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1

Spontaneous and idiopathic chronic spinal epidural hematoma: two case reports and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) represents the most frequent entity of acute or chronic spinal bleeding. Based upon pathogenesis,\\u000a SEH can be classified as idiopathic, spontaneous, and secondary. The idiopathic forms are considered not to be attributed\\u000a to any specific risk factors. Spontaneous SEH, accounting for 0.3–0.9% of all spinal epidural space occupying lesions, instead\\u000a is associated with risk factors (such

Silvio SarubboFrancesco; Francesco Garofano; Giuseppe Maida; Enrico Fainardi; Enrico Granieri; Michele Alessandro Cavallo

2009-01-01

2

Chronic spontaneous lumbar epidural hematoma simulating extradural spinal tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disorder, and chronic SEHs are rarer than acute SEHs. However, there is few reported involving the bone change of the vertebral body in chronic SEHs. We present a case report of lumbar epidural hematoma that required differentiation from extramedullary spinal tumors by a long process because the CT scan revealed scalloping of the vertebral body and review the relevant literature. A 78-year-old man had experienced a gradual onset of low back pain and excruciating pain in both legs. Lumbar MRI on T1-weighted images revealed a space-occupying lesion with a hyperintense signal relative to the spinal cord with no enhancement on gadolinium adminisration. Meanwhile, T2-weighted images revealed a heterogeneous intensity change, accompanying a central area of hyperintense signals with a hypointense peripheral border at the L4 vertebra. Moreover, the CT scan demonstrated scalloping of the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body which is generally suspected as the CT finding of spainal tumor. During the epidural space exploration, we found a dark red-colored mass surrounded by a capsular layer, which was fibrous and adhered to the flavum and dura mater. Microscopic histological examination of the resected mass revealed a mixture of the relatively new hematoma and the hematoma that was moving into the connective tissue. Accordingly, the hematoma was diagnosed as chronic SEH. The particular MRI findings of chronic SEHs are helpful for making accurate preoperative diagnoses of this pathology. PMID:25130006

Matsui, Hiroki; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hirano, Kenichi; Tauchi, Ryoji; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-02-01

3

Full-endoscopic interlaminar removal of chronic lumbar epidural hematoma after spinal manipulation  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal manipulation is widely used for low back pain treatments. Complications associated with spinal manipulation are seen. Lumbar epidural hematoma (EDH) is one of the complications reported in the literature. If lumbar chronic EDH symptoms are present, which are similar to those of a herniated nucleus pulposus, surgery may be considered if medical treatment fails. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy utilizing an interlaminar approach can be successfully applied to those with herniated nucleus pulposus. We use the same technique to remove the lumbar chronic EDH, which is the first documented report in the related literature. Methods: We present a case with chronic lumbar EDH associated with spinal manipulation. Neurologic deficits were noted on physical examination. We arranged for a full-endoscopic interlaminar approach to remove the hematoma for the patient with the rigid endoscopy (Vertebris system; Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany). Results: After surgery, the patient's radiculopathy immediately began to disappear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up 10 days after the surgery revealed no residual hematoma. No complications were noted during the outpatient department follow up. Conclusions: Lumbar EDH is a possible complication of spinal manipulation. Patient experiencing rapidly progressive neurologic deficit require early surgical evacuation, while conservative treatment may only be applied to those with mild symptoms. A percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar approach may be a viable alternative for the treatment of those with chronic EDH with progressive neurologic deficits. PMID:24872917

Cheng, Yen-Po; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Lin, Ping-Yi; Huang, Abel Po-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Chien-Min; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

2014-01-01

4

Comparison of caudal steroid epidural with targeted steroid placement during spinal endoscopy for chronic sciatica: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chronic sciatica can be managed by caudal steroid epidural or by targeted steroid placement during spinal endoscopy. Spinal endoscopy is a new unproven procedure. We aimed to compare the two pain management techniques and to investigate whether the site of steroid placement within the epidural space was significant. Methods. We randomized 60 patients with a 6-18 months history of

A. K. Dashfield; M. B. Taylor; J. S. Cleaver; D. Farrow

2005-01-01

5

Spinal cord stimulation with implanted epidural paddle lead relieves chronic axial low back pain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) provides significant relief for lumbosacral radiculopathy refractory to both medical and surgical treatment, but historically only offers limited relief for axial low back pain (LBP). We aim to evaluate the response of chronic axial LBP treated with SCS using a surgically implanted epidural paddle lead. Materials and methods This is a retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with exclusive LBP or predominant LBP associated with lower extremity (LE) pain evaluated and treated with SCS using an implanted paddle lead within the dorsal thoracic epidural space. Baseline LBP, and if present LE pain, were recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at an initial evaluation. At a follow-up visit (a minimum of 12 months later), LBP and LE pain after a spinal cord stimulator implantation were again recorded using the VAS. Patients were also asked to estimate total LBP pain relief achieved. Results Patients with either exclusive (n=7) or predominant (n=2) axial LBP were treated with SCS by implantation of a paddle lead at an average spine level of T9. The baseline VAS score for LBP was 7.2; after a follow-up of 20 months, the score decreased to 2.3 (P=0.003). The LE pain VAS score decreased from 7.5 to 0.0 (P=0.103). Patients also reported a subjective 66.4% decrease of their LBP at follow-up. There were no surgical complications. Conclusions Axial LBP is refractory to many treatments, including SCS. SCS using a surgically implanted paddle electrode provides significant pain relief for chronic axial LPB, and is a safe treatment modality. PMID:25143753

Stidd, David A; Rivero, Sergio; Weinand, Martin E

2014-01-01

6

[Reaction of spinal epidural venous plexuses of the spinal canal in low back spinal discopathy].  

PubMed

Clinical ultrasonic investigations have shown dependence of blood-stream in spinal epidural venous plexuses on the character of low back spinal diskopathy. The leading starting factor of epiduritis is a disk protrusion or large size hernia. Epiduritis in disscopathy can run a chronic course, become a cause of (or complicate) development of vertebral neurological reflex or compression syndromes. One of acceptable diagnostic methods for local epiduritis is an ultrasonic technique which is a valuable adjunct to clinical studies. PMID:12669555

Gongal'ski?, V V; Prokopovich, E V

2002-01-01

7

Lumbar spinal epidural angiolipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumours most commonly found in the thoracic spine. A case of an extradural lumbar angiolipoma in a 47-year-old female is described. She had a recent history of lower back pain accompanied by sciatica. Lumbar MRI revealed a dorsal epidural mass at the L2–L3 level. The patient underwent a bilateral laminectomy, in which the tumour was

Kimon Nanassis; Parmenion Tsitsopoulos; Dimitrios Marinopoulos; Apostolos Mintelis; Philippos Tsitsopoulos

2008-01-01

8

Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess  

SciTech Connect

A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

1982-12-17

9

Medicolegal cases for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess are rare surgical emergencies resulting in significant neurologic deficits. Making the diagnosis for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess can be challenging; however, a delay in recognition and treatment can be devastating. The objective of this retrospective analysis study was to identify risk factors for an adverse outcome for the provider. The LexisNexis Academic legal search database was used to identify a total of 19 cases of spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess filed against medical providers. Outcome data on trial verdicts, age, sex, initial site of injury, time to consultation, time to appropriate imaging studies, time to surgery, and whether a rectal examination was performed or not were recorded. The results demonstrated a significant association between time to surgery more than 48 hours and an unfavorable verdict for the provider. The degree of permanent neurologic impairment did not appear to affect the verdicts. Fifty-eight percent of the cases did not present with an initial deficit, including loss of bowel or bladder control. All medical professionals must maintain a high level of suspicion and act quickly. Physicians who are able to identify early clinical features, appropriately image, and treat within a 48 hour time frame have demonstrated a more favorable medicolegal outcome compared with their counterparts in filed lawsuits for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess cases. PMID:23276337

French, Keisha L; Daniels, Eldra W; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

2013-01-01

10

Spinal epidural hemangioma related to pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis presenting with myelopathy secondary to a spinal\\u000a epidural hemangioma. MRI showed an epidural soft tissue mass within the spinal canal between T5 and T9 with severe spinal\\u000a cord compression. Symptoms had a temporal relationship to her pregnancy. Surgical removal of the epidural hemangioma rapidly\\u000a relieved her symptoms and

Gary S. Shapiro; Peter J. Millett; Edward F. DiCarlo; Douglas N. Mintz; Francis W Gamache; Bernard A. Rawlins

2001-01-01

11

Whole Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication. PMID:24967052

Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook

2014-01-01

12

Whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication. PMID:24967052

Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin

2014-06-01

13

Epidural space and chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidural fibrosis, flogosis, hyperemia and stasis, are some of the pathological morphologies that can be found in the epidural space (ES) of patients affected from failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), stenosis and other chronic painful pathologies, usually grouped in the class of low back pain (LBP) syndrome. As a consequence of lumbar spine surgery fibrotic tissue commonly replace epidural fat,

William Raffaeli; Donatella Righetti; Jessica Andruccioli; Donatella Sarti

2010-01-01

14

Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in Korean  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo

2014-01-01

15

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in korean.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Sang Pyung

2014-06-01

16

Spinal subdural abscess following epidural steroid injection.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a cervicothoracolumbosacral spinal subdural abscess about a month after receiving an epidural steroid injection for management of low-back pain due to L5-S1 disc herniation. Although he presented with symptoms concerning for a spinal etiology, the subdural empyema was not evident on the initial MRI study and was observed on imaging 5 days later. This patient was successfully managed with surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment, and he is doing well more than 21 months after the operation. It is possible that a prior history of disc herniation or other spinal abnormality may increase a patient's risk of developing spinal subdural empyema. This case illustrates the risk of infection following spinal epidural steroid injections and the importance of early recognition and intervention to successfully treat an extensive subdural abscess. PMID:25343407

Kraeutler, Matthew J; Bozzay, Joseph D; Walker, Matthew P; John, Kuruvilla

2015-01-01

17

MRI Features of Spinal Epidural Angiolipomas  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the MRI findings in ten patients of spinal epidural angiolipoma for differentiated diagnosis presurgery. Materials and Methods Ten surgically proved cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas were retrospectively reviewed, and the lesion was classified according to the MR findings. Results Ten tumors were located in the superior (n = 4), middle (n = 2), or inferior (n = 4) thoracic level. The mass, with the spindle shape, was located in the posterior epidural space and extended parallel to the long axis of the spine. All lesions contained a fat and vascular element. The vascular content, correlating with the presence of hypointense regions on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signals on T2-weighted imaging, had marked enhancement. However, there were no flow void signs on MR images. All tumors were divided into two types based on the MR features. In type 1 (n = 3), the mass was predominantly composed of lipomatous tissue (> 50%) and contained only a few small angiomatous regions, which had a trabeculated or mottled appear. In type 2 (n = 7), the mass, however, was predominantly composed of vascular components (> 50%), which presented as large foci in the center of the mass. Conclusion Most spinal epidural angiolipomas exhibit hyperintensity on T1WI while the hypointense region on the noncontrast T1WI indicates to be vascular, which manifests an obvious enhancement with gadolinium administration. PMID:24043978

Hu, Su; Hu, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xi-ming; Dai, Hui; Fang, Xiang-ming; Cui, Lei

2013-01-01

18

Spinal epidural gas after cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

The authors describe a patient with severe lower back and left leg pain in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery. Radiologic examination revealed gas in the spinal epidural space at the level of L4-5. The pain could not be relieved with analgesics and the patient underwent lumber surgery after cardiac surgery. After decompression, the patient improved and was discharged with no symptoms. PMID:11242278

Yucesoy, K; Cakmakci, H; Naderi, S; Kovanlikaya, A

2001-02-01

19

Efficacy of Epidural Injections in the Treatment of Lumbar Central Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Context: Lumbar central spinal stenosis is common and often results in chronic persistent pain and disability, which can lead to multiple interventions. After the failure of conservative treatment, either surgical or nonsurgical modalities such as epidural injections are contemplated in the management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Evidence Acquisition: Recent randomized trials, systematic reviews and guidelines have reached varying conclusions about the efficacy of epidural injections in the management of central lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of all three anatomical epidural injection approaches (caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal) in the treatment of lumbar central spinal stenosis. A systematic review was performed on randomized trials published from 1966 to July 2014 of all types of epidural injections used in the management of lumbar central spinal stenosis. Methodological quality assessment and grading of the evidence was performed. Results: The evidence in managing lumbar spinal stenosis is Level II for long-term improvement for caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections. For transforaminal epidural injections, the evidence is Level III for short-term improvement only. The interlaminar approach appears to be superior to the caudal approach and the caudal approach appears to be superior to the transforaminal one. Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that epidural injections with local anesthetic alone or with local anesthetic with steroids offer short- and long-term relief of low back and lower extremity pain for patients with lumbar central spinal stenosis. However, the evidence is Level II for the long-term efficacy of caudal and interlaminar epidural injections, whereas it is Level III for short-term improvement only with transforaminal epidural injections. PMID:25789241

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan David; Manchikanti, Kavita; Boswell, Mark; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Hirsch, Joshua

2015-01-01

20

Epidural spinal electrical stimulation in severe angina pectoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short term effects of epidural spinal electrical stimulation were studied in 10 patients with angina pectoris of New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. The antianginal pharmacological treatment given at entry to the study was regarded as optimal and was not changed during the study. The effects of epidural spinal electrical stimulation were measured by repeated bicycle

C Mannheimer; L E Augustinsson; C A Carlsson; K Manhem; C Wilhelmsson

1988-01-01

21

Injecting saline through the epidural needle decreases the iv epidural catheter placement rate during combined spinal-epidural labour analgesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine if injecting 10 mL saline before epidural catheter threading (pre-cannulation epidural fluid injection) can decrease\\u000a the incidence ofiv epidural catheter placement during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) labour analgesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred healthy women requesting CSE labour analgesia with either fentanyl 20 ?g or sufentanil 10 ?g were prospectively\\u000a randomized to receive either no epidural injection (dry group,n = 50) or

Farida Gadalla; Sung-Hee Rhim Lee; Kue C. Choi; Jill Fong; Matthew C. Gomillion; Barbara L. Leighton

2003-01-01

22

Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection  

SciTech Connect

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

Tok, Chung Hong, E-mail: rogertok@gmail.com; Kaur, Shaleen [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine (Malaysia); Gangi, Afshin [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

2011-02-15

23

Spinal epidural hematoma during anticoagulant therapy. A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of spinal epidural hematoma during anticoagulant therapy. Clinical presentation is characterized by classic paravertebral back pain, followed by progressive neurological deficit due to spinal cord and radicular compression, with sensory deficits and bladder disturbance. From the literature, 37 cases are collected of spinal epidural hematoma during anticoagulant therapy, treated surgically. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis are discussed. Early surgical decompression of the spinal cord minimizes the degree of permanent neurological damage, because of the long-time compression of the spinal cord resulting in irreversible disturbance of circulation; therefore an early diagnosis is a better prognosis. The thoracic and cervical spine canal is smaller than the lumbar, therefore there is less space to reward the formation of hematomas, consequently the postoperative recovery is lower in patient with high spinal epidural hematomas with respect to lumbo-sacral spinal epidural hematomas; at this level the epidural hematoma may be insidious in its onset and tends to become chronic before definite treatment is undertaken. PMID:8568560

Rodriguez y Baena, R; Gaetani, P; Tancioni, F; Tartara, F

1995-03-01

24

Spinal somatosensory evoked potentials after epidural isoproterenol in awake sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The use of 10–15 ?g epinephrine as an epidural test-dose is controversial. Isoproterenol would be a better alternative. However\\u000a before 5?g isoproterenol can be incorporated in an epidural test-dose, neurotoxicological studies have to be performed. The\\u000a present study was designed to assess spinal somatosensory evoked potentials (spinal SSEP) before and after epidural isoproteronol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Spinal SSEPs were recorded before, 30 min

Marco A. E. Marcus; Frans L. Bruyninckx; Jan D. Vertommcn; Patrick F. Wouters; Hugo Van Aken

1997-01-01

25

Fetal effects of combined spinal-epidural vs epidural labour analgesia: a prospective, randomised double-blind study.  

PubMed

We have compared fetal heart rate patterns, Apgar scores and umbilical cord gas values following initiation of labour analgesia using either combined spinal-epidural or epidural. One hundred and fifteen healthy women requesting neuraxial analgesia in the first stage of labour were randomly assigned to receive either combined spinal-epidural (n = 62) or epidural analgesia (n = 53). Fetal heart rate traces, recorded for 30 min before and 60 min after neuraxial block, were categorised as normal, suspicious or pathological according to national guidelines. Sixty-one fetal heart rate tracings were analysed in the combined spinal-epidural group and 52 in the epidural group. No significant differences were found in fetal heart rate patterns, Apgar scores or umbilical artery and vein acid-base status between groups. However, in both combined spinal-epidural and epidural groups, there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns following neuraxial analgesia (p < 0.0001); two before compared with eight after analgesia in the combined spinal-epidural group and zero before compared with 11 after in the epidural group. These changes comprised increased decelerations (p = 0.0045) (combined spinal-epidural group nine before and 14 after analgesia, epidural group four before and 16 after), increased late decelerations (p < 0.0001) (combined spinal-epidural group zero before and seven after analgesia, epidural group zero before and eight after), and a reduction in acceleration rate (p = 0.034) (combined spinal-epidural group mean (SD) 12.2 (6.7) h(-1) before and 9.9 (6.1) h(-1) after analgesia, epidural group 11.0 (7.3) h(-1) before and 8.4 (5.9) h(-1) after). These fetal heart rate changes did not affect neonatal outcome in this healthy population. PMID:24738803

Patel, N P; El-Wahab, N; Fernando, R; Wilson, S; Robson, S C; Columb, M O; Lyons, G R

2014-05-01

26

The use of combined spinal-epidural technique to compare intrathecal ziconotide and epidural opioids for trialing intrathecal drug delivery.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Choosing the initial medications for intrathecal delivery is often confusing and not standardized. We describe a novel way for using a combined spinal-epidural technique to compare two first-line medications for intrathecal delivery; ziconotide and morphine (or hydromorphone). Five patients with intractable chronic or cancer pain were elected to have an intrathecal drug delivery system implanted for pain management. Each patient was given a 3-day inpatient trial with the combined spinal-epidural technique. The Visual Analog Scale, Numerical Rating Scale, short-term McGill questionnaire and opioid consumption were monitored daily. The results were used to develop a paradigm to describe how ziconotide can be used in practice. PMID:24645996

Gulati, Amitabh; Loh, Jeffrey; Puttanniah, Vinay; Malhotra, Vivek

2013-03-01

27

Candida albicans spinal epidural abscess secondary to prosthetic valve endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56-year-old woman, with underlying rheumatic heart disease status post mitral valve replacement, presented with fever, low back pain radiating to right leg, and congestive heart failure. Magnetic resonance imaging detected an L5-S1 spinal epidural abscess. A vegetation on prosthetic mitral valve was found by transesophageal echocardiography. Cultures of epidural aspirate, surgical specimen, and blood all grew Candida albicans. She

Ja-Der Liang; Chi-Tai Fang; Yee-Chun Chen; Shan-Chwen Chang; Kwen-Tay Luh

2001-01-01

28

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in children with hematologic malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal fat deposition in the epidural space or spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) due to corticosteroid treatment or obesity\\u000a may cause obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow. Little is known about SEL in patients with hematologic malignancies who\\u000a require frequent lumbar punctures and corticosteroid treatment that places them at risk. Records and radiologic images of\\u000a patients with SEL and leukemia or non-Hodgkin

Rachel C. Brennan; Kathleen J. Helton; Deqing Pei; Cheng Cheng; Hiroto Inaba; Monika L. Metzger; Scott C. Howard; Jeffrey E. Rubnitz; Raul C. Ribeiro; John T. Sandlund; Sima Jeha; Ching-Hon Pui; Deepa Bhojwani

2011-01-01

29

Spontaneous spinal epidural hemorrhage from intense piano playing.  

PubMed

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare but real neurosurgical emergency. It is caused by atraumatic rupture of the vertebral epidural vein that results in nerve root or spinal cord compression. Most cases of SSEH have a multifactorial etiology, including congenital and acquired coagulopathies; platelet dysfunction; vascular malformation; tumors; uncontrolled hypertension; pregnancy; and, very rarely, activities requiring Valsalva. Herein we reported the case of a young pianist who was attacked by SSEH during piano practice. Playing the piano is a joyful, relaxing entertainment; however, this musical activity can be a highly demanding physical and mental exercise for pianists. Emotional and expressive performance, especially in professional performing, has been reported to result in significant increase of sympathetic and decrease of parasympathetic activities and thus influence the cardiorespiratory variables. The increased biomechanical stress from fluctuating hemodynamics was thought to trigger the rupture of her spinal arteriovenous malformation. PMID:24418452

Chang, Hui-Ju; Su, Fang Jy; Huang, Ying C; Chen, Shih-Han

2014-06-01

30

Epidural lipomatosis and congenital small spinal canal in spinal anaesthesia: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Complications after lumbar anaesthesia and epidural blood patch have been described in patients with congenital small spinal canal and increased epidural fat or epidural lipomatosis. These conditions, whether occurring separately or in combination, require magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and grading, but their clinical significance is still unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Caucasian woman who was undergoing a Caesarean

Per Flisberg; Owain Thomas; Bo Geijer; Ulf Schött

2009-01-01

31

Dural Puncture with a 26Gauge Spinal Needle Affects Spread of Epidural Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia may increase the risk of epidurally administered drugs spreading into the subarachnoid space through the dural hole. We studied the effect of dural puncture with a 26-gauge needle on the spread of analgesia induced by epidural injection of local anesthetics. Forty patients were ran- domly assigned to control and dural puncture groups. In the dural

Nobuaki Suzuki; Mikako Koganemaru; Shin Onizuka; Mayumi Takasaki

1997-01-01

32

Paramedian epidural with midline spinal in the same intervertebral space: An alternative technique for combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background: Although different techniques have been developed for administering combined spinal epidural (CSE) anaesthesia, none can be described as an ideal one. Objectives: We performed a study to compare two popular CSE techniques: Double segment technique (DST) and single segment (needle through needle) technique (SST) with another alternative technique: Paramedian epidural and midline spinal in the same intervertebral space (single space dual needle technique: SDT). Methods: After institutional ethical clearance, 90 consenting patients undergoing elective lower limb orthopaedic surgery were allocated to receive CSE into one of the three groups (n=30 each): Group I: SST, Group II: SDT, Group III: DST using computerized randomization. The time for technique performance, surgical readiness, technical aspects of epidural and subarachnoid block (SAB) and morbidity were compared. Results: SDT is comparable with SST and DST in time for technique performance (13.42±2.848 min, 12.18±6.092 min, 11.63±3.243 min respectively; P=0.268), time to surgical readiness (18.28±3.624 min, 17.64±5.877 min, 16.87±3.137 min respectively; P=0.42) and incidence of technically perfect block (70%, 66.66%, 76.66%; respectively P=0.757). Use of paramedian route for epidural catheterization in SDT group decreases complications and facilitates catheter insertion. There was a significant number of cases with lack of dural puncture appreciation (SST=ten, none in SDT and DST; P=0.001) and delayed cerebrospinal fluid reflux (SST=five, none in SDT and DST; P=0.005) while performance of SAB in SST group. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, post-operative backache and headache was comparable between the three groups. Conclusion: SDT is an acceptable alternative to DST and SST. PMID:24163450

Saigal, Deepti; Wason, Rama

2013-01-01

33

Non Traumatic Spinal Epidural Haematoma in a Woman with HELLP Syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural haematomas (SEH) is a potentially reversible cause of spinal cord and nerve root compression which needs prompt surgical decompression for satisfactory neurological recovery. SEH occurs very rarely in pregnant woman with HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet levels). Most of the SEH cases reported in HELLP syndrome in the literature are due to iatrogenic interventions. We report a still rarer case of non traumatic spinal epidural haematoma in a pregnant woman with HELLP Syndrome. PMID:25654010

Bansal, Juhi; Gupta, Amit; Goyal, Alka

2014-01-01

34

Xanthosis in the spinal epidural space--an epiduroscopy finding.  

PubMed

We report the presence of yellow pigment (xanthosis) in the eqidural space of a patient with a chronic painful radiculopathy. A 55-year-old Caucasian male patient with a left L5, S1 radiculopathy underwent epiduroscopy and epidural neurolysis. Epiduroscopy findings in the area of the nerve root associated with the radiculopathy included the presence of diffuse perivascular yellow pigments, increased vascularity and diffuse increased presence of sheets of fibrous tissue. This is a novo epiduroscopy finding. The case demonstrates the potential for epiduroscopy to expand our knowledge about pathological changes associated with some chronic painful conditions. PMID:17129301

Heavner, James E; Bosscher, Hemmo; Dunn, Dale; Lehman, Travis

2004-03-01

35

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in lumbar magnetic resonance imaging scans.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to quantify the frequency of advanced spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) detected on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed at the authors' hospital and to compare the frequency, cause, and progression of SEL in these cases with that reported in the literature. The total number of MRI examinations of the lumbar spine performed at this hospital over 45 months was 1498 (705 men and 793 women; mean age, 60.3 years). After the MRI data were reduced (T1- and T2-weighted sagittal and axial images) on the basis of the exclusion criteria, the anterior and posterior diameters of the dural sac and spinal canal were measured, as well as the thickness of the epidural fat. On the basis of these parameters, the severity of SEL was classified as grade 0 to grade III. Five cases of grade III SEL were diagnosed. The frequency of grade III SEL noted in this study was 0.33% (5/1498). Obesity (body mass index greater than 27.5) was noted in 3 cases, and the use of exogenous corticosteroids was noted in 3 cases. Exogenous steroid usage associated with advanced SEL in this study was greater than that reported in the literature. Most symptoms of SEL progress slowly, and early diagnosis allows for a dose reduction of the prescribed steroids. Thus, lumbar MRI examinations should be conducted aggressively in patients with exogenous steroid use and presenting with low back pain or buttock pain. PMID:24762841

Sugaya, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime

2014-04-01

36

Low-dose spinal neostigmine further enhances the analgesic effect of spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, following orthopedic surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Opioids are considered mainstream for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, but frequently limited by adverse effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether low-dose spinal neostigmine, epidural dexamethasone or their combination enhances analgesia from spinal bupivacaine without adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery were randomized to one of four groups and evaluated for 24-h after surgery for analgesia (time to first rescue analgesic) and rescue analgesic consumption. Patients received 15 mg bupivacaine plus the test drug intrathecally (saline or 1 microgram (?g) neostigmine). The epidural test drug was either saline or 10 mg dexamethasone. The Control group (CG) received spinal and epidural saline. The Neostigmine group (NG), spinal neostigmine and epidural saline; the Dexamethasone group (DG), spinal saline and epidural dexamethasone; and the Neostigmine-dexamethasone group (NDG), spinal neostigmine and epidural dexamethasone. Results: The CG (282 ± 163 min) and NG (524 ± 142 min) were similar in their times to first rescue analgesic and analgesic consumption. The time to first rescue analgesic was longer for the DG (966 ± 397 min) compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0002), and the DG had less ketoprofen consumption and lower overall visual analogue scale-pain sores compared with CG and NG (P < 0.0005). Addition of 1 mg-neostigmine (NDG) resulted in longer time to rescue analgesic (1205 ± 303 min; P < 0.02) and lower ketoprofen consumption (P < 0.05) compared to DG. Sporadic cases of vesical catheterization and emesis were observed, however adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusion: Spinal 1 microgram (?g) neostigmine further enhanced analgesia from spinal bupivacaine combined with epidural dexamethasone, without increasing the incidence of adverse effects. PMID:25535491

Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; Veloso, Fabricio S.; Kitayama, Antonio T; Mattos, Anita Leocadia

2014-01-01

37

Epidural anesthesia for permanent spinal cord stimulation with a cylindrical type lead: a case series  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in trials involving external stimulation are easily conducted under local anesthesia. However, implantation of a permanent SCS system is painful, and can be intolerable in some patients. Epidural anesthesia can be used to perform the SCS implantation without discomfort if the patient can localize the area of paresthesia. However, little is known about epidural anesthesia for SCS. This paper reports 23 cases of permanent SCS with a cylindrical type lead implanted under the epidural anesthesia. Epidural anesthesia was sufficient in 22 patients without discomfort and significant complications. The remaining patient experienced incomplete epidural anesthesia and required additional analgesics to blunt the pain. All the leads were placed consistent with the patient's report of paresthesia area under epidural anesthesia. Thus, epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe method for the optimal placement of SCS to minimize the discomfort for patients without impairing patients' response to the intraoperative stimulation test.

Lee, Sang Eun; Kee, Rim; Lee, Kang Hun; Jeon, Sangyoon; Jung, Jae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Jin; Yoon, Jin Sun

2015-01-01

38

Management and neurological outcome of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma.  

PubMed

This study assesses the etiology, clinical management, and outcome of patients with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH). SSEH is an uncommon neurosurgical emergency. We analyzed data from 10 patients (six women, four men) treated for SSEH (mean age, 63.5years). Five patients had bleeding disorders due to anticoagulant therapy at the time of diagnosis. The initial clinical symptom in most patients was severe pain (n=8). Spinal injury was assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale, with six Grade A, one Grade C, and three Grade D patients. Lesions were in the cervicothoracic (n=4), thoracic (n=5), and thoracolumbar regions (n=1). Location was dorsal in seven patients and ventral in three. SSEH extension ranged from three to 15 spinal levels (mean, 6.9 levels). ASIA scale outcomes for the entire group were Grade A, n=2; Grade B, n=1; Grade C, n=1; Grade D, n=2; and Grade E, n=4. Outcomes for patients with no bleeding disorders (n=5) were Grade D, n=1; and Grade E, n=4. Outcomes for patients with bleeding disorders (n=5) were Grade A, n=2; Grade B, n=1; Grade C, n=1; and Grade D, n=1. After surgical treatment, patients improved by at least by one ASIA grade. The patients with mild neurological deficit who were treated conservatively also improved. Emergent spinal cord decompression is the only way to preserve spinal cord function in patients with severe deficit. Coagulation disorders were related to poor neurological status at admission and with poor neurological outcome. Conservative treatment was acceptable in patients with minimal neurological deficit. PMID:25677879

Dziedzic, Tomasz; Kunert, Przemys?aw; Krych, Piotr; Marchel, Andrzej

2015-04-01

39

Risk of catheter migration during combined spinal epidural block: percutaneous epiduroscopy study.  

PubMed

Combined spinal epidural (CSE) block with the needle-through-needle technique has become increasingly popular during recent years. However, the risk of epidural catheter penetrating dura mater through the hole made by the spinal needle (migration) is a major concern. In 15 fresh cadavers a percutaneous epiduroscopy technique with a rigid epiduroscope and video recording was used to assess the risk of catheter migration when a CSE block is performed. The experimental sequence included (a) one dural hole made by the spinal needle, (b) multiple (five) dural holes made by the spinal needle, and (c) a dural hole made by Tuohy needle. Twenty-four experimental sequences were performed in the lumbar region. Four sequences were failures due to technical problems. In the remaining 20 cases, the anatomic structures in the epidural space were recognized easily. The epidural space appears to be only a potential space, kept open either by epiduroscope or by repeated injections of air or saline. The dural holes made by Tuohy and spinal needles, and the ease of difficulty of catheter penetration through these holes, were clearly visible. Extensive tenting of the dura was seen in all subjects. It was impossible to force an 18-gauge epidural catheter through the dural hole after a single dural puncture made by a 25-gauge spinal needle. After multiple (five) dural punctures with the spinal needle, the epidural catheter penetrated the perforated dura in 1 of 20 cases. The epidural catheter penetrated the dural hole made by the Tuohy needle in 9 of 20 cases. The distribution of fat, rather than any dorso median connective tissue band, influences the course of epidural catheter in epidural space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7893029

Holmström, B; Rawal, N; Axelsson, K; Nydahl, P A

1995-04-01

40

Comparison of technical and block characteristics of different combined spinal and epidural anesthesia techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: The combined spinal and epidural (CSE) technique can reduce or eliminate some of the disadvantages of spinal and epidural anesthesia, while still preserving their advantages. CSE anesthesia is now commonly performed with a single-segment needle-through-needle technique; however, this technique involves some controversies about needle handling and the risk of catheter migration. To avoid some of these potential

Risto Puolakka; Mikko T. Pitkänen; Per H. Rosenberg

2001-01-01

41

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in children with hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Abnormal fat deposition in the epidural space or spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) due to corticosteroid treatment or obesity may cause obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow. Little is known about SEL in patients with hematologic malignancies who require frequent lumbar punctures and corticosteroid treatment that places them at risk. Records and radiologic images of patients with SEL and leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated at a single institution from 1999-2009 were reviewed. Risk factors were compared with 405 control patients with leukemia. Fourteen patients with leukemia or NHL were diagnosed with SEL. The majority of patients underwent diagnostic imaging after unsuccessful lumbar punctures within 1 month of their primary diagnosis. Prior to SEL diagnosis, all patients received systemic and/or intrathecal corticosteroids. SEL diagnosis led to modification of intrathecal administration in eight patients, including Ommaya reservoir placement in four patients. All patients completed protocol-specified chemotherapy without neurologic symptoms or surgical intervention. Risk factors for developing SEL include older age and high body mass index. Investigation for SEL in leukemia or lymphoma patients with difficult lumbar punctures is warranted. Placement of an Ommaya reservoir may facilitate safe CNS-directed therapy in severely affected patients. PMID:21340722

Brennan, Rachel C; Helton, Kathleen J; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Inaba, Hiroto; Metzger, Monika L; Howard, Scott C; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Ribeiro, Raul C; Sandlund, John T; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Bhojwani, Deepa

2011-09-01

42

Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess associated with septic spinal epidural abscess.  

PubMed

A 56-year-old Japanese man with hypertension presented with a 10 days history of high fever, right and left upper quadrant tenderness. An abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomographic scan revealed a large collection in the right lobe of the liver that was consistent with an abscess. A drainage catheter was placed and purulent fluid was drained. Cultures of the fluid and blood were positive for a strain of ampicillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Six days after admission, paraplegia and urinary retention were found. On the neurological examination, deep tendon reflexes of the lower extremities were absent bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging scan detected thoracic spinal epidural abscess and paraspinal abscess. He received the emergent decompressive laminectomy. Culture of surgical specimen grew ampicillin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The patient was treated with biapenem intravenously. Thereafter, clinical symptoms improved gradually and he was removed to the professional hospital to continue rehabilitation for gait disturbance on hospital day 147. PMID:15652471

Kuramochi, Gen; Takei, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Munehiro; Isokawa, Osamu; Takemae, Takashi; Takahashi, Akira

2005-01-01

43

Pure Spinal Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Intralesional Hemorrhage: A Rare Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Although cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures, they are rare in the spine. Most of spinal hemangiomas are vertebral origin and "pure" epidural hemangiomas not originating from the vertebral bone are very rare. Our spinal hemangioma case is extremely rare because of its "pure" epidural involvement and intralesional hemorrhage. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis from two months ago. His motor weakness was rated as grade 4/5 in bilateral lower extremities. He also complained of decreased sensation below the T4 sensory dermatome, which continuously progressed to the higher dermatome level. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated thoracic spinal tumor at T3-T4 level. The tumor was located epidural space compressing thoracic spinal cord ventrally. The tumor was not involved with the thoracic vertebral bone. We performed T3-5 laminectomy and removed the tumor completely. The tumor was not infiltrating into intradural space or vertebral bone. The histopathologic study confirmed the epidural tumor as cavernous hemangioma. Postoperatively, his weakness improved gradually. Four months later, his paraparesis recovered completely. Here, we present a case of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, which has intralesional hemorrhage. We believe cavernous hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of the spinal epidural tumors. PMID:25110490

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Ryu, Young-Joon

2014-01-01

44

Pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma with intralesional hemorrhage: a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Although cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures, they are rare in the spine. Most of spinal hemangiomas are vertebral origin and "pure" epidural hemangiomas not originating from the vertebral bone are very rare. Our spinal hemangioma case is extremely rare because of its "pure" epidural involvement and intralesional hemorrhage. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis from two months ago. His motor weakness was rated as grade 4/5 in bilateral lower extremities. He also complained of decreased sensation below the T4 sensory dermatome, which continuously progressed to the higher dermatome level. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated thoracic spinal tumor at T3-T4 level. The tumor was located epidural space compressing thoracic spinal cord ventrally. The tumor was not involved with the thoracic vertebral bone. We performed T3-5 laminectomy and removed the tumor completely. The tumor was not infiltrating into intradural space or vertebral bone. The histopathologic study confirmed the epidural tumor as cavernous hemangioma. Postoperatively, his weakness improved gradually. Four months later, his paraparesis recovered completely. Here, we present a case of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, which has intralesional hemorrhage. We believe cavernous hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of the spinal epidural tumors. PMID:25110490

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Ryu, Young-Joon; Kim, Jiha

2014-06-01

45

A randomized, controlled trial of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis in chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain [ISRCTN 16558617  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postoperative epidural fibrosis may contribute to between 5% to 60% of the poor surgical outcomes following decompressive surgery. Correlations have been reported between epidural scarring and radicular pain, poor surgical outcomes, and a lack of any form of surgical treatment. The use of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis in recent years in the management of chronic refractory low back and lower

Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Mark V Boswell; Jose J Rivera; Vidya Sagar Pampati; Kim S Damron; Carla D McManus; Doris E Brandon; Sue R Wilson

2005-01-01

46

Acute presentation of solitary spinal epidural cavernous angioma in a child.  

PubMed

Solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are rare lesions, especially in paediatric age group. They are infrequently considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural masses in children. We report a case of solitary epidural cavernous angioma of the thoracic spine in a child presenting with acute onset of back pain and myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated a posterior epidural mass at T6-T8 levels with compression of the spinal cord. Using microsurgical technique and bipolar coagulation, total excision of the lesion was achieved. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. At the five-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the tumour. PMID:23673181

Khalatbari, Mahmoud Reza; Hamidi, Mehrdokht; Moharamzad, Yashar

2013-05-01

47

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Reirradiation for Recurrent Epidural Spinal Metastases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: When patients show progression after conventional fractionated radiation for spine metastasis, further radiation and surgery may not be options. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been successfully used in treatment of the spine and may be applicable in these cases. We report the use of SBRT for 60 consecutive patients (81 lesions) who had radiological progressive spine metastasis with epidural involvement after previous radiation for spine metastasis. Methods and Materials: SBRT was used with fiducial and vertebral anatomy-based targeting. The radiation dose was prescribed based on the extent of spinal canal involvement; the dose was 8 Gy Multiplication-Sign 3 = 24 Gy when the tumor did not touch the spinal cord and 5 to 6 Gy x 5 = 25 to 30 Gy when the tumor abutted the cord. The cord surface received up to the prescription dose with no hot spots in the cord. Results: The median overall survival was 11 months, and the median progression-free survival was 9 months. Overall, 93% of patients had stable or improved disease while 7% of patients showed disease progression; 65% of patients had pain relief. There was no significant toxicity other than fatigue. Conclusions: SBRT is feasible and appears to be an effective treatment modality for reirradiation after conventional palliative radiation fails for spine metastasis patients.

Mahadevan, Anand, E-mail: amahadev@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Floyd, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Wong, Eric; Jeyapalan, Suriya [Department of Neuro-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel); Groff, Michael; Kasper, Ekkehard [Department of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School (Israel)

2011-12-01

48

Risk of Catheter Migration During Combined Spinal Epidural Block: Percutaneous Epiduroscopy Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined spinal epidural (CSE) block with the needle- through-needle technique has become increasingly popular during recent years. However, the risk of epi- dural catheter penetrating dura mater through the hole made by the spinal needle (migration) is a major con- cern. In 15 fresh cadavers a percutaneous epiduroscopy technique with a rigid epiduroscope and video record- ing was used to

Bjiirn Holmstriim; Narinder Rawal; Kjell Axelsson; Per-Anders Nydahl

49

Clinical experience with epidural cooling for spinal cord protection during thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This report summarizes our experience with epidural cooling (EC) to achieve regional spinal cord hypothermia and thereby decrease the risk of spinal cord ischemic injury during the course of descending thoracic aneurysm (TA) and thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAA) repair.Methods: During the interval July 1993 to Dec. 1995, 70 patients underwent TA (n = 9, 13%) or TAA (n = 61)

Richard P. Cambria; J. Kenneth Davison; Simona Zannetti; Gilbert L'Italien; David C. Brewster; Jonathan P. Gertler; Ashby C. Moncure; Glenn M. LaMuraglia; William M. Abbott

1997-01-01

50

Epidural extension of infected chest wall haematoma and empyema causing spinal cord compression.  

PubMed

We report a case of thoracic epidural extension of an infected extra-pleural and chest wall haematoma with evidence of spinal cord compression and signs of cauda equina. Emergency spinal cord decompression with laminectomy followed by thoracotomy was performed. PMID:23962887

Wong, Marilyn; Lanka, Laxmi; Hussain, Zakier; Parkinson, Grant

2014-01-01

51

Low dose combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy was scheduled for elective caesarean section after stabilization on medical therapy. Wer performed a combined spinal epidural using one ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (5 mg) with 0.3 mg diamorphine for the spinal. The epidural was topped up with 10 mL bupivacaine 0.5%. Significant haemodynamic changes consisted of reduction in heart rate and hypotension after the spinal, and tachycardia after delivery. The benefits and risks of this approach are discussed. PMID:15321091

Pirlet, M; Baird, M; Pryn, S; Jones-Ritson, M; Kinsella, S M

2000-07-01

52

Paraplegia following lumbosacral steroid epidural injections.  

PubMed

Spinal cord ischemia is a rare but possible neurological complication following routine conservative treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. A case of a 46 year old woman with chronic L5 radiculopathy, who developed spinal cord ischemia following epidural steroid injection, is reported. Two months after the epidural injection, she required crutches for walking and had neurogenic bladder and bowel. PMID:25200706

AbdeleRahman, Kader Tawfiq; Rakocevic, Goran

2014-09-01

53

[Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma causing rapid flaccid paraplegia in a healthy 25-year-old patient].  

PubMed

Although clinical presentation of a spinal epidural compressive haematoma is well recognized, causing acute radicular pain shortly followed by cord compression syndrome, its aetiology may pose a quandary. Rare and most commonly seen after trauma, spinal surgery, epidural anaesthesia, anticoagulation therapy, vascular malformation or coagulopathy (haemophilia), spinal epidural haematoma (SHE) can be spontaneous. Surgical decompression remains the mainstay treatment especially when the prognosis depends on the interval to surgery and the severity of preoperative neurological deficit. We report the case of a healthy 25-year-old man who presented, three days after an acute back pain, a flaccid paraplegia with urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal column identified a compressive SHE extending from T3 to T6, requiring an early laminectomy. After decompression, clinical outcome revealed a complete recovery excepted some mild sensibility trouble remains. PMID:17462853

Colsy, M; Argote, C; Raimbault, M; Touchard, P

2007-06-01

54

Spinal epidural hematoma related to an epidural catheter in a cardiac surgery patient -A case report-  

PubMed Central

The addition of thoracic epidural anesthesia to general anesthesia during cardiac surgery may have a beneficial effect on clinical outcome. However, epidural catheter insertion in a patient anticoagulated with heparin may increase the risk of epidural hematoma. We report a case of epidural hematoma in a 55-year-old male patient who had a thoracic epidural placed under general anesthesia preceding uneventful mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve annular plasty. During the immediate postoperative period and first postoperative day, prothrombin time (PT) and activate partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were mildly prolonged. On the first postoperative day, he complained of motor weakness of the lower limbs and back pain. An immediate MRI of the spine was performed and it revealed an epidural hematoma at the T5-6 level. Rapid surgical decompression resulted in a recovery of his neurological abnormalities to near normal levels. Management and preventing strategies of epidural hematoma are discussed. PMID:22220233

Bang, Jiyoun; Kim, Joung Uk; Joh, Junghwa; An, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jae-young; Kim, Ji Yeon; Choi, In-cheol

2011-01-01

55

Paraplegia after epidural-general anesthesia in a Morquio patient with moderate thoracic spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose We describe an instance in which complete paraplegia was evident immediately postoperatively after apparently uneventful lumbar epidural-general anesthesia in a patient with Morquio Type A syndrome (Morquio A) with moderate thoracic spinal stenosis. Clinical features A 16-yr-old male with Morquio A received lumbar epidural-general anesthesia for bilateral distal femoral osteotomies. Preoperative imaging had revealed a stable cervical spine and moderate thoracic spinal stenosis with a mild degree of spinal cord compression. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was maintained within 20% of the pre-anesthetic baseline value. The patient sustained a severe thoracic spinal cord infarction. The epidural anesthetic contributed to considerable delay in the recognition of the diagnosis of paraplegia. Conclusion This experience leads us to suggest that, in patients with Morquio A, it may be prudent to avoid the use of epidural anesthesia without very firm indication, to support BP at or near baseline levels in the presence of even moderate spinal stenosis, and to avoid flexion or extension of the spinal column in intraoperative positioning. If the spinal cord/column status is unknown or if the patient is known to have any degree of spinal stenosis, we suggest that the same rigorous BP support practices that are typically applied in other patients with severe spinal stenosis, especially stenosis with myelomalacia, should apply to patients with Morquio A and that spinal cord neurophysiological monitoring should be employed. In the event that cord imaging is not available, e.g., emergency procedures, it would be prudent to assume the presence of spinal stenosis. PMID:25323122

Krane, Elliot J.; Tomatsu, Shunji; Theroux, Mary C.; Lee, Roland R.

2014-01-01

56

Intercostal misplacement of a thoracic epidural catheter -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Epidural block is useful for chronic pain and thoracic surgery. However, there are several complications, which include vessels or dural puncture, pleural puncture, misplacement of epidural catheter and trauma to the spinal cord. We report a case of intercostal misplacement of an epidural catheter in a 66-year-old patient who scheduled for left thoracotomy. PMID:21179298

Kim, Young Bae

2010-01-01

57

A pure epidural spinal cavernous hemangioma - with an innocuous face but a perilous behaviour!!  

PubMed

Cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures but they are rare in the spine, with an incidence of 0.22 cases/million/year, which account for 5 - 12% of the spinal vascular lesions, 51% of which are extradural. Most of the epidural hemangiomas are secondary extensions from the vertebral lesions. The spinal cavernous hemangiomas which do not involve the vertebrae are referred to as "pure" types. The pure epidural hemangiomas are rare, which account for only 4% of all the epidural lesions. A case of a Pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma in a 50 year old male, with the clinical picture of a slowly progressive compressive myelopathy, has been presented here. The imaging studies showed a well-defined, enhancing epidural lesion at the T7 - T8 level, with dorsal cordedema and myelomalacic changes. A radiological diagnosis of a meningioma was considered. Histopathologically, the lesion was diagnosed as a hemangioma. The patient improved dramatically after the excision of the lesion. PMID:23998084

A L, Hemalatha; T, Ravikumar; Chamarthy, Neelima P; Puri, Kunal

2013-07-01

58

Suprasternal Doppler Estimation of Cardiac Output: Standard Versus Sequential Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sequential (Seq) combined spinal epidural (CSE) may provide better cardiovascular stability than standard (Std) CSE for cesarean delivery. We com- pared the cardiovascular stability of both techniques using suprasternal Doppler. METHODS: Healthy women (n 40) scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were randomized into two groups; Std or Seq CSE. Serial measures of cardiac output indices, including minute distance, stroke

Johanna K. Bray; Roshan Fernando; Nisa P. Patel; Malachy O. Columb

2006-01-01

59

Acute spinal cord compression due to epidural lipomatosis complicated by an abscess: magnetic resonance and pathology findings  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old male presented with rapidly progressive paraplegia. MR images of the thoracic spine were interpreted as being consistent with an abscess within an epidural lipomatosis compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed, and a large amount of pus was drained from the epidural lipomatosis, from which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. This is the first reported case of an abscess involving an epidural lipomatosis. PMID:20372939

Pipitone, Nicolò; De Carli, Nicola; Vecchia, Luigi; Bartoletti, Stefano C.

2010-01-01

60

Extensive spinal epidural abscess treated with "apical laminectomies" and irrigation of the epidural space: report of 2 cases.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare but often devastating infection of the epidural space around the spinal cord. When an SEA is widespread, extensive decompression with laminectomy is often impossible, as it may subject the patient to very long operative times, extensive blood loss, and mechanical instability. A technique called "skip laminectomy" has been described in the literature, in which laminectomies are performed at the rostral and caudal ends of an abscess that spans 3-5 levels and a Fogarty catheter is used to mechanically drain the abscess, much like in an embolectomy. In this report of 2 patients, the authors present a modification of this technique, which they call "apical laminectomies" to allow for irrigation and drainage of an extensive SEA spanning the entire length of the vertebral column (C1-2 to L5-S1). Two patients presented with cervico-thoraco-lumbar SEA. Laminectomies were performed at the natural apices of the spine, namely, at the midcervical, midthoracic, and midlumbar spine levels. Next, a pediatric feeding tube was inserted in the epidural space from the thoracic laminectomies up toward the cervical laminectomy site and down toward the lumbar laminectomy site, and saline antibiotics were used to irrigate the SEA. Both patients underwent this procedure with no adverse effects. Their SEAs resolved both clinically and radiologically. Neither patient suffered from mechanical instability at 1 year after treatment. For patients who present with extensive SEAs, apical laminectomies seem to allow for surgical cure of the infectious burden and do not subject the patient to extended operating room time, an increased risk of blood loss, and the risk of mechanical instability. PMID:25555055

Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Bi, Wenya Linda; Bahluyen, Biji; Rodriguez, Samuel T; Groff, Michael W; Chi, John H

2015-03-01

61

Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach. Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results. Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2-5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance. We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function.

