain versus standard 1H MR imaging. As degenerated discs lose glycosaminoglycan, which attracts 23Na, this imaging could potentially be useful in detecting degenerating intervertebral discs. Mroz et al. analyzed how 445 spinal surgeons handled recurrent lumbar discs (first and second recurrences) herniations in the United States. Surgeons in practice for more than 15 years were more likely to select simple disc revision, while those with fewer years experience and performing more than 200 cases per year were more likely to select revision surgery that included some form of inter-body fusion. Lee et al. performed a multivariate analysis of more than 1532 patients to validate a predictive model of the risk of surgical site infection after various spine surgeries. Outcomes analyzed the frequency of reoperations for irrigation/debridement, and evaluated how patients’ comorbidities helped predict the risk of infection (e.g. obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and the number of levels/extent of surgery).
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss in the paralysed limbs and to a resulting increased fracture risk thereof. Since long bone fractures can lead to comorbidities and a reduction in quality of life, it is important to improve bone strength in people with chronic SCI. In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we investigated whether functional electrical stimulation
Angela Frotzler; Sylvie Coupaud; Claudio Perret; Tanja H. Kakebeeke; Kenneth J. Hunt; Nick de N. Donaldson; Prisca Eser
Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a known interventional technique for the management of spinal pain. As with any procedures, PEN is associated with complications ranging from mild to more serious ones. We present a case of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN requiring surgical evacuation. We review the relevant literature and discuss possible complications of PEN and patholophysiology of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN.
Kim, Min Ki; Kim, Kee D.; Lim, Young Jin
Summary: We report an extremely unusual iatrogenic in- fection of the spinal canal with Aspergillus fumigatus that resulted in intradural abscess formation following epidural steroid injection in an immunocompetent young individual. Although the imaging findings of the infection were rela- tively nonspecific, MR imaging not only allowed for a prompt diagnosis, but also helped in surgical localization to the intradural
Gaurav Saigal; M. Judith; Donovan Post; Dusko Kozic
Background The delta opioid receptor (DOR) is a promising target to treat multiple indications, including alcoholism, anxiety, and nonmalignant pain. The potential of the DORs has been underappreciated, in part, due to relatively low functional expression of these receptors in naïve states. However, chronic exposure to stress, opioids, and inflammation can induce a redistribution of DORs to the cell surface where they can be activated. Previously, DORs were shown to be selectively/exclusively present in spinal cord circuits mediating mechanical sensitivity but not those mediating thermal nociception under naïve conditions. Methods We spinally administered DOR and mu opioid receptor (MOR) selective agonists ([D-Pen2,D-Pen5]-Enkephalin, deltorphin II, SNC80, and DAMGO) and antagonists (naltriben and CTAP) and determined thermal antinociception and mechanical sensitivity in wild-type mice or mice with a genetic disruption of DOR or MOR. Thermal antinociception was measured using a radiant heat tail-flick assay; mechanical sensitivity was measured using von Frey filaments. Dose response curves were generated in naïve mice and mice exposed to ethanol in a model of voluntary consumption. Results We show that prolonged exposure to ethanol can promote an upregulation of functional DORs in the spinal cord in thermal pain-mediating circuits but not in those mediating mechanical sensitivity. The upregulated DORs either modulate MOR-mediated analgesia through convergence of circuits or signal transduction pathways and/or interact directly with MORs to form a new functional (heteromeric) unit. Conclusions Our findings suggest that DORs could be a novel target in conditions in which DORs are redistributed.
van Rijn, Richard M.; Brissett, Daniela I.; Whistler, Jennifer L.
Objective To evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammation and pulmonary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants Fifty-nine men with chronic SCI participating in a prior epidemiologic study. Methods Standardized assessment of pulmonary function and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Main Outcome Measurements Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Persons with the highest values of IL-6 had the lowest %-predicted FEV1 and FVC. There was a significant inverse linear trend between quartile of IL-6 and %-predicted FEV1 (P < .001) and FVC (P < .006), unadjusted and adjusted for SCI level and completeness of injury, obstructive lung disease history, smoking, and body mass index (P = .010-.039). Although not as strong as for IL-6, there also were similar trends for %-predicted FEV1 and FVC with CRP. Conclusions In chronic SCI, higher levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, independent of level and completeness of injury. These results suggest that the reduction of pulmonary function after SCI is related not only to neuromuscular impairment but also to factors that promote systemic inflammation.
Garshick, Eric; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Morse, Leslie R.; Brown, Robert
Most clinical guidelines do not recommend routine use of epidural steroid injections for the management of chronic low back pain. However, many clinicians do not adhere to these guidelines. This comprehensive evidence overview concluded that off-label epidural steroid injections provide small short-term but not long- term leg-pain relief and improvement in function; injection of steroids is no more effective than injection of local anesthetics alone; post-procedural complications are uncommon, but the risk of contamination and serious infections is very high. The evidence does not support routine use of off-label epidural steroid injections in adults with benign radicular lumbosacral pain. PMID:24787344
Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Staal, J Bart; Goldmann, David; Sands-Lincoln, Megan
Chronic spinal pain (CSP) is a severely disabling disorder, including nontraumatic chronic low back and neck pain, failed back surgery, and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Much of the current therapy is focused on input mechanisms (treating peripheral elements such as muscles and joints) and output mechanisms (addressing motor control), while there is less attention to processing (central) mechanisms. In addition to the compelling evidence for impaired motor control of spinal muscles in patients with CSP, there is increasing evidence that central mechanisms (ie, hyperexcitability of the central nervous system and brain abnormalities) play a role in CSP. Hence, treatments for CSP should address not only peripheral dysfunctions but also the brain. Therefore, a modern neuroscience approach, comprising therapeutic pain neuroscience education followed by cognition-targeted motor control training, is proposed. This perspective article explains why and how such an approach to CSP can be applied in physical therapist practice. PMID:24481595
Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Cagnie, Barbara; Roussel, Nathalie A; Dolphens, Mieke; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Danneels, Lieven
Objective: To explore the long-term outcomes of CONECSI (COping with NEuropathiC Spinal cord Injury pain), a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural treatment programme in persons with spinal cord injury. Design: Long-term follow-up pre-post-intervention design. Subjects: A total of 29 subjects with a spinal cord injury and chronic neuropathic pain from 4 Dutch rehabilitation centres. Methods: Primary outcomes were pain intensity and pain-related disability (Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire). Secondary outcomes were mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), participation in activities (Utrecht Activities List), and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire). Random coefficient analysis was used for the analyses of measurements before (t1), immediate post-intervention (t2), and 6 (t3), 9 (t4), and 12 (t5) months follow-up. Results: The analyses showed significant improvements on pain intensity (t1-t2 and t1-t5) and pain-related disability (t1-t2, t1-t4, and t1-t5), anxiety and participation in activities (t1-t2, t1-t3, and t1-t5). Conclusion: This exploratory study suggests that a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural programme might have lasting improvements on pain intensity, pain-related disability, anxiety, and participation in activities in people with chronic neuropathic spinal cord injury pain and highlights the potential of such programmes. PMID:24818861
Heutink, Matagne; Post, Marcel Wm; Luthart, Peter; Schuitemaker, Marijke; Slangen, Sandra; Sweers, Jolante; Vlemmix, Lonneke; Lindeman, Eline
Vasopressinergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus project to areas in the spinal cord from which sympathetic nerves originate. This pathway is hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP), particularly under various conditions of osmotic stress. Several studies measuring sympathetic nerve activity support this hypothesis. However, the evidence that spinal vasopressin influences MAP under physiological or pathophysiological conditions in conscious animals is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in conscious rats, if the increases in MAP during acute or chronic osmotic stimuli are due to activation of spinal vasopressin (V1a) receptors. Three conditions of osmotic stress were examined: acute intravenous hypertonic saline, 24- and 48-h water deprivation, and 4 wk of DOCA-salt treatment. Rats were chronically instrumented with an indwelling catheter for intrathecal injections and a radiotelemeter to measure MAP. In normotensive rats, intrathecal vasopressin and V1a agonist increased MAP, heart rate, and motor activity; these responses were blocked by pretreatment with an intrathecal V1a receptor antagonist. However, when the intrathecal V1a antagonist was given during the three conditions of osmotic stress to investigate the role of “endogenous” vasopressin, the antagonist had no effect on MAP, heart rate, or motor activity. Contrary to the hypothesis suggested by previous studies, these findings indicate that spinal V1a receptors are not required for elevations of MAP under conditions of acute or chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats.
Seven patients who had chronic coronary artery disease and had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery still suffered from anginal attacks several times daily despite optimal medical treatment. An epidural system of analgesia was implanted subcutaneously and treatment with epidural morphine started. The morphine was administered by the patients themselves or members of their family. During a median observation time of four months (range three to 11) all patients were free of pain while receiving this treatment. Images p476-a
Clemensen, S E; Thayssen, P; Hole, P
A 23-year-old man with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) was scheduled for left lower limb amputation. He had complained of severe lower limb pain. Oral administration of acetaminophen, duloxetine, and morphine did not alleviate the pain. Epidural block was performed preoperatively after confirming there were no abnormal angiomas in the lumbar spinal canal on CT scan. The pain was alleviated by the epidural block. The epidural block was also useful during the operation and postoperative pain management. There were no complications related to the epidural block. KTWS is a rare congenital malformation characterized by the triad of varicose veins, capillary malformations, and bony or soft tissue hypertrophy in affected limbs. Some patients with KTWS have epidural hemangioma and cerebral or spinal cord arteriovenous fistulas. There have been some reports of rupture of epidural hemangioma resulting in progressive paraplegia. When epidural block is scheduled for patients with KTWS, CT scan should be performed to investigate abnormal vessels in the lumbar spinal canal. PMID:23479928
Yamada, Yuki; Yamada, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Ken; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki
Despite advances in neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment modalities, spinal epidural abscess remains a challenging problem. Early diagnosis is often difficult and treatment is always delayed. Spinal epidural abscess usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as IV drug abuse, senillity, diabetes mellitus, spinal attempts, alcoholism, immunosuppression, liver diseases and catheterizations. It is rarely seen in cervical region. A successful treatment is only possible with early diagnosis and accurate surgical and medical treatment. Optimal management is unclear and morbidity and mortality are significant. We present two adult haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal insufficiency who developed cervical epidural abscess following central venous catheter placement. Early surgical intervention is mandatory in cases those have progressive neurological deficit and spinal deformity, and this is also increases the success rate of medical therapy.
Gezici, Ali Riza
Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.
Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios [University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine (Greece); Soultanis, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 1st Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Batistaki, Chrysanthi [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Kelekis, Alexis, E-mail: email@example.com [University of Athens, 2nd Radiology Department, Attikon University Hospital (Greece)
This prospective case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent the manually assisted treadmill stepping Locomotor Training with body weight support (LT) can change respiratory function in individuals with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Pulmonary function outcomes (Forced Vital Capacity /FVC/, Forced Expiratory Volume one second /FEV1/, Maximum Inspiratory Pressure /PImax/, Maximum Expiratory Pressure /PEmax/) and surface electromyographic (sEMG) measures of respiratory muscles activity during respiratory taskswere obtained from eight individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI before and after 62±10 (Mean ± SD) sessions of the LT. FVC, FEV1, PImax, PEmax, amount of overall sEMG activity and rate of motor unit recruitment were significantly increased after LT (p<0.05) These results suggest that these improvements induced by the LT are likely the result of neuroplastic changes in spinal neural circuitry responsible for the activation of respiratory muscles preserved after injury.
de Paleville, Daniela Terson; McKay, William; Aslan, Sevda; Folz, Rodney; Sayenko, Dimitry; Ovechkin, Alexander V.
Paralysis is the most feared postoperative complication of ACDF and occurs most often due to an epidural hematoma. In the absence of a clear etiology, inadequate decompression or vascular insult such as ischemia/reperfusion injury are the usual suspects. Herewith we report a case of complete loss of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) during elective ACDF at C4-5 and C5-6 followed by postoperative C6 incomplete tetraplegia without any discernible technical cause. A postoperative MRI demonstrated a large area of high signal changes on T2-weighted MRI intrinsic to the cord “white cord syndrome” but no residual compression. This was considered consistent with spinal cord gliosis with possible acute edema. The acute decompression of the herniated disc resulted in cord expansion and rush-in reperfusion. We postulate that this may have led to disruption in the blood brain barrier (BBB) and triggered a cascade of reperfusion injuries resulting in acute neurologic dysfunction. At 16 months postoperatively our patient is recovering slowly and is now a Nurick Grade 4.
Chin, Kingsley R.; Seale, Jason
Study design:A prospective, non-randomized clinical series trial.Objective:To evaluate the effect of autogenous undifferentiated stem cell infusion for the treatment of patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) on somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs).Setting:A public tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil.Methods:Thirty-nine consecutive patients with diagnosed complete cervical and thoracic SCI for at least 2 years and with no cortical response in the
A F Cristante; T E P Barros-Filho; N Tatsui; A Mendrone; J G Caldas; A Camargo; A Alexandre; W G J Teixeira; R P Oliveira; R M Marcon
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF), resistin (Rstn), long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3) gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR) as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions.
Bigford, Gregory E.; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie C.; Nash, Mark S.; Bethea, John R.
Abstract Chronic neuropathic pain is a significant consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is associated with evoked pain, including allodynia and/or hyperalgesia. Allodynia is defined as a painful response to normally innocuous stimuli, and hyperalgesia occurs when there is an amplified pain response to normally noxious stimuli. We describe a model of a unilateral cervical level (C5) contusion injury where sensory recovery was assessed weekly for 6 weeks in 32 adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia are detectable in the fore- and hindpaws as early as 7 days post-injury (dpi) and persist for at least 42 days. Paw withdrawal latency in response to a noxious thermal stimulus significantly intra-animal pre-operative values. Change in paw withdrawal latency plateaued at 21?dpi. Interestingly, bilateral forepaw allodynia develops in fewer than 40% of rats as measured by von Frey monofilament testing. Similar results occur in the hindpaws, where bilateral allodynia occurs in 46% of rats with SCI. The contralesional forepaw and both hindpaws of rats showed a slight increase in paw withdrawal threshold to tactile stimuli acutely after SCI, corresponding to ipsilesional forelimb motor deficits that resolve over time. That there is no difference among allodynic and non-allodynic groups in overall spared tissue or specifically of the dorsal column or ventrolateral white matter where ascending sensory tracts reside suggests that SCI-induced pain does not depend solely on the size or extent of the lesion, but that other mechanisms are in play. These observations provide a valid model system for future testing of therapeutic interventions to prevent the onset or to reduce the debilitating effects of chronic neuropathic pain after SCI.
Wade, Rodel E.; Houle, John D.
Drugs that antagonize the action of excitatory amino acids on the NMDA receptor in the spinal cord are of interest in pain treatment. Before such drugs can be applied clinically, their potential toxicity should be studied. This study was performed in rats in order to reveal possible neurotoxicologic side effects following chronic intrathecal (i.t.) application of two NMDA receptor antagonists: 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) and kynurenic acid (KYN). Rats equipped with i.t. catheters were injected twice a day for 2 weeks with saline, 2 nmol (0.5 micrograms) CPP or 210 nmol (40 micrograms) KYN, where the doses of CPP and KYN were chosen on the basis of similar analgesic effects after one administration. Antinociception was tested daily using the tail-flick and hot-plate tests. The antinociceptive effect was similar in CPP- and KYN-treated rats on days 1 and 2. The effect of CPP decreased during the following days, whereas that of KYN persisted for the 12-day testing period. The spinal cord was then removed and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination, and a morphometric method using an unbiased stereological estimator of cell number and cell volume was applied as a sensitive variable of spinal cord neurotoxicity. Morphologic and ultrastructural analyses of the spinal cord segment adjacent to the tip of the catheter showed normal appearance with no differences between the groups. Furthermore, no differences in cell number or cell volume in the dorsal horn were found between the groups. In conclusion, chronic i.t. administration of pharmacologically active doses of CPP and KYN in rats did not produce neurotoxic effects in the spinal cord.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8233545
Kristensen, J D; Post, C; Gordh, T; Svensson, B A
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe and long lasting motor and sensory deficits, chronic pain, and autonomic dysreflexia. (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown to produce neuroprotective effect in a broad range of neurodegenerative disease animal models. This study designed to test the efficacy of intravenous infusion of EGCG for 36 h, in acutely injured rats' spinal cord: within first 4 h post-injury and, in chronically SC injured rats: after one year of injury. Functional outcomes measured using standard BBB scale, The Louisville Swim Scale (LSS) and, pain behavior assessment tests. 72 Female adult rats subjected to moderate thoracic SCI using MASCIS Impactor, blindly randomized as the following: (I) Acute SCI + EGCG (II) Acute SCI + saline. (III) Chronic SCI + EGCG. (IV) Chronic SCI + saline and, sham SCI animals. EGCG i.v. treatment of acute and, chronic SCI animals resulted in significantly better recovery of motor and sensory functions, BBB and LSS (P < 0.005) and (P < 0.05) respectively. Tactile allodynia, mechanical nociception (P < 0.05) significantly improved. Paw withdrawal and, tail flick latencies increase significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, in the EGCG treated acute SCI animals the percentage of lesion size area significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) and, the number of neurons in the spinal cord increased (P < 0.001). Percent areas of GAP-43 and GFAP immunohistochemistry showed significant (P < 0.05) increase. We conclude that the therapeutic window of opportunity for EGCG to depict neurological recovery in SCI animals, is viable up to one year post SCI when intravenously infused for 36 h. PMID:24071567
Renno, Waleed M; Al-Khaledi, Ghanim; Mousa, Alyaa; Karam, Shaima M; Abul, Habib; Asfar, Sami
Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs—from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS) networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns—specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of spinal cord-injured (SCI) should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic SCI patients.
As a twin therapy of acupuncture in traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion has shown its effects in relieving abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and IBS rat models, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. In this paper, we determined the role of spinal dynorphin and orphanin-FQ system in analgesic effect of warming moxibustion (WM) on chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH) in IBS-like rat model. Here, we show that (1) repeated WM at bilateral ST25 and ST37 acupoints markedly attenuated the abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in CVH rats; (2) intrathecal administration of ? receptor antagonist prior to WM significantly attenuated the WM analgesia and dynorphinA (1-17) enhanced the WM analgesia. WM significantly reinforced the upregulation of spinal dynorphin mRNA/protein and ? receptor mRNA levels in CVH rats; (3) intrathecal administration of orphanin-FQ receptor antagonist prior to WM significantly attenuated the WM analgesia and orphanin-FQ enhanced the WM analgesia. WM reinforced the upregulation of spinal orphanin-FQ mRNA/protein and orphanin-FQ receptor mRNA levels in CVH rats. These results suggest that moxibustion may relieve CVH at least in part by activating spinal dynorphin and orphanin-FQ system.
Qi, Li; Liu, Hui-Rong; Yi, Tao; Wu, Lu-Yi; Liu, Xi-Ru; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Yin; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Huan-Gan
Background Clinical studies of osteoarthritis (OA) suggest central sensitization may contribute to the chronic pain experienced. This preclinical study used the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA joint pain to investigate the potential contribution of spinal sensitization, in particular spinal glial cell activation, to pain behaviour in this model. Experimental OA was induced in the rat by the intra-articular injection of MIA and pain behaviour (change in weight bearing and distal allodynia) was assessed. Spinal cord microglia (Iba1 staining) and astrocyte (GFAP immunofluorescence) activation were measured at 7, 14 and 28 days post MIA-treatment. The effects of two known inhibitors of glial activation, nimesulide and minocycline, on pain behaviour and activation of microglia and astrocytes were assessed. Results Seven days following intra-articular injection of MIA, microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord were activated (p < 0.05, compared to contralateral levels and compared to saline controls). Levels of activated microglia were significantly elevated at day 14 and 21 post MIA-injection. At day 28, microglia activation was significantly correlated with distal allodynia (p < 0.05). Ipsilateral spinal GFAP immunofluorescence was significantly (p < 0.01) increased at day 28, but not at earlier timepoints, in the MIA model, compared to saline controls. Repeated oral dosing (days 14-20) with nimesulide attenuated pain behaviour and the activation of microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord at day 21. This dosing regimen also significantly attenuated distal allodynia (p < 0.001) and numbers of activated microglia (p < 0.05) and GFAP immunofluorescence (p < 0.001) one week later in MIA-treated rats, compared to vehicle-treated rats. Repeated administration of minocycline also significantly attenuated pain behaviour and reduced the number of activated microglia and decreased GFAP immunofluorescence in ipsilateral spinal cord of MIA treated rats. Conclusions Here we provide evidence for a contribution of spinal glial cells to pain behaviour, in particular distal allodynia, in this model of osteoarthritic pain. Our data suggest there is a potential role of glial cells in the central sensitization associated with OA, which may provide a novel analgesic target for the treatment of OA pain.
Objectives To assess the use of prognostic patient factors and predictive tests in clinical decision making for spinal fusion in patients with chronic low back pain. Design and setting Nationwide survey among spine surgeons in the Netherlands. Participants Surgeon members of the Dutch Spine Society were questioned on their surgical treatment strategy for chronic low back pain. Primary and secondary outcome measures The surgeons' opinion on the use of prognostic patient factors and predictive tests for patient selection were addressed on Likert scales, and the degree of uniformity was assessed. In addition, the influence of surgeon-specific factors, such as clinical experience and training, on decision making was determined. Results The comments from 62 surgeons (70% response rate) were analysed. Forty-four surgeons (71%) had extensive clinical experience. There was a statistically significant lack of uniformity of opinion in seven of the 11 items on prognostic factors and eight of the 11 items on predictive tests, respectively. Imaging was valued much higher than predictive tests, psychological screening or patient preferences (all p<0.01). Apart from the use of discography and long multisegment fusions, differences in training or clinical experience did not appear to be of significant influence on treatment strategy. Conclusions The present survey showed a lack of consensus among spine surgeons on the appreciation and use of predictive tests. Prognostic patient factors were not consistently incorporated in their treatment strategy either. Clinical decision making for spinal fusion to treat chronic low back pain does not have a uniform evidence base in practice. Future research should focus on identifying subgroups of patients for whom spinal fusion is an effective treatment, as only a reliable prediction of surgical outcome, combined with the implementation of individual patient factors, may enable the instalment of consensus guidelines for surgical decision making in patients with chronic low back pain.
de Bie, Rob; Oner, Cumhur; Castelein, Rene; de Kleuver, Marinus
Cannabinoids have been considered for some time as potent therapeutic agents in chronic pain management. Central and systemic administration of natural, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids produce antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects in both acute and chronic animal pain models. Although much of the existing data suggest that the analgesic effects of cannabinoids are mediated via neuronal CB1 receptors, there is increasing evidence to support a role for peripheral CB2 receptors, which are expressed preferentially on immune cells. As yet, little is known about the central contribution of CB2 in neuropathic pain states. We report here that chronic pain models associated with peripheral nerve injury, but not peripheral inflammation, induce CB2 receptor expression in a highly restricted and specific manner within the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, the appearance of CB2 expression coincides with the appearance of activated microglia. PMID:12823482
Zhang, Ji; Hoffert, Cyrla; Vu, Huy Khang; Groblewski, Thierry; Ahmad, Sultan; O'Donnell, Dajan
There has been only one reported case of neuromuscular scoliosis following chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, no cases of scoliosis that were treated with surgery secondary to CIDP have been previously described. A 16-year-old boy with CIDP was consultant due to the progression of scoliosis with the coronal curve of 86° from T8 to T12. Posterior correction and fusion with segmental pedicle screws were performed under intraoperative spinal cord monitoring with transcranial electric motor-evoked potentials. Although the latency period was prolonged and amplitude was low, the potential remained stable. Coronal curve was corrected from 86° to 34° without neurological complications. We here describe scoliosis associated with CIDP, which was successfully treated with surgery under intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.
Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Misawa, Akiko; Shimada, Yoichi
We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominal pain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominal pain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. PMID:23321890
Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R
Background & Aims Chronic psychological stress is associated with visceral hyperalgesia and increased expression of spinal NK1 receptors (NK1R). We aimed to identify the role of spinal microglia in this process. Methods Male Wistar rats were exposed to water avoidance (WA) or sham stress 1 hour each day for 10 days and given daily injections of minocycline, the p38 inhibitor SB203580, or saline. Phosphorylation levels of the kinase p38 (P-p38), the microglia marker OX42, NK1R, and I?B? were assessed by immunoblotting and/or immunostaining of spinal samples collected at Day 11. The visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension at baseline and following WA were also assayed in rats given injections of minocycline, SB203580 or vehicle. The effects of fractalkine were assessed on the VMR in rats exposed to minocycline or vehicle. Results P-p38 protein levels and immunoreactivity were increased in stressed rats and co-localized with OX42-positive cells and neurons in the dorsal horn. This increase was reversed by minocycline or SB203580 exposure. Stress-induced increased NK1R expression was blocked by minocycline but not SB203580. WA-induced decreased I?B? expression was blocked by minocycline and SB203580. WA-induced hyperalgesia was blocked by minocycline and SB203580 IT. Fractalkine-induced hyperalgesia was blocked by minocycline. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that stress-induced activation of spinal microglia has a key role in visceral hyperalgesia and associated spinal NK1R upregulation.
Bradesi, S; Svensson, CI; Steinauer, J; Pothoulakis, C; Yaksh, TL; Mayer, EA
A case is presented of a patient who developed fever, leukocytosis, severe back pain, local overlying spinal tenderness, and\\u000a left leg weakness on the fifth day postpartum. The patient had epidural anaesthesia for ten hours duration, before and during\\u000a a forceps delivery. Computerized axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis and lumbar spine\\u000a revealed swelling of
Anna M. Kinahan; M. Joanne Douglas; Kari G. Smedstad; Terrance W. Breen
Objective To investigate whether higher resilience level predicts low levels of psychological distress in chronic SCI patients living in the community. Method Thirty seven patients (mean age 41.5±10.9, male : female=28 : 9) with chronic spinal cord injury (duration 8.35±7.0 years) living in the community are included, who were hospitalized for annual checkups from November, 2010 to May, 2011. First, their spinal cord injury level, completeness and complications were evaluated. The patients completed questionnaires about their educational status, religion, employment status, marital status, medical and psychological history and also the following questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C) and Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D). The patients were divided into two subgroups: patients with HADS ?13 are classified as high psychological distress group and others as low psychological distress group. We compared the two groups to find statistically significant differences among the variables. Results CD-RISC, EQ-5D and employment status are significantly different between two groups (p<0.05). In a forward stepwise regression, we found that EQ-5D had a greater contribution than CD-RISC to the psychological distress level. Conclusion In addition to health-related quality of life, resilience can be suggested as a possible predictor of psychological distress in chronic SCI patients.
Shin, Jung-In; Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk; Hwang, Sung-Il; Lee, Bum-Suk; Han, Sang-Hoon; Ju, Hye-In; Lee, Cha-Yeon
Chronic spinal cats with neurotrophin-secreting fibroblasts (NTF) transplants recover locomotor function. To ascertain possible mechanisms, intraspinal microstimulation was used to examine the lumbar spinal cord motor output of four groups of chronic spinal cats: untrained cats with unmodified-fibroblasts graft (Op-control) or NTF graft and locomotor-trained cats with unmodified-fibroblasts graft (Trained) or NTF graft (Combination). Forces generated via intraspinal microstimulation at different hindlimb positions were recorded and interpolated, generating representations of force patterns at the paw. Electromyographs (EMGs) of hindlimb muscles, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris posterior, were also collected to examine relationships between activated muscles and force pattern types. The same four force pattern types obtained in spinal-intact cats were found in chronic spinal cats. Proportions of force patterns in spinal cats differed significantly from those in intact cats, but no significant differences in proportions were observed among individual spinal groups (Op-control, NTF, Trained, and Combination). However, the proportions of force patterns differed significantly between trained (Trained and Combination) and untrained groups (Op-control and NTF). Thus the frequency of expression of some response types was modified by injury and to a lesser extent by training. Force pattern laminar distribution differed in spinal cats compared with intact, with more responses obtained dorsally (0–1,000 ?m) and fewer ventrally (3,200–5,200 ?m). EMG analysis demonstrated that muscle activity highly predicted some force pattern types and was independent of hindlimb position. We conclude that spinal motor output modularity is preserved after injury.
Boyce, Vanessa S.; Lemay, Michel A.
The decrease of arterial blood pressure and body tem- perature after epidural or spinal anesthesia is thought to be the result of sympathetic block, which could cause pooling and redistribution of blood into the lower ex- tremities. Studies have demonstrated that leg wrap- ping with elastic bandages may reduce the incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia. We tried to extend
Hsiao Lun Sun; Qing Dong Ling; Wei Zen Sun; Rick Sai-Chuen Wu; Tzong Jeng Wu; Shih Chieh Wang; Chih Cheng Chien
Although it is debated whether chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) plays a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) development, many patients undergo endovascular treatment (ET) of CCSVI. A study is ongoing in Italy to evaluate the clinical outcome of ET. Severe adverse events (AEs) occurred in 15/462 subjects at a variable interval after ET: jugular thrombosis in seven patients, tetraventricular hydrocephalus, stroke, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, status epilepticus, aspiration pneumonia, hypertension with tachicardia, or bleeding of bedsore in the remaining seven cases. One patient died because of myocardial infarction 10 weeks after ET. The risk of severe AEs related to ET for CCSVI must be carefully considered. PMID:23380649
Ghezzi, A; Annovazzi, P; Amato, M P; Capello, E; Cavalla, P; Cocco, E; Falcini, M; Gallo, A; Patti, F; Perini, P; Rodegher, M E; Rovaris, M; Rottoli, M R; Comi, G
We report the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented a primary spinal epidural abscess caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. This is the second report in the medical literature to associate this organism with a primary spinal epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis. After treatment with emergency laminectomy followed by 8 weeks of antibiotic treatment the patient was cured. Oral metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h) was the definitive choice of treatment. F. necrophorum spinal epidural abscess is rare, although samples for anaerobic culture should be collected in order to improve detection of anaerobic spinal infections. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA permits early diagnosis in anaerobic infections. PMID:23845584
Sanmillán, Jose Luis; Pelegrín, Iván; Rodríguez, David; Ardanuy, Carmen; Cabellos, Carmen
Background Epidural pneumorrhachis (EPR), an extension of pneumomediastinum, results from air that leaks from the mediastinum and accumulates in the epidural space of the spine. It is an uncommon, benign condition; most cases are asymptomatic, are recognized only on computed tomography scans, and require no treatment. Case Report We present a case of EPR, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema in a young male who was managed conservatively with supportive care. Conclusions EPR is a rare yet benign condition that can be found incidentally while working up lung or spine pathology. Although radiography can define the presence of a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema, the diagnosis of EPR can only be made using computed tomography. The management of EPR is usually conservative, and the focus should be on underlying disease.
Eisa, Naseem; Moh'd, Hamzah; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Kheir, Fayez
Background Pulse wave velocity (PWV), which reflects arterial stiffness, is an important predictor of future coronary artery disease. The test–retest reliability of PWV has not been investigated in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose To report the test–retest (day-to-day) reliability of PWV measurements among people with SCI, and to determine the smallest real difference (SRD) of PWV values. Participants Twenty men (n = 19) and a woman (n = 1) with SCI (C4-T10; AIS A-D; ?1-year post-injury; 10 with paraplegia and 10 with tetraplegia; time post-injury: 11.8 ± 8.7 years; age: 43.0 ± 12.6 years). Methods On two occasions within a 2-week period, aortic PWV (between the common carotid and femoral artery), arm PWV (between the brachial and radial artery), and leg PWV (between femoral and posterior tibial artery) were assessed at the same time of day using Doppler flowmeters. Results No statistically significant differences were found between days 1 and 2 in aortic PWV (day 1: 941 ± 185 cm/seconds, day 2: 917 ± 160 cm/seconds, P = 0.257), leg PWV (day 1: 1088 ± 141 cm/seconds, day 2: 1122 ± 165 cm/seconds, P = 0.099) and arm PWV (day 1: 1283 ± 185 cm/seconds, day 2: 1358 ± 256 cm/seconds, P = 0.180). The aortic and leg PWVs had high test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: ICC = 0.920 and 0.913, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) and arm PWV had moderate test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.598, P = 0.03). SRDs for each PWV were 104 cm/seconds (aortic PWV), 97 cm/seconds (leg PWV) and 143 cm/seconds (arm PWV). Conclusion The test–retest reliability of PWV assessment is high among patients with chronic SCI. Changes in aortic PWV values above 104 cm/seconds with repeated testing like represent true changes in health status.
Miyatani, Masae; Masani, Kei; Moore, Cameron; Szato, Maggie; Oh, Paul; Craven, Catharine
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation using multiple independent programmable electrode selections compared to simple continuous stimulation. Design. Prospective case series 2 years. Setting. Ambulatory care center. Patients. All chronic pain patients who underwent spinal cord stimulation treatment at our center from February 1995 until October 1996 entered the study as a consecutive sample (n = 80). Interventions. Patients were evaluated in continuous stimulation mode (single stimulation program) vs. multi-stimulation mode, (patients activate a series of stimulation programs simultaneously to cover all of their pain) and patient-controlled stimulation mode (patients can select a program in response to their activities and pain level). Outcome measures. We collected visual analog pain scores, patient satisfaction scores by stimulation mode, and paresthesia maps. Results. Mean pain scores declined from 8.1 at baseline to 4.6 with continuous stimulation, and to 3.1 with multi-stimulation and with patient-controlled stimulation (p<0.05). Paresthesia overlap improved from 74% with continuous stimulation to 91% with multi-stimulation, and to 89% with patient-controlled stimulation (p<0.05). None of the patients selected continuous stimulation. Thirty-two patients preferred multi-stimulation, and 48 patients preferred patient-controlled stimulation. Lead revision rates declined from 15% in our previous experience using continuous stimulation to 3.8%. Conclusions. Continuous stimulation was not selected by any patient in favor of multi-stimulation or patient-controlled stimulation. This study indicates that in spinal cord stimulation the use of multiple electrodes together with advanced programmability increases paresthesia overlap, reduces pain scores, reduces revision rates, and improves patient satisfaction with spinal cord stimulation therapy. PMID:22150884
Alo, K M; Yland, M J; Kramer, D L; Charnov, J H; Redko, V
We measured low-frequency depression of soleus H-reflexes in individuals with acute (n=5) and chronic (n=7) spinal-cord injury and in able-bodied controls (n=7). In one acute subject, we monitored longitudinal changes in low-frequency depression of H-reflexes over 44 weeks and examined the relationship between H-reflex depression and soleus-muscle fatigue properties. Soleus H-reflexes were elicited at 0.1, 0.2, 1, 5, and 10 Hz. The mean peak-to-peak amplitude of ten reflexes at each frequency was calculated, and values obtained at each frequency were normalized to 0.1 Hz. H-reflex amplitude decreased with increasing stimulation frequency in all three groups, but H-reflex suppression was significantly larger in the able-bodied and acute groups than in the chronic group. The acute subject who was monitored longitudinally displayed reduced low-frequency depression with increasing time post injury. At 44 weeks post injury, the acute subject’s H-reflex depression was similar to that of chronic subjects, and his soleus fatigue index (assessed with a modified Burke fatigue protocol) dropped substantially, consistent with transformation to faster muscle. There was a significant inverse correlation over the 44 weeks between the fatigue index and the mean normalized H-reflex amplitude at 1, 5, and 10 Hz. We conclude that: (1) the chronically paralyzed soleus muscle displays impaired low-frequency depression of H-reflexes, (2) attenuation of rate-sensitive depression in humans with spinal-cord injury occurs gradually, and (3) changes in H-reflex excitability are generally correlated with adaptation of the neuromuscular system. Possible mechanisms underlying changes in low-frequency depression and their association with neuromuscular adaptation are discussed.
Schindler-Ivens, Sheila; Shields, Richard K.
We identified a suitable biomatrix that improved axon regeneration and functional outcome after partial (moderate) and complete (severe) chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat. Five weeks after dorsal thoracic hemisection injury the lesion scar was resected via aspiration and the resulting cavity was filled with different biopolymers such as Matrigel™, alginate-hydrogel and polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG) all of which have not previously been used as sole graft-materials in chronic SCI. Immunohistological staining revealed marked differences between these compounds regarding axon regeneration, invasion/elongation of astrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial and Schwann cells, revascularization, and collagen deposition. According to axon regeneration-supporting effects, the biopolymers could be ranked in the order PEG>alginate-hydrogel>Matrigel™. Even after complete chronic transection, the PEG-bridge allowed long-distance axon regeneration through the grafted area and for, at least, 1cm beyond the lesion/graft border. As revealed by electron microscopy, bundles of regenerating axons within the matrix area received myelin ensheathment from Schwann cells. The beneficial effects of PEG-implantation into the resection-cavity were accompanied by long-lasting significant locomotor improvement over a period of 8months. Following complete spinal re-transection at the rostral border of the PEG-graft the locomotor recovery was aborted, suggesting a functional role of regenerated axons in the initial locomotor improvement. In conclusion, scar resection and subsequent implantation of PEG into the generated cavity leads to tissue recovery, axon regeneration, myelination and functional improvement that have not been achieved before in severe chronic SCI. PMID:24713436
Estrada, Veronica; Brazda, Nicole; Schmitz, Christine; Heller, Silja; Blazyca, Heinrich; Martini, Rudolf; Müller, Hans Werner
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) cause sensory loss and motor paralysis. They are normally treated with physical therapy, but most patients fail to recover due to limited neural regeneration. Here we describe a strategy in which treatment with autologous adherent bone marrow cells is combined with physical therapy to improve motor and sensory functions in early stage chronic SCI patients. In a phase I/II controlled single-blind clinical trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00816803), 70 chronic cervical and thoracic SCI patients with injury durations of at least 12 months were treated with either intrathecal injection(s) of autologous adherent bone marrow cells combined with physical therapy or with physical therapy alone. Patients were evaluated with clinical and neurological examinations using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS), electrophysiological somatosensory-evoked potential, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional independence measurements. Chronic cervical and thoracic SCI patients (15 AIS A and 35 AIS B) treated with autologous adherent bone marrow cells combined with physical therapy showed functional improvements over patients in the control group (10 AIS A and 10 AIS B) treated with physical therapy alone, and there were no long-term cell therapy-related side effects. At 18 months posttreatment, 23 of the 50 cell therapy-treated cases (46%) showed sustained functional improvement. Compared to those patients with cervical injuries, a higher rate of functional improvement was achieved in thoracic SCI patients with shorter durations of injury and smaller cord lesions. Therefore, when combined with physical therapy, autologous adherent bone marrow cell therapy appears to be a safe and promising therapy for patients with chronic SCI of traumatic origin. Randomized controlled multicenter trials are warranted. PMID:23452836
El-Kheir, Wael Abo; Gabr, Hala; Awad, Mohamed Reda; Ghannam, Osama; Barakat, Yousef; Farghali, Haithem A M A; El Maadawi, Zeinab M; Ewes, Ibrahim; Sabaawy, Hatem E
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is rarely applied in spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to correlate diffusion properties after SCI with electrophysiological and neurological measures. Nineteen traumatic cervical SCI subjects and 28 age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. DTI data of the spinal cord were acquired with a Philips Achieva 3 T MR scanner using an outer volume suppressed, reduced field of view (FOV) acquisition with oblique slice excitation and a single-shot EPI readout. Neurological and electrophysiological measures, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale scores, and motor (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were assessed in SCI subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were decreased in the SCI subjects compared to the healthy subjects. In upper cervical segments, the decrease in FA was significant for the evaluation of the entire cross-sectional area of the spinal cord, and for corticospinal and sensory tracts. A decreasing trend was also found at the thoracic level for the corticospinal tracts. The decrease of DTI values correlated with the clinical completeness of SCI, and with SSEP amplitudes. The reduced DTI values seen in the SCI subjects are likely due to demyelination and axonal degeneration of spinal tracts, which are related to clinical and electrophysiological measures. A reduction in DTI values in regions remote from the injury site suggests their involvement with wallerian axonal degeneration. DTI can be used for the quantitative evaluation of the extent of spinal cord damage, and eventually to monitor the effects of future regeneration-inducing treatments. PMID:22150011
Petersen, Jens A; Wilm, Bertram J; von Meyenburg, Jan; Schubert, Martin; Seifert, Burkhardt; Najafi, Yousef; Dietz, Volker; Kollias, Spyridon
Background Pamidronate is a potent inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recently, the drug has been known to relieve bone pain. We hypothesized that direct epidural administration of pamidronate could have various advantages over oral administration with respect to dosage, side effects, and efficacy. Therefore, we evaluated the neuronal safety of epidurally-administered pamidronate. Methods Twenty-seven rats weighing 250-350 g were equally divided into 3 groups. Each group received an epidural administration with either 0.3 ml (3.75 mg) of pamidronate (group P), 0.3 ml of 40% alcohol (group A), or 0.3 ml of normal saline (group N). A Pinch-toe test, motor function evaluation, and histopathologic examination of the spinal cord to detect conditions such as chromatolysis, meningeal inflammation, and neuritis, were performed on the 2nd, 7th, and 21st day following administration of each drug. Results All rats in group A showed an abnormal response to the pinch-toe test and decreased motor function during the entire evaluation period. Abnormal histopathologic findings, including neuritis and meningeal inflammation were observed only in group A rats. Rats in group P, with the exception of 1, and group N showed no significant sensory/motor dysfunction over a 3-week observation period. No histopathologic changes were observed in groups P and N. Conclusions Direct epidural injection of pamidronate (about 12.5 mg/kg) showed no neurotoxic evidence in terms of sensory/motor function evaluation and histopathologic examination.
Lee, Pyung Bok; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Chul Joong; Shin, Hye Young; Lee, Seung Yun; Park, Jong Cook; Choi, Yun Suk; Kim, Chong Soo
Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with astrogliosis and inflammation. We previously reported that acute upregulation of a cluster of cell-cycle-related genes contributes to post-mitotic cell death and secondary damage after SCI. However, it remains unclear whether cell cycle activation continues more chronically and contributes to more delayed glial change. Here we examined expression of cell cycle-related proteins up to 4?months following SCI, as well as the effects of the selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs) inhibitor CR8, on astrogliosis and microglial activation in a rat SCI contusion model. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to moderate spinal cord contusion injury at T8 using a well-characterized weight-drop model. Tissue from the lesion epicenter was obtained 4?weeks or 4?months post-injury, and processed for protein expression and lesion volume. Functional recovery was assessed over the 4?months after injury. Results Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a marked continued upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins???including cyclin D1 and E, CDK4, E2F5 and PCNA???for 4?months post-injury that were highly expressed by GFAP+ astrocytes and microglia, and co-localized with inflammatory-related proteins. CR8 administrated systemically 3?h post-injury and continued for 7?days limited the sustained elevation of cell cycle proteins and immunoreactivity of GFAP, Iba-1 and p22PHOX???a key component of NADPH oxidase???up to 4?months after SCI. CR8 treatment significantly reduced lesion volume, which typically progressed in untreated animals between 1 and 4?months after trauma. Functional recovery was also significantly improved by CR8 treatment after SCI from week 2 through week 16. Conclusions These data demonstrate that cell cycle-related proteins are chronically upregulated after SCI and may contribute to astroglial scar formation, chronic inflammation and further tissue loss.
The treatment of acute and chronic pain is still deficient. The modulation of glial cells may provide novel targets to treat pain. We hypothesize that astrocytes and microglia participate in the initiation and maintenance of both, acute surgical and chronic neuropathic pain. Rats underwent paw incision, L5 nerve exposure or L5 nerve transection surgery. Behavioral mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey filaments. Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-ionized calcium binding adaptor protein, Iba-1 (microglia), and anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP (astrocytes) on day 1, 4 and 7 after surgery. Following paw incision and at spinal L5 segment GFAP expression was increased in laminae I-II and Iba1 in deep laminae on day 1, in the entire dorsal horn on day 4 and dissipate on day 7 after paw incision in parallel with the allodynia. L5 nerve transection induced mechanical allodynia from day 1 to 7 which correlated with Iba-1 increases on day 1, 4 (entire dorsal horn) and day 7 after nerve injury (deep laminae of the dorsal horn) at spinal L5 segment. Conversely, GFAP increased at later time points from day 4 (deep laminae) and on day 7 (entire dorsal horn). Our data demonstrates that astrocytes (GFAP expression) play a role in the initiation of acute pain and the maintenance of chronic pain while Iba-1 increases closely correlated with the early phase of neuropathic pain. Iba1 and GFAP increased rostrally, at L3 segment, after paw incision (day 4) and only Iba1 increased following L5 nerve transection (day 7).
Romero-Sandoval, Alfonso; Chai, Nu; Nutile-McMenemy, Nancy; DeLeo, Joyce A.
It has been demonstrated that the infusion of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has beneficial effects on acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The present study examined whether BMSC infusion into the CSF is effective for subacute (1- and 2-week post-injury), and/or chronic (4-week post-injury) SCI in rats. The spinal cord was contused by dropping a weight at the thoracic 8-9 levels. BMSCs cultured from GFP-transgenic rats of the same strain were injected three times (once weekly) into the CSF through the fourth ventricle, beginning at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. At 4 weeks after initial injection, the average BBB score for locomotor assessment increased from 1.0–3.5 points before injection to 9.0-10.9 points in the BMSC-injection subgroups, while, in the PBS (vehicle)-injection subgroups, it increased only from 0.5–4.0 points before injection to 3.0-5.1 points. Numerous axons associated with Schwann cells extended longitudinally through the connective tissue matrices in the astrocyte-devoid lesion without being blocked at either the rostral or the caudal borders in the BMSC-injection subgroups. A small number of BMSCs were found to survive within the spinal cord lesion in SCI of the 1-week post-injury at 2 days of injection, but none at 7 days. No BMSCs were found in the spinal cord lesion at 2 days or at 7 days in the SCI of the 2-week and the 4-week post-injury groups. In an in vitro experiment, BMSC-injected CSF promoted the survival and the neurite extension of cultured neurons more effectively than did the PBS-injected CSF. These results indicate that BMSCs had beneficial effects on locomotor improvement as well as on axonal regeneration in both subacute and chronic SCI rats, and the results also suggest that BMSCs might function as neurotrophic sources via the CSF.
Nakano, Norihiko; Nakai, Yoshiyasu; Seo, Tae-Beom; Homma, Tamami; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Nakatani, Toshio; Fukushima, Masanori; Hayashibe, Miki; Ide, Chizuka
Objectives: The first objective was to determine if chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in addition to optimal medical management resulted in clinically important changes in asthma-related outcomes in children. The second objective was to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale, randomized clinical trial in terms of recruitment, evaluation, treatment, and ability to deliver a sham SMT procedure. Study Design:
Gert Bronfort; Roni L. Evans; Paul Kubic; Patty Filkin
Background dataDepression is a common co-morbidity for patients with complaints of spinal pain, yet often goes undiagnosed in clinical practice. Depressed patients who are not identified do not receive a referral or recommendation for treatments that may help ease their total illness burden. Relative to the total outcomes of spine care this may increase costs, decrease overall functional outcomes, and
Thomas L. Walsh; Karen Homa; Brett Hanscom; Jon Lurie; Maria Grau Sepulveda; William Abdu
Aim: To evaluate the effect of hypogonadism on temporal characteristics of ventricular repolarization (VR) and QT\\/RR coherence in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Thirty-four men with SCI (>1 year postinjury) were studied. After clinical evaluation, 20 subjects were diagnosed as hypogonadal and 14 as eugonadal. QT and RT time, heart rate (HR), and Bazett QTc were determined from
Michael F. La Fountaine; Jill M. Wecht; Christopher M. Cirnigliaro; Steven C. Kirshblum; Ann M. Spungen; William A. Bauman
The long-term objective of this study is to develop neural prostheses for people with spinal cord injuries who are unable to voluntarily control their bladder. This feasibility study was performed in 22 adult cats. We implanted an array of microelectrodes into locations in the sacral spinal cord that are involved in the control of micturition reflexes. The effect of microelectrode stimulation was studied under light Propofol anesthesia at monthly intervals for up to 14 months. We found that electrical stimulation in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus at S2 level or in adjacent ventrolateral white matter produced bladder contractions insufficient for inducing voiding, while stimulation at or immediately dorsal to the dorsal gray commissure at S1 level produced strong (at least 20 mmHg) bladder contractions as well as strong (at least 40 mm Hg) external urethral sphincter relaxation, resulting in bladder voiding in 14 animals. In a subset of three animals, spinal cord transection was performed. For several months after the transection, intraspinal stimulation continued to be similarly or even more effective in inducing the bladder voiding as before the transection. We speculate that in the absence of the supraspinal connections, the plasticity in the local spinal circuitry played a role in the improved responsiveness to intraspinal stimulation.
