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Sample records for chronic thinner intoxication

  1. An interesting thinner intoxication case: intrathoracic injection.

    PubMed

    Solak, Ilhami; Cankayali, Ilkin; Aksu, Hasim; Moral, Ali Resat

    2006-01-01

    Thinners, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, xylene, and N-hexane, are widely used in industry for the production of plastics, varnish, paint, and glue. Use of these toxic agents frequently leads to chronic intoxication caused by abuse or misuse of solvents, which are usually taken in through inhalation. Thinners may have neurotoxic, myotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and cardiotoxic systemic effects. The patient described in this report attempted to commit suicide by injecting 10 cc thinner into the left hemithorax. Acute chemical empyema developed at the left hemithorax. No bacterial growth was noted in empyema liquid and blood samples. Empyema was treated with tube thoracostomy, and full remission was observed after 33 d. No systemic toxic signs were noted, other than a low level of hepatotoxicity. Although pleural effusion, atelectasis, and pleural thickening were observed at the acute phase on computed tomography (CT) of the thorax, only pleural thickening persisted on CT of the thorax after 1 y. Investigators could not find a documented case of parenteral use of thinners in the medical literature. PMID:16912033

  2. Chronic thinner intoxication: clinico-pathologic report of a human case.

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, A; Aruffo, C

    1980-01-01

    A 27 year old Mexican male addicted for 12 years to glue-sniffing and thinner inhalation developed neurological and behavioural disturbances which led to hospital admission and death. Autopsy disclosed diffuse cerebral and cerebellar cortex atrophy and giant axonopathy both central and peripheral. The corpus callosum was atrophic secondarily to neuron loss in the neocortex. Images PMID:7441282

  3. Thinner intoxication manifesting as methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjay; Gomber, Sunil

    2009-03-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints is known to contain mixture of various arometic hydrocarbons; halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha, if ingested may rarely cause methemoglobinemia. We report a 3 year old child who presented to us with history of accidental ingestion of thinner, used for removing household paint. Child was having cyanosis with minimal tachypnoea & the colour of his blood was chocolate brown. Later methemoglibulin level estimations were also done, which were suggestive of this diagnosis. Child was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy & vital monitoring, which lead to complete recovery and discharge from hospital later. PMID:19347673

  4. Characteristic manifestations of acute paint thinner-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Agin, Khosrow; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shadnia, Shahin; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the acute clinical and para-clinical abnormalities arising from paint thinner (PT) poisoning in children. Data were collected from 2008 to 2013, and sourced from the medical records of PT-intoxicated children and through questionnaires. A total of 42 children were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 37.2±2.4 months. The participants ranged from10 to 96 months of age; with a median age of 3 months; and a modal age of 24 months. The sex ratio in the study was 22 males (64.9%) to 20 females (35.1%). Clinical biochemistry results of participants revealed the significant presence of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, 569.25±151.58U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 576.14±164.97 IU/L). Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was also carried out. Chest X-ray predominantly revealed right side alveolar air space consolidation. These results confirmed hepatotoxicity and pneumonia in PT-intoxicated children. The study also revealed that positive outcomes were achieved in patients with early treatment and management. In addition, the current finding confirmed the timely transfer of the victim to the poisoning center. PMID:27235798

  5. [Clinical cases of occupational chronic manganese intoxication].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, T N; Lakhman, O L; Katamanova, E V; Kartapol'tseva, N V; Meshcheriagin, V A; Rusanova, D V; Andreeva, O K

    2009-01-01

    Classic symptoms of manganese intoxication are very rarely seen nowadays. Clinic in Angarsk Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology registered two cases of stage I and II chronic manganese intoxication over 10 years among electric welders. The cases were diagnosed with consideration of long length of exposure to manganese with the ambient air level exceeding the MAC 1.5 times, the disease manifestation at middle age, high manganese level in serum and urine, characteristic neurologic symptoms in association with organic psychopathologic defects and polyneuropathy of limbs. PMID:19278189

  6. Fatal and non-fatal outcome by accidental intoxication with paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, A M; Dolapsakis, G; Troulakis, G; Christodoulou, P; Relakis, K; Trikilis, N; Michalodimitrakis, M N

    1997-09-01

    Although poisonings (fatal and non-fatal) due to intentional or accidental acute exposure to toluene or toluene mixture fumes have been previously reported in the literature, several issues concerning lethal doses or lasting post-exposure neuropathological impairments still remain unclear. Two male painters (18 and 30 years old) were accidentally exposed to toxic concentrations of paint diluent fumes containing toluene (TL), acetone (ACT) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (60:15:15 w/w/w respectively) during their work in an underground reservoir. Both workers were found unresponsive by colleagues and were immediately transferred to the regional hospital. On admission, the younger man was pronounced dead, while the other remained in the intensive care unit for 3 days and then 4 days in the internal medicine ward. TL, ACT and MEK concentrations in blood samples taken from the survivor on admission were 6.3, 30.6 and 40.5 microg/mL. Postmortem toxicology of the dead worker revealed TL, ACT and MEK blood levels of 12.4, 90.8 and 80.4 microg/mL respectively. The solvent levels in the liver, kidney, lung, brain, testis and gland were also quantified and showed a somewhat similar distribution of the chemicals among these tissues with the highest levels found in the brain and the liver. The fatal and the non-fatal outcome that resulted despite similar intoxication conditions, most probably demonstrates the interindividual tolerance among the painters who also had similar body weights. The surviving painter did not develop any neuropsychological impairment in post-exposure time. The reported case strongly emphasizes the necessity to take precautions when using paint diluents in enclosed spaces. PMID:15335573

  7. Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of paint thinner in mice: behavioral and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fifel, Karim; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory. Additionally, the cognitive impairments related to chronic exposure of the same concentrations of thinner for 45 days were assessed. To understand the neuronal correlates of acute exposure to thinner, we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an endogenous marker of neuronal activation following 600 ppm of thinner. The results reveal that (i) chronically thinner exposed mice showed cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and object recognition tasks; (ii) acute inhalation of thinner induces a wide range of behavioral changes. These changes include an anxiolytic effect toward the aversive environmental bright light and a dose dependent effect on explorative locomotion. The wide range of behavioral alterations induced by acute thinner inhalation is consistent with the widespread distribution of thinner-induced c-Fos expression in multiple brain structures. PMID:24218105

  8. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    PubMed

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  9. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes. PMID:7036487

  10. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  11. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  12. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  13. Toxic leukoencephalopathy with atypical MRI features following a lacquer thinner fire.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Pare, Laura; Kim, Ronald; Hasso, Anton N

    2014-05-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is a structural alteration of the white matter following exposure to various toxic agents. We report a 49-year-old man exposed to an explosion of lacquer thinner with brain MRI features atypical from those of chronic toxic solvent intoxication. PMID:24291481

  14. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  15. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  16. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  17. Chronic motor neuron disease possibly related to intoxication with organochlorine insecticides.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, R G; Resende, L A; Silva, M D; Camargo, A

    1993-07-01

    We report on two patients with a history of chronic exposure to organochlorine insecticides who developed clinical and electromyographic signs and symptoms of chronic motor neuron disease. Measurements of aldrin, lindane and heptachlor confirmed the intoxication. We emphasize the importance of searching for toxic and environmental factors in cases of motor neuron disease especially in Third World countries, where workers usually wear no adequate protective equipment. PMID:7690513

  18. [PROTEIN CONTENT CHANGES IN RATS' LIVER AND BRAIN UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION].