Sharpe, Abigail N.; Jackson, Andrew

2014-02-01

62

Neuroprotective effect of epidural hypothermia after spinal cord lesion in rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of epidural hypothermia in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord lesion. METHODS: Wistar rats (n?=?30) weighing 320-360 g were randomized to two groups (hypothermia and control) of 15 rats per group. A spinal cord lesion was induced by the standardized drop of a 10-g weight from a height of 2.5 cm, using the New York University Impactor, after laminectomy at the T9-10 level. Rats in the hypothermia group underwent epidural hypothermia for 20 minutes immediately after spinal cord injury. Motor function was assessed for six weeks using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan motor scores and the inclined plane test. At the end of the final week, the rats' neurological status was monitored by the motor evoked potential test and the results for the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Analysis of the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores obtained during the six-week period indicated that there were no significant differences between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the inclined plane test scores during the six-week period. Furthermore, at the end of the study, the latency and amplitude values of the motor evoked potential test were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Hypothermia did not produce a neuroprotective effect when applied at the injury level and in the epidural space immediately after induction of a spinal cord contusion in Wistar rats. PMID:25141116

Barbosa, Marcello Oliveira; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; Ferreira, Ricardo; Marcon, Raphael Martus; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa

2014-01-01

63

Epidural Dexamethasone Decreased Inflammatory Hyperalgesia and Spinal cPLA2 Expression in a Rat Formalin Test  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epidural dexamethasone on analgesia and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) expression in the spinal cord in a rat formalin test. Materials and Methods Epidural dexamethasone injection was performed to Sprague-Dawley rats with a 25 gauge needle under fluoroscopy. Following the epidural injection, a formalin induced pain behavior test was performed. Next, the spinal cords corresponding to L4 dorsal root ganglion was extracted to observe the cPLA2 expression. Results There were no differences in pain response during phase I among the groups. The phase II pain response in 300 µg of epidural dexamethasone group decreased as compared to control, 30 µg of epidural dexamethasone, 100 µg of epidural dexamethasone, and 300 µg of systemic dexamethasone groups. The expression of cPLA2 decreased in Rexed laminae I-II in 300 µg of the epidural dexamethasone group compared with the ones in the control group. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that 300 µg of epidural dexamethasone has an attenuating effect on the peripheral inflammatory tissue injury induced hyperalgesia and this effect is mediated through the inhibition of intraspinal cPLA2 expression and the primary site of action is the laminae I-II of the spinal cord. PMID:25323902

Min, Sam-Hong; Soh, Jung-Sub; Park, Ji-Yong; Choi, Sung-Uk; Lee, Hye-Won; Lee, Jae-Jin

2014-01-01

64

Steroid for epidural injection in spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods We performed a search on the CENTRAL, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to September 2014. We recovered 17 original articles, of which only 10 were in full compliance with the randomized controlled trial (RCT) criteria. These articles were reviewed in an independent and blinded way by two reviewers who were previously trained to extract data and score their quality by the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook (5.1.0). Results We accepted ten studies with 1,010 participants. There is minimal evidence that shows that epidural steroid injections are better than lidocaine alone, regardless of the mode of epidural injection. There is a fair short-term and long-term benefit for treating spinal stenosis with local anesthetic and steroids. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that epidural steroid injections provide limited improvement in short-term and long-term benefits in LSS patients. PMID:25678775

Liu, Kuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing; Cai, Ming

2015-01-01

65

Spontaneous Ventral Spinal Epidural Hematoma in an Infant: An Unusual Presentation  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous ventral spinal epidural hematomas are extremely rare in children and clinically recognized by the appearance of acute asymmetric focal motor and sensory involvement. In infants, the initial presenting symptoms are very non-specific and irritability is often the only initial manifestation. Appearance of other neurological signs may be delayed up to hours or even days later. In the absence of significant precipitating factors such as severe trauma or previously known coagulopathies, the diagnosis is usually delayed until the full picture of severe cord compression is developed. The diagnosis is finally made by performing magnetic resonance imaging. We report a 5-month-old infant with spinal epidural hematoma who presented with symmetrical upper limb weakness and diaphragmatic involvement to highlight the importance of recognizing the atypical manifestations for early diagnosis and intervention. PMID:24665297

ABBAS, Asad; AFZAL, Kamran; MUJEEB, Athar Abdul; SHAHAB, Tabassum; KHALID, Mohammad

2013-01-01

66

[Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for a patient with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].  

PubMed

An 81-year-old female with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was scheduled for transurethral lithotomy. She had had paresthesia and spastic paresis in the lower extremities for the past 15 years. The preoperative respiratory function test revealed a vital capacity of 1.3 l (58% of the predicted value). We selected combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for her to avoid postoperative respiratory complications due to general anesthesia. After placement of a thoracic epidural catheter, spinal anesthesia was achieved by administration of bupivacaine 7.5 mg, resulting in the sensory block level to T 6, five min later. The intraoperative blood pressure remained high at 150-200 mmHg, in spite of the administration of nicardipine. Postoperatively, neither the deterioration in the neurological findings of HAM nor the exacerbation of respiratory function was observed. The present report suggests that CSEA can be one of the choices of anesthesia for a patient with HAM. PMID:25199333

Yokomizo, Taishi; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Mishima, Yasunori; Ushijima, Kazuo

2014-08-01

67

Multiple Myeloma and Epidural Spinal Cord Compression : Case Presentation and a Spine Surgeon's Perspective  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma, a multicentric hematological malignancy, is the most common primary tumor of the spine. As epidural myeloma causing spinal cord compression is a rare condition, its therapeutic approach and clinical results have been reported to be diverse, and no clear guidelines for therapeutic decision have been established. Three patients presented with progressive paraplegia and sensory disturbance. Image and serological studies revealed multiple myeloma and spinal cord compression caused by epidural myeloma. Emergency radiotherapy and steroid therapy were performed in all three cases. However, their clinical courses and results were distinctly different. Following review of our cases and the related literature, we suggest a systematic therapeutic approach for these patients to achieve better clinical results. PMID:24175035

Ha, Kee-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Woo

2013-01-01

68

Spinal epidural abscess: aetiology, predisponent factors and clinical outcomes in a 4-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare, but serious, condition with multiple causes. We prospectively studied the aetiology,\\u000a predisposing factors, and clinical outcomes of SEA in all patients with SEA treated in our hospital’s neurosurgical service\\u000a from 2004 to 2008. For each patient, we recorded the medical history, comorbidities, focus of infection, pathogen(s), and\\u000a outcome. The 36 patients (19 women

Stephan M. E. ZimmererAnna; Anna Conen; Andreas A. Müller; Martin Sailer; Ethan Taub; Ursula Flückiger; Katja C. Schwenzer-Zimmerer

69

Is Epidural Anesthesia in labor Associated with Chronic Low Back Pain? A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between epidural anesthesia during la- bor and subsequent postpartum low back pain remains unclear. The objective of this follow-up cohort study was to determine whether epidural anesthesia was as- sociated with chronic back pain 1 yr after delivery. We contacted 329 women by telephone and asked them to complete a standardized questionnaire 1 yr (+ 1 mo) af-

BETH GLOSTEN

70

Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Objective Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2–5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function. PMID:24654267

Sharpe, Abigail N; Jackson, Andrew

2014-01-01

71

A fully implantable stimulator with wireless power and data transmission for experimental use in epidural spinal cord stimulation.  

PubMed

Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight bearing therapy (PWBT) has been reported to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. This paper describes a low cost, fully implantable, advanced ESCS stimulator that can be manufactured in a research laboratory for use in small animals. The system is composed of four main parts: an external personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension and electrode. The PDA allows the experimenter to program the stimulation parameters through a user-friendly graphical interface. The external controller placed on the rat back communicates with PDA via RF telemetry. The IPG generates the biphasic charge-balanced voltage-regulated pulses, which are delivered to the bipolar electrode by the lead extension to achieve chronic ESCS in freely moving rats. A RF carrier from the Class-E amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the implanted circuitry through a closely coupled inductive link. The IPG is hermetically packaged using a silicon elastomer and measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of ~3.78 g. PMID:22256007

Xu, Qi; Li, Jun; Han, Wenjuan; Zhou, Houlun

2011-01-01

72

Facilitation of postural limb reflexes in spinal rabbits by serotonergic agonist administration, epidural electrical stimulation, and postural training.  

PubMed

In quadrupeds, spinalization in the thoracic region severely impairs postural control in the hindquarters. The goal of this study was to improve postural functions in chronic spinal rabbits by regular application of different factors: intrathecal injection of the 5-HT(2) agonist (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), epidural electrical spinal cord stimulation (EES), and specific postural training (SPT). The factors were used either alone (SPT group) or in combination (DOI+SPT, EES+SPT, and DOI+EES+SPT groups) or not used (control group). It was found that in none of these groups did normal postural corrective movements in response to lateral tilts of the supporting platform reappear within the month of treatment. In control group, reduced irregular electromyographic (EMG) responses, either correctly or incorrectly phased in relation to tilts, were observed. By contrast, in DOI+SPT and EES+SPT groups, a gradual threefold increase in the proportion of correctly phased EMG responses (compared with control) was observed. The increase was smaller in DOI+EES+SPT and SPT groups. Dissimilarly to these long-term effects, short-term effects of DOI and EES were weak or absent. In addition, gradual development of oscillatory EMG activity in the responses to tilts, characteristic for the control group, was retarded in DOI+SPT, EES+SPT, DOI+EES+SPT, and SPT groups. Thus regular application of the three tested factors and their combinations caused progressive, long-lasting plastic changes in the isolated spinal networks, resulting in the facilitation of spinal postural reflexes and in the retardation of the development of oscillatory EMG activity. The facilitated reflexes, however, were insufficient for normal postural functions. PMID:21653706

Lyalka, V F; Hsu, L-J; Karayannidou, A; Zelenin, P V; Orlovsky, G N; Deliagina, T G

2011-09-01

73

Treatment of a Symptomatic Epidural Gas Cyst Using an Angiographic 5F Catheter in the Epidural Space of the Spinal Cord through the Sacral Hiatus. A Case Report.  

PubMed

An 85-year-old woman arrived at our institution because of left lumbar sciatica of about two years duration unrelieved by conventional oral pain therapy. A computed tomography scan obtained at the second visit showed an epidural gas cyst, with compression and dislocation of the left spinal nerve root L5. The common treatment of an epidural gas cyst is either a direct surgical approach or a CT-guided needle aspiration. We describe an alternative method to mechanical lysis of epidural gas cysts with the use of an 5F angiographic catheter inserted on a 0.035-inch guidewire. This procedure is less invasive than a surgical approach and safer than a CT-guided needle aspiration. Remission of symptoms was maintained at control visits at three and five months. PMID:24059897

Ambesi Impiombato, F; Lunghi, V; Gambacorta, D; Zocchi, M

2011-12-30

74

Comparison of Spinal Block Levels between Laboring and Nonlaboring Parturients Using Combined Spinal Epidural Technique with Intrathecal Plain Bupivacaine  

PubMed Central

Background. It was suggested that labor may influence the spread of intrathecal bupivacaine using combined spinal epidural (CSE) technique. However, no previous studies investigated this proposition. We designed this study to investigate the spinal block characteristics of plain bupivacaine between nonlaboring and laboring parturients using CSE technique. Methods. Twenty-five nonlaboring (Group NL) and twenty-five laboring parturients (Group L) undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled. Following identification of the epidural space at the L3-4 interspace, plain bupivacaine 10?mg was administered intrathecally using CSE technique. The level of sensory block, degree of motor block, and hemodynamic changes were assessed. Results. The baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the maximal decrease of SBP in Group L were significantly higher than those in Group NL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, resp.). The median sensory level tested by cold stimulation was T6 for Group NL and T5 for Group L (P = 0.46). The median sensory level tested by pinprick was T7 for both groups (P = 0.35). The degree of motor block was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.85). Conclusion. We did not detect significant differences in the sensory block levels between laboring and nonlaboring parturients using CSE technique with intrathecal plain bupivacaine. PMID:22778727

Tang, Yu-Ying; Zhou, Jie; Ren, Xiao-Hui; Lin, Xue-Mei

2012-01-01

75

Dexamethasone added to Local Lidocaine for Infiltration along the Spinal-Epidural Needle Pathway Decreases Incidence and Severity of Backache after Gynecological Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to local lidocaine infiltration on incidence and severity of backache after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for gynecological surgery. Material/Methods We randomly allocated 160 patients to receive either local lidocaine infiltration along the pathway of the spinal-epidural needle (Group L) or local dexamethasone and lidocaine infiltration (Group DL). The incidence and scores for back pain were evaluated on the first, second, and third day (acute lumbago) and first, second, and sixth month (chronic lumbago) after surgery. Fentanyl consumption for management of back pain was recorded. Results The incidence of acute, subacute, and chronic back pain was significantly lower in the DL group than the L group (P<0.05 for all comparisons). The VAS score for back pain on the first and second day and first and second month, were significantly lower in the DL group than the L group (P=0.0028, P=0.017; P<0.001, both), but there were no significant differences on the third day and sixth month. Fentanyl consumption in the first 3 postoperative days was significantly lower in the DL group than in the L group (P<0.001). The incidence of back pain during the first, second, and sixth month in patients who did not have preoperative lumbago were significantly lower in the DL group than in the L group (P<0.001, both). Conclusions Addition of dexamethasone to local lidocaine infiltration effectively decreases the incidence and severity of back pain after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia implemented for gynecological surgery. PMID:25785683

Gao, Wei; Ren, Yi; Cui, Guang Xiao

2015-01-01

76

Dexamethasone added to Local Lidocaine for Infiltration along the Spinal-Epidural Needle Pathway Decreases Incidence and Severity of Backache after Gynecological Surgery.  

PubMed

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to local lidocaine infiltration on incidence and severity of backache after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for gynecological surgery. Material and Methods We randomly allocated 160 patients to receive either local lidocaine infiltration along the pathway of the spinal-epidural needle (Group L) or local dexamethasone and lidocaine infiltration (Group DL). The incidence and scores for back pain were evaluated on the first, second, and third day (acute lumbago) and first, second, and sixth month (chronic lumbago) after surgery. Fentanyl consumption for management of back pain was recorded. Results The incidence of acute, subacute, and chronic back pain was significantly lower in the DL group than the L group (P<0.05 for all comparisons). The VAS score for back pain on the first and second day and first and second month, were significantly lower in the DL group than the L group (P=0.0028, P=0.017; P<0.001, both), but there were no significant differences on the third day and sixth month. Fentanyl consumption in the first 3 postoperative days was significantly lower in the DL group than in the L group (P<0.001). The incidence of back pain during the first, second, and sixth month in patients who did not have preoperative lumbago were significantly lower in the DL group than in the L group (P<0.001, both). Conclusions Addition of dexamethasone to local lidocaine infiltration effectively decreases the incidence and severity of back pain after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia implemented for gynecological surgery. PMID:25785683

Gao, Wei; Ren, Yi; Cui, Guang Xiao

2015-01-01

77

Activation of spinal locomotor circuits in the decerebrated cat by spinal epidural and/or intraspinal electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to further compare the stepping-like movements generated via epidural (ES) and/or intraspinal (IS) stimulation. We examined the ability to generate stepping-like movements in response to ES and/or IS of spinal lumbar segments L1-L7 in decerebrate cats. ES (5-10Hz) of the dorsal surface of the spinal cord at L3-L7 induced hindlimb stepping-like movements on a moving treadmill belt, but with no rhythmic activity in the forelimbs. IS (60Hz) of the dorsolateral funiculus at L1-L3 (depth of 0.5-1.0mm from the dorsal surface of the spinal cord) induced quadrupedal stepping-like movements. Forelimb movements appeared first, followed by stepping-like movements in the hindlimbs. ES and IS simultaneously enhanced the rhythmic performance of the hindlimbs more robustly than ES or IS alone. The differences in the stimulation parameters, site of stimulation, and motor outputs observed during ES vs. IS suggest that different neural mechanisms were activated to induce stepping-like movements. The effects of ES may be mediated more via dorsal structures in the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord, whereas the effects of IS may be mediated via more ventral propriospinal networks and/or brainstem locomotor areas. Furthermore, the more effective facilitation of the motor output during simultaneous ES and IS may reflect some convergence of pathways on the same interneuronal populations involved in the regulation of locomotion. PMID:25446455

Lavrov, Igor; Musienko, Pavel E; Selionov, Victor A; Zdunowski, Sharon; Roy, Roland R; Reggie Edgerton, V; Gerasimenko, Yury

2015-03-10

78

Multimodal Approach to the Management of Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression (MESCC) Due to Solid Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of a multidisciplinary approach for treatment of patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression in terms of feasibility, local control, and survival. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine consecutive patients treated between January 2004 and December 2007 were included. The most common primary cancers were lung, breast, and kidney cancers. Ninety-eight surgical procedures were performed. Radiotherapy was performed within the first month postoperatively. Clinical outcome was evaluated by modified visual analog scale for pain, Frankel scale for neurologic deficit, and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan. Nearly all patients (93%) had back pain before treatment, whereas major or minor preoperative neurologic deficit was present in 62 cases (63%). Results: Clinical remission of pain was obtained in the vast majority of patients (91%). Improvement of neurologic deficit was observed in 45 cases (72.5%). Local relapse occurred in 10%. Median survival was 11 months (range, 0-46 months). Overall survival at 1 year was 43.6%. Type of primary tumor significantly affected survival. Conclusions: In patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression, the combination of surgery plus radiotherapy is feasible and provides clinical benefit in most patients. The discussion of each single case within a multidisciplinary team has been of pivotal importance in implementing the most appropriate therapeutic approach.

Tancioni, Flavio [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Navarria, Pierina, E-mail: piera.navarria@humanitas.i [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Lorenzetti, Martin A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Masci, Giovanna [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Alloisio, Marco [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Morenghi, Emanuela [Statistic Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Santoro, Armando [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo [Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy); Scorsetti, Marta [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan (Italy)

2010-12-01

79

A computational model for epidural electrical stimulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits.  

PubMed

Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of lumbosacral segments can restore a range of movements after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanisms and neural structures through which EES facilitates movement execution remain unclear. Here, we designed a computational model and performed in vivo experiments to investigate the type of fibers, neurons, and circuits recruited in response to EES. We first developed a realistic finite element computer model of rat lumbosacral segments to identify the currents generated by EES. To evaluate the impact of these currents on sensorimotor circuits, we coupled this model with an anatomically realistic axon-cable model of motoneurons, interneurons, and myelinated afferent fibers for antagonistic ankle muscles. Comparisons between computer simulations and experiments revealed the ability of the model to predict EES-evoked motor responses over multiple intensities and locations. Analysis of the recruited neural structures revealed the lack of direct influence of EES on motoneurons and interneurons. Simulations and pharmacological experiments demonstrated that EES engages spinal circuits trans-synaptically through the recruitment of myelinated afferent fibers. The model also predicted the capacity of spatially distinct EES to modulate side-specific limb movements and, to a lesser extent, extension versus flexion. These predictions were confirmed during standing and walking enabled by EES in spinal rats. These combined results provide a mechanistic framework for the design of spinal neuroprosthetic systems to improve standing and walking after neurological disorders. PMID:24305828

Capogrosso, Marco; Wenger, Nikolaus; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Musienko, Pavel; Beauparlant, Janine; Bassi Luciani, Lorenzo; Courtine, Grégoire; Micera, Silvestro

2013-12-01

80

Spinal Cord Simulation for Chronic Pain Management  

E-print Network

payments, and lost produc­ tivity. To ease the suffering of the patients suffering from the chronic painSpinal Cord Simulation for Chronic Pain Management: Towards an Expert System Kenneth M. Al'o 1 , Richard Al'o 2 , Andre de Korvin 2 , and Vladik Kreinovich 3 1 Pain and Health Management Center 17270 Red

Kreinovich, Vladik

81

CLINICAL IMAGES Epidural hematoma following spinal cord stimulator implant  

E-print Network

A 50-year-old male with chronic low-back pain presented to the ED with mid-back pain, numbness, paresthesia and weakness in both legs. These symptoms were preceded by a sudden onset of paralysis below the waistline without loss of bowel or bladder control, which occurred during the surgical placement of a neurostimulator. The device was immediately removed, and the patient’s paralysis partially resolved. He transitioned into his current symptom complex. He was immediately transferred to the ED for evaluation. Physical exam showed stable vital signs, tenderness to palpation in the spine, decreased sensation T12 and below, 4/5 strength in the lower extremities, and 2+ distal pulses, intact perianal sensation but decreased rectal tone. MRIs of the thoracic and lumbar spines were obtained, revealing an

82

Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for lumbar discectomy in a patient with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

The use of neuraxial anesthesia has traditionally been contraindicated in patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, general anesthesia can be riskier than neuraxial anesthesia for severe aortic stenosis patients undergoing spinal surgeries in the prone position as this can cause a major reduction in cardiac output secondary to diminished preload. In addition, general anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and positive-pressure ventilation can decrease venous return and reduce vascular tone, further compromising cardiac output. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with closely monitored, careful titration of the local anesthetic dose can be an efficient and safe anesthetic method for managing such patients. We describe the successful management of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in an asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis patient scheduled for lumbar discectomy. PMID:25237450

Kim, Young Sung; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Shin Young; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il-ok; Kong, Myoung-Hoon

2014-01-01

83

Primary Lumbo-sacral Spinal Epidural Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature.  

PubMed

We present a case of 24-year-old male presented with low back pain radiating to the left lower limb, tingling numbness and weakness of 6 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging scan with contrast reveals an extradural mass at lumbosacral region. Patient was operated with laminectomy and complete excision of the lesion was done. Patient's radicular pain relieved following the surgery and weakness also improved. Histopathology was suggestive of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patient received chemotherapy which was followed by radiotherapy. Primary Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lumbosacral spinal epidural tissue is an uncommon lesion. Lymphoma involves the central nervous system in 5-11% of cases either at presentation of the disease or during its course. The spinal epidural tissue is involved primarily in 0.1-3.3% of cases with spinal cord compression being the commonest presentation. Excision of the lesion followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy is required to achieve cure. PMID:21892393

Mally, Rahul; Sharma, Mayur; Khan, Shadma; Velho, Vernon

2011-09-01

84

Extensive long-segment cervicothoracic traumatic spinal epidural hematoma with avulsion of C7, C8, and T1 nerve roots  

PubMed Central

Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma (TSEH) is of rare clinical occurrence. We report a case of a young man with posttraumatic long-segment spinal epidural hematoma. Evacuation of the hematoma led to complete neurologic recovery in our patient. Our case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention for the evacuation of hematoma in preservation or maximum recovery of neurologic function. Imaging findings, management options, and the relevant literature are reviewed. PMID:25288853

Garg, Kanwaljeet; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Singla, Raghav; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

2014-01-01

85

The safety and efficacy of combined spinal and epidural analgesia\\/anesthesia (6,002 blocks) in a community hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives. This study examined the safety and efficacy of combined spinal and epidural (CSE) analgesia\\/anesthesia performed in a community hospital. Methods. Labor and Surgical Anesthesia Quality Assessment Worksheets were completed by the responsible anesthesiologist for 7,893 general anesthetics and 7,931 regional anesthetics from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1997. A retrospective computerized analysis of these data tabulated

George A. Albright; Richard M. Forster

1999-01-01

86

Delayed Diagnosis of Cauda Eqina Syndrome with Perineural Cyst after Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia in Hemodialysis Patient  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221

Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Sudo, Akihiro

2013-01-01

87

Delayed diagnosis of cauda eqina syndrome with perineural cyst after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in hemodialysis patient.  

PubMed

Symptomatic Tarlov (perineural cysts) are uncommon. In the following hemodialysis case, cauda equina syndrome was not detected after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia untilthe patient reported a lack of sensation in the perianal area 14 days postoperatively. She had normal motor function of her extremities. A laminectomy and cyst irrigation was performed. After the operation, her sphincter disturbance subsided gradually and her symptoms had disappeared. PMID:24066221

Ishiguro, Shigeo; Akeda, Koji; Tsujii, Masaya; Sudo, Akihiro

2013-09-01

88

Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma and chronic epidural hematoma in a child with F XIII deficiency.  

PubMed

Factor XIII (F XIII) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder that can cause spontaneous subdural or epidural hematomas. Due to its low incidence, F XIII deficiency may well be under-diagnosed. A 7-year-old girl with no history of medical problems presented with progressive headache of 3 days. Cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a large right acute parietooccipital subdural hematoma with a significant midline shift. After an emergent parietooccipital craniotomy and evacuation of the subdural hematoma, a screening test for factor XIII was performed. The results of the test were abnormal. She had full recovery and was discharged with a follow-up treatment of monthly transfusion of fresh frozen plasma as the replacement and prophylactic therapy. Ten months later, she was referred to our center with headache after a minor head trauma. Her medical history revealed that she had not received fresh frozen plasma for the last 2 months. CT scan showed a chronic right parietal epidural hematoma beneath the craniotomy flap. The present case indicates that although its incidence is very rare, F XIII deficiency can cause acute or chronic subdural and epidural hematomas. Therefore, in acute or chronic subdural and epidural hematomas with no underlying cause, the presence of a potential F XIII deficiency should be suspected as a cause of hemorrhagic diathesis. PMID:18514462

Vural, Murat; Yarar, Coskun; Durmaz, Ramazan; Atasoy, Metin Ant

2010-01-01

89

Commentary: Unnecessary preoperative epidural steroid injections lead to cerebrospinal fluid leaks confirmed during spinal stenosis surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Increasingly, older patients with severe spinal stenosis/instability undergo multiple unnecessary preoperative epidural spinal injections (ESI), despite their risks and lack of long-term benefits. Here we add to the list of risks by showing how often preoperative ESI lead to punctate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas documented during subsequent surgery (e.g. multilevel laminectomies with non-instrumented fusions). Methods: A series of 39 patients with spinal stenosis/instability prospectively underwent multilevel laminectomy/non-instrumented fusion utilizing lamina autograft and NanOss Bioactive. We asked how often preoperative ESI were performed in this population and how frequently they contributed to operatively confirmed punctate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas. Notably, CSF leaks were clearly attributed to ESI, as they were located centrally/paracentrally at the L4-L5 level, just below hypertrophied/ossified yellow ligament (OYL), and were the exact size of a Tuohy needle with clean edges. Results: An average of 4.1 (range 2-12) preoperative ESI were performed in 33 of 39 patients undergoing average 4.3 level laminectomies and 1.3 level non-instrumented fusions; 6 (18.2%) patients exhibited operatively confirmed, punctate CSF fistulas attributed to these ESI. The most recent injections were administered between 2 and 5 weeks prior to surgery (average 3.9 weeks). Fistulas were primarily repaired with 7-0 GORE-TEX sutures and fibrin Sealant (Tisseel). Conclusions: Of 33 patients undergoing multilevel laminectomies with non-instrumented fusions receiving preoperative ESI, 6 (18.2%) had operatively confirmed punctate CSF fistulas due to preoperative ESI performed an average of 4.1 times per patient. PMID:25289153

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

90

Fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling for lumbar spinal stenosis using a specially designed needle  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes the methodological approach and clinical application of a minimally invasive intervention to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods Thirty-four patients with LSS underwent fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling using a specially designed flexed Round Needle. The needle was inserted 8-12 cm lateral to the midline at the level of the stenosis and advanced to a position between the anterior side of the facet joint and pedicle up to the outer-third of the pedicle. The needle was advanced medially and backed laterally within a few millimetres along the canal side of the inferior articular process between the facet joint and pedicle. The procedure was completed when a marked reduction in resistance was felt at the tip of the needle. The procedure was performed bilaterally at the level of the stenosis. Results The average follow-up period was 12.9 ± 1.1 months. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was reduced from 7.3 ± 2.0 to 4.6 ± 2.5 points, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score decreased from 41.4 ± 17.2 to 25.5 ± 12.6% and the average self-rated improvement was 52.6 ± 33.1%. The VAS scores indicated that 14 (41.2%) patients reported a "good" to "excellent" treatment response, while 11 (32.4%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the ODI and 22 (64.7%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the self-rated improvement scale. Conclusions These results suggest that fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling is effective for managing LSS. PMID:20698999

2010-01-01

91

An Implantable Versatile Electrode-Driving ASIC for Chronic Epidural Stimulation in Rats.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design and testing of an electrode driving application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) intended for epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation in rats. The ASIC can deliver up to 1 mA fully programmable monophasic or biphasic stimulus current pulses, to 13 electrodes selected in any possible configuration. It also supports interleaved stimulation. Communication is achieved via only 3 wires. The current source and the control of the stimulation timing were kept off-chip to reduce the heat dissipation close to the spinal cord. The ASIC was designed in a 0.18- ? m high voltage CMOS process. Its output voltage compliance can be up to 25 V. It features a small core area ( mm (2)) and consumes a maximum of 114 ?W during a full stimulation cycle. The layout of the ASIC was developed to be suitable for integration on the epidural electrode array, and two different versions were fabricated and electrically tested. Results from both versions were almost indistinguishable. The performance of the system was verified for different loads and stimulation parameters. Its suitability to drive a passive epidural 12-electrode array in saline has also been demonstrated. PMID:25134089

Giagka, Vasiliki; Eder, Clemens; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

2014-08-13

92

Randomized trial of epidural injections for spinal stenosis published in the New England Journal of Medicine: further confusion without clarification.  

PubMed

Randomized controlled trials are considered the hallmark of evidence-based medicine. This conveys the idea that up-to-date evidence applied consistently in clinical practice, in combination with clinicians' individual expertise and patients own preference/expectations are enjoined to achieve the best possible outcome. Since its inception in 1990s, evidence-based medicine has evolved in conjunction with numerous changes in the healthcare environment. However, the benefits of evidence-based medicine have not materialized for spinal pain including surgical interventions. Consequently, the debate continues on the efficacy and medical necessity of multiple interventions provided in managing spinal pain. Friedly et al published a randomized controlled trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis in the July 2014 edition of the highly prestigious New England Journal of Medicine. This was accompanied by an editorial from Andersson. This manuscript provided significant sensationalism for the media and confusion for the spine community. This randomized trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis and accompanying editorial concluded that epidural injections of glucocorticoids plus lidocaine offered minimal or no short-term benefit as compared with epidural injections of lidocaine alone, with the editorial emphasizing proceeding directly to surgical intervention. In addition media statements by the authors also emphasized the idea that exercise or surgery might be better options for patients suffereing from narrowing of the spinal canal. The interventional pain management community believes that there are severe limitations to this study, manuscript, and accompanying editorial. The design, inclusion criteria, outcomes assessment, analysis of data and interpretation, and conclusions of this trial point to the fact that this highly sophisticated and much publicized randomized trial may not be appropriate and lead to misinformation. The design of the trial was inappropriate with failure to include existing randomized trials, with inclusion criteria that did not incorporate conservative management,or caudal epidural injections. Simultaneously, acute pain patients were included, multilevel stenosis and various other factors were not identified. The interventions included lumbar interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections with highly variable volumes of medication being injected per patient. Outcomes assessment was not optimal with assessment of the patients at 3 and 6 weeks for a procedure which provides on average 3 weeks of relief and utilizing an instrument which is more appropriately utilized in acute and subacute low back pain. Analysis of the data was hampered by inadequate subgroup analysis leading to inappropriate interpretation. Based on the available data epidural local anesthetic with steroids was clearly superior at 3 weeks and potentially at 6 weeks. Further, both treatments were effective considering the baseline to 3 week and 6 week assessment, appropriate subgroup analysis seems to have yielded significant superiority for interlaminar epidural injections compared to transforaminal epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids specifically with proportion of patients achieving greater than 50% improvement at 3 and 6 week levels. This critical assessment shows that this study suffers from a challenging design, was premised on the exclusion of available high-quality literature, and had inadequate duration of follow-up for an interventional technique with poor assessment criteria and reporting. Finally the analysis and interpretation of data has led to inaccurate and inappropriate conclusions which we do not believe is based on scientific evidence. PMID:25054398

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Gharibo, Christopher G; Hirsch, Joshua A

2014-01-01

93

Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats  

E-print Network

Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats JOHN W. OSBORN, ROBERT F cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258(Regulatory Integra spinal cord injury are proneto acute, marked,hypertensive episodes,i.e., autonomic hyperreflexia

Schramm, Lawrence P.

94

Decoding of motor intentions from epidural ECoG recordings in severely paralyzed chronic stroke patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Recently, there have been several approaches to utilize a brain–computer interface (BCI) for rehabilitation with stroke patients or as an assistive device for the paralyzed. In this study we investigated whether up to seven different hand movement intentions can be decoded from epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) in chronic stroke patients. Approach. In a screening session we recorded epidural ECoG data over the ipsilesional motor cortex from four chronic stroke patients who had no residual hand movement. Data was analyzed offline using a support vector machine (SVM) to decode different movement intentions. Main results. We showed that up to seven hand movement intentions can be decoded with an average accuracy of 61% (chance level 15.6%). When reducing the number of classes, average accuracies up to 88% can be achieved for decoding three different movement intentions. Significance. The findings suggest that ipsilesional epidural ECoG can be used as a viable control signal for BCI-driven neuroprosthesis. Although patients showed no sign of residual hand movement, brain activity at the ipsilesional motor cortex still shows enough intention-related activity to decode different movement intentions with sufficient accuracy.

Spüler, M.; Walter, A.; Ramos-Murguialday, A.; Naros, G.; Birbaumer, N.; Gharabaghi, A.; Rosenstiel, W.; Bogdan, M.

2014-12-01

95

Classification of chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardenas DD, Turner JA, Warms CA, Marshall HM. Classification of chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1708-14. Objectives: To determine interrater reliability of a classification system for chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to determine the frequency and characteristics of various pain types as categorized by this system. Design: Independent categorization

Diana D. Cardenas; Judith A. Turner; Catherine A. Warms; Helen M. Marshall

2002-01-01

96

Case report Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous epidural haematoma is rare in pregnancy and only five cases have been reported. We present a case of a 31-year-old female G2P1 who at 32 weeks of gestation developed progressive ascending paralysis and numbness to a level of approximately T4. An urgent MRI of the spine was performed, which demonstrated a posterior epidural lesion at T1-T4 level. The lesion

P SZKUP; G STONEHAM

97

[Spinal and epidural anesthesia in patients with hemorrhagic diathesis : decisions on the brink of minimum evidence?].  

PubMed

Neuraxial anesthesia is an established and safe procedure in perioperative pain therapy which can help to minimize complications and to improve perioperative outcome. In patients with acquired bleeding disorders by comorbidities or concomitant antithrombotic medication an individual decision should be made based on risks and benefits. A large number of literature references and guidelines help making a decision, for example the recently updated evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine for patients receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy. However, no explicit recommendations or guidelines exist for patients with hemorrhagic diatheses, such as von Willebrand disease (vWD), hemophilia A and B and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Published data regarding the safety of neuraxial techniques in these patients is scarce. Neuraxial anesthesia in patients with vWD is only acceptable when coagulation is optimized (substitution of factor concentrates or hemostatic agents depending on the type of vWD) and monitored frequently during the procedure. The only exception might be obstetric patients with vWD type I as coagulation frequently normalizes at the end of pregnancy. In these patients neuraxial anesthesia can often be performed without supplementation of clotting factors.Neuraxial techniques in patients with hemophilia A or B are usually contraindicated. The procedure may only be acceptable if serious reasons exist against general anesthesia. Supplementation of the missing factor to normal levels and monitoring during procedure is essential if neuraxial block is performed.Patients with ITP often present with low platelet counts. Normally, spinal or epidural anesthesia is considered safe if the platelet count is over 80,000/µl. However, the consistently low platelet counts in ITP seem to be less problematic than rapidly falling values due to other diseases, because this is often accompanied by platelet dysfunction or coagulopathy. In several studies neuraxial anesthesia was successfully performed with platelet counts between 50,000 and 80,000/µl. Nevertheless, the minimum safe platelet count for neuraxial blockade remains undefined in these patients.Evidence-based recommendations for neuraxial anaesthesia in patients with hemophilia, vWD or ITP cannot be offered. Each patient has to be treated individually with appropriate caution. This overview is intended to assist in the decision for or against neuraxial anesthesia in these patients, with emphasis on the pathophysiological background, blood investigations and case reports from the literature. PMID:21805163

Englbrecht, J S; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M; Zahn, P

2011-12-01

98

SPINAL CORD STIMULATION FOR CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS AN EXPERT SYSTEM  

E-print Network

SPINAL CORD STIMULATION FOR CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS AN EXPERT SYSTEM Kenneth M. Al.uh.edu ABSTRACT Chronic pain is a serious health problem affect­ ing millions of people worldwide. Spinal cord; Spinal Cord Stimulation for

Kreinovich, Vladik

99

A randomized, controlled trial of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis in chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain [ISRCTN 16558617  

PubMed Central

Background Postoperative epidural fibrosis may contribute to between 5% to 60% of the poor surgical outcomes following decompressive surgery. Correlations have been reported between epidural scarring and radicular pain, poor surgical outcomes, and a lack of any form of surgical treatment. The use of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis in recent years in the management of chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain has been described. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to determine the outcome of spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis to reduce pain and improve function and psychological status in patients with chronic refractory low back and lower extremity pain. A total of 83 patients were evaluated, with 33 patients in Group I and 50 patients in Group II. Group I served as the control, with endoscopy into the sacral level without adhesiolysis, followed by injection of local anesthetic and steroid. Group II received spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis, followed by injection of local anesthetic and steroid. Results Among the 50 patients in the treatment group receiving spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis, significant improvement without adverse effects was shown in 80% at 3 months, 56% at 6 months, and 48% at 12 months. The control group showed improvement in 33% of the patients at one month and none thereafter. Based on the definition that less than 6 months of relief is considered short-term and longer than 6 months of relief is considered long-term, a significant number of patients obtained long-term relief with improvement in pain, functional status, and psychological status. Conclusion Spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis with targeted delivery of local anesthetic and steroid is an effective treatment in a significant number of patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain without major adverse effects. PMID:16000173

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Rivera, Jose J; Pampati, Vidya Sagar; Damron, Kim S; McManus, Carla D; Brandon, Doris E; Wilson, Sue R

2005-01-01

100

Arrays for chronic functional microstimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to develop neural prostheses based on an array of microelectrodes implanted into the sacral spinal cord, that will allow persons with spinal cord injuries to regain control of their bladder and bowels. For our chronic cat model, we have developed two microelectrode arrays, one type containing nine discrete activated iridium microelectrodes and the second utilizing silicon substrate

Douglas McCreery; Victor Pikov; Albert Lossinsky; Leo Bullara; William Agnew

2004-01-01

101

How Effective Is a Virtual Consultation Process in Facilitating Multidisciplinary Decision-Making for Malignant Epidural Spinal Cord Compression?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a virtual consultation (VC) process in determining treatment strategy for patients with malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC). Methods and Materials: A prospective clinical database was maintained for patients with MESCC. A virtual consultation process (involving exchange of key predetermined clinical information and diagnostic imaging) facilitated rapid decision-making between oncologists and spinal surgeons. Diagnostic imaging was reviewed retrospectively (by R.R.) for surgical opinions in all patients. The primary outcome was the accuracy of virtual consultation opinion in predicting the final treatment recommendation. Results: After excluding 20 patients who were referred directly to the spinal surgeon, 125 patients were eligible for virtual consultation. Of the 46 patients who had a VC, surgery was recommended in 28 patients and actually given to 23. A retrospective review revealed that 5/79 patients who did not have a VC would have been considered surgical candidates. The overall accuracy of the virtual consultation process was estimated at 92%. Conclusion: The VC process for MESCC patients provides a reliable means of arriving at a multidisciplinary opinion while minimizing patient transfer. This can potentially shorten treatment decision time and enhance clinical outcomes.

Fitzpatrick, David [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada) [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); St Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Grabarz, Daniel [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada) [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Centro Oncologia Mendel and Associados, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Wang, Lisa [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Division of Neurosurgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Division of Neurosurgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Fosker, Christopher [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Rampersaud, Raja [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Krembil Neuroscience Center, Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada); Wong, Rebecca K.S., E-mail: rebecca.wong@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Palliative Radiation Oncology Program and Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto (Canada)

2012-10-01

102

Chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries: A community survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate, in a community sample of people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs), chronic pain prevalence, associated factors, sites, characteristics, interference with daily functioning, treatments received, and treatment helpfulness.

Judith A. Turner; Diana D. Cardenas; Catherine A. Warms; Catherine B. McClellan

2001-01-01

103

Hemiparesis and Facial Sensory Loss following Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection.  

PubMed

Interlaminar cervical epidural steroid injections (ic-ESI) are safe and effective treatment options for the management of acute and chronic radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, and other causes of neck pain not responding to more conservative measures. However, the procedure inherently lends itself to possible spinal cord injury (SCI). Though reports of such events have been documented, the clinical presentation of patients with needle puncture SCI varies. In part, this may be due to anatomic considerations, as symptoms may be dependent on the cervical level intruded, as well as the volume and type of injectate used. Many cases go unreported and therefore the true incidence of cord injections during ic-ESI is not known. Cervical epidurals can be performed by the transforaminal or interlaminar approach. It is generally accepted that ic-ESI is safer than transforaminal epidurals. There are numerous reports of arterial invasion or irritation with the latter despite an inherently greater risk of cord puncture with the former. The likelihood of cord interruption rises when ic-ESIs are performed above C6-C7 as there is a relatively slim epidural layer compared to lower cervical epidural zones. Though most cases of devastating outcomes, such as hemiplegia and death, have been reported during cervical transforaminal epidural injections and rarely with ic-ESI, it is important to understand the symptoms and potential pitfalls of performing any cervical epidural injection. Cervical epidural malpractice claims are uncommon, but exceed those of steroid blocks at all the levels combined, demonstrating the need for improved awareness of potential complications in ic-ESI. Here, we will describe an unusual presentation of a spinal cord injection during an ic-ESI procedure. PMID:25415791

Maddela, Raghu; Wahezi, Sayed E; Sparr, Steven; Brook, Allan

2014-12-01

104

Spinal cord pathology in chronic experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection  

PubMed Central

Infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma (T.) gondii causes chronic infection of the central nervous system and can lead to life-threatening encephalomyelitis in immunocompromised patients. While infection with T. gondii has long time been considered asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, this view is challenged by recent reports describing links between seropositivity and behavioral alterations. However, past and current researches are mainly focused on the brain during Toxoplasma encephalitis, neglecting the spinal cord as a key structure conveying brain signals into motion. Therefore, our study aimed to fill the gap and describes the spinal cord pathology in an experimental murine model of toxoplasmosis. In the spinal cord, we found distinct histopathological changes, inflammatory foci and T. gondii cysts similar to the brain. Furthermore, the recruitment of immune cells from the periphery was detected. Moreover, resident microglia as well as recruited monocytes displayed an increased MHC classes I and II expression. Additionally, the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was enhanced in the brain as well as in the spinal cord. In summary, the pathology observed in the spinal cord was similar to the previously described changes in the brain during the infection. This study provides the first detailed description of histopathological and immunological alterations due to experimental T. gondii induced myelitis in mice. Thus, our comparison raises awareness of the importance of the spinal cord in chronic T. gondii infection. PMID:24678407

Möhle, L.; Parlog, A.; Pahnke, J.

2014-01-01

105

A malignant transformation of a spinal epidural mass from ganglioneuroblastoma to neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice with very good prognosis. However, neuroblastomatous malignant transformation of ganglioneuromas was previously reported. We report a patient with spinal neuroblastoma recurrent from a ganglioneuroblastoma after disease free survival of 13 years. This is one of the rare examples of spinal neuroblastoma and to our knowledge the second case report with malignant transformation from a ganglioneuroblastoma or a ganglioneuroma. The present case is the only report in the literature with further genetic investigations. PMID:25810863

Akcakaya, Mehmet Osman; Bilgic, Bilge; Aras, Yavuz; Izgi, Nail

2015-03-01

106

A Malignant Transformation of a Spinal Epidural Mass from Ganglioneuroblastoma to Neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice with very good prognosis. However, neuroblastomatous malignant transformation of ganglioneuromas was previously reported. We report a patient with spinal neuroblastoma recurrent from a ganglioneuroblastoma after disease free survival of 13 years. This is one of the rare examples of spinal neuroblastoma and to our knowledge the second case report with malignant transformation from a ganglioneuroblastoma or a ganglioneuroma. The present case is the only report in the literature with further genetic investigations. PMID:25810863

Bilgic, Bilge; Aras, Yavuz; Izgi, Nail

2015-01-01

107

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy mimicking a lumbar spinal stenosis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) established by biopsy developed cauda equina symptoms due to swelling of the nerve roots in the lumbar spinal canal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed profoundly thickened nerve roots from the level of the conus medullaris, filling the caudal thecal sac. Immunosuppressant treatment produced partial clinical and radiological resolution. This

L Ginsberg; A D Platts; P K Thomas

1995-01-01

108

Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without

A. J. Duggins; J. G. McLeod; J. D. Pollard; L. Davies; F. Yang; E. O. Thompson; J. R. Soper

1999-01-01

109

Risk Factors for Chest Illness in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Chest illnesses commonly cause morbidity in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Risk factors remain poorly characterized because previous studies have not accounted for factors other than spinal cord injury. Design Between 1994 and 2005, 403 participants completed a respiratory questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Participants were contacted at a median of 1.7 yrs [interquartile range: 1.3–2.5 yrs] apart over a mean (SD) of 5.1 ± 3.0 yrs and asked to report chest illnesses that had resulted in time off work, spent indoors, or in bed since prior contact. Results In 97 participants, there were 247 chest illnesses (0.12/person-year) with 54 hospitalizations (22%). Spinal cord injury level, completeness of injury, and duration of injury were not associated with illness risk. Adjusting for age and smoking history, any wheeze (relative risk = 1.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.08), pneumonia or bronchitis since spinal cord injury (relative risk = 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 3.75), and physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (relative risk = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.37) were associated with a greater risk of chest illness. Each percent-predicted decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec was associated with a 1.2% increase in risk of chest illness (P = 0.030). Conclusions In chronic spinal cord injury, chest illness resulting in time spent away from usual activities was not related to the level or completeness of spinal cord injury but was related to reduced pulmonary function, wheeze, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a history of pneumonia and bronchitis, and smoking. PMID:20463565

Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Brown, Robert; Tun, Carlos G.; Garshick, Eric

2011-01-01

110

[A case of spinal epidural abscess in a renal transplant recipient].  

PubMed

A 44-year-old male underwent a cadaveric renal transplantation at the university hospital of Tsukuba on March 3, 1979. On June 11, 1979, he was discharged this hospital. Immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine and methylprednisolone was done. On November 1, 1979, he developed back pain associated with fever. On November 3, 1979, he was admitted to the university hospital of Tsukuba. Laboratory study revealed leucocytosis. CRP inserum was positive. But pneumonia, urinary tract infection and infectious skin lesion were ruled out by physical, radiological and laboratory examination. On November 16, 1979, he became paraparetic. On the next day, he consulted the neurosurgical unit. Neurological findings were as follows: paraplegia, and hypesthesia and hypalgesia below the level of T4, and bilateral hyperrefrexia of P.T.R. and A.T.R. Lumbar myelogram revealed a complete block at the level T7. On November 17, 1979, a laminectomy from T4 through T7 was performed. The epidural abscess containing yellow pus was found and totally removed. Gram-positive rods were isolated on bacteriologic culture. On the 7th postoperative day, the sensory level dropped to L4 bilaterally and the muscle strength in the lower extremity became fair. About 3 years after operation, he became to be able to walk without cane. Discussion was made about this case together with previously reported cases. PMID:6379492

Egashira, T; Nose, T; Maki, Y

1984-05-01

111

[Endoscopic method for the diagnosis and treatment of spinal pain syndromes].  