Pikov, Victor; Bullara, Leo; McCreery, Douglas B.
Extensor spasms, which are a significant component of spasticity in spinal cord injury (SCI), are still incompletely understood. In this study, contributions of knee proprioceptors to the origination of extensor spasms were examined in fifteen subjects with SCI. Ramp and hold knee extension perturbations were imposed to one leg while the hip and ankle were held in an isometric position
Ming Wu; T. George Hornby; Jennifer Hilb; Brian D. Schmit
The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation in vitro and is prevalent throughout the brain and spinal cord. Its expression after injury, however, has not been examined. Thus, we used a spinal contusion model to examine the spatiotemporal expression of PPAR-? in naïve and injured spinal cords from adult rats. As previously reported, PPAR-? was expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes in uninjured spinal cords; PPAR-? was also detected in NG2 cells (potential oligodendrocyte progenitors) within the white matter and gray matter. After spinal cord injury (SCI), PPAR-? mRNA and protein were present early and increased over time. Overall PPAR-?+ cell numbers declined at 1 day post injury (dpi), likely reflecting neuron loss, and then rose through 14 dpi. A large proportion of NG2 cells expressed PPAR-? after SCI, especially along lesion borders. PPAR-?+ NG2 cell numbers were significantly higher than naive by 7 dpi and remained elevated through at least 28 dpi. PPAR-?+ oligodendrocyte numbers declined at 1 dpi and then increased over time such that >20% of oligodendrocytes expressed PPAR-? after SCI compared with ~10% in uninjured tissue. The most prominent increase in PPAR-?+ oligodendrocytes was along lesion borders where at least a portion of newly generated oligodendrocytes (bromode-oxyuridine +) were PPAR-?+. Consistent with its role in cellular differentiation, the early rise in PPAR-?+ NG2 cells followed by an increase in new PPAR-?+ oligodendrocytes suggests that this transcription factor may be involved in the robust oligodendrogenesis detected previously along SCI lesion borders.
Almad, Akshata; McTigue, Dana M.
BackgroundTherapy with diverse cell types has been proposed to regenerate spinal cord injuries seeking to minimize the consequences for the lives of chronic patients. The types considered are: mononuclear and mesenchymal adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and Schwann cells.
K. A. T. Carvalho; E. N. Vialle; G. H. G. Moreira; R. C. Cunha; R. B. Simeoni; J. C. Francisco; L. C. Guarita-Souza; L. Oliveira; L. Zocche; M. Olandoski
Background For adult scoliosis patients with chronic low back pain bracing is initially indicated before spinal surgery is considered. Until recently there has been a lack of research into the effect upon pain reductions in the mid and long-term. Promising results have been documented in short-term studies for the application of a sagittal re-alignment brace in patients with spinal deformities and along with pain; however mid-term and long-term results are not yet available. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mid-term effects of this brace with respect to pain control. Materials and methods 67 patients (58 females and 9 males) with chronic low back pain (> 24 months) and the diagnosis of scoliosis or hyperkyphosis were treated with a sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic brace™) between January 2006 and July 2007. The indication for this kind of brace treatment was derived from a positive sagittal re-alignment test (SRT) and the exclusion of successful conservative treatment during the last 24 months. The aim of this type of conservative intervention was to avoid surgery for chronic low back pain. Results The average pain intensity was measured on the Roland and Morris VRS (5 steps) before treatment. This was 3.3 (t1), at the time of brace adjustment it was 2.7 (t2) and after at an average observation time of 18 months it was 2.0 (t3). The differences were highly significant in the Wilcoxon test. Discussion Short-term measurements showed that a significant pain reduction is possible in chronic postural low back pain using a sagittal re-alignment brace inducing lumbar re-lordosation. In a preliminary report at adjustment (t2), highly significant improvements of pain intensity have also been demonstrated. At 6 months of treatment however, no improvement was measured. The improvement of the mid-term effects (18 months) found in this study compared to the preliminary report may be due to the changed approach to compliance: whilst the bracing standard was not changed; the patients in this study were obligated to wear the brace for a minimum of 20 hrs per day for the first 6 months of treatment. Conclusion The effect of the sagittal re-alignment brace leads to promising short-term improvements in patients with chronic low back pain and spinal deformities. Contrary to unspecific orthoses, which after a short period without persistent pain reduction are omitted by the patients, the sagittal re-alignment brace (physio-logic™ brace) leads to an effective reduction of pain intensity in mid-term even in patients who have stopped brace treatment after the initial 6 months of treatment. In conservative treatment of chronic low back pain specific approaches such as the sagittal re-alignment brace are indicated prior to considering the surgical options.
Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann, Mario
The high clinical relevance of models of incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a need to address the spontaneous neuroplasticity that underlies changes in functional activity that occur over time after SCI. There is accumulating evidence supporting long projecting propriospinal neurons as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention after SCI, but focus has remained primarily oriented toward study of descending pathways. Long ascending axons from propriospinal neurons at lower thoracic and lumbar levels that form inter-enlargement pathways are involved in forelimb-hindlimb coordination during locomotion and are capable of modulating cervical motor output. We used non-invasive magnetic stimulation to assess how a unilateral cervical (C5) spinal contusion might affect transmission in intact, long ascending propriospinal pathways, and influence spinal cord plasticity. Our results show that transmission is facilitated in this pathway on the ipsilesional side as early as 1 week post-SCI. We also probed for descending magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) and found them absent or greatly reduced on the ipsilesional side as expected. The frequency-dependent depression (FDD) of the H-reflex recorded from the forelimb triceps brachii was bilaterally decreased although Hmax/Mmax was increased only on the ipsilesional side. Behaviorally, stepping recovered, but there were deficits in forelimb–hindlimb coordination as detected by BBB and CatWalk measures. Importantly, epicenter sparing correlated to the amplitude of the MMEPs and locomotor recovery but it was not significantly associated with the inter-enlargement or segmental H-reflex. In summary, our results indicate that complex plasticity occurs after a C5 hemicontusion injury, leading to differential changes in ascending vs. descending pathways, ipsi- vs. contralesional sides even though the lesion was unilateral as well as cervical vs. lumbar local spinal networks.
Cote, Marie-Pascale; Detloff, Megan R.; Wade, Rodel E.; Lemay, Michel A.; Houle, John D.
This study determined the stability of self-reported clinical pain characteristics and pain-induced interference with sleep and daily activities in people with spinal cord injury. The study followed up a previous survey that identified clinical pain patterns (i.e., neuropathic pain below the level of injury; upper-limb pain in tetraplegia; and severe, persistent pain). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the present
Yenisel Cruz-Almeida; Alberto Martinez-Arizala; Eva G. Widerstrm-Noga
PROXIMAL spinal muscular atrophies represent the second most common fatal, autosomal recessive disorder after cystic fibrosis1. The childhood form is classically subdivided into three groups: acute Werdnig-Hoffmann (type I), intermediate Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (type II) and Kugelberg-Welander disease (type III). These different clinical forms have previously been attributed to either genetic heterogeneity or variable expression of different mutations at the same
J. Melki; S. Abdelhak; Peter Sheth; M. F. Bachelot; Peter Burlet; Alun Marcadet; J. Aicardi; Alun Barois; J. P. Carriere; M. Fardeau; D. Fontan; G. Ponsot; T. Billette; C. Angelini; C. Barbosa; G. Ferriere; G. Lanzi; Alun Ottolini; M. C. Babron; D. Cohen; Alun Hanauer; F. Clerget-Darpoux; M. Lathrop; Alun Munnich; J. Frezal
Background/objective: To determine the effects of locomotor training (LT) using body weight support (BWS), treadmill, and manual assistance on muscle activation, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition changes for an individual with motor complete spinal cord injury (AIS B), 1 year after injury. Methods: A man with chronic C6 AIS B (motor complete and sensory incomplete) spinal cord injury (SCI), 1 year after injury, completed 2 blocks of LT over a 9-month training period (35-session block followed by 8.6 weeks of no training and then a 62-session block). Results: Before training, muscle activation was minimal for any muscle examined, whereas after the 2 blocks of LT (97 sessions), hip and knee muscle activation patterns for the bilateral rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius were in phase with the kinematics. Mean EMG amplitude increased for all bilateral muscles and burst duration increased for rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles, whereas burst duration decreased for the biceps femoris after 62 LT sessions. Before LT, left biceps femoris had a pattern that reflected muscle stretch, whereas after training, muscle stretch of the left biceps femoris could not totally account for mean EMG amplitude or burst duration. After the 62 training sessions, total BMD decreased (1.54%), and regional BMD decreased (legs: 6.72%). Total weight increased, lean mass decreased (6.6%), and fat mass increased (7.4%) in the arms, whereas fat mass decreased (3.5%) and lean mass increased (4%) in the legs. Conclusions: LT can induce positive neural and body composition changes in a nonambulatory person with chronic SCI, indicating that neuromuscular plasticity can be induced by repetitive locomotor training after a motor complete SCI.
Forrest, Gail F; Sisto, Sue Ann; Barbeau, Hugues; Kirshblum, Steven C; Wilen, Janina; Bond, Quin; Bentson, Scott; Asselin, Pierre; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Harkema, Susan
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the spine can cause acute spinal cord compression in young patients. We report the CT and MRI findings in a histology-proven case of spinal ABC presenting with sudden paraplegia. Typical features of a spinal ABC at the thoracic level with considerable extension into the posterior epidural space and cord compression were demonstrated. Special note was
Monica S. M. Chan; Yiu-Chung Wong; Ming-Keung Yuen; Dicky Lam
Summary Sacral epidural abscesses are rare infections, often managed with open surgery, especially in the presence of acute neurological symptoms. We report a novel approach for minimally invasive drainage of sacral epidural abscesses. A 51-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of low back pain, generalized muscle pain, pain across several large joints, low-grade fever, and weakness of both legs for ten days. MRI of the patient's lumbosacral spine showed osteomyelitis involving his L5, S1 vertebrae, L5-S1 discitis, as well as anterior and posterior epidural abscesses extending from L5-S1 disc space to the S2 vertebral level. Under CT fluoroscopic guidance a 20-gauge spinal needle was inserted into the sacral hiatus, parallel to the pelvic surface of the sacral canal, and directed cranially. A 0.18-gauge microwire was then advanced through the 20-gauge needle. The 20-gauge needle was exchanged over the guidewire for an 18-gauge blunt tipped needle which was curved to approximate the contours of the sacral canal. The curved needle was inserted through the sacral hiatus with its concavity initially facing upwards, and then rotated 180° to gain access to epidural abscess. Once anatomic access was established 5cc of thick purulent material was evacuated. The patient tolerated the procedure well, and no focal nerve root symptoms were noted following the procedure. Image guided aspiration of sacral epidural abscesses can be carried out in a safe and effective manner using CT fluoroscopy. Aspiration of these abscesses combined with intravenous antibiotics may be an alternative to open surgery in select patients.
Kostanian, V.J.; Mathews, M.S.
We present a case of a posterior epidural abscess at the thoracic vertebral level causing paraparesia in a young, healthy individual with no otherwise predisposing factors, with normal laboratory findings, as diagnosed using fat-suppressed MR imaging. Spinal epidural abscess is a rare condition, encountered mostly in the midthoracic or lower lumbar vertebral levels of elderly patients, that has a high mortality and morbidity (18-31%) when diagnosis and treatment is delayed. It is rarely spontaneous and is usually accompanied by spinal osteomyelitis. Diagnosis is rather easy in cases of vertebral osteomyelitis or when classical clinical, laboratory and imaging findings are present. However, cases of spontaneous development, with no predisposing factors, and lack of abscess suggesting clinical and laboratory findings may be a diagnostic challenge. In such cases, other posterior epidural masses such as schwannoma, neurofibroma, meningioma and hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Both the clinician and the radiology physician should have a high suspicion of epidural abscesses, because their early diagnosis and treatment is important. In addition to routine MR images, fat-suppressed MR images prove helpful in the diagnosis of spontaneous epidural abscesses by showing the inflammatory changes in the paraspinal area. PMID:20157473
Ergun, Tarkan; Lakadamyali, Hatice; Gokay, Ertan
Pont de dolor: a dual laminotomy technique for placing and securing an electrode in the epidural space and comments about anatomic variation that may complicate spinal cord stimulator electrode placement.
The objective of this report is to describe a surgical technique used successfully when a flat or paddle type spinal cord stimulator electrode cannot be properly positioned via a single laminotomy. Different and innovative surgical techniques useful in placement of spinal cord stimulators and analgesic infusion pump systems have not been well described. The prevalence of anatomic surgical abnormalities or variations that might present barriers to implantation of these devices is unknown but may be as high as 18% for revisions. A dual laminotomy technique can be useful and successful in positioning a flat spinal cord stimulator electrode that cannot be properly positioned via a single laminotomy approach. We report two patients who have been treated successfully with a dual laminotomy technique. PMID:22150966
Ball, Perry A; Fanciullo, Gilbert J
There are some reports regarding the inhibitory effect of pain on tolerance development to analgesic effect of opioids. The present study was designed to investigate whether the chronic formalin induced pain is able to reverse analgesic tolerance to morphine and to evaluate the expression of G(alpha i/o) and G(beta) subunits of G proteins in the context of chronic pain, development of morphine tolerance and their combination. Morphine tolerance was induced by chronic systemic (intraperitoneally, i.p.) or spinal (intrathecally, i.t.) administration of morphine to male Wistar rats weighing 200-240 g and analgesia was assessed using tail flick test. Chronic pain was induced by 4 daily intraplantar injections of 50 microl of 5% formalin. Lumbar spinal tissues were assayed for the expression of G(alpha i/o) and G(beta) proteins using "semiquantitative PCR" normalized to beta-actin gene expression. Results showed that chronic formalin induced pain could reduce and reverse the development of tolerance in rats that had received chronic (i.p. or i.t.) administration of morphine. Chronic administration of morphine did not change G(alpha i/o) gene expression, while chronic pain significantly increased its expression. The expression of G(beta), however, was increased after the chronic administration of morphine, but did not change after the induction of chronic pain. None of these increases were observed when morphine and formalin were administered at the same time. Due to synchronous development of morphine tolerance and changes in expression of G(beta), it may be concluded that the development of tolerance to analgesic effect of morphine is partially mediated by increase in G(beta) gene expression. The increase in G(alpha i/o) genes expression produced by chronic pain may facilitate the opioid signaling pathway and compensate for morphine-induced tolerance. PMID:16055216
Javan, Mohammad; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Motamadi, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Bahram
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects motor neurons. It is caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1). The SMN2 gene, which is the highly homologous SMN1 copy that is present in all the patients, is unable to prevent the disease. An SMN2 dosage method was applied to 45 patients with the three SMA types (I-III) and to four pairs of siblings with chronic SMA (II-III) and different phenotypes. Our results confirm that the SMN2 copy number plays a key role in predicting acute or chronic SMA. However, siblings with different SMA phenotypes show an identical SMN2 copy number and identical markers, indicating that the genetic background around the SMA locus is insufficient to account for the intrafamilial variability. In our results, age of onset appears to be the most important predictor of disease severity in affected members of the same family. Given that SMN2 is regarded as a target for potential pharmacological therapies in SMA, the identification of genetic factors other than the SMN genes is necessary to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease in order to implement additional therapeutic approaches. PMID:15981080
Cuscó, I; Barceló, M J; Rojas-García, R; Illa, I; Gámez, J; Cervera, C; Pou, A; Izquierdo, G; Baiget, M; Tizzano, E F
Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the treatment using acupuncture and spinal manipulation for a patient with a chronic tension-type headache and episodic migraines. Clinical Features A 32-year-old woman presented with headaches of 5 months' duration. She had a history of episodic migraine that began in her teens and had been controlled with medication. She had stopped taking the prescription medications because of gastrointestinal symptoms. A neurologist diagnosed her with mixed headaches, some migrainous and some tension type. Her headaches were chronic, were daily, and fit the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria of a chronic tension-type headache superimposed with migraine. Intervention and Outcome After 5 treatments over a 2-week period (the first using acupuncture only, the next 3 using acupuncture and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy), her headaches resolved. The patient had no recurrences of headaches in her 1-year follow-up. Conclusion The combination of acupuncture with chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy was a reasonable alternative in treating this patient's chronic tension-type headaches superimposed with migraine.
Ohlsen, Bahia A.
Pyogenic arthritis of lumber spinal facet joints is an extremely rare condition. There are only 40 reported cases worldwide. Most cases were associated with history of paravertebral injection, which was not found in our patient. At the time of hospital admission, he had no abnormal magnetic resonance image findings. Two weeks later, he developed pyogenic facet joint arthritis associated with paravertebral and epidural abscess. This report is the first to describe delayed presentation of pyogenic arthritis associated with paravertebral abscess and epidural infection. PMID:22164319
Rhyu, Kee-Won; Park, Sang-Eun; Ji, Jong-Hun; Park, In; Kim, Young-Yul
Brown-Sequard syndrome secondary to compression of the spinal cord by an epidural haematoma following minor trauma is rare. A 65-year-old woman presented with neck pain and sudden onset hemiplegia with contralateral anaesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a haematoma in the epidural space in the C3 to C5 levels. She underwent open-door laminoplasty for evacuation of the haematoma. At the 2-year follow-up, she had regained normal sensations and a neurological grade of 5/5. PMID:24366803
Kulkarni, Arvind G; Nag, Kushal; Shah, Sambhav
Objective To compare two forms of device-specific training – body-weight-supported (BWS) ambulation on a fixed track (TRK) and BWS ambulation on a treadmill (TM) – to comprehensive physical therapy (PT) for improving walking speed in persons with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Thirty-five adult subjects with a history of chronic SCI (>1 year; AIS ‘C’ or ‘D’) participated in a 13-week (1 hour/day; 3 days per week) training program. Subjects were randomized into one of the three training groups. Subjects in the two BWS groups trained without the benefit of additional input from a physical therapist or gait expert. For each training session, performance values and heart rate were monitored. Pre- and post-training maximal 10-m walking speed, balance, muscle strength, fitness, and quality of life were assessed in each subject. Results All three training groups showed significant improvement in maximal walking speed, muscle strength, and psychological well-being. A significant improvement in balance was seen for PT and TRK groups but not for subjects in the TM group. In all groups, post-training measures of fitness, functional independence, and perceived health and vitality were unchanged. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that persons with chronic, motor-incomplete SCI can improve walking ability and psychological well-being following a concentrated period of ambulation therapy, regardless of training method. Improvement in walking speed was associated with improved balance and muscle strength. In spite of the fact that we withheld any formal input of a physical therapist or gait expert from subjects in the device-specific training groups, these subjects did just as well as subjects receiving comprehensive PT for improving walking speed and strength. It is likely that further modest benefits would accrue to those subjects receiving a combination of device-specific training with input from a physical therapist or gait expert to guide that training.
Alexeeva, Natalia; Sames, Carol; Jacobs, Patrick L.; Hobday, Lori; DiStasio, Marcello M.; Mitchell, Sarah A.; Calancie, Blair
Objective To assess clinical determinants of systemic inflammation in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants As part of an epidemiologic study assessing SCI-related health conditions, 63 men with chronic SCI provided a blood sample and information regarding locomotive mode and personal habits. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure Plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Results The mean ± standard deviation age was 56±14y, and participants were assessed 21±13y after injury. Adjusting for heart disease, hypertension, and body mass index (BMI), the mean CRP in 12 motorized wheelchair users (5.11mg/L) was not significantly greater than 23 participants who used a manual wheelchair (2.19mg/L) (P=.085) but was significantly greater than the 17 who walked with an assistive device (1.41mg/L) (P=.005) and the 12 who walked independently (1.63mg/L) (P=.027). CRP was significantly greater in participants with obesity but was not related to age, smoking, or SCI level and severity. CRP was elevated in participants reporting a urinary tract infection (UTI) or pressure ulcer within a year, but adjustment for this did not account for the elevated CRP in motorized wheelchair users. Conclusions These results suggest that CRP in chronic SCI is independently related to locomotive mode, BMI, and a history of pressure ulcers and UTI. It is suggested that future studies in SCI investigate whether modifying these factors influence systemic inflammation and cardiovascular health.
Morse, Leslie R.; Stolzmann, Kelly; Nguyen, Hiep P.; Jain, Nitin B.; Zayac, Cara; Gagnon, David R.; Tun, Carlos G.; Garshick, Eric
Neuropathic pain is a common diabetic complication affecting 8–16% of diabetic patients. It is characterized by aberrant symptoms of spontaneous and stimulus-evoked pain including hyperalgesia and allodynia. Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been proposed as a factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes-related complications, including neuropathy. In the central nervous system, Mg is also a voltage-dependant blocker of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channels involved in abnormal processing of sensory information. We hypothesized that Mg deficiency might contribute to the development of neuropathic pain and the worsening of clinical and biological signs of diabetes and consequently, that Mg administration could prevent or improve its complications. We examined the effects of oral Mg supplementation (296 mg l?1 in drinking water for 3 weeks) on the development of neuropathic pain and on biological and clinical parameters of diabetes in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. STZ administration induced typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The diabetic rats also displayed mechanical hypersensitivity and tactile and thermal allodynia. The level of phosphorylated NMDA receptor NR1 subunit (pNR1) was higher in the spinal dorsal horn of diabetic hyperalgesic/allodynic rats. Magnesium supplementation failed to reduce hyperglycaemia, polyphagia and hypermagnesiuria, or to restore intracellular Mg levels and body growth, but increased insulinaemia and reduced polydipsia. Moreover, it abolished thermal and tactile allodynia, delayed the development of mechanical hypersensitivity, and prevented the increase in spinal cord dorsal horn pNR1. Thus, neuropathic pain symptoms can be attenuated by targeting the Mg-mediated blockade of NMDA receptors, offering new therapeutic opportunities for the management of chronic neuropathic pain.