    PubMed

    Raksha, N G; Savchuk, A N; Kharchenko, O I; Galenova, T I; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    An electrophoretic investigation of quantitative protein content in rat's' tissyes under chronic alcoholic intoxication has been done. It was shown the significant increase of protein content with molecular mass 55, 48-50, 43-45, 39-41 KDa and the decrease-of protein fractions with molecular mass 46-48, 34-35, 27-30, 16-18 KDa accordingly in liver and brain homogenates of experimental animals. PMID:26827457

  19. A safe strategy to decrease fetal lead exposure in a woman with chronic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Leiba, Adi; Hu, Howard; Zheng, Amin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2010-08-01

    During pregnancy skeletal lead is mobilized by maternal bone turnover and can threaten fetal development. The exact strategy suggested to women of childbearing age, who were chronically exposed to lead, and, thus, have high bone lead burden, is not well established. We describe 4 years of follow-up of a 29-year-old woman with chronic lead intoxication. We (a) advised her to delay conception until 'toxicological clearance', (b) treated her with multiple courses of lead chelator, DMSA, and (c) prescribed oral calcium. Patient had low blood lead and protoporphyrin level during pregnancy until delivery. Delaying conception, lead chelation, and calcium supplementation can decrease fetal exposure. PMID:20459344

  20. Brain locations controlling the behavioral effects of chronic amphetamine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hitzemann, R; Wu, J; Hom, D; Loh, H

    1980-01-01

    Rats were administered D-amphetamine repeatedly for 4 days. After day 1 of treatment, the amphetamine-induced increases in ambulation, rearing, and stereotyped activity were augmented. However, after 4 days treatment, the rearing and ambulatory responses became attenuated while the stereotyped activities remained augmented. Micro-injection studies revealed that both the augmentation and attenuation of nonstereotyped ambulation were generated from the nucleus accumbens. The augmentation of stereotyped behaviors was generated from the caudate nucleus. Chronically treated animals who were administered 0.7 but not 1.0 mg/kg apomorphine showed augmented behavioral response. Chronic amphetamine treatment significantly decreased (3H) spiroperidol binding in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus. However, no effect on the DA-stimulated adenyl cyclase activity was observed in either brain region. It is concluded that repeated D-amphetamine administration selectively augments and attenuates D-amphetamine-induced behaviors and that these selective effects are mediated by different dopamine systems. PMID:6162168

  1. Unusual cases of chronic intoxication by vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Chiricone, Daniela; De Santo, Natale G; Cirillo, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was hospitalized for recent renal colic and neurologic disorders. Routine biochemistry indicated the presence of hypercalcemia (serum total calcium = 15.3 mg/100 mL) and renal failure (serum creatinine = 3.72 mg/100 mL). The patient reported that he had been on treatment with a slow-release multivitamin preparation containing vitamin D and vitamin A, administered by i.m. injection. Plasma 25-OH vitamin D was > 150 ng/mL (normal range 16-74 ng/mL), plasma 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D was 32.5 pg/mL (normal range 14-60 pg/mL), plasma parathyroid hormone 1.3 pg/mL (normal range 10-65 pg/mL). There were calcifications of left and right iliac artery at abdomen x-ray. Ultrasound and computed tomography of the glutei showed alterations of skeletal muscle and calcifications. Immediate treatment with infusion of isotonic saline, furosemide and prednisone induced rapid control of hypercalcemia and renal failure. Chronic treatment per os was discontinued after six months. The patient reported that the treatment with vitamin D had been prescribed by a physician also to his wife (55-year-old). For the woman, routine biochemistry indicated the presence of hypercalcemia (serum total calcium = 11.3 mg/100 mL) and renal failure (serum creatinine = 1.8 mg/ mL). Plasma 25-OH vitamin D was > 150 ng/mL, plasma 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D 47.9 pg/mL, plasma parathyroid hormone was 2.5 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia was acutely treated by oral hydration, furosemide, and prednisone. Chronic treatment per os was discontinued after five months. PMID:14736022

  2. Aluminium intoxication in undialysed adults with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, L S; Beale, G; Sandroni, S; Ballinger, W E

    1992-01-01

    The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome (DES) consists of altered mental status, communication difficulty, seizures and myoclonus. It has been attributed to elevated serum aluminium (A1) levels. Two undialysed patients with chronic renal failure who presented with the characteristic syndrome are reported. The first, a 48 year old female, had used A1 containing phosphate binders for two years. Her serum A1 level was 25.34 mumol/L. Despite treatment with desferoximine and dialysis, she died. Necropsy revealed elevated A1 levels in the cerebral cortex (19 mcg/gm) and spongioform change in the outer three cortical layers. The second patient, a 46 year old woman, had a serum A1 of 8.70 mumol/L. She had never taken A1 containing phosphate binders but had taken several grams/day of citrate for at least six months. Treatment with haemodialysis and discontinuation of the citrate produced a resolution of symptoms and return of the A1 level to normal. During two years of haemodialysis there has been no recurrence. Images PMID:1527541

  3. Burn injuries during paint thinner sniffing.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; To, E W; Chan, E S; King, W W

    1998-12-01

    Thinner sniffing is popular among school children in Asian countries because it is readily available at low cost. Besides its toxicity to major organs, thinner inhalation is associated with various burn accidents. Four teenagers were admitted to the Burns Unit of the Prince of Wales Hospital over the period of 1996-1997. They sustained 3-25% TBSA flame burn and two of them had inhalation injuries as a result of the ignition of a cigarette during thinner sniffing. None of them had evidence of thinner intoxication as shown by blood tests. In the management of their acute burn injuries, their hidden social and family problems were explored. With the cooperation of different disciplines, early psychosocial intervention was given and their behavioral and psychological disturbances were successfully managed. PMID:9915679

  4. Demonstration of ingested thinner.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Nagata, T; Kimura, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T

    1990-06-01

    Taking a practical forensic case that provided an opportunity, an attempt was made to prove that paint thinner had been ingested by the victim. One ml of standard thinner solution, which was prepared by mixing toluene, ethyl acetate, and isobutanol, was given by gavage to rats, after which, on sacrifice of the animals, the distribution of thinner components in the body tissue and in the gastric contents was examined by gas chromatography, using the salting-out technique and the headspace method. Three thinner components and ethanol, a metabolite of ethyl acetate, were found to be present in the gastric contents, whereas only toluene was found in the blood and in the other tissue. From these results we thus have concluded that paint thinner taken can be proved by detecting the presence of ethyl acetate and isobutanol together with toluene in the stomach, whereas only toluene can be detected in the body fluids and the other tissue. PMID:2232332

  5. Fall of zinc protoporphyrin levels in workers treated for chronic lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Hryhorczuk, D.O.; Hogan, M.M.; Mallin, K.; Hessl, S.M.; Orris, P.