PubMed

The endoscopy of the epidural space-"Epiduroscopy"-is a new imaging technique in the diagnosis and therapy of spinal pain syndrome. For investigation of the epidural space either a steerable or controllable flexible endoscope with an outer diameter of 2.5 mm and a working channel or a flexible catheter-secured epiduroscope unit can be used. Epidural anatomic structures, such as the dura mater spinalis, connective tissues, blood vessels, nerve fibers, and adipose tissues could be identified easily. Further it was possible to find pathological structures such as epidural adhesions, fibrosis, and scars. Due to epiduroscopy an epidural catheter could be placed safely in patients with chronic pain syndromes for a continuous intrathecal application of opioids or a precise epidural adhesiolysis. Percutaneous epiduroscopy, a new invasive micro-endoscopic technology, enables the extension of therapeutic potentials in chronic pain syndromes in addition to the diagnosis. PMID:8975576

Shutse, G; Kurtse, G; Grol O; Enns, E

1996-01-01

112

Percutaneous Intravertebral Body Embolization of a Traumatic Spinal Epidural Arteriovenous Fistula with Secondary Perimedullary Venous Reflux  

PubMed Central

Summary Arteriovenous fistulas following vertebral fractures are probably very rare. We present a case with fistulous connection between arteries and veins within the fractured 12th thoracic vertebral body with retrograde venous drainage to perimedullary veins resulting in spinal venous hypertension and a cauda equina like symptomatology. Pre-treatment 3D CT enabled us to puncture the venous pouch within the vertebra and deposit glue in the vertebral fistula. The procedure led to a complete occlusion of the fistula and relief of pain and neurological symptoms. PMID:20377987

Gjertsen, Ø.; Nakstad, P. HJ.; Pedersen, HK; Dahlberg, D.

2010-01-01

113

Windup of Flexion Reflexes in Chronic Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Marker for Neuronal Plateau Potentials?  

E-print Network

Windup of Flexion Reflexes in Chronic Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Marker for Neuronal Plateau., W. Z. Rymer, E. N. Benz, and B. D. Schmit. Windup of flexion reflexes in chronic human spinal cord.2001. The physiological basis of flexion spasms in individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI) may involve alterations

114

A new instrument for estimating the survival of patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression from esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background This study was initiated to create a predictive instrument for estimating the survival of patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) from esophageal cancer. Methods In 27 patients irradiated for MESCC from esophageal cancer, the following nine characteristics were evaluated for potential impact on survival: age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score, histology, number of involved vertebrae, ambulatory status before irradiation, further bone metastases, visceral metastases, and dynamic of developing motor deficits before irradiation. In addition, the impact of the radiation regimen was investigated. According to Bonferroni correction, p-values of < 0.006 were significant representing an alpha level of < 0.05. Results ECOG performance score (p < 0.001), number of involved vertebrae (p = 0.005), and visceral metastases (p = 0.004) had a significant impact on survival and were included in the predictive instrument. Scoring points for each characteristic were calculated by dividing the 6-months survival rates (in %) by 10. The prognostic score for each patient was obtained by adding the scoring points of the three characteristics. The prognostic scores were 4, 9, 10, 14 or 20 points. Three prognostic groups were formed, 4 points (n = 11), 9–14 points (n = 12) and 20 points (n = 4). The corresponding 6-months survival rates were 0%, 33% and 100%, respectively (p < 0.001). Median survival times were 1 month, 5 months and 16.5 months, respectively. Conclusions This new instrument allows the physician estimate the 6-months survival probability of an individual patient presenting with MESCC from esophageal cancer. This is important to know for optimally personalizing the treatment of these patients.

Rades, Dirk; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bajrovic, Amira; Karstens, Johann H.; Bartscht, Tobias

2015-01-01

115

Case study of a spinal epidural capillary hemangioma: a 4-year postoperative follow-up.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case study. Objectives?We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man, who presented with a 4-month history of increasing low back pain and gait difficulty. Objective neurologic examination revealed a severe paraparetic symptomatology without any sphincter involvement. Methods?Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extradural mass formation situated dorsally at the level of thoracic vertebrae T2 to T4. Results?A laminectomy was performed with total removal of the mass; histology suggested a highly vascularized lesion with lobular architecture, which seems a very rare case, compatible with a capillary hemangioma. Conclusions?A careful follow-up for the next 4 years, including control MRIs every postoperative year, showed a very good neurologic condition of the patient and no recurrence on imaging findings. PMID:24494182

Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Vyshka, Gentian; Bushati, Teona; Petrela, Mentor

2014-02-01

116

Inadvertent high spinal anesthesia as sequelae to epidural injection of normal saline.  

PubMed

Here we present a case of high spinal blockade in a patient belonging to ASA Grade I which lead to need for endotracheal intubation. A 35 year old healthy male, weighing 59 kg, of height 165 cms presented with a post traumatic raw area over the left lower limb. A reverse sural graft along with skin grafting (from the thigh) was planned. In OR, the patient was placed in sitting position and the extradural space was identified by 'loss of resistance to air' technique at the L2-L3 intervertebral space. The catheter could not be threaded into the extradural space, hence 5ml of 0.9% saline was injected. However, still the catheter could not be negotiated. Further attempts to identify the extradural space at the L1-L2 and L3-L4 interspace levels were made. During these attempts a total of 18 ml of 0.9% saline was injected into the extradural space. Within 2 minutes blood pressure fell to 90/60 mmHg. Injection mephenteramine (3 mg) was given intravenously and a slight head up tilt was applied. After 2 more minutes the patient started complaining of tingling in his hands and difficulty in breathing. Oxygen 100% was administered via a face mask attached to the anesthesia circle system. In view of onset of respiratory failure, general anesthesia was induced. Thiopentone (200 mg) and Suxamethonium (75 mg) were given intravenously, the patient's trachea was intubated and his lungs ventilated with 40% oxygen, 60% nitrous oxide and 0.2-0.4% Isoflurane, without additional neuromuscular blockade. The arterial saturation promptly returned to 97% and, immediately after intubation, the heart rate was found to be 103 beats/min and the arterial BP 162/102 mmHg. At the end of surgery, spontaneous ventilation returned and the patient was allowed to breathe 100% oxygen via the tracheal tube until he awoke, when his trachea was extubated. PMID:25886433

Dhir, Vinod Bala; Sharma, Anupama Gill; Kaur, Mohandeep; Gulabani, Michell

2015-01-01

117

Inadvertent high spinal anesthesia as sequelae to epidural injection of normal saline  

PubMed Central

Here we present a case of high spinal blockade in a patient belonging to ASA Grade I which lead to need for endotracheal intubation. A 35 year old healthy male, weighing 59 kg, of height 165 cms presented with a post traumatic raw area over the left lower limb. A reverse sural graft along with skin grafting (from the thigh) was planned. In OR, the patient was placed in sitting position and the extradural space was identified by ‘loss of resistance to air’ technique at the L2-L3 intervertebral space. The catheter could not be threaded into the extradural space, hence 5ml of 0.9% saline was injected. However, still the catheter could not be negotiated. Further attempts to identify the extradural space at the L1-L2 and L3-L4 interspace levels were made. During these attempts a total of 18 ml of 0.9% saline was injected into the extradural space. Within 2 minutes blood pressure fell to 90/60 mmHg. Injection mephenteramine (3 mg) was given intravenously and a slight head up tilt was applied. After 2 more minutes the patient started complaining of tingling in his hands and difficulty in breathing. Oxygen 100% was administered via a face mask attached to the anesthesia circle system. In view of onset of respiratory failure, general anesthesia was induced. Thiopentone (200 mg) and Suxamethonium (75 mg) were given intravenously, the patient's trachea was intubated and his lungs ventilated with 40% oxygen, 60% nitrous oxide and 0.2-0.4% Isoflurane, without additional neuromuscular blockade. The arterial saturation promptly returned to 97% and, immediately after intubation, the heart rate was found to be 103 beats/min and the arterial BP 162/102 mmHg. At the end of surgery, spontaneous ventilation returned and the patient was allowed to breathe 100% oxygen via the tracheal tube until he awoke, when his trachea was extubated.

Dhir, Vinod Bala; Sharma, Anupama Gill; Kaur, Mohandeep; Gulabani, Michell

2015-01-01

118

Epidural Lysis of Adhesions  

PubMed Central

As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E.; Hurley, Robert W.

2014-01-01

119

Epidural lysis of adhesions.  

PubMed

As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E; Hurley, Robert W; Cohen, Steven P

2014-01-01

120

Unusual presentation of spinal lipomatosis  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of normal adipose tissue in the extradural space within the spinal canal that can lead to significant spinal cord compression. It is most commonly reported in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Other causes can include obesity and hypercortisolism. Occasionally, idiopathic SEL will occur in patients with no known risk factors, but cases are more generally reported in obesity and males. We present the case of a 35 year-old non-obese woman found to have rapidly progressive SEL that was not associated with any of the common causes of the disorder. PMID:25285024

Stephenson, William; Kauflin, Matthew J

2014-01-01

121

Autologous mesenchymal stem cells in chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs in the most productive part of life. Treatment options for treatment of chronic SCI are few and have limited impact on clinical outcome. Central nervous system (CNS) has limited intrinsic regeneration capability. The study included patients with chronic complete SCI. Previously harvested autologous mesenchymal stem cells were administered at the site of injury after a laminectomy. Follow-up was done by a neutral examiner not involved in the surgery every 3 months. One patient had improvement in motor power. Two patients had a patchy improvement in pin prick sensation below the level of injury. Three different, progressively increasing doses did not result in improvement in the clinical outcome. Though the administration of allogenic human mesenchymal stem cells is safe in patients with SCI, it may not be efficacious; especially in patients with chronic SCI. PMID:21749185

Bhanot, Yanish; Rao, Sujay; Ghosh, Debapriya; Balaraju, Sudheer; Radhika, C R; Satish Kumar, K V

2011-08-01

122

Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without hypertrophy demonstrated enhancement. All patients with hypertrophy had a relapsing-remitting course and a significantly longer disease duration. Gross onion-bulb formations were seen in a biopsy of nerve from the brachial plexus in one case with clinically evident nodular hypertrophy. We conclude that spinal root and plexus hypertrophy may be seen on MRI, particularly in cases of CIDP of long duration, and gadolinium enhancement may be present in active disease. PMID:10388803

Duggins, A J; McLeod, J G; Pollard, J D; Davies, L; Yang, F; Thompson, E O; Soper, J R

1999-07-01

123

Nature Methods Chronic in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord using an  

E-print Network

Nature Methods Chronic in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord using an implanted chamber Matthew the vertebral column and provided long-term optical access to the spinal cord. Supplementary Figure 2 A custom Anatomically myelin-poor regions of the spinal cord enable deep- tissue imaging Supplementary Figure 5

Schaffer, Chris B.

124

Neuromodulation of the cervical spinal cord in the treatment of chronic intractable neck and upper extremity pain: a case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Electrical spinal neuromodulation in the form of spinal cord stimulation is currently used for treating chronic painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, peripheral ischemia, low back pain, and other conditions refractory to more conservative treatments. To date, there are very few published reports documenting the use of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of head/neck and upper limb pain. This paper reports a case series of 5 consecutive patients outlining the use of spinal cord stimulation to treat upper extremity pain. All subjects had previously undergone cervical fusion surgery to treat chronic neck and upper limb pain. Patients were referred following failure of the surgery to manage their painful conditions. Spinal cord stimulators were placed in the cervical epidural space through a thoracic needle placement. Stimulation parameters were adjusted to capture as much of the painful area(s) as possible. In total, 4 out of 5 patients moved to implantation. In all cases, patients reported significant (70-90%) reductions in pain, including axial neck pain and upper extremity pain. Interestingly, 2 patients with associated headache and lower extremity pain obtained relief after paresthesia-steering reportedly covered those areas. Moreover, 2 patients reported that cervical spinal cord stimulation significantly improved axial low back pain. Patients continue to report excellent pain relief up to 9 months following implantation. This case series documents the successful treatment of neck and upper extremity pain following unsuccessful cervical spine fusion surgery. Given this initial success, prospective, controlled studies are warranted to more adequately assess the long term utility and cost effectiveness of electrical neuromodulation treatment of chronic neck and upper extremity pain. PMID:17387353

Vallejo, Ricardo; Kramer, Jeffery; Benyamin, Ramsin

2007-03-01

125

Spastic tail muscles recover from myofiber atrophy and myosin heavy chain transformations in chronic spinal rats.  

PubMed

Without intervention after spinal cord injury (SCI), paralyzed skeletal muscles undergo myofiber atrophy and slow-to-fast myofiber type transformations. We hypothesized that chronic spasticity-associated neuromuscular activity after SCI would promote recovery from such deleterious changes. We examined segmental tail muscles of chronic spinal rats with long-standing tail spasticity (7 mo after sacral spinal cord transection; older chronic spinals), chronic spinal rats that experienced less spasticity early after injury (young chronic spinals), and rats without spasticity after transection and bilateral deafferentation (spinal isolated). These were compared with tail muscles of age-matched normal rats. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed myofiber distributions of 15.9 +/- 3.5% type I, 18.7 +/- 10.7% type IIA, 60.8 +/- 12.6% type IID(X), and 2.3 +/- 1.3% type IIB (means +/- SD) in young normals, which were not different in older normals. Young chronic spinals demonstrated transformations toward faster myofiber types with decreased type I and increased type IID(X) paralleled by atrophy of all myofiber types compared with young normals. Spinal isolated rats also demonstrated decreased type I myofiber proportions and increased type II myofiber proportions, and severe myofiber atrophy. After 4 mo of complete spasticity (older chronic spinals), myofiber type transformations were reversed, with no significant differences in type I, IIA, IID(X), or IIB proportions compared with age-matched normals. Moreover, after this prolonged spasticity, type I, IIA, and IIB myofibers recovered from atrophy, and type IID(X) myofibers partially recovered. Our results indicate that early after transection or after long-term spinal isolation, relatively inactive tail myofibers atrophy and transform toward faster myofiber types. However, long-term spasticity apparently produces neuromuscular activity that promotes recovery of myofiber types and myofiber sizes. PMID:17122320

Harris, R Luke W; Putman, Charles T; Rank, Michelle; Sanelli, Leo; Bennett, David J

2007-02-01

126

Thoracic epidural analgesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The benefits of thoracic epidural analgesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are well documented. However, the literature available on the role of high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery is scarce. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to establish whether HTEA is beneficial in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing elective OPCAB surgery. After institutional ethics board approval and informed consent, 62 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing elective OPCAB were randomly grouped into two (n = 31 each). Both groups received general anesthesia (GA), but in the HTEA group patients, TEA was also administered. Standardized surgical and anesthetic techniques were used for both the groups. Pulmonary function tests were performed pre-operatively, 6 h and 24 h post-extubation and on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 along with arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) analysis. Time for extubation (h) and time for oxygen withdrawal (h) were recorded. Pain score was assessed by the 10-cm visual analogue scale. All hemodynamic/oxygenation parameters were noted. Any complications related to the TEA were also recorded. Patients in the HTEA group were extubated earlier (10.8 h vs. 13.5 h, P < 0.01) and their oxygen withdrawal time was also significantly lower (26.26 h vs. 29.87 h, P < 0.01). The VAS score, both at rest and on coughing, was significantly lower in the HTEA group at all times, post-operatively (P < 0.01). The forced vital capacity improved significantly at 6 h post-operatively in the HTEA group (P = 0.026) and remained significantly higher thereafter. A similar trend was observed in forced expiratory volume in the first second on day 2 in the HTEA group (P = 0.024). We did not observe any significant side-effects/mortality in either group. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing elective OPCAB surgery, HTEA is a good adjunct to GA for early extubation, faster recovery of pulmonary function and better analgesia. PMID:20826963

Mehta, Yatin; Vats, Mayank; Sharma, Munish; Arora, Reetesh; Trehan, Naresh

2010-01-01

127

A thin film polyimide mesh microelectrode for chronic epidural electrocorticography recording with enhanced contactability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) activity may be more reliable and stable than single-unit-activity or local field potential. Invasive brain computer interface (BCI) devices are limited by mechanical mismatching and cellular reactive responses due to differences in the elastic modulus and the motion of stiff electrodes. We propose a mesh-shaped electrode to enhance the contactability between surface of dura and electrode. Approach. We designed a polyimide (PI) electrode with a mesh pattern for more conformal contact with a curved surface. We compared the contact capability of mesh PI electrodes with conventionally used sheet PI electrode. The electrical properties of the mesh PI electrode were evaluated for four weeks. We recorded the epidural ECoG (eECoG) activity on the surface of rhesus monkey brains while they performed a saccadic task for four months. Main results. The mesh PI electrode showed good contact with the agarose brain surface, as evaluated by visual inspection and signal measurement. It was about 87% accurate in predicting the direction of saccade eye movement. Significance. Our results indicate that the mesh PI electrode was flexible and good contact on the curved surface and can record eECoG activity maintaining close contact to dura, which was proved by in vivo and in vitro test.

Baek, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jeyeon; Byeon, Hang jin; Choi, Hoseok; Kim, In Young; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Jungho Pak, James; Jang, Dong Pyo; Lee, Sang-Hoon

2014-08-01

128

Effects of ozone applied by spinal endoscopy in patients with chronic pain related to failed back surgery syndrome: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the last two decades, ozone has emerged as a treatment for low back pain, applied by means of minimally invasive techniques. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the effect and safety of ozone therapy applied in the epidural space for chronic pain related to failed back surgery syndrome. Methods The investigators studied 13 sequential patients of both sexes, between 18 and 70 years old, with persistent chronic pain (more than six months) in the lumbar region and in the lower limbs related to failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Pain was classified as neuropathic and non-neuropathic regarding the topography (lumbar and lower limb), based on the DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique 4) questionnaire. The patients received the ozone gas in the lumbar epidural space via spinal-sacral endoscopy. Clinical evaluation was performed before, immediately after (24 hours), and 1, 3, and 6 months after intervention with visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results Overall, the patients had 43.7% reduction of lumbar pain, 60.9% reduction in leg pain in six months followed by 44.0% of improvement in ODI. The reduction of pain and in the disability index was markedly greater in patients with non-neuropathic predominant pain, 95.2%, 80.6%, and 75.3% improvement in lumbar, leg pain, and ODI respectively, while neuropathic predominant pain patients experienced only 12.5%, 42.4%, and 20.9% improvement, also respectively. No neurological or infectious complications were observed acutely or during the follow-up. The present data suggests that epidural ozone might be a therapeutic option for persistent low back pain, especially in non-neuropathic predominant pain patients, but double-blind controlled studies are still required to prove its efficacy. PMID:24259984

de Nêuton, Francisco; Magalhães, Oliveira; Soares, Sandra Correia; Torres, Jaqueline Melo; Ungaretti, Arthur; Cacciacarro, Mariana Fillipi; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni

2013-01-01

129

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: two cases with cervical spinal cord compression.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a peripheral nerve disorder probably due to an immunological disturb. It evolves either in a steadily progressive or in a relapsing and fluctuating course. Weakness is mainly in the lower limbs proximally and distally. The electromyography is demyelinating. The cerebral spinal fluid protein is most of times elevated. Sometimes enlarged nerves are found. There are few cases described with spinal cord compression due to hypertrophic spinal nerve roots. Two patients (females, 66 and 67 years old) with diagnosis of a long standing CIDP are described. In the first one, the evolution was characterized by remission and relapsing course. The second patient had a chronic and progressive course. These patients presented after a long evolution a cervical spinal cord compression syndrome due to hypertrophic cervical roots. Neurologists must be aware of the possibility of development of spinal cord compression by enlarged spinal roots in patients with a long standing CIDP. PMID:16172720

Freitas, Marcos R G de; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Soares, Cristiane N; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Domingues, Romeu Cortes

2005-09-01

130

Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. METHODS: Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The

Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Mark V Boswell; Vijay Singh; Vidyasagar Pampati; Kim S Damron; Carla D Beyer

2004-01-01

131

Epidural lipomatosis with lumbar radiculopathy in one obese patient. Case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic epidural spinal lipomas are rare: only 13 cases have been described in the literature. We report a further case in an obese patient without known etiological factors. Diagnosis of epidural lipomatosis was performed by MRI. Weight reduction was obtained by conservative treatment, reserving surgery in case symptoms did not disappear. Of the 8 obese patients with idiopathic epidural spinal

Raed Qasho; O. Epimenio Ramundo; Cosimo Maraglino; Pierpaolo Lunardi; Giovanna Ricci

1997-01-01

132

Evidence for spinal cord hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury and in fibromyalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic pain after whiplash injury and fibromyalgia patients display exaggerated pain after sensory stimulation. Because evident tissue damage is usually lacking, this exaggerated pain perception could be explained by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (a spinal reflex) may be used to study the excitability state of spinal cord neurons. We tested the hypothesis

Borut Banic; Steen Petersen-Felix; Ole K. Andersen; Bogdan P. Radanov; P. M. Villiger; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Michele Curatolo

2004-01-01

133

Effectiveness of automated locomotor training in patients with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: A multicenter trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wirz M, Zemon DH, Rupp R, Scheel A, Colombo G, Dietz V, Hornby TG. Effectiveness of automated locomotor training in patients with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a multicenter trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86:672–80.

Markus Wirz; David H. Zemon; Ruediger Rupp; Anke Scheel; Gery Colombo; Volker Dietz; T. George Hornby

2005-01-01

134

Interventional Techniques: Evidence-based Practice Guidelines in the Management of Chronic Spinal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of

Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti

2007-01-01

135

Chronic pain after spinal injury: Interference with sleep and daily activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widerstr[ouml ]m-Noga EG, Felipe-Cuervo E, Yezierski RP. Chronic pain after spinal injury: interference with sleep and daily activities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1571-7. Objectives: To determine how chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) interfered with sleep, exercise, work, household chores, and other daily activities and to define which clinical aspects of pain and psychosocial factors best predicted the extent

Ernesto Felipe-Cuervo; Robert P. Yezierski

2001-01-01

136

Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation improves sympathetic skin responses in chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Forty-three patients with chronic spinal cord injury for over 6 months were transplanted with bryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, 2-4 × 10(6), into multiple sites in the injured area under the surgical microscope. The sympathetic skin response in patients was measured with an electromyography/evoked potential instrument 1 day before transplantation and 3-8 weeks after transtion. Spinal nerve function of patients was assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale. The sympathetic skin response was elicited in 32 cases before olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation, while it was observed in 34 cases after transplantation. tantly, sympathetic skin response latency decreased significantly and amplitude increased cantly after transplantation. Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells also improved American Spinal Injury Association scores for movement, pain and light touch. Our findings indicate that factory ensheathing cell transplantation improves motor, sensory and autonomic nerve functions in patients with chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:25206606

Zheng, Zuncheng; Liu, Guifeng; Chen, Yuexia; Wei, Shugang

2013-10-25

137

Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation improves sympathetic skin responses in chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Forty-three patients with chronic spinal cord injury for over 6 months were transplanted with bryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, 2–4 × 106, into multiple sites in the injured area under the surgical microscope. The sympathetic skin response in patients was measured with an electromyography/evoked potential instrument 1 day before transplantation and 3–8 weeks after transtion. Spinal nerve function of patients was assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale. The sympathetic skin response was elicited in 32 cases before olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation, while it was observed in 34 cases after transplantation. tantly, sympathetic skin response latency decreased significantly and amplitude increased cantly after transplantation. Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells also improved American Spinal Injury Association scores for movement, pain and light touch. Our findings indicate that factory ensheathing cell transplantation improves motor, sensory and autonomic nerve functions in patients with chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:25206606

Zheng, Zuncheng; Liu, Guifeng; Chen, Yuexia; Wei, Shugang

2013-01-01

138

Chronic in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord using an implanted chamber  

PubMed Central

Understanding and treatment of spinal cord pathology is limited in part by a lack of longitudinal in vivo imaging strategies at the cellular level. We developed a chronically implanted spinal chamber and surgical procedure suitable for time-lapse in vivo multiphoton microscopy of mouse spinal cord without the need for repeat surgical procedures. Repeated imaging was routinely achieved for more than five weeks post-operatively with up to ten separate imaging sessions. We observed neither motor function deficit nor neuropathology in the spinal cord as a result of chamber implantation. Using this chamber we quantified microglia and afferent axon dynamics following a laser-induced spinal cord lesion and observed massive microglia infiltration within one day along with a heterogeneous dieback of axon stumps. By enabling chronic imaging studies over timescales ranging from minutes to months, our method offers an ideal platform for understanding cellular dynamics in response to injury and therapeutic interventions. PMID:22266542

Farrar, Matthew J.; Bernstein, Ida M.; Schlafer, Donald H.; Cleland, Thomas A.; Fetcho, Joseph R.; Schaffer, Chris B.

2012-01-01

139

Failure of an epidural catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good product design implies integrity when a product is in service, and is especially important in medical devices. The environment in which the product functions can vary but must be taken into account as well as its past history of environmental exposure. A case study shows how an epidural catheter fractured during childbirth, leaving the distal tip in the spinal

Peter R. Lewis; Colin Gagg

2009-01-01

140

Sleep Disordered Breathing in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with 2-5 times greater prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) than the general population. The contribution of SCI on sleep and breathing at different levels of injury using two scoring methods has not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sleep disturbances in the SCI population and the associated physiological abnormalities using quantitative polysomnography and to determine the contribution of SCI level on the SDB mechanism. Methods: We studied 26 consecutive patients with SCI (8 females; age 42.5 ± 15.5 years; BMI 25.9 ± 4.9 kg/m2; 15 cervical and 11 thoracic levels) by spirometry, a battery of questionnaires and by attended polysomnography with flow and pharyngeal pressure measurements. Inclusion criteria for SCI: chronic SCI (> 6 months post injury), level T6 and above and not on mechanical ventilation. Ventilation, end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), variability in minute ventilation (VI-CV) and upper airway resistance (RUA) were monitored during wakefulness and NREM sleep in all subjects. Each subject completed brief history and exam, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Berlin questionnaire (BQ) and fatigue severity scale (FSS). Sleep studies were scored twice, first using standard 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and second using new 2012 recommended AASM criteria. Results: Mean PSQI was increased to 10.3 ± 3.7 in SCI patients and 92% had poor sleep quality. Mean ESS was increased 10.4 ± 4.4 in SCI patients and excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ? 10) was present in 59% of the patients. Daytime fatigue (FSS > 20) was reported in 96% of SCI, while only 46% had high-risk score of SDB on BQ. Forced vital capacity (FVC) in SCI was reduced to 70.5% predicted in supine compared to 78.5% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Likewise forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) was 64.9% predicted in supine compared to 74.7% predicted in upright positions (p < 0.05). Mean AHI in SCI patients was 29.3 ± 25.0 vs. 20.0 ± 22.8 events/h using the new and conventional AASM scoring criteria, respectively (p < 0.001). SCI patients had SDB (AHI > 5 events/h) in 77% of the cases using the new AASM scoring criteria compared to 65% using standard conventional criteria (p < 0.05). In cervical SCI, VI decreased from 7.2 ± 1.6 to 5.5 ± 1.3 L/min, whereas PETCO2 and VI-CV, increased during sleep compared to thoracic SCI. Conclusion: The majority of SCI survivors have symptomatic SDB and poor sleep that may be missed if not carefully assessed. Decreased VI and increased PETCO2 during sleep in patients with cervical SCI relative to thoracic SCI suggests that sleep related hypoventilation may contribute to the pathogenesis SDB in patients with chronic cervical SCI. Citation: Sankari A; Bascom A; Oomman S; Badr MS. Sleep disordered breathing in chronic spinal cord injury. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):65-72. PMID:24426822

Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy; Oomman, Sowmini; Badr, M. Safwan

2014-01-01

141

Spinal cord stimulator placement in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis: a novel approach with dual benefits.  

PubMed

Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment modality used to treat various chronic pain conditions, including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We present a case in which spinal cord stimulation was used for the treatment of lower extremity CRPS in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Preoperative imaging demonstrated fusion of the lumbothoracic spine with obliteration of the interlaminar spaces. The sacral hiatus remained open and was used to access the epidural space, facilitating the placement of 2 thoracic epidural electrodes. The resulting stimulation controlled not only the patient's lower extremity CRPS pain but also alleviated his chronic axial pain secondary to ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:25611990

Okpareke, Ikenna; Young, Adam C; Amin, Sandeep

2014-05-15

142

Role of chronic catheterization in the development of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic indwelling catheters are known to be at increased risk of bladder malignancy. “Decatheterization” by clean intermittent catheterization, external condom catheterization, or spontaneous voiding is thought to reduce the risk by decreasing the chronic mucosal irritation and rate of infection. We examined two Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) data bases to test

Douglas A West; James M Cummings; Walter E Longo; Katherine S Virgo; Frank E Johnson; Raul O Parra

1999-01-01

143

Tail muscle parvalbumin content is decreased in chronic sacral spinal cord injured rats with spasticity.  

PubMed

In rats, chronic sacral spinal isolation eliminates both descending and afferent inputs to motoneurons supplying the segmental tail muscles, eliminating daily tail muscle EMG activity. In contrast, chronic sacral spinal cord transection preserves afferent inputs, causing tail muscle spasticity that generates quantitatively normal daily EMG. Compared with normal rats, rats with spinal isolation and transection/spasticity provide a chronic model of progressive neuromuscular injury. Using normal, spinal isolated and spastic rats, we characterized the activity dependence of calcium-handling protein expression for parvalbumin, fast sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) and slow SERCA2. As these proteins may influence fatigue resistance, we also assayed the activities of oxidative (citrate synthase; CS) and glycolytic enzymes (glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase; GAPDH). We hypothesized that, compared with normal rats, chronic isolation would cause decreased parvalbumin, SERCA1 and SERCA2 expression and CS and GAPDH activities. We further hypothesized that chronic spasticity would promote recovery of parvalbumin, SERCA1 and SERCA2 expression and of CS and GAPDH activities. Parvalbumin, SERCA1 and SERCA2 were quantified with Western blotting. Citrate synthase and GAPDH activities were quantified photometrically. Compared with normal rats, spinal isolation caused large decreases in parvalbumin (95%), SERCA1 (70%) and SERCA2 (68%). Compared with spinal isolation, spasticity promoted parvalbumin recovery (ninefold increase) and a SERCA2-to-SERCA1 transformation (84% increase in the ratio of SERCA1 to SERCA2). Compared with normal values, CS and GAPDH activities decreased in isolated and spastic muscles. In conclusion, with complete paralysis due to spinal isolation, parvalbumin expression is nearly eliminated, but with muscle spasticity after spinal cord transection, parvalbumin expression partly recovers. Additionally, spasticity after transection causes a slow-to-fast SERCA isoform transformation that may be compensatory for decreased parvalbumin content. PMID:21930674

Harris, R Luke; Bennett, David J; Levine, Max A; Putman, Charles T

2011-12-01

144

CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of spinal osteoid osteomas with concomitant perineural and epidural irrigation for neuroprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report our experience of a neuroprotective adaptation of the technique of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation of\\u000a spinal osteoid osteomas. Over 9 years seven patients underwent eight CT-guided RF treatments for osteoid osteoma. CT-guided\\u000a RF ablation was performed with general anaesthesia. The lesion was heated to 90°C for 2 min for two cycles by using a Cosman\\u000a SMK TC-10 RF electrode.

Darren Klass; Tom Marshall; Andoni Toms

2009-01-01

145

A meta-analysis of surgery versus conventional radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic spinal epidural disease  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy has been the primary therapy for managing metastatic spinal disease; however, surgery that decompresses the spinal cord circumferentially, followed by reconstruction and immediate stabilization, has also proven effective. We provide a quantitative comparison between the “new” surgery and radiotherapy, based on articles that report on ambulatory status before and after treatment, age, sex, primary neoplasm pathology, and spinal disease distribution. Ambulation was categorized as “success” or “rescue” (proportion of patients ambulatory after treatment and proportion regaining ambulatory function, respectively). Secondary outcomes were also analyzed. We calculated cumulative success and rescue rates for our ambulatory measurements and quantified heterogeneity using a mixed-effects model. We investigated the source of the heterogeneity in both a univariate and multivariate manner with a meta-regression model. Our analysis included data from 24 surgical articles (999 patients) and 4 radiation articles (543 patients), mostly uncontrolled cohort studies (Class III). Surgical patients were 1.3 times more likely to be ambulatory after treatment and twice as likely to regain ambulatory function. Overall ambulatory success rates for surgery and radiation were 85% and 64%, respectively. Primary pathology was the principal factor determining survival. We present the first known formal meta-analysis using data from nonrandomized clinical studies. Although we attempted to control for imbalances between the surgical and radiation groups, significant heterogeneity undoubtedly still exists. Nonetheless, we believe the differences in the outcomes indicate a true difference resulting from treatment. We conclude that surgery should usually be the primary treatment with radiation given as adjuvant therapy. Neurologic status, overall health, extent of disease (spinal and extraspinal), and primary pathology all impact proper treatment selection. PMID:15701283

Klimo, Paul; Thompson, Clinton J.; Kestle, John R.W.; Schmidt, Meic H.

2005-01-01

146

Fictive motor activities in adult chronic spinal rats transplanted with embryonic brainstem neurons.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the effects of an intraspinal transplantation of embryonic brainstem neurons on fictive motor patterns which can develop in hindlimb nerves of adult chronic spinal rats. Seventeen adult rats were spinalized at T8-9 level and, 8 days later, a suspension of embryonic cells obtained either from the raphe region (RR, n = 8) or from the locus coeruleus (LC, n = 9) was injected caudally (T12-13) to the cord transection. Eight control animals (control rats) were spinalized and injected with vehicle under the same conditions. One to three months later, the animals were decorticated and fictive motor patterns were recorded in representative hindlimb nerves. The data revealed that both control and grafted spinal rats could exhibit two distinctly different fictive motor patterns, one which could be associated with stepping and the other with hindlimb paw shaking. They further showed that following transplantation of embryonic RR or LC neurons the excitability of the spinal stepping generator was increased, whereas that of the spinal neural circuits which generate hindlimb paw shaking was not significantly affected. A histological analysis performed on the spinal cord segments below the transection revealed complete absence of serotonin and noradrenaline immunoreactivity in control spinal animals and, in both types of grafted rats, an extensive monoaminergic reinnervation with synaptic contacts between monoaminergic transplanted neurons and host interneurons and/or motoneurons. The possible mechanisms by which grafted monoaminergic neurons can influence the spinal motor networks are discussed. PMID:8542978

Yakovleff, A; Cabelguen, J M; Orsal, D; Gimenez y Ribotta, M; Rajaofetra, N; Drian, M J; Bussel, B; Privat, A

1995-01-01

147

Motoneuron intrinsic properties, but not their receptive fields, recover in chronic spinal injury.  

PubMed

Proper movement execution relies on precise input processing by spinal motoneurons (MNs). Spinal MNs are activated by limb joint rotations. Typically, their movement-related receptive fields (MRRFs) are sharply focused and joint-specific. After acute spinal transection MRRFs become wide, but their manifestation is not apparent, as intrinsic excitability, primarily resulting from the loss of persistent inward currents (PICs), dramatically decreases. PICs undergo a remarkable recovery with time after injury. Here we investigate whether MRRFs undergo a recovery that parallels that of the PIC. Using the chronic spinal cat in acute terminal decerebrate preparations, we found that MRRFs remain expanded 1 month after spinal transaction, whereas PICs recovered to >80% of their preinjury amplitudes. These recovered PICs substantially amplified the expanded inputs underlying the MRRFs. As a result, we show that single joint rotations lead to the activation of muscles across the entire limb. These results provide a potential mechanism for the propagation of spasms throughout the limb. PMID:24285887

Johnson, Michael D; Kajtaz, Elma; Cain, Charlette M; Heckman, C J

2013-11-27

148

Motoneuron Intrinsic Properties, but Not Their Receptive Fields, Recover in Chronic Spinal Injury  

PubMed Central

Proper movement execution relies on precise input processing by spinal motoneurons (MNs). Spinal MNs are activated by limb joint rotations. Typically, their movement-related receptive fields (MRRFs) are sharply focused and joint-specific. After acute spinal transection MRRFs become wide, but their manifestation is not apparent, as intrinsic excitability, primarily resulting from the loss of persistent inward currents (PICs), dramatically decreases. PICs undergo a remarkable recovery with time after injury. Here we investigate whether MRRFs undergo a recovery that parallels that of the PIC. Using the chronic spinal cat in acute terminal decerebrate preparations, we found that MRRFs remain expanded 1 month after spinal transaction, whereas PICs recovered to >80% of their preinjury amplitudes. These recovered PICs substantially amplified the expanded inputs underlying the MRRFs. As a result, we show that single joint rotations lead to the activation of muscles across the entire limb. These results provide a potential mechanism for the propagation of spasms throughout the limb. PMID:24285887

Kajtaz, Elma; Cain, Charlette M.; Heckman, C.J.

2013-01-01

149

Spastic long-lasting reflexes of the chronic spinal rat studied in vitro.  

PubMed

Over the months following sacral spinal cord transection in adult rats, a pronounced spasticity syndrome emerges in the affected tail musculature, where long-lasting muscle spasms can be evoked by low-threshold afferent stimulation (termed long-lasting reflex). To develop an in vitro preparation to examine the neuronal mechanisms underlying spasticity, we removed the whole sacrocaudal spinal cord of these spastic chronic spinal rats (>1 mo after S(2) sacral spinal transection) and maintained it in artificial cerebral spinal fluid in a recording chamber. The ventral roots were mounted on monopolar recording electrodes in grease, and the reflex responses to dorsal root stimulation were recorded and compared with the reflexes seen in the awake chronic spinal rat. When the dorsal roots were stimulated with a single pulse, a long-lasting reflex occurred in the ventral roots, with identical characteristics to the long-lasting reflex in the awake spastic rat tail. The reflex response was low threshold (T), short latency, long duration ( approximately 2 s), and enhanced by repeated stimulation. Brief high-frequency stimulation trains (0.5 s, 100 Hz, 1.5 x T) evoked even longer duration responses (5-10 s), with repeated bursts of activity that were similar to the repeated muscle spasms evoked in awake rats with stimulation trains or manual skin stimulation. Stimulation of a given dorsal root evoked long-lasting reflexes in both the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral roots. Long-lasting reflexes did not occur in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of acute spinal rats (S(2) transection), which is similar to the areflexia seen in awake acute spinal rats. However, long-lasting reflexes could be made to occur in the acute spinal rat by altering K(+) (7 mM) or Mg(2+) (0 mM) concentrations, or by application of high doses of the neuromodulators norepinephrine (NE, >20 microM) or serotonin (5-HT, >20 microM). In chronic spinal rats, much lower doses of these neuromodulators (0.1 microM) enhanced the long-lasting reflexes, suggesting a denervation supersensitivity to 5-HT and NE following injury. Higher doses of NE or 5-HT produced a paradoxical inhibition of the long-lasting reflexes. The high dose inhibition by NE was mimicked by the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine but not the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist methoxamine. In summary, the sacral spinal in vitro preparation offers a new approach to the study of spinal cord injury and analysis of antispastic drugs. PMID:15069101

Li, Y; Harvey, P J; Li, X; Bennett, D J

2004-05-01

150

Role of endogenous release of norepinephrine in muscle spasms after chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The recovery of persistent inward currents (PICs) and motoneuron excitability after chronic spinal cord transection is mediated, in part, by the development of supersensitivity to residual serotonin (5HT) below the lesion. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if, like 5HT, endogenous sources of norepinephrine (NE) facilitate motoneuron PICs after chronic spinal transection. Cutaneous-evoked reflex responses in tail muscles of awake chronic spinal rats were measured after increasing presynaptic release of NE by administration of amphetamine. An increase in long-lasting reflexes, known to be mediated by the calcium component of the PIC (CaPIC), was observed even at low doses (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) of amphetamine. These findings were repeated in a reduced S2 in vitro preparation, demonstrating that the increased long-lasting reflexes by amphetamine were neural. Under intracellular voltage clamp, amphetamine application led to a large facilitation of the motoneuron CaPIC. This indicates that the increases in long-lasting reflexes induced by amphetamine in the awake animal were, in part, due to actions directly on the motoneuron. Reflex responses in acutely spinal animals were facilitated by amphetamine similar to chronic animals but only at doses that were ten times greater than that required in chronic animals (0.2 mg/kg chronic vs. 2.0 mg/kg acute), pointing to a development of supersensitivity to endogenous NE in chronic animals. In summary, the increases in long-lasting reflexes and associated motoneuron CaPICs by amphetamine are likely due to an increased release of endogenous NE, which motoneurons become supersensitive to in the chronic stages of spinal cord injury. PMID:17360828

Rank, Michelle M; Li, Xiaole; Bennett, David J; Gorassini, Monica A

2007-05-01

151

[Characteristics and distribution of normal human epidural fat].  

PubMed

Epidural fat provides sufficient cushion for the pulsatile movements of the dural sac, protects nerve structures, facilitates the movement of the dural sac over the periosteum of the spinal column during flexion and extension, and forms a pharmacologic reservoir of lipophilic substances. We review epidural fat and related structures, including their development during the fetal period when the epidural space is filled by undifferentiated loose, areolar mesenchymal tissue that surrounds the dural sac. In the adult, epidural fat has a continuous distribution and follows a certain metameric pattern. It is located mainly on the dorsal side of the epidural space, where it is organized in triangular capsules joined to the midline of the ligamentum flavum by a vascular pedicle. We consider the distribution of epidural fat in the axial and sagittal planes; its presence in the anterior, lateral and posterior epidural space; its presence in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal column; and its characteristics and variations according to differing body habits and sex. Finally, we speculate on the possible anesthetic implications of epidural fat in terms of the pharmacokinetics of drugs injected into the epidural space and the tasks of locating the epidural space and inserting an epidural catheter during anesthetic procedures. PMID:16910144

Reina, M A; Pulido, P; Castedo, J; Villanueva, M C; López, A; Sola, R G

2006-01-01

152

Cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing a C2-T9 spinal epidural hematoma- Treatment resulted in a rapid and complete recovery from tetraplegia: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Full recovery from tetraplegia is uncommon in cervical spine injury. This has not being reported for cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing spinal epidural hematoma. We report on a case of cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis who came with tetraplegia. He underwent a two stage fixation and fusion. He had a complete recovery. Two hours after the operation he regained full strength in all the limbs while in the Intensive Care Unit. He went back to full employment. There are only two other reports in the literature where patients with ankylosing spondylitis and extradural hematoma who underwent treatment within 12 h and recovered completely from tetraparesis and paraplegia respectively. Patient with ankylosing spondylitis has a higher incidence of spinal fracture and extradural hematoma. Good outcome can be achieved by early diagnosis and treatment. This can ensure not only a stable spine, but also a rapid and complete recovery in a tetraplegic patient.

Wong, Albert Sii Hieng; Yu, Denis Hee youg

2015-01-01

153

Sponge-mediated lentivirus delivery to acute and chronic spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

The environment within the spinal cord after injury, which changes in the progression from the acute to chronic stages, limits the extent of regeneration. The delivery of inductive factors to promote regeneration following spinal cord injury has been promising, yet, few strategies are versatile to allow delivery during acute or chronic injury that would facilitate screening of candidate therapies. This report investigates the intrathecal delivery of lentiviruses for long-term expression of regenerative factors. Lentivirus-filled sponges were inserted into the intrathecal space surrounding the spinal cord, with transgene expression observed within multiple cell types that persists for 12weeks for both intact and injured spinal cord, without any apparent damage to the spinal cord tissue. Sponges loaded with lentivirus encoding for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) were investigated for acute (delivered at 0weeks) and chronic (at 4weeks) injuries, and for multiple locations relative to the injury. In an acute model, sponges placed directly above the injury increased oligodendrocyte and decreased astrocyte presence. Sponges placed caudal to the injury had reduced impact on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the injury. In a chronic model, sponges increased oligodendrocyte and decreased astrocyte presence. Furthermore, the effect of Shh was shown to be mediated in part by reduction of Bmp signaling, monitored with an Msx2-sensitive reporter vector. The implantation of lentivirus-loaded biomaterials intrathecally provides the opportunity to induce the expression of a factor at a specified time without entering the spinal cord, and has the potential to promote gene delivery within the spinal cord, which can influence the extent of regeneration. PMID:25724274

Thomas, Aline M; Palma, Jaime L; Shea, Lonnie D

2015-04-28

154

Chronic pain\\/dysaesthesiae in spinal cord injury patients: results of a multicentre study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the multicentre study* entitled `Description and Documentation of Painful States in Spinal Cord Injury Patients', in addition to the description and documentation of chronic pain and stressful dysaesthesiae in SCI patients, was the search for correlations between these symptoms and medical and psychosocial variables. To this end, the sample was selected to be as representative as possible.

S Störmer; H J Gerner; W Grüninger; K Metzmacher; S Föllinger; Ch Wienke; W Aldinger; N Walker; M Zimmermann; V Paeslack

1997-01-01

155

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a child: clinical-spinal MR imaging correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of a 3-year-old girl with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) showed thickened and marked enhancement of the lumbosacral nerve roots. These abnormalities resolved after steroid treatment. MR imaging of the cauda equina may be helpful in the diagnosis of CIDP.

S Likasitwattanakul; P Visrutaratna

156

Pain and depression in acute traumatic spinal cord injury: Origins of chronic problematic pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationship between pain and depression over time during acute phases of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Theoretical models of the pain-depression relationship provided a framework: (1) pain causes depression; (2) depression causes pain; (3) pain and depression are independent sequelae to SCI. Understanding the pain-depression relationship provides treatment implications and bypotheses for origins of chronic pain

Douglas M. Cairns; Rodney H. Adkins; Michael D. Scott

1996-01-01

157

Novel Neuroinflammatory Targets in the Chronically Injured Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Injury to the spinal cord is known to result in inflammation. To date, the preponderance of research has focused on the acute\\u000a neuroinflammatory response, which begins immediately and is believed to terminate within hours to (at most) days after the\\u000a injury. However, recent studies have demonstrated that postinjury inflammation is not restricted to the first few hours or\\u000a days after

Ahdeah Pajoohesh-Ganji; Kimberly R. Byrnes

2011-01-01

158

Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.  

PubMed

Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

2014-07-01

159

Continuous epidural infusion in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous epidural infusions in children have become increasingly popular for acute postoperative pain management and for chronic pain syndromes. Technical difficulties have been overcome with the development of equipment suitable for children and even small infants and neonates. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of local anesthetic agents in children of different ages. The use of continuous

Adrian T Bösenberg

2002-01-01

160

Epidural capillary hemangioma: A review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hemangiomas in the spinal epidural area are very rare lesions, and most of these lesions are of the cavernous type. Only seven cases of capillary hemangiomas have been reported in the English literature, and all of these cases occurred in adulthood. Here, we report on a 17-month-old girl who presented with an inability to walk. MRI revealed an epidural mass, which was diagnosed as an epidural capillary hemangioma in the thoracic region. To our best knowledge, this case is the first epidural capillary hemangioma case to occur in childhood that has been reported. PMID:25233492

Gencpinar, Pinar; Aç?kba?, Sabri Cem; Nur, Banu Güzel; Karaali, Kamil; Arslan, Murat; Gurer, Elif Inanc; Duman, Ozgur; Haspolat, Senay

2014-11-01

161

Therapeutic activities of engrafted neural stem/precursor cells are not dormant in the chronically injured spinal cord.  

PubMed

The transplantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for many neurodegenerative disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI) because it provides for neural replacement or trophic support. This strategy is now being extended to the treatment of chronic SCI patients. However, understanding of biological properties of chronically transplanted NSPCs and their surrounding environments is limited. Here, we performed temporal analysis of injured spinal cords and demonstrated their multiphasic cellular and molecular responses. In particular, chronically injured spinal cords were growth factor-enriched environments, whereas acutely injured spinal cords were enriched by neurotrophic and inflammatory factors. To determine how these environmental differences affect engrafted cells, NSPCs transplanted into acutely, subacutely, and chronically injured spinal cords were selectively isolated by flow cytometry, and their whole transcriptomes were compared by RNA sequencing. This analysis revealed that NSPCs produced many regenerative/neurotrophic molecules irrespective of transplantation timing, and these activities were prominent in chronically transplanted NSPCs. Furthermore, chronically injured spinal cords permitted engrafted NSPCs to differentiate into neurons/oligodendrocytes and provided more neurogenic environment for NSPCs than other environments. Despite these results demonstrate that transplanted NSPCs have adequate capacity in generating neurons/oligodendrocytes and producing therapeutic molecules in chronic SCI microenvironments, they did not improve locomotor function. Our results indicate that failure in chronic transplantation is not due to the lack of therapeutic activities of engrafted NSPCs but the refractory state of chronically injured spinal cords. Environmental modulation, rather modification of transplanting cells, will be significant for successful translation of stem cell-based therapies into chronic SCI patients. PMID:23606608

Kumamaru, Hiromi; Saiwai, Hirokazu; Kubota, Kensuke; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Yokota, Kazuya; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Shiba, Keiichiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji

2013-08-01

162

Teaching oncology nurses about epidural catheters.  

PubMed

Medication administered through epidural catheters for control of acute and chronic pain is becoming a common practice in some hospitals. The care of epidural catheters usually is not included in basic nursing education curriculum. In settings where RNs will administer medication by this route or monitor patients receiving epidural medication, adequate preparation of the RN staff is vital to ensure that the catheter remains intact, that therapy is administered without complications, and that the patient has optimal pain relief. Instruction should include information on the catheter's purpose, administration techniques, pharmacology of the drug, side effects, and monitoring techniques. For program planning, a multidisciplinary group set criteria on which the policy and procedure for administration of epidural analgesia were based. The educational program focused on administering morphine sulfate through an epidural catheter and on safe discontinuation of the catheter. PMID:2251185

Camp-Sorrell, D; Fernandez, K; Reardon, M B

1990-01-01

163

Analgesic action of suspended moxibustion in rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia correlates with enkephalins in the spinal cord?  