Rondon, L J; Privat, A M; Daulhac, L; Davin, N; Mazur, A; Fialip, J; Eschalier, A; Courteix, C
The present study examined the antinociceptive effects of gelsemine, the principal alkaloid in Gelsemium sempervirens Ait. A single intrathecal injection of gelsemine produced potent and specific antinociception in formalin-induced tonic pain, bone cancer-induced mechanical allodynia, and spinal nerve ligation-induced painful neuropathy. The antinociception was dose-dependent, with maximal inhibition of 50% to 60% and ED50 values of 0.5 to 0.6 ?g. Multiple daily intrathecal injections of gelsemine for 7 days induced no tolerance to antinociception in the rat model of bone cancer pain. Spinal gelsemine was not effective in altering contralateral paw withdrawal thresholds, and had only a slight inhibitory effect on formalin-induced acute nociception. The specific antinociception of gelsemine in chronic pain was blocked dose-dependently by the glycine receptor (GlyR) antagonist strychnine with an apparent ID50 value of 3.8 ?g. Gelsemine concentration-dependently displaced H(3)-strychnine binding to the membrane fraction of rat spinal cord homogenates, with a 100% displacement and a Ki of 21.9?M. Gene ablation of the GlyR ?3 subunit (?3 GlyR) but not ?1 GlyR, by a 7-day intrathecal injection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ?3 GlyR or ?1 GlyR, nearly completely prevented gelsemine-induced antinociception in neuropathic pain. Our results demonstrate that gelsemine produces potent and specific antinociception in chronic pain states without induction of apparent tolerance. The results also suggest that gelsemine produces antinociception by activation of spinal ?3 glycine receptors, and support the notion that spinal ?3 glycine receptors are a potential therapeutic target molecule for the management of chronic pain. PMID:23886522
Zhang, Jing-Yang; Gong, Nian; Huang, Jin-Lu; Guo, Ling-Chen; Wang, Yong-Xiang
The nociceptive transmission under pathological chronic pain conditions involves transcriptional and/or translational alteration in spinal neurotransmitters and receptors expression, and modification of neuronal function. Studies indicate the involvement of MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated transcriptional deregulation in pathophysiology of acute and chronic pain. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term cross-organ colonic hypersensitivity in neonatally zymosan-induced cystitis is due to miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional suppression of the developing spinal GABAergic system. Cystitis was produced by intravesicular injection of zymosan (1% in saline) into the bladder during postnatal (P) days P14 through P16 and spinal dorsal horns (L6-S1) were collected either on P60 (unchallenge groups) or on P30 following a zymosan re-challenge on P29 (re-challenge groups). miRNA arrays and Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significant, but differential, upregulation of mature miR-181a in the L6-S1 spinal dorsal horns from zymosan-treated rats compared with saline controls in both unchallenge and re-challenge groups. The target gene analysis demonstrated multiple complementary binding sites in miR-181a for GABAA receptor subunit GABAA??1 gene with a miRSVR score of ?1.83. Increase in miR-181a concomitantly resulted in significant downregulation of GABAA??1 receptor subunit gene and protein expression in adult spinal cords from neonatal cystitis rats. Intrathecal administration of GABAA receptor agonist muscimol failed to attenuate viscero-motor response (VMR) to colon distension in neonatal cystitis rats, whereas, in adult zymosan-treated rats the drug produced significant decrease in VMR. These results support an integral role for miRNA-mediated transcriptional deregulation of GABAergic system in neonatal cystitis-induced chronic pelvic pain.
Sengupta, JN; Pochiraju, S; Kannampalli, P; Bruckert, M; Addya, S; Yadav, P; Miranda, A; Shaker, R; Banerjee, B
Background: Rescue strategies like changes in tilt of table are used to raise the level of an inadequate sensory block following intrathecal injection. Epidural volume extension (EVE) refers to an injection of normal saline through epidural catheter following an intrathecal block. It results in a rapid increase in the sensory level of subarachnoid block. Thus, it has been postulated that EVE may be used as a rescue strategy for an inadequate post-spinal sensory block. However, the minimum effective volume (MEV) of normal saline for EVE induced increase in level of spinal block has not been researched till date. We proposed to determine the MEV of normal saline required for EVE induced increase in post-spinal block sensory level. Materials and Methods: This prospective sequential allocation study was conducted in consenting adult males after institutional ethical committee approval scheduled for lower limb surgery under combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia, who had an inadequate level of sensory block. Herein, an inadequate level was defined as lower than T10 at 10 min after the intrathecal injection, with no ascent for two consecutive readings taken 2 min apart. The EVE was performed with normal saline injected through epidural catheter, and was considered successful if the level of sensory block increased by two or more dermatomal segments within 5 min of the injection. The volume of normal saline for EVE was decided by using the up-and-down method, with the first patient receiving 10 mL and a dosing interval of 1 mL in subsequent patients. The analysis was done using the formula of Dixon and Massey, which enabled calculation of the MEV with 95% CI. Quantitative parametric data is represented as mean ± SD and nonparametric data as median (range). Results and Conclusion: The MEV of normal saline to raise the level of sensory block by two or more dermatomal segments within 5 min of EVE is 7.4 mL (95% CI: 5.5-9.9 mL).
Tyagi, Asha; Kumar, Surendra; Salhotra, Rashmi; Sethi, Ashok Kumar
The erosion of the lumbar vertebral bodies by a chronic contained rupture of an infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare event. Chronic contained rupture can cause diagnostic difficulties as there are many clinical presentations, such as: back pain, sciatic pain or an expansive abdominal mass. The diagnosis is sometimes made following an incidental finding on radiological examination. Currently a CT scan is the gold standard diagnostic tool. The outcome following urgent surgical or endovascular repair is equivalent to that of an elective aneurysm repair. We report a case of a 59 year old man admitted for septic rupture of a cutaneous fistula resulting from a false aneurysm in the left groin. Pre-operative CT scan revealed a 6 cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, with chronic contained rupture. This had caused bone erosion of the vertebral body of the third lumbar vertebrae. PMID:16840951
Penard, J; Picquet, J; Jousset, Y; Blin, V; Papon, X; Enon, B
Background: Chronically compromised uterine perfusion may lead to placental insufficiency and subsequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Various therapeutic approaches (e.g. vasodilators, low-dose aspirin, intravenous glucose infusion, and hemodilution) are often of limited efficacy. Local anesthetics have been shown to improve placental blood flow in pre-eclamptic women. We hypothesized that epidural administration of local anesthetics might improve outcome in IUGR independent
D. Strümper; F. Louwen; M. E. Durieux; H. F. Gramke; J. Stuessel; D. Marcus-Soekarman; H. Van Aken; M. A. E. Marcus
The efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for patients with chronic painful osteoporotic compression fractures remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of PVP and conservative treatment (CT) for pain relief and functional outcome in patients with chronic compression fractures and persistent pain. Ninety-six patients with chronic compression fractures confirmed by MRI and persistent severe pain for 3 months or longer were prospectively randomly assigned to undergo PVP (n=46, Group A) or CT (n=50, Group B). The primary outcome was pain relief and functional outcome at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. A total of 89 patients (46 in Group A and 43 in Group B) completed the 1 year follow-up assessment. Pain relief and functional outcomes were significantly better in Group A than in Group B, as determined by visual analogue scale scores, Oswestry Disability Index scores, and Roland Morris Disability scores at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year (all p<0.001). The final clinical follow-up assessment indicated complete pain relief in 39 Group A patients and 15 Group B patients (p<0.001). PVP for patients with chronic compression fractures and persistent severe pain was associated with better pain relief and improved functional outcomes at 1 year compared to CT. PMID:24315046
Chen, Dong; An, Zhi-Quan; Song, Sa; Tang, Jian-Fei; Qin, Hui
An outpatient multimodal cognitive-behavioural treatment program (MMCBT) for chronic spinal pain was evaluated during an 18-month follow-up period. The treatment included a 1-day course for the patients' work supervisors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effect of the treatment program as well as the effect of a work supervisor-training program on the patients' return to work.
I. B Jensen; L Bodin
Motor evoked potentials (MEP) and cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEP) may help determine the corticospinal adaptations underlying chronic resistance training-induced increases in voluntary force production. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of chronic resistance training on corticospinal excitability (CE) of the biceps brachii during elbow flexion contractions at various intensities and the CNS site (i.e. supraspinal or spinal) predominantly responsible for any training-induced differences in CE. Fifteen male subjects were divided into two groups: 1) chronic resistance-trained (RT), (n?=?8) and 2) non-RT, (n?=?7). Each group performed four sets of ?5 s elbow flexion contractions of the dominant arm at 10 target forces (from 10%-100% MVC). During each contraction, subjects received 1) transcranial magnetic stimulation, 2) transmastoid electrical stimulation and 3) brachial plexus electrical stimulation, to determine MEP, CMEP and compound muscle action potential (Mmax) amplitudes, respectively, of the biceps brachii. All MEP and CMEP amplitudes were normalized to Mmax. MEP amplitudes were similar in both groups up to 50% MVC, however, beyond 50% MVC, MEP amplitudes were lower in the chronic RT group (p<0.05). CMEP amplitudes recorded from 10-100% MVC were similar for both groups. The ratio of MEP amplitude/absolute force and CMEP amplitude/absolute force were reduced (p<0.012) at all contraction intensities from 10-100% MVC in the chronic-RT compared to the non-RT group. In conclusion, chronic resistance training alters supraspinal and spinal excitability. However, adaptations in the spinal cord (i.e. motoneurone) seem to have a greater influence on the altered CE. PMID:24875495
Pearcey, Gregory E P; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C
Motor evoked potentials (MEP) and cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEP) may help determine the corticospinal adaptations underlying chronic resistance training-induced increases in voluntary force production. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of chronic resistance training on corticospinal excitability (CE) of the biceps brachii during elbow flexion contractions at various intensities and the CNS site (i.e. supraspinal or spinal) predominantly responsible for any training-induced differences in CE. Fifteen male subjects were divided into two groups: 1) chronic resistance-trained (RT), (n?=?8) and 2) non-RT, (n?=?7). Each group performed four sets of ?5 s elbow flexion contractions of the dominant arm at 10 target forces (from 10%–100% MVC). During each contraction, subjects received 1) transcranial magnetic stimulation, 2) transmastoid electrical stimulation and 3) brachial plexus electrical stimulation, to determine MEP, CMEP and compound muscle action potential (Mmax) amplitudes, respectively, of the biceps brachii. All MEP and CMEP amplitudes were normalized to Mmax. MEP amplitudes were similar in both groups up to 50% MVC, however, beyond 50% MVC, MEP amplitudes were lower in the chronic RT group (p<0.05). CMEP amplitudes recorded from 10–100% MVC were similar for both groups. The ratio of MEP amplitude/absolute force and CMEP amplitude/absolute force were reduced (p<0.012) at all contraction intensities from 10–100% MVC in the chronic-RT compared to the non-RT group. In conclusion, chronic resistance training alters supraspinal and spinal excitability. However, adaptations in the spinal cord (i.e. motoneurone) seem to have a greater influence on the altered CE.
Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Power, Kevin E.; Button, Duane C.
To assess the prolongation of epidural bupivacaine by hyaluronic acid viscous formulations we designed a cross-over study in rabbits. Different doses of bupivacaine (3 or 6 mg) either as a solution (bupivacaine hydrochloride), or as viscous formulations with hyaluronic acid (bupivacaine base and bupivacaine hydrochloride) were administered in a rabbit model of epidural anesthesia. In the first part of the study, in vitro release characteristics were determined. Then pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic profiles of each bupivacaine formulation were studied. The rank order release rate of bupivacaine in vitro was always hydrochloride solution > viscous physical mixture of bupivacaine with hyaluronic acid > viscous ionic complex of bupivacaine base with hyaluronic acid. Onset time of epidural anesthesia was similar whatever the formulation of bupivacaine used. We did not find any blockade prolongation when 3mg bupivacaine was administered, but significant blockade prolongations were observed with viscous formulations incorporating 6 mg bupivacaine. The observed reduction in the absorption rate of bupivacaine into the systemic circulation for both viscous hyaluronic formulations after 6 mg of bupivacaine may explain the prolongation of spinal effects. Drug release and duration of action were found to be viscosity controlled as linear relationships were found between pharmacodynamic effects and viscosity. Our results were in accordance with those reported with bupivacaine-cyclodextrin complex, another formulation with a molecular dispersion of the drug, resulting in a moderate prolongation of action. PMID:15019074
Dollo, Gilles; Malinovsky, Jean-Marc; Péron, Alain; Chevanne, François; Pinaud, Michel; Le Verge, Roger; Le Corre, Pascal
To date, few treatment strategies applying cellular transplantation to the chronically injured spinal cord have yielded significant functional improvement in animal experiments. Here we report that significant improvement of locomotor function was achieved in rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) by the application of combination treatments with tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can activate the central pattern generator, inducing active weight-supported stepping. Contusion injury (25 mm) to spinal cord T10 was produced by using the NYU impactor device in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Rats in 2 of 4 groups with SCI received basic treatments (scar ablation followed by transplantation of lamina propria of olfactory mucosa and cultured olfactory ensheathing cells into the lesion cavity) 6 weeks after SCI. Rats both with and without basic treatments were subjected to TANES one week after secondary surgery or 7 weeks after SCI. Sixteen weeks after secondary surgery or 22 weeks after SCI rats in two groups receiving TANES significantly improved their functional recovery compared with those without TANES, when evaluated with BBB open field rating scale (p<0.01). Among them, however, rats with basic treatments performed better than those without basic treatments. TANES may contribute to the activity-dependent plasticity below the injury level, which is critical for functional recovery. Additionally, TANES may promote axonal regeneration, including those from supraspinal level. Since TANES demonstrated considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in rat model, it would suggest a new strategy for chronic SCI. PMID:22516110
Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; Holmberg, Eric G
PURPOSE Spinal teratomas comprise a rare subset of spinal cord tumors, and here, we describe an even rarer childhood thoracic extradural–intracanalicular teratoma. The clinical presentation, management, and pathophysiology of these tumors are reviewed to promote recognition and guide treatment of these lesions. METHODS We report the case of a 21-month-old boy who presented with marked spasticity, as well as failure to ambulate and meet motor milestones. Additionally, we provide a literature review of spinal teratomas, including their clinical presentation, work-up, pathophysiology, and underlying genetics. Results An MRI of the spine revealed a large dorsal epidural tumor extending from T3 to T10 with heterogeneous contrast enhancement and severe spinal cord compression. The tumor was resected revealing a cystic mass with tissue resembling hair, muscle, as well as cartilage; pathology confirmed the diagnosis of teratoma. Gross total resection was achieved, and the child eventually gained ambulatory function. CONCLUSIONS Given that spinal teratomas are rare entities that can present with significant neurologic compromise, they must remain on clinicians’ differentials. Unfortunately, the exact origin of these tumors remains inconclusive and requires further investigation.
Quon, Jennifer L.; Grant, Ryan A.; Huttner, Anita J.; Duncan, Charles C.
Background The primary site of action of pregabalin, i.e. the ?-2-? subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, is located at the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Therefore, the epidural administration of pregabalin could have advantages over oral administration. However, the possibility of its neurotoxicity should be excluded before any attempt at epidural administration. We evaluated the neuronal safety of epidurally-administered pregabalin by observing the sensory/motor changes and examining the histopathology of spinal cord in rats. Methods Sixty rats of 180-230 g were divided into three groups; 3 mg of pregabalin dissolved in 0.3 ml saline (group P, n = 20), 0.3 ml 40% alcohol (group A, n = 20), or 0.3 ml normal saline (group N, n = 20) was administered epidurally to the rats in each group. Pinch-toe test, motor function evaluation, and histopathologic examination of vacuolation, chromatolysis, meningeal inflammation, and neuritis were performed at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 21st day after each epidural administration. Results All rats enrolled in group P, like those in group N, showed neither sensory/motor dysfunction nor any histopathological abnormality over the 3-week observation period. In contrast, in group A, 80% of the rats showed abnormal response to the pinch-toe test and all rats showed decreased motor function during the entire evaluation period. In addition, all histopathologic findings of neurotoxicity were observed exclusively in group A. Conclusions The epidurally administered pregabalin (about 15 mg/kg) did not cause any neurotoxic evidence, in terms of both sensory/motor function evaluation and histopathological examination in rats.
Lee, Jeong Rim; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Choe, Gheeyoung; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Hyo Min; Kim, Eunjung
We present the technique of combined posterior decompression and spinal instrumentation, and surgical (open) vertebroplasty using a novel system called vertebral body stenting (VBS) during a single session in a patient with metastatic vertebral and epidural cauda equina compression. PMID:20082355
Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Starantzis, Konstantinos; Korres, Demetrios S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J
Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to manage chronic intractable neuropathic pain and to evaluate the adverse events and Ontario-specific economic profile of this technology. Clinical Need SCS is a reversible pain therapy that uses low-voltage electrical pulses to manage chronic, intractable neuropathic pain of the trunk or limbs. Neuropathic pain begins or is caused by damage or dysfunction to the nervous system and can be difficult to manage. The prevalence of neuropathic pain has been estimated at about 1.5% of the population in the United States and 1% of the population in the United Kingdom. These prevalence rates are generalizable to Canada. Neuropathic pain is extremely difficult to manage. People with symptoms that persist for at least 6 months or who have symptoms that last longer than expected for tissue healing or resolution of an underlying disease are considered to have chronic pain. Chronic pain is an emotional, social, and economic burden for those living with it. Depression, reduced quality of life (QOL), absenteeism from work, and a lower household income are positively correlated with chronic pain. Although the actual number is unknown, a proportion of people with chronic neuropathic pain fail to obtain pain relief from pharmacological therapies despite adequate and reasonable efforts to use them. These people are said to have intractable neuropathic pain, and they are the target population for SCS. The most common indication for SCS in North America is chronic intractable neuropathic pain due to failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), a term that describes persistent leg or back and leg pain in patients who have had back or spine surgery. Neuropathic pain due to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which can develop in the distal aspect of a limb a minor injury, is another common indication. To a lesser extent, chronic intractable pain of postherpetic neuralgia, which is a persistent burning pain and hyperesthesia along the distribution of a cutaneous nerve after an attack of herpes zoster, is also managed with SCS. For each condition, SCS is considered as a pain management therapy only after conventional pain therapies, including pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and surgical treatments, if applicable, have been attempted and have failed. The Technology The SCS technology consists of 3 implantable components: a pulse generator, an extension cable, and a lead (a small wire). The pulse generator is the power source for the spinal cord stimulator. It generates low-voltage electrical pulses. The extension cable connects the pulse generator to the lead. The lead is a small, insulated wire that has a set of electrodes at one end. The lead is placed into the epidural space on the posterior aspect of the spinal cord, and the electrodes are positioned at the level of the nerve roots innervating the painful area. An electrical current from the electrodes induces a paresthesia, or a tingling sensation that masks the pain. Before SCS is initiated, candidates must have psychological testing to rule out major psychological illness, drug habituation, and issues of secondary gain that can negatively influence the success of the therapy. Successful candidates will have a SCS test stimulation period (trial period) to assess their responsiveness to SCS. The test stimulation takes about 1 week to complete, and candidates who obtain at least 50% pain relief during this period are deemed suitable to receive a permanent implantation of a spinal cord stimulator Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) reviewed all published health technology assessments of spinal cord stimulation. Following this, a literature search was conducted from 2000 to January, 2005 and a systematic review of the literature was completed. The primary outcome for the systematic review was pain relief. Secondary outcomes included functional status and quality of life. After applying the predetermined inclusion and exclus
Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) display multiple symptoms, such as chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal pain sensation may be the most serious of these symptoms; however, its pathophysiology remains unknown. To provide insights into the molecular basis underlying abnormal pain in CFS and FMS, we used a multiple continuous stress (CS) model in rats, which were housed in a cage with a low level of water (1.5 cm in depth). The von Frey and Randall-Seritto tests were used to evaluate pain levels. Results showed that mechanical allodynia at plantar skin and mechanical hyperalgesia at the anterior tibialis (i.e., muscle pain) were induced by CS loading. Moreover, no signs of inflammation and injury incidents were observed in both the plantar skin and leg muscles. However, microglial accumulation and activation were observed in L4-L6 dorsal horn of CS rats. Quantification analysis revealed a higher accumulation of microglia in the medial part of Layers I-IV of the dorsal horn. To evaluate an implication of microglia in pain, minocycline was intrathecally administrated (via an osmotic pump). Minocycline significantly attenuated CS-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. These results indicated that activated microglia were involved in the development of abnormal pain in CS animals, suggesting that the pain observed in CFS and FMS patients may be partly caused by a mechanism in which microglial activation is involved. GLIA 2014;62:1407-1417. PMID:24852223
Yasui, Masaya; Yoshimura, Takashi; Takeuchi, So; Tokizane, Kyohei; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide; Kiyama, Hiroshi
Each year, there are an estimated 12?000 individuals who sustain a spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of SCI and its sequelae has over the past 50 years led to the development of medical treatments (especially urologic) that have enhanced short- and long-term survival from these injuries. The prevalence of individuals with SCI in this country is ~250?000 individuals; and beyond the incalculable personal consequences of these devastating neurologic injuries, substantial direct and indirect societal costs result from the sequelae of SCI including paralysis, sensory loss, chronic pain, decubiti and bladder and/or bowel incontinence. The purpose of this treatise is to review the allopathic and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) literature available through MEDLINE, PubMed and eCAM search engines that discuss the potential uses of acupuncture to treat acute and chronic spinal cord injuries and their sequelae, and present the neurophysiologic mechanisms for acupuncture's beneficial effects. There is evidence that use of electroacupuncture in acute SCI may significantly improve long-term neurologic recovery from these injuries both in terms of motor, sensory and bowel/bladder function with essentially no risk. Acupuncture may even improve neurourologic function in individuals with chronic SCI, and help with management with chronic pain associated with these injuries. PMID:19244295
Dorsher, Peter T; McIntosh, Peter M
Each year, there are an estimated 12?000 individuals who sustain a spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of SCI and its sequelae has over the past 50 years led to the development of medical treatments (especially urologic) that have enhanced short- and long-term survival from these injuries. The prevalence of individuals with SCI in this country is ~250?000 individuals; and beyond the incalculable personal consequences of these devastating neurologic injuries, substantial direct and indirect societal costs result from the sequelae of SCI including paralysis, sensory loss, chronic pain, decubiti and bladder and/or bowel incontinence. The purpose of this treatise is to review the allopathic and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) literature available through MEDLINE, PubMed and eCAM search engines that discuss the potential uses of acupuncture to treat acute and chronic spinal cord injuries and their sequelae, and present the neurophysiologic mechanisms for acupuncture's beneficial effects. There is evidence that use of electroacupuncture in acute SCI may significantly improve long-term neurologic recovery from these injuries both in terms of motor, sensory and bowel/bladder function with essentially no risk. Acupuncture may even improve neurourologic function in individuals with chronic SCI, and help with management with chronic pain associated with these injuries.
Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.
An 80-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted due to right-handed muscle weakness. The patient presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome, with complete paralysis of the right lower limb along with a loss of pain and temperature sensations in the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cervical epidural abscess, and accompanying edema or inflammation of the right side of the spinal cord at the C5 level. She underwent drainage and evacuation of the spinal abscess, followed by intravenous antibiotic administration. These interventions ameliorated the neurological deficits. The present case suggests the importance of epidural abscess as a rare pathogenetic cause of Brown-Sequard syndrome in type 2 diabetes. PMID:20647654
Tamori, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Suwa, Hideyuki; Ohno, Kyota; Nishimoto, Yuki; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Asada, Masahiro; Kita, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Masaharu
PURPOSE: Sacral spinal nerve stimulation is a new therapeutic approach for patients with severe fecal incontinence owing to functional deficits of the external anal sphincter. It aims to use the morphologically intact anatomy to recruit residual function. This study evaluates the long-term results of the first patients treated with this novel approach applying two techniques of sacral spinal nerve stimulator
Klaus E. Matzel; Uwe Stadelmaier; Markus Hohenfellner; Werner Hohenberger
Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced interlimb coordination, and impaired balance are the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years, the application of KinesioTaping (KT) has been proposed to enhance sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity by proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. Because no studies have examined KT-based techniques in SCI subjects, our goal was to analyze the effects of ankle joint KT on spasticity, balance, and gait. Materials and Methods: A randomized crossover case control design was used to compare the effects of KT and conventional nonelastic silk tape (ST) in 11 chronic SCI subjects, AIS level D, with soleus/gastrocnemius (S/G) muscle spasticity and balance and gait impairments. Treatment: 48 h of treatment with KT or ST was followed by 48 h with the other technique after 1 week. A single Y-strip of Cure© tape (KT) and ST was to the S and G muscles with 0% stretch. Before and 48 h after of application of KT and ST, clinical data on the range of motion (ROM), spasticity, clonus, pain, balance, and gait were collected. Stabilometric platform assessment of center of pressure (COP) movements; bidimensional gait analysis; and recording of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the S, G, and tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis lungus muscles were also performed. Results: Only KT had significant effects on spasticity (p < 0.05), clonus (p < 0.001) and COP movements (p < 0.05), kinematic gait parameters (p < 0.001), and EMG activity (p < 0.001). Comparison between ST and KT improvements pointed out significant differences as concerns ROM (p < 0.001), spasticity (p < 0.001), clonus (p < 0.001), pain (p < 0.001), COP parameters (p < 0.05), and most kinematic gait data (p < 0.05). Discussion: Short-term application of KT reduces spasticity and pain and improves balance and gait in chronic SCI subjects. Although these data are promising, they require confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.
Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco
Epidural analgesia is an important intervention in patients with pain after surgery. This article presents a brief overview of the anatomy of the epidural space and the physiology of pain transmission, including the action of narcotics in pain relief. The importance of written nursing protocols and in-service education for nursing staff members is discussed as being a necessary prerequisite for the safe use of epidural analgesia. A flow diagram with rationale illustrates the epidural injection technique. Nursing care of patients receiving epidural narcotics is detailed. The discussion emphasizes the management of potential side effects from epidural narcotics (respiratory depression, urinary retention, pruritus, pain on injection, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting) and includes information on the use of a narcotic antagonist. Recommendations are made for preoperative and postoperative teaching of the patient and family. A variety of tools for assessing patients' pain levels are described, and a comprehensive nursing care plan with nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions is provided. PMID:2647676
Olsson, G L; Leddo, C C; Wild, L
The nociceptive transmission under pathological chronic pain conditions involves transcriptional and/or translational alteration in spinal neurotransmitters, receptor expressions, and modification of neuronal functions. Studies indicate the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) - mediated transcriptional deregulation in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic pain. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term cross-organ colonic hypersensitivity in neonatal zymosan-induced cystitis is due to miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional suppression of the developing spinal GABAergic system. Cystitis was produced by intravesicular injection of zymosan (1% in saline) into the bladder during postnatal (P) days P14 through P16 and spinal dorsal horns (L6-S1) were collected either on P60 (unchallenged groups) or on P30 after a zymosan re-challenge on P29 (re-challenged groups). miRNA arrays and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed significant, but differential, up-regulation of mature miR-181a in the L6-S1 spinal dorsal horns from zymosan-treated rats compared with saline-treated controls in both the unchallenged and re-challenged groups. The target gene analysis demonstrated multiple complementary binding sites in miR-181a for GABA(A) receptor subunit GABA(A?-1) gene with a miRSVR score of -1.83. An increase in miR-181a concomitantly resulted in significant down-regulation of GABA(A?-1) receptor subunit gene and protein expression in adult spinal cords from rats with neonatal cystitis. Intrathecal administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol failed to attenuate the viscero-motor response (VMR) to colon distension in rats with neonatal cystitis, whereas in adult zymosan-treated rats the drug produced significant decrease in VMR. These results support an integral role for miRNA-mediated transcriptional deregulation of the GABAergic system in neonatal cystitis-induced chronic pelvic pain. PMID:23273104
Sengupta, Jyoti N; Pochiraju, Soumya; Pochiraju, Soumiya; Kannampalli, Pradeep; Bruckert, Mitchell; Addya, Sankar; Yadav, Priyanka; Miranda, Adrian; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani
Continuous spinal anaesthesia combines the advantages of single-dose spinal anaesthesia, rapid onset and a high degree of success, with those of a continuous technique. The introduction of micro-catheters invigorated interest in the technique and allowed its expansion to additional populations and surgical procedures. However, multiple cases of cauda equina syndrome associated with micro-catheters and (primarily) hyperbaric lidocaine solution led to withdrawal of micro-catheters from the US market, casting doubt over the safety of continuous spinal anaesthesia as a whole. A decade after these events it is possible to look back at the experience with continuous spinal anaesthesia for operative anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia and to compare it with the available alternatives. From this perspective, continuous spinal anaesthesia remains a useful and safe technique. Future research should focus on the comparison of continuous spinal anaesthesia with the combined spinal/epidural technique and the use of newer spinal agents. PMID:14529010
Bevacqua, Brian K
A spinal cord stimulation (SCS) trial was attempted to alleviate left knee pain in a patient with spinal fusion from T12 to L4. Good paresthesia coverage for the knee pain was attained with SCS. However, while removing the needle used for electrode placement, the needle became fixed in the bony supplementary tissue. Moreover, while attempting to remove the needle using Kelly forceps, the hub of the needle became blocked. Without the hub, we had no choice but to use a pneumatic drill for removing the needle. Accordingly, the supplementary bone tissue was drilled under real-time imaging, using a pneumatic drill with a 3.2-mm drill bit, and another epidural needle was inserted through the hole. We consider that, in patients with spinal fusion, making a borehole with a pneumatic drill for introducing the epidural needle for percutaneous SCS electrode placement may be advisable in order to avoid the above-mentioned difficulties. PMID:22215091
Park, Sung-Chun; Kim, Kyung-Hoon
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle vibration applied to the quadriceps has potential for augmenting\\u000a muscle activity during gait in spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals. The effects of muscle vibration on muscle activity during\\u000a robotic-assisted walking were measured in 11 subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) that could tolerate weight-supported walking,\\u000a along with five neurologically
David Cotey; T. George Hornby; Keith E. Gordon; Brian D. Schmit
Epidural analgesia is regarded as the gold method for controlling post-thoracotomy pain. Intercostal nerve cryoanalgesia can also produce satisfactory analgesic effects, but is suspected to increase the incidence of chronic pain. However, randomized controlled trials comparing these two methods for post-thoracotomy acute pain analgesic effects and chronic pain incidents have not been conducted previously. We studied 107 adult patients, allocated randomly to thoracic epidural bupivacaine and morphine or intercostal nerve cryoanalgesia. Acute pain scores and opioid-related side effects were evaluated for three postoperative days. Chronic pain information, including the incidence, severity, and allodynia-like pain, was acquired on the first, third, sixth and twelfth months postoperatively. There was no significant difference on numeral rating scales (NRS) at rest or on motion between the two groups during the three postoperative days. The patient satisfaction results were also similar between the groups. The side effects, especially mild pruritus, were reported more often in the epidural group. Both groups showed high incidence of chronic pain (42.1-72.1%), and no significance between the groups. The incidence of allodynia-like pain reported in cryo group was higher than that in Epidural group on any postoperative month, with significance on the sixth and the twelfth months postoperatively (P<0.05). More patients rated their chronic pain intensity on moderate and severe in cryo group and interfered with daily life (P<0.05). Both thoracic epidural analgesia and intercostal nerve cryoanalgesia showed satisfactory analgesia for post-thoracotomy acute pain. The incidence of post-thoracotomy chronic pain is high. Cryoanalgesia may be a factor that increases the incidence of neuropathic pain. PMID:17870625
Ju, Hui; Feng, Yi; Yang, Ba-Xian; Wang, Jun
A 73-year-old Japanese man developed chronic intractable itching due to prurigo nodularis. High-dose glucocorticoid ointment failed, and the treatment resulted in poor glycemic control. Repeated scratching caused hematogenous bacterial dissemination via cutaneous injuries, resulting in the formation of iliopsoas and spinal epidural abscesses that required long-term antibiotic treatment. Pregabalin was administered to treat the pruritus, and a considerable improvement was observed. A reduction in the dose and intensity of the topical corticosteroids improved the patient's glycemic control, resulting in the complete resolution of the abscesses. Pregabalin significantly improved the patient's pruritus and decreased the risk of infection. PMID:24292753
Imai, Kenjiro; Kishimoto, Miyako; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Ihana, Noriko; Ono, Kanako; Hachiya, Remi; Inoue, Kaori; Goto, Maki; Goto, Atsushi; Noto, Hiroshi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko
Background Peri-spinal subarachnoid (intrathecal; i.t.) injection of non-viral naked plasmid DNA encoding the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 (pDNA-IL-10) suppresses chronic neuropathic pain in animal models. However, two sequential i.t. pDNA injections are required within a discrete 5 to 72-hour period for prolonged efficacy. Previous reports identified phagocytic immune cells present in the peri-spinal milieu surrounding the i.t injection site that may play a role in transgene uptake resulting in subsequent IL-10 transgene expression. Methods In the present study, we aimed to examine whether factors known to induce pro-phagocytic anti-inflammatory properties of immune cells improve i.t. IL-10 transgene uptake using reduced naked pDNA-IL-10 doses previously determined ineffective. Both the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, and the hexose sugar, D-mannose, were factors examined that could optimize i.t. pDNA-IL-10 uptake leading to enduring suppression of neuropathic pain as assessed by light touch sensitivity of the rat hindpaw (allodynia). Results Compared to dexamethasone, i.t. mannose pretreatment significantly and dose-dependently prolonged pDNA-IL-10 pain suppressive effects, reduced spinal IL-1? and enhanced spinal and dorsal root ganglia IL-10 immunoreactivity. Macrophages exposed to D-mannose revealed reduced proinflammatory TNF-?, IL-1?, and nitric oxide, and increased IL-10 protein release, while IL-4 revealed no improvement in transgene uptake. Separately, D-mannose dramatically increased pDNA-derived IL-10 protein release in culture supernatants. Lastly, a single i.t. co-injection of mannose with a 25-fold lower pDNA-IL-10 dose produced prolonged pain suppression in neuropathic rats. Conclusions Peri-spinal treatment with D-mannose may optimize naked pDNA-IL-10 transgene uptake for suppression of allodynia, and is a novel approach to tune spinal immune cells toward pro-phagocytic phenotype for improved non-viral gene therapy.
Abstract Complications of spinal cord injury in males include losing brainstem control of pudendal nerve–innervated perineal muscles involved in erection and ejaculation. We previously described, in adult male rats, a bulbospinal pathway originating in a discrete area within the medullary gigantocellularis (GiA/Gi), and lateral paragigantocellularis (LPGi) nuclei, which when electrically microstimulated unilaterally, produces a bilateral inhibition of pudendal motoneuron reflex circuitry after crossing to the contralateral spinal cord below T8. Microstimulation following a long-term lateral hemisection, however, revealed reflex inhibition from both sides of the medulla, suggesting the development or unmasking of an injury-induced bulbospinal pathway crossing the midline cranial to the spinal lesion. In the present study, we investigated this pathway anatomically using the transsynaptic neuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) injected unilaterally into the bulbospongiosus muscle in uninjured controls, and ipsilateral to a chronic (1–2 months) unilateral lesion of the lateral funiculus. At 4.75 days post-injection, PRV-labeled cells were found bilaterally in the GiA/Gi/LPGi with equal side-to-side labeling in uninjured controls, and with significantly greater labeling contralateral to the lesion/injection in lesioned animals. The finding of PRV-labeled neurons on both sides of the medulla after removing the mid-thoracic spinal pathway on one side provides anatomical evidence for the bilaterality in both the brainstem origin and the lumbosacral pudendal circuit termination of the spared lateral funicular bulbospinal pathway. This also suggests that this bilaterality may contribute to the quick functional recovery of bladder and sexual functions observed in animals and humans with lateral hemisection injury.
Chadha, Harpreet K.; Dugan, Victoria P.; Gupta, Daya S.; Ferrero, Sunny L.; Hubscher, Charles H.
Background It is unclear which individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury best respond to body-weight–supported treadmill training. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that predict whether a person with motor incomplete spinal cord injury will respond to body-weight–supported treadmill training. Design This was a prognostic study with a one-group pretest-posttest design. Methods Demographic, clinical, and electrophysiological measurements taken prior to training were examined to determine which measures best predicted improvements in walking speed in 19 individuals with chronic (>7 months postinjury), motor-incomplete spinal cord injuries (ASIA Impairment Scale categories C and D, levels C1–L1). Results Two initial measures correlated significantly with improvements in walking speed: (1) the ability to volitionally contract a muscle, as measured by the lower-extremity manual muscle test (LE MMT) (r=.72), and (2) the peak locomotor electromyographic (EMG) amplitude in the legs (r=.56). None of the demographics (time since injury, age, body mass index) were significantly related to improvements in walking speed, nor was the clinical measure of balance (Berg Balance Scale). Further analysis of LE MMT scores showed 4 key muscle groups were significantly related to improvements in walking speed: knee extensors, knee flexors, ankle plantar flexors, and hip abductors (r=.82). Prediction using the summed MMT scores from those muscles and peak EMG amplitude in a multivariable regression indicated that peak locomotor EMG amplitude did not add significantly to the prediction provided by the LE MMT alone. Change in total LE MMT scores from the beginning to the end of training was not correlated with a change in walking speed over the same period. Limitations The sample size was limited, so the results should be considered exploratory. Conclusions The results suggest that preserved muscle strength in the legs after incomplete spinal cord injury, as measured by MMT, allows for improvements in walking speed induced by locomotor training.
Norton, Jonathan; Nevett-Duchcherer, Jennifer; Roy, Francois D.; Gross, Douglas P.; Gorassini, Monica A.
Background: Studies have shown that Integrated Yoga reduces pain, disability, anxiety and depression and increases spinal flexibility and quality-of-life in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of two yoga practices namely laghu shankha prakshalana (LSP) kriya, a yogic colon cleansing technique and back pain specific asanas (Back pain special technique [BST]) on pain, disability, spinal flexibility and state anxiety in patients with CLBP. Materials and Methods: In this randomized control (self as control) study, 40 in-patients (25 were males, 15 were females) between 25 and 70 years (44.05 ± 13.27) with CLBP were randomly assigned to receive LSP or BST sessions. The measurements were taken immediately before and after each session of either of the practices (30 min) in the same participant. Randomization was used to decide the day of the session (3rd or 5th day after admission) to ensure random distribution of the hang over effect of the two practices. Statistical analysis was performed using the repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Significant group * time interaction (P < 0.001) was observed in 11 point numerical rating scale, spinal flexibility (on Leighton type Goniometer) and (straight leg raise test in both legs), Oswestry Disability Index, State Anxiety (XI component of Spieldberger's state and trait anxiety inventory. There was significantly (P < 0.001, between groups) better reduction in LSP than BST group on all variables. No adverse effects were reported by any participant. Conclusion: Clearing the bowel by yoga based colon cleansing technique (LSP) is safe and offers immediate analgesic effect with reduced disability, anxiety and improved spinal flexibility in patients with CLBP.
Haldavnekar, Richa Vivek; Tekur, Padmini; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao
Objective Retrospective analysis to compare the effect and complication of epidural patient-controlled analgesia (epidural PCA) with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) for the treatment of the post-operative pain after posterior lumbar instrumented fusion. Methods Sixty patients who underwent posterior lumbar instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disease at our institution from September 2007 to January 2008 were enrolled in this study. Out of sixty patients, thirty patients received IV PCA group and thirty patients received epidural PCA group. The pain scale was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results There were no significant difference between IV PCA group and epidural PCA group on the PCA related complications (p=0.7168). Ten patients in IV PCA group and six patients in epidural PCA group showed PCA related complications. Also, there were no significant differences in reduction of VAS score between two groups on postoperative 2 hours (p=0.9618) and 6 hours (p=0.0744). However, postoperative 12 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours showed the significant differences as mean of reduction of VAS score (p=0.0069, 0.0165, 0.0058 respectively). Conclusion The epidural PCA is more effective method to control the post-operative pain than IV PCA after 12 hours of spinal fusion operation. However, during the first twelve hours after operation, there were no differences between IV PCA and epidural PCA.
Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Cheong, Seong-Mee; Kim, Sumi; Kooh, Mirang
Chronic neuropathic pain is a frequent consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). Yet despite recent advances, up-stream releasing mechanisms and effective therapeutic options remain elusive. Previous studies have demonstrated that SCI results in excessive ATP release to the peri-traumatic regions and that purinergic signaling, among glial cells, likely plays an essential role in facilitating inflammatory responses and nociceptive sensitization. We sought to assess the role of connexin 43 (Cx43) as a mediator of CNS inflammation and chronic pain. To determine the extent of Cx43 involvement in chronic pain, a weight-drop SCI was performed on transgenic mice with Cx43/Cx30 deletions. SCI induced robust and persistent neuropathic pain including heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in wild-type control mice, which developed after 4 weeks and was maintained after 8 weeks. Notably, SCI-induced heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were prevented in transgenic mice with Cx43/Cx30 deletions, but fully developed in transgenic mice with only Cx30 deletion. SCI-induced gliosis, detected as upregulation of glial-fibrillary-acidic- protein (GFAP) in the spinal cord astrocytes at different stages of the injury, was also reduced in the knockout mice with Cx43/Cx30 deletions, when compared to littermate controls. In comparison, a standard regimen of post-SCI treatment of minocycline attenuated neuropathic pain to a significantly lesser degree than Cx43 deletion. These findings suggest Cx43 is critically linked to the development of central neuropathic pain following acute SCI. Since Cx43/Cx30 is expressed by astrocytes, these findings also support an important role of astrocytes in the development of chronic pain.
Chen, Michael J; Kress, Benjamin; Han, Xiaoning; Moll, Katherine; Peng, Weiguo; Ji, Ru-Rong; Nedergaard, Maiken
Mechanisms underlying chronic pain that develops after spinal cord injury (SCI) are incompletely understood. Most research on SCI pain mechanisms has focused on neuronal alterations within pain pathways at spinal and supraspinal levels associated with inflammation and glial activation. These events might also impact central processes of primary sensory neurons, triggering in nociceptors a hyperexcitable state and spontaneous activity (SA) that drive behavioral hypersensitivity and pain. SCI can sensitize peripheral fibers of nociceptors and promote peripheral SA, but whether these effects are driven by extrinsic alterations in surrounding tissue or are intrinsic to the nociceptor, and whether similar SA occurs in nociceptors in vivo are unknown. We show that small DRG neurons from rats (Rattus norvegicus) receiving thoracic spinal injury 3 d – 8 mo earlier and recorded 1 d after dissociation exhibit an elevated incidence of SA coupled with soma hyperexcitability compared to untreated and sham-treated groups. SA incidence was greatest in lumbar DRG neurons (57%) and least in cervical neurons (28%), and failed to decline over 8 mo. Many sampled SA neurons were capsaicin sensitive and/or bound the nociceptive marker, isolectin B4. This intrinsic SA state was correlated with increased behavioral responsiveness to mechanical and thermal stimulation of sites below and above the injury level. Recordings from C and A? fibers revealed SCI-induced SA generated in or near the neurons’ somata in vivo. SCI promotes the entry of primary nociceptors into a chronic hyperexcitable-SA state that may provide a useful therapeutic target in some forms of persistent pain.
Bedi, Supinder S.; Yang, Qing; Crook, Robyn J.; Du, Junhui; Wu, Zizhen; Fishman, Harvey M.; Grill, Raymond J.; Carlton, Susan M.; Walters, Edgar T.
We present what we believe is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of open radical nephrectomy performed under epidural-only anesthesia. Our patient had localized renal cell carcinoma requiring open nephrectomy, but he also had comorbid emphysema that precluded general anesthesia. Epidural anesthesia, which bypassed the pulmonary system, allowed us to perform the surgery. PMID:20974037
Johnson, Timothy V; Bond, Ninetta; Master, Viraj A
Background: There are several methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, and interest in their application as an adjuvant strategy in aphasia rehabilitation after stroke is growing. Epidural cortical stimulation, although more invasive than other methods, permits high-frequency stimulation of high spatial specificity to targeted neuronal populations.Aims: First we review evidence supporting the use of epidural cortical
Leora R. Cherney; Richard L. Harvey; Edna M. Babbitt; Rosalind Hurwitz; Rosalind C. Kaye; Jaime B. Lee; Steven L. Small
Background: There are several methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, and interest in their application as an adjuvant strategy in aphasia rehabilitation after stroke is growing. Epidural cortical stimulation, although more invasive than other methods, permits high-frequency stimulation of high spatial specificity to targeted neuronal populations.Aims: First we review evidence supporting the use of epidural cortical
Leora R. Cherney; Richard L. Harvey; Edna M. Babbitt; Rosalind Hurwitz; Rosalind C. Kaye; Jaime B. Lee; Steven L. Small
Background and Objectives: In thoracic epidural anesthesia, the [ldquo ]loss of resistance[rdquo ] technique is the standard technique for the identification of the epidural space (EDS), the feedback to the operator is often solely tactile. Our aim was to establish ultrasonography for the prepuncture demonstration of the anatomic structures surrounding the thoracic EDS and to evaluate its precision and imaging
T. Grau; R. W. Leipold; S. Delorme; E. Martin; J. Motsch
Pediatric cervical epidural hematoma is an uncommon diagnosis and very few cases have been reported so far. The condition is difficult to diagnose and requires immediate surgical intervention to obtain the best possible neurological outcome. Most of the cases are of a spontaneous origin. We report a case of traumatic cervical epidural hematoma, which was managed surgically, resulting in complete neurological recovery.
Gupta, Vishnu; Kundra, Sandeep; Chaudhary, AK; Kaushal, RK
We here report the major permanent neurological complications that developed in three patients after epidural anesthesia. MR clearly showed that paraplegia, which arose one and nine days after anesthesia, was due to epi-subdural haematoma in the first case and epidural abscess in the second. The sudden left lower limb palsy in the third patient was caused by a paracentral ischemic
F. Barontini; P. Conti; G. Marello; S. Maurri
Continuous epidural analgesia has been used for decades to treat acute herpes zoster pain and to prevent postherpetic neuralgia. However, many technical problems can arise during chronic treatment with epidural medications. These complications include catheter dislodgement, infection, injection pain, leakage, and occlusion. Epidural catheter placement utilizing subcutaneous injection port implantation has gained widespread acceptance as a method to overcome such complications. The technique reduces the risk of infection, the most feared complication, compared to the use of a percutaneous epidural catheter. Herein, we present 2 cases in which the continuous thoracic epidural administration of opioids and local anesthetics through an implantable subcutaneous injection port for over 2 months successfully treated zoster-associated pain without any technique- or medication-related complications in patients with risk factors for epidural abscess.
Min, Bo Mi
The loss or reduction of supraspinal inputs after spinal cord injury provides a unique opportunity to examine the plasticity of neural pathways within the spinal cord. In a series of nine experiments on a patient, quadriplegic due to spinal cord injury, we investigated interlimb reflexes and self-sustained activity in completely paralyzed and paretic muscles due to a disinhibited propriospinal pathway. Electrical stimuli were delivered over the left common peroneal nerve at the fibular head as single stimuli or in trains at 2–100 Hz lasting 1 s. Single stimuli produced a robust interlimb reflex twitch in the contralateral thumb at a mean latency 69 ms, but no activity in other muscles. With stimulus trains the thumb twitch occurred at variable subharmonics of the stimulus rate, and strong self-sustained activity developed in the contralateral wrist extensors, outlasting both the stimuli and the thumb reflex by up to 20 s. Similar behavior was recorded in the ipsilateral wrist extensors and quadriceps femoris of both legs, but not in the contralateral thenar or peroneal muscles. The patient could not terminate the self-sustained activity voluntarily, but it was abolished on the left by attempted contractions of the paralyzed thumb muscles of the right hand. These responses depend on the functional integrity of an ascending propriospinal pathway, and highlight the plasticity of spinal circuitry following spinal cord injury. They emphasize the potential for pathways below the level of injury to generate movement, and the role of self-sustained reflex activity in the sequelae of spinal cord injury.