    1985-11-01

    A temporal fall of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in whole blood was observed in 51 patients with occupational chronic lead intoxication who were removed from exposure, treated with intravenous calcium disodium edetate (EDTA), and followed for periods up to 2273 days. ZPP levels fell, with a mean half-life of 68 days, to a mean baseline level of 36 micrograms/dl of whole blood. The baseline ZPP level was positively associated with the length of exposure (p less than .01) and the blood lead half-life (p less than .001). The amount of EDTA received had no apparent effect on ZPP levels. These data suggest that the fall of ZPP levels is largely a function of red blood cell turnover. The baseline ZPP level appears to be a useful biologic index of the biologically active pool of lead for at least two years after removal from exposure.

  6. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3. PMID:26902358

  7. Toward a behavioral toxicology of paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Colotla, V A; Lorenzana-Jiménez, M; Rodríguez, R

    1980-01-01

    Few experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effects of toxic industrial substances such as the solvents on operant behavior. Laboratory rats trained in a mult FR DRL reinforcement schedule showed a differential impairment in performance when exposed to various doses of paint thinner in the experimental chamber, the FR performance being more sensitive to the solvent than DRL responding. Another study of rats working under a FI schedule suggested that the effects of paint thinner are rate-dependent, a finding which suggests a similarity of thinner with the amphetamines in regard to the behavioral effect. Two other experiments addressed to the behavioral effects of chronic exposure to the solvent showed a decrease in locomotor activity and an impaired acquisition of a complex temporal discrimination task in laboratory rats exposed to paint thinner during four, eight of sixteen weeks. These findings are suggestive of brain dysfunction associated with thinner inhalation but further experiments are needed for more definite conclusions. PMID:7442918

  8. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  9. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI) increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect) was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests) and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy. PMID:27418952

  10. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Intoxication with Inorganic Mercury on Memory and Motor Control in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Francisco B.; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Farias-Junior, Paulo M. A.; Costa, Natacha M. M.; Fernandes, Luanna M. P.; Santana, Luana N. S.; Silva-Junior, Ademir F.; Silva, Marcia C. F.; Maia, Cristiane S. F.; Lima, Rafael R.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether chronic intoxication with mercury chloride (HgCl2), in a low concentration over a long time, can be deposited in the central nervous tissue and to determine if this exposure induces motor and cognitive impairments. Twenty animals were intoxicated for 45 days at a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day. After this period, the animals underwent a battery of behavioral tests, in a sequence of open field, social recognition, elevated T maze and rotarod tests. They were then sacrificed, their brains collected and the motor cortex and hippocampus dissected for quantification of mercury deposited. This study demonstrates that long-term chronic HgCl2 intoxication in rats promotes functional damage. Exposure to HgCl2 induced anxiety-related responses, short- and long-term memory impairments and motor deficits. Additionally, HgCl2 accumulated in both the hippocampus and cortex of the brain with a higher affinity for the cortex. PMID:25198682

  12. Study of hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Mahieu, Stella; Bazzoni, Graciela; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our work was to analyze the hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic Al-intoxication (Al). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n=6 each one): Sham (rats subjected to simulated surgery); Al+Sham; Partial Hepatectomy (animals subjected to 65% liver resection) and Al+Partial Hepatectomy. Our results show that both Partial Hepatectomy and Al treatment produce a decrease of plasma cholesterol level, which showed a negative association with Rigidity Index increase (r(s)=-0.6475, p<0.05). The increase of Rigidity Index observed in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy could be related to the increase of the proportion of non-discocytic erythrocytes, particularly stomatocytes, which determines a diminution of the Morphological Index. In the Altreated groups, greater changes in Rigidity Index and Morphological Index were observed. The relative viscosity of blood at a standard haematocrit of 40% was increased in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy as compared to Sham, due to erythrocyte rigidity. On the other hand, we observed that the increase of plasma fibrinogen concentration correlates with augmentation of plasma viscosity (r(s)=0.689, p=0.004) for all the experimental groups studied. The results indicate that both administration of Al and Partial Hepatectomy induce microcytic hypocromic anaemia in the rats reflected by a significant decrease of haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. From these results, we conclude that in partially hepatectomized, Al-overloaded rats the decrease in erythrocyte deformability may be an important factor leading to the installation of anaemia. PMID:17148841

  13. Death by paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Collison, Ines; Moorehead, Wayne

    2002-10-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian male, reportedly missing for four days, was found dead 40 feet down a steep ravine, apparently after jumping down the cliff. Two rectangular cans of paint thinner, 1-qt and 1-gal sizes, were found in his vehicle at the top of the cliff. The autopsy report indicated that the decedent was normal except for the heart and myocardium, the lung parenchyma, and the gastric and esophageal mucosa. The stomach contents revealed a brownish liquid with a nearly clear, thick, oily film, and the small and large bowels showed oily liquid with a strong odor of a petroleum distillate. Toxicological analysis was negative for ethanol and common drugs of abuse. Valproic acid, diphenhydramine, and norsertraline where found in therapeutic concentrations, and sertraline, diazepam, and nordiazepam were found in subtherapeutic levels. Bupropion metabolites were also detected. Static adsorption-elution, commonly used in fire debris analysis, was used to examine the brain, liver, lung, blood, and urine. A liquid-liquid extraction was performed on the vitreous humor. The stomach contents and samples from the paint thinner cans were diluted with carbon disulfide. All but the blood and vitreous contained a medium petroleum distillate. The stomach content was consistent with the liquid from the one-gallon can. Chromatograms suggest differential metabolism and/or distribution among the different organs. PMID:12423013