PubMed Central

Rats that modeled chronic visceral hyperalgesia received suspended moxibustion at bilateral Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) once daily over a period of 7 days. Results show that suspended moxibustion significantly depressed abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and increased enkephalin concentration in the spinal cord. The experimental findings suggest that spinal enkephalins contributed to the analgesic effect of suspended moxibustion in rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia.

Yi, Tao; Qi, Li; Wu, Huangan; Ma, Xiaopeng; Liu, Huirong; Wang, Xiaomei

2012-01-01

164

Arm crank ergometry in chronic spinal cord injured patients.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular response to arm crank ergometry, using a specially adapted Monark bicycle ergometer, was examined in 98 men with long-standing spinal cord injuries (SCI), who were classified into groups by neurologic level of SCI. Exercise response was significantly correlated with lesion levels: the higher the lesion, the lower the levels of physical work capacity and mean exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Also, physical symptoms and abnormal systolic blood pressure exercise response were more frequent. Exercise response of patients with lower thoracic and lumbar SCI did not differ from the control group. The undisputed value of ergometry in the routine evaluation and exercise prescription for health maintenance in SCI and other wheelchair-disabled patients was substantiated by the study findings. PMID:2334281

Drory, Y; Ohry, A; Brooks, M E; Dolphin, D; Kellermann, J J

1990-05-01

165

Pressure ulcer risk factors in persons with spinal cord injury Part 2: the chronic stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common complication following spinal cord injury (SCI). Prevalence for persons in the chronic SCI stage varies between 15 and 30%. The risk assessment scales used nowadays were designed on pathophysiological concepts and are not SCI-specific. Recently, an epidemiological approach to PU risk factors has been proposed for designing an SCI-specific assessment tool. The first results

A Gélis; A Dupeyron; P Legros; C Benaïm; J Pelissier; C Fattal

2009-01-01

166

Transplantation of nanostructured composite scaffolds results in the regeneration of chronically injured spinal cords.  

PubMed

The destruction and hollowing of entire tissue segments represent an insurmountable barrier to axonal regeneration and therapeutics in chronic spinal cord injury. To circumvent this problem, we engineered neural prosthetics, by assembling electrospun nanofibers and self-assembling peptides into composite guidance channels and transplanted them into the cysts of a postcontusive, chronic spinal cord injury rat model, also providing delivery of proregenerative cytokines. Six months later conspicuous cord reconstruction was observed. The cyst was replaced by newly formed tissue comprising neural and stromal cells. Nerve fibers were interspersed between and inside the guidance channels, spanning the lesion, amidst a well-developed vascular network, basal lamina, and myelin. This was accompanied by a significant improvement in the activity of ascending and descending motor pathways and the global locomotion score. Thus by engineering nanostructured matrices into neuroprosthetics, it is possible to recreate an anatomical, structural, and histological framework, which leads to the replacement of large, hollow tissue gaps in the chronically injured spinal cord, fostering axonal regeneration and neurological recovery. PMID:21189038

Gelain, Fabrizio; Panseri, Silvia; Antonini, Stefania; Cunha, Carla; Donega, Matteo; Lowery, Joseph; Taraballi, Francesca; Cerri, Gabriella; Montagna, Marcella; Baldissera, Fausto; Vescovi, Angelo

2011-01-25

167

Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor mimicking as chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

We report a young boy who presented with progressive weakness of lower extremities associated with areflexia and abnormal electrophysiological findings initially suggestive of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Initial lumbosacral spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickened descending spinal nerve roots only. Immunomodulating therapy was given but with limited clinical response. Repeated spine magnetic resonance imaging showed cauda equina and also new spinal cord extramedullary contrast enhancement. The initial extensive investigations including open biopsy did not point to any specific diagnosis. Only through pursuing a repeated biopsy, the diagnosis of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor that could have an initial chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation. The literature review confirms that this is a rare condition and cauda equina origin has only been reported in adults and teenagers, and this is the first reported case in a young child. PMID:24659733

Chan, Sophelia H S; Tsang, Dickson S F; Wong, Virginia C N; Chan, Godfrey C F

2015-02-01

168

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors contribute to apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord of spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy) sustaining chronic mechanical compression.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN.: To examine the distribution of apoptotic cells and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and its receptors in the spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy) with chronic cord compression using immunohistochemical methods. OBJECTIVE.: To study the mechanisms of apoptosis, particularly in oligodendrocytes, which could contribute to degenerative change and demyelination in chronic mechanical cord compression. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: TNF-alpha acts as an external signal initiating apoptosis in neurons and oligodendrocytes after spinal cord injury. Chronic spinal cord compression caused neuronal loss, myelin destruction, and axonal degeneration. However, the biologic mechanisms of apoptosis in chronically compressed spinal cord remain unclear. METHODS.: The cervical spinal cord of 34 twy mice aged 20 to 24 weeks and 11 control animals were examined. The apoptotic cells were detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The expression and the localization of TNF-alpha, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), and TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) were examined using immunoblot and immnohistochemical analysis. RESULTS.: The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the white matter increased with the severity of compression, which was further increased bilaterally in the white matter of twy/twy mice. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that the number of cells positive for TUNEL and RIP, a marker of oligodendrocytes, increased in the white matter with increased severity of cord compression. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated overexpression of TNF-alpha, TNFR1, and TNFR2 in severe compression. The expression of TNF-alpha appeared in local cells including microglia while that of TNFR1 and TNFR2 was noted in apoptotic oligodendrocytes. CONCLUSION.: Our results suggested that the proportion of apoptotic oligodendrocytes, causing spongy axonal degeneration and demyelination, correlated with the magnitude of cord compression and that overexpression of TNF-alpha, TNFR1, and TNFR2 seems to participate in apoptosis of such cells in the chronically compressed spinal cord. PMID:19949368

Inukai, Tomoo; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Yayama, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Mwaka, Erisa S; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Baba, Hisatoshi

2009-12-15

169

Cutaneous magnetic stimulation reduces rat chronic pain via activation of the supra-spinal descending pathway.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic stimulation (MS) can induce cellular responses such as Ca(2+) influx into the cultured neurons and glia, leading to increased intracellular phosphorylation. We have demonstrated previously that MS reduces rat neuropathic pain associated with the prevention of neuronal degeneration. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the actions of MS in relation to modulation of spinal neuron-glia and the descending inhibitory system in chronic pain. The male SD rats intrathecally implanted with catheters were subjected to sciatic nerve ligation (CCI). MS is a low power apparatus characterized by two different frequencies, 2 KHz and 83 MHz. Rats were given MS to the skin (injured sciatic nerve) for 10 min from the seventh day after CCI. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) evoked by thermal stimuli was measured for 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry for Iba-1 or GFAP was performed after 4% paraformaldehyde fixation (microscopic analysis). We employed microdialysis for measuring CSF 5-HIAA as a reflection of 5-HT release by MS stimulation. Following CCI, rats showed a decrease in PWL after CCI, and the decrease continued until the 14th day. With MS treatment, the decrease in PWL was reduced during the 10-14 day after CCI. Injection of JNK-1 inhibitors on the 14th day antagonized the analgesic effect of MS. MS also eliminated the CCI-induced decrease in GFAP immunoreactivity. Moreover, MS evoked spinal 5-HT release reflected by increase in spinal 5-HIAA level. Thus, we demonstrate that a novel magnetic stimulator used cutaneously can ameliorate chronic pain by not only preventing abnormal spinal neuron-glia interaction, but also through the activation of the supra-spinal descending inhibitory system. PMID:21968643

Shiiba, Shun-ji; Yamamoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Hironori; Nishi, Mitsuharu; Ishikawa, Kozo; Yasuda, Seiko; Tokuda, Nobuko; Nakanishi, Osamu; Ishikawa, Toshizo

2012-03-01

170

Chronic Spinal Compression Model in Minipigs: A Systematic Behavioral, Qualitative, and Quantitative Neuropathological Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4–9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12 spinal segment was compressed in a dorso-ventral direction using a 5-mm-diameter circular bar with a progressively increasing peak force (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5?kg) at a velocity of 3?cm/sec. During recovery, motor and sensory function were periodically monitored. After survival, the animals were perfusion fixed and the extent of local SCI was analyzed by (1) post-mortem MRI analysis of dissected spinal cords, (2) qualitative and quantitative analysis of axonal survival at the epicenter of injury, and (3) defining the presence of local inflammatory changes, astrocytosis, and schwannosis. Following 2.5-kg spinal cord compression the animals demonstrated a near complete loss of motor and sensory function with no recovery over the next 4–9 months. Those that underwent spinal cord compression with 2?kg force developed an incomplete injury with progressive partial neurological recovery characterized by a restricted ability to stand and walk. Animals injured with a spinal compression force of 1.5?kg showed near normal ambulation 10 days after injury. In fully paralyzed animals (2.5?kg), MRI analysis demonstrated a loss of spinal white matter integrity and extensive septal cavitations. A significant correlation between the magnitude of loss of small and medium-sized myelinated axons in the ventral funiculus and neurological deficits was identified. These data, demonstrating stable neurological deficits in severely injured animals, similarities of spinal pathology to humans, and relatively good post-injury tolerance of this strain of minipigs to spinal trauma, suggest that this model can successfully be used to study therapeutic interventions targeting both acute and chronic stages of SCI. PMID:22029501

Navarro, Roman; Juhas, Stefan; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Johe, Karl; Marsala, Silvia; Scadeng, Miriam; Lazar, Peter; Tomori, Zoltan; Schulteis, Gery; Beattie, Michael; Ciacci, Joseph D.

2012-01-01

171

Combination Drug Therapy for Pain following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

A number of mechanisms have been elucidated that maintain neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury (SCI). While target-based therapeutics are being developed based on elucidation of these mechanisms, treatment for neuropathic SCI pain has not been entirely satisfactory due in part to the significant convergence of neurological and inflammatory processes that maintain the neuropathic pain state. Thus, a combination drug treatment strategy, wherein several pain-related mechanism are simultaneously engaged, could be more efficacious than treatment against individual mechanisms alone. Also, by engaging several targets at once, it may be possible to reduce the doses of the individual drugs, thereby minimizing the potential for adverse side effects. Positive preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated improved efficacy of combination drug treatment over single drug treatment in neuropathic pain of peripheral origin, and perhaps such combinations could be utilized for neuropathic SCI pain. At the same time, there are mechanisms that distinguish SCI from peripheral neuropathic pain, so novel combination therapies will be needed. PMID:22550581

Hama, Aldric; Sagen, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

172

Immune activation is required for NT-3-induced axonal plasticity in chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

After an unilateral lesion of the corticospinal tract (CST) at the level of the medulla over-expression of Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in lumbar spinal cord motoneurons induced axonal sprouting of the intact CST in the acutely injured but not uninjured or chronically injured spinal cord in rats. This suggested that processes associated with immune-mediated wound healing may act with NT-3 to induce neuroplasticity. To test whether immune processes were involved we measured NT-3 induced axonal sprouting in immunosuppressed compared to immunocompetent rats. Rats were immunosuppressed with anti-leukocyte antibodies 1 day before receiving a CST lesion and then 2 weeks later NT-3 was over-expressed in the lumbar spinal motoneurons with an adenoviral vector carrying the NT-3 gene targeted to the motoneurons by retrograde transport. At 35 days post-lesion no axonal sprouting was measured in immunosuppressed rats whereas axonal sprouting was measured in the immunocompetent rats. We then tested whether re-evoking an immune response in chronically lesioned rats would induce neuroplasticity. Rats received CST lesions and then 4 months later were treated with systemic injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days before NT-3 was over-expressed in the lumbar spinal motoneurons. Axonal sprouting was observed in the LPS treated rats but not in control animals that were not treated with LPS. Further studies showed that lesioning the CST activated and LPS re-activated microglia and CD4+ T-cells in the acutely lesioned and chronically lesioned rats, respectively. However, immunosuppression only decreased the number of activated CD4+ T-cells suggesting they were responsible for the support of axonal growth. These observations demonstrate that processes associated with immune-mediated wound healing play a role in NT-3 induced neuroplasticity after injury. PMID:18191837

Chen, Qin; Smith, George M.; Shine, H. David

2009-01-01

173

Epidural Anesthesia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of epidural anesthesia for pelvic and leg operations. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

174

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Intractable Visceral Pain due to Chronic Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Pain caused by chronic pancreatitis is medically intractable and resistant to conventional interventional or surgical treatment. We report a case of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for intractable pain due to chronic pancreatitis. The patient had a history of nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis and multiple emergency room visits as well as repeated hospitalization including multiple nerve block and morphine injection for 3 years. We implanted surgical lead at T6-8 level on this patient after successful trial of percutaneous electrode. The patient experienced a decreased visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain intensity and amount of opioid intake. The patient was followed for more than 14 months with good outcome and no further hospitalization. From our clinical case, spinal cord stimulation on intractable pain due to chronic pancreatitis revealed moderate pain control outcome. We suggest that SCS is an effective, noninvasive treatment option for abdominal visceral pain. Further studies and long term follow-up are needed to fully understand the effect of SCS on abdominal visceral pain. PMID:19763221

Kim, Jin Kyung; Hong, Seok Ho; Kim, Myung-Hwan

2009-01-01

175

Thoracic Extraosseous Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Cavernous hemangiomas were first reported in 1929 by Globus and Doshay, and are defined as benign vascular structures developed between the neural tissues occurring in the central nervous system, consisting of a dilated vascular bed. Cavernous hemangiomas comprise nearly 5-12% of all spinal vascular malformations; however, existence in the epidural space without bone involvement is rare. Only 4% of all cavernous hemangiomas (0.22/1.000.000) are purely epidural cavernous hemangiomas. In this case report, we removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass presenting with progressive neurological deficits in a 55-year-old male patient. We found this case to be appropriate for presentation due to the rare occurrence of this type of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:25674348

Asil, Kiyasettin; Ceylan, Davut; Erdem, Sahin

2015-01-01

176

Thoracic extraosseous epidural cavernous hemangioma.  

PubMed

Cavernous hemangiomas were first reported in 1929 by Globus and Doshay, and are defined as benign vascular structures developed between the neural tissues occurring in the central nervous system, consisting of a dilated vascular bed. Cavernous hemangiomas comprise nearly 5-12% of all spinal vascular malformations; however, existence in the epidural space without bone involvement is rare. Only 4% of all cavernous hemangiomas (0.22/1.000.000) are purely epidural cavernous hemangiomas. In this case report, we removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass presenting with progressive neurological deficits in a 55-year-old male patient. We found this case to be appropriate for presentation due to the rare occurrence of this type of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:25674348

Yaldiz, Can; Asil, Kiyasettin; Ceylan, Davut; Erdem, Sahin

2015-01-01

177

Hypoxia triggers short term potentiation of phrenic motoneuron discharge after chronic cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Repeated exposure to hypoxia can induce spinal neuroplasticity as well as respiratory and somatic motor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of the present study was twofold: to define the capacity for a single bout of hypoxia to trigger short-term plasticity in phrenic output after cervical SCI and to determine the phrenic motoneuron (PhrMN) bursting and recruitment patterns underlying the response. Hypoxia-induced short term potentiation (STP) of phrenic motor output was quantified in anesthetized rats 11 weeks following lateral spinal cord hemisection at C2 (C2Hx). A 3-min hypoxic episode (12-14% O2) always triggered STP of inspiratory burst amplitude, the magnitude of which was greater in phrenic bursting ipsilateral vs. contralateral to C2Hx. We next determined if STP could be evoked in recruited (silent) PhrMNs ipsilateral to C2Hx. Individual PhrMN action potentials were recorded during and following hypoxia using a "single fiber" approach. STP of bursting activity did not occur in cells initiating bursting at inspiratory onset, but was robust in recruited PhrMNs as well as previously active cells initiating bursting later in the inspiratory effort. We conclude that following chronic C2Hx, a single bout of hypoxia triggers recruitment of PhrMNs in the ipsilateral spinal cord with bursting that persists beyond the hypoxic exposure. The results provide further support for the use of short bouts of hypoxia as a neurorehabilitative training modality following SCI. PMID:25448009

Lee, Kun-Ze; Sandhu, Milapjit S; Dougherty, Brendan J; Reier, Paul J; Fuller, David D

2015-01-01

178

No evidence for chronic demyelination in spared axons following spinal cord injury in a mouse  

PubMed Central

The pattern of remyelination after traumatic spinal cord injury remains elusive, with animal and human studies reporting partial to complete demyelination followed by incomplete remyelination. In the present study, we found that spared rubrospinal tract (RST) axons of passage traced with actively transported dextrans and examined caudally to the lesion twelve weeks after mouse spinal cord contusion injury were fully remyelinated. Spared axons exhibited a marginally reduced myelin thickness and significantly shorter internodes. Contactin-associated protein (CASPR) and Kv1.2 channels were used to identify internodes and paranodal protein distribution properties were used as an index of myelin integrity. This is the first time the CNS myelin internode length was measured in a mouse. To better understand the significance of shortened internodes and thinner myelin in spared axons, we modeled conduction properties using McIntyre’s et al. model of myelinated axons. Mathematical modeling predicted a 21% decrease in the conduction velocity of remyelinated RST axons due to shortened internodes. To determine whether demyelination could be present on axons exhibiting a pathological transport system we utilized the retroviral reporter system. Virally delivered GFP unveiled a small population of dystrophic RST axons that persist chronically with evident demyelination or abnormal remyelination. Collectively these data show that lasting demyelination in spared axons is rare and that remyelination of axons of passage occurs in the chronically injured mouse spinal cord. PMID:18400887

Lasiene, Jurate; Shupe, Larry; Perlmutter, Steve; Horner, Philip

2008-01-01

179

Chronic Spinal Cord Electrical Stimulation Protects Against 6-hydroxydopamine Lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although L-dopa continues to be the gold standard for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), it presents long-term complications. Deep brain stimulation is effective, but only a small percentage of idiopathic PD patients are eligible. Based on results in animal models and a handful of patients, dorsal column stimulation (DCS) has been proposed as a potential therapy for PD. To date, the long-term effects of DCS in animal models have not been quantified. Here, we report that DCS applied twice a week in rats treated with bilateral 6-OHDA striatal infusions led to a significant improvement in symptoms. DCS-treated rats exhibited a higher density of dopaminergic innervation in the striatum and higher neuronal cell count in the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to a control group. These results suggest that DCS has a chronic therapeutical and neuroprotective effect, increasing its potential as a new clinical option for treating PD patients.

Yadav, Amol P.; Fuentes, Romulo; Zhang, Hao; Vinholo, Thais; Wang, Chi-Han; Freire, Marco Aurelio M.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

2014-01-01

180

Evidence for plateau potentials in tail motoneurons of awake chronic spinal rats with spasticity.  

PubMed

Motor units of segmental tail muscles were recorded in awake rats following acute (1-2 days) and chronic (>30 days) sacral spinal cord transection to determine whether plateau potentials contributed to sustained motor-unit discharges after injury. This study was motivated by a companion in vitro study that indicated that after chronic spinal cord injury, the tail motoneurons of the sacrocaudal spinal cord exhibit persistent inward currents (I(PIC)) that cause intrinsically sustained depolarizations (plateau potentials) and firing (self-sustained firing). Importantly, in this companion study, the plateaus were fully activated at recruitment and subsequently helped sustain the firing without causing abrupt nonlinearities in firing. That is, after recruitment and plateau activation, the firing rate was modulated relatively linearly with injected current and therefore provided a good approximation of the input to the motoneuron despite the plateau. Thus in the present study, pairs of motor units were recorded simultaneously from the same muscle, and the firing rate (F) of the lowest-threshold unit (control unit) was used as an estimate of the synaptic input to both units. We then examined whether firing of the higher-threshold unit (test unit) was intrinsically maintained by a plateau, by determining whether more synaptic input was required to recruit the test unit than to maintain its firing. The difference in the estimated synaptic input at recruitment and de-recruitment of the test unit (i.e., change in control unit rate, DeltaF) was taken as an estimate of the plateau current (I(PIC)) that intrinsically sustained the firing. Slowly graded manual skin stimulation was used to recruit and then de-recruit the units. The test unit was recruited when the control unit rate was on average 17.8 and 18.9 Hz in acute and chronic spinal rats, respectively. In chronic spinal rats, the test unit was de-recruited when the control unit rate (re: estimated synaptic input) was significantly reduced, compared with at recruitment (DeltaF = -5.5 Hz), and thus a plateau participated in maintaining the firing. In the lowest-threshold motor units, even a brief stimulation triggered very long-lasting firing (seconds to hours; self-sustained firing). Higher-threshold units required continuous stimulation (or a spontaneous spasm) to cause firing, but again more synaptic input was needed to recruit the unit than to maintain its firing (i.e., plateau present). In contrast, in acute spinal rats, the stimulation did not usually trigger sustained motor-unit firing that could be attributed to plateaus because DeltaF was not significantly different from zero. These results indicate that plateaus play an important role in sustaining motor-unit firing in awake chronic spinal rats and thus contribute to the hyperreflexia and hypertonus associated with chronic injury. PMID:11600654

Bennett, D J; Li, Y; Harvey, P J; Gorassini, M

2001-10-01

181

Upregulation of inflammatory mediators in a model of chronic pain after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Chronic neuropathic pain is a disabling condition observed in large number of individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent progress points to an important role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain. The focus of the present study is to investigate the role of proinflammatory molecules IL-1?, TNF-?, MCP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in chronic neuropathic pain in a rodent model of SCI. Rats were subjected to spinal cord contusion using a controlled linear motor device with an injury epicenter at T10. The SCI rats had severe impairment in locomotor function at 7 days post-injury as assessed by the BBB score. The locomotor scores showed significant improvement starting at day 14 and thereafter showed no further improvement. The Hargreaves' test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia for hindpaw, forepaw and tail. A significant reduction in withdrawal latency was observed for forepaw and tail of SCI rats at days 21 and 28, indicating the appearance of thermal hyperalgesia. Changes in expression of mRNAs for IL-1?, TNF-?, MCP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction in spinal cord including the injury epicenter along with regions above and below the level of lesion at day 28 post-injury. A significant increase was observed in the expression of MCP-1, TNF-?, TIMP-1 and IL-1? in the injury epicenter, whereas only TIMP-1 was upregulated in the area below the injury epicenter. The results of the study suggest that prolonged upregulation of inflammatory mediators might be involved in chronic neuropathic pain in SCI, and that TIMP-1 may play a role in maintenance of chronic below level pain. PMID:21287269

Sandhir, Rajat; Gregory, Eugene; He, Yong-Yue; Berman, Nancy E J

2011-05-01

182

Central glucocorticoid receptors modulate the expression of spinal cannabinoid receptors induced by chronic morphine exposure.  

PubMed

Central cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) have been implicated in the opioid analgesic effects. However, it remains unclear as to whether the expression of central CBRs would be altered after repeated morphine exposure. Here, we show that chronic intrathecal treatment with morphine (10 microg, twice daily for 6 days) induced a time-dependent upregulation of both CB-1 and CB-2 receptors within the spinal cord dorsal horn. This morphine-induced CB-1 and CB-2 upregulation was dose-dependently attenuated by the intrathecal co-administration of morphine with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU38486 (0.25, 0.5, or 2 microg). The intrathecal RU38486 treatment regimen also attenuated the development of morphine tolerance. These results indicate that the expression of spinal CBRs was altered following repeated morphine exposure and regulated by the activation of central GRs. PMID:16150424

Lim, Grewo; Wang, Shuxing; Mao, Jianren

2005-10-12

183

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with hypertrophic spinal radiculopathy mimicking neurofibromatosis.  

PubMed

This report illustrates a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) masquerading as neurofibromatosis due to multifocal enlargements of spinal nerve roots. The patient initially complained of intermittent numbness of the hands and leg weakness at age 62. Nerve conduction velocities were reported to be abnormally slow, suggesting a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy. A complaint of progressive lower back pain 4 years later prompted a lumbar CT myelogram, which demonstrated bilateral nerve root enlargements. A biopsy of an enlarged lumbar root obtained during decompressive laminectomy was interpreted as consistent with a plexiform neurofibroma. He suffered recurrent paraparesis, at times with a sensory level indicating spinal cord compression, which responded to corticosteroid therapy. An autopsy 15 years after the onset of symptoms revealed hypertrophic radiculopathy and peripheral neuropathy due to CIDP with no evidence of neurofibromatosis. This case illustrates how the hypertrophic neuropathy accompanying CIDP can be mistaken for neurofibromatosis. PMID:12536230

Pytel, P; Rezania, K; Soliven, B; Frank, J; Wollmann, R

2003-02-01

184

Lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis causing rapid onset cauda equina syndrome.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare cause of cauda equina syndrome (CES), which must be diagnosed with MRI in conjunction with a high level of clinical suspicion. Most reported cases are associated with obesity, steroid use or are secondary to endocrinopathies, frequently present subacutely or chronically, and have been managed with both surgical decompression and non-operative measures. We describe an obese 55-year-old man with rapid onset CES secondary to idiopathic lumbosacral SEL which was managed successfully with surgical decompression. Although often thought to be a trivial radiological finding, it is important not to be dismissive of patients presenting with compressive neuropathy and MRI evidence of space-occupying SEL. PMID:24472240

Wells, Adam J; McDonald, Matthew J; Sandler, Simon J I; Vrodos, Nikitas J

2014-07-01

185

Chronic tissue response to untethered microelectrode implants in the rat brain and spinal cord.  

PubMed

Objective. Microelectrodes implanted in the central nervous system (CNS) often fail in long term implants due to the immunological tissue response caused by tethering forces of the connecting wires. In addition to the tethering effect, there is a mechanical stress that occurs at the device-tissue interface simply because the microelectrode is a rigid body floating in soft tissue and it cannot reshape itself to comply with changes in the surrounding tissue. In the current study we evaluated the scar tissue formation to tetherless devices with two significantly different geometries in the rat brain and spinal cord in order to investigate the effects of device geometry. Approach. One of the implant geometries resembled the wireless, floating microstimulators that we are currently developing in our laboratory and the other was a (shank only) Michigan probe for comparison. Both electrodes were implanted into either the cervical spinal cord or the motor cortices, one on each side. Main results. The most pronounced astroglial and microglial reactions occurred within 20 ?m from the device and decreased sharply at larger distances. Both cell types displayed the morphology of non-activated cells past the 100 ?m perimeter. Even though the aspect ratios of the implants were different, the astroglial and microglial responses to both microelectrode types were very mild in the brain, stronger and yet limited in the spinal cord. Significance. These observations confirm previous reports and further suggest that tethering may be responsible for most of the tissue response in chronic implants and that the electrode size has a smaller contribution with floating electrodes. The electrode size may be playing primarily an amplifying role to the tethering forces in the brain whereas the size itself may induce chronic response in the spinal cord where the movement of surrounding tissues is more significant. PMID:25605679

Ersen, Ali; Elkabes, Stella; Freedman, David S; Sahin, Mesut

2015-02-01

186

Chronic tissue response to untethered microelectrode implants in the rat brain and spinal cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Microelectrodes implanted in the central nervous system (CNS) often fail in long term implants due to the immunological tissue response caused by tethering forces of the connecting wires. In addition to the tethering effect, there is a mechanical stress that occurs at the device–tissue interface simply because the microelectrode is a rigid body floating in soft tissue and it cannot reshape itself to comply with changes in the surrounding tissue. In the current study we evaluated the scar tissue formation to tetherless devices with two significantly different geometries in the rat brain and spinal cord in order to investigate the effects of device geometry. Approach. One of the implant geometries resembled the wireless, floating microstimulators that we are currently developing in our laboratory and the other was a (shank only) Michigan probe for comparison. Both electrodes were implanted into either the cervical spinal cord or the motor cortices, one on each side. Main results. The most pronounced astroglial and microglial reactions occurred within 20 ?m from the device and decreased sharply at larger distances. Both cell types displayed the morphology of non-activated cells past the 100 ?m perimeter. Even though the aspect ratios of the implants were different, the astroglial and microglial responses to both microelectrode types were very mild in the brain, stronger and yet limited in the spinal cord. Significance. These observations confirm previous reports and further suggest that tethering may be responsible for most of the tissue response in chronic implants and that the electrode size has a smaller contribution with floating electrodes. The electrode size may be playing primarily an amplifying role to the tethering forces in the brain whereas the size itself may induce chronic response in the spinal cord where the movement of surrounding tissues is more significant.

Ersen, Ali; Elkabes, Stella; Freedman, David S.; Sahin, Mesut

2015-02-01

187

Quality of life and the related factors in spouses of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background The quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injuries may be affected by several factors. Moreover, this issue is yet to be documented fully in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health related quality of life of spouses who act as primary caregivers of veterans with chronic spinal cord injuries in Iran. Methods The study consisted of 72 wives of 72 veterans who were categorized as spinal cord injured patients based on the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification. Health related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey. Pearson's correlation was carried out to find any correlation between demographic variables with SF-36 dimensions. To find the effect of the factors like age, employment status, duration of care giving, education, presence or absence of knee osteoarthritis, and mechanical back pain on different domains of the SF-36 health survey, Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.7 years. According to the ASIA classification 88.9% and 11.1% of the veterans were paraplegic and tetraplegic respectively. Fifty percent of them had a complete injury (ASIA A) and 85% of the spouses were exclusive care givers. All of the SF-36 scores of the spouses were significantly lower than the normal population. Pearson's correlation demonstrated a negative significant correlation between both age and duration of caring with the PF domain. The number of children had a negative correlation with RE and VT. Conclusion The burden of caregiving can impact the QOL of caregivers and cause health problems. These problems can cause limitations for caregiver spouses and it can lead to a decrease in the quality of given care. PMID:23506336

2013-01-01

188

Antinociceptive effects induced through the stimulation of spinal cannabinoid type 2 receptors in chronically inflamed mice.  

PubMed

The stimulation of spinal cannabinoid type 2 (CB(2)) receptors is a suitable strategy for the alleviation of experimental pain symptoms. Several reports have described the up-regulation of spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptors in neuropathic settings together with the analgesic effects derived from their activation. Besides, we have recently reported in two murine bone cancer models that the intrathecal administration of cannabinoid CB(2) receptor agonists completely abolishes hyperalgesia and allodynia, whereas spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptor expression remains unaltered. The present experiments were designed to measure the expression of spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptors as well as the analgesic efficacy derived from their stimulation in mice chronically inflamed by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant 1 week before. Both spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptors mRNA measured by real-time PCR and cannabinoid CB(2) receptor protein levels measured by western blot remained unaltered in inflamed mice. Besides, the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor agonists AM1241, (R,S)-3-(2-Iodo-5-nitrobenzoyl)-1-(1-methyl-2-piperidinylmethyl)-1H-indole, (0.03-1 ?g) and JWH 133, (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-Dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran, (3-30 ?g) dose-dependently blocked inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The analgesic effects induced by both agonists were counteracted by the coadministration of the selective cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528, 5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-[(4-methylphenyl)methyl]-N-[(1S,2S,4R)-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide, (5 ?g) but not by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251, N-(Piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide, (10 ?g). The effects induced by AM1241 were also inhibited by the coadministration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (1 ?g). These results demonstrate that effective analgesia can be achieved in chronic inflammatory settings through the stimulation of spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptors even if this receptor population is not up-regulated. PMID:21771590

Curto-Reyes, Verdad; Boto, Tamara; Hidalgo, Agustín; Menéndez, Luis; Baamonde, Ana

2011-10-01

189

Experimental chronic compression on the spinal cord of the rabbit by ectopic bone formation in the ligamentum flavum with bone morphogenetic protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to induce chronic spinal cord compression myelopathy in rabbits. The L5 lumbar lamina was cut partially in 70 rabbits, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was implanted on the ligamentum flavum in 35 of them. In the BMP group, new bone formed on the dorsal side of the spinal canal and flattened the spinal cord in an

Kentaro Mimatsu; Seiichi Kishi; Yoshio Hashizume

1997-01-01

190

Randomised study of long term outcome after epidural versus non-epidural analgesia during labour  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether epidural analgesia during labour is associated with long term backache. Design Follow up after randomised controlled trial. Analysis by intention to treat. Setting Department of obstetrics and gynaecology at one NHS trust. Participants 369 women: 184 randomised to epidural group (treatment as allocated received by 123) and 185 randomised to non-epidural group (treatment as allocated received by 133). In the follow up study 151 women were from the epidural group and 155 from the non-epidural group. Main outcome measures Self reported low back pain, disability, and limitation of movement assessed through one to one interviews with physiotherapist, questionnaire on back pain and disability, physical measurements of spinal mobility. Results There were no significant differences between groups in demographic details or other key characteristics. The mean time interval from delivery to interview was 26 months. There were no significant differences in the onset or duration of low back pain, with nearly a third of women in each group reporting pain in the week before interview. There were no differences in self reported measures of disability in activities of daily living and no significant differences in measurements of spinal mobility. Conclusions After childbirth there are no differences in the incidence of long term low back pain, disability, or movement restriction between women who receive epidural pain relief and women who receive other forms of pain relief. What is already known on this topicPrevious research has suggested an association between epidural analgesia during labour and low back painIt is not known whether this association is causalWhat this study addsThis long term follow up study found no evidence of a causal link between epidural analgesia during labour and low back pain PMID:12183305

Howell, Charlotte J; Dean, Tracy; Lucking, Linda; Dziedzic, Krysia; Jones, Peter W; Johanson, Richard B

2002-01-01

191

[Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with hypertrophy of spinal roots, brachial plexus and cranial nerves].  

PubMed

We report two patients who presented an atypical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with massive nerve root and brachial plexus hypertrophy, and pseudotumoral supraclavicular mass. They also presented an hypertrophy of oculomotor and trigeminal nerves causing an exophthalmos and ocular palsy. Spinal root enlargement and cranial nerve hypertrophy was demonstrated by CT scanner and MRI. Brachial plexus biopsy showed a similar aspect of sural nerve, with an extensive onion bulb formation and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration. There was an excellent response to steroids in both patients. PMID:12386527

Aïdi, S; El Alaoui Faris, M; Amarti, A; Belaïdi, H; Jiddane, M; Guezzaz, M; Medjel, A; Chkili, T

2002-09-01

192

Regenerating motor bridge axons refine connections and synapse on lumbar motoneurons to bypass chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

To restore motor control after spinal cord injury requires reconnecting the brain with spinal motor circuits below the lesion. A bridge around the injury is an important alternative to promoting axon regeneration through the injury. Previously, we reported a novel motor bridge in rats. The thirteenth thoracic nerve was detached from the muscle it innervates and the cut end implanted caudally into the lumbar gray matter where motor bridge axons regenerate. In this study, we first determined that regenerating bridge axons project to spinal motor circuits. Stable projections were present in ventral motor laminae of the cord, including putative synapses directly on motoneurons, 2 months after insertion in the intact cord. At this time, earlier-forming dorsal horn projections were mostly eliminated. Regenerating axons were effective in evoking leg motor activity as early as 2 weeks. We next determined that bridge axons could regenerate caudal to a chronic injury. We hemisected the spinal cord at L2 and inserted the bridge nerve 1 month later at L5 and found ventral laminae projections similar to those in intact animals, including onto motoneurons directly. Finally, we determined that the bridge circuit could be activated by neural pathways rostral to its origin. For spinally hemisected animals, we electrically stimulated the rostral spinal cord and recorded evoked potentials from the bridge and, in turn, motor responses in the sciatic nerve. Our findings suggests that bridge motoneurons could be used by descending motor pathways as premotor interneurons to transmit neural signals to bypass a chronic spinal injury. PMID:18076081

Campos, Lucas W; Chakrabarty, Samit; Haque, Raqeeb; Martin, John H

2008-02-10

193

Computer aided detection of epidural masses on computed tomography scans.  

PubMed

The widespread use of CT imaging and the critical importance of early detection of epidural masses of the spinal canal generate a scenario ideal for the implementation of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system. Epidural masses can lead to paralysis, incontinence and loss of neurological function if not promptly detected. We present, to our knowledge, the first CAD system to detect epidural masses on CT scans. In this paper, spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and supervoxel-based method are proposed for epidural mass detection. The detection is performed on the Gaussian level or the supervoxel level rather than the voxel level. Cross-validation on 40 patients with epidural masses on body CT showed that the supervoxel-based method yielded a significant improvement of performance (82% at 3 false positives per patient) over the spatially constrained GMM method (55% at 3 false positives per patient). PMID:24908192

Liu, Jiamin; Pattanaik, Sanket; Yao, Jianhua; Turkbey, Evrim; Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Xiao; Summers, Ronald M

2014-10-01

194

Safety of Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

The spinal cord injury (SCI) microenvironment undergoes dynamic changes over time, which could potentially affect survival or differentiation of cells in early versus delayed transplantation study designs. Accordingly, assessment of safety parameters, including cell survival, migration, fate, sensory fiber sprouting, and behavioral measures of pain sensitivity in animals receiving transplants during the chronic postinjury period is required for establishing a potential therapeutic window. The goal of the study was assessment of safety parameters for delayed transplantation of human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) by comparing hCNS-SCns transplantation in the subacute period, 9 days postinjury (DPI), versus the chronic period, 60 DPI, in contusion-injured athymic nude rats. Although the number of surviving human cells after chronic transplantation was lower, no changes in cell migration were detected between the 9 and 60 DPI cohorts; however, the data suggest chronic transplantation may have enhanced the generation of mature oligodendrocytes. The timing of transplantation did not induce changes in allodynia or hyperalgesia measures. Together, these data support the safety of hCNS-SCns transplantation in the chronic period post-SCI. PMID:24191264

Piltti, Katja M.; Salazar, Desiree L.; Uchida, Nobuko; Cummings, Brian J.

2013-01-01

195

Activated spinal astrocytes are involved in the maintenance of chronic widespread mechanical hyperalgesia after cast immobilization  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we examined spinal glial cell activation as a central nervous system mechanism of widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in rats that experienced chronic post-cast pain (CPCP) 2 weeks after cast immobilization. Activated spinal microglia and astrocytes were investigated immunohistologically in lumbar and coccygeal spinal cord segments 1 day, 5 weeks, and 13 weeks following cast removal. Results In the lumbar cord, astrocytes were activated after microglia. Astrocytes also were activated after microglia in the coccygeal cord, but with a delay that was longer than that observed in the lumbar cord. This activation pattern paralleled the observation that mechanical hyperalgesia occurred in the hindleg or the hindpaw before the tail. The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) immune response in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on the last day of cast immobilization suggested that nerve damage might not occur in CPCP rats. The neural activation assessed by the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immune response in DRG arose 1 day after cast removal. In addition, L-?-aminoadipate (L-?-AA), an inhibitor of astrocyte activation administered intrathecally 5 weeks after cast removal, inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia in several body parts including the lower leg skin and muscles bilaterally, hindpaws, and tail. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation of lumbar cord astrocytes is an important factor in widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in CPCP. PMID:24456903

2014-01-01

196

Complications of fluoroscopically guided transforaminal lumbar epidural injections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botwin KP, Gruber RD, Bouchlas CG, Torres-Ramos FM, Freeman TL, Slaten WK. Complications of fluoroscopically guided transforaminal lumbar epidural injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1045-50. Objectives: To assess the incidence of complications of fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections. Design: A retrospective cohort design study. Patients presenting with radiculopathy, caused by either lumbar spinal stenosis or herniated nucleus pulposus confirmed

Kenneth P. Botwin; Robert D. Gruber; Constantine G. Bouchlas; Francisco M. Torres-Ramos; Ted L. Freeman; Warren K. Slaten

2000-01-01

197

Conduction failure following spinal cord injury: functional and anatomical changes from acute to chronic stages  

PubMed Central

In the majority of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) some axonal projections remain intact. We examined the functional status of these surviving axons, since they represent a prime therapeutic target. Using a novel electrophysiological preparation, adapted from techniques used to study primary demyelination, we quantified conduction failure across a SCI and studied conduction changes over time in adult rats with a moderate severity spinal contusion (150 kilodyne, Infinite Horizon impactor). By recording antidromically activated single units from teased dorsal root filaments we demonstrate complete conduction block in ascending dorsal column axons acutely (1-7 days) post-injury, followed by a period of restored conduction over the sub-acute phase (2-4 weeks), with no further improvements in conduction at chronic stages (3-6 months). By cooling the lesion site additional conducting fibres could be recruited, thus revealing a population of axons that are viable but unable to conduct under normal physiological conditions. Importantly, this phenomenon is still apparent at the most chronic (6 month) time point. The time course of conduction changes corresponded with changes in behavioural function, and ultrastructural analysis of dorsal column axons revealed extensive demyelination during the period of conduction block, followed by progressive remyelination. A proportion of dorsal column axons remained chronically demyelinated, suggesting that these are the axons recruited with the cooling paradigm. Thus, using a clinically relevant SCI model we have identified a population of axons present at chronic injury stages which are intact but fail to conduct and are therefore a prime target for therapeutic strategies to restore function. PMID:22171053

James, Nicholas D.; Bartus, Katalin; Grist, John; Bennett, David L. H.; McMahon, Stephen B.; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

198

Functional Recovery in Chronic Stage of Spinal Cord Injury by Neurorestorative Approach: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) at an early age can be debilitating for the child's growth. Current treatments show a level of stagnancy, after which the recovery is minimal. Cellular therapy is an emerging area of research and has been found to possess many benefits in the previous studies. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) has demonstrated therapeutic potential for many neurological conditions, including spinal cord injury. Here we report a case of 6-year-old girl with traumatic SCI at the level of C7-D1 4 years back, who underwent 2 doses of cell transplantation with autologous BMMNCs with an interval of 6 months along with standard rehabilitation. The patient did not have any major or minor side effects. The patient showed clinical improvements throughout the 6 months after transplantation, which was assessed using Functional Independence Measure (before: 82, after: 101 out of 126). There were patchy areas of sensory gain in bilateral feet recorded, with improvements in the bladder sensation and control. Improved gait was seen as a result of better strength in abdominals and back extensors. The fact that there was functional improvement in the chronic plateau phase indicates the potential of cell therapy in chronic SCI. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:24744950

Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Khopkar, Dipti; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Jacob, V. C.; Joseph, Joji; Badhe, Prerna

2014-01-01

199

Restoring Voluntary Grasping Function in Individuals with Incomplete Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy has been shown to be one of the most promising approaches for improving voluntary grasping function in individuals with subacute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To determine the effectiveness of FES therapy, as compared to conventional occupational therapy (COT), in improving voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic (?24 months post injury), incomplete (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] B-D), C4 to C7 SCI. Methods: Eight participants were randomized to the intervention group (FES therapy; n = 5) or the control group (COT; n = 3). Both groups received 39 hours of therapy over 13 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), and the secondary outcome measures were Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care subscore, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) self-care subscore. Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, after 39 sessions of therapy, and at 6 months following the baseline assessment. Results: After 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 5.8 points on the TRI-HFT’s Object Manipulation Task, whereas the control group changed by only 1.17 points. Similarly, after 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 4.6 points on the FIM self-care subscore, whereas the control group did not change at all. Conclusion: The results of the pilot data justify a clinical trial to compare FES therapy and COT alone to improve voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic incomplete tetraplegia. PMID:24244093

2013-01-01

200

Alleviation of chronic pain following rat spinal cord compression injury with multimodal actions of huperzine A  

PubMed Central

Diverse mechanisms including activation of NMDA receptors, microglial activation, reactive astrogliosis, loss of descending inhibition, and spasticity are responsible for ?40% of cases of intractable neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because conventional treatments blocking individual mechanisms elicit only short-term effectiveness, a multimodal approach with simultaneous actions against major pain-related pathways may have value for clinical management of chronic pain. We hypothesize that [-]-huperzine A (HUP-A), an alkaloid isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata, that is a potent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and NMDA receptors, could mitigate pain without invoking drug tolerance or dependence by stimulating cholinergic interneurons to impede pain signaling, inhibiting inflammation via microglial cholinergic activation, and blocking NMDA-mediated central hypersensitization. We tested our hypothesis by administering HUP-A i.p. or intrathecally to female Sprague–Dawley rats (200–235 g body weight) after moderate static compression (35 g for 5 min) of T10 spinal cord. Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits. PMID:23386718

Yu, Dou; Thakor, Devang K.; Han, Inbo; Ropper, Alexander E.; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Sidman, Richard L.; Zafonte, Ross; Schachter, Steven C.; Teng, Yang D.

2013-01-01

201

Musculoskeletal Adaptations in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Effects of Long-term Soleus Electrical Stimulation Training  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term electrical stimulation training of the paralyzed soleus could change this muscle’s physiological properties (torque, fatigue index, potentiation index, torque-time integral) and increase tibia bone mineral density. Methods Four men with chronic (>2 years) complete spinal cord injury (SCI; American Spinal Injury Association classification A) trained 1 soleus muscle using an isometric plantar flexion electrical stimulation protocol. The untrained limb served as a within-subject control. The protocol involved ~30 minutes of training each day, 5 days a week, for a period of 6 to 11 months. Mean compliance over 11 months of training was 91% for 3 subjects. A fourth subject achieved high compliance after only 5 months of training. Mean estimated compressive loads delivered to the tibia were ~110% of body weight. Over the 11 months of training, the muscle plantar flexion torque, fatigue index, potentiation index, and torque-time integral were evaluated periodically. Bone mineral density (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) was evaluated before and after the training program. Results The trained limb fatigue index, potentiation index, and torque-time integral showed rapid and robust training effects (P < .05). Soleus electrical stimulation training yielded no changes to the proximal tibia bone mineral density, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The subject with low compliance experienced fatigue index and torque-time integral improvements only when his compliance surpassed 80%. In contrast, his potentiation index showed adaptations even when compliance was low. Conclusions These findings highlight the persistent adaptive capabilities of chronically paralyzed muscle but suggest that preventing musculoskeletal adaptations after SCI may be more effective than reversing changes in the chronic condition. PMID:17312092

Shields, Richard K.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna

2012-01-01

202

Combined protocol of cell therapy for chronic spinal cord injury. Report on the electrical and functional recovery of two patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background This is a preliminary report on successful results obtained during treatment of two patients with chronic spinal cord injury. The therapeutic approach was based on the generation of controlled inflammatory activity at the injury site that induced a microenviron- ment for the subsequent administration of autologous, BM-driven transdifferentiated neural stem cells (NSC).

Ga Moviglia; R Fernandez Viña; Ja Brizuela; J Saslavsky; F Vrsalovic; G Varela; F Bastos; P Farina; G Etchegaray; M Barbieri; G Martinez; F Picasso; Y Schmidt; P Brizuela; Ca Gaeta; H Costanzo; Mt Moviglia Brandolino; S Merino; Me Pes; Mj Veloso; C Rugilo; I Tamer; Gs Shuster

2006-01-01

203

Tail muscles become slow but fatigable in chronic sacral spinal rats with spasticity.  

PubMed

Paralyzed skeletal muscle sometimes becomes faster and more fatigable after spinal cord injury (SCI) because of reduced activity. However, in some cases, pronounced muscle activity in the form of spasticity (hyperreflexia and hypertonus) occurs after long-term SCI. We hypothesized that this spastic activity may be associated with a reversal back to a slower, less fatigable muscle. In adult rats, a sacral (S2) spinal cord transection was performed, affecting only tail musculature and resulting in chronic tail spasticity beginning 2 wk later and lasting indefinitely. At 8 mo after injury, we examined the contractile properties of the segmental tail muscle in anesthetized spastic rats and in age-matched normal rats. The segmental tail muscle has only a few motor units (<12), which were easily detected with graded nerve stimulation, revealing two clear motor unit twitch durations. The dominant faster unit twitches peaked at 15 ms and ended within 50 ms, whereas the slower unit twitches only peaked at 30-50 ms. With chronic injury, this slow twitch component increased, resulting in a large overall increase (>150%) in the fraction of the peak muscle twitch force remaining at 50 ms. With injury, the peak muscle twitch (evoked with supramaximal stimulation) also increased in its time to peak (+48.9%) and half-rise time (+150.0%), and decreased in its maximum rise (-35.0%) and decay rates (-40.1%). Likewise, after a tetanic stimulation, the tetanus half-fall time increased by 53.8%. Therefore the slow portion of the muscle was enhanced in spastic muscles. Consistent with slowing, posttetanic potentiation was 9.2% lower and the stimulation frequency required to produce half-maximal tetanus decreased 39.0% in chronic spinals. Interestingly, in spastic muscles compared with normal, whole muscle twitch force was 81.1% higher, whereas tetanic force production was 38.1% lower. Hence the twitch-to-tetanus ratio increased 104.0%. Inconsistent with overall slowing, whole spastic muscles were 61.5% more fatigable than normal muscles. Thus contrary to the classical slow-to-fast conversion that is seen after SCI without spasticity, SCI with spasticity is associated with a mixed effect, including a preservation/enhancement of slow properties, but a loss of fatigue resistance. PMID:16282205

Harris, R Luke W; Bobet, Jacques; Sanelli, Leo; Bennett, David J

2006-02-01

204

Cerebellar Infarction Following Epidural Abscess after Epidural Neuroplasty  

PubMed Central

Epidural neuroplasty is found to be effective in removing fibrous tissue occurring in the epidural space for various reasons. We report a case of cerebellar infarction caused by epidural abscess after epidural neuroplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cerebellar infarction developed as a result of epidural abscess accompanying bacterial meningitis after epidural neuroplasty. We also discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis of this rare pathologic entity.