McNulty, Penelope A.; Burke, David
Background Several studies have shown that in diabetic patients, the glycemic profile was disturbed after intra-articular injection of corticosteroids. Little is known about the impact of epidural injection in such patients. The goal of this study was double, at first comparing the glycaemic profile in diabetic patients after a unique injection of 80 mg of acetate methylprednisolone either intra-articular or epidural and secondly to compare the amount of systemic diffusion of the drug after both procedures. Methods Seventeen patients were included. Glycemic changes were compared in 9 diabetic patients following intra-articular (4 patients) and epidural injections (5 patients). Epidural injections were performed using the sacral route under fluoroscopic control in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes control had to stable for more than 10 days and the renal function to be preserved. Blood glucose was monitored using a validated continuous measuring device (GMS, Medtronic) the day before and for two days following the injection. Results were expressed in the form of daily glycemic profiles and as by mean, peak and minimal values +/- SD. The urinary excretion of methylprednisolone after the 2 routes of injection was analyzed in 8 patients (4 in each group). Urine samples were cropped one hour before the injections, then 4 times during the first day and 3 times a week for 2 weeks. The measurements included the free and conjugated fraction Results The glycaemic profile remains unchanged with no significant changes in the group of the 5 diabetic patients receiving epidural injections. On the other end, the average peak and and mean values were enhanced up to 3 mmol/l above baseline two days after the infiltration in the groups of the 4 diabetic patients infiltrated intra-articular. The mean urinary excretion of the steroid was about ten times higher in the intra-articular versus epidural group: 7000 ng/ml versus 700 ng/ml. Looking at each individual there were marked differences especially after intra-articular injections. Conclusion This is the first study to show that a single epidural steroid injection of 80 mg depot methylprednisolone had no effect on the glycemic control in diabetic patients. The absence of glycemic control changes correlated well with the very low urinary excretion of the drug after epidural injection. Trial registration NCT01420497
The Authors propose a new approach to the treatment and prognostic evaluation of post-traumatic supratentorial acute epidural haematoma (PSAEH). As far as this lesion is concerned a group of patients with a favourable prognosis and without indications for a surgical treatment may be identified. To this purpose, the clinical picture, characterized by a slight symptomatology undergoing a regression phase (stupor, headache, etc.) and a skull CT-scan, characterized by a slight shift of the middle line structures and by the volume of haematoma less than 55 cc, are important aids. PMID:3841916
Giordano, C; Morello, G; Rossano, A; Chiloiro, C; Boccuzzi, F
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a large health burden for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) who have neurogenic bladder dysfunction, especially those patients using indwelling catheters. One method that has shown promise in recent years is the use of a silver hydrogel catheter (SHC). This article describes the outcome of a subject who was part of a prospective, randomized,
Irene M. Estores; Deborah Olsen; Orlando Gómez-Marin; James A. Haley
Injury to the brain or spinal cord usually preserves some corticospinal (CS) connections. These residual circuits sprout spontaneously and in response to activity-based treatments. We hypothesized that augmenting activity in spared CS circuits would restore the skilled motor control lost after injury and augment outgrowth of CS terminations in the spinal cord. After selective injury of one half of the CS tract (CST) in the rat, we applied 10 days of electrical stimulation to the forelimb area of motor cortex of the spared half and tested motor performance for 30 days. Rats with injury and CST stimulation showed substantial improvements in skilled paw placement while walking over a horizontal ladder. By the end of the testing period, the walking errors of the previously impaired forelimb in rats with injury and stimulation returned to baseline, while the errors remained elevated in rats with injury only. Whereas the time to perform the task returned to normal in all animals, the pattern of errors returned to normal only in the stimulated group. Electrical stimulation also caused robust outgrowth of CST axon terminations in the ipsilateral spinal cord, the side of impairment, compared with rats with injury only. The outgrowth was directed to the normal gray matter territory of ipsilateral CST axon terminations. Thus, stimulation of spared CS circuits induced substantial axon outgrowth to the largely denervated side of the spinal cord and restored normal motor control in the previously impaired limbs.
Carmel, Jason B.; Berrol, Lauren J.; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Martin, John H.
Background: The authors have previously demonstrated that human herniated disc material contains high concentrations of free glutamate. In an experimental model, elevated epidural glutamate concentrations in the lumbar spine can cause a focal hyperesthetic state. Methods: Rats underwent epidural glutamate infusion in the lumbar spine by a miniosmotic pump over a 72-hour period. Some rats underwent coinfusion with glutamate and ionotropic glutamate antagonists. Nociception was assessed by von Frey fibers and by assessment of glutamate receptor expression in the corresponding dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Results: The kainic acid antagonist, UBP 301, decreased epidural glutamate-based hyperesthesia in a dose dependent manner. Concordant with these findings, there was significant decrease in kainate receptor expression in the dorsal horn. The N-Methyl-4-isoxazoleproionic acid (NMDA) antagonist Norketamine also significantly diminished hyperesthesia and decreased receptor expression in the dorsal horn. Conclusions: Both UBP 301, the kainic acid receptor antagonist and Norketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, dampened epidural glutamate-based nociception. Focal epidural injections of Kainate or NMDA receptor antagonists could be effective treatments for disc herniation-based lumbar radiculopathy.
Osgood, Doreen P.; Harrington, William F.; Kenney, Elizabeth V.; Harrington, J. Frederick
Sacrococcygeal epidural anaesthesia allows selective desensitisation of the sacral plexus. Ultrasound is used for guidance in human anaesthesia to facilitate sacrococcygeal epidural injections. The aims of this study were to describe the sonographic appearance of the sacrococcygeal region in dogs and a technique for performing epidural injection at this location under ultrasound guidance. In the preliminary part of the study four cadavers were used to describe the sonoanatomy of the sacrococcygeal space and to develop the ultrasound-guided puncture technique. In the second phase of the study this technique was repeated in four dogs under general anaesthesia. In all dogs the sacrococcygeal space appeared as a circular hypoechoic region, located caudal to the sacral caudal articular processes, delimited by bony hyperechoic structures such as body and arch of the first caudal vertebra. Ultrasound guidance allowed the operator to visualise and position the spinal needle into the sacrococcygeal epidural space. No complications were reported during this procedure. Preliminary results indicate that ultrasound-guided sacrococcygeal epidural anaesthesia may be considered as an alternative to a blind approach technique. PMID:24821855
Gregori, T; Viscasillas, J; Benigni, L
Background: Safe and effective postoperative pain control remains an issue in complex spine surgery. Spinal narcotics have been used for decades but have not become commonplace because of safety or re-dosing concerns. An extended release epidural morphine (EREM) preparation has been used successfully in obstetric, abdominal, thoracic, and extremity surgery done with epidural anesthesia. This has not been studied in open spinal surgery. Methods: Ninety-eight patients having complex posterior lumbar surgery were enrolled in a partially randomized clinical trial (PRCT) of low to moderate doses of EREM. Surgery included levels from L3 to S1 with procedures involving combinations of decompression, instrumented arthrodesis, and interbody grafting. The patients were randomized to receive either 10 or 15 mg of EREM through an epidural catheter placed under direct vision at the conclusion of surgery. Multiple safety measures were employed to prevent or detect respiratory depression. Postoperative pain scores, narcotic utilization, and adverse events were recorded. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups as to supplemental narcotic requirements, pain scores, or adverse events. There were no cases of respiratory depression. The epidural narcotic effect persisted from 3 to 36 hours after the injection. Conclusion: By utilizing appropriate safety measures, EREM can be used safely for postoperative pain control in lumbar surgery patients. As there was no apparent advantage to the use of 15 mg, the lower 10 mg dose should be used.
Offley, Sarah C.; Coyne, Ellen; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rubery, Paul T.; Zeidman, Seth M; Rechtine, Glenn R.
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the main causes of disability in the western world with a huge economic burden to society. As yet, no specific underlying anatomic cause has been identified for CLBP. Imaging often reveals degenerative findings of the disc or facet joints of one or more lumbar motion segments. These findings, however, can also be observed in asymptomatic people. It has been suggested that pain in degenerated discs may be caused by the ingrowth of nerve fibers into tears or clefts of the annulus fibrosus or nucleus pulposus, and by reported high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. As this so-called discogenic pain is often exacerbated by mechanical loading, the concept of relieving pain by spinal fusion to stabilise a painful spinal segment, has been developed. For some patients lumbar spinal fusion indeed is beneficial, but its results are highly variable and hard to predict for the individual patient. To identify those CLBP patients who will benefit from fusion, many surgeons rely on tests that are assumed to predict the outcome of spinal fusion. The three most commonly used prognostic tests in daily practice are immobilization in a lumbosacral orthosis, provocative discography and trial immobilization by temporary external transpedicular fixation. Aiming for consensus on the indications for lumbar fusion and in order to improve its results by better patient selection, it is essential to know the role and value of these prognostic tests for CLBP patients in clinical practice. The overall aims of the present thesis were: 1) to evaluate whether there is consensus among spine surgeons regarding the use and appreciation of prognostic tests for lumbar spinal fusion; 2) to verify whether a thoracolumbosacral orthosisis (TLSO) truly minimises lumbosacral motion; 3) to verify whether a TLSO can predict the clinical outcome of fusion for CLBP; 4) to assess whether provocative discography of adjacent segments actually predicts the long-term clinical outcome fusion; 5) to determine the incidence of postdiscography discitis, and whether there is a need for routine antibiotic prophylaxis; 6) to assess whether temporary external transpedicular fixation (TETF) can help to predict the outcome of spinal fusion; 7) to determine the prognostic accuracy of the most commonly used tests in clinical practice to predict the outcome of fusion for CLBP. The results of a national survey among spine surgeons in the Netherlands were presented in Study I. The surgeons were questioned about their opinion on prognostic factors and about the use of predictive tests for lumbar fusion in CLBP patients. The comments were compared with findings from the prevailing literature. The survey revealed a considerable lack of uniformity in the use and appreciation of predictive tests. Prognostic factors known from the literature were not consistently incorporated in the surgeons' decision making process either. This heterogeneity in strategy is most probably caused by the lack of sound scientific evidence for current predictive tests and it was concluded that currently there is not enough consensus among spine surgeons in the Netherlands to create national guidelines for surgical decision making in CLBP. In Study II, the hypothesized working mechanism of a pantaloon cast (i.e., minimisation of lumbosacral joint mobility) was studied. In patients who were admitted for a temporary external transpedicular fixation test (TETF), infrared light markers were rigidly attached to the protruding ends of Steinman pins that were fixed in two spinal levels. In this way three-dimensional motion between these levels could be analysed opto-electronically. During dynamic test conditions such as walking, a plaster cast, either with or without unilateral hip fixation, did not significantly decrease lumbosacral joint motion. Although not substantiated by sound scientific support, lumbosacral orthoses or pantaloon casts are often used in everyday practice as a predictor for the outcome of fusion. A systematic review of the literature supplemented with a prospec
Objectives.? Although the load impedance of a pulse generator has a significant effect on battery life, the electrical impedance of contact arrays in spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has not been extensively studied. We sought to characterize the typical impedance values measured from common quadripolar percutaneous SCS contact arrays. Methods.? In 36 patients undergoing percutaneous trial stimulation for various chronic pain conditions, bipolar impedance between adjacent contacts of 64 leads with 9 mm center-to-center spacing was measured in two different vertebral level regions, cervical (C3-C7) and lower-thoracic (T7-T12). Multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the contribution of six variables to the biological tissue portion of the impedance (excluding the resistance of the lead wires). Results.? The median impedance in the cervical region (351 ± 90 ?) was significantly lower (36%, p < 0.001) than in the lower-thoracic region (547 ± 151 ?). In addition, time since implant had a weaker but still significant effect on tissue impedance. Conclusions.? Results from finite-difference mathematical modeling of SCS suggest that the difference in tissue impedance related to vertebral level may be due to the dorsoventral position of the lead in the epidural space. The presence of a larger space between the triangularly shaped dorsal part of the vertebral arch and the round shape of the dural sac in the lower-thoracic region increases the likelihood that the stimulating lead will not make dural contact, and thus "see" an increased impedance from the surrounding epidural fat. This implies that the energy requirements for stimulation in the thoracic region will be higher than in the cervical region, at least during the acute phase of implant. PMID:22151637
Alò, Kenneth; Varga, Clayton; Krames, Elliot; Prager, Joshua; Holsheimer, Jan; Manola, Ljubomir; Bradley, Kerry
Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267
Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis
Background Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is usually managed pharmacologically. It is not uncommon for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to suffer from PHN. It is difficult to prescribe a sufficient dose of anticonvulsants for intractable pain because of the decreased glomerular filtration rate. If the neural blockade and pulsed radiofrequency ablation provide only short-term amelioration of pain, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) with a low level of evidence may be used only as a last resort. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of PHN in patients with CKD. Methods PHN patients with CKD who needed hemo-dialysis who received insufficient relief of pain over a VAS of 8 regardless of the neuropathic medications were eligible for SCS trial. The follow-up period was at least 2 years after permanent implantation. Results Eleven patients received percutaneous SCS test trial from Jan 2003 to Dec 2007. Four patients had successfully received a permanent SCS implant with their pain being tolerable at a VAS score of less than 3 along with small doses of neuropathic medications. Conclusions SCS was helpful in managing tolerable pain levels in some PHN patients with CKD along with tolerable neuropathic medications for over 2 years.
Baek, In Yeob; Park, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyae Jin; Yoon, Ji Uk; Byoen, Gyeong Jo
Chronic morphine leads to dependence, tolerance, and neural apoptosis. Vitamin C inhibits the withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent subjects and prevents apoptosis in experimental models. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) type-2 is the main transporter for carrying vitamin C into the brain and neural cells. The mechanism(s) by which vitamin C inhibits morphine dependence in not understood. SVCT activity determines the vitamin C availably within the nervous system. We have examined the alterations in the expression of SVCT1, SVCT2, and its splice variants in morphine-tolerant rats. Morphine (20 mg/kg) was injected twice/day to male rats for either 7 or 14 days. The development of analgesic tolerance was assessed using tail-flick test. Lumbar spinal cord and the hippocampus were isolated for RNA extraction. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method was used to assess the levels of gene expression. Administration of morphine for 7 or 14 days reduced the expression level of SVCT2 in both hippocampus and dorsal lumbar spinal cord of rats. SVCT2 expression was reduced in vitamin C-, and vitamin C combined with morphine-treated animals. Results did not show SVCT2 splice variation. SVCT1 did not express in control or morphine-treated rats. It seems that reduced expression level of SVCT2 might be involved in the development of morphine side effects such as tolerance and dependency. PMID:19418264
Zarebkohan, Amir; Javan, Mohammad; Satarian, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhasan
Study design:Literature review.Objective:To describe quantitatively some of most important anatomic, systemic, and metabolic changes occurring soon (one month) after spinal cord trauma in mice.Setting:University Laval Medical Center.Results:Significant changes in weight, mechanical and contractile muscle properties, bone histomorphometry and biomechanics, deep-vein morphology, complete blood count, immune cell count, lipid metabolism and anabolic hormone levels were found occurring within 1 month in
R-V Ung; N P Lapointe; P A Guertin; PA Guertin
SPINAL muscular atrophy (SMA) describes a group of heritable degenerative diseases that selectively affect the alpha-motor neuron. Childhood-onset SMAs rank second in frequency to cystic fibrosis among autosomal recessive disorders, and are the leading cause of heritable infant mortality. Predictions that genetic heterogeneity underlies the differences between types of SMA, together with the aggressive nature of the most-severe infantile form,
L. M. Brzustowicz; T. Lehner; L. H. Castilla; G. K. Penchaszadeh; K. C. Wilhelmsen; R. Daniels; K. E. Davies; M. Leppert; F. Ziter; D. Wood; V. Dubowitz; K. Zerres; I. Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz; J. Ott; T. L. Munsat; T. C. Gilliam
Neuraxial anaesthesia produces a sedative and anesthetic-sparing effect. Recent evidence suggests that spinal cord anaesthesia modifies reticulo-thalamo-cortical arousal by decreasing afferent sensory transmission. We hypothesized that epidural anaesthesia produces sensory deafferentation-dependent sedation that is associated with impairment of brainstem transmission. We used brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) to evaluate reticular function in 11 volunteers. Epidural anaesthesia was induced with 2% 2-chloroprocaine. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses, sensory block level, sedation depth and BAEP were assessed throughout induction and resolution of epidural anaesthesia. Sedation was evaluated using verbal rating score (VRS), observer's assessment alertness/sedation (OAA/S) score, and bispectral index (BIS). Prediction probability (PK) was used to associate sensory block with sedation, as well as BIS with other sedation measures. Spearman rank order correlation was used to associate block level and sedation with the absolute and interpeak BAEP latencies. Sensory block level significantly predicted VRS (PK = 0.747), OAA/S score (PK = 0.748) and BIS. Bispectral index predicted VRS and OAA/S score (PK = 0.728). The latency of wave III of BAEP significantly correlated with sedation level (rho = 0.335, P < 0.01) and sensory block (rho = 0.394, P < 0.01). The other BAEP parameters did not change during epidural anaesthesia. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses remained stable throughout the study. Sedation during epidural anaesthesia depends on sensory block level and is associated with detectable block-dependent alterations in the brainstem auditory evoked responses. Sensory deafferentation may reduce CNS alertness through mechanisms related to brainstem neural activity.
Wadhwa, Anupama; Shah, Yunus M.; Lin, Chum-Ming; Haugh, Gilbert S.; Sessler, Daniel I.
Background: Multiple type of spinal injections, whether epidural/translaminar or transforaminal, facet injections, are offered to patients with/without surgical spinal lesions by pain management specialists (radiologists, physiatrists, and anesthesiologists). Although not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), injections are being performed with an increased frequency (160%), are typically short-acting and ineffective over the longer-term, while exposing patients to major risks/complications. Methods: For many patients with spinal pain alone and no surgical lesions, the “success” of epidural injections may simply reflect the self-limited course of the disease. Alternatively, although those with surgical pathology may experience transient or no pain relief, undergoing these injections (typically administered in a series of three) unnecessarily exposes them to the inherent risks, while also delaying surgery and potentially exposing them to more severe/permanent neurological deficits. Results: Multiple recent reports cite contaminated epidural steroid injections resulting in meningitis, stroke, paralysis, and death. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) specifically identified 25 deaths (many due to Aspergillosis), 337 patients sickened, and 14,000 exposed to contaminated steroids. Nevertheless, many other patients develop other complications that go unreported/underreported: Other life-threatening infections, spinal fluid leaks (0.4-6%), positional headaches (28%), adhesive arachnoiditis (6-16%), hydrocephalus, air embolism, urinary retention, allergic reactions, intravascular injections (7.9-11.6%), stroke, blindness, neurological deficits/paralysis, hematomas, seizures, and death. Conclusions: Although the benefits for epidural steroid injections may include transient pain relief for those with/without surgical disease, the multitude of risks attributed to these injections outweighs the benefits.
Epstein, Nancy E.
10,978 administrations of epidural block were performed during 1962-1977 and the major complications and related factors are evaluated and analyzed. Toxic reactions (0.56%) occurred more frequently in portal hypertension cases undergoing shunt operations ...
Epidural haematomas are one of the most common complicated closed-head injuries, but they, rarely show any bilateral localization. We are reporting here a case of a man found unconscious with Glasgow Coma Scale score; 8/15. Computed tomography of skull revealed bilateral epidural hematoma. Two emergency craniotomies were performed simultaneously, with satisfactory radiological control and neurological outcome. We discussed the aspects of a etiology and treatment about this unusual condition.
Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Andrade, Almir Ferreira De; Alves, Aderaldo Costa Junior; Ribeiro, Iuri Neville; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen
Cervical epidural steroid injections, administered either interlaminarly or transforaminally, are common injection therapies used in many interventional pain management practices to treat cervicalgia or cervicobrachial pain secondary to spondylosis or intervertebral disc displacement of the cervical spine. Among the risks associated with these procedures are the risk for inadvertent dural puncture and the development of positional headache from intracranial hypotension. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with a history of migraine and cervicalgia from cervical spine spondylosis and cervical disc degenerative disease that developed an intractable orthostatic headache accompanied by nausea and vomiting after a therapeutic high cervical intralaminar epidural steroid injection was administered directly to the C1-C2 spinal level. Although the initial magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was unremarkable, a computed tomography myelogram study revealed a massive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the cervical spine. Repeated cervical epidural blood patches using a catheter targeted to the high cervical spine (C2) to inject 15 mL of autologous blood was required to totally alleviate her symptoms after she failed conservative therapy. Determining the optimal location or approach to administer an epidural blood patch can be a challenge depending on the location of the CSF leak. Our case demonstrates that targeted cervical epidural blood patch placement using an easily manipulated catheter under fluoroscopic guidance is a safe and effective approach to treat a massive CSF leak in the high cervical spine region caused by prior therapeutic cervical spine epidural steroid injection. PMID:23877456
Sykes, Kenneth T; Yi, Xiaobin
Nine angiomatous malformations situated on the outer surface of the dura and one situated in the pelvis, from which draining veins pierced the dura and joined the coronal venous plexus are described. The clinical manifestations and myelographic appearances are similar to those of the majority of intradural angiomatous malformations. This suggests that neurological deficiencies with both types of malformation are
B. E. Kendall; V. Logue
Summary Based on the study of 10 cases of post traumatic spinal arachnoid cysts (SAC), acute and chronic clinical variants are individualized. A physiopathological hypothesis is advanced to explain their mechanism of formation.
F. Lesoin; M. Rousseau; C. E. Thomas; M. Jomin
... assistants are trained in helping both adults and children with a broad range of physical, developmental, and behavioral issues in addition to spinal cord injury, such as arthritis, chronic pain, and mood disorders. Practitioners also help clients in ...
Regional anesthesia is the preferred technique for Cesarean delivery. Strict aseptic precautions should be taken; otherwise, infectious complications including abscess formation, meningitis and necrotizing fasciitis may result. We report a case of a 26-year-old post-partum female who presented with necrosis of the skin of back following spinal anesthesia, which was administered for Cesarean delivery 5 days prior at a private nursing home. On presentation, she was drowsy, appeared dehydrated and febrile. Examination of her back revealed necrosis of skin extending from just below the scapula to the gluteal region. Debridement of skin over the back was performed, and intravenous antibiotics started. After three debridements following which skin grafting was performed, she made complete recovery. Infectious complications following regional anesthesia are rare, and most of the literature focuses on colonization of epidural catheters or epidural abscess. There is no report of necrotizing fasciitis following spinal anesthesia so far. Sources of infection that are suspected in our case include: local anesthetic solution used for subcutaneous infiltration, nonadherence to aseptic precautions, skin flora of patient, endogenous source and nasopharyngeal flora of anesthesiologist. We considered each possibility, and the most likely cause in our case appears to be infection from an already-used vial of a local anesthetic agent. Local anesthetics have bacteriostatic properties, but infection may still be transmitted through contaminated solutions. The present case highlights the importance of maintaining strict aseptic precautions, avoiding reusing multidose vials and early recognition of this complication as timely intervention can be lifesaving. PMID:23240648
Kundra, S; Singh, R M; Grewal, A; Gupta, V; Chaudhary, A K
Background There is increasing interest in the use of robotic gait-training devices in walking rehabilitation of incomplete spinal cord injured (iSCI) individuals. These devices provide promising opportunities to increase the intensity of training and reduce physical demands on therapists. Despite these potential benefits, robotic gait-training devices have not yet demonstrated clear advantages over conventional gait-training approaches, in terms of functional outcomes. This might be due to the reduced active participation and step-to-step variability in most robotic gait-training strategies, when compared to manually assisted therapy. Impedance-controlled devices can increase active participation and step-to-step variability. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of impedance-controlled robotic gait training on walking ability and quality in chronic iSCI individuals. Methods A group of 10 individuals with chronic iSCI participated in an explorative clinical trial. Participants trained three times a week for eight weeks using an impedance-controlled robotic gait trainer (LOPES: LOwer extremity Powered ExoSkeleton). Primary outcomes were the 10-meter walking test (10MWT), the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II), the six-meter walking test (6MWT), the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the Lower Extremity Motor Scores (LEMS). Secondary outcomes were spatiotemporal and kinematics measures. All participants were tested before, during, and after training and at 8 weeks follow-up. Results Participants experienced significant improvements in walking speed (0.06 m/s, p?=?0.008), distance (29 m, p?=?0.005), TUG (3.4 s, p?=?0.012), LEMS (3.4, p?=?0.017) and WISCI after eight weeks of training with LOPES. At the eight-week follow-up, participants retained the improvements measured at the end of the training period. Significant improvements were also found in spatiotemporal measures and hip range of motion. Conclusion Robotic gait training using an impedance-controlled robot is feasible in gait rehabilitation of chronic iSCI individuals. It leads to improvements in walking ability, muscle strength, and quality of walking. Improvements observed at the end of the training period persisted at the eight-week follow-up. Slower walkers benefit the most from the training protocol and achieve the greatest relative improvement in speed and walking distance.