  14. Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm) and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm recorded in MS-free regions adjoining. The high levels of Ba stemmed from local quarrying for Ba ores and/or use of Ba in paper/foundry/welding/textile/oil and gas well related industries, as well as from the use of Ba as an atmospheric aerosol spray for enhancing/refracting the signalling of radio/radar waves along military jet flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. It is proposed that chronic contamination of the biosystem with the reactive types of Ba salts can initiate the pathogenesis of MS; due to the conjugation of Ba with free sulphate, which subsequently deprives the endogenous sulphated proteoglycan molecules (heparan sulfates) of their sulphate co partner, thereby disrupting synthesis of S-proteoglycans and their crucial role in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling which induces oligodendrocyte progenitors to maintain the growth and structural integrity of the myelin sheath. Loss of S-proteoglycan activity explains other key facets of MS pathogenesis; such as the aggregation of platelets and the proliferation of superoxide generated oxidative stress. Ba intoxications disturb the sodium-potassium ion pump--another key feature of the MS profile. The co-clustering of various neurodegenerative diseases in these Ba-contaminated ecosystems suggests that the pathogenesis of all of these diseases could pivot upon a

  15. Subsurface cistern (SSC) proliferation in Purkinje cells of the rat cerebellum in response to acute and chronic exposure to paint thinner: A light and electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Sandoval-Zapata, Francisca; Morales-Tlalpan, Verónica; Palma-Tirado, Lourdes

    2014-09-01

    Intentional inhalation and occupational exposure are two ways humans are exposed to thinner, a widely employed solvent in industry. Inhalation of thinner induces toxic effects in various organs, with the cerebellum being one of the most affected structures of the CNS. The aim of this work was to describe specific structural alterations of cerebellum Purkinje cells in rats following exposure to thinner for 16 weeks. A histological analysis of the cerebellum of solvent-exposed rats revealed swollen Purkinje cell dendrites surrounded by empty space, and electronic microscopy showed an increase in the number of subsurface cisterns (SSCs) within their dendritic processes. After a period of non-exposure, the number of SSCs decreased without reaching normal levels, suggesting a degree of plasticity. Purkinje cell SSCs, which are derived from smooth endoplasmic reticulum, contain inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), ryanodine receptors (RR), and a recently identified characteristic cluster of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels. We found that SSCs in Purkinje cell dendrites were closely associated with mitochondria, and immunofluorescence microscopy showed higher levels of RR and calbindin receptors (CB), in Purkinje cells of exposed than normal rats. These changes are probably related to behavioral manifestations of cerebellar alterations, such as imbalance and ataxia, consistent with the suggested involvement of increases in SSCs in ataxia in rats and humans. This increase in SSCs, taken together with the localization of RR, IP3R and BKCa proteins in this structure, suggests altered intracellular calcium-buffering processes in the Purkinje cells of thinner-exposed rats. PMID:24820124

  16. [Bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia as a sign of chronic carbon monoxide intoxication].

    PubMed

    Haaxma, C A; van Eijk, J J J; van der Vilet, A M; Renier, W O; Bloem, B R

    2007-04-14

    A 40-year-old, previously healthy man presented with a subacute coordination disorder and intermittent paraesthesias of the right arm that had begun several months before and had disappeared spontaneously within a few weeks. Neurological examination showed a mildly flattened nasolabial fold on the right side and subtle hypertonia of the right arm. A CT-scan of the brain revealed calcifications in the left caudate nucleus and putamen. Cerebral MRI showed markedly enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces bilaterally in the basal ganglia and extensive periventricular white matter lesions. The differential diagnosis of these radiological findings included carbon monoxide intoxication. Ancillary investigations excluded other causes for the radiological abnormalities, and a defective gas stove that produced carbon monoxide was found in the patient's house. Although carbon monoxide poisoning is relatively rare in the Netherlands, it remains important to be alert to the possibility of such exposure. Radiological findings, notably bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia, may point in the direction of the proper diagnosis. PMID:17472119

  17. [Forensic medical diagnostics of chronic alcoholic intoxication based on histological changes in the soft tissues of oral cavity and salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dolzhanskiĭ, O V; Mamsurova, T S; Chertovskikh, A A

    2011-01-01

    Histological studies of oral cavity mucosa and salivary glands in subjects with chronic alcoholic intoxication revealed changes at the surface of the tongue and in the glandular tissues. Specific features of chronic alcoholic intoxication include acinar and ductal hyperplasia, reduction of the adipose tissue mass in salivary gland stroma, predominance of T-lymphocytes in hard palate minor salivary glands and B-lymphocytes in the stroma of labial minor salivary gland, the absence of plasma cells in the stroma of hard palate minor salivary glands and labial mucosa. Leukoplakia, dysplasia, and hyperplasia of the basal epithelial layer of oral cavity mucosa are considered to be the signs of long-term (over 12 months) alcohol consumption. PMID:21866840

  18. Eugenol bloom thinner on peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peaches must be thinned to obtain annual crops of marketable size fruit. Traditionally, peach thinning has been accomplished by hand in the absence of reliable chemical thinners. Peach thinning is a labor intensive, expensive cultural practice. Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated that e...

  19. Effect of Citrocard on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria during chronic alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Ostrovskii, O V; Verovskii, V E; Popova, T A; Lebedeva, S A; Dib, H

    2007-03-01

    Chronic administration of 50% ethanol in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a toxic effect on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria, which manifested in decreased rates of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Structural GABA analogue Citrocard (phenibut citrate) and reference preparation piracetam in doses of 50 and 200 mg/kg, respectively, prevented the damaging effect of alcohol, which was seen from increased indexes of oxidative phosphorylation in treated animals compared to the control group. PMID:18225758

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of polymethoxyflavones against acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Kang, Hwan-Kyu; Jung, Ju-Young; Lim, Seol-Wa; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we explore the protective effects of Citrus aurantium L. extract (CAE) against acute and chronic CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The quantitative analysis of CAE was performed using HPLC-UV to determine the nobiletin content was approximately 27%. For the acute model, the male ICR mice were orally treated with water, silymarin (positive control, 200 mg/kg) and CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% v/v in olive oil) IP injection. For the chronic model (n = 6/group), the mice were treated with each treatment for 28 consecutive days and CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20%) was injected twice a week. In both the acute and chronic models, the CCl4 alone treated group showed histopathologic alterations with a significantly increase in serum hepatic enzyme levels together with a disrupted anti-oxidative status. In contrast, the CAE treatments restored pathologic alterations and recovered the oxidative status by enhancing antioxidant enzymes and reducing lipid peroxidation levels. Furthermore, CAE enhanced nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its related cytoprotective signals, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that CAE exerts a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activity. PMID:26980244

  1. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk. PMID:21991179

  2. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  3. Opioid intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Intoxication - opioids ... In the United States, the most commonly abused opioids are heroin and methadone. People who become addicted ... of these drugs. Also, the use of prescription opioids for nonmedical reasons is an extensive and growing ...