Lee, Hyun Yeong; Wang, Hui Sun; Ju, Chang Il

2015-01-01

205

Antinociception induced by chronic glucocorticoid treatment is correlated to local modulation of spinal neurotransmitter content  

PubMed Central

Background While acute effects of stress on pain are well described, those produced by chronic stress are still a matter of dispute. Previously we demonstrated that chronic unpredictable stress results in antinociception in the tail-flick test, an effect that is mediated by increased levels of corticosteroids. In the present study, we evaluated nociception in rats after chronic treatment with corticosterone (CORT) and dexamethasone (DEX) in order to discriminate the role of each type of corticosteroid receptors in antinociception. Results Both experimental groups exhibited a pronounced antinociceptive effect after three weeks of treatment when compared to controls (CONT); however, at four weeks the pain threshold in CORT-treated animals returned to basal levels whereas in DEX-treated rats antinociception was maintained. In order to assess if these differences are associated with altered expression of neuropeptides involved in nociceptive transmission we evaluated the density of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SS) and B2-?-aminobutiric acid receptors (GABAB2) expression in the spinal dorsal horn using light density measurements and stereological techniques. After three weeks of treatment the expression of CGRP in the superficial dorsal horn was significantly decreased in both CORT and DEX groups, while GABAB2 was significantly increased; the levels of SP for both experimental groups remained unchanged at this point. At 4 weeks, CGRP and SP are reduced in DEX-treated animals and GABAB2 unchanged, but all changes were restored to CONT levels in CORT-treated animals. The expression of SS remained unaltered throughout the experimental period. Conclusion These data indicate that corticosteroids modulate nociception since chronic corticosteroid treatment alters the expression of neuropeptides involved in nociceptive transmission at the spinal cord level. As previously observed in some supraspinal areas, the exclusive GR activation resulted in more profound and sustained behavioural and neurochemical changes, than the one observed with a mixed ligand of corticosteroid receptors. These results might be of relevance for the pharmacological management of certain types of chronic pain, in which corticosteroids are used as adjuvant analgesics. PMID:19630968

Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa; Moreira, Vitor; Pêgo, José M; Leão, Pedro; Almeida, Armando; Sousa, Nuno

2009-01-01

206

Systemic Inflammation and Reduced Pulmonary Function in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationship between systemic inflammation and pulmonary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants Fifty-nine men with chronic SCI participating in a prior epidemiologic study. Methods Standardized assessment of pulmonary function and measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Main Outcome Measurements Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Persons with the highest values of IL-6 had the lowest %-predicted FEV1 and FVC. There was a significant inverse linear trend between quartile of IL-6 and %-predicted FEV1 (P < .001) and FVC (P < .006), unadjusted and adjusted for SCI level and completeness of injury, obstructive lung disease history, smoking, and body mass index (P = .010-.039). Although not as strong as for IL-6, there also were similar trends for %-predicted FEV1 and FVC with CRP. Conclusions In chronic SCI, higher levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC, independent of level and completeness of injury. These results suggest that the reduction of pulmonary function after SCI is related not only to neuromuscular impairment but also to factors that promote systemic inflammation. PMID:21570031

Garshick, Eric; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Morse, Leslie R.; Brown, Robert

2011-01-01

207

Epidural Analgesia and Lactation  

PubMed Central

Present-day mothers have an increased desire to breastfeed, but this desire has increased in parallel with the increased use of epidural analgesia during labor. Epidural anesthesia requires a high level of technical proficiency to avoid serious complications and should always be performed by a trained anesthetist using a strict aseptic technique to reduce the risk of infection. There is currently no consensus regarding the relationship between breastfeeding and epidural analgesia during labor. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on breastfeeding. PMID:25610159

Akbas, Mert; Akcan, A. Baris

2011-01-01

208

Cervical Epidural Abscess: Rare Complication of Bacterial Endocarditis with Streptococcus Viridans: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Although many patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complain of joint, muscle, and back pain, infections at these sights are rare. The incidence of spinal abscess in cervical spine complicating endocarditis is very rare. Although the surgical management is the mainstay of treatment, conservative treatment can get success in selected patients. We report a patient with cervical epidural abscess due to Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Both epidural abscess and IE were managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics for 8 weeks, with recovery. It is important to remind spinal epidural abscess can occur in those patients with bacterial endocarditis. PMID:25883665

Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

2015-01-01

209

Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.  

PubMed

Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature. PMID:23585503

Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

2013-01-01

210

Quantitative sensory testing in patients with chronic unilateral radicular neuropathic pain and active spinal cord stimulation.  

PubMed

Objectives.? Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an effective treatment option for chronic radicular neuropathic pain syndromes. This prospective study was performed to examine the peripheral effects of SCS on sensation using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Materials and Methods.? We measured two consecutive QST measurements for thermal, tactile-static, tactile-dynamic, vibratory, and pain sensation of the lower limbs in seven patients with chronic unilateral radicular neuropathic pain who underwent SCS implantation for their pain. Measurements were performed when SCS was turned off and once again during SCS and subsequent reduced pain levels. Results.? Baseline QST demonstrated significantly increased thresholds for tactile and warm and cold detection in the pain area. With SCS active, a significant reduction of the cold and warm perception and mechanical detection thresholds was found on the painful side (p < 0.01). Although not significant (p > 0.01), altered sensory thresholds with active SCS also were found at the healthy side where no paresthesias were felt. Conclusion.? SCS leads to bilateral subclinical effects even if the evoked paresthesias are only unilateral. Pain perception thresholds are not altered with therapeutic SCS. PMID:22151713

Rasche, Dirk; Ruppolt, Marc A; Kress, Bodo; Unterberg, Andreas; Tronnier, Volker M

2006-07-01

211

Prevalence of chronic pain after traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Published studies have reported widely divergent estimates of the prevalence of chronic pain among individuals with (traumatic) spinal cord injury (SCI). To develop an estimate based on a synthesis of the research, we used searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and other bibliographic databases and an ancestor search to identify articles published since 1966 in any language that reported a pain prevalence rate for at least 30 subjects with certain or likely traumatic SCI. Data on sample makeup, study quality indicators, and pain prevalence were abstracted independently by two researchers. A total of 42 studies reported pain prevalence rates that ranged from 26% to 96%, with a fairly even spread between these extremes. The reported rate did not appear to be related to study quality. Pain prevalence in the combined samples did not appreciably differ between males and females, those with complete versus incomplete SCI, and those with paraplegia versus tetraplegia. We conclude that too much heterogeneity was present in the reports to calculate a post-SCI pain prevalence rate using meta-analytic methods. Further research is needed to determine whether rates are related to sample makeup (e.g., average subject age), research methods used (e.g., telephone interview vs self-report instruments), or even the definition of "chronic" pain. PMID:19533517

Dijkers, Marcel; Bryce, Thomas; Zanca, Jeanne

2009-01-01

212

Low back pain due to spinal chronic subdural hematoma mimicking intradural tumor in the lumbar area: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although magnetic resonance imaging has dramatically enhanced the ability to diagnose spinal mass lesions, some lesions remain difficult to diagnose. We report a spinal chronic subdural hematoma that comprised the cauda equina ventrally in the lumbar area in a 51-year-old man who was under anticoagulant therapy. Low back pain was the only symptom of the patient after sports activity. Surgical

Serdar Kahraman; Sait ?irin; Hakan Kayali; Ilker Solmaz; Altay Bedük

2003-01-01

213

Chronic stress-induced changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines and spinal glia markers in the rat: a time course study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim(s) Spinal glia activation has been proposed as one mechanism underlying visceral hyperalgesia in a rodent model of chronic stress. In order to assess the possible role of changes in circulating cytokines and in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability in spinal glia activation, we studied the time course of peripheral and spinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and of spinal and satellite glia markers in response to repeated water avoidance stress (WA). Method(s) Spinal cords and dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs) were collected from control rats, rats exposed to 1-hour WA, or 1-hour WA daily for 5 days or 1-hour WA daily for 10 days. Result(s) We demonstrated a time-dependent change in circulating IL-1? and spinal IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in stressed animals compared with controls. We found altered expression of the astrocytes marker GFAP and connexin 43 in spinal and DRG samples at different time points. Finally, WA was associated with increased BSCB permeability. Conclusion(s) These findings confirm the concept that both peripheral and spinal immune makers are altered after chronic WA and suggest a possible link between stress-induced increase of peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines, changes in satellite glial cells, increased in BSCB permeability and increase in spinal pro-inflammatory mediators suggesting glia activation. PMID:23051934

Glovatchcka, Viktoriya; Ennes, Helena; Mayer, Emeran A; Bradesi, Sylvie

2012-01-01

214

A feasibility study of chiropractic spinal manipulation versus sham spinal manipulation for chronic otitis media with effusion in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pediatric otitis media with effusion is a common and costly condition. Although chiropractors have anecdotally claimed success in treating otitis media, there is little research to support their claims. Objective: A pilot study was undertaken for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of conducting a full-scale randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for

Charles E. Sawyer; Roni L. Evans; Patrick D. Boline; Richard Branson; Anne Spicer

1999-01-01

215

Locomotor step training with body weight support improves respiratory motor function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This prospective case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent the manually assisted treadmill stepping Locomotor Training with body weight support (LT) can change respiratory function in individuals with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Pulmonary function outcomes (Forced Vital Capacity /FVC/, Forced Expiratory Volume one second /FEV1/, Maximum Inspiratory Pressure /PImax/, Maximum Expiratory Pressure /PEmax/) and surface electromyographic (sEMG) measures of respiratory muscles activity during respiratory taskswere obtained from eight individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI before and after 62±10 (Mean ± SD) sessions of the LT. FVC, FEV1, PImax, PEmax, amount of overall sEMG activity and rate of motor unit recruitment were significantly increased after LT (p<0.05) These results suggest that these improvements induced by the LT are likely the result of neuroplastic changes in spinal neural circuitry responsible for the activation of respiratory muscles preserved after injury. PMID:23999001

de Paleville, Daniela Terson; McKay, William; Aslan, Sevda; Folz, Rodney; Sayenko, Dimitry; Ovechkin, Alexander V.

2013-01-01

216

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Functional Recovery in Rats With Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries After Exposure to an Enriched Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of environmental enrichment on the sensorimotor function of rats with chronic spinal cord injuries. Design: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received a contusive injury of moderate severity at vertebral level T8 using a weight-drop device. Three months after injury, 1 randomized group (n ¼16) of rats was placed in an enriched

Florence R. Fischer; Jean D. Peduzzi

217

Focused review: spinal anesthesia in severe preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Spinal anesthesia is widely regarded as a reasonable anesthetic option for cesarean delivery in severe preeclampsia, provided there is no indwelling epidural catheter or contraindication to neuraxial anesthesia. Compared with healthy parturients, those with severe preeclampsia experience less frequent, less severe spinal-induced hypotension. In severe preeclampsia, spinal anesthesia may cause a higher incidence of hypotension than epidural anesthesia; however, this hypotension is typically easily treated and short lived and has not been linked to clinically significant differences in outcomes. In this review, we describe the advantages and limitations of spinal anesthesia in the setting of severe preeclampsia and the evidence guiding intraoperative hemodynamic management. PMID:23868886

Henke, Vanessa G; Bateman, Brian T; Leffert, Lisa R

2013-09-01

218

Correlation Between Health-Related Quality of Life in Veterans With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and Their Caregiving Spouses  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, investigations have indicated that caring of a chronically ill family member strongly influences the health status and the quality of life (QOL) of the caregiving family members. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between health-related QOL of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury and their caregiving spouses. Patients and Methods: We designed a cross-sectional study including two groups; veterans with chronic spinal cord injury and their caregiving wives who were living in the city of Mashhad, Iran. The patients with spinal cord injury were veterans from the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). All the participants filled out the short form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire. A Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the scales of the two groups. Results: The mean age and standard deviation of veterans and their spouses were 48.5 ± 5.9 and 44.8 ± 7.2, respectively and their number of children ranged between 0-6. Our data analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups in some domains of the SF-36, including PF, MH, PCS, MCS, BP and GH (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in RP, VT, SF and RE between the two groups. Conclusions: The results indicate that a decrease in health status level of veterans, physically and mentally, can affect the health-related QOL of their caregiving spouses. PMID:25738130

Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Shojaee, Bibi Soheila

2014-01-01

219

Epidural steroid injections for radicular lumbosacral pain: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Most clinical guidelines do not recommend routine use of epidural steroid injections for the management of chronic low back pain. However, many clinicians do not adhere to these guidelines. This comprehensive evidence overview concluded that off-label epidural steroid injections provide small short-term but not long- term leg-pain relief and improvement in function; injection of steroids is no more effective than injection of local anesthetics alone; post-procedural complications are uncommon, but the risk of contamination and serious infections is very high. The evidence does not support routine use of off-label epidural steroid injections in adults with benign radicular lumbosacral pain. PMID:24787344

Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Staal, J Bart; Goldmann, David; Sands-Lincoln, Megan

2014-05-01

220

Alterations in Mouse Hypothalamic Adipokine Gene Expression and Leptin Signaling following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and with Advanced Age  

PubMed Central

Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF), resistin (Rstn), long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3) gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR) as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:22815920

Bigford, Gregory E.; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie C.; Nash, Mark S.; Bethea, John R.

2012-01-01

221

Chronic-pain-associated astrocytic reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn of HIV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

Studies with animal models have suggested that reactivation of glia, including microglia and astrocytes, critically contributes to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. However, the involvement of glial reactivation in human chronic pain is unclear. We performed analyses to compare the glial reactivation profiles in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) from three cohorts of sex- and age-matched human postmortem tissues: (i) HIV-negative patients, (ii) HIV-positive patients without chronic pain, and (iii) HIV patients with chronic pain. Our results indicate that the expression levels of CD11b and Iba1, commonly used for labeling microglial cells, did not differ in the three patient groups. On the other hand, GFAP and S100?, often used for labeling astrocytes, were specifically up-regulated in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of the ‘pain-positive’ HIV patients but not in the ‘pain-negative’ HIV patients. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF? and IL-1?, were specifically increased in the SDH of ‘pain-positive’ HIV patients. Our findings suggest that reactivation of astrocytes in the SDH may play a role during the maintenance phase of HIV-associated chronic pain. PMID:22875918

Shi, Yuqiang; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Tang, Shao-Jun

2012-01-01

222

Respiratory motor function in seated and supine positions in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pulmonary function in individuals with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is affected by posture. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (PImax) and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (PEmax) were obtained from 27 individuals with chronic motor-complete (n=13, complete group) and motor-incomplete (n=14, incomplete group) C2-T12 SCI in both seated and supine positions. Seated-to-supine changes in spirometrical (FVC and FEV1) and airway pressure (PImax and PEmax) outcome measures had different dynamics when compared in complete and incomplete groups. Patients with motor-complete SCI had tendency to increase spirometrical outcomes in supine position showing significant increase in FVC (p=.007), whereas patients in incomplete group exhibited decrease in these values with significant decreases in FEV1 (p=.002). At the same time, the airway pressure values were decreased in supine position in both groups with significant decrease in PEmax (p=.031) in complete group and significant decrease in PImax (p=.042) in incomplete group. In addition, seated-to-supine percent change of PImax was strongly correlated with neurological level of motor-complete SCI (?= ?.77, p=.002). These results indicate that postural effects on respiratory performance in patients with SCI can depend on severity and neurological level of SCI, and that these effects differ depending on respiratory tasks. Further studies with adequate sample size are needed to investigate these effects in clinically specific groups and to study the mechanisms of such effects on specific respiratory outcome measures. PMID:25169115

Terson de Paleville, Daniela; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Aslan, Sevda C.; Folz, Rodney J.; McKay, William B.; Ovechkin, Alexander V.

2014-01-01

223

Chronic At- and Below-Level Pain after Moderate Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chronic neuropathic pain is a significant consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is associated with evoked pain, including allodynia and/or hyperalgesia. Allodynia is defined as a painful response to normally innocuous stimuli, and hyperalgesia occurs when there is an amplified pain response to normally noxious stimuli. We describe a model of a unilateral cervical level (C5) contusion injury where sensory recovery was assessed weekly for 6 weeks in 32 adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia are detectable in the fore- and hindpaws as early as 7 days post-injury (dpi) and persist for at least 42 days. Paw withdrawal latency in response to a noxious thermal stimulus significantly intra-animal pre-operative values. Change in paw withdrawal latency plateaued at 21?dpi. Interestingly, bilateral forepaw allodynia develops in fewer than 40% of rats as measured by von Frey monofilament testing. Similar results occur in the hindpaws, where bilateral allodynia occurs in 46% of rats with SCI. The contralesional forepaw and both hindpaws of rats showed a slight increase in paw withdrawal threshold to tactile stimuli acutely after SCI, corresponding to ipsilesional forelimb motor deficits that resolve over time. That there is no difference among allodynic and non-allodynic groups in overall spared tissue or specifically of the dorsal column or ventrolateral white matter where ascending sensory tracts reside suggests that SCI-induced pain does not depend solely on the size or extent of the lesion, but that other mechanisms are in play. These observations provide a valid model system for future testing of therapeutic interventions to prevent the onset or to reduce the debilitating effects of chronic neuropathic pain after SCI. PMID:23216008

Wade, Rodel E.; Houlé, John D.

2013-01-01

224

Respiratory motor function in seated and supine positions in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

This case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pulmonary function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is affected by posture. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) and maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax) were obtained from 27 individuals with chronic motor-complete (n=13, complete group) and motor-incomplete (n=14, incomplete group) C2-T12 SCI in both seated and supine positions. Seated-to-supine changes in spirometrical (FVC and FEV1) and airway pressure (PImax and PEmax) outcome measures had different dynamics when compared in complete and incomplete groups. Patients with motor-complete SCI had tendency to increase spirometrical outcomes in supine position showing significant increase in FVC (p=.007), whereas patients in incomplete group exhibited decrease in these values with significant decreases in FEV1 (p=.002). At the same time, the airway pressure values were decreased in supine position in both groups with significant decrease in PEmax (p=.031) in complete group and significant decrease in PImax (p=.042) in incomplete group. In addition, seated-to-supine percent change of PImax was strongly correlated with neurological level of motor-complete SCI (?=-.77, p=.002). These results indicate that postural effects on respiratory performance in patients with SCI can depend on severity and neurological level of SCI, and that these effects differ depending on respiratory tasks. Further studies with adequate sample size are needed to investigate these effects in clinically specific groups and to study the mechanisms of such effects on specific respiratory outcome measures. PMID:25169115

Terson de Paleville, Daniela G L; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Aslan, Sevda C; Folz, Rodney J; McKay, William B; Ovechkin, Alexander V

2014-11-01

225

Correlates of low testosterone in men with chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Although high rates of serum testosterone deficiency have been reported in men with spinal cord injury (SCI), its determinants and attributes are not yet established. The aim of this study was to recognize, among putative determinants and attributes of androgen deficiency, those significantly associated to low testosterone after adjustment for confounders recognizable in men with chronic SCI. A biochemical androgen deficiency (total testosterone <300 ng/dL) was exhibited by 18 of 51 patients (35.3%). Significant correlates of testosterone levels were as follows: weekly leisure time physical activity (LTPA) explored by the LTPA Questionnaire for people with SCI, body mass index (BMI), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides and sexual symptoms, explored by the aging males' symptom (AMS) questionnaire. At the multiple linear regression analysis, among putative determinants of low testosterone, only weekly LTPA and BMI exhibited a significant association with testosterone levels, explaining 54.2 and 9.0% of testosterone variability respectively. At the linear regression models, among various putative attributes of androgen deficiency, only lower sexual desire and, at a lesser extent, higher HOMA-IR, exhibited significant associations with lower testosterone levels, after adjustment for BMI, age, comorbidities and weekly LTPA. In conclusion, poor LTPA, high BMI and low sexual desire are independent predictors of low testosterone in men with chronic SCI. This is relevant to clinical practice, as all these features are routinely assessed in rehabilitation settings for SCI. As poor LTPA and high BMI are modifiable life-style related risk factors, prospective studies could clarify whether life-style modification could increase the level of testosterone and improve the low sexual desire, relevant clinical attribute of low testosterone in men with SCI. PMID:24925765

Barbonetti, A; Vassallo, M R C; Pacca, F; Cavallo, F; Costanzo, M; Felzani, G; Francavilla, S; Francavilla, F

2014-09-01

226

Idiopathic Hypertrophic Spinal Pachymeningitis with an Osteolytic Lesion  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disorder characterized by marked fibrosis of the spinal dura mater with unknown etiology. According to the location of the lesion, it might induce neurologic deficits by compression of spinal cord and nerve root. A 58-year old female with a 3-year history of progressive weakness in both lower extremities was referred to our institute. Spinal computed tomography (CT) scan showed an osteolytic lesion involving base of the C6 spinous process with adjacent epidural mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an epidural mass involving dorsal aspect of cervical spinal canal from C5 to C7 level, with low signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images and non-enhancement on T1 weighted-enhanced images. We decided to undertake surgical exploration. At the operation field, there was yellow colored, thickened fibrous tissue over the dura mater. The lesion was removed totally, and decompression of spinal cord was achieved. Symptoms improved partially after the operation. Histopathologically, fibrotic pachymeninges with scanty inflammatory cells was revealed, which was compatible with diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Six months after operation, motor power grade of both lower extremities was normal on physical examination. However, the patient still complained of mild weakness in the right lower extremity. Although the nature of IHSP is generally indolent, decompressive surgery should be considered for the patient with definite or progressive neurologic symptoms in order to prevent further deterioration. In addition, IHSP can present as an osteolytic lesion. Differential diagnosis with neoplastic disease, including giant cell tumor, is important. PMID:25328657

Jee, Tae Keun; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang

2014-01-01

227

Pathways to the reconstruction of selfhood in chronic transformative disability: the example of spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

This essay contrasts the responses of persons with stroke described by Kaufman with the reflections of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). It is suggested that, over the last decade or so, mainstream medicine has become less reductionist and more humane in focus. Many with SCI become reconciled to their new bodies, though this may take years. It is not clear whether this apparent difference in the responses of those with stroke, related by Kaufman, reflects their older age or other factors. Perhaps it takes longer than 2 to 3 years for some people to become reconciled to profound alterations in their embodiment. Medical and social models of impairment are discussed. The effects of personal reductions in function may be lessened in significance through appropriate environmental adaptations and changes in social attitudes. In agreement with Kaufman, the importance of an effective personal assistant/employer relationship is illustrated in relation to those with quadriplegia. Overall the perspective of persons with SCI is not as pessimistic as that of those with stroke, as related by Kaufman. However, her plea for a deeper and richer exploration of the lived experience of chronic impairment is supported for many reasons. PMID:21371986

Cole, Jonathan

2011-01-01

228

Effects of spinal manipulation versus therapeutic exercise on adults with chronic low back pain: a literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Context: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a prevalent disorder that has a significant burden to society in terms of loss of work time and increased economic cost. Two common treatment choices of intervention for CLBP are spinal manipulation and prescribed exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of spinal manipulation vs prescribed exercise for patients diagnosed with CLBP. Studies that compared head-to-head spinal manipulation to an exercise group were included in this review. Methods: A search of the current literature was conducted using a keyword process in CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials Database, Medline, and Embase. The search was conducted on, and included studies available up to August 29th 2014. Studies were included based on PICOS criteria 1) individuals with CLBP defined as lasting 12 weeks or longer; 2) spinal manipulation performed by a health care practitioner; 3) prescribed exercise for the treatment of CLBP and monitored by a health care practitioner; 4) measurable clinical outcomes for reducing pain, disability or improving function; 5) randomized controlled trials. The quality of included articles was determined by the author using the criteria developed and used by the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Results: Three randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria of this systematic review and were included in this review. The outcomes used in these studies included Disability Indexes, Pain Scales and function improvement scales. The results included a mix of effects with one study finding spinal manipulation as more effective and another finding the exercises more so. The third study found both interventions offering equal effects in the long term. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this systematic review there is no conclusive evidence that clearly favours spinal manipulation or exercise as more effective in treatment of CLBP. More studies are needed to further explore which intervention is more effective. PMID:25550671

Merepeza, Alban

2014-01-01

229

Chronic Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Degenerative Spinal Changes and Hypertrophy in Aging Pre-Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

2015-01-01

230

Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

2015-01-01

231

The Neurotoxicity of Epidural Hyaluronic Acid in Rabbits: A Light and Electron Microscopic Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because hyaluronic acid (HA) has an antiinflammatory effect and prevents and\\/or reduces tissue adhesion, we believed it possible that epidurally-administered HA dur- ing epidural adhesiolysis procedures could alleviate pain in patients with chronic lower back pain. Therefore, we performed this pre-clinical trial evaluation of epidurally- administered HA neurotoxicity by light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) in rabbits. Twenty rabbits

Young-Jin Lim; Woo-Seok Sim; Yong-Chul Kim; Sang-Chul Lee; Yoon-La Choi

2003-01-01

232

Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients  

PubMed Central

Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs—from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS) networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns—specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of spinal cord-injured (SCI) should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic SCI patients. PMID:24910602

2014-01-01

233

Supression of chronic central pain by superoxide dismutase in rats with spinal cord injury: Inhibition of the NMDA receptor implicated  

PubMed Central

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is used to manage chronic pain, including neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, data regarding the clinical effectiveness are conflicting and the neurophysiological mechanism of SOD has yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether SOD relieved chronic central pain (CCP) following spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible underlying mechanisms. A CCP model was established using the Allen method and the CCP of the rats was measured using the paw withdrawal threshold. SOD was administered intraperitoneally following the establishment of CCP as a result of SCI. The results demonstrated that SOD relieved CCP in rats following SCI. In addition, the expression of spinal phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptor subunit 1 (pNR-1) was inhibited in the CCP rats that had been treated with SOD. These observations indicated that SOD reduced mechanical allodynia and attenuated the enhancement of spinal pNR1 expression in rats with CCP. In addition, the results indicated that superoxide, produced via xanthine oxidase, and the participation of superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) as a precursor of peroxynitrite in NMDA, were involved in the mediation of central sensitization. Therefore, the observations support the hypothesis that SOD may have a potential therapeutic role for the treatment of CCP following SCI via the manipulation of superoxide and NO. PMID:25187811

XIE, YONG-GANG; MU, HONG-JIE; LI, ZHEN; MA, JIA-HAI; WANG, YUE-LAN

2014-01-01

234

Chronic low back pain: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal source; or (4) back pain associated with another specific spinal cause. For patients who have back pain associated with radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, or another specific spinal cause, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography may establish the diagnosis and guide management. Because evidence of improved outcomes is lacking, lumbar spine radiography should be delayed for at least one to two months in patients with nonspecific pain. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first-line medications for chronic low back pain. Tramadol, opioids, and other adjunctive medications may benefit some patients who do not respond to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Acupuncture, exercise therapy, multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, massage, behavior therapy, and spinal manipulation are effective in certain clinical situations. Patients with radicular symptoms may benefit from epidural steroid injections, but studies have produced mixed results. Most patients with chronic low back pain will not benefit from surgery. A surgical evaluation may be considered for select patients with functional disabilities or refractory pain despite multiple nonsurgical treatments. PMID:19530637

Last, Allen R; Hulbert, Karen

2009-06-15

235

Tail arteries from chronically spinalized rats have potentiated responses to nerve stimulation in vitro  

PubMed Central

Patients with severe spinal cord lesions that damage descending autonomic pathways generally have low resting arterial pressure but bladder or colon distension or unheeded injuries may elicit a life-threatening hypertensive episode. Such episodes (known as autonomic dysreflexia) are thought to result from the loss of descending baroreflex inhibition and/or plasticity within the spinal cord. However, it is not clear whether changes in the periphery contribute to the exaggerated reflex vasoconstriction. The effects of spinal transection at T7–8 on nerve- and agonist-evoked contractions of the rat tail artery were investigated in vitro. Isometric contractions of arterial segments were recorded and responses of arteries from spinalized animals (‘spinalized arteries’) and age-matched and sham-operated controls were compared. Two and eight weeks after transection, nerve stimulation at 0.1–10 Hz produced contractions of greater force and duration in spinalized arteries. At both stages, the ?-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin (10 nm) and idazoxan (0.1 ?m) produced less blockade of nerve-evoked contraction in spinalized arteries. Two weeks after transection, spinalized arteries were supersensitive to the ?1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, and the ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, but 8 weeks after transection, spinalized arteries were supersensitive only to clonidine. Contractions of spinalized arteries elicited by 60 mm K+ were larger and decayed more slowly at both stages. These findings demonstrate that spinal transection markedly increases nerve-evoked contractions and this can, in part, be accounted for by increased reactivity of the vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictor agents. This hyper-reactivity may contribute to the genesis of autonomic dysreflexia in patients. PMID:14766944

Yeoh, Melanie; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

2004-01-01

236

Tail arteries from chronically spinalized rats have potentiated responses to nerve stimulation in vitro.  

PubMed

Patients with severe spinal cord lesions that damage descending autonomic pathways generally have low resting arterial pressure but bladder or colon distension or unheeded injuries may elicit a life-threatening hypertensive episode. Such episodes (known as autonomic dysreflexia) are thought to result from the loss of descending baroreflex inhibition and/or plasticity within the spinal cord. However, it is not clear whether changes in the periphery contribute to the exaggerated reflex vasoconstriction. The effects of spinal transection at T7-8 on nerve- and agonist-evoked contractions of the rat tail artery were investigated in vitro. Isometric contractions of arterial segments were recorded and responses of arteries from spinalized animals ('spinalized arteries') and age-matched and sham-operated controls were compared. Two and eight weeks after transection, nerve stimulation at 0.1-10 Hz produced contractions of greater force and duration in spinalized arteries. At both stages, the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin (10 nm) and idazoxan (0.1 microm) produced less blockade of nerve-evoked contraction in spinalized arteries. Two weeks after transection, spinalized arteries were supersensitive to the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, and the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, but 8 weeks after transection, spinalized arteries were supersensitive only to clonidine. Contractions of spinalized arteries elicited by 60 mm K(+) were larger and decayed more slowly at both stages. These findings demonstrate that spinal transection markedly increases nerve-evoked contractions and this can, in part, be accounted for by increased reactivity of the vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictor agents. This hyper-reactivity may contribute to the genesis of autonomic dysreflexia in patients. PMID:14766944

Yeoh, Melanie; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

2004-04-15

237

Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios [University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine (Greece); Soultanis, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 1st Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Batistaki, Chrysanthi [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Kelekis, Alexis, E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University of Athens, 2nd Radiology Department, Attikon University Hospital (Greece)

2011-12-15

238

Mechanisms and management of an incomplete epidural block for cesarean section.  

PubMed

Epidural blockade is an important option for anesthesia in parturients undergoing abdominal delivery. Despite the multiple benefits of this method, there is at least one significant downside--a relatively high occurrence of unsatisfactory anesthesia that requires intervention. Depending on the presumed mechanism of epidural block failure and other clinically relevant factors (e.g., timing of diagnosis, urgency of the procedure, and so forth), certain effective measures are recommended to successfully manage this demanding situation. In general, it is important to make every effort to make the pre-existing epidural effective or replace it with another regional technique, because overall, regional anesthesia is associated with significantly lower maternal mortality. It is important to identify a dysfunctional epidural block preoperatively before a maximum volume of local anesthetic has been administered. If catheter manipulation does not produce substantial improvement, and there is no time constraint, it is safe and reasonable to replace the epidural catheter. However, risks associated with excessive volume of local anesthetic should be kept in mind. Additional epidural injections or a second catheter placement might be considered under special circumstances. Single-shot spinal anesthesia after a failed epidural may provide fast onset and reliable surgical anesthesia. Available data, although limited and contradictory, suggest the possibility of unpredictably high or total spinal anesthesia. Many authors, however, believe that appropriate precautions and modifications in technique make this a safe alternative. These modifications include limiting the amount of epidural local anesthetic administered when diagnosing a nonfunctioning epidural and decreasing the dose of intrathecal local anesthetic by 20% to 30%. If there is no documented block when the spinal is inserted, and more than 30 minutes have passed from the last epidural dose, it is probably safe to use a normal dose of local anesthetic. Continuous spinal anesthesia with a macro catheter might be a dependable alternative, particularly if large amounts of local anesthetic have already been used or the patient's airway is a cause for concern. Although there are no reports of combined spinal epidural anesthesia being used in this context, it would appear to be an attractive alternative. It allows the anesthesiologist to give smaller doses intrathecally, while still offering the flexibility of augmenting the block if needed. When inadequate epidural block becomes apparent during surgery there are limited alternatives. Depending on the origin and the pattern of inadequate anesthesia, options may include psychological support, supplementation with a variety of inhalational and intravenous agents, and local anesthetic infiltration. Induction of general anesthesia is typically left as a backup option, but must be strongly considered if the patient continues to have pain/discomfort. PMID:12698831

Portnoy, Dmitry; Vadhera, Rakesh B

2003-03-01

239

Spinal cord stimulation for intractable chronic upper abdominal pain: a case report of the first patient in New Zealand.  

PubMed

We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominal pain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominal pain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. PMID:23321890

Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R

2012-12-14

240

Acute Motor Weakness of Opposite Lower Extremity after Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty  

PubMed Central

Recently, percutaneous epidural neuroplasty has become widely used to treat radicular pain caused by spinal stenosis or a herniated intervertebral disc. A 19-year-old female patient suffering from left radicular pain caused by an L4-L5 intervertebral disc herniation underwent percutaneous epidural neuroplasty of the left L5 nerve root using a Racz catheter. After the procedure, the patient complained of acute motor weakness in the right lower leg, on the opposite site to where the neuroplasty was conducted. Emergency surgery was performed, and swelling of the right L5 nerve root was discovered. The patient recovered her motor and sensory functions immediately after the surgery. Theoretically, the injection of a large volume of fluid in a patient with severe spinal stenosis during epidural neuroplasty can increase the pressure on the opposite side of the epidural space, which may cause injury of the opposite nerve by barotrauma from a closed compartment. Practitioners should be aware of this potential complication.

Lim, Yong Seok; Park, Cheon Hee; Wee, Sang Woo; Sin, Sung Sik; Kim, Joon

2015-01-01

241

Epidural blocks for day surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar epidural blocks may be indicated for selected cases in day surgery; either by special request from the patient, prolonged or unpredictable duration of surgery, or caudal blocks for prolonged postoperative pain control in children. The drawbacks of epidural anesthesia, such as preoperative time consumption, may be minimized by introducing the epidural block by slow injection through the needle in

Johan Ræder

2000-01-01

242

Surgical removal of extravasated epidural and neuroforaminal polymethylmethacrylate after percutaneous vertebroplasty in the thoracic spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extravasations of polymethylmetharylate during percutaneous vertebroplasty are usually of little clinical consequence,\\u000a surgical decompression is occasionally required if resultant neurologic deficits are severe. Surgical removal of epidural\\u000a polymethylmetharylate is usually necessary to achieve good neurologic recovery. Because mobilizing the squeezed spinal cord\\u000a in a compromised canal can cause further deterioration, attempts to remove epidural polymethylmetharylate in the thoracic\\u000a region

Chang-Chin Wu; Mu-Hung Lin; Shu-Hua Yang; Po-Quang Chen; Tiffany Ting-Fang Shih

2007-01-01

243

Bilateral supratentorial epidural hematomas: a rare complication in adolescent spine surgery.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl presented with a rare case of spontaneous bilateral supratentorial epidural hematomas which developed rapidly following cervical surgery. The hematomas presumably resulted from dural dynamics changes secondary to cerebrospinal fluid loss and intracranial hypotension. Intracranial epidural hemorrhage after spinal surgery is extremely uncommon with only one previous case report. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma is an extremely rare complication, but should be considered as a possible complication of spine surgery, especially in adolescents complicated by delayed consciousness and breathing restoration from anesthesia. This case report expands the presently known clinical spectrum of this uncommon complication. PMID:23006878

Li, Zhao-Jian; Sun, Peng; Dou, Yi-He; Lan, Xiao-Lei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Yong; Wang, Jian-Peng

2012-01-01

244

Inhibition of Cysteine Proteases in Acute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious neurological disorder that debilitates mostly young people. Unfortunately, we still\\u000a do not have suitable therapeutic agents for treatment of SCI and prevention of its devastating consequences. However, we have\\u000a gained a good understanding of pathological mechanisms that cause neurodegeneration leading to paralysis or even death following\\u000a SCI. Primary injury to the spinal cord

Swapan K. Ray; Supriti Samantaray; Joshua A. Smith; Denise D. Matzelle; Arabinda Das; Naren L. Banik

2011-01-01

245

Epidural injections: past, present and future.  

PubMed

In the past, if someone had pain and a "defect" was noted on the myelogram or CT, surgery was immediately warranted. During this era, neural compression was considered to be the sole reason for all spinal pain. The surgical community firmly believed in the presence of a concrete-structural alteration to explain the pain and spinal arthrodesis was introduced. Over time, it became obvious that many patients did not improve after surgical interventions. Epidural injections were performed, formerly without fluoroscopic localization, and then with precise targeting.The spine care clinicians incorporated mediation of inflammation and neuromodulation as pathways to achieve pain control in order to pave the way for functional restoration. Epiduroscopy is presented as the most recent , complete and effective means for treating persistent low-back pain. PMID:21107936

Masini, Marcos

2011-01-01

246

Recovery of the pulmonary chemoreflex and functional role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Persistent impairment of pulmonary defense reflexes is a critical factor contributing to pulmonary complications in patients with spinal cord injuries. The pulmonary chemoreflex evoked by activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers has been reported to be abolished in animals with acute cervical hemisection (C2Hx). The present study examined whether the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover during the chronic injury phase and investigated the role of bronchopulmonary C-fibers on the altered breathing pattern after C2Hx. In the first protocol, bronchopulmonary C-fibers were excited by intrajugular capsaicin administration in uninjured and complete C2Hx animals 8 wk postsurgery. Capsaicin evoked pulmonary chemoreflexes in both groups, but the reflex intensity was significantly weaker in C2Hx animals. To examine whether spared spinal white matter tissue contributes to pulmonary chemoreflex recovery, the reflex was evaluated in animals with different extents of lateral injury. Linear regression analyses revealed that tidal volume significantly correlated with the extent of spared tissue; however, capsaicin-induced apnea was not related to injury severity when the ipsilateral-to-contralateral white matter ratio was <50%. In the second protocol, the influence of background bronchopulmonary C-fiber activity on respiration was investigated by blocking C-fiber conduction via perivagal capsaicin treatment. The rapid shallow breathing of C2Hx animals persisted after perivagal capsaicin treatment despite attenuation of pulmonary chemoreflexes. These results indicate that the pulmonary chemoreflex can recover to some extent following spinal injury, but remains attenuated even when there is moderate spinal tissue sparing, and that altered breathing pattern of C2Hx animals cannot be attributed to endogenous activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers. PMID:25257870

Lee, Kun-Ze; Chang, Yu-Shuo

2014-11-15

247

Targeting the Spinal Nerve via A Double-Needle, Transforaminal Approach in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Demonstration of A Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal surgery, particularly spinal fu- sion surgery, alters the anatomy of the spine and hence, may increase the difficulty of per - forming an interventional spine procedure. Transforaminal epidural procedures have gained popularity as an alternative to in- terlaminar epidural steroids in the manage- ment of radicular pain syndromes. Patients with failed back surgery syndrome are of- ten excluded or

Rinoo V. Shah; Wesley Merritt; Dwayne Collins; Gabor B. Racz

248

Spinal epidural empyema in seven dogs  

E-print Network

diaphragmatic crus and the lumbar spine. A tract containingdiaphragmatic attachment to lumbar spine, retroperitoneallumbar vertebrae 2 and 3 (L2–3). Computed tomography (CT) images of the lum- bar spine

Lavely, J A; Vernau, karen M; Vernau, W; Herrgesell, E J; Lecouteur, R A

2006-01-01

249

A rare non-malignant cause of spinal cord compression in a young patient.  

PubMed

In the context of palliative medicine, spinal cord compression occurs in around 5% of patients with cancer. Ten per cent of patients with spinal metastases are affected; the commonest causes are breast, prostate, lung cancer and multiple myeloma. We describe a rare cause of spinal cord compression in a 29-year-old man resulting from a complication of long-term corticosteroid use. Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a complex disorder caused by hypertrophy of adipose tissue located in the spinal epidural space. Symptoms occur when the adipose tissue enlarges, encroaching on the spinal canal. In this case, the aetiology was long-term exogenous dexamethasone use. PMID:24644776

Clerici, Joanna; MacLaran, Sarah

2014-03-01

250

Chronic changes in cerebrospinal fluid pathways produced by subarachnoid kaolin injection and experimental spinal cord trauma in the rabbit: their relationship with the development of spinal deformity. An electron microscopic study and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic cystic changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways such as ventriculomegaly and/or hydrosyringomyelia are not uncommon, but their characteristics have not yet been fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the alterations affecting the CSF pathways in rabbits at a late stage, and to clarify the relationship between these changes and the development of spinal deformity. In this study, a total of 60 New Zealand white rabbits were used and they were segregated into four different groups of 15 animals each: sham-operation group, kaolin group, and kaolin plus mild trauma group and kaolin plus severe trauma group. The animals were subjected to radiological investigation using direct X-ray study and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after 4 months. The thoracic spinal cords of the animals were dissected after intracardiac perfusion-fixation with 10% formalin for light microscopy and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopic study. Following the sectioning and staining procedures, the histological characteristics of the spinal cords were evaluated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A spinal deformity developed in 90% in rabbits in both kaolin injection group and spinal trauma groups. MRI revealed generalized dilatation of the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord after the kaolin injection with/without trauma in this study. Gross morphologic examination showed some enlargement of entire CSF pathways in these groups. All animals with central canal dilatation had mild or severe scoliotic and kyphotic deformities. In a light microscopic study, a denuded ependymal line and multicyst formations in periependymal areas were found in both kaolin injection and spinal trauma groups. Ultrastructurally, an apical flattening of the ependyma, microcysts in the ependymal cells, axonal degeneration, demyelination, and loss of ependymal cells adjacent mild spongy were found in the spinal cords of animals in these groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the chronic effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the CSF pathways and their relationship with the development of spinal deformity in an experimental model of kaolin injection and trauma, using MRI as well as light and transmission electron microscopy. In the light of this study, the severity of spinal cord injury on the development of some degenerative findings in the spinal cord was clear, but further clinical and experimental studies using dynamic imaging techniques will be valuable. PMID:15931513

Turgut, Mehmet; Cullu, Emre; Uysal, Ay?egül; Yurtseven, Mine Ertem; Alparslan, Bülent

2005-10-01

251

A Comparison of Spinal Iba1 and GFAP expression in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

The treatment of acute and chronic pain is still deficient. The modulation of glial cells may provide novel targets to treat pain. We hypothesize that astrocytes and microglia participate in the initiation and maintenance of both, acute surgical and chronic neuropathic pain. Rats underwent paw incision, L5 nerve exposure or L5 nerve transection surgery. Behavioral mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey filaments. Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-ionized calcium binding adaptor protein, Iba-1 (microglia), and anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP (astrocytes) on day 1, 4 and 7 after surgery. Following paw incision and at spinal L5 segment GFAP expression was increased in laminae I-II and Iba1 in deep laminae on day 1, in the entire dorsal horn on day 4 and dissipate on day 7 after paw incision in parallel with the allodynia. L5 nerve transection induced mechanical allodynia from day 1 to 7 which correlated with Iba-1 increases on day 1, 4 (entire dorsal horn) and day 7 after nerve injury (deep laminae of the dorsal horn) at spinal L5 segment. Conversely, GFAP increased at later time points from day 4 (deep laminae) and on day 7 (entire dorsal horn). Our data demonstrates that astrocytes (GFAP expression) play a role in the initiation of acute pain and the maintenance of chronic pain while Iba-1 increases closely correlated with the early phase of neuropathic pain. Iba1 and GFAP increased rostrally, at L3 segment, after paw incision (day 4) and only Iba1 increased following L5 nerve transection (day 7). PMID:18538310

Romero-Sandoval, Alfonso; Chai, Nu; Nutile-McMenemy, Nancy; DeLeo, Joyce A.

2008-01-01

252

Delayed expression of cell cycle proteins contributes to astroglial scar formation and chronic inflammation after rat spinal cord contusion  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with astrogliosis and inflammation. We previously reported that acute upregulation of a cluster of cell-cycle-related genes contributes to post-mitotic cell death and secondary damage after SCI. However, it remains unclear whether cell cycle activation continues more chronically and contributes to more delayed glial change. Here we examined expression of cell cycle-related proteins up to 4?months following SCI, as well as the effects of the selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs) inhibitor CR8, on astrogliosis and microglial activation in a rat SCI contusion model. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to moderate spinal cord contusion injury at T8 using a well-characterized weight-drop model. Tissue from the lesion epicenter was obtained 4?weeks or 4?months post-injury, and processed for protein expression and lesion volume. Functional recovery was assessed over the 4?months after injury. Results Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a marked continued upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins???including cyclin D1 and E, CDK4, E2F5 and PCNA???for 4?months post-injury that were highly expressed by GFAP+ astrocytes and microglia, and co-localized with inflammatory-related proteins. CR8 administrated systemically 3?h post-injury and continued for 7?days limited the sustained elevation of cell cycle proteins and immunoreactivity of GFAP, Iba-1 and p22PHOX???a key component of NADPH oxidase???up to 4?months after SCI. CR8 treatment significantly reduced lesion volume, which typically progressed in untreated animals between 1 and 4?months after trauma. Functional recovery was also significantly improved by CR8 treatment after SCI from week 2 through week 16. Conclusions These data demonstrate that cell cycle-related proteins are chronically upregulated after SCI and may contribute to astroglial scar formation, chronic inflammation and further tissue loss. PMID:22784881

2012-01-01

253

Clues to 'Brain Fog' in Chronic Fatigue Patients Found in Spinal Fluid  

MedlinePLUS

... said. Chronic fatigue syndrome is known medically as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, or ME/CFS. In the United States, it ... February, the IOM released a report affirming that chronic fatigue syndrome is a legitimate medical condition that many health ...

254

Unintended Complication of Intracranial Subdural Hematoma after Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a known interventional technique for the management of spinal pain. As with any procedures, PEN is associated with complications ranging from mild to more serious ones. We present a case of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN requiring surgical evacuation. We review the relevant literature and discuss possible complications of PEN and patholophysiology of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN. PMID:24851156

Kim, Min Ki; Kim, Kee D.; Lim, Young Jin

2014-01-01

255

Epidural - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... entire labor. Epidurals can also cause your blood pressure to drop, which in turn may slow your baby's heartbeat. To prevent this, you'll be given intravenous fluids and may be ... continuously monitoring your blood pressure and his heart rate.

256

Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation through CSF on the Subacute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

It has been demonstrated that the infusion of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has beneficial effects on acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The present study examined whether BMSC infusion into the CSF is effective for subacute (1- and 2-week post-injury), and/or chronic (4-week post-injury) SCI in rats. The spinal cord was contused by dropping a weight at the thoracic 8-9 levels. BMSCs cultured from GFP-transgenic rats of the same strain were injected three times (once weekly) into the CSF through the fourth ventricle, beginning at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. At 4 weeks after initial injection, the average BBB score for locomotor assessment increased from 1.0–3.5 points before injection to 9.0-10.9 points in the BMSC-injection subgroups, while, in the PBS (vehicle)-injection subgroups, it increased only from 0.5–4.0 points before injection to 3.0-5.1 points. Numerous axons associated with Schwann cells extended longitudinally through the connective tissue matrices in the astrocyte-devoid lesion without being blocked at either the rostral or the caudal borders in the BMSC-injection subgroups. A small number of BMSCs were found to survive within the spinal cord lesion in SCI of the 1-week post-injury at 2 days of injection, but none at 7 days. No BMSCs were found in the spinal cord lesion at 2 days or at 7 days in the SCI of the 2-week and the 4-week post-injury groups. In an in vitro experiment, BMSC-injected CSF promoted the survival and the neurite extension of cultured neurons more effectively than did the PBS-injected CSF. These results indicate that BMSCs had beneficial effects on locomotor improvement as well as on axonal regeneration in both subacute and chronic SCI rats, and the results also suggest that BMSCs might function as neurotrophic sources via the CSF. PMID:24039961

Nakano, Norihiko; Nakai, Yoshiyasu; Seo, Tae-Beom; Homma, Tamami; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Nakatani, Toshio; Fukushima, Masanori; Hayashibe, Miki; Ide, Chizuka

2013-01-01

257

Quantitative analysis of cellular inflammation after traumatic spinal cord injury: evidence for a multiphasic inflammatory response in the acute to chronic environment.  