Nitric oxide (NO) possibly plays an important role in the events resulting in hyperalgesia. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is\\u000a a key enzyme in the production of NO. In this study, the relationship between NOS and hyperalgesia in a rat chronic arthritis\\u000a model was tested. Chronic arthritis was induced by injection of incomplete Freund’s adjuvant into the knee joint cavity unilaterally.
J. Wu; Q. Lin; Y. Lu; W. D. Willis; K. N. Westlund
Objective. Unilateral sensory and motor blockade is known to occur with epidural anesthesia but is rarely reported in children. The differential diagnosis should include the presence of a midline epidural septum. Case Report. We describe a case of a 16-year-old adolescent who developed repeated complete unilateral extensive epidural sensory and motor blockade with Horner's syndrome after thoracic epidural catheter placement. This unusual presentation of complete hemibody neural blockade has not been reported in the pediatric population. Maneuvers to improve contralateral uniform neural blockade were unsuccessful. An epidurogram was performed to ascertain the correct location of the catheter within the epidural space and presence of sagittal compartmentalization. Conclusion. This case report highlights a less frequently reported reason for unilateral sensory and motor blockade with epidural anesthesia in children. The presence of a midline epidural septum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral epidural blockade.
Tassone, Rosalie F.; Seefelder, Christian; Sethna, Navil F.
Hemorrhagic complications associated with aspirin use occur primarily at skin or gastrointestinal sites but can occasionally occur in the central nervous system. In particular, spontaneous spinal epidural hemorrhage (SSEH) associated with aspirin is very rare. We report a case of low-dose (100 mg daily) aspirin-related SSEH that was successfully treated with medical management. Our case indicates that low-dose aspirin could induce SSEH and that conservative treatment with close observation and repeated imaging studies should be considered in cases with neurological improvement or mild deficits.
Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul; Ahn, Suk-Won
Fifty patients with chronic resistant cervicobrachialgia were randomly divided into two groups. Twenty-five patients (group A) were treated with cervical epidural steroid/lidocaine injections and 17 patients (group B) were treated with steroid/lidocaine injections into the posterior neck muscles. Another eight patients from group B were excluded from the study because they had started the process of litigation of insurance claims and their subjective analysis of pain relief might therefore not be trustworthy. One to three injections were administered at 2-week intervals according to the clinical response. All patients continued their various pre-study treatments: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-opioid analgesics and physiotherapy. Pain relief was evaluated by the visual analogue scale 1 week after the last injection and then 1 year later. One week after the last injection we rated pain relief as very good and good in 76% of the patients in group A, as compared to 35.5% of the patients in group B. One year after the treatment 68% of the group A patients still had very good and good pain relief, whereas only 11.8% of group B patients reported this degree of pain relief. These differences were statistically significant. We failed to achieve significant improvement of tendon reflexes or of sensory loss in both groups, but the increase in the range of motion, the fraction of patients who were able to decrease their daily dose of analgesics, and recovery of the capacity for work were significantly better in group A. We encountered no complications in either group of patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8213020
Stav, A; Ovadia, L; Sternberg, A; Kaadan, M; Weksler, N
Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E in persons with chronic spinal cord injury living in the community 1 1 The opinions expressed in this article are those of the grantee and do not necessarily reflect those of the US Department of Education
Moussavi RM, Garza HM, Eisele SG, Rodriguez G, Rintala DH. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E in persons with chronic spinal cord injury living in the community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:1061-7.
Robabeh M Moussavi; Hector M Garza; Susan G Eisele; Gladys Rodriguez; Diana H Rintala
This study investigated the effect of long-term treatment upon bone density with L-Thyroxine in postmenopausal women compared with untreated postmenopausal women with climacteric symptoms. We measured spinal bone density in three groups (n = 84) of postmenopausal women: (A) those treated with TSH-suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine for a medium of 5 years after removal of thyroid cancer; (B) those on L-Thyroxine treatment for a median of 9 years after being diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT); and (C) those with no thyroid disease or other known pathology and without any treatment. There were no differences in dietary calcium intake and daily activity between untreated and L-Thyroxine-treated women. Measurements of bone mineral density were performed at spine level L1-L4 using a dual X-ray densitometer and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, and bone markers (serum osteocalcin, procollagen I, urinary calcium), and PTH levels were assayed and found to be within normal ranges. Women receiving L-Thyroxine after thyroid cancer had slightly higher FT4 levels compared with women who had CLT and lower TSH levels, with serum T4 and T3 levels normal and similar in both groups. No significant differences were found in spinal bone density after L-Thyroxine treatment between Groups A and B and compared with Group C. Bone loss according to 2 SD below reference standards (age and sex matched) was found in the 12.9% of L-Thyroxine-treated patients versus 22.6% of untreated women. No correlation was found between bone loss and thyroid hormone levels and duration of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8118747
Hawkins, F; Rigopoulou, D; Papapietro, K; Lopez, M B
Electrocorticography (ECoG) is increasingly being identified as a safe and reliable recording technique for both Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) applications as well as neurophysiology studies. This thesis describes some of the first real-time closed-loop BCI studies of chronic ECoG in non-human primates. Epidural microECoG electrodes developed in our lab were implanted in three monkeys with the electrode array centered over primary
Objective: To present a case of a patient with spinal infection (SI) and highlight the chiropractor’s role in the prevention or minimization of devastating complications of SI. Background: Recent literature trends suggest an increasing prevalence of SI. Patients with SI most commonly present with unremitting progressive back pain and may or may not have fever or neurological signs. To avoid negative post-infection sequelae, establishing an early diagnosis and treatment is crucial. Clinical Features: A 29-year-old female diagnosed with L5-S1 disc herniation with impingement of the right S1 nerve root opted for surgical management. Iatrogenic bowel perforation during her spinal surgery resulted in contamination of the spinal surgical site, and findings in keeping with disco-osteomyelitis with epidural and paraspinal phlegmon formation were visualized on contrast enhanced MRI. Conclusion: Recent trends of increased spinal infection urge a heightened awareness by the chiropractor. The chiropractor can provide early diagnosis and supportive multidisciplinary care for such patients.
Quesnele, Jairus; Dufton, John; Stern, Paula
We are reporting on the implantation of a spinal cord stimulator to treat intractable radicular pain following a retained bullet fragment in the spinal canal. Such retained fragments are associated with risks including pain, neurological deficit, infection, toxic effects, and migration. Our patient was a young man with radicular pain and history of a gunshot entering the abdomen. Computed tomography of the spine had revealed a nearly complete bullet in the right paracentral canal at L4, partially extending into the lateral recess. He presented 17 months after his injury with gradually worsening pain and parasthesias radiating from the back to the whole right leg and foot. There was no weakness. As the patient had failed conservative therapy, procedural options were considered. In this case, the potential benefits of epidural steroid injection by any approach might not have outweighed risks of infection, related to foreign body and local steroid, or possible migration due to mechanical forces during injection. As he may well need repeated epidural steroid injections to manage his pain, this increases his risk for infection. A percutaneous trial spinal cord stimulation lead was placed, with epidural entry well away from the bullet. After good results, a permanent system was implanted. There was no evidence of infection or migration, and excellent pain relief was achieved. Bullets and other foreign bodies retained in the spinal canal can cause progressive neurologic symptoms through reactive tissue formation and compression. Spinal cord stimulation can relieve radicular pain while avoiding risks associated with altering the location of the offending foreign body. PMID:23511684
Keel, John C; Lau, Mary E; Gulur, Padma
There is an interest in the use of high thoracic epidural anesthesia in cardiac surgery, because experimental and clinical studies have suggested that central neuroaxial blockade attenuates the response to surgical stress and improves myocardial metabolism and perioperative analgesia—thus enabling earlier extubation and a smoother postoperative course. Matters of major concern in the adoption of high thoracic epidural anesthesia in cardiac surgery are neurologic injury secondary to neuroaxial hematoma and hypotension secondary to sympatholysis. The risk associated with possible neuraxial hematoma caused by high thoracic epidural anesthesia has been thoroughly investigated and largely discounted, but scant attention has been devoted to the onset of hypotensive episodes in the same setting. We analyzed the hypotensive episodes that occurred in a series of 144 patients who underwent on-pump cardiac surgery procedures. Among the patient variables that we tested in a multivariate logistic-regression model, only female sex was found to be significantly correlated with hypotension. In order to decrease the incidence and severity of hypotensive episodes resulting from anesthetic blockade, anesthesiologists need to monitor, with special care, women patients who are under high thoracic epidural anesthesia. Further studies are needed in order to determine why women undergoing open heart surgery under high thoracic epidural anesthesia are at a relatively greater risk of hypotension.
Casalino, Stefano; Mangia, Fabio; Stelian, Edmond; Novelli, Eugenio; Diena, Marco; Tesler, Ugo F.
Epidural adhesions cause pain by interfering with the free movement of the spinal nerves and increasing neural sensitivity as a consequence of neural compression. To remove adhesions and deliver injected drugs to target sites, percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis (PEA) is performed in patients who are unresponsive to conservative treatments. We describe four patients who were treated with a newly developed inflatable balloon catheter for more effective PEA and relief of stenosis. In the present patients, treatments with repetitive epidural steroid injection and/or PEA with the Racz catheter or the NaviCath did not yield long-lasting effects or functional improvements. However, PEA and decompression with the inflatable balloon catheter led to maintenance of pain relief for more than seven months and improvements in the functional status with increases in the walking distance. The present case series suggests that the inflatable balloon catheter may be an effective alternative to performing PEA when conventional methods fail to remove adhesions or sufficiently relieve stenosis. PMID:24748948
Choi, Seong Soo; Joo, Eun Young; Hwang, Beom Sang; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Gunn; Suh, Jeong Hun; Leem, Jeong Gill; Shin, Jin Woo
Epidural adhesions cause pain by interfering with the free movement of the spinal nerves and increasing neural sensitivity as a consequence of neural compression. To remove adhesions and deliver injected drugs to target sites, percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis (PEA) is performed in patients who are unresponsive to conservative treatments. We describe four patients who were treated with a newly developed inflatable balloon catheter for more effective PEA and relief of stenosis. In the present patients, treatments with repetitive epidural steroid injection and/or PEA with the Racz catheter or the NaviCath did not yield long-lasting effects or functional improvements. However, PEA and decompression with the inflatable balloon catheter led to maintenance of pain relief for more than seven months and improvements in the functional status with increases in the walking distance. The present case series suggests that the inflatable balloon catheter may be an effective alternative to performing PEA when conventional methods fail to remove adhesions or sufficiently relieve stenosis.
Choi, Seong Soo; Joo, Eun Young; Hwang, Beom Sang; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Gunn; Suh, Jeong Hun; Leem, Jeong Gill
Background: This study was designed to evaluate the role of epidural methadone-lidocaine in cancer pain combined or not to epidural dexamethasone. Methods: In all, 72 cancer patients, 32- to 67-year-old were randomized to six groups (n=12) and prospectively studied to examine analgesia and adverse effects for 3 weeks. Patients received single-dose protocol epidural test drugs: Control group (CG) received epidural 40-mg lidocaine diluted to 10-ml volume with saline. Dexamethasone group (DG) 40-mg lidocaine plus 10-mg dexamethasone. The 2.5MetG 2.5-mg epidural methadone with 40-mg lidocaine; the 5MetG, 5-mg epidural methadone plus 40-mg lidocaine, the 7.5MetG, 7.5-mg epidural methadone plus 40-mg lidocaine and finally the 7.5Met-DexG, 7.5-mg methadone with 40-mg lidocaine and 10-mg dexamethasone. Results: Groups CG, DG and 2.5MetG were similar regarding analgesia and side effects. Patients from 5MetG and 7.5MetG took 3±1 and 5±1 days, respectively, to restart oral morphine. Patients from 7.5MetDG took 14±2 to restart oral morphine (P<0.001). Daily somnolence and appetite improved in the 7.5MetDG during 2-week evaluation (P<0.005). Fatigue improved for both DG and 7.5MetDG during 2-week evaluation (P<0.005). By the third week of evaluation, all patients were similar. Conclusions: Epidural methadone plus lidocaine resulted in dose-dependent analgesia, further improved by epidural dexamethasone, which also improved fatigue.
Lauretti, G R; Rizzo, C C; Mattos, A L; Rodrigues, S W
Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is caused by mechanical factors and/or biochemical alterations within the intervertebral disk that lead to disk space collapse, facet joint hypertrophy, soft-tissue infolding, and osteophyte formation, which narrows the space available for the thecal sac and exiting nerve roots. The clinical consequence of this compression is neurogenic claudication and varying degrees of leg and back pain. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is a major cause of pain and impaired quality of life in the elderly. The natural history of this condition varies; however, it has not been shown to worsen progressively. Nonsurgical management consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and epidural steroid injections. If nonsurgical management is unsuccessful and neurologic decline persists or progresses, surgical treatment, most commonly laminectomy, is indicated. Recent prospective randomized studies have demonstrated that surgery is superior to nonsurgical management in terms of controlling pain and improving function in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:22855855
Issack, Paul S; Cunningham, Matthew E; Pumberger, Matthias; Hughes, Alexander P; Cammisa, Frank P
Neuropathic pain is a major clinical problem, and several animal models have been developed to investigate its mechanisms and its treatment. In this report, the role of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in the early events of the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was investigated in behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. Placing the 4 CCI ligatures around the sciatic nerve induced
Raul Sanoja; Horacio Vanegas; Victor Tortorici
We described a case of discitis and meningitis following spinal anaesthesia for transurethral resection of the prostate. The patient received antibiotics for a month before surgery, because of Klebsiella prostatitis. Spinal anaesthesia was performed in L3-L4 interspace by using 22G Quincke needle. Bacteriaemia occurred during the first postoperative hours. Ten days after spinal anaesthesia, patient suffered from lumbar pain, exacerbated by vertebral percussion, and motor weakness within lower limb, which was marked on right side. MRI examination showed L3-L4 discitis with psoas abcess in regard, and epiduritis marked around L3 right spinal root. CSF examination confirmed meningitis but no bacteria was found. Antibiotics were administered over a 6 weeks period, and then patient discharged from hospital without neurological sequellae. Infectious discitis related to disk puncture during spinal anaesthesia and postoperative bacteriaemia was likely in our patient. PMID:12534122
Malinovsky, J M; Péréon, Y; Bouchot, O; Pinaud, M
Extracranial epidural emphysema is an uncommon phenomenon that refers to the presence of gas within the epidural space. As an isolated finding, it is typically benign, but it can be a secondary sign of more ominous disease processes, such as pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum and epidural abscess. Although the phenomenon has been cited in case reports, a comprehensive review of this topic is lacking in the radiology literature. The authors' aim is to report our experience with extracranial epidural emphysema, illustrating the spectrum of its clinical presentation. We also review the aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of extracranial epidural emphysema.
Cloran, F; Bui-Mansfield, L T
Purpose To examine the reliability of low current electrical epidural stimulation to confirm epidural catheter placement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Forty patients with epidural catheters (19G Arrow Flextip plus) already in place for post-operative pain management were studied.\\u000a An adapter (Arrow-Johans ECG Adapter) was attached to the connector of the epidural catheter. The epidural catheter and adapter\\u000a were filled with normal saline. The cathode lead
Ban C. H. Tsui; Sunil Gupta; Brendan Finucane
A comparison of the behavioral and anatomical outcomes in sub-acute and chronic spinal cord injury models following treatment with human mesenchymal precursor cell transplantation and recombinant decorin.
This study assessed the potential of highly purified (Stro-1(+)) human mesenchymal precursor cells (hMPCs) in combination with the anti-scarring protein decorin to repair the injured spinal cord (SC). Donor hMPCs isolated from spinal cord injury (SCI) patients were transplanted into athymic rats as a suspension graft, alone or after previous treatment with, core (decorin(core)) and proteoglycan (decorin(pro)) isoforms of purified human recombinant decorin. Decorin was delivered via mini-osmotic pumps for 14 days following sub-acute (7 day) or chronic (1 month) SCI. hMPCs were delivered to the spinal cord at 3 weeks or 6 weeks after the initial injury at T9 level. Behavioral and anatomical analysis in this study showed statistically significant improvement in functional recovery, tissue sparing and cyst volume reduction following hMPC therapy. The combination of decorin infusion followed by hMPC therapy did not improve these measured outcomes over the use of cell therapy alone, in either sub-acute or chronic SCI regimes. However, decorin infusion did improve tissue sparing, reduce spinal tissue cavitation and increase transplanted cell survivability as compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of spinal cord sections revealed differences in glial, neuronal and extracellular matrix molecule expression within each experimental group. hMPC transplanted spinal cords showed the increased presence of serotonergic (5-HT) and sensory (CGRP) axonal growth within and surrounding transplanted hMPCs for up to 2 months; however, no evidence of hMPC transdifferentiation into neuronal or glial phenotypes. The number of hMPCs was dramatically reduced overall, and no transplanted cells were detected at 8 weeks post-injection using lentiviral GFP labeling and human nuclear antigen antibody labeling. The presence of recombinant decorin in the cell transplantation regimes delayed in part the loss of donor cells, with small numbers remaining at 2 months after transplantation. In vitro co-culture experiments with embryonic dorsal root ganglion explants revealed the growth promoting properties of hMPCs. Decorin did not increase axonal outgrowth from that achieved by hMPCs. We provide evidence for the first time that (Stro-1(+)) hMPCs provide: i) an advantageous source of allografts for stem cell transplantation for sub-acute and chronic spinal cord therapy, and (ii) a positive host microenvironment that promotes tissue sparing/repair that subsequently improves behavioral outcomes after SCI. This was not measurably improved by recombinant decorin treatment, but does provide important information for the future development and potential use of decorin in contusive SCI therapy. PMID:23867131
Hodgetts, Stuart I; Simmons, Paul J; Plant, Giles W
In six years in London, Ontario, the use of continuous lumbar epidural analgesia in deliveries increased from 5% to over 50%. Its effect was assessed in 1000 consecutive cases, all vertex presentations. In established labour, epidural analgesia was started for pain relief and was maintained with intermittent injections until delivery; in 34% the duration exceeded four hours. Labour was not retarded, but there was an inadvertent selection of patients with slow and painful progress. Forceps delivery was used in 89%, mid-forceps in 11.8% and forceps rotation in 17.7%; 2.4% required Cesarean section. Fetal condition was excellent (Apgar rating of 7 or greater in 96.7%). Postpartum complications could not be directly related to the technique. Continuous epidural analgesia gives superior relief of pain but calls for experienced anesthetists and adjustments in obstetrical management and nursing care.
Kandel, Patricia F.; Spoerel, W. E.; Kinch, R. A. H.
An 8-month-old male infant had presented with a history of a fall from the crib a fortnight ago. He had developed progressive weakness of both lower limbs. On examination, the infant had spastic paraplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the cervical spine showed an epidural hematoma extending from the fourth cervical (C4) to the first dorsal (D1) vertebral level with cord compression. The patient had no bleeding disorder on investigation. He underwent cervical laminoplasty at C6 and C7 levels. The epidural hematoma was evacuated. The cervical cord started pulsating immediately. Postoperatively, the patient's paraplegia improved dramatically in 48 hours. According to the author's literature search, only seven cases of post-traumatic epidural hematoma have been reported in pediatric patients, and our patient is the youngest. The present case report discusses the etiopathology, presentation, and management of this rare case.
Rangarajan, Vithal; Mavani, Sandip B; Nadkarni, Trimurti D; Goel, Atul H
Spinal injection procedures can be performed blindly or, more accurately, with fluoroscopic or computed tomography (CT) guidance. Radiographic guidance for selective nerve root blocks and epidural injections allows an accurate needle placement, reduces the procedure time and is more secure for the patient, especially in patients with marked degenerative changes and scoliosis, resulting in a narrowing of the interlaminar space. Limiting factors remain the availability of scanners and the radiation dose. Interventional CT scan protocols in axial CT-acquisition mode for epidural and periradicular injections help to limit the radiation dose without a significant decrease of image quality. The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the effective radiation dosage patients are exposed during CT-guided epidural lumbar and periradicular injections. A total amount of n=1870 datasets from 18 months were analyzed after multiplying the dose length product with conversion factor k for each lumbar segment. For lumbar epidural injections (n=1286), a mean effective dose of 1.34 mSv (CI 95%, 1.30-1.38), for periradicular injections (n=584) a mean effective dose of 1.38 mSv (CI 95%, 1.32-1.44) were calculated.
Artner, Juraj; Lattig, Friederike; Reichel, Heiko; Cakir, Balkan
The term "spinal shock" applies to all phenomena surrounding physiologic or anatomic transection of the spinal cord that results in temporary loss or depression of all or most spinal reflex activity below the level of the injury. Hypotension due to loss of sympathetic tone is a possible complication, depending on the level of the lesion. The mechanism of injury that causes spinal shock is usually traumatic in origin and occurs immediately, but spinal shock has been described with mechanisms of injury that progress over several hours. Spinal cord reflex arcs immediately above the level of injury may also be severely depressed on the basis of the Schiff-Sherrington phenomenon. The end of the spinal shock phase of spinal cord injury is signaled by the return of elicitable abnormal cutaneospinal or muscle spindle reflex arcs. Autonomic reflex arcs involving relay to secondary ganglionic neurons outside the spinal cord may be variably affected during spinal shock, and their return after spinal shock abates is variable. The returning spinal cord reflex arcs below the level of injury are irrevocably altered and are the substrate on which rehabilitation efforts are based. PMID:8637263
Atkinson, P P; Atkinson, J L
The demand for increased patient safety has led to greater use of simulation training of health professionals performing medical procedures. The study aim was to evaluate the usefulness of the Mediseus® Epidural Simulator in teaching basic epidural needle-handling skills. Three groups of 15 anaesthetists (Novice=zero to two year anaesthesia trainees; Intermediate=three- to five-year anaesthesia trainees; Expert=consultants and regional-specialist anaesthetists) from three different medical centres participated. Each participant performed 20 simulated epidural needle insertions and was scored on several parameters (e.g. time, success of the insertion, bone collisions). Following familiarisation with the simulator and the needle insertions, participants answered seven questions on the applicability of the simulator to the teaching of basic epidural needle-handling skills. There was a clear learning effect with regard to the simulation procedure time, this decreasing throughout the experiment (P=0.037). There was no significant influence of either group or experience with the simulator in the study on the number or type of errors made. The quality of the simulation was scored 2.3 out of 5.0 (for bone simulation) and 4.7 (for loss-of-resistance simulation). All groups considered that the simulator was best suited for training prospective anaesthetists. Each group rated the usefulness of the simulator for training novices at greater than 3.0 out of 5.0. The Mediseus® Epidural Simulator seems to be an appropriate training device for an introduction to epidural needle insertion. For medical professionals with procedural knowledge, the simulation is not realistic enough and the simulator did not distinguish between the groups based on the errors made. PMID:22417027
Lee, R A; van Zundert, T C R V; van Koesveld, J J M; van Zundert, A A J; Stolker, R-J; Wieringa, P A; Gatt, S P
Chronic pain is an important problem following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is a major impediment to effective rehabilitation. The reported prevalence of chronic SCI pain is variable but averages 65% with around one third of these people rating their pain as severe. The mechanisms responsible for the presence of pain are poorly understood. However, evidence from clinical observations and
PJ Siddall; JD Loeser
Visceral pain following infection or inflammation is a major clinical problem. Although we have knowledge of how peripheral endings of colonic afferents change in disease, their central projections have been overlooked. With neuroanatomical tracing and colorectal distension (CRD), we sought to identify colonic afferent central terminals (CACTs), the dorsal horn (DH) neurons activated by colonic stimuli in the thoracolumbar (T10-L1) DH, and determine how they are altered by postinflammatory chronic colonic mechanical hypersensitivity. Retrograde tracing from the colon identified CACTs in the DH, whereas immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated MAP kinase ERK 1/2 (pERK) identified DH neurons activated by CRD (80 mmHg). In healthy mice, CACTs were located primarily in DH laminae I (LI) and V (LV) and projected down middle and lateral DH collateral pathways. CRD evoked pERK immunoreactivity in DH neurons, the majority of which were located in LI and LV, the same regions as CACTs. In postinflammatory mice, CACTs were significantly increased in T12-L1 compared with healthy mice. Although CACTs remained abundant in LI, they were more widespread and were now present in deeper laminae. After CRD, significantly more DH neurons were pERK-IR postinflammation (T12-L1), with abundant expression in LI and deeper laminae. In both healthy and postinflammatory mice, many pERK neurons were in close apposition to CACTs, suggesting that colonic afferents can stimulate specific DH neurons in response to noxious CRD. Overall, we demonstrate that CACT density and the number of responsive DH neurons in the spinal cord increase postinflammation, which may facilitate aberrant central representation of colonic nociceptive signaling following chronic peripheral hypersensitivity. PMID:22237807
Harrington, Andrea M; Brierley, Stuart M; Isaacs, Nicole; Hughes, Patrick A; Castro, Joel; Blackshaw, L Ashley
Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions.
Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.
Neuraxial techniques of anaesthesia and analgesia are the current choice in obstetrics for efficacy and general low risk of major complications. Concern exists about neuraxial anaesthesia in patients with occult neural tube defects, regarding both labour analgesia and anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Recently, remifentanil infusion has been proposed as an analgesic technique alternative to lumbar epidural, especially when epidural analgesia appears to be contraindicated. Here, we discuss the case of a pregnant woman attending at our institution with occult, symptomatic spinal dysraphism who requested labour analgesia. She was selected for remifentanil intravenous infusion for labour pain and then underwent urgent operative delivery with spinal anaesthesia with no complications.
Valente, A.; Frassanito, L.; Natale, L.; Draisci, G.
Background. Previously, Balki determined the Pearson correlation coefficient with the use of ultrasound (US) was 0.85 in morbidly obese parturients. We aimed to determine if the use of the epidural depth equation (EDE) in conjunction with US can provide better clinical correlation in estimating the distance from the skin to the epidural space in morbidly obese parturients. Methods. One hundred sixty morbidly obese (?40?kg/m2) parturients requesting labor epidural analgesia were enrolled. Before epidural catheter placement, EDE was used to estimate depth to the epidural space. This estimation was used to help visualize the epidural space with the transverse and midline longitudinal US views and to measure depth to epidural space. The measured epidural depth was made available to the resident trainee before needle insertion. Actual needle depth (ND) to the epidural space was recorded. Results. Pearson's correlation coefficients comparing actual (ND) versus US estimated depth to the epidural space in the longitudinal median and transverse planes were 0.905 (95% CI: 0.873 to 0.929) and 0.899 (95% CI: 0.865 to 0.925), respectively. Conclusion. Use of the epidural depth equation (EDE) in conjunction with the longitudinal and transverse US views results in better clinical correlation than with the use of US alone.
Singh, Sukhdip; Wirth, Keith M.; Phelps, Amy L.; Badve, Manasi H.; Shah, Tanmay H.; Vallejo, Manuel C.
Background Retrograde interlaminar ventral epidural injection (RIVEI) may hypothetically be more effective if the catheter is placed at the ventrocaudal aspect of the exiting nerve. We tested that hypothesis by measuring ventral and dorsal epidural contrast flow during RIVEI. Methods To perform RIVEI, a 17 G Tuohy needle was inserted to access the epidural space. A 19 G epidural catheter was inserted and advanced through the needle, passing in a caudal direction to the lower aspect of the contralateral pedicle. Fluoroscopic images were recorded at 1.5 ml increments of contrast. Based on the images of contrast dispersal, the extent of contrast spreading was assessed in 82 patients. Results All 82 patients (100%) injected with 3.0 ml contrast medium demonstrated ventral epidural spreading. Mean spreading level from the catheter tip was 2.21 ± 0.93 with 3.0 ml of contrast. Spreading to the superior aspect of the supra-adjacent intervertebral disc was observed in 67/82 (81.7%) of RIVEIs with 3.0 ml of contrast injected into the ventral epidural space. We found that 3.0 ml of contrast reached the inferior aspect of the infra-adjacent intervertebral disc in 95.1% (78/82) of RIVEIs performed. Conclusions Our findings imply that a one-level RIVEI may be sufficient in situations where a two-level injection would currently be used.
Jeong, Ji Seon; Woo, Jung Pil; Shim, Jae Hang
Background Impaired walking limits function after spinal cord injury (SCI), but training-related improvements are possible even in people with chronic motor incomplete SCI. Objective The objective of this study was to compare changes in walking speed and distance associated with 4 locomotor training approaches. Design This study was a single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Setting This study was conducted in a rehabilitation research laboratory. Participants Participants were people with minimal walking function due to chronic SCI. Intervention Participants (n=74) trained 5 days per week for 12 weeks with the following approaches: treadmill-based training with manual assistance (TM), treadmill-based training with stimulation (TS), overground training with stimulation (OG), and treadmill-based training with robotic assistance (LR). Measurements Overground walking speed and distance were the primary outcome measures. Results In participants who completed the training (n=64), there were overall effects for speed (effect size index [d]=0.33) and distance (d=0.35). For speed, there were no significant between-group differences; however, distance gains were greatest with OG. Effect sizes for speed and distance were largest with OG (d=0.43 and d=0.40, respectively). Effect sizes for speed were the same for TM and TS (d=0.28); there was no effect for LR. The effect size for distance was greater with TS (d=0.16) than with TM or LR, for which there was no effect. Ten participants who improved with training were retested at least 6 months after training; walking speed at this time was slower than that at the conclusion of training but remained faster than before training. Limitations It is unknown whether the training dosage and the emphasis on training speed were optimal. Robotic training that requires active participation would likely yield different results. Conclusions In people with chronic motor incomplete SCI, walking speed improved with both overground training and treadmill-based training; however, walking distance improved to a greater extent with overground training.
Roach, Kathryn E.
A review of Pantopaque myelograms followed by plain radiographs revealed that an accidental extraarachnoid injection of the contrast medium had been made in 10% and epidural leakage of the contrast medium had occurred after the examination in 27% of the patients. The possibility of direct communication between the sub-and extraarachnoid spaces via the root pouches is discussed on the basis
J. T. Jensen
A 66-year-old man with long-standing type 2 diabetes, nephropathy and neuropathy was admitted acutely with an infected left big toe neuropathic ulcer, with underlying osteomyelitis. His condition rapidly deteriorated with sepsis and right lobar pneumonia. Microbiology grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Shortly into his admission, he developed flaccid paraparesis, and an MRI showed multiple epidural abscesses with likely cord infarction, not amenable to surgical intervention. His sepsis resolved, but his paraparesis remained severe, requiring spinal rehabilitation. PMID:24920514
Shaho, Shang; Khan, Shaila; Huda, Ms Bobby; Chowdhury, Tahseen Ahmad
The aim of this study is to report on the clinical efficacy of epidural thoracic spinal cord stimulation on gait and balance in a 39-year-old man with genetically confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia 7. A RESUME Medtronic electrode was placed at the epidural T11 level. Spatiotemporal gait assessment using an electronic walkway and static posturography were obtained and analyzed in a blinded manner with and without stimulation. The Tinetti Mobility Test was also performed in the two conditions. At 11 months after surgery, there was a 3-point improvement in the Tinetti Mobility Test in the on stimulation condition, although there was no statistically significant difference in spatiotemporal gait parameters. Static posturography did not demonstrate a significant improvement in stability measures between the two conditions in a stochastic way. Thoracic epidural spinal cord stimulation had a mild but clinically meaningful beneficial effect in improving gait and balance in a patient with SCA-7. The underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Further experience with spinal cord stimulation in refractory gait disorders is warranted. PMID:24390202
Sidiropoulos, Christos; Masani, Kei; Mestre, Tiago; Milosevic, Matija; Poon, Yu-Yan; Fallis, Melanie; Shah, Binit B; Kalia, Suneil K; Popovic, Milos R; Lozano, Andres M; Moro, Elena
Purpose: To determine the influence of arm-crank exercise in reproductive hormone levels in adults with chronic SCI. Further objectives were to assess the influence of arm-crank exercise on muscle strength and body composition. Materials and Methods: Seventeen male adults with complete SCI at or below the 5th thoracic level (T5) volunteered for this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 9) or control group (n = 8) using a concealed method. The participants in the intervention group performed a 12-week arm-crank exercise program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of warming-up (10-15 min) followed by a main part in arm-crank (20-30 min [increasing 2 min and 30 seconds each three weeks]) at a moderate work intensity of 50-65% of heart rate reserve (HRR) (starting at 50% and increasing 5% each three weeks) and by a cooling-down period (5-10 min). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Muscle strength (handgrip) and body composition (waist circumference [WC]) were assessed. Results: After the completion of the training program, testosterone level was significantly increased (p = 0.0166;d = 1.14). Furthermore, maximal handgrip and WC were significantly improved. Lastly, a significant inverse correlation was found between WC and testosterone (r =- 0.35; p = 0.0377). Conclusion: The arm-crank exercise improved reproductive hormone profile by increasing testosterone levels in adults with chronic SCI. A secondary finding was that it also significantly improved muscle strength and body composition in this group. PMID:25010302
Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel; Rosety, Ignacio; Fornieles, Gabriel; Rosety, Jesus M; Elosegui, Sonia; Rosety, Miguel A; Ordonez, Francisco Javier
The authors' report on the use of a prototype spinal stereotactic radiosurgery frame which was employed for the treatment of 9 patients who presented with recurrent neoplastic involvement of the spinal column. All patients had failed standard therapy consisting of surgery, external fractionated radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Eight of the lesions represented metastatic tumors in the vertebral column, one of the lesions was a primary osteosarcoma involving multiple vertebral bodies. The lesions were found at multiple levels, from the cervical through the sacral region. Six out of the 9 patients presented with epidural compression: 4 of the 9 patients with evidence of myelopathy: 2 of the 9 patients with radicular symptoms secondary to compression from the tumor, and 1 patient was free of any compressive symptoms. All patients had pain requiring narcotics. Patients were treated with a median radiosurgical dose of 800 cGy (range 800-1.000) with a median of 1 isocenter (range 1-7 isocenters) and median normalization of 80% to the isodose contour (range 80-160). Median dose delivered to the already prior irradiated spinal cord was 179 cGy (range 52-320 cGy) with a median spinal cord dose of 34 (range 4-68). To date, there have been three minor complications: one radiation-induced esophagitis which was treated medically: one wound infection, and 1 patient requiring an additional 24 h of hospitalization stay. There have been no major complications. To date, 5 of the 9 patients have died, all from causes unrelated to the spinal radiosurgery. Three out of the 9 patients have been followed for more than 1 year. In all 3, there was radiographic regression of the tumor and epidural compression. In 2 patients, there was histologic confirmation of absence of tumor in the treated site: in 1 patient. no tumor was found at postmortem. 12 months after treatment, when the patient died of unrelated causes. Although the number of patients followed is limited, the phase I study clearly shows the technical feasibility of spinal radiosurgery for the control of metastatic involvement of the vertebral column even in the face of epidural compression. PMID:8938925
Hamilton, A J; Lulu, B A; Fosmire, H; Gossett, L
Background: Epidural opioids acting through the spinal cord receptors improve the quality and duration of analgesia along with dose-sparing effect with the local anesthetics. The present study compared the efficacy and safety profile of epidurally administered butorphanol and fentanyl combined with bupivacaine (B). Materials and Methods: A total of 75 adult patients of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II, aged 20-60 years, undergoing lower abdominal under epidural anesthesia were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups of 25 each: B, bupivacaine and butorphanol (BB) and bupivacaine + fentanyl (BF). B (0.5%) 20 ml was administered epidurally in all the three groups with the addition of 1 mg butorphanol in BB group and 100 ?g fentanyl in the BF group. The hemodynamic parameters as well as various block characteristics including onset, completion, level and duration of sensory analgesia as well as onset, completion and regression of motor block were observed and compared. Adverse events and post-operative visual analgesia scale scores were also noted and compared. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with post-hoc significance, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. Results: The demographic profile of patients was comparable in all the three groups. Onset and completion of sensory analgesia was earliest in BF group, followed by BB and B group. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in BB group followed by BF as compared with group B. Addition of butorphanol and fentanyl to B had no effect on the time of onset, completion and regression of motor block. No serious cardio-respiratory side effects were observed in any group. Conclusions: Butorphanol and fentanyl as epidural adjuvants are equally safe and provide comparable stable hemodynamics, early onset and establishment of sensory anesthesia. Butorphanol provides a significantly prolonged post-operative analgesia.
Kaur, Jasleen; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh
Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with ECD. As time progressed, involvement of the orbital fossa, cranial convexity, spinal cord, brain stem, thyroid, lung, retroperitoneum, lower extremity bones and skin were found. Previously reported cases reveal the frequency of ECD with spinal cord involvement is rare. Although this was a presumed diagnosis based on other lesions, our case is the first in which both intramedullary and epidural masses are present.
Takeuchi, T; Sato, M; Sonomura, T; Itakura, T
Introduction Over 70% of people in developed countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Many patients with chronic LBP who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? What are the effects of non-surgical and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-surgical interventional therapies (intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency denervation), spinal manipulative therapy, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).
Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated at Kinki University School of Medicine. Two of the 198 patients had syringomyelia following aneurysmal SAH; thus the rate of syringomyelia associated with aneurysmal SAH was 1.0%. Patient 1 was a 54-year-old woman who presented with back pain, back numbness and gait disturbance 20 months after SAH. Her MRI revealed syringomyelia of the spinal cord from C2 to T10. She underwent shunting of the syrinx to the subarachnoid space. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with headache, diplopia, hoarseness, dysphagia and ataxia five months after SAH. MRI revealed syringomyelia from the medulla oblongata to C6, and an enlargement of the lateral and fourth ventricles. After foramen magnum decompression and C1 laminectomy, a fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was placed by insertion of a catheter. Spinal arachnoiditis and spinal syringomyelia are rare but important chronic complications after SAH. PMID:22285478
Nakanishi, Kinya; Uchiyama, Takuya; Nakano, Naoki; Fukawa, Norihito; Yamada, Kimito; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Kato, Amami
Study design:Prospective assessment as part of initial evaluations for randomized-controlled trial participation.Objectives:To determine the test-retest reliability of peak VO2 testing during both robotically assisted body weight supported treadmill training (RABWSTT) and arm cycle ergometry and to assess whether a relationship exists between these two measurements in individuals with chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury (CMISCI).Methods:Twenty-one participants with CMISCI enrolled in a 3- month, RABWSTT randomized-controlled trial. As part of their baseline assessments, individuals underwent VO2 peak assessments twice on separate days during both RABWSTT and arm cycle ergometry using a metabolic cart.Results:Peak oxygen consumption measured at baseline correlated significantly between repeated tests in the RABWSTT (r=0.96, P<0.01) and the arm ergometer (r=0.95, P<0.01). A Pearson correlation (r=0.87, P<0.01) existed between the peak VO2 measurements obtained using RABWSTT and arm ergometry, although Bland-Altman analysis suggested a more limited relationship with a bias of 1.1 favoring arm ergometry. This relationship was stronger for individuals with tetraplegia than for people with paraplegia.Conclusion/clinical relevance:Determination of VO2 peak during both RABWSTT and arm ergometry in individuals with CMISCI is highly reproducible. Furthermore, a moderate correlation exists between peak VO2 measured during RABWSTT and arm cycle ergometry in this population for individuals with tetraplegia. This correlation offers implications for future cardiovascular testing of individuals with CMISCI, as two reliable peak VO2 measurement techniques are possible. PMID:24534779
Gorman, P H; Geigle, P R; Chen, K; York, H; Scott, W
Spinal Manipulation (SM) has been purported to decrease pain and improve function in subjects with non-specific neck pain. Previous research has investigated which individuals with non-specific neck pain will be more likely to benefit from SM. It has not yet been proven whether or not the effectiveness of thoracic SM depends on the specific technique being used. This double-blind randomized trial has compared the short-term effects of two thoracic SM maneuvers in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sixty participants were distributed randomly into two groups. One group received the Dog technique (n = 30), with the subject in supine position, and the other group underwent the Toggle-Recoil technique (n = 30), with the participant lying prone, T4 being the targeted area in both cases. Evaluations were made of self-reported neck pain (Visual Analogue Scale); neck mobility (Cervical Range of Motion); and pressure pain threshold at the cervical and thoracic levels (C4 and T4 spinous process) and over the site described for location of tense bands of the upper trapezius muscle. Measurements were taken before intervention, immediately afterward, and 20 min later. Both maneuvers improved neck mobility and mechanosensitivity and reduced pain in the short term. No major or clinical differences were found between the groups. In the between-groups comparison slightly better results were observed in the Toggle-Recoil group only for cervical extension (p = 0.009), right lateral flexion (p = 0.004) and left rotation (p < 0.05). PMID:24679838
Casanova-Méndez, Amaloha; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Gogorza-Arroitaonandia, Kristobal; Almazán-Campos, Ginés
Milnacipran, a reuptake inhibitor of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT), elicits an antiallodynic effect in rats with neuropathic pain; however, the role of NA and 5-HT receptors in the induction of the antiallodynic effect of milnacipran remains unclear. Thus, we examined the effects of prazosin as an ?1 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine as an ?2 adrenoceptor antagonist, metergoline as a 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, cyanopindolol as a 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, ketanserin as a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, and ondansetoron as a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist on the antiallodynic effect of milnacipran in neuropathic rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). The CCI rats expressed mechanical and thermal allodynia, which was attenuated by intrathecal injection of milnacipran. Yohimbine, but not prazosin, reversed the milnacipran-induced antiallodynic effect. The antiallodynic effect of milnacipran was also reversed by metergoline, ketanserin and ondansetron, while cyanopindolol reversed the antiallodynic effect on mechanical, but not thermal stimulation. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in lamina I/II of the spinal dorsal horn was enhanced by thermal stimulation and the enhanced expression of c-Fos was suppressed by milnacipran. This effect of milnacipran was reversed by yohimbine, metergoline, katanserin and ondansetron, but not prazosin. These results indicate that the effect of milnacipran on mechanical and thermal allodynia and c-Fos expression is elicited through the ?2 adrenoceptor, but not ?1 adrenoceptor, and 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors; furthermore, the 5-HT1A/1B receptor is involved in mechanical allodynia, but not thermal allodynia. PMID:24876059
Nakamura, Takehiro; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryuichiro; Igawa, Kaori; Naono-Nakayama, Rumi; Sakoda, Sumio; Nishimori, Toshikazu; Ishida, Yasushi
The goal of this work is to present a broad magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for use in the study of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). The CCSVI MRI protocol includes the following sequences: time-resolved contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography, 2D time-of-flight MR venography, and 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination to assess venous structural abnormalities; phase-contrast MR imaging at different levels in the neck and thoracic cavity to quantify flow through the veins, arteries, and cerebrospinal fluid; T2-weighted imaging, T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted imaging of the brain for examinations of parenchymal lesions; and finally, susceptibility-weighted imaging for quantification of iron deposition in the brain. Data from 111 clinically definite multiple sclerosis patients were assessed for potential structural and flow CCSVI risk criteria, including stenosis, atresia, aplasia, dominant to subdominant venous flow ratio (D:sD), and the sum of their flow rates. Of the 111 patients, 50 (45%) were determined to be nonstenotic (NST) with no stenosis or atresia in their internal jugular veins (IJV), and the rest 61 (55%) were stenotic (ST) having at least one internal jugular vein stenosis or atresia. No occurrence of aplasia was observed. A D:sD of greater than 3:1 was observed in 15 (24.6%) patients of the ST group and 2 (4.0%) patients of the NST group. A sum of dominant and subdominant venous flow rate of <8 mL/s was observed in 22 (36.1%) patients of the ST group and 6 (12.0%) patients of the NST group. MRI provides valuable information in the observation of potential CCSVI risk factors. Low total flow in the 2 dominant veins seemed to be the strongest indicator for risk of having stenoses in the multiple sclerosis population. PMID:22640499
Utriainen, David; Feng, Wei; Elias, Saba; Latif, Zahid; Hubbard, David; Haacke, Ewart Mark
Spinal hematoma is a rare and usually severe neurological disorder that, without adequate treatment, often leads to death or permanent neurological deficit. Epidural as well as subdural and subarachnoid hematomas have been investigated in some studies. A 66-year-old man referred to our hospital because of acute onset paraplegia and incontinency started 3 h before admission. With impression of spinal hemorrhage, emergent cervicothoracic spinal MRI performed. On magnetic resonance imagination (MRI) mixed hyper/iso intense lesion in anterior subarachnoid space from C7 to T5 was seen. On brain A computerised tomography (CT) scan, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in posterior parts of brain was seen. Unfortunately, the patient died 10 days later. About our patient, severe back pain accompanying by immediate paraplegia, sphincter disturbances, sensory level, and prominent meningeal signs guided us clinically to spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Further brain CT scan revealed diffusion of blood to brain subarachnoid space and ventricles. An outstanding finding on brain CT was the presence of blood only in posterior horn of lateral ventricles and dorsal fissures of brain supporting our theory that blood has diffused from spinal subarachnoid space to dorsal subarachnoid space of brain because of supine position of patient. In this patient anticoagulation may be the only sinister factor for developing complications. PMID:23961296
Fatehi, Farzad; Basiri, Keivan; Ghorbani, Askar
Spinal hematoma is a rare and usually severe neurological disorder that, without adequate treatment, often leads to death or permanent neurological deficit. Epidural as well as subdural and subarachnoid hematomas have been investigated in some studies. A 66-year-old man referred to our hospital because of acute onset paraplegia and incontinency started 3 h before admission. With impression of spinal hemorrhage, emergent cervicothoracic spinal MRI performed. On magnetic resonance imagination (MRI) mixed hyper/iso intense lesion in anterior subarachnoid space from C7 to T5 was seen. On brain A computerised tomography (CT) scan, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in posterior parts of brain was seen. Unfortunately, the patient died 10 days later. About our patient, severe back pain accompanying by immediate paraplegia, sphincter disturbances, sensory level, and prominent meningeal signs guided us clinically to spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Further brain CT scan revealed diffusion of blood to brain subarachnoid space and ventricles. An outstanding finding on brain CT was the presence of blood only in posterior horn of lateral ventricles and dorsal fissures of brain supporting our theory that blood has diffused from spinal subarachnoid space to dorsal subarachnoid space of brain because of supine position of patient. In this patient anticoagulation may be the only sinister factor for developing complications.
Fatehi, Farzad; Basiri, Keivan; Ghorbani, Askar
Spinal cord injuries devastate the lives of those affected. Normally, acute injury leads to chronic injury in the spinal cord, although this has a variable impact on normal sensory and motor functions. Currently the only drug used to treat acute spinal cord injury is methyl-predni solone, administered in order to prevent secondary inflammatory neural damage. Thus, it is time that
Maria Teresa Moreno-Flores; Jesus Avila
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ca-MRSA) has been implicated as a major cause of cutaneous skin infections. Invasive infections from ca-MRSA have also been reported, including endocarditis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis. We describe a case of a missed ca-MRSA epidural brain abscess in a patient with a recent furunculosis who underwent a lumbar puncture for meningitis workup without a prior head
Bruce M. Lo; Eleanor A. Erwin
Objectives: We studied waveform changes associated with a focal conduction block in compression myelopathies.Design and Methods: A total of 26 patients underwent serial intervertebral recording of spinal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) after epidural stimulation. The site of compression identified by abrupt reduction in size of the negative peak was designated as 0 level with the other levels numbered in order