  4. Study of iron homeostasis following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminum intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Ferri, Alejandro; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2007-01-01

    Effects of both chronic aluminum (Al) exposure and partial hepatectomy on iron (Fe) homeostasis were studied. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered either 27 mg Al/kg body weight (as aluminum hydroxide) or the vehicle saline, three times a week for 3 mo. After this time, half of the rats of each group was sham operated (SH) and the other half was partially hepatectomized (PH). Animals of the four experimental groups (vehicle+SH [SH]; Al+SH; vehicle+PH [PH], and Al+PH) were killed 48 h after the surgical procedure. Serum, hepatic, and intestinal Al levels were found to be increased both for Al+SH and Al+PH. The serum Fe concentration and transferrin saturation percentage were significantly diminished in the rats of the Al+PH group, thus showing interaction between Al administration and PH. The 59Fe mucosal-to-serosal transport, studied in the intestinal loop in situ, was not affected by Al or PH. The malregulation of intestinal Fe absorption in Al exposure and/or PH when the serum Fe concentration was diminished could be the result of the increased lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) observed in this tissue. Mucosal TBARS were increased by Al exposure (+26%) and PH (+37%) and interaction between Al and PH was observed (+44%). These results show that when liver surgery is performed after prolonged Al exposure, it leads to impairment of Fe homeostasis. We underline the importance of the exposure to Al, a potentially toxic element, in the study of risk assessment in patients who must be submitted to major liver resection. PMID:17406072

  5. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  6. Barbiturate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jay M.; Bischel, Margaret D.; Wagers, Park W.; Barbour, Benjamin H.

    1976-01-01

    The complications encountered in caring for 185 patients intoxicated with barbiturates were reviewed. The population consisted of 142 patients with long-acting barbiturate concentrations of 8 mg per 100 ml or greater, 20 patients with short-acting barbiturate concentrations of 3 mg per 100 ml or greater and 23 consecutive patients with short-acting barbiturate intoxication referred for monitoring. Pneumonia was the major cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the use of an endotracheal tube in treatment. Cardiovascular instability manifested by pulmonary edema was the next leading cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the quantity of intravenous fluid administered. In retrospect, use of eliminative measures such as dialysis would probably not have altered the outcome in most of the patients who died and attempts at forced diuresis may have contributed to several deaths. Particular emphasis should be placed on the problems of sepsis and fluid therapy in the management of these patients. PMID:1258466

  7. Synaptic membrane responses to acute and chronic alcohol intoxication in high alcohol sensitive (HAS) and low alcohol sensitive (LAS) selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Beaugé, F; Kerfriden, G; Ménez, J F; Aufrère, G; Le Bourhis, B

    1994-11-01

    HAS (high alcohol sensitive) and LAS (low alcohol sensitive) lines of rats have been selectively bred based on their differences in ethanol-induced sleep time. In the present study, the two lines were compared to examine another central effect of acute alcohol intoxication: namely, hypothermia. As the disturbances in membrane microorganization have been associated with the nervous system's sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, the synaptic plasma membrane fluidity and acute sensitivity to ethanol were also evaluated by fluorescence polarization of DPH probes in the HAS and LAS rats. The two lines did not differ in the magnitude of their hypothermic response after acute injection of ethanol (3 g/kg body wt, i.p.). Although membranes in the HAS line were slightly more rigid than in the LAS line, the level of membrane disordering after acute ethanol addition was identical for the two lines in the region examined with the DPH probe. Following the chronic intoxication of the rats, the two lines developed tolerance to the hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol. In the same way, a membrane resistance (i.e. tolerance) to the disordering effect of acute ethanol addition developed in the region probed with DPH. In general, the LAS line showed a more pronounced level of tolerance than the HAS line at both the functional and membrane level. These results suggest that different measures used to assess the depressant action of ethanol, such as sleep time, hypothermia or membrane disordering, may not be related and could indicate different genetic origins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7695793

  8. Staying Active and Healthy: Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Referenced Links: Review the following links for additional information on this topic: • Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely ... the following related programs are offered for your review: Preventing Blood Clots After Hip or Knee Surgery ...

  9. Blood Thinners - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Thinners URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodthinners.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  10. Blood Thinners - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Thinners URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/bloodthinners.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Combined administration of taurine and meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of chronic lead intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J S; Pande, Manisha; Bhadauria, Smrati; Kannan, G M

    2004-04-01

    The present study describes the dose-dependent effect of taurine, an amino acid and a known antioxidant, either alone or in combination with meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of subchronic lead intoxication in male rats. The effects of these treatments in influencing the lead-induced alterations in haem synthesis, hepatic, renal or brain oxidative stress and lead concentration from soft tissues were investigated. Exposure to lead produced a significant inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, reduction in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) suggesting an altered haem synthesis pathway. Only DMSA was able to increase the activity of ALAD, while both taurine and DMSA were able to significantly increase GSH level towards normal. Animals treated with taurine significantly reduced the alterations in some of the biochemical parameters indicative of oxidative stress. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels reduced significantly in liver, kidney and red blood cells, while GSH level increased. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) also showed an increase in blood and brain in animals treated with taurine. The data also provided a promising role of taurine during chelation of lead by potentiating the depletion of blood, liver and brain lead compared to DMSA alone. It can thus be concluded from the study that concomitant administration of an antioxidant could play a significant and important role in abating a number of toxic effects of lead when administered along with the thiol chelators. PMID:15171566

  12. A prospective study of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication versus chronic alcohol consumption on outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Shewchuk, Jason R; Rauscher, Alexander; Jarrett, Michael; Heran, Manraj K S; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to disentangle the relative contributions of day-of-injury alcohol intoxication and pre-injury alcohol misuse on outcome from TBI. Participants were 142 patients enrolled from a Level 1 Trauma Center (in Vancouver, Canada) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI; 43 uncomplicated mild TBI and 63 complicated mild-severe TBI) or orthopedic injury [36 trauma controls (TC)]. At 6-8 weeks post-injury, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the whole brain was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner. Participants also completed neuropsychological testing, an evaluation of lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC), and had blood alcohol levels (BALs) taken at the time of injury. Participants in the uncomplicated mild TBI and complicated mild-severe TBI groups had higher scores on measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (d = 0.45-0.83), but not anxiety, compared with the TC group. The complicated mild-severe TBI group had more areas of abnormal white matter on DTI measures (all p < .05; d = 0.54-0.61) than the TC group. There were no difference between groups on all neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression analyses and generalized linear modeling, LAC and BAL did provide a unique contribution toward the prediction of attention and executive functioning abilities; however, the variance accounted for was small. LAC and BAL did not provide a unique and meaningful contribution toward the prediction of self-reported symptoms, DTI measures, or the majority of neurocognitive measures. In this study, BAL and LAC were not predictive of mental health symptoms, postconcussion symptoms, cognition, or white-matter changes at 6-8 weeks following TBI. PMID:24964748