PubMed

Traumatic injury to the central nervous system results in the disruption of the blood brain/spinal barrier, followed by the invasion of cells and other components of the immune system that can aggravate injury and affect subsequent repair and regeneration. Although studies of chronic neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord of animals are clinically relevant to most patients living with traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord, very little is known about chronic neuroinflammation, though several studies have tested the role of neuroinflammation in the acute period after injury. The present study characterizes a novel cell preparation method that assesses, quickly and effectively, the changes in the principal immune cell types by flow cytometry in the injured spinal cord, daily for the first 10 days and periodically up to 180 days after spinal cord injury. These data quantitatively demonstrate a novel time-dependent multiphasic response of cellular inflammation in the spinal cord after spinal cord injury and are verified by quantitative stereology of immunolabelled spinal cord sections at selected time points. The early phase of cellular inflammation is comprised principally of neutrophils (peaking 1 day post-injury), macrophages/microglia (peaking 7 days post-injury) and T cells (peaking 9 days post-injury). The late phase of cellular inflammation was detected after 14 days post-injury, peaked after 60 days post-injury and remained detectable throughout 180 days post-injury for all three cell types. Furthermore, the late phase of cellular inflammation (14-180 days post-injury) did not coincide with either further improvements, or new decrements, in open-field locomotor function after spinal cord injury. However, blockade of chemoattractant C5a-mediated inflammation after 14 days post-injury reduced locomotor recovery and myelination in the injured spinal cord, suggesting that the late inflammatory response serves a reparative function. Together, these data provide new insight into cellular inflammation of spinal cord injury and identify a surprising and extended multiphasic response of cellular inflammation. Understanding the role of this multiphasic response in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury could be critical for the design and implementation of rational therapeutic treatment strategies, including both cell-based and pharmacological interventions. PMID:20085927

Beck, Kevin D; Nguyen, Hal X; Galvan, Manuel D; Salazar, Desirée L; Woodruff, Trent M; Anderson, Aileen J

2010-02-01

258

[Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with epidural block].  

PubMed

Infectious complications after epidural anesthesia are infrequent and the most common are epidural and subdural abscess. We report one rare case of vertebral osteomyelitus associated with an epidural catheter and review the literature. PMID:11381807

Carrillo Esper, R; Cruz-Bautista, I

2001-01-01

259

Spinal Cord Microstimulation Generates Functional Limb Movements in Chronically Implanted Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injuries disrupt the communication between the brain and peripheral nerves, but leave motoneurons and networks of interneurons below the level of the lesion intact. It is therefore possible to restore some function following injury by providing an artificial stimulus to the surviving neurons below the level of the lesion. We report here on a novel approach for generating

Vivian K. Mushahwar; David F. Collins; Arthur Prochazka

2000-01-01

260

Chronic pediatric asthma and chiropractic spinal manipulation: A prospective clinical series and randomized clinical pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The first objective was to determine if chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in addition to optimal medical management resulted in clinically important changes in asthma-related outcomes in children. The second objective was to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale, randomized clinical trial in terms of recruitment, evaluation, treatment, and ability to deliver a sham SMT procedure. Study Design:

Gert Bronfort; Roni L. Evans; Paul Kubic; Patty Filkin

2001-01-01

261

QT\\/RR Coherence Is Associated with Testosterone Levels in Men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the effect of hypogonadism on temporal characteristics of ventricular repolarization (VR) and QT\\/RR coherence in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Thirty-four men with SCI (>1 year postinjury) were studied. After clinical evaluation, 20 subjects were diagnosed as hypogonadal and 14 as eugonadal. QT and RT time, heart rate (HR), and Bazett QTc were determined from

Michael F. La Fountaine; Jill M. Wecht; Christopher M. Cirnigliaro; Steven C. Kirshblum; Ann M. Spungen; William A. Bauman

2011-01-01

262

Patient satisfaction with spinal cord stimulation for predominant complaints of chronic, intractable low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Results of subsequent surgical intervention in patients with intractable pain after lumbar spine surgery are typically worse than for initial surgery, particularly in those with predominant complaints of back pain rather than lower extremity pain. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been found to yield good results in patients with primary complaints of intractable lower extremity pain. Technological advances

Donna D Ohnmeiss; Ralph F Rashbaum

2001-01-01

263

Chronic Expression of PPAR-? by Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells in the Injured Rat Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation in vitro and is prevalent throughout the brain and spinal cord. Its expression after injury, however, has not been examined. Thus, we used a spinal contusion model to examine the spatiotemporal expression of PPAR-? in naïve and injured spinal cords from adult rats. As previously reported, PPAR-? was expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes in uninjured spinal cords; PPAR-? was also detected in NG2 cells (potential oligodendrocyte progenitors) within the white matter and gray matter. After spinal cord injury (SCI), PPAR-? mRNA and protein were present early and increased over time. Overall PPAR-?+ cell numbers declined at 1 day post injury (dpi), likely reflecting neuron loss, and then rose through 14 dpi. A large proportion of NG2 cells expressed PPAR-? after SCI, especially along lesion borders. PPAR-?+ NG2 cell numbers were significantly higher than naive by 7 dpi and remained elevated through at least 28 dpi. PPAR-?+ oligodendrocyte numbers declined at 1 dpi and then increased over time such that >20% of oligodendrocytes expressed PPAR-? after SCI compared with ~10% in uninjured tissue. The most prominent increase in PPAR-?+ oligodendrocytes was along lesion borders where at least a portion of newly generated oligodendrocytes (bromode-oxyuridine +) were PPAR-?+. Consistent with its role in cellular differentiation, the early rise in PPAR-?+ NG2 cells followed by an increase in new PPAR-?+ oligodendrocytes suggests that this transcription factor may be involved in the robust oligodendrogenesis detected previously along SCI lesion borders. PMID:20058304

Almad, Akshata; McTigue, Dana M.

2014-01-01

264

Persistent At-Level Thermal Hyperalgesia and Tactile Allodynia Accompany Chronic Neuronal and Astrocyte Activation in Superficial Dorsal Horn following Mouse Cervical Contusion Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can lead to maladaptive circuitry, aberrant pain processing and, ultimately, chronic neuropathic pain. Here we present a mouse model of SCI-induced neuropathic pain that exhibits a persistent pain phenotype accompanied by chronic neuronal hyperexcitability and glial activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn. We generated a unilateral cervical contusion injury at the C5 or C6 level of the adult mouse spinal cord. Following injury, an increase in the number of neurons expressing ?FosB (a marker of chronic neuronal activation), persistent astrocyte activation and proliferation (as measured by GFAP and Ki67 expression), and a decrease in the expression of the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 are observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. These changes have previously been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and may contribute to altered pain transmission and chronic neuropathic pain. In our model, they are accompanied by robust at-level hyperaglesia in the ipsilateral forepaw and allodynia in both forepaws that are evident within two weeks following injury and persist for at least six weeks. Furthermore, the pain phenotype occurs in the absence of alterations in forelimb grip strength, suggesting that it represents sensory and not motor abnormalities. Given the importance of transgenic mouse technology, this clinically-relevant model provides a resource that can be used to study the molecular mechanisms contributing to neuropathic pain following SCI and to identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic pathological pain. PMID:25268642

Watson, Jaime L.; Hala, Tamara J.; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Sannie, Daniel; Lepore, Angelo C.

2014-01-01

265

Radical excision combined with instrumented fixation in the management of thoracic epidural angiolipoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spinal angiolipoma is a benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account for only 0.04% to 1.2% of all spinal tumors. We present a case of thoracic epidural angiolipoma treated by combining radical resection with instrumented spinal fixation, without any surgical complication. Case presentation A 32-year-old Asian woman presented with dorsal epidural angiolipoma at the upper-thoracic level. She had a seven-month history of gradually worsening weakness and numbness in her lower extremities. Imaging studies of her thoracic spine demonstrated a heterogeneously well-enhancing mass, located in her posterior epidural space without surrounding bone erosion at the upper thoracic level. We also observed compression of her thoracic cord. During surgery, a reddish-gray, highly vascularized mass was excised. Her facet joints had to be resected to expose the part migrating into the intervertebral foramen. Because there was concern regarding the stability of her thoracic spine, we performed spinal fixation using pedicle screws. Histopathological study of the surgical specimen showed a typical angiolipoma. Conclusion Angiolipomas can be radically excised with good prognosis. Surgical removal is the preferred treatment for spinal angiolipoma, and the prognosis after surgical management is very good. Although outcomes remained favorable despite incomplete resections in a number of spinal angiolipoma, complete removal is preferred. We successfully achieved total resection without any surgical complication by combining radical resection with instrumented spinal fixation. PMID:25412677

2014-01-01

266

Neuromotor and Musculoskeletal Responses to Locomotor Training for an Individual With Chronic Motor Complete AIS-B Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background/objective: To determine the effects of locomotor training (LT) using body weight support (BWS), treadmill, and manual assistance on muscle activation, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition changes for an individual with motor complete spinal cord injury (AIS B), 1 year after injury. Methods: A man with chronic C6 AIS B (motor complete and sensory incomplete) spinal cord injury (SCI), 1 year after injury, completed 2 blocks of LT over a 9-month training period (35-session block followed by 8.6 weeks of no training and then a 62-session block). Results: Before training, muscle activation was minimal for any muscle examined, whereas after the 2 blocks of LT (97 sessions), hip and knee muscle activation patterns for the bilateral rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius were in phase with the kinematics. Mean EMG amplitude increased for all bilateral muscles and burst duration increased for rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles, whereas burst duration decreased for the biceps femoris after 62 LT sessions. Before LT, left biceps femoris had a pattern that reflected muscle stretch, whereas after training, muscle stretch of the left biceps femoris could not totally account for mean EMG amplitude or burst duration. After the 62 training sessions, total BMD decreased (1.54%), and regional BMD decreased (legs: 6.72%). Total weight increased, lean mass decreased (6.6%), and fat mass increased (7.4%) in the arms, whereas fat mass decreased (3.5%) and lean mass increased (4%) in the legs. Conclusions: LT can induce positive neural and body composition changes in a nonambulatory person with chronic SCI, indicating that neuromuscular plasticity can be induced by repetitive locomotor training after a motor complete SCI. PMID:19086708

Forrest, Gail F; Sisto, Sue Ann; Barbeau, Hugues; Kirshblum, Steven C; Wilen, Janina; Bond, Quin; Bentson, Scott; Asselin, Pierre; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Harkema, Susan

2008-01-01

267

Plasticity in ascending long propriospinal and descending supraspinal pathways in chronic cervical spinal cord injured rats  

PubMed Central

The high clinical relevance of models of incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a need to address the spontaneous neuroplasticity that underlies changes in functional activity that occur over time after SCI. There is accumulating evidence supporting long projecting propriospinal neurons as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention after SCI, but focus has remained primarily oriented toward study of descending pathways. Long ascending axons from propriospinal neurons at lower thoracic and lumbar levels that form inter-enlargement pathways are involved in forelimb-hindlimb coordination during locomotion and are capable of modulating cervical motor output. We used non-invasive magnetic stimulation to assess how a unilateral cervical (C5) spinal contusion might affect transmission in intact, long ascending propriospinal pathways, and influence spinal cord plasticity. Our results show that transmission is facilitated in this pathway on the ipsilesional side as early as 1 week post-SCI. We also probed for descending magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) and found them absent or greatly reduced on the ipsilesional side as expected. The frequency-dependent depression (FDD) of the H-reflex recorded from the forelimb triceps brachii was bilaterally decreased although Hmax/Mmax was increased only on the ipsilesional side. Behaviorally, stepping recovered, but there were deficits in forelimb–hindlimb coordination as detected by BBB and CatWalk measures. Importantly, epicenter sparing correlated to the amplitude of the MMEPs and locomotor recovery but it was not significantly associated with the inter-enlargement or segmental H-reflex. In summary, our results indicate that complex plasticity occurs after a C5 hemicontusion injury, leading to differential changes in ascending vs. descending pathways, ipsi- vs. contralesional sides even though the lesion was unilateral as well as cervical vs. lumbar local spinal networks. PMID:22934078

Côté, Marie-Pascale; Detloff, Megan R.; Wade, Rodel E.; Lemay, Michel A.; Houlé, John D.

2012-01-01

268

Screw in the aorta: minimally invasive graft replacement for chronic aortic erosion by spinal instrument.  

PubMed

Intra-and early post-operative aortic injury by pedicle screw is not a rare complication in orthopedic surgery, but aortic penetration by a screw head over a long time period is considered as an uncommon case. There are various surgical management options for thoracic aortic injury caused by malpositioned spinal instruments. We report a case of a patient who underwent minimally invasive graft replacement of the descending thoracic artery for pedicle screw penetration. PMID:23232300

Fukuda, Wakako; Aoki, Chikashi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

2013-01-01

269

Bilateral assymetric epidural hematoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute bilateral extradural hematoma is a rare presentation of head trauma injury. In sporadic cases, they represent 0.5–10% of all extradural hematomas. However, higher mortality rates have been reported in previous series. Case Description: The authors described the case of a 28-year-old male presenting head injury, comatose, Glasgow Coma Scale of 6, anisocoric pupils without puppilary light reflex. Computed tomography showed asymmetric bilateral epidural hematomas, effacement of the lateral ventricles and sulci, midline shift and a bilateral skull fracture reaching the vertex. Surgical evacuation was performed with simultaneous hematoma drainage. Patient was discharged on the 29th postoperative day with no neurological deficit. Conclusion: The correct approach on bilateral epidural hematomas depends on the volume, moment of diagnosis, and neurological deficit level. Simultaneous drainage of bilateral hematomas has been demonstrated to be an effective technique for it, which soon decreases the intracranial pressure and promotes an efficient resolution to the neurological damage. PMID:25657867

Pereira, Edmundo Luis Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Daniella Brito; Lima, Lorena Oliveira; Sawada, Luis Armando; Hermes, Mário de Nazareth

2015-01-01

270

[Epidural hematoma after removal of an epidural catheter].  

PubMed

Epidural hematoma is a rare but serious neurological complication of epidural anesthesia. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung who suffered an epidural hematoma after undergoing right double lobectomy. Before anesthetic induction an epidural catheter was inserted to the D5-D6 space for postoperative analgesia. Surgery was without noteworthy events and the patient was extubated in the operating room; 5,000 IU of low molecular weight heparin was injected subcutaneously every 24 hours and 5 mg of methadone was provided by epidural catheter every 8 hours. After removal of the catheter three days after surgery, lumbar back pain and hypoesthesia, and weakness in both legs appeared. Epidural hematoma was suspected and treatment with 30 mg.kg-1 of methylprednisolone i.v. was started. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine confirmed the presence of a hematoma at D6-D8. Neurologic symptoms improved in the following hours and additional surgery was not required. The patient was released without neurological symptoms 10 days after lung surgery. We discuss the prevalence, etiology and treatment of epidural hematoma related to epidural anesthesia. PMID:9780766

Blasi, A; Fita, G; Gomar, C; Adalia, R; Jiménez, M J

1998-01-01

271

The Prevalence and Phenotype of Activated Microglia/Macrophages within the Spinal Cord of the Hyperostotic Mouse (twy/twy) Changes in Response to Chronic Progressive Spinal Cord Compression: Implications for Human Cervical Compressive Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical compressive myelopathy, e.g. due to spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Although human pathological studies have reported neuronal loss and demyelination in the chronically compressed spinal cord, little is known about the mechanisms involved. In particular, the neuroinflammatory processes that are thought to underlie the condition are poorly understood. The present study assessed the localized prevalence of activated M1 and M2 microglia/macrophages in twy/twy mice that develop spontaneous cervical spinal cord compression, as a model of human disease. Methods Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed in compressed lesions of the spinal cords in 12-, 18- and 24-weeks old twy/twy mice by immunohistochemical, immunoblot and flow cytometric analysis. Computed tomography and standard histology confirmed a progressive spinal cord compression through the spontaneously development of an impinging calcified mass. Results The prevalence of CD11b-positive cells, in the compressed spinal cord increased over time with a concurrent decrease in neurons. The CD11b-positive cell population was initially formed of arginase-1- and CD206-positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which later shifted towards iNOS- and CD16/32-positive M1 microglia/macrophages. There was a transient increase in levels of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines at 18 weeks, whereas levels of Th1 cytokines as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and macrophage antigen (Mac) ?2 progressively increased. Conclusions Spinal cord compression was associated with a temporal M2 microglia/macrophage response, which may act as a possible repair or neuroprotective mechanism. However, the persistence of the neural insult also associated with persistent expression of Th1 cytokines and increased prevalence of activated M1 microglia/macrophages, which may lead to neuronal loss and demyelination despite the presence of neurotrophic factors. This understanding of the aetiopathology of chronic spinal cord compression is of importance in the development of new treatment targets in human disease. PMID:23717624

Hirai, Takayuki; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Takeura, Naoto; Watanabe, Shuji; Sugita, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ai; Johnson, William E. B.; Baba, Hisatoshi

2013-01-01

272

Adiponectin Is a Candidate Biomarker of Lower Extremity Bone Density in Men With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue is a major regulator of bone metabolism and in the general population obesity is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD). However, bone-fat interactions are multifactorial, and may involve pathways that influence both bone formation and resorption with competing effects on the skeleton. One such pathway involves adipocyte production of adipokines that regulate bone metabolism. In this study we determined the association between BMD, walking status, and circulating adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) in 149 men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Although adipokine levels did not vary significantly based on walking status, there was a significant inverse association between adiponectin and BMD in wheelchair users independent of body composition. We found no association between adiponectin and BMD in the walkers and no association between leptin and BMD in either group. These findings suggest that for subjects with chronic SCI, walking may mitigate the effect of adiponectin mediated bone loss. For wheelchair users, adipose-derived adiponectin may contribute to SCI-induced osteoporosis because the osteoprotective benefits of obesity appear to require mechanical loading during ambulation. PMID:23787489

Doherty, Ashley L; Battaglino, Ricardo A; Donovan, Jayne; Gagnon, David; Lazzari, Antonio A; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R

2014-01-01

273

Human spinal locomotor control is based on flexibly organized burst generators.  

PubMed

Constant drive provided to the human lumbar spinal cord by epidural electrical stimulation can cause local neural circuits to generate rhythmic motor outputs to lower limb muscles in people paralysed by spinal cord injury. Epidural spinal cord stimulation thus allows the study of spinal rhythm and pattern generating circuits without their configuration by volitional motor tasks or task-specific peripheral feedback. To reveal spinal locomotor control principles, we studied the repertoire of rhythmic patterns that can be generated by the functionally isolated human lumbar spinal cord, detected as electromyographic activity from the legs, and investigated basic temporal components shared across these patterns. Ten subjects with chronic, motor-complete spinal cord injury were studied. Surface electromyographic responses to lumbar spinal cord stimulation were collected from quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae in the supine position. From these data, 10-s segments of rhythmic activity present in the four muscle groups of one limb were extracted. Such samples were found in seven subjects. Physiologically adequate cycle durations and relative extension- and flexion-phase durations similar to those needed for locomotion were generated. The multi-muscle activation patterns exhibited a variety of coactivation, mixed-synergy and locomotor-like configurations. Statistical decomposition of the electromyographic data across subjects, muscles and samples of rhythmic patterns identified three common temporal components, i.e. basic or shared activation patterns. Two of these basic patterns controlled muscles to contract either synchronously or alternatingly during extension- and flexion-like phases. The third basic pattern contributed to the observed muscle activities independently from these extensor- and flexor-related basic patterns. Each bifunctional muscle group was able to express both extensor- and flexor-patterns, with variable ratios across the samples of rhythmic patterns. The basic activation patterns can be interpreted as central drives implemented by spinal burst generators that impose specific spatiotemporally organized activation on the lumbosacral motor neuron pools. Our data thus imply that the human lumbar spinal cord circuits can form burst-generating elements that flexibly combine to obtain a wide range of locomotor outputs from a constant, repetitive input. It may be possible to use this flexibility to incorporate specific adaptations to gait and stance to improve locomotor control, even after severe central nervous system damage. PMID:25582580

Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Freundl, Brigitta; Binder, Heinrich; Mayr, Winfried; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

2015-03-01

274

Total vertebrectomy for stabilisation of chronic spinal lumbar luxation in a paraplegic dog without nociception.  

PubMed

An adult male crossbred dog was referred with a history of a road traffic accident that took place 1 month earlier. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent nociception in the pelvic limbs. On epaxial palpation, significant curvature of the anatomical axis of the spine between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae was observed, with the presence of a bone end almost piercing the dog's skin. Survey radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed severe dislocation between L3 and L4 vertebrae. During surgery, the spinal cord was not visible between the dislocated segments. Because of difficulties in reducing the lumbar luxation during surgery, vertebrectomy and vertebral shortening were performed. After alignment between vertebrae L3 and L5, eight cortical orthopaedic screws and bone cement were used for fixation. After 30 days, the dog started to use a wheelchair and was considered by its owner to have a good quality of life with no evidence of pain. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of severe luxation treated by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening in a dog. This surgery can be considered as an option in the management of severe spine luxation when the spinal cord is physically transected. PMID:24962201

Tertuliano Marinho, P V; Zani, C C; De Biasi, F; Bahr Arias, M V

2014-10-01

275

Comparison of training methods to improve walking in persons with chronic spinal cord injury: a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare two forms of device-specific training – body-weight-supported (BWS) ambulation on a fixed track (TRK) and BWS ambulation on a treadmill (TM) – to comprehensive physical therapy (PT) for improving walking speed in persons with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Thirty-five adult subjects with a history of chronic SCI (>1 year; AIS ‘C’ or ‘D’) participated in a 13-week (1 hour/day; 3 days per week) training program. Subjects were randomized into one of the three training groups. Subjects in the two BWS groups trained without the benefit of additional input from a physical therapist or gait expert. For each training session, performance values and heart rate were monitored. Pre- and post-training maximal 10-m walking speed, balance, muscle strength, fitness, and quality of life were assessed in each subject. Results All three training groups showed significant improvement in maximal walking speed, muscle strength, and psychological well-being. A significant improvement in balance was seen for PT and TRK groups but not for subjects in the TM group. In all groups, post-training measures of fitness, functional independence, and perceived health and vitality were unchanged. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that persons with chronic, motor-incomplete SCI can improve walking ability and psychological well-being following a concentrated period of ambulation therapy, regardless of training method. Improvement in walking speed was associated with improved balance and muscle strength. In spite of the fact that we withheld any formal input of a physical therapist or gait expert from subjects in the device-specific training groups, these subjects did just as well as subjects receiving comprehensive PT for improving walking speed and strength. It is likely that further modest benefits would accrue to those subjects receiving a combination of device-specific training with input from a physical therapist or gait expert to guide that training. PMID:21903010

Alexeeva, Natalia; Sames, Carol; Jacobs, Patrick L.; Hobday, Lori; DiStasio, Marcello M.; Mitchell, Sarah A.; Calancie, Blair

2011-01-01

276

Cauda equina syndrome after repeated spinal attempts: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Spinal and epidural blocks are widely used for cesarean section. Spinal hematoma causing cauda equina syndrome is a rare complication after spinal anesthesia (SA), but can lead to severe neurological deficit. It is usually associated with difficult SA and requires surgical decompression in most of the cases.

Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Haramritpal; Singh, Amandeep

2015-01-01

277

Combination strategies for repair, plasticity, and regeneration using regulation of gene expression during the chronic phase after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Although recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is rare in humans, recent literature indicates that some patients do recover sensorimotor function years after the trauma. This study seeks to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of SCI repair through the investigation of neurodegenerative and regenerative associated genes involved in the response to SCI during the chronic phase in adult rats. Intervention on the level of gene regulation focused on enhancing naturally attempting SCI regenerative genes has the potential to promote SCI repair. Our aim was to analyze gene expression characteristics of candidate genes involved in the neuro-degenerative and -regenerative processes following various animal models of SCI. We compiled data showing gene expression changes after SCI in adult rats and created a chronological time-line of candidate genes differentially expressed during the chronic phase of SCI. Compiled data showed that SCI induced a transient upregulation of endogenous neuro-regenerative genes not only within a few hours but also within a few days, weeks, and months after SCI. For example, gene controlling growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and others, showed significant changes in mRNA accumulation in SCI animals, from 48 hours to 12 weeks after SCI. Similarly, inhibitory genes, such as RhoA, LINGO-1, and others, were upregulated as late as 4 to 14 days after injury. This indicates that gene specific regulation changes, corresponding to repair and regenerative attempts, are naturally orchestrated over time after injury. These delayed changes after SCI give ample time for therapeutic gene modulation through upregulation or silencing of specific genes responsible for the synthesis of the corresponding biogenic proteins. By following the examination of differential gene regulation during the chronic phase, we have determined times, successions, co-activations, interferences, and dosages for potential therapeutic synchronized interventions. Finally, local cellular specificities and their neuropathophysiologies have been taken into account in the elaboration of the combination treatment strategy we propose. The interventions we propose suggest the delivery of exogenous therapeutic agents to upregulate or downregulate chosen genes or the expression of the downstream proteins to revert the post-traumatic stage of SCI during the chronic phase. The proposed combination and schedule of local cell-specific treatment should enhance intrinsic regenerative machinery and provide a promising strategy for treating patients sustaining chronic SCI. PMID:21308793

Gerin, Christine G; Madueke, Ikenna C; Perkins, Tina; Hill, Seritta; Smith, Kristin; Haley, Benjamin; Allen, Shannon A; Garcia, Richard P; Paunesku, Tanjana; Woloschak, Gayle

2011-12-01

278

Spinal tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... genetic defects. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

279

Long-term outcome of olfactory ensheathing cell therapy for patients with complete chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The neurorestorative effect of the parenchymal transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) for cord trauma remains clinically controversial. The aim of this article is to study the long-term result of OECs for patients with complete chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred and eight patients suffered from complete chronic SCI were followed up successfully within the period of 3.47 ± 1.12 years after OEC therapy. They were divided into two groups based on the quality and quantity of their rehabilitative training: group A (n = 79) in sufficient rehabilitation (or active movement-target enhancement-neurorehabilitation therapy, AMTENT) and group B (n = 29) in insufficient rehabilitation. All patients were assessed by using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standard and the International Association of Neurorestoratology Spinal Cord Injury Functional Rating Scale (IANR-SCIFRS). Thirty-one patients were evaluated by the tests of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG), and paravertebral sensory evoked potential (PVSEP). We found the following. 1) According to ASIA and IANR-SCIFRS assessment for all 108 patients, averaged motor scores increased from 37.79 ± 18.45 to 41.25 ± 18.18 (p < 0.01), light touch scores from 50.32 ± 24.71 to 55.90 ± 24.46 (p < 0.01), pin prick scores from 50.53 ± 24.92 to 54.53 ± 24.62 (p < 0.01); IANR-SCIFRS scores increased from 19.32 ± 9.98 to 23.12 ± 10.30 (p < 0.01). 2) The score changes in terms of motor, light touch, pin prick, and IANR-SCIFRS in group A were remarkably different (all p < 0.01). The score changes in group B were remarkably different in terms of motor (p < 0.05) and IANR-SCIFRS (p < 0.01), but not light touch or pin prick (p > 0.05). 3) Comparing group A with group B, the increased scores in terms of motor, light touch, and pin prick were remarkably different (all p < 0.01), but not IANR-SCIFRS (p > 0.05). 4) Fourteen of 108 patients (12.96%) became ASIA B from ASIA A; 18 of 108 (16.67%) became ASIA C from ASIA A. Nine of them (8.33%) improved their walk ability or made them rewalk by using a walker with or without assistance; 12 of 84 men (14.29%) improved their sex function. 5) MRI examinations were taken for 31 patients; there were no neoplasm, bleeding, swelling, cysts, neural tissue destruction or infection (abscess) or any other pathological changes in or around OEC transplant sites. 6) EMG examinations were done on 31 patients; 29 showed improvement and the remaining 2 had no change. PVSEP tests were performed in 31 patients; 28 showed improvements and the remaining 3 had no change. 7) No deterioration or complications were observed in our patients within the follow-up period. Our data suggest OEC therapy is safe and can improve neurological functions for patients with complete chronic SCI and ameliorate their quality of life; the AMTENT most likely plays a critical role in enhancing functional recovery after cell-based neurorestorotherapy. PMID:22507677

Huang, Hongyun; Xi, Haitao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yancheng

2012-01-01

280

Spinal infections: clinical and imaging features.  

PubMed

Spinal infections represent a group of rare conditions affecting vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, paraspinal soft tissues, epidural space, meninges, and spinal cord. The causal factors, clinical presentations, and imaging features are a challenge because the difficulty to differentiate them from other conditions, such as degenerative and inflammatory disorders and spinal neoplasm. They require early recognition because delay diagnosis, imaging, and intervention may have devastating consequences especially in children and the elderly. This article reviews the most common spinal infections, their pathophysiologic, clinical manifestation, and their imaging findings. PMID:25296275

Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Castillo, Mauricio

2014-10-01

281

Chronic pain in a community-based sample of men with spinal cord injury: Prevalence, severity, and relationship with impairment, disability, handicap, and subjective well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the prevalence, severity, and correlates of chronic pain in a community-based sample of men with spinal cord injury (SCI).Design: Survey.Setting: Community.Participants: Seventy-seven men with SCI randomly selected from a sampling frame solicited from the community.Method: Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing many areas of life, were interviewed in their homes, and underwent a physical examination at a hospital.

Diana H. Rintala; Paul G. Loubser; Josephine Castro; Karen A. Hart; Marcus J. Fuhrer

1998-01-01

282

Combined use of body weight support, functional electric stimulation, and treadmill training to improve walking ability in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-Fote EC. Combined use of body weight support, functional electric stimulation, and treadmill training to improve walking ability in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:818-24. Objective: To assess the effect of an intervention combining body weight support (BWS), functional electric stimulation (FES), and treadmill training on overground walking speed (OGWS), treadmill walking speed, speed

Edelle C. Field-Fote

2001-01-01

283

Diffuse spinal and intercostal nerve involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon demyelinating disorder with a relapsing and remitting or continuously progressive course. Hypertrophic nerve roots, sometimes associated with gadolinium enhancement, has been reported more commonly in lumbar spine and less commonly in the brachial plexus and cervical roots; however, diffuse involvement of intercostal nerves bilaterally has never been reported previously. We present MRI

Berna Oguz; Kader Karli Oguz; Aysenur Cila; Ersin Tan

2003-01-01

284

Aspergillus fumigatus epidural abscess in a renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

An epidural abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus occurred in a recipient of a cadaveric, renal allograft. The patient had persistent back pain and a peripheral neuropathy that involved the lower extremities. Signs of spinal cord compression evolved. No definite portal of entry was found. Diagnosis was made by histologic examination and culture of a biopsy specimen. Therapy, consisting of aggressive surgical debridement, intravenous amphotericin B, and oral flucytosine was unsuccessful in eradicating the organism. At postmortem examination, Aspergillus was identified at the abscess site. To our knowledge, aspergillosis presenting as an epidural abscess in the immunosuppressed, renal transplant recipient has not previously been reported and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of back pain and peripheral neuropathy in such a patient. PMID:339864

Ingwer, I; McLeish, K R; Tight, R R; White, A C

1978-01-01

285

Nociceptors as chronic drivers of pain and hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury: an adaptive-maladaptive hyperfunctional state hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes chronic peripheral sensitization of nociceptors and persistent generation of spontaneous action potentials (SA) in peripheral branches and the somata of hyperexcitable nociceptors within dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Here it is proposed that SCI triggers in numerous nociceptors a persistent hyperfunctional state (peripheral, synaptic, and somal) that originally evolved as an adaptive response to compensate for loss of sensory terminals after severe but survivable peripheral injury. In this hypothesis, nociceptor somata monitor the status of their own receptive field and the rest of the body by integrating signals received by their peripheral and central branches and the soma itself. A nociceptor switches into a potentially permanent hyperfunctional state when central neural, glial, and inflammatory signal combinations are detected that indicate extensive peripheral injury. Similar signal combinations are produced by SCI and disseminated widely to uninjured as well as injured nociceptors. This paper focuses on the uninjured nociceptors that are altered by SCI. Enhanced activity generated in below-level nociceptors promotes below-level central sensitization, somatic and autonomic hyperreflexia, and visceral dysfunction. If sufficient ascending fibers survive, enhanced activity in below-level nociceptors contributes to below-level pain. Nociceptor activity generated above the injury level contributes to at- and above-level sensitization and pain (evoked and spontaneous). Thus, SCI triggers a potent nociceptor state that may have been adaptive (from an evolutionary perspective) after severe peripheral injury but is maladaptive after SCI. Evidence that hyperfunctional nociceptors make large contributions to behavioral hypersensitivity after SCI suggests that nociceptor-specific ion channels required for nociceptor SA and hypersensitivity offer promising targets for treating chronic pain and hyperreflexia after SCI. PMID:22934060

Walters, Edgar T.

2012-01-01

286

Association of Shoulder Pain With the Use of Mobility Devices in Persons With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence of shoulder pain and its association with the use of assistive devices for mobility in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional analysis conducted within a cohort study. Setting SCI service in a hospital and the community. Participants Between August 2005 and January 2008, 93 participants with chronic SCI completed a standardized health questionnaire and pain questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures Shoulder pain in last 6 months elicited by use of the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain diagram. Results Of the 93 participants, 65 (69.9%) reported pain at any site in the 6 months before testing. Shoulder pain, reported by 39.8% of participants, was the third most common site of pain after the legs and back. When stratified by the use of assistive mobility devices, shoulder pain was reported by 46.7% of motorized wheelchair users, 35.4% of manual wheelchair users, 47.6% of participants using aids such as crutch(es) or canes, and 33.3% of participants walking without assistance (P = .7 for comparison of 4 groups). Conclusions Shoulder pain is highly prevalent in SCI. The authors of previous studies have largely attributed shoulder pain in SCI to manual wheelchair use. However, our results provide evidence for similarly elevated prevalence of shoulder pain among motorized wheelchair users and those patients using crutches or canes. This finding suggests that in addition to overuse injury from cyclic wheelchair propulsion, the assessment of other mechanical and nonmechanical factors that lead to shoulder pain in SCI is an unmet research need that may have treatment implications. PMID:20970758

Jain, Nitin B.; Higgins, Laurence D.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Garshick, Eric

2011-01-01

287

Dietary Intake Relative to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and dietary intake is unknown among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To investigate the relationship between consumption of selected food groups (dairy, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and meat) and CVD risk factors in individuals with chronic SCI. Methods: A cross-sectional substudy of individuals with SCI to assess CVD risk factors and dietary intake in comparison with age-, gender-, and race-matched able-bodied individuals enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Dietary history, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipids, glucose, and insulin data were collected from 100 SCI participants who were 38 to 55 years old with SCI >1 year and compared to 100 matched control participants from the CARDIA study. Results: Statistically significant differences between SCI and CARDIA participants were identified in WC (39.2 vs 36.2 in.; P < .001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 39.2 vs 47.5 mg/dL; P < .001). Blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and hs-CRP were similar between SCI and CARDIA participants. No significant relation between CVD risk factors and selected food groups was seen in the SCI participants. Conclusion: SCI participants had adverse WC and HDL-C compared to controls. This study did not identify a relationship between consumption of selected food groups and CVD risk factors. PMID:25477735

Lieberman, Jesse; Goff, David; Hammond, Flora; Schreiner, Pamela; James Norton, H.; Dulin, Michael; Zhou, Xia; Steffen, Lyn

2014-01-01

288

A calcific pelvic mass in a woman with chronic spinal pain: a case of mature cystic teratoma  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case is to describe findings of a mature cystic teratoma and to further provide differential diagnoses for ovarian pelvic masses and calcifications. Clinical Features A 27-year-old woman presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with a chief complaint of chronic multilevel spinal pain. During a full spine radiographic examination, radiopaque densities were incidentally identified in the pelvic bowl visualized through a gonad shield. Follow-up pelvic radiography revealed several radiopacities of uniform density localized in the pelvic bowl. Intervention/Outcomes Medical (gynecological) consultation led to ultrasonography of the pelvis that revealed a mature cystic teratoma. The patient underwent complete excision of the mass through a laparotomy procedure. The patient continued to receive chiropractic treatment of her original cervical and lumbar spine complaints, further suggesting that the pelvic mass was not a source of her musculoskeletal complaints. Conclusion This case demonstrates the detection and proper referral of a patient with a calcific mass. The presence of a pelvic mass, suspected of arising from the ovary, requires additional diagnostic imaging and careful clinical correlation. PMID:22654694

Kaeser, Martha A.; McDonald, Jennifer K.; Kettner, Norman W.

2011-01-01

289

Feasibility of ultrasound-guided epidural access at the lumbo-sacral space in dogs.  

PubMed

Epidural injections are commonly performed blindly in veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to describe the lumbosacral ultrasonographic anatomy and to assess the feasibility of an ultrasound-guided epidural injection technique in dogs. A cross sectional anatomic atlas of the lumbosacral region and ex vivo ultrasound images were obtained in two cadavers to describe the ultrasound anatomy and to identify the landmarks. Sixteen normal weight canine cadavers were used to establish two variations of the technique for direct ultrasound-guided injection, using spinal needles or epidural catheters. The technique was finally performed in two normal weight cadavers, in two overweight cadavers and in five live dogs with radiographic abnormalities resulting of the lumbosacral spine. Contrast medium was injected and CT was used to assess the success of the injection. The anatomic landmarks to carry out the procedure were the seventh lumbar vertebra, the iliac wings, and the first sacral vertebra. The target for directing the needle was the trapezoid-shaped echogenic zone between the contiguous articular facets of the lumbosacral vertebral canal visualized in a parasagittal plane. The spinal needle or epidural catheter was inserted in a 45° craniodorsal-caudoventral direction through the subcutaneous tissue and the interarcuate ligament until reaching the epidural space. CT examination confirmed the presence of contrast medium in the epidural space in 25/25 dogs, although a variable contamination of the subarachnoid space was also noted. Findings indicated that this ultrasound-guided epidural injection technique is feasible for normal weight and overweight dogs, with and without radiographic abnormalities of the spine. PMID:25187175

Liotta, Annalisa; Busoni, Valeria; Carrozzo, Maria Valentina; Sandersen, Charlotte; Gabriel, Annick; Bolen, Géraldine

2015-03-01

290

Initiation of Bladder Voiding with Epidural Stimulation in Paralyzed, Step Trained Rats  

PubMed Central

The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the several functional deficits that occur after a complete spinal cord injury. Having demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis, we hypothesized that a similar approach could be used to recover bladder function after paralysis. Also knowing that posture and locomotion can be initiated immediately with a specific frequency-dependent stimulation pattern and that with repeated stimulation-training sessions these functions can improve even further, we reasoned that the same two strategies could be used to regain bladder function. Recent evidence suggests that rats with severe paralysis can be rehabilitated with a multisystem neuroprosthetic training regime that counteracts the development of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. No data regarding the acute effects of locomotion on bladder function, however, were reported. In this study we show that enabling of locomotor-related spinal neuronal circuits by epidural stimulation also influences neural networks controlling bladder function and can play a vital role in recovering bladder function after complete paralysis. We have identified specific spinal cord stimulation parameters that initiate bladder emptying within seconds of the initiation of epidural stimulation. The clinical implications of these results are substantial in that this strategy could have a major impact in improving the quality of life and longevity of patients while simultaneously dramatically reducing ongoing health maintenance after a spinal cord injury. PMID:25264607

Gad, Parag N.; Roy, Roland R.; Zhong, Hui; Lu, Daniel C.; Gerasimenko, Yury P.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

2014-01-01

291

Flaccid Leg Paralysis Caused by a Thoracic Epidural Catheterization: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 44-year-old patient with paralysis of the left leg who had a thoracic epidural catheterization after general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. Sensory losses below T10 and motor weakness of the left leg occurred after the surgery. Magnetic resonance image study demonstrated a well-defined intramedullary linear high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted image and low-signal intensity on T1-weighted image in the spinal cord between T9 and L1 vertebral level, and enhancements of the spinal cord below T8 vertebra and in the cauda equina. Electrodiagnostic examination revealed lumbosacral polyradiculopathy affecting nerve roots below L4 level on left side. We suggest that the intrinsic spinal cord lesion and nerve root lesion can be caused by an epidural catheterization with subsequent local anesthetic injection. PMID:23869348

Jeon, Byoung Hyun; Bang, Heui Je; Lee, Gyung Moo; Kwon, Oh Pum

2013-01-01

292

Diffuse spinal and intercostal nerve involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI findings.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon demyelinating disorder with a relapsing and remitting or continuously progressive course. Hypertrophic nerve roots, sometimes associated with gadolinium enhancement, has been reported more commonly in lumbar spine and less commonly in the brachial plexus and cervical roots; however, diffuse involvement of intercostal nerves bilaterally has never been reported previously. We present MRI findings which include diffuse enlargement and mild enhancement of roots and extraforaminal segments of nerves in all segments except a short segment between T12-L2 as well as all the intercostal nerves in a case of CIPD with a 10-year history. PMID:15018192

Oguz, Berna; Oguz, Kader Karli; Cila, Aysenur; Tan, Ersin

2003-12-01

293

Diffuse spinal and intercostal nerve involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI findings.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon demyelinating disorder with a relapsing and remitting or continuously progressive course. Hypertrophic nerve roots, sometimes associated with gadolinium enhancement, has been reported more commonly in lumbar spine and less commonly in the brachial plexus and cervical roots; however, diffuse involvement of intercostal nerves bilaterally has never been reported previously. We present MRI findings which include diffuse enlargement and mild enhancement of roots and extraforaminal segments of nerves in all segments except a short segment between T12-L2 as well as all the intercostal nerves in a case of CIPD with a 10-year history. PMID:16440223

Oguz, Berna; Oguz, Kader Karli; Cila, Aysenur; Tan, Ersin

2003-12-01

294

Infected epidural hematoma of the lumbar spine associated with invasive pneumococcal disease.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) are neurologic emergencies with distinct etiologies and treatment. Despite similarities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), their differentiation is usually possible with meticulous history taking and neurologic examinations. We report an unusual case of SEA that developed from preceding SEH, posing a diagnostic challenge to physicians. A 65-year-old diabetic man suddenly experienced back pain and weakness of both legs when he lifted heavy luggage. He was afebrile, and his laboratory tests were mostly unremarkable. Spinal MRI consisting of T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images revealed an epidural mass over the L2-L4 spinous process. He was diagnosed with SEH based on his symptoms and MRI findings, and was treated conservatively using steroid pulse therapy. Despite initial improvement, he suddenly developed into septic shock and coma on the 10(th) hospital day, and died shortly thereafter. An autopsy revealed massive pus accumulation in the lumbar epidural space and brain, and a postmortem diagnosis of infected SEH associated with invasive pneumococcal disease was established. Serial MRI studies, including diffusion-weighted and/or gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images are warranted in patients with a presumed diagnosis of SEH receiving steroid therapy to detect such infectious transformation. PMID:25767594

Inamasu, Joji; Shizu, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Hirose, Yuichi

2015-01-01

295

Infected epidural hematoma of the lumbar spine associated with invasive pneumococcal disease  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) are neurologic emergencies with distinct etiologies and treatment. Despite similarities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), their differentiation is usually possible with meticulous history taking and neurologic examinations. We report an unusual case of SEA that developed from preceding SEH, posing a diagnostic challenge to physicians. A 65-year-old diabetic man suddenly experienced back pain and weakness of both legs when he lifted heavy luggage. He was afebrile, and his laboratory tests were mostly unremarkable. Spinal MRI consisting of T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images revealed an epidural mass over the L2-L4 spinous process. He was diagnosed with SEH based on his symptoms and MRI findings, and was treated conservatively using steroid pulse therapy. Despite initial improvement, he suddenly developed into septic shock and coma on the 10th hospital day, and died shortly thereafter. An autopsy revealed massive pus accumulation in the lumbar epidural space and brain, and a postmortem diagnosis of infected SEH associated with invasive pneumococcal disease was established. Serial MRI studies, including diffusion-weighted and/or gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images are warranted in patients with a presumed diagnosis of SEH receiving steroid therapy to detect such infectious transformation.

Inamasu, Joji; Shizu, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Hirose, Yuichi

2015-01-01

296

Body composition modifications in people with chronic spinal cord injury after supervised physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Quantification of body composition variables is important for planning of better activities in relation to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objectives (1) To evaluate changes in body composition in patients with SCI after a supervised physical activity process; (2) To correlate total body fat with time since injury. Design Pre-post intervention. Setting Sarah Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brazil. Participants Fifty-three men with SCI aged 18–52 years with duration of injury >3 years. Interventions The subjects were divided into three groups: tetraplegia (TT) (C5–C8), high paraplegia (HP) (T1–T6), and low paraplegia (LP) (T7–L2). Body composition was estimated in the first and last weeks of hospitalization. Outcome measures Body weight (kg), skinfolds sum (mm), absolute (kg), and relative (%) fat and lean body mass. Results Body weight increased in TT and decreased in HP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.1–1.5; and ?1.0 kg, 95%CI ?2.0 to 0.0, respectively; P < 0.05). Skinfolds sum decreased only in HP (?13.1 mm, 95%CI ?20.7 to ?5.5; P < 0.05). Absolute and relative body fat decreased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Lean body mass (LBM) percentage increased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Absolute LBM increased in TT and LP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.3–1.3; and 1.3 kg, 95%CI 0.8 to 1.8, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between time since injury and skinfolds sum for the three groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion TT, HP, and LP demonstrated favorable changes in body composition after 29 days of supervised physical activity. However, these changes were different in direction and magnitude. PMID:22330114

Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; Lopes, Guilherme Henrique

2011-01-01

297

Are gender, marital status or parenthood risk factors for outcome of treatment for chronic disabling spinal disorders?  

PubMed

Recent clinical research has suggested that single working mothers may differ in their response to health treatment and outcomes, relative to their married female or male counterparts. The present study explored, on an a priori basis, the existence and extent of differences in chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes of pain report, return-to-work and future health utilization for single working mothers, relative to other patients. A cohort of 1,679 consecutive chronically disabled work related spinal disorder (CDWRSD) patients were placed into one of eight groups as a function of gender, marital status (single/married), and parenthood (with/without children). All patients completed an assessment battery measuring psychosocial variables at pre- and post-treatment, and a structured clinical interview evaluating socioeconomic outcomes at 1 year following completion of a 5-7 week functional restoration program. Results revealed that single females with children differed from all other groups in racial representation, with 57.1% of these individuals being African American, widely disparate from the prevailing local ethnicity. Single females and males with children were represented by a higher incidence of cervical injuries (25.0% and 26.7%, respectively) than all other groups (5.4-16.6%, p < .001). Contrary to expectation, the 8 groups did not differ significantly in program completion rate, work return, work retention, health utilization, recurrent injury or case settlement rates at one-year follow-up. The single females with children group did display greater levels of depression pre-treatment compared to the other groups. However, at post-treatment, these differences no longer existed. This investigation is one of the first to examine if the combination of gender and parenthood distinguishes significantly among CDWRSD patients. Overall, contrary to expectation, the single mothers did not show any significant differences in CDWRSD outcome at one-year post-rehab follow-up, and the single mothers and fathers showed no differences in depression or pain severity post-treatment. Thus, in spite of the societal belief to the contrary, it seems that single parent patients can show similar chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes, relative to other CDWRSD patients, after a prescribed course of tertiary functional restoration rehabilitation. PMID:15844676

Gatchel, Robert J; Mayer, Tom G; Kidner, Cindy L; McGeary, Donald D

2005-06-01

298

Granulocytic Sarcoma with Compressive Myelopathy: A Rare Presentation of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Granulocytic sarcoma occurs most commonly in acute myelogenous leukemia. The appearance of granulocytic sarcoma in chronic myelogenous leukemia signals accelerated phase/ blast transformation. This is a rare case of undiagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia with granulocytic sarcoma causing cord compression, which went into tumour lysis syndrome requiring dialysis after starting of steroids and radiotherapy. A 43-year-old male presented in emergency department with acute onset of flaccid paralysis. On clinical examination, there was hepatosplenomegaly and lower motor neuron paralysis in the lower limbs. The peripheral smear was consistent with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. The MRI spine revealed para-spinal and epidural masses causing cord compression and the biopsy from the paraspinal mass was consistent with granulocytic sarcoma. PMID:25177619

Viswabandya, Auro; Jasper, Anita; Patel, Palak; Kokil, Gautami

2014-01-01

299

Granulocytic sarcoma with compressive myelopathy: a rare presentation of chronic myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

Granulocytic sarcoma occurs most commonly in acute myelogenous leukemia. The appearance of granulocytic sarcoma in chronic myelogenous leukemia signals accelerated phase/ blast transformation. This is a rare case of undiagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia with granulocytic sarcoma causing cord compression, which went into tumour lysis syndrome requiring dialysis after starting of steroids and radiotherapy. A 43-year-old male presented in emergency department with acute onset of flaccid paralysis. On clinical examination, there was hepatosplenomegaly and lower motor neuron paralysis in the lower limbs. The peripheral smear was consistent with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. The MRI spine revealed para-spinal and epidural masses causing cord compression and the biopsy from the paraspinal mass was consistent with granulocytic sarcoma. PMID:25177619

Ganapule, Abhijeet P; Viswabandya, Auro; Jasper, Anita; Patel, Palak; Kokil, Gautami

2014-07-01

300

A chronic fatigue syndrome model demonstrates mechanical allodynia and muscular hyperalgesia via spinal microglial activation.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) display multiple symptoms, such as chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal pain sensation may be the most serious of these symptoms; however, its pathophysiology remains unknown. To provide insights into the molecular basis underlying abnormal pain in CFS and FMS, we used a multiple continuous stress (CS) model in rats, which were housed in a cage with a low level of water (1.5 cm in depth). The von Frey and Randall-Seritto tests were used to evaluate pain levels. Results showed that mechanical allodynia at plantar skin and mechanical hyperalgesia at the anterior tibialis (i.e., muscle pain) were induced by CS loading. Moreover, no signs of inflammation and injury incidents were observed in both the plantar skin and leg muscles. However, microglial accumulation and activation were observed in L4-L6 dorsal horn of CS rats. Quantification analysis revealed a higher accumulation of microglia in the medial part of Layers I-IV of the dorsal horn. To evaluate an implication of microglia in pain, minocycline was intrathecally administrated (via an osmotic pump). Minocycline significantly attenuated CS-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. These results indicated that activated microglia were involved in the development of abnormal pain in CS animals, suggesting that the pain observed in CFS and FMS patients may be partly caused by a mechanism in which microglial activation is involved. PMID:24852223

Yasui, Masaya; Yoshimura, Takashi; Takeuchi, So; Tokizane, Kyohei; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide; Kiyama, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

301

Epidural infection: Is it really an abscess?  