  13. Experimental neuropathy produced in rats with industrial solvents (thinner).

    PubMed

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda Hernández, J

    1989-01-01

    Thinner is a very potent neurotoxic compound which damages both the central and peripheric nervous system, as well as the rest of the organism, when it is used or inhaled spontaneously chronically. 20 Wistar rats were used. They inhaled 1.5 ml of thinner per day and were sacrificed by pairs upon days 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Four of them were sacrificed after suspending the inhalation 15, 30, 60 and 90 days later so as to study the process of recuperation. The hind legs were fixated in 10% formaldehyde for 15 days. Fragments of sciatic and crural nerves were included in paraffin and histological cuts were performed both in transversal and longitudinal sections of 5 to 7 micra. Techniques for myelin and argento-auric ones were performed. Incipient lesions are described as well as intermediate and terminal ones produced after having inhaled 45 ml of thinner for 30 days. The myelin sheath shows edema, ballooning and destruction due to lysis after inhaling 135 ml in 90 days. In a parallel manner the nerve fibers show edema, irregular thickening and after inhaling 135 ml in 90 days there is atrophy or disintegration. A partial regeneration is produced if inhalation is suspended after 30 days and 30 more days are allowed for recuperation, when some Schwann cells are still active. We believe that the lesions which begin to appear on the myelin sheath occur because thinner is a fat solvent, fats being important elements in their structure and the nerve fiber injury may be secondary to the demyelinization, or due to destruction of the central neuron from which they originate. PMID:2548450

  14. Thermal injuries due to paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Ozgenel, Güzin Yeşim; Akin, Selçuk; Ozbek, Serhat; Kahveci, Ramazan; Ozcan, Mesut

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of burn injuries due to paint thinner in a local burn center. During a 10-year period, 32 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit for paint thinner thermal burn. Patients were reviewed regarding the age, sex, etiologic factors, extent and localization of burn, treatment methods, length of hospitalization, and results. There were 30 males and 2 females. The mean age of patients was 25.9 +/- 11 years. The most common etiologic factor was kindling a fire with paint thinner. The mean extent of burn was 33.6 +/- 24% of the total body surface area. All patients sustained burn injury on the face, arms, and hands and five patients among them had extended burn areas on the trunk and/or lower extremity. The mean length of hospitalization for the survivors was 34.5 +/- 21.6 days. Twenty-eight patients were treated by early excision and split-thickness skin grafting. In four patients, burn wounds were healed by conservative management. Five patients with burn size of over 75% of the total body surface area died. In conclusion, paint thinner may be the cause of a catastrophic thermal injury and should not be used for the purpose of kindling fire. PMID:15019124

  15. Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

  16. Oral intake of a toluene-containing thinner. Effects and headspace gas chromatographic analytical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zahlsen, K; Rygnestad, T; Nilsen, O G

    1985-01-01

    After an accidental oral intake of a paint thinner, the constituents were identified in stomach content using headspace gas chromatography. The composition indicated ingestion of a commonly used thinner containing 60-70% toluene, 20-25% n-butylacetate and 10-15% of ethanol. A toluene concentration of 22.0 mg/kg was measured in serum in contrast to n-butylacetate which was not detected. Ethanol concentration was 1.85 g/kg, most of this was due to ethanol ingestion before the intake of thinner. The half life of toluene in serum was 8.5 h initially, which increased to 14 h after 19 h. An effect on liver function was demonstrated by increased activity of serum transaminases. Compared with the upper normal limits ASAT and ALAT were increased by 6 and 2.5 times, respectively. For both parameters the highest activity was seen 40 hours after admission and normal levels were achieved after 7 days. It is concluded that toluene is readily absorbed by ingestion of toluene-containing thinners, and that the function of the human liver is transiently affected. For screening purposes gas chromatography proved to be a useful method for the analytical diagnosis in cases of organic solvent intoxication. The use of the headspace technique further improved the speed of analysis and eliminated contamination of the gas chromatographic system. PMID:3868371

  17. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. PMID:26688578

  18. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF LEAD AND CADMIUM. II. CHANGES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF THE F1 GENERATION OF RATS AFTER CHRONIC INTOXICATION WITH LEAD AND CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the effects of chronic exposure to the trace elements, lead and cadmium, on the central nervous system of F1 generation Wistar rats. Both the parental and F1 generation received treatments consisting of two levels of lead (5 or 50 ppm), two levels of cadmium (...

  19. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF LEAD AND CADMIUM. I. CHANGES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF THE PARENTAL GENERATION OF RATS AFTER CHRONIC INTOXICATION WITH LEAD AND CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the effects of chronic exposure to trace amounts of lead and cadmium on the central nervous system of male Westar rats. Treatments consisted of two levels of lead (5 or 50 ppm), two levels of cadmium (0.1 or 5 ppm), and two combined dosages (5 ppm lead and 0.1...

  20. Chelating agents and cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Shinobu, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A wide range of conventional chelating agents have been screened for (a) antidotal activity in acute cadmium poisoning and (b) ability to reduce aged liver and kidney deposits of cadmium. Chelating agents belonging to the dithiocarbamate class have been synthesized and tested in both the acute and chronic modes of cadmium intoxication. Several dithiocarbamates, not only provide antidotal rescue, but also substantially decrease the intracellular deposits of cadmium associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Fractionating the cytosol from the livers and kidneys of control and treated animals by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration clearly demonstrates that the dithiocarbamates are reducing the level of metallothionein-bound cadmium. However, the results of cell culture (Ehrlich ascites) studies designed to investigate the removal of cadmium from metallothionein and subsequent transport of the resultant cadmium complex across the cell membrane were inconclusive. In other in vitro investigations, the interaction between isolated native Cd, Zn-metallothionein and several chelating agents was explored. Ultracentrifugation, equilibrium dialysis, and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration studies have been carried out in an attempt to determine the rate of removal of cadmium from metallothionein by these small molecules. Chemical shifts for the relevant cadmium-dithiocarbamate complexes have been determined using natural abundance Cd-NMR.

  1. Barbiturate intoxication and overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of barbiturate intoxication and overdose include: Altered level of consciousness Difficulty in thinking Drowsiness or coma Faulty judgment Lack of coordination Shallow breathing Slow, slurred speech Sluggishness Staggering Excessive and long-term use ...

  2. Pattern-visual evoked potentials in thinner abusers.

    PubMed

    Poblano, A; Lope Huerta, M; Martínez, J M; Falcón, H D

    1996-01-01

    Organic solvents cause injury to lipids of neuronal and glial membranes. A well known characteristic of workers exposed to thinner is optic neuropathy. We decided to look for neurophysiologic signs of visual damage in patients identified as thinner abusers. Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials was performed on 34 thinner abuser patients and 30 controls. P-100 wave latency was found to be longer on abuser than control subjects. Results show the possibility of central alterations on thinner abusers despite absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:8987190

  3. Mechanical peach thinners reduce labor inputs and increase fruit size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horticultural and economic evaluations of mechanical peach thinner prototypes were conducted in 2007 in four commercial orchard blocks trained to either a perpendicular V or quad V system. A string thinner designed by a German grower for thinning apple trees in organic orchards was tested at 20 or ...

  4. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery. PMID:26454485

  5. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  6. Effect of thinner inhalation on lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzymes of people working with paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Halifeoglu, I; Canatan, H; Ustundag, B; Ilhan, N; Inanc, F

    2000-12-01

    Paint thinner is a commonly used industrial solvent with considerable potential for abuse by inhalation. Paint thinner is taken into the body by inhalation or by contact with the skin. Paint thinner is oxidized gradually by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase and consequently free radicals are produced. In the present study we measured plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation) levels as an indicator of oxidative damage and activity levels of antioxidant enzymes gluthatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes of a group of people (n = 18) working with paint thinner. The control group was composed of 18 healthy adults. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in MDA (2.0+/-0.7 nmol ml(-1)) and GSH-Px (86.5+/-16.6 U g(-1) Hb) activity levels in people working with paint thinner compared with control subjects (MDA: 1.0+/-0.3 nmol ml(-1); GSH-Px: 53.9+/-14.5 U g(-1) Hb). Similarly, there was also an increase (p < 0.05) in the SOD levels (1079+/-214.6 U g(-1) Hb) of people working with paint thinner compared with controls (953.3+/-46.7 U g(-1) Hb). Based on our results, it can be concluded that paint thinner inhalation may increase lipid peroxidation and consequently induce antioxidant enzymes. PMID:11180289

  7. Women Less Likely to Get Blood Thinner for Irregular Heartbeat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women Less Likely to Get Blood Thinner for Irregular Heartbeat They have a higher stroke risk from ... they help prevent stroke. Atrial fibrillation causes an irregular heartbeat. In people with atrial fibrillation, blood doesn' ...

  8. 5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall next to the inner wall with its alternating courses of channel tile and hollow tile. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  9. Is Daily Blood Thinner Needed for Irregular Heartbeat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Daily Blood Thinner Needed for Irregular Heartbeat? Smartphone app may help some people with atrial fibrillation ... 2016 FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A smartphone app might offer an alternative for certain patients ...

  10. Women Less Likely to Get Blood Thinner for Irregular Heartbeat

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the common heart rhythm disorder known as atrial fibrillation, women are less likely than men to receive ... reveals. Blood thinners are important for people with atrial fibrillation because they help prevent stroke. Atrial fibrillation causes ...

  11. [Fatal intoxication with paramethoxyamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Wiergowski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    From August to December of the year 2000 we ascertained 7 rapid deaths because of acute intoxication with tablets colloquially called Ufo. There were five men and two women aged from 20 to 29 (average 24) years. Analytic tests showed that one tablet of Ufo contains 40 mg of paramethoxyamphetamine, 1.0 mg of amphetamine, 0.05 mg of methamphetamine, 0.03 mg of 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The levels of paramethoxyamphe-tamine in the blood of the deceased, determined by gas chromatography, were from 0.68 to 10.0 (approx. 3.2) mg/L and in the urine from 16 to 64 (approx. 35) mg/L. The press and television campaign caused elimination of fatal intoxications with parametoxy-amphetamine during the last 13 months. PMID:12184013

  12. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. PMID:26449577

  13. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 2. Nutritional factors and hydrocyanic acid content of cassava products. Ministry of Health, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of spastic paraparesis which mostly affected women and children occurred in a northern province of Mozambique in 1981. The epidemic was related to chronic cyanide intoxication associated with a diet consisting almost exclusively of cassava. A prolonged drought in the area had exhausted all food resources except cassava, especially the bitter varieties. A nutritional, toxicological and botanical investigation was carried out in two of the five districts affected. The main findings were that cyanide levels were unusually high in the cassava plant as a consequence of the drought with daily intakes estimated at 15-31.5 mg HCN. Detoxification of the bitter varieties by sun-drying was inadequate because of the general food shortage, and metabolic detoxification was probably reduced owing to the absence of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet. The raw and dried uncooked cassava was eaten mostly by women and children. The nutritional status of the population, however, was not very poor and symptoms of advanced under-nutrition were rarely seen. PMID:6088100

  14. Postmortem changes of ingested thinner components in tissues.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Nagata, T; Kato, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T

    1991-06-01

    Postmortem changes of thinner components in body tissues were examined in rats, orally given 1 ml of standard thinner solution, which was prepared by mixing toluene, ethyl acetate and isobutanol in the proportion of 8:1:1. Analysis was made by gas chromatography combined with the head space method. Three thinner components and ethanol, a metabolite of ethyl acetate, were detected in the gastric contents of all rats up until 48 hours after death. An increase in the concentration of toluene was found in the blood, lung, kidney, liver, brain and abdominal muscle with the lapse of time. On the other hand, no changes were observed in the thigh muscle throughout the 48-hour period. Isobutanol showed a similar increasing pattern to toluene, with little or no changes in the brain or in the thigh muscle. Ethyl acetate was not detected in any tissues throughout the study but it was found in the gastric contents. The results indicate that every thinner component ingested, gradually diffuses into the surrounding tissues through the stomach wall after death, and that only muscle tissue remote from the abdominal cavity, together with the gastric contents, should be analyzed for a correct diagnosis of thinner ingestion. PMID:1920928

  15. Methemoglobinemia as a result of accidental lacquer thinner poisoning.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Vinayagam, Stalin; Vajifdar, Homay

    2012-01-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain a mixture of various aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha; if ingested, it may cause methemoglobinemia. We report two cases who presented to us with a history of accidental ingestion of paint thinner. Both the patients had very high levels of methemoglobin and were treated with methylene blue (MB), but did not respond to the MB therapy. One of them received an exchange transfusion followed again by MB and survived. Unfortunately the other patient succumbed to the poisoning. PMID:22557834

  16. [Lethal intoxication with baclofen].

    PubMed

    Dukova, O A; Pokrovsky, A A; Melent'ev, A V; Krasnov, E A; Suvorova, E V; Efremov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to select and develop simpler methods for the quantitative determination of baclofen in blood with the use of HPLC and tandem MS (MS-MS) techniques and its qualitative determination in cadaveric organs by the GC/MS technique. These mathods were shown to be suitable for the purpose of forensic medical analysis, clinical, toxicological, and therapeutic monitoring. The special emphasis is laid on the methods used to investigate the biological materials obtained from the subjects who died from baclofen intoxication. PMID:25874317

  17. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. PMID:26052116

  18. Burn assault with paint thinner ignition: an unexpected burn injury caused by street children addicted to paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Yalcin; Sever, Celalettin; Noyan, Nurettin; Uygur, Fatih; Ates, Alpay; Evinc, Rahmi; Oksuz, Sinan; Sahin, Cihan; Yuksel, Fuat

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of assault by burning among all burn patients varies from country to country. Assault by burning, although uncommon, is a serious form of trauma and a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the epidemiologic features, current etiological factors, and the mortality of nine patients admitted to our burn unit between January 1999 and January 2009 after unexpected burn assault by paint thinner ignition caused by street children addicted to paint thinner. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed. PMID:21422944

  19. [Early Detection of Manganese Intoxication Based on Occupational History and T1-weighted MRI].