PubMed Central

Background: We reviewed the literature regarding the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of spinal epidural abscess (SEA). Methods: Utilizing PubMed, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature on SEAs. Results: SEA remains a difficult infectious process to diagnose. This is particularly true in the early stages, when patients remain neurologically intact, and before the classic triad of fever, back pain, and neurologic deficit develop. However, knowledge of risk factors, obtaining serologic markers, and employing magnetic resonance scans facilitate obtaining a prompt and accurate diagnosis. In patients without neurologic deficits, lone medical therapy may prove effective. Conclusions: More prevalent over the previous three decades, SEA remains a rare but deleterious infectious process requiring prompt identification and treatment. Historically, identification of SEA is often elusive, diagnosis is delayed, and clinicians contend that surgical debridement is the cornerstone of treatment. Early surgery leads to more favorable outcomes and preserves neurologic function, particularly in the early stages of disease when minimal or no neurologic deficits are present. The advent of improved imaging modalities, diagnostic techniques, and multidrug antimicrobial agents has enabled medical/spinal surgical consultants to more rapidly diagnose SEA and institute more effective early medical treatment (e.g., data suggest that lone medical therapy may prove effective in the early management of SEA). PMID:23248757

Avilucea, Frank R.; Patel, Alpesh A.

2012-01-01

302

Lumbar epidural abscess caused by brucella species: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural abscess due to Brucella species is usually associated with spondylodiscitis. Urgent surgical decompression should be performed in cases with moderate to severe neurological deficits particularly if progressive. We report clinical features of two cases operated for lumbar epidural abscess caused by Brucella species. Early surgical decompression combined with medical treatment could decrease progression of neurological findings or the severity of complications. Iatrogenic dural tear at the operation should be repaired immediately with fine sutures and fibrin tissue glue to prevent further innoculation into the cerebrospinal axis. These cases should be cautiously followed for any recurrence or neurobrucellosis. PMID:19448960

Daglioglu, Ergun; Bayazit, N; Okay, O; Dalgic, A; Hatipoglu, H G; Ergungor, F

2009-04-01

303

Analgesia after Epidural Dexamethasone is Further Enhanced by IV Dipyrone, but Not IV Parecoxibe Following Minor Orthopedic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Epidural administration of dexamethasone has been suggested for pain control after minor orthopedic surgery. This study was conducted to assess its efficacy after such surgery, combined or not to IV dipyrone, IV parecoxibe or their combination. Methods 91 patients were randomly assigned to seven groups. Patients were submitted to spinal bupivacaine anesthesia combined to epidural administration of either 10 ml saline or 10 mg dexamethasone diluted to 10-ml volume. Patients also received 10 ml IV saline or 1 gr dipyrone and/or 40 mg parecoxibe diluted to 10 ml with saline. Control group (CG) received epidural and IV saline. Dexamethasone group (DexG) received epidural dexamethasone and IV saline. Dipyrone group (DipG) received epidural saline and IV dipyrone. Dex-Dip G received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone. Parecoxibe group (ParG) received epidural saline and IV parecoxibe. Dex-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV parecoxibe. Finally, Dex-Dip-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone plus IV parecoxibe. Results The CG expressed 4h of analgesia and sooner requested pain killer. DexG was similar to DipG or ParG or Dex-ParG (7-hours), and they requested less ketoprofen compared to the CG (P < 0.05). However, the Dex-DipG and the Dex-Dip-ParG resulted in longer time to demand pain killer (17-hours) and less ketoprofen consumption in 24-hours (P < 0.002). Adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusions The analgesia secondary to epidural dexamethasone was enhanced by IV dipyrone, while no effects were observed by the addition of IV parecoxibe. PMID:25317284

Righeti, Claudia CF; Kitayama, Antonio T

2014-01-01

304

Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation inhibitors reduce mechanical sensitivity in a chronic neuropathic pain model of spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

Chronic neuropathic pain is a common consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), develops over time and negatively impacts quality of life, often leading to substance abuse and suicide. Recent evidence has demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in contributing to neuropathic pain in SCI animal models. This investigation examines four compounds that reduce ROS and the downstream lipid peroxidation products, apocynin, 4-oxo-tempo, U-83836E, and tirilazad, and tests if these compounds can reduce nocioceptive behaviors in chronic SCI animals. Apocynin and 4-oxo-tempo significantly reduced abnormal mechanical hypersensitivity measured in forelimbs and hindlimbs in a model of chronic SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, compounds that inhibit ROS or lipid peroxidation products can be used to ameliorate chronic neuropathic pain. We propose that the application of compounds that inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related downstream molecules will also reduce the behavioral measures of chronic neuropathic pain. Injury or trauma to nervous tissue leads to increased concentrations of ROS in the surviving tissue. Further damage from ROS molecules to dorsal lamina neurons leads to membrane excitability, the physiological correlate of chronic pain. Chronic pain is difficult to treat with current analgesics and this research will provide a novel therapy for this disease. PMID:25051888

Hassler, Shayne N; Johnson, Kathia M; Hulsebosch, Claire E

2014-11-01

305

Epidural fentanyl speeds the onset of sensory block during epidural lidocaine anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Shortening the onset time of sensory block is a practical goal to improve the quality of epidural anesthesia. The addition of fentanyl to a local anesthetic solution is widely used during epidural anesthesia. This randomized double-blind study examined the onset time of sensory block during epidural lidocaine anesthesia with and without added fentanyl to the epidural solution.

Chen-Hwan Cherng; Chih-Shung Wong; Shung-Tai Ho

2001-01-01

306

Chronic changes in cerebrospinal fluid pathways produced by subarachnoid kaolin injection and experimental spinal cord trauma in the rabbit: their relationship with the development of spinal deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-traumatic cystic changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways such as ventriculomegaly and\\/or hydrosyringomyelia are not uncommon, but their characteristics have not yet been fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the alterations affecting the CSF pathways in rabbits at a late stage, and to clarify the relationship between these changes and the development of spinal deformity. In this study,

Mehmet Turgut; Emre Çullu; Ay?egül Uysal; Mine Ertem Yurtseven; Bülent Alparslan

2005-01-01

307

Prediction of limb lean tissue mass from bioimpedance spectroscopy in persons with chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive, simple, and inexpensive modality that uses 256 frequencies to determine the extracellular volume impedance (ECVRe) and intracellular volume impedance (ICVRi) in the total body and regional compartments. As such, it may have utility as a surrogate measure to assess lean tissue mass (LTM). Objective To compare the relationship between LTM from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIS impedance values in spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) control subjects using a cross-sectional research design. Methods In 60 subjects (30 AB and 30 SCI), a total body DXA scan was used to obtain total body and leg LTM. BIS was performed to measure the impedance quotient of the ECVRe and ICVRi in the total body and limbs. Results BIS-derived ECVRe yielded a model for LTM in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control for the right leg (RL) (R2 = 0.75, standard errors of estimation (SEE) = 1.02 kg, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.65, SEE = 0.91 kg, P = 0.0006; and R2 = 0.54, SEE = 1.31 kg, P < 0.0001, respectively) and left leg (LL) (R2 = 0.76, SEE = 1.06 kg, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.64, SEE = 0.83 kg, P = 0.0006; and R2 = 0.54, SEE = 1.34 kg, P < 0.0001, respectively). The ICVRi was similarly predictive of LTM in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and AB controls for the RL (R2 = 0.85, SEE = 1.31 kg, P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.52, SEE = 0.95 kg, P = 0.003; and R2 = 0.398, SEE = 1.46 kg, P = 0.0003, respectively) and LL (R2 = 0.62, SEE = 1.32 kg, P = 0.0003; R2 = 0.57, SEE = 0.91 kg, P = 0.002; and R2 = 0.42, SEE = 1.31 kg, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion Findings demonstrate that the BIS-derived impedance quotients for ECVRe and ICVRi may be used as surrogate markers to track changes in leg LTM in persons with SCI. PMID:23941792

Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; La Fountaine, Michael F.; Emmons, Racine; Kirshblum, Steven C.; Asselin, Pierre; Spungen, Ann M.; Bauman, William A.

2013-01-01

308

Epidural Local Anesthetics: A Novel Treatment for Fetal Growth Retardation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronically compromised uterine perfusion may lead to placental insufficiency and subsequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Various therapeutic approaches (e.g. vasodilators, low-dose aspirin, intravenous glucose infusion, and hemodilution) are often of limited efficacy. Local anesthetics have been shown to improve placental blood flow in pre-eclamptic women. We hypothesized that epidural administration of local anesthetics might improve outcome in IUGR independent

D. Strümper; F. Louwen; M. E. Durieux; H. F. Gramke; J. Stuessel; D. Marcus-Soekarman; H. Van Aken; M. A. E. Marcus

2005-01-01

309

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to manage chronic intractable neuropathic pain and to evaluate the adverse events and Ontario-specific economic profile of this technology. Clinical Need SCS is a reversible pain therapy that uses low-voltage electrical pulses to manage chronic, intractable neuropathic pain of the trunk or limbs. Neuropathic pain begins or is caused by damage or dysfunction to the nervous system and can be difficult to manage. The prevalence of neuropathic pain has been estimated at about 1.5% of the population in the United States and 1% of the population in the United Kingdom. These prevalence rates are generalizable to Canada. Neuropathic pain is extremely difficult to manage. People with symptoms that persist for at least 6 months or who have symptoms that last longer than expected for tissue healing or resolution of an underlying disease are considered to have chronic pain. Chronic pain is an emotional, social, and economic burden for those living with it. Depression, reduced quality of life (QOL), absenteeism from work, and a lower household income are positively correlated with chronic pain. Although the actual number is unknown, a proportion of people with chronic neuropathic pain fail to obtain pain relief from pharmacological therapies despite adequate and reasonable efforts to use them. These people are said to have intractable neuropathic pain, and they are the target population for SCS. The most common indication for SCS in North America is chronic intractable neuropathic pain due to failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), a term that describes persistent leg or back and leg pain in patients who have had back or spine surgery. Neuropathic pain due to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which can develop in the distal aspect of a limb a minor injury, is another common indication. To a lesser extent, chronic intractable pain of postherpetic neuralgia, which is a persistent burning pain and hyperesthesia along the distribution of a cutaneous nerve after an attack of herpes zoster, is also managed with SCS. For each condition, SCS is considered as a pain management therapy only after conventional pain therapies, including pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and surgical treatments, if applicable, have been attempted and have failed. The Technology The SCS technology consists of 3 implantable components: a pulse generator, an extension cable, and a lead (a small wire). The pulse generator is the power source for the spinal cord stimulator. It generates low-voltage electrical pulses. The extension cable connects the pulse generator to the lead. The lead is a small, insulated wire that has a set of electrodes at one end. The lead is placed into the epidural space on the posterior aspect of the spinal cord, and the electrodes are positioned at the level of the nerve roots innervating the painful area. An electrical current from the electrodes induces a paresthesia, or a tingling sensation that masks the pain. Before SCS is initiated, candidates must have psychological testing to rule out major psychological illness, drug habituation, and issues of secondary gain that can negatively influence the success of the therapy. Successful candidates will have a SCS test stimulation period (trial period) to assess their responsiveness to SCS. The test stimulation takes about 1 week to complete, and candidates who obtain at least 50% pain relief during this period are deemed suitable to receive a permanent implantation of a spinal cord stimulator Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) reviewed all published health technology assessments of spinal cord stimulation. Following this, a literature search was conducted from 2000 to January, 2005 and a systematic review of the literature was completed. The primary outcome for the systematic review was pain relief. Secondary outcomes included functional status and quality of life. After applying the predetermined inclusion and exclus

2005-01-01

310

Step Training Reinforces Specific Spinal Locomotor Circuitry in Adult Spinal Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Locomotor,training,improves,function,after,a spinal,cord,injury,both,in experimental,and clinical settings. The activity-dependent mechanisms underlying such improvement, however, are sparsely understood. Adult rats received a complete spinal cord transection (T9), and epidural stimulation (ES) electrodes,were,secured,to the dura,matter,at L2. EMG electrodes,were,implanted,bilaterally,in selected muscles. Using a servo-controlled body weight support system for bipedal stepping, five rats were

R. M. Ichiyama; G. Courtine; Y. P. Gerasimenko; G. J. Yang; R. van den Brand; I. A. Lavrov; H. Zhong; R. R. Roy; V. R. Edgerton

2008-01-01

311

Effect of chronic activity-based therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in persons with spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose Osteoporosis is a severe complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Many exercise modalities are used to slow bone loss, yet their efficacy is equivocal. This study examined the effect of activity-based therapy (ABT) targeting the lower extremities on bone health in individuals with SCI. Methods Thirteen men and women with SCI (age and injury duration = 29.7 ± 7.8 and 1.9 ± 2.7 years) underwent 6 months of ABT. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of training, blood samples were obtained to assess bone formation (serum procollagen type 1 N propeptide (PINP) and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to obtain total body and regional estimates of bone mineral density (BMD). Results Results demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in spine BMD (+4.8 %; 1.27 ± 0.22–1.33 ± 0.24 g/cm2) and decreases (p < 0.01) in total hip BMD (?6.1 %; 0.98 ± 0.18–0.91 ± 0.16 g/cm2) from 0 to 6 months of training. BMD at the bilateral distal femur (?7.5 to ?11.0 %) and proximal tibia (? 8.0 to ?11.2 %) declined but was not different (p > 0.05) versus baseline. Neither PINP nor CTX was altered (p> 0.05) with training. Conclusions Chronic activity-based therapy did not reverse bone loss typically observed soon after injury, yet reductions in BMD were less than the expected magnitude of decline in lower extremity BMD in persons with recent SCI. PMID:24097172

Harness, Eric T.; Witzke, Kara A.

2014-01-01

312

Somatosensory inputs by application of KinesioTaping: effects on spasticity, balance, and gait in chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced interlimb coordination, and impaired balance are the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years, the application of KinesioTaping (KT) has been proposed to enhance sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity by proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. Because no studies have examined KT-based techniques in SCI subjects, our goal was to analyze the effects of ankle joint KT on spasticity, balance, and gait. Materials and Methods: A randomized crossover case control design was used to compare the effects of KT and conventional nonelastic silk tape (ST) in 11 chronic SCI subjects, AIS level D, with soleus/gastrocnemius (S/G) muscle spasticity and balance and gait impairments. Treatment: 48 h of treatment with KT or ST was followed by 48 h with the other technique after 1 week. A single Y-strip of Cure© tape (KT) and ST was to the S and G muscles with 0% stretch. Before and 48 h after of application of KT and ST, clinical data on the range of motion (ROM), spasticity, clonus, pain, balance, and gait were collected. Stabilometric platform assessment of center of pressure (COP) movements; bidimensional gait analysis; and recording of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the S, G, and tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis lungus muscles were also performed. Results: Only KT had significant effects on spasticity (p < 0.05), clonus (p < 0.001) and COP movements (p < 0.05), kinematic gait parameters (p < 0.001), and EMG activity (p < 0.001). Comparison between ST and KT improvements pointed out significant differences as concerns ROM (p < 0.001), spasticity (p < 0.001), clonus (p < 0.001), pain (p < 0.001), COP parameters (p < 0.05), and most kinematic gait data (p < 0.05). Discussion: Short-term application of KT reduces spasticity and pain and improves balance and gait in chronic SCI subjects. Although these data are promising, they require confirmation in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:24910607

Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco

2014-01-01

313

Dumbbell-Shaped Epidural Capillary Hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report a case of a purely epidural capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spine with foraminal exten- sion. Epidural hemangiomas are rare; only a few cases of dumbbell-shaped ones have been reported, and all were cavernous. MR imaging showed characteristic findings of a capillary hemangioma, which are also consistent with other epidural lesions such as neuromas or meningiomas. Hemangiomas

Bruno Badinand; Christophe Morel; Nicolas Kopp; A. Tran; Francois Cotton

314

Limb compressive load does not inhibit post activation depression of soleus H-reflex in indiviudals with chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the effect of various doses of limb compressive load on soleus H-reflex amplitude and post activation depression in individuals with/without chronic SCI. We hypothesized that SCI reorganization changes the typical reflex response to an external load. Methods Ten healthy adults and 10 individuals with SCI received three doses of compressive load to the top of their knee (10%, 25%, and 50% of the body weight, BW). Soleus H-reflexes were measured before (baseline) and during the loading phase. Results With persistent background muscle activity across all testing sessions, segment compressive load significantly decreased post activation depression in the control group, but did not change the post activation ratio in the SCI group. Normalized H2 amplitude significantly increased according to load (50% > 25% > 10%) in the control group whereas was minimally modulated to load in those with SCI. Conclusions Segment compressive load inhibits post activation depression in humans without SCI, but minimally modulates the reflex circuitry in people with chronic SCI. These findings suggest that spinal cord reorganization mitigates the typical response to load in people with chronic SCI. Significance Early limb load training may impact the reorganization of the spinal cord in humans with acute SCI. PMID:23168355

Tseng, Shih-Chiao; Shields, Richard K.

2013-01-01

315

Histological reaction to percutaneous epidural neurostimulation: initial and long-term results.  

PubMed

Percutaneously inserted spinal epidural neurostimulation has been derived as a simplified safe alternative to surgically implanted, dorsal column stimulation that is used in the effective treatment and control of spasticity and intractable pain. Twenty-seven tissue specimens from fifteen patients having had percutaneous epidural neurostimulation systems implanted were studied with the aid of light microscopy. The biopsies from tissues around the cables, around the receivers, and at the actual site of epidural stimulation (at the metallic contact), were studied at time intervals varying from one week to two years postimplantation. Long-term results, which only show dense fibrous encapsulation of the cables and the receiver, substantiate clinical belief regarding the "histological safety" of this electronic modality. PMID:392298

Richardson, R R; Nunez, C; Siqueira, E B

1979-11-30

316

Effect of Amniotic Membrane to Reduce Postlaminectomy Epidural Adhesion on a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidural fibrosis and adhesion are the main reasons for post-laminectomy sustained pain and functional disability. In this study, the authors investigate the effect of irradiated freeze-dried human amniotic membrane on reducing epidural adhesion after laminectomy on a rat model. Methods A total of 20 rats were divided into two groups. The group A did not receive human amniotic membrane implantation after laminectomy and group B underwent human amniotic membrane implantation after laminectomy. Gross and microscopic findings were evaluated and compared at postoperative 1, 3 and 8 weeks. Results The amount of scar tissue and tenacity were reduced grossly in group of rats with human amniotic membrane implantation (group B). On a microscopic evaluation, there were less inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroblast proliferation in group B. Conclusion This experimental study shows that implantation of irradiated freeze-dried human amniotic membrane reduce epidural fibrosis and adhesion after spinal laminectomy in a rat model. PMID:21887388

Choi, Hyu Jin; Kim, Kyoung Beom

2011-01-01

317

Spontaneous epidural hematoma of spine associated with clopidogrel: A case study and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon neurological emergency which can present with the features ranging from simple back pain with radiculopathy to complete paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on the site and severity of the compression. Spinal hemorrhage associated with anti-platelet drugs is rarely seen. We report a case of SSEH in a 68-year-old hypertensive male who was on a low dose clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis and presented with bilateral lower limb paralysis, preceeded by severe back bain. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed which revealed a posterior epidural hematoma of the thoraco-lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, not more than four cases of clopidogrel related spinal epidural hematoma have been reported. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was done within 4 hours of the presentation with excellent clinical outcome. Clinicians should, therefore, consider the remote risk of SSEH in hypertensive patients who are on anti-platelet drugs as early decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the hematoma minimizes the permanent neurological damage. PMID:25767588

Bhat, Khalid Javid; Kapoor, Sidhart; Watali, Yamin Zahoor; Sharma, Jaggatar Ram

2015-01-01

318

Spontaneous epidural hematoma of spine associated with clopidogrel: A case study and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon neurological emergency which can present with the features ranging from simple back pain with radiculopathy to complete paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on the site and severity of the compression. Spinal hemorrhage associated with anti-platelet drugs is rarely seen. We report a case of SSEH in a 68-year-old hypertensive male who was on a low dose clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis and presented with bilateral lower limb paralysis, preceeded by severe back bain. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed which revealed a posterior epidural hematoma of the thoraco-lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, not more than four cases of clopidogrel related spinal epidural hematoma have been reported. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was done within 4 hours of the presentation with excellent clinical outcome. Clinicians should, therefore, consider the remote risk of SSEH in hypertensive patients who are on anti-platelet drugs as early decompressive laminectomy and evacuation of the hematoma minimizes the permanent neurological damage.

Bhat, Khalid Javid; Kapoor, Sidhart; Watali, Yamin Zahoor; Sharma, Jaggatar Ram

2015-01-01

319

Thoracic Epidural Teratoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Spinal teratomas comprise a rare subset of spinal cord tumors, and here, we describe an even rarer childhood thoracic extradural–intracanalicular teratoma. The clinical presentation, management, and pathophysiology of these tumors are reviewed to promote recognition and guide treatment of these lesions. METHODS We report the case of a 21-month-old boy who presented with marked spasticity, as well as failure to ambulate and meet motor milestones. Additionally, we provide a literature review of spinal teratomas, including their clinical presentation, work-up, pathophysiology, and underlying genetics. Results An MRI of the spine revealed a large dorsal epidural tumor extending from T3 to T10 with heterogeneous contrast enhancement and severe spinal cord compression. The tumor was resected revealing a cystic mass with tissue resembling hair, muscle, as well as cartilage; pathology confirmed the diagnosis of teratoma. Gross total resection was achieved, and the child eventually gained ambulatory function. CONCLUSIONS Given that spinal teratomas are rare entities that can present with significant neurologic compromise, they must remain on clinicians’ differentials. Unfortunately, the exact origin of these tumors remains inconclusive and requires further investigation. PMID:24940089

Quon, Jennifer L.; Grant, Ryan A.; Huttner, Anita J.; Duncan, Charles C.

2014-01-01

320

Repeated 100 Hz TENS for the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Hyperalgesia and Suppression of Spinal Release of Substance P in Monoarthritic Rats  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to be an effective measure for pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal intensity and interval of repeated 100 Hz TENS for the treatment of chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia in a monoarthritic pain model of the rat, and to assess the changes of the spinal substance P (SP) release in response to TENS treatment. A reliable, reproducible chronic monoarthritic pain model was produced by intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at single ankle joint. The efficacy of 100 Hz TENS treatments with different frequencies and intensities was compared. In the acute period (within 3 weeks) of monoarthritis, twice-a-week schedule of TENS reduced the swelling of the inflamed ankle significantly. In the stable period (4–9 weeks), however, once-a-week schedule produced a significantly better therapeutic effect on both inflammation and arthritic hyperalgesia than that of twice- or five-times-a-week schedule. Using three levels of intensity of TENS, we found that the weaker (1-1-2 mA) stimulation produced significantly better therapeutic effects. Repeated TENS produced a reduction of SP content in spinal perfusate in parallel with the progressive reduction of the arthritic pain scores. Our results suggest that (i) consecutive TENS treatments produced cumulative effect for chronic hyperalgesia, (ii) for chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia, a weaker intensity and more sparsely arranged treatment schedule may produce better therapeutic effect and (iii) a decrease in SP release may serve as one of the possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of multiple TENS treatments on chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia. PMID:17342243

Liu, Hong-Xiang; Tian, Jin-Bin; Luo, Fei; Jiang, Yu-Hui; Deng, Zu-Guo; Xiong, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Jin-Shu

2007-01-01

321

Management of chronic central neuropathic pain following traumatic spinal cord injury: executive summary of evidence report/technology assessment: number 45.  

PubMed

The Executive summary of the federal report on available evidence for management of chronic central neuropathic pain following traumatic spinal cord injury is presented. This report is one in a series of technology assessment monographs commissioned by the Department of Health and Human Services to define current state of the art in important health care issues. A comprehensive literature search led to conclusions about the diagnosis, assessment and natural history of central neuropathic pain. The report documents a dearth of evidence on pharmacological therapy and addresses available evidence on central nervous system stimulation and lesioning. PMID:14649394

2003-01-01

322

Evaluation of the neurological safety of epidurally-administered pregabalin in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The primary site of action of pregabalin, i.e. the ?-2-? subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, is located at the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Therefore, the epidural administration of pregabalin could have advantages over oral administration. However, the possibility of its neurotoxicity should be excluded before any attempt at epidural administration. We evaluated the neuronal safety of epidurally-administered pregabalin by observing the sensory/motor changes and examining the histopathology of spinal cord in rats. Methods Sixty rats of 180-230 g were divided into three groups; 3 mg of pregabalin dissolved in 0.3 ml saline (group P, n = 20), 0.3 ml 40% alcohol (group A, n = 20), or 0.3 ml normal saline (group N, n = 20) was administered epidurally to the rats in each group. Pinch-toe test, motor function evaluation, and histopathologic examination of vacuolation, chromatolysis, meningeal inflammation, and neuritis were performed at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 21st day after each epidural administration. Results All rats enrolled in group P, like those in group N, showed neither sensory/motor dysfunction nor any histopathological abnormality over the 3-week observation period. In contrast, in group A, 80% of the rats showed abnormal response to the pinch-toe test and all rats showed decreased motor function during the entire evaluation period. In addition, all histopathologic findings of neurotoxicity were observed exclusively in group A. Conclusions The epidurally administered pregabalin (about 15 mg/kg) did not cause any neurotoxic evidence, in terms of both sensory/motor function evaluation and histopathological examination in rats. PMID:22323956

Lee, Jeong Rim; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Choe, Gheeyoung; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Hyo Min; Kim, Eunjung

2012-01-01

323

The Neurological Safety of Epidural Pamidronate in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Pamidronate is a potent inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recently, the drug has been known to relieve bone pain. We hypothesized that direct epidural administration of pamidronate could have various advantages over oral administration with respect to dosage, side effects, and efficacy. Therefore, we evaluated the neuronal safety of epidurally-administered pamidronate. Methods Twenty-seven rats weighing 250-350 g were equally divided into 3 groups. Each group received an epidural administration with either 0.3 ml (3.75 mg) of pamidronate (group P), 0.3 ml of 40% alcohol (group A), or 0.3 ml of normal saline (group N). A Pinch-toe test, motor function evaluation, and histopathologic examination of the spinal cord to detect conditions such as chromatolysis, meningeal inflammation, and neuritis, were performed on the 2nd, 7th, and 21st day following administration of each drug. Results All rats in group A showed an abnormal response to the pinch-toe test and decreased motor function during the entire evaluation period. Abnormal histopathologic findings, including neuritis and meningeal inflammation were observed only in group A rats. Rats in group P, with the exception of 1, and group N showed no significant sensory/motor dysfunction over a 3-week observation period. No histopathologic changes were observed in groups P and N. Conclusions Direct epidural injection of pamidronate (about 12.5 mg/kg) showed no neurotoxic evidence in terms of sensory/motor function evaluation and histopathologic examination. PMID:20556213

Lee, Pyung Bok; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Chul Joong; Shin, Hye Young; Lee, Seung Yun; Park, Jong Cook; Choi, Yun Suk; Kim, Chong Soo

2010-01-01

324

5-HT2 and 5-HT7 receptor agonists facilitate plantar stepping in chronic spinal rats through actions on different populations of spinal neurons  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence from research in neonatal and adult rat and mouse preparations to warrant the conclusion that activation of 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A/7 receptors leads to activation of the spinal cord circuitry for locomotion. These receptors are involved in control of locomotor movements, but it is not clear how they are implicated in the responses to 5-HT agonists observed after spinal cord injury. Here we used agonists that are efficient in promoting locomotor recovery in paraplegic rats, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OHDPAT) (acting on 5-HT1A/7 receptors) and quipazine (acting on 5-HT2 receptors), to examine this issue. Analysis of intra- and interlimb coordination confirmed that the locomotor performance was significantly improved by either drug, but the data revealed marked differences in their mode of action. Interlimb coordination was significantly better after 8-OHDPAT application, and the activity of the extensor soleus muscle was significantly longer during the stance phase of locomotor movements enhanced by quipazine. Our results show that activation of both receptors facilitates locomotion, but their effects are likely exerted on different populations of spinal neurons. Activation of 5-HT2 receptors facilitates the output stage of the locomotor system, in part by directly activating motoneurons, and also through activation of interneurons of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). Activation of 5-HT7/1A receptors facilitates the activity of the locomotor CPG, without direct actions on the output components of the locomotor system, including motoneurons. Although our findings show that the combined use of these two drugs results in production of well-coordinated weight supported locomotion with a reduced need for exteroceptive stimulation, they also indicate that there might be some limitations to the utility of combined treatment. Sensory feedback and some intraspinal circuitry recruited by the drugs can conflict with the locomotor activation. PMID:25191231

S?awi?ska, Urszula; Miazga, Krzysztof; Jordan, Larry M.

2014-01-01

325

Acute motor weakness of opposite lower extremity after percutaneous epidural neuroplasty.  

PubMed

Recently, percutaneous epidural neuroplasty has become widely used to treat radicular pain caused by spinal stenosis or a herniated intervertebral disc. A 19-year-old female patient suffering from left radicular pain caused by an L4-L5 intervertebral disc herniation underwent percutaneous epidural neuroplasty of the left L5 nerve root using a Racz catheter. After the procedure, the patient complained of acute motor weakness in the right lower leg, on the opposite site to where the neuroplasty was conducted. Emergency surgery was performed, and swelling of the right L5 nerve root was discovered. The patient recovered her motor and sensory functions immediately after the surgery. Theoretically, the injection of a large volume of fluid in a patient with severe spinal stenosis during epidural neuroplasty can increase the pressure on the opposite side of the epidural space, which may cause injury of the opposite nerve by barotrauma from a closed compartment. Practitioners should be aware of this potential complication. PMID:25852837

Lim, Yong Seok; Jung, Ki Tea; Park, Cheon Hee; Wee, Sang Woo; Sin, Sung Sik; Kim, Joon

2015-04-01

326

Improvement of spinal non-viral IL-10 gene delivery by D-mannose as a transgene adjuvant to control chronic neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background Peri-spinal subarachnoid (intrathecal; i.t.) injection of non-viral naked plasmid DNA encoding the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 (pDNA-IL-10) suppresses chronic neuropathic pain in animal models. However, two sequential i.t. pDNA injections are required within a discrete 5 to 72-hour period for prolonged efficacy. Previous reports identified phagocytic immune cells present in the peri-spinal milieu surrounding the i.t injection site that may play a role in transgene uptake resulting in subsequent IL-10 transgene expression. Methods In the present study, we aimed to examine whether factors known to induce pro-phagocytic anti-inflammatory properties of immune cells improve i.t. IL-10 transgene uptake using reduced naked pDNA-IL-10 doses previously determined ineffective. Both the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, and the hexose sugar, D-mannose, were factors examined that could optimize i.t. pDNA-IL-10 uptake leading to enduring suppression of neuropathic pain as assessed by light touch sensitivity of the rat hindpaw (allodynia). Results Compared to dexamethasone, i.t. mannose pretreatment significantly and dose-dependently prolonged pDNA-IL-10 pain suppressive effects, reduced spinal IL-1? and enhanced spinal and dorsal root ganglia IL-10 immunoreactivity. Macrophages exposed to D-mannose revealed reduced proinflammatory TNF-?, IL-1?, and nitric oxide, and increased IL-10 protein release, while IL-4 revealed no improvement in transgene uptake. Separately, D-mannose dramatically increased pDNA-derived IL-10 protein release in culture supernatants. Lastly, a single i.t. co-injection of mannose with a 25-fold lower pDNA-IL-10 dose produced prolonged pain suppression in neuropathic rats. Conclusions Peri-spinal treatment with D-mannose may optimize naked pDNA-IL-10 transgene uptake for suppression of allodynia, and is a novel approach to tune spinal immune cells toward pro-phagocytic phenotype for improved non-viral gene therapy. PMID:24884664

2014-01-01

327

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... common condition that occurs when the small spinal canal, which contains the nerve roots and spinal cord, ... image above shows the narrowing of the spinal canal. Some people are born with a small spinal ...

328

Symptomatic Extensive Thoracolumbar Epidural Hematoma Following Lumbar Disc Surgery Treated by Single Level Laminectomy  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural hematomas (SEHs) are rare complications following spine surgery, especially for single level lumbar discectomies. The appropriate surgical management for such cases remains to be investigated. We report a case of an extensive spinal epidural hematoma from T11-L5 following a L3-L4 discectomy. The patient underwent a single level L4. A complete evacuation of the SEH resulted in the patient's full recovery. When presenting symptoms limited to the initial surgical site reveal an extensive postoperative SEH, we propose: to tailor the surgical exposure individually based on preoperative findings of the SEH; and to begin the surgical exposure with a limited laminectomy focused on the symptomatic levels that may allow an efficient evacuation of the SEH instead of a systematic extensive laminectomy based on imaging. PMID:22708022

Ali, Youssef; Roux, François-Xavier; Meder, Jean-François

2012-01-01

329

Bilateral Bulbospinal Projections to Pudendal Motoneuron Circuitry after Chronic Spinal Cord Hemisection Injury as Revealed by Transsynaptic Tracing with Pseudorabies Virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Complications of spinal cord injury in males include losing brainstem control of pudendal nerve–innervated perineal muscles involved in erection and ejaculation. We previously described, in adult male rats, a bulbospinal pathway originating in a discrete area within the medullary gigantocellularis (GiA/Gi), and lateral paragigantocellularis (LPGi) nuclei, which when electrically microstimulated unilaterally, produces a bilateral inhibition of pudendal motoneuron reflex circuitry after crossing to the contralateral spinal cord below T8. Microstimulation following a long-term lateral hemisection, however, revealed reflex inhibition from both sides of the medulla, suggesting the development or unmasking of an injury-induced bulbospinal pathway crossing the midline cranial to the spinal lesion. In the present study, we investigated this pathway anatomically using the transsynaptic neuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) injected unilaterally into the bulbospongiosus muscle in uninjured controls, and ipsilateral to a chronic (1–2 months) unilateral lesion of the lateral funiculus. At 4.75 days post-injection, PRV-labeled cells were found bilaterally in the GiA/Gi/LPGi with equal side-to-side labeling in uninjured controls, and with significantly greater labeling contralateral to the lesion/injection in lesioned animals. The finding of PRV-labeled neurons on both sides of the medulla after removing the mid-thoracic spinal pathway on one side provides anatomical evidence for the bilaterality in both the brainstem origin and the lumbosacral pudendal circuit termination of the spared lateral funicular bulbospinal pathway. This also suggests that this bilaterality may contribute to the quick functional recovery of bladder and sexual functions observed in animals and humans with lateral hemisection injury. PMID:21265606

Chadha, Harpreet K.; Dugan, Victoria P.; Gupta, Daya S.; Ferrero, Sunny L.; Hubscher, Charles H.

2011-01-01

330

Effect of yogic colon cleansing (Laghu Sankhaprakshalana Kriya) on pain, spinal flexibility, disability and state anxiety in chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies have shown that Integrated Yoga reduces pain, disability, anxiety and depression and increases spinal flexibility and quality-of-life in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of two yoga practices namely laghu shankha prakshalana (LSP) kriya, a yogic colon cleansing technique and back pain specific asanas (Back pain special technique [BST]) on pain, disability, spinal flexibility and state anxiety in patients with CLBP. Materials and Methods: In this randomized control (self as control) study, 40 in-patients (25 were males, 15 were females) between 25 and 70 years (44.05 ± 13.27) with CLBP were randomly assigned to receive LSP or BST sessions. The measurements were taken immediately before and after each session of either of the practices (30 min) in the same participant. Randomization was used to decide the day of the session (3rd or 5th day after admission) to ensure random distribution of the hang over effect of the two practices. Statistical analysis was performed using the repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Significant group * time interaction (P < 0.001) was observed in 11 point numerical rating scale, spinal flexibility (on Leighton type Goniometer) and (straight leg raise test in both legs), Oswestry Disability Index, State Anxiety (XI component of Spieldberger's state and trait anxiety inventory. There was significantly (P < 0.001, between groups) better reduction in LSP than BST group on all variables. No adverse effects were reported by any participant. Conclusion: Clearing the bowel by yoga based colon cleansing technique (LSP) is safe and offers immediate analgesic effect with reduced disability, anxiety and improved spinal flexibility in patients with CLBP. PMID:25035620

Haldavnekar, Richa Vivek; Tekur, Padmini; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

2014-01-01

331

Chronic spontaneous activity generated in the somata of primary nociceptors is associated with pain-related behavior following spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms underlying chronic pain that develops after spinal cord injury (SCI) are incompletely understood. Most research on SCI pain mechanisms has focused on neuronal alterations within pain pathways at spinal and supraspinal levels associated with inflammation and glial activation. These events might also impact central processes of primary sensory neurons, triggering in nociceptors a hyperexcitable state and spontaneous activity (SA) that drive behavioral hypersensitivity and pain. SCI can sensitize peripheral fibers of nociceptors and promote peripheral SA, but whether these effects are driven by extrinsic alterations in surrounding tissue or are intrinsic to the nociceptor, and whether similar SA occurs in nociceptors in vivo are unknown. We show that small DRG neurons from rats (Rattus norvegicus) receiving thoracic spinal injury 3 d – 8 mo earlier and recorded 1 d after dissociation exhibit an elevated incidence of SA coupled with soma hyperexcitability compared to untreated and sham-treated groups. SA incidence was greatest in lumbar DRG neurons (57%) and least in cervical neurons (28%), and failed to decline over 8 mo. Many sampled SA neurons were capsaicin sensitive and/or bound the nociceptive marker, isolectin B4. This intrinsic SA state was correlated with increased behavioral responsiveness to mechanical and thermal stimulation of sites below and above the injury level. Recordings from C and A? fibers revealed SCI-induced SA generated in or near the neurons’ somata in vivo. SCI promotes the entry of primary nociceptors into a chronic hyperexcitable-SA state that may provide a useful therapeutic target in some forms of persistent pain. PMID:21048146

Bedi, Supinder S.; Yang, Qing; Crook, Robyn J.; Du, Junhui; Wu, Zizhen; Fishman, Harvey M.; Grill, Raymond J.; Carlton, Susan M.; Walters, Edgar T.

2010-01-01

332

Lumbar epidural anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in low birth weight infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the complications of general, spinal, and caudal anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in high-risk neonates,\\u000a an evaluation of lumbar epidural anaesthesia (LEA) was undertaken to assess its technical feasibility, effectiveness and incidence\\u000a of complications. In 18 consecutive cases, gestational age 26 ±2.6 wk, birth weight 877 ±310 g, 16 (89%) had bronchopulmonary\\u000a dysplasia and 12 (67%) were

Anthony C. Webster; J. D. McKishnie; J. T. Watson; W. Donald Reid

1993-01-01

333

Bilateral Heel Numbness due to External Compression during Obstetric Epidural Analgesia  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman who developed bilateral heel numbness after obstetric epidural analgesia. We diagnosed her with bilateral neuropathy of the medial calcaneal nerve, most likely due to longstanding pressure on both heels. Risk factors for the development of this neuropathy were prolonged labour with spinal analgesia and a continuation of analgesia during episiotomy. Padded footrests decrease pressure and can possibly prevent this neuropathy. PMID:25802500

Kamphuis, Vivian P.; Zegers, Marie P.A.; Koppen, Hille

2015-01-01

334

Caudal epidural blockade in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: Various options are available for the provision of analgesia following major surgical procedures including systemic opioids and regional anesthetic techniques. Regional anesthetic techniques offer the advantage of providing analgesia while avoiding the deleterious adverse effects associated with opioids including nausea, vomiting, sedation and respiratory depression. Although used commonly in infants and children, there is a paucity of experience with the use of caudal epidural blockade in adolescents. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the perioperative care of adolescents undergoing major urologic or orthopedic surgical procedures for whom a caudal epidural block was placed for postoperative analgesia. Results: The cohort for the study included 5 adolescents, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years and in weight from 42 to 71 kilograms. Caudal epidural analgesia was accomplished after the induction of anesthesia and prior to the start of the surgical procedure using 20-25 mL of either 0.25% bupivacaine or 0.2% ropivacaine with clonidine (1 ?g/kg). The patients denied pain the recovery room. The time to first request for analgesia varied from 12 to 18 hours with the patients requiring 1-3 doses of analgesic agents during the initial 24 postoperative hours. Conclusions: Our preliminary experience demonstrates the efficacy of caudal epidural block in providing analgesia following major urologic and orthopedic surgical procedures. The applications of this technique as a means of providing postoperative analgesia are discussed. PMID:23717234

Schloss, Brian; Jayanthi, Venkata R.; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

335

Chronic resistance training enhances the spinal excitability of the biceps brachii in the non-dominant arm at moderate contraction intensities.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to assess corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii in the non-dominant arm of chronic resistance-trained (RT) and non-RT individuals. Seven chronic-RT and six non-RT male participants performed 4 sets of 5s pseudo-randomized contractions of the non-dominant elbow flexors at 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). During each contraction, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transmastoid electrical stimulation, and Erb's point electrical stimulation were administered to assess the amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEPs), and maximal muscle compound potentials (Mmax), respectively, in the biceps brachii. MEP and CMEP amplitudes were normalized to Mmax. Training did not affect (p>0.14) MEP amplitudes across any contraction intensity. CMEP amplitudes were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the chronic-RT group at 50% and 75% of MVC by 38% and 27%, respectively, and there was a trend for higher amplitudes at 25%, 90%, and 100% MVC by 25% (p=0.055), 36% (p=0.077), and 35% (p=0.078), respectively, compared to the non-RT group. Corticospinal excitability of the non-dominant biceps brachii was increased in chronic-RT individuals mainly due to changes in spinal excitability. PMID:25445370

Philpott, Devin T G; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Forman, Davis; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C

2015-01-12

336

Spinal Cord Stimulation Restores Locomotion in Animal Models of Parkinson’s disease1  

PubMed Central

Dopamine replacement therapy is useful for treating motor symptoms in the early phase of Parkinson’s disease, but is less effective in the long-term. Electrical deep-brain stimulation is a valuable complement to pharmacological treatment but involves a highly invasive surgical procedure. We found that epidural electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns in the spinal cord restores locomotion in both acute pharmacologically induced dopamine-depleted mice and in chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. The functional recovery was paralleled by a disruption of aberrant low-frequency synchronous corticostriatal oscillations, leading to the emergence of neuronal activity patterns that resemble the state normally preceding spontaneous initiation of locomotion. We propose that dorsal column stimulation might become an efficient and less invasive alternative for treatment of Parkinson’s disease in the future. PMID:19299613

Fuentes, Romulo; Petersson, Per; Siesser, William B.; Caron, Marc G.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

2009-01-01

337

Spinal Cord Ischemia Secondary to Hypovolemic Shock  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable. PMID:25558328

Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy KM; Yang, Eugene WR; Hee, Hwan-Tak

2014-01-01

338

Spinal cord ischemia secondary to hypovolemic shock.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable. PMID:25558328

Oh, Jacob Yl; Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy Km; Yang, Eugene Wr; Hee, Hwan-Tak

2014-12-01

339

[Racz Spring Guide Catheter epidural lysis of adhesions and percutaneous neuroplasty].  

PubMed

In recent years, failed back neck surgery syndrome (FBNSS) has been increasing as the number of spinal surgeries rises. In particular, the frequencies of surgeries for intervertebral disk herniation and spinal stenosis are high, and FBNSS is commonly attributable to these procedures. FBNSS is a challenging disease for us pain clinicians, and its causes and treatment methods are diverse. FBNSS resulting from epidural adhesive radiculopathy often cannot be resolved by conventional conservative therapies. Treatments using spinal cord stimulation and epiduroscopy are performed in Japan. However, because these are invasive surgical procedures that require hospitalization, they are offered only at certain centers in the country. In contrast, Racz Spring Guide Catheters epidural neuroplasty can be carried out in outpatient settings, is less invasive and achieves excellent pain relief. Because of the superior performance and handiness of the Racz Spring Guide Catheter instruments, it is a technique that can be carried out in many institutions. This report describes the instruments and operative techniques applied for Racz Spring Guide Catheter epidural neuroplasty. PMID:25098135

Matsumoto, Tomikichi

2014-07-01

340

Neurological complications associated with epidural steroid injections.  

PubMed

Multiple case reports of neurological complications resulting from intraarterial injection of corticosteroids have led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue a warning, requiring label changes, warning of serious neurological events, some resulting in death. The FDA has identified 131 cases of neurological adverse events, including 41 cases of arachnoiditis. A review of the literature reveals an overwhelming proportion of the complications are related to transforaminal epidural injections, of which cervical transforaminal epidural injections constituted the majority of neurological complications. Utilization data of epidural injections in the Medicare population revealed that cervical transforaminal epidural injections constitute only 2.4 % of total epidural injections and <5 % of all transforaminal epidural injections. Multiple theories have been proposed as the cause of neurological injury including particulate steroid, arterial intimal flaps, arterial dissection, dislodgement of plaque causing embolism, arterial muscle spasm, and embolism of a fresh thrombus following disruption of the intima. PMID:25795154

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

2015-05-01

341

Chronic Electrical Stimulation of the Intact Corticospinal System After Unilateral Injury Restores Skilled Locomotor Control and Promotes Spinal Axon Outgrowth  

PubMed Central

Injury to the brain or spinal cord usually preserves some corticospinal (CS) connections. These residual circuits sprout spontaneously and in response to activity-based treatments. We hypothesized that augmenting activity in spared CS circuits would restore the skilled motor control lost after injury and augment outgrowth of CS terminations in the spinal cord. After selective injury of one half of the CS tract (CST) in the rat, we applied 10 days of electrical stimulation to the forelimb area of motor cortex of the spared half and tested motor performance for 30 days. Rats with injury and CST stimulation showed substantial improvements in skilled paw placement while walking over a horizontal ladder. By the end of the testing period, the walking errors of the previously impaired forelimb in rats with injury and stimulation returned to baseline, while the errors remained elevated in rats with injury only. Whereas the time to perform the task returned to normal in all animals, the pattern of errors returned to normal only in the stimulated group. Electrical stimulation also caused robust outgrowth of CST axon terminations in the ipsilateral spinal cord, the side of impairment, compared with rats with injury only. The outgrowth was directed to the normal gray matter territory of ipsilateral CST axon terminations. Thus, stimulation of spared CS circuits induced substantial axon outgrowth to the largely denervated side of the spinal cord and restored normal motor control in the previously impaired limbs. PMID:20702720

Carmel, Jason B.; Berrol, Lauren J.; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Martin, John H.

2010-01-01

342

The effect of residual neurological deficit on oral glucose tolerance in persons with chronic spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Oral glucose tolerance testing was performed prospectively in 201 subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). The dependent variables included the values from the oral glucose tolerance test (glucose and insulin) and diagnostic classification (i.e., diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, normal glucose tolerance); the independent variables consisted of study group, gender, ethnic group, age, age at onset of SCI,

WA Bauman; RH Adkins; AM Spungen; RL Waters

1999-01-01

343

Silver hydrogel urinary catheters: Evaluation of safety and efficacy in single patient with chronic spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a large health burden for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) who have neurogenic bladder dysfunction, especially those patients using indwelling catheters. One method that has shown promise in recent years is the use of a silver hydrogel catheter (SHC). This article describes the outcome of a subject who was part of a prospective, randomized,

Irene M. Estores; Deborah Olsen; Orlando Gómez-Marin; James A. Haley

2008-01-01

344

EFFECTS OF CHRONIC SUPPRESSION OF BIOELECTRIC ACTIVITY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SENSORY GANGLION EVOKED RESPONSES IN SPINAL CORD EXPLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) afferent terminals were identified, using electrophysiological tech- niques, within fetal mouse spinal cord cross-sections cultured in vitro. Afferent distribution patterns were monitored in explants grown for 3 to 6 weeks either in a serum-supplemented or in a serum- free, chemically defined medium (CDM). Bioelectrically active control explants from both series were compared with explants which had

R. E. BAKER; M. A. CORNER; A. M. M. C. HABETS

345

Caudal epidural analgesia in cattle using xylazine.  