    PubMed

    Fukutake, Toshio; Yano, Hajime; Kushida, Ryutaro; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal cell function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course terminating to atypical parkinsonism with little therapeutic efficacy. For subjects with chronic manganese exposure such as welders, manganese intoxication can be detected early based on the presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on T(1)-weighted MRI and abnormally high urinary excretion of manganese with a chelating agent even in cases of normal serum/urine level of manganese. PMID:26873238

  20. [Paraquat intoxication and hemocarboperfusion].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rui; Prata, Catarina; Oliveira, Luis; Carvalho, Maria João; Santos, Josefina; Carvalho, Félix; Morgado, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In the northeast of Portugal, paraquat intoxication is common. We report 31 patients, admitted at our institution from April 1997 to June 2004, with suspected paraquat intoxication. Thirty cases had suicidal intention and all have ingested the toxic by mouth. Treatment consisted of skin and digestive decontamination with gastric washing and activated charcoal or Fuller's Earth. The first medical care was performed after 1 h 14 min at median [9 min-11 h 26 min]. By laboratory measurement (n=13) and/or clinical observation (n=11) it was possible to confirm the gastrointestinal absorption of paraquat for 24 patients (17 male-7 female; 49 +/- 17 years). The estimated ingested volume was higher for 15 non-survivors relatively to nine survivors (170 +/- 60 mL vs 25 +/- 10 mL; P<0,001). Initial serum paraquat of seven non-survivors was also higher than the serum level of six survivors (8.3 +/- 6.9 mg/L vs 0.4 +/- 0.3 mg/L; P < 0.01). Remarkably, all patients with serum paraquat higher than 1.7 ml/l did not survived. The paraquat urine level, simultaneous to the first serum determination, was higher for six survivors (38 +/- 37 mg/L) comparing with four non-survivors patients (465 +/- 536 mg/L; P<0.04). Hemoperfusion with activated charcoal was performed after December 1997 until June 2004 for 25 patients. Twenty of the 24 patients confirmed for paraquat intoxication were treated with this technique (12/15 of the non-survivors and 8/9 of the survivors; p=NS). Total number of sessions was identical (2.0 +/- 1.0 vs 1.5 +/- 1.2; P=NS), total time of hemoperfusion was higher (7 h 58 min vs 5 h 37 min; P=0.07) but the beginning of the first session was later (7 h 44 min vs 4 h 18 min; P=0.04) for the survivors. Clinical signs and laboratory analysis were collected at admission trying to detect markers of prognostic survival value. Hypernatremia, hypokaliemia, hyperglycemia and acute renal failure were more frequent for non-survivors (P<0.05) but the variable timing of the first

  1. Emergency approach to intoxications.

    PubMed

    Hackett, T

    2000-05-01

    Many compounds, when absorbed or ingested, can cause harm to animals and people. Veterinarians are commonly faced with companion animals that have been exposed to these harmful compounds. Most poisonings are the result of curious exploration by the pet and a quest to taste everything in their path. Some poisonings are the result of malice, and many simply result from owner ignorance when pets are given medications without regard to dose or compatibility. It is the responsibility of the emergency clinician encountering these cases to prevent further exposure to the poison, enhance its elimination, and provide supportive and antidotal care. Antidotes when available are of little value if the animal has lost any vital functions. It is the purpose of this article to focus on the emergency management of intoxications by reviewing the general principles of triage and emergency care, and to discuss available procedures to stop the exposure, prevent further absorption, and hasten elimination of poisons from the patients body. PMID:10998820

  2. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Pachauri, Vidhu

    2010-01-01

    Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications. PMID:20717537

  3. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  4. Neurological manifestation of methyl bromide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Suwanlaong, Kanokrat; Phanthumchinda, Kammant

    2008-03-01

    Methyl bromide is a highly toxic gas with poor olfactory warning properties. It is widely used as insecticidal fumigant for dry foodstuffs and can be toxic to central and peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological manifestations of methyl bromide intoxication occur from inhalation. Acute toxicity characterized by headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances. Tremor, convulsion, unconsciousness and permanent brain damage may occur in severe poisoning. Chronic exposure can cause neuropathy, pyramidal and cerebellar dysfunction, as well as neuropsychiatric disturbances. The first case of methyl bromide intoxication in Thailand has been described. The patient was a 24-year-old man who worked in a warehouse of imported vegetables fumigated with methyl bromide. He presented with unstable gait, vertigo and paresthesia of both feet, for two weeks. He had a history of chronic exposure to methyl bromide for three years. His fourteen co-workers also developed the same symptoms but less in severity. Neurological examination revealed ataxic gait, decreased pain and vibratory sense on both feet, impaired cerebellar signs and hyperactive reflex in all extremities. The serum concentration of methyl bromide was 8.18 mg/dl. Electrophysilogical study was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) revealed bilateral symmetrical lesion of abnormal hypersignal intensity on T2 and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at bilateral dentate nuclei of cerebellum and periventricular area of the fourth ventricle. This incident stresses the need for improvement of worker education and safety precautions during all stages of methyl bromide fumigation. PMID:18575299

  5. A study of thinner-THGEM, with some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. B.; Liu, Q.; Chen, S.; Ruan, X. D.; Nicholson, C.; Xie, Y. G.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Lu, J. G.; Zhou, L.; Tang, A. S.; Yang, Y. D.; Dong, Y.; Li, M.

    2012-06-01

    THGEMs (THick Gas Electron Multiplier) of varying thickness, hole diameter and hole pitch have been studied. For a thinner-THGEM of thickness 0.2 mm, with hole diameter 0.2 mm, pitch 0.2 mm and narrow (5-10 μm) rim, the performance of gain versus high voltage with different gas mixtures have been studied using 5.9 keV X-rays. In general, a gain of around 3 × 103 was obtained with a single board in Ar/iC4H10, and gains higher than 104 were obtained in Ne mixture at lower voltage. The dependence of the energy resolution on the drift and induction electric fields was measured and an energy resolution of 15.9% was obtained. A curved thinner-THGEM chamber with one-dimensional readout has been assembled for use in the diffraction studies at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). A cosmic-ray muon hodoscope