PubMed Central

Each of 25 mature Holstein cows were given a single 5 mL epidural injection of one of four different concentrations of xylazine or saline. The onset, magnitude and duration of caudal epidural analgesia was quantitated with the use of a low voltage DC current applied to the perineal area. The dose that produced the longest duration of analgesia and produced the least ataxia or sedation was approximately 0.05 mg/kg (25 mg in 5 mL diluent). The analgesia produced by this xylazine dose was compared to a standard dose of epidural lidocaine (100 mg/5 mL) by the same method. To investigate the role of systemic absorption in the production of epidural analgesia, the previously utilized epidural xylazine dosage was given intramuscularly to four adult cows. Analgesia was quantitated as before and the results compared with epidural xylazine. Epidural xylazine produced a significantly greater duration of analgesia, as measured by this model, than did epidural lidocaine. Xylazine, given epidurally, produced greater perineal analgesia than did xylazine given intramuscularly. PMID:2590877

Caron, J P; LeBlanc, P H

1989-01-01

346

Characteristics of Spinal Cord-Evoked Responses in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The averaged electrical potentials evoked by the stimulation of the peripheral nerves were recorded with surface electrodes over the lumbosacral, lower thoracic and cervical spine and with epidurally placed electrodes in the cervical area. The waveforms of the lumbosacral and cervical spinal cord potentials show similar complexity reflecting peripheral and central generators. The larger negative wave with at least two

M. R. Dimitrijevic; L. D. Lehmkuhl; E. M. Sedgwick; A. M. Sherwood; W. B. McKay

1980-01-01

347

Up-regulation of substance P in low-threshold myelinated afferents is not required for tactile allodynia in the chronic constriction injury and spinal nerve ligation models  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are up-regulated in low-threshold myelinated primary afferents following certain types of nerve injury, and that release of substance P from these afferents contributes to the resulting tactile allodynia. To test this hypothesis, we looked for neuropeptides in A? primary afferent terminals in the ipsilateral gracile nucleus and spinal dorsal horn in three nerve injury models: sciatic nerve transection (SNT), spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and chronic constriction injury (CCI). We also looked for evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor internalisation in the dorsal horn following electrical stimulation of A? afferents. We found no evidence of either substance P or CGRP expression in injured A? terminals in the spinal cord in any of the models. Although substance P was not detected in terminals of injured afferents in the gracile nucleus, CGRP was expressed in between 32 and 68% of these terminals, with a significantly higher proportion in the SNL and CCI models, compared to SNT. In addition, we did not detect any A?-evoked NK1 receptor internalisation in neurons from laminae I, III or IV of the dorsal horn in the CCI or SNL models. These results do not support the proposal that substance P is present at significant levels in the terminals of injured A? primary afferents in neuropathic models. They also suggest that any release of substance P from injured A? afferents is unlikely to activate NK1 receptors in the dorsal horn or contribute to neuropathic pain. PMID:17314299

Hughes, David I.; Scott, Dugald T.; Riddell, John S.; Todd, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

348

Safety Profile, Feasibility and Early Clinical Outcome of Cotransplantation of Olfactory Mucosa and Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective case series. Purpose To study the safety and feasibility of cotransplantation of bone marrow stem cells and autologous olfactory mucosa in chronic spinal cord injury. Overview of Literature Stem cell therapies are a novel method in the attempt to restitute heavily damaged tissues. We discuss our experience with this modality in postspinal cord injury paraplegics. Methods The study includes 9 dorsal spine injury patients with American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) A neurological impairment who underwent de-tethering of the spinal cord followed by cotransplantation with bone marrow stem cells and an olfactory mucosal graft. Participants were evaluated at the baseline and at 6 monthly intervals. Safety and tolerability were evaluated through the monitoring for adverse events and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Efficacy assessment was done through neurological and functional outcome measures. Results Surgery was tolerated well by all participants. No significant difference in the ASIA score was observed, although differences in the Functional Independence Measure and Modified Ashworth Scale were statistically significant. No significant complication was observed in any of our patients, except for neurogenic pain in one participant. The follow-up magnetic resonance imaging evaluation revealed an increase in the length of myelomalacia in seven participants. Conclusions The cotransplantation of bone marrow stem cells and olfactory mucosa is a safe, feasible and viable procedure in AIS A participants with thoracic level injuries, as assessed at the 24-month follow-up. No efficacy could be demonstrated. For application, further large-scale multicenter studies are needed. PMID:25187866

Goni, Vijay G; Chhabra, Rajesh; Gupta, Ashok; Marwaha, Neelam; Dhillon, Mandeep S; Pebam, Sudesh; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj

2014-01-01

349

Spinal extradural angiolipoma: report of two cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal angiolipomas are benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account\\u000a for only 0.04–1.2% of all spinal tumors. We report two cases of lumbar extradural angiolipoma and review previously reported\\u000a cases. We found 118 cases of spinal epidural angiolipoma (70 females and 48 males; age range 1.5–85 years, mean 44.03) spanning\\u000a from 1890 to 2006.

Miguel Gelabert-González; Alfredo García-Allut

2009-01-01

350

[Updates on ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. Ossification front of posterior longitudinal ligament and cellular biological assessment of chronic mechanical compressed spinal cord].  

PubMed

Mechanisms of ossification processes, pathological changes, and treatment/assessment of myelopathy symptoms because of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain obscure. Enchondral ossification process of OPLL was closely associated with degenerative changes of elastic fibers and cartilage formation, together with the appearance of metaplastic hypertrophic cartilage cells and neovascularization. There are differences in expression degrees of cytokines and transcription factors between mixed and localized OPLL. While the chronic compressed spinal cord may have plasticity ; the use of stem cell implants, supplementation of neurotrophic factors, in addition to surgical treatment, may bring a better clinical outcome,encouraging the development of these basic research studies. Assessment using new imaging techniques needs to determine the affected level and judge the severity of symptoms. PMID:19794256

Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Yayama, Takafumi; Sato, Ryuichiro; Baba, Hisatoshi

2009-10-01

351

The Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview Short Form (ZBI-12) in spouses of Veterans with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury, Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version  

PubMed Central

Background: To test the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-12) in the Iranian population. Methods: After translating and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire into Persian, 100 caregiver spouses of Iran- Iraq war (1980-88) veterans with chronic spinal cord injury who live in the city of Mashhad, Iran, invited to participate in the study. The Persian version of ZBI-12 accompanied with the Persian SF-36 was completed by the caregivers to test validity of the Persian ZBI-12.A Pearson`s correlation coefficient was calculated for validity testing. In order to assess reliability of the Persian ZBI-12, we administered the ZBI-12 randomly in 48 caregiver spouses again 3 days later. Results: Generally, the internal consistency of the questionnaire was found to be strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.77). Intercorrelation matrix between the different domains of ZBI-12 at test-retest was 0.78. The results revealed that majority of questions the Persian ZBI_12 have a significant correlation to each other. In terms of validity, our results showed that there is significant correlations between some domains of the Persian version the Short Form Health Survey -36 with the Persian Zarit Burden Interview such as Q1 with Role Physical (P=0.03),General Health (P=0.034),Social Functional (0.037), Mental Health (0.023) and Q3 with Physical Function (P=0.001),Viltality (0.002), Socil Function (0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the Zarit Burden Interview Persian version is both a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the burden of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:25692171

Rajabi-Mashhadi, Mohammad T; Mashhadinejad, Hosein; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Ebrahimi, Hanieh; Zarei, Zahra

2015-01-01

352

A prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial using a combination of olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells for the treatment of chronic complete spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective randomized double-blind clinical study is to examine the benefits of using olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) combined with or without Schwann cells (SCs) in treating chronic complete spinal cord injuries (SCIs). This would offer patients a better alternative for neurological functional recovery. According to the initial design, 28 eligible participants with cervical chronic complete SCI were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups of seven participants each. The neurological assessments were to be performed according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) Functional Rating Scales, in combination with electrophysiological tests, for example, electromyography (EMG) and paraspinal somatosensory evoked potentials (PSSEPs). Here we have summarized the data from seven patients; three patients received an OEC intraspinal transplantation, one underwent SC implantation, and one received a combination of OECs and SCs. The remaining two patients were used as controls. The scores were evaluated independently by at least two neurologists in a blinded fashion for comparing the neurological functional changes during pre- and post-cell transplantation (6-month follow-up). All patients who received OECs, SCs alone, and a combination of them showed functional improvement. Mild fever occurred in one of the patients with OEC transplant that subsided after symptomatic treatments. All treated patients except one showed improvement in the electrophysiological tests. The functional improvement rate comprises 5/5 (100%) in the treated group, but 0/2 (0%) in the control group (p?=?0.008). These preliminary findings show that transplanting OECs, SCs, or a combination of them is well tolerated and that they have beneficial effects in patients. Thus, further studies in larger patient cohorts are warranted to assess the benefits and risks of these intervention strategies. This manuscript is published as part of the IANR special issue of Cell Transplantation. PMID:25333925

Chen, Lin; Huang, Hongyun; Xi, Haitao; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yancheng; Chen, Di; Xiao, Juan

2014-01-01

353

Thoracic epidural anesthesia does not affect functional recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A beneficial effect of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on recovery from myocardial stunning was previously shown in awake dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TEA on recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs.Design: Randomized animal study.Setting: Animal laboratory of a university hospital.Participants: Chronically instrumented mongrel dogs.Interventions: Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement

Andreas Meissner; Thomas P. Weber; Hugo Van Aken; Michael Weyand; Michael Booke; Norbert Rolf

1998-01-01

354

SPINAL SEGMENTAL STABILIZATION EXERCISES COMBINED WITH TRADITIONAL STRENGTHENING EXERCISE PROGRAM IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Low back pain which lasts for more than 12 weeks is considered chronic lumbar pain. It is the most common diagnosis in physiatry. Numerous highly controlled randomized studies have proved a beneficial effect of the exercises on all symptoms of chronic low back pain. Classic kinesytherapy program does not include strengthening of the deep layer of abdominal and paravertebral

Milica Mirjana Dragan

355

Spinal cord stimulation reduces mechanical hyperalgesia and glial cell activation in animals with neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used to manage chronic intractable neuropathic pain. We examined parameters of SCS in rats with spared nerve injury by modulating frequency (4Hz vs. 60Hz), duration (30m vs. 6h), or intensity (50%, 75%, or 90% MT). To elucidate potential mechanisms modulated by SCS, we examined immunoreactivity glial markers in the spinal cord after SCS). An epidural SCS lead was implanted in the upper lumbar spinal cord. Animals were tested for mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) of the paw before and 2 weeks after SNI, before and after SCS daily for 4 days, and for 9 days after SCS. Seperate groups of animals were tested for glial immunoreactivity after 4 days of 6h SCS. All rats showed a decrease in MWT 2 weeks after nerve injury and an increase in glial activation. For frequency, 4Hz or 60Hz SCS reversed the MWT when compared to sham SCS. For duration, 6h of SCS showed a greater reduction in MWT when compared to 30 min. For intensity, 90% MT was greater than 75% MT and both were greater than 50% MT or sham SCS. SCS decreased glial activation (GFAP, MCP-1 and OX-42) in the spinal cord dorsal horn when compared to sham. In conclusion, 4Hz and 60Hz SCS for a 6h at 90% MT were the most effective parameters for reducing hyperalgesia, suggesting parameters of stimulation are important for effectiveness of SCS. SCS reduced glial activation at the level of the spinal cord suggesting reduction in central excitability. PMID:24361846

Sato, Karina L.; Johanek, Lisa M.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

2015-01-01

356

Spinal stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... claudication; Central spinal stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis ... to bulge. The bones and ligaments of the spine thicken or grow larger. This is caused by ...

357

Modification of spasticity by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Context/objective To examine the effects of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) on lower-limb spasticity. Design Interventional pilot study to produce preliminary data. Setting Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Participants Three subjects with chronic motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk ?10 m. Interventions Two interconnected stimulating skin electrodes (Ø 5 cm) were placed paraspinally at the T11/T12 vertebral levels, and two rectangular electrodes (8 × 13 cm) on the abdomen for the reference. Biphasic 2 ms-width pulses were delivered at 50 Hz for 30 minutes at intensities producing paraesthesias but no motor responses in the lower limbs. Outcome measures The Wartenberg pendulum test and neurological recordings of surface-electromyography (EMG) were used to assess effects on exaggerated reflex excitability. Non-functional co-activation during volitional movement was evaluated. The timed 10-m walk test provided measures of clinical function. Results The index of spasticity derived from the pendulum test changed from 0.8 ± 0.4 pre- to 0.9 ± 0.3 post-stimulation, with an improvement in the subject with the lowest pre-stimulation index. Exaggerated reflex responsiveness was decreased after tSCS across all subjects, with the most profound effect on passive lower-limb movement (pre- to post-tSCS EMG ratio: 0.2 ± 0.1), as was non-functional co-activation during voluntary movement. Gait speed values increased in two subjects by 39%. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that tSCS, similar to epidurally delivered stimulation, may be used for spasticity control, without negatively impacting residual motor control in incomplete SCI. Further study in a larger population is warranted. PMID:24090290

Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; McKay, William B.; Tansey, Keith E.; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut; Minassian, Karen

2014-01-01

358

Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267

Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

2014-03-01

359

Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267

Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

2014-01-01

360

Chronic decentralization potentiates neurovascular transmission in the isolated rat tail artery, mimicking the effects of spinal transection.  

PubMed

Spinal cord transection produces a marked increase in the response of the isolated rat tail artery to sympathetic nerve stimulation, possibly as a result of a decrease in ongoing sympathetic activity. We have tested the effects of removing ongoing nerve activity on neurovascular transmission by cutting the preganglionic input to postganglionic neurones supplying the tail artery (decentralization). Isometric contractions to nerve stimulation were compared between decentralized arteries and those from age-matched and sham-operated controls. Nerve-evoked responses of decentralized arteries were much larger than those of control arteries at 2 and 7 weeks post operatively. The extent of blockade of nerve-evoked contraction by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin (10 nM) or idazoxan (0.1 microM) was reduced. Decentralized arteries were transiently supersensitive to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine and the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine; the unchanged sensitivity to methoxamine and phenylephrine after 2 weeks indicated no effect on the neuronal noradrenaline uptake transporter. Decentralized arteries were hypersensitive to alpha,beta methylene-ATP, but the P2-purinoceptor antagonist suramin (0.1 mM) did not reduce nerve-evoked contractions. Enlarged responses to 60 mM K+ after both 2 and 7 weeks were correlated with the response of the arteries to nerve stimulation, suggesting that increased postjunctional reactivity contributes to the enhanced contraction. Comparison between data from decentralized arteries and our previous data from spinalized animals showed that the two lesions similarly potentiate nerve-evoked contractions and have similar but not identical postjunctional effects. The enhanced vascular responses following a reduction in tonic nerve activity may contribute to the hypertensive episodes of autonomic dysreflexia in spinally injured patients. PMID:15486013

Yeoh, Melanie; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

2004-12-01

361

The effect of impedance-controlled robotic gait training on walking ability and quality in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: an explorative study  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing interest in the use of robotic gait-training devices in walking rehabilitation of incomplete spinal cord injured (iSCI) individuals. These devices provide promising opportunities to increase the intensity of training and reduce physical demands on therapists. Despite these potential benefits, robotic gait-training devices have not yet demonstrated clear advantages over conventional gait-training approaches, in terms of functional outcomes. This might be due to the reduced active participation and step-to-step variability in most robotic gait-training strategies, when compared to manually assisted therapy. Impedance-controlled devices can increase active participation and step-to-step variability. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of impedance-controlled robotic gait training on walking ability and quality in chronic iSCI individuals. Methods A group of 10 individuals with chronic iSCI participated in an explorative clinical trial. Participants trained three times a week for eight weeks using an impedance-controlled robotic gait trainer (LOPES: LOwer extremity Powered ExoSkeleton). Primary outcomes were the 10-meter walking test (10MWT), the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II), the six-meter walking test (6MWT), the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the Lower Extremity Motor Scores (LEMS). Secondary outcomes were spatiotemporal and kinematics measures. All participants were tested before, during, and after training and at 8 weeks follow-up. Results Participants experienced significant improvements in walking speed (0.06 m/s, p?=?0.008), distance (29 m, p?=?0.005), TUG (3.4 s, p?=?0.012), LEMS (3.4, p?=?0.017) and WISCI after eight weeks of training with LOPES. At the eight-week follow-up, participants retained the improvements measured at the end of the training period. Significant improvements were also found in spatiotemporal measures and hip range of motion. Conclusion Robotic gait training using an impedance-controlled robot is feasible in gait rehabilitation of chronic iSCI individuals. It leads to improvements in walking ability, muscle strength, and quality of walking. Improvements observed at the end of the training period persisted at the eight-week follow-up. Slower walkers benefit the most from the training protocol and achieve the greatest relative improvement in speed and walking distance. PMID:24594284

2014-01-01

362

The utility of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists in the treatment of nociception induced by epidural glutamate infusion in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The authors have previously demonstrated that human herniated disc material contains high concentrations of free glutamate. In an experimental model, elevated epidural glutamate concentrations in the lumbar spine can cause a focal hyperesthetic state. Methods: Rats underwent epidural glutamate infusion in the lumbar spine by a miniosmotic pump over a 72-hour period. Some rats underwent coinfusion with glutamate and ionotropic glutamate antagonists. Nociception was assessed by von Frey fibers and by assessment of glutamate receptor expression in the corresponding dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Results: The kainic acid antagonist, UBP 301, decreased epidural glutamate-based hyperesthesia in a dose dependent manner. Concordant with these findings, there was significant decrease in kainate receptor expression in the dorsal horn. The N-Methyl-4-isoxazoleproionic acid (NMDA) antagonist Norketamine also significantly diminished hyperesthesia and decreased receptor expression in the dorsal horn. Conclusions: Both UBP 301, the kainic acid receptor antagonist and Norketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, dampened epidural glutamate-based nociception. Focal epidural injections of Kainate or NMDA receptor antagonists could be effective treatments for disc herniation-based lumbar radiculopathy. PMID:24032081

Osgood, Doreen P.; Harrington, William F.; Kenney, Elizabeth V.; Harrington, J. Frederick

2013-01-01

363

Ultrasonographic anatomy of the sacrococcygeal region and ultrasound-guided epidural injection at the sacrococcygeal space in dogs.  

PubMed

Sacrococcygeal epidural anaesthesia allows selective desensitisation of the sacral plexus. Ultrasound is used for guidance in human anaesthesia to facilitate sacrococcygeal epidural injections. The aims of this study were to describe the sonographic appearance of the sacrococcygeal region in dogs and a technique for performing epidural injection at this location under ultrasound guidance. In the preliminary part of the study four cadavers were used to describe the sonoanatomy of the sacrococcygeal space and to develop the ultrasound-guided puncture technique. In the second phase of the study this technique was repeated in four dogs under general anaesthesia. In all dogs the sacrococcygeal space appeared as a circular hypoechoic region, located caudal to the sacral caudal articular processes, delimited by bony hyperechoic structures such as body and arch of the first caudal vertebra. Ultrasound guidance allowed the operator to visualise and position the spinal needle into the sacrococcygeal epidural space. No complications were reported during this procedure. Preliminary results indicate that ultrasound-guided sacrococcygeal epidural anaesthesia may be considered as an alternative to a blind approach technique. PMID:24821855

Gregori, T; Viscasillas, J; Benigni, L

2014-07-19

364

Nerve-evoked constriction of rat tail veins is potentiated and venous diameter is reduced after chronic spinal cord transection.  

PubMed

Despite reduced sympathetic activity below the level of a spinal cord injury (SCI), venoconstriction during autonomic dysreflexia increases venous return to the heart. Here, contractions of isometrically mounted tail veins from rats with spinal transection at T4 performed 8?-?10 weeks earlier are compared with those from sham-operated rats. After SCI, lumen diameter was reduced by ?30% and the contractions evoked by electrical stimulation of the perivascular axons were larger than control. This augmentation of neurovascular transmission was not associated with enhanced sensitivity to ?-adrenoceptor agonists or to adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) although contractions to depolarization with K(+) were larger after SCI. The percentage reduction in nerve-evoked contraction after SCI produced by the ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (10?nM) was unchanged but that by the ?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (0.1??M) was reduced. The relative contribution of P2-purinoceptors to nerve-evoked contractions after ?-adrenoceptor blockade, revealed by adding suramin (0.1?mM), was unchanged. The greater depolarization-induced contraction and the reduced contribution of ?(2)-adrenoceptors to nerve-evoked contraction suggest that changes in the venous smooth muscle underlie the potentiation of neurovascular transmission after SCI. Furthermore, the smaller lumen diameter after SCI will increase the pressure that the veins exert on the luminal contents when they are neurally activated. PMID:21222499

Tripovic, Diana; Al Abed, Amr; Rummery, Nicole M; Johansen, Niloufer J; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

2011-05-01

365

Spinal Tap  

MedlinePLUS

... Anger Spinal Tap KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Diagnostic Tests > Spinal Tap Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Is a Spinal Tap and Why Do You Need It? Preparation The Procedure Safety Results ... Need It? A spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture) is a medical test that involves taking a small sample of cerebrospinal ...

366

Bridging defects in chronic spinal cord injury using peripheral nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold and enhancing regeneration through them by co-transplantation with bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Case series of 14 patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of bridging defects in chronic spinal cord injury using peripheral nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold and enhancing regeneration through them by co-transplantation with bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Methods In 14 patients with chronic paraplegia caused by spinal cord injury, cord defects were grafted and stem cells injected into the whole construct and contained using a chitosan-laminin paste. Patients were evaluated using the International Standards for Classification of Spinal Cord Injuries. Results Chitosan disintegration leading to post-operative seroma formation was a complication. Motor level improved four levels in 2 cases and two levels in 12 cases. Sensory-level improved six levels in two cases, five levels in five cases, four levels in three cases, and three levels in four cases. A four-level neurological improvement was recorded in 2 cases and a two-level neurological improvement occurred in 12 cases. The American Spinal Impairment Association (ASIA) impairment scale improved from A to C in 12 cases and from A to B in 2 cases. Although motor power improvement was recorded in the abdominal muscles (2 grades), hip flexors (3 grades), hip adductors (3 grades), knee extensors (2–3 grades), ankle dorsiflexors (1–2 grades), long toe extensors (1–2 grades), and plantar flexors (0–2 grades), this improvement was too low to enable them to stand erect and hold their knees extended while walking unaided. Conclusion Mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural stem cell-like cell transplantation enhances recovery in chronic spinal cord injuries with defects bridged by sural nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold. PMID:24090088

Amr, Sherif M.; Gouda, Ashraf; Koptan, Wael T.; Galal, Ahmad A.; Abdel-Fattah, Dina Sabry; Rashed, Laila A.; Atta, Hazem M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammad T.

2014-01-01

367

Approaches in injections for radicular pain: the transforaminal, epidural and transfacet approaches.  

PubMed

Spinal injections must be carried out adhering to very strict conditions. However, these procedures have almost come to be seen as everyday and may be practised under quite questionable conditions. The recent reports of new and extremely serious neurological complications have changed the attitudes of those making referrals as well as the attitudes of the interventional radiologists carrying out these procedures. The range of indications for transforaminal injections has shrunk in favour of epidural injections. Where the transforaminal approach is still used, the needle must be positioned extremely accurately. A prior radioopaque contrast medium injection is essential from a safety perspective. The transforaminal epidural injection via the transfacet approach looks to be a promising alternative that is strictly avascular. PMID:22925594

Brunner, P; Amoretti, N; Soares, F; Brunner, E; Cazaux, E; Brocq, O; Chanalet, S; Liberatore, M; Cucchi, J-M; Mourou, M-Y; Michelozzi, G; Robino, C

2012-09-01

368

Why Epidurals Do Not Always Work  

PubMed Central

The overwhelming majority of epidural catheters placed for labor provide satisfactory analgesia. There are, however, times when the catheter is not sited within the epidural space correctly, the patient’s neuraxial anatomy is problematic, or a patient’s labor progresses more quickly than expected by the anesthesiologist, and the epidural block does not set up on time. In this article, the basics of neuraxial labor analgesia, the causes of its failure, and the strategies anesthesiologists employ to rescue poorly functioning catheters are reviewed. PMID:18769661

Arendt, Katherine; Segal, Scott

2008-01-01

369

The risks of epidural and transforaminal steroid injections in the Spine: Commentary and a comprehensive review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Multiple type of spinal injections, whether epidural/translaminar or transforaminal, facet injections, are offered to patients with/without surgical spinal lesions by pain management specialists (radiologists, physiatrists, and anesthesiologists). Although not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), injections are being performed with an increased frequency (160%), are typically short-acting and ineffective over the longer-term, while exposing patients to major risks/complications. Methods: For many patients with spinal pain alone and no surgical lesions, the “success” of epidural injections may simply reflect the self-limited course of the disease. Alternatively, although those with surgical pathology may experience transient or no pain relief, undergoing these injections (typically administered in a series of three) unnecessarily exposes them to the inherent risks, while also delaying surgery and potentially exposing them to more severe/permanent neurological deficits. Results: Multiple recent reports cite contaminated epidural steroid injections resulting in meningitis, stroke, paralysis, and death. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) specifically identified 25 deaths (many due to Aspergillosis), 337 patients sickened, and 14,000 exposed to contaminated steroids. Nevertheless, many other patients develop other complications that go unreported/underreported: Other life-threatening infections, spinal fluid leaks (0.4-6%), positional headaches (28%), adhesive arachnoiditis (6-16%), hydrocephalus, air embolism, urinary retention, allergic reactions, intravascular injections (7.9-11.6%), stroke, blindness, neurological deficits/paralysis, hematomas, seizures, and death. Conclusions: Although the benefits for epidural steroid injections may include transient pain relief for those with/without surgical disease, the multitude of risks attributed to these injections outweighs the benefits. PMID:23646278

Epstein, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

370

Block-Dependent Sedation during Epidural Anaesthesia is Associated with Delayed Brainstem Conduction  

PubMed Central

Neuraxial anaesthesia produces a sedative and anesthetic-sparing effect. Recent evidence suggests that spinal cord anaesthesia modifies reticulo-thalamo-cortical arousal by decreasing afferent sensory transmission. We hypothesized that epidural anaesthesia produces sensory deafferentation-dependent sedation that is associated with impairment of brainstem transmission. We used brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) to evaluate reticular function in 11 volunteers. Epidural anaesthesia was induced with 2% 2-chloroprocaine. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses, sensory block level, sedation depth and BAEP were assessed throughout induction and resolution of epidural anaesthesia. Sedation was evaluated using verbal rating score (VRS), observer's assessment alertness/sedation (OAA/S) score, and bispectral index (BIS). Prediction probability (PK) was used to associate sensory block with sedation, as well as BIS with other sedation measures. Spearman rank order correlation was used to associate block level and sedation with the absolute and interpeak BAEP latencies. Sensory block level significantly predicted VRS (PK = 0.747), OAA/S score (PK = 0.748) and BIS. Bispectral index predicted VRS and OAA/S score (PK = 0.728). The latency of wave III of BAEP significantly correlated with sedation level (rho = 0.335, P < 0.01) and sensory block (rho = 0.394, P < 0.01). The other BAEP parameters did not change during epidural anaesthesia. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses remained stable throughout the study. Sedation during epidural anaesthesia depends on sensory block level and is associated with detectable block-dependent alterations in the brainstem auditory evoked responses. Sensory deafferentation may reduce CNS alertness through mechanisms related to brainstem neural activity. PMID:15220178

Wadhwa, Anupama; Shah, Yunus M.; Lin, Chum-Ming; Haugh, Gilbert S.; Sessler, Daniel I.

2005-01-01

371

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension from calcified thoracic disc protrusions causing CSF leak successfully treated with targeted epidural blood patch.  

PubMed

Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are increasingly recognized in patients presenting with orthostatic headache and ultimately diagnosed with intracranial hypotension. While the precise cause of these spontaneous leaks is unknown, it is thought to result from underlying weakness in the spinal meninges and may be associated with meningeal diverticula or Tarlov cysts. Rarely, calcified intervertebral discs or bony osteophytes can result in CSF leakage, which has been described in the surgery literature but not well recognized in the radiology literature. The authors present three cases of patients presenting with CSF leaks from calcified thoracic disc protrusions that were successfully treated with epidural blood patches. PMID:23395554

Allmendinger, Andrew M; Lee, Thomas C

2013-01-01

372

Spinal epidural abscess: an unusual cause of sciatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously healthy patient was admitted to our hospital because of low back pain and sciatica. For 4 weeks preceding the admission, he had been treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory analgetics and bed rest with a clinical diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation. On admission, the patient was subfebrile but developed general symptoms of septic infection by the next day. Computed tomography

E. Kotilainen; P. Sonninen; P. Kotilainen

1996-01-01

373

A nursing process approach to epidural analgesia.  

PubMed

Epidural narcotics are finding increasing favor in management of postcesarean birth pain. Effective pain relief coupled with minimal side effects often make this technique the method of choice. To provide comprehensive and safe nursing care for the mother using epidural narcotics, nurses must be knowledgeable about the technique, drugs, and associated patient responses. Nursing management using a care plan with nursing diagnosis and expected patient outcomes will help nurses plan their care of these patients. PMID:2906364

Henrikson, M L; Wild, L R

1988-01-01

374

Side effects of intrathecal and epidural opioids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the side effects of intrathecal and epidural opioids. English-language\\u000a articles were identified through a MEDLINE search and through review of the bibliographies of identified articles. With the\\u000a increasing utilization of intrathecal and epidural opioids in humans during the 1980s, a wide variety of clinically relevant\\u000a side effects have been

Mark A. Chaney

1995-01-01

375

The Effects of Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia on Functional Recovery from Myocardial Stunning in Propofol-Anesthetized Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myo- cardial stunning during propofol anesthesia. Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Experi- ments

Norbert Rolf; Andreas MeiiJner; Hugo Van Aken; Thomas P. Weber; Dieter Hammel; Thomas Mijllhoff

1997-01-01

376

Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:23576361

Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

2013-01-01

377

Calcium and vitamin D plasma concentration and nutritional intake status in patients with chronic spinal cord injury: A referral center report  

PubMed Central

Background: Nutritional status influences bone health spinal cord injury (SCI). This study evaluates serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D and calcium along with dietary intakes in patients with chronic SCI. Materials and Methods: Total of 160 patients participated in this investigation. Dietary intakes were assessed by semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH)-vitamin-D level were measured. Results: Mean of serum calcium and 25(OH)-vitamin-D were 9.54 ± 0.64 mg/dl (standard error of the mean [SE]: 0.05) and 13.6 ± 10.99 ?g/dl (SE: 0.9), respectively. Dairy intake was below recommended amount (1.8 ± 0.74 per serving (SE: 0.06), recommended: 4). A high prevalence (53.1%) of Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) Vitamin D <13 ng/ml) was found. Conclusion: This study shows below adequate intake of calcium and Vitamin D in Iranian patients with SCI. These results insist on the importance of dietary modifications among these patients. PMID:25535504

Javidan, Abbas Norouzi; Sabour, Hadis; Latifi, Sahar; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Abbas; Razavi, Seyed-Hassan Emami

2014-01-01

378

Endoscopic surgery of the lumbar epidural space (epiduroscopy): results of therapeutic intervention in 93 patients.  

PubMed

Determination and therapy of the underlying pathology in chronic pain syndrome in the lumbar spine is frequently difficult. Minimally invasive and microsurgical techniques may offer advantages. Epiduroscopy is available for visualization of the lumbar epidural space. 93 patients with chronic back-leg pain syndrome were epiduroscopically operated. When findings were appropriate, mechanical instruments and the holmium:YAG laser were applied therapeutically. 45.9 % of these patients presented with positive results in postoperative examination. Pathomorphological processes corresponding to the multifactorial pain processes, which escape detection in modern imaging procedures, can be diagnosed in the epidural space using epiduroscopy Therapeutic intervention is basically possible. However, use is limited due to technical difficulties. Navigation of the endoscope is especially limited in access via the hiatus sacralis. PMID:12640575

Ruetten, S; Meyer, O; Godolias, G

2003-02-01

379

Pain following spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain is an important problem following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is a major impediment to effective rehabilitation. The reported prevalence of chronic SCI pain is variable but averages 65% with around one third of these people rating their pain as severe. The mechanisms responsible for the presence of pain are poorly understood. However, evidence from clinical observations and

PJ Siddall; JD Loeser

2001-01-01

380

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is caused by mechanical factors and/or biochemical alterations within the intervertebral disk that lead to disk space collapse, facet joint hypertrophy, soft-tissue infolding, and osteophyte formation, which narrows the space available for the thecal sac and exiting nerve roots. The clinical consequence of this compression is neurogenic claudication and varying degrees of leg and back pain. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is a major cause of pain and impaired quality of life in the elderly. The natural history of this condition varies; however, it has not been shown to worsen progressively. Nonsurgical management consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and epidural steroid injections. If nonsurgical management is unsuccessful and neurologic decline persists or progresses, surgical treatment, most commonly laminectomy, is indicated. Recent prospective randomized studies have demonstrated that surgery is superior to nonsurgical management in terms of controlling pain and improving function in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:22855855

Issack, Paul S; Cunningham, Matthew E; Pumberger, Matthias; Hughes, Alexander P; Cammisa, Frank P

2012-08-01

381

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... disk. Various devices may be used to enhance fusion and strengthen unstable segments of the spine following decompression surgery. Patients with spinal stenosis caused by spinal trauma or achondroplasia may ...

382

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with multiple hypertrophic nerves in intracranial, and intra- and extra-spinal segments.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic nerves have occasionally been seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), but most are in the cauda equina. We report a case with CIDP in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement demonstrated hypertrophy of various peripheral nerves including multiple cranial nerves. Interestingly, none showed neurological signs corresponding to the lesions, except for clinical signs consistent with CIDP. MRI can be useful for the detection of silent, but abnormal nerve involvement in CIDP. PMID:10397086

Niino, M; Tsuji, S; Tashiro, K

1999-05-01

383

Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal cord is a relatively understudied target of diabetes. In this chapter an overview of the anatomy of the spinal\\u000a cord and its associated structures is presented before reviewing the published literature describing evidence for structural\\u000a damage to the spinal cord reported in both diabetic patients and animal models of diabetes. Spinal cord pathology is accompanied\\u000a by functional disorders

Andrew P. Mizisin; Corinne G. Jolivalt; Nigel A. Calcutt

384

Unilateral Hemiparesis with Thoracic Epidural in an Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Objective. Unilateral sensory and motor blockade is known to occur with epidural anesthesia but is rarely reported in children. The differential diagnosis should include the presence of a midline epidural septum. Case Report. We describe a case of a 16-year-old adolescent who developed repeated complete unilateral extensive epidural sensory and motor blockade with Horner's syndrome after thoracic epidural catheter placement. This unusual presentation of complete hemibody neural blockade has not been reported in the pediatric population. Maneuvers to improve contralateral uniform neural blockade were unsuccessful. An epidurogram was performed to ascertain the correct location of the catheter within the epidural space and presence of sagittal compartmentalization. Conclusion. This case report highlights a less frequently reported reason for unilateral sensory and motor blockade with epidural anesthesia in children. The presence of a midline epidural septum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral epidural blockade. PMID:22606409

Tassone, Rosalie F.; Seefelder, Christian; Sethna, Navil F.

2012-01-01

385

Low back pain (chronic)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Over 70% of people in developed countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Many patients with chronic LBP who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? What are the effects of non-surgical and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-surgical interventional therapies (intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency denervation), spinal manipulative therapy, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:21418678

2010-01-01

386

Root cause analysis of paraplegia following transforaminal epidural steroid injections: the 'unsafe' triangle.  

PubMed

The utilization rate of transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs), an elective diagnostic and therapeutic spinal procedure, has risen dramatically over the past decade. In 2006 alone, greater than 300,000 thoracolumbar TFESIs were performed on Medicare beneficiaries. Despite the purported superiority of the transforaminal route, compared to other modes of epidural injection, TFESIs are associated with potential hazards. The artery of Adamkiewicz (ARM) might enter any mid thoracic, lower thoracic, or lumbar foramen; the exact level, in a specific patient, will be unknown to the proceduralist. The authors propose that the "safe triangle" approach to transforaminal epidural injections is not safe (TFESIs). Injury to the ARM can lead to paraplegia, independent of operator skill or adjuvant safety initiatives (digital subtraction angiography, local anesthetic test dose). Injury to the ARM is a "black swan" event. The authors believe that catastrophic injury may be averted when performing TFESIs by avoiding the "un-safe," superoanterior triangle in the foramen and that transforaminal injections should be performed at the inferior aspect of the foramen, known as Kambin's triangle. PMID:20495587

Glaser, Scott E; Shah, Rinoo V

2010-01-01

387

Lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

1993-01-01

388

Large Animal Model for Development of Functional Restoration Paradigms Using Epidural and Intraspinal Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Restoration of movement following spinal cord injury (SCI) has been achieved using electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles. However, practical limitations such as the rapid onset of muscle fatigue hinder clinical application of these technologies. Recently, direct stimulation of alpha motor neurons has shown promise for evoking graded, controlled, and sustained muscle contractions in rodent and feline animal models while overcoming some of these limitations. However, small animal models are not optimal for the development of clinical spinal stimulation techniques for functional restoration of movement. Furthermore, variance in surgical procedure, targeting, and electrode implantation techniques can compromise therapeutic outcomes and impede comparison of results across studies. Herein, we present a protocol and large animal model that allow standardized development, testing, and optimization of novel clinical strategies for restoring motor function following spinal cord injury. We tested this protocol using both epidural and intraspinal stimulation in a porcine model of spinal cord injury, but the protocol is suitable for the development of other novel therapeutic strategies. This protocol will help characterize spinal circuits vital for selective activation of motor neuron pools. In turn, this will expedite the development and validation of high-precision therapeutic targeting strategies and stimulation technologies for optimal restoration of motor function in humans. PMID:24339929

Hachmann, Jan T.; Jeong, Ju Ho; Grahn, Peter J.; Mallory, Grant W.; Evertz, Loribeth Q.; Bieber, Allan J.; Lobel, Darlene A.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. Luis

2013-01-01

389

Predictors of Pain Relief Following Spinal Cord Stimulation in Chronic Back and Leg Pain and Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis  

PubMed Central

We sought to assess the extent to which pain relief in chronic back and leg pain (CBLP) following spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is influenced by patient-related factors, including pain location, and technology factors. A number of electronic databases were searched with citation searching of included papers and recent systematic reviews. All study designs were included. The primary outcome was pain relief following SCS, we also sought pain score (pre- and post-SCS). Multiple predictive factors were examined: location of pain, history of back surgery, initial level of pain, litigation/worker's compensation, age, gender, duration of pain, duration of follow-up, publication year, continent of data collection, study design, quality score, method of SCS lead implant, and type of SCS lead. Between-study association in predictive factors and pain relief were assessed by meta-regression. Seventy-four studies (N = 3,025 patients with CBLP) met the inclusion criteria; 63 reported data to allow inclusion in a quantitative analysis. Evidence of substantial statistical heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) in level of pain relief following SCS was noted. The mean level of pain relief across studies was 58% (95% CI: 53% to 64%, random effects) at an average follow-up of 24 months. Multivariable meta-regression analysis showed no predictive patient or technology factors. SCS was effective in reducing pain irrespective of the location of CBLP. This review supports SCS as an effective pain relieving treatment for CBLP with predominant leg pain with or without a prior history of back surgery. Randomized controlled trials need to confirm the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SCS in the CLBP population with predominant low back pain. PMID:23834386

Taylor, Rod S; Desai, Mehul J; Rigoard, Philippe; Taylor, Rebecca J

2014-01-01

390

Spinal dural attachments to the vertebral column: An anatomic report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: The spinal dura is anchored within the vertebral canal by connective tissue in the epidural space as well as the spinal roots. Inadvertent disruption of these dural attachments may lead to durotomy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. We observed well-developed connective tissue ligaments connecting the lumbar dura to the spinal column and examined these tissues microscopically. Methods: Intraoperative images were obtained during lumbar laminectomy procedures. They demonstrated connective tissue attachments, linking the lumbar dura to the spinal column in the dorsal midline and dorsolaterally. Tissue samples were obtained and examined microscopically. We then conducted a search of the literature to find references to dural attachments to the spinal column. Results: Histological examination of the samples showed minimal cellular fibrous tissue. To date no references to these attachments have been made in neurosurgical literature. Previous studies, including live, cadaveric, and radiographic examinations, have demonstrated a dorsomedian fold of dura attached to the junction of the ligamentum flavum, and dorsolateral ligaments that divide the dorsal epidural space into an anterior and posterior compartment. Conclusions: Epidural fibrous connections or ligaments between the dura and the lumbar spinal column may be of clinical importance to the neurosurgeon. Care should be taken during lumbar procedures not to disrupt or tear these ligaments as this may cause dural tears and CSF leaks. Identifying these ligaments and cutting them sharply may prevent inadvertent durotomies. PMID:21811703

Kimmell, Kristopher T.; Dayoub, Hayan; Shakir, Hakeem; Sincoff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

391

Paraplegia Following Intercostal Nerve Neurolysis with Alcohol and Thoracic Epidural Injection in Lung Cancer Patient  

PubMed Central

The goal of cancer treatment is generally pain reduction and function recovery. However, drug therapy does not treat pain adequately in approximately 43% of patients, and the latter may have to undergo a nerve block or neurolysis. In the case reported here, a 42-year-old female patient with lung cancer (adenocarcinoma) developed paraplegia after receiving T8-10 and 11th intercostal nerve neurolysis and T9-10 interlaminar epidural steroid injections. An MRI results revealed extensive swelling of the spinal cord between the T4 spinal cord and conus medullaris, and T5, 7-11, and L1 bone metastasis. Although steroid therapy was administered, the paraplegia did not improve. PMID:25852838

Kim, Byoung Ho; No, Min Young; Han, Sang Ju; Park, Cheol Hwan

2015-01-01

392

Controversies over spinal treatment in advanced cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10% of patients with cancer pain do not obtain pain relief or experience unacceptable side effects with systemic opioids.\\u000a In some cases a change of the route of administration can improve the balance of analgesia and adverse effects. In this paper\\u000a the use of spinal opioids in such patients is discussed from various aspects: patient selection, epidural vs intrathecal

Sebastiano Mercadante

1998-01-01

393

Thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extradural extension and spinal cord compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 45-year-old man presented with progressive numbness of lower extremities and unsteady gait. Magnetic resonance imaging of the dorsal spine demonstrated multiple hyperintense inactive vertebral hemangiomas on T-1 weighted images. There was an active hemangioma involving D7 vertebral body and neural arch with epidural extension and spinal cord compression. He underwent embolization of the main feeders of the lesion and

1998-01-01

394

Glutamate receptor plasticity and activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein regulation in the phrenic motor nucleus may mediate spontaneous recovery of the hemidiaphragm following chronic cervical spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

High cervical spinal cord hemisection results in paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm; however, functional recovery of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm can occur spontaneously. The mechanisms mediating this recovery are unknown. In chronic, experimental contusive spinal cord injury, an upregulation of the NMDA receptor 2A subunit and a down regulation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit has been correlated with improved hind limb motor recovery. Therefore, we hypothesized that NR2A is upregulated, whereas GluR2 is down-regulated following chronic C2 hemisection to initiate synaptic strengthening in respiratory motor pathways. Since NMDA receptor activation can lead to the delivery of AMPA receptor subunits to the post-synaptic membrane, we also hypothesized that there would be an upregulation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit and that activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein may mediate the post-synaptic membrane delivery. Female rats were hemisected at C2 and allowed to recover for different time points following hemisection. At these time points, protein levels of NR2A, GluR1, and GluR2 subunits were assessed via Western blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed that there were increases in NR2A subunit at six and twelve weeks post C2 hemisection. At six, twelve, and sixteen weeks post hemisection, the GluR1 subunit was increased over controls, whereas the GluR2 subunit decreased sixteen weeks post hemisection. Immunocytochemical data qualitatively supported these findings. Results also indicated that activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein may be associated with the above changes. These findings suggest a role of NR2A, GluR1, and GluR2 in mediating chronic spontaneous functional recovery of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm following cervical spinal cord hemisection. PMID:18534577

Alilain, Warren J.; Goshgarian, Harry G.

2008-01-01

395

Metastatic spinal abscesses from diabetic foot osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man with long-standing type 2 diabetes, nephropathy and neuropathy was admitted acutely with an infected left big toe neuropathic ulcer, with underlying osteomyelitis. His condition rapidly deteriorated with sepsis and right lobar pneumonia. Microbiology grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Shortly into his admission, he developed flaccid paraparesis, and an MRI showed multiple epidural abscesses with likely cord infarction, not amenable to surgical intervention. His sepsis resolved, but his paraparesis remained severe, requiring spinal rehabilitation. PMID:24920514

Shaho, Shang; Khan, Shaila; Huda, M S Bobby; Chowdhury, Tahseen Ahmad

2014-01-01

396

Spinal segmental stabilisation exercises for chronic low back pain: programme adherence and its influence on clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Exercise rehabilitation is one of the few evidence-based treatments for chronic non-specific low back pain (cLBP), but individual success is notoriously variable and may depend on the patient’s adherence to the prescribed exercise regime. This prospective study examined factors associated with adherence and the relationship between adherence and outcome after a programme of physiotherapeutic spine stabilisation exercises. A total of 32/37 patients with cLBP completed the study (mean age, 44.0 (SD = 12.3) years; 11/32 (34%) male). Adherence to the 9-week programme was documented as: percent attendance at therapy, percent adherence to daily home exercises (patient diary) and percent commitment to rehabilitation (Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS)). The average of these three measures formed a multidimensional adherence index (MAI). Psychological disturbance, fear-avoidance beliefs, catastrophising, exercise self-efficacy and health locus of control were measured by questionnaire; disability in everyday activities was scored with the Roland–Morris disability scale and back pain intensity with a 0–10 graphic rating scale. Overall, adherence to therapy was very good (average MAI score, 85%; median (IQR), 89 (15)%). The only psychological/beliefs variable showing a unique significant association with MAI was exercise self-efficacy (Rho = 0.36, P = 0.045). Pain intensity and self-rated disability decreased significantly after therapy (each P < 0.01). Adherence to home exercises showed a moderate, positive correlation with the reduction in average pain (Rho = 0.54, P = 0.003) and disability (Rho = 0.38, P = 0.036); higher MAI scores were associated with greater reductions in average pain (Rho = 0.48, P = 0.008) and a (n.s.) tendency for greater reductions in disability (Rho = 0.32, P = 0.07) Neither attendance at therapy nor SIRAS were significantly related to any of the outcomes. The benefits of rehabilitation depended to a large extent on the patient’s exercise behaviour outside of the formal physiotherapy sessions. Hence, more effort should be invested in finding ways to improve patients’ motivation to take responsibility for the success of their own therapy, perhaps by increasing exercise self-efficacy. Whether the “adherence–outcome” interaction was mediated by improvements in function related to the specific exercises, or by a more “global” effect of the programme, remains to be examined. PMID:19609785

Helbling, Daniel; Pulkovski, Natascha; Sprott, Haiko

2009-01-01

397

Pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, and epidural pneumatosis in DKA.  

PubMed

Pneumomediastinum (PM) is an uncommon condition characterized by the presence of air in the mediastinum. It is associated with alveolar rupture that allows air to traverse along the bronchovascular bundle into the mediastinum. A review of the world medical literature identified 50 additional cases of PM and pneumopericardium (PC) associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We report the occurrence of PM, PC, as well as epidural pneumatosis occurring simultaneously in a patient with DKA. Epidural pneumatosis in association with this metabolic derangement has not been previously described. PMID:15207845

Pooyan, Payam; Puruckherr, Michael; Summers, Jeffrey A; Byrd, Ryland P; Roy, Thomas M

2004-01-01

398

Epidural analgesia in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Two modalities of epidural analgesia in children with two types of cerebral palsy (CP) were compared for differences in the\\u000a incidence of common complications (inadequate analgesia, hypopnea, hypoxaemia, sedation, vomiting, pruritus, urinary retention,\\u000a and seizures).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Demographic, procedural and postoperative complication data were collected on children with CP receiving epidural analgesia.\\u000a Information was recorded contemporaneously with the child’s care by one

B. Randall Brenn; Robert P. Brislin; John B. Rose

1998-01-01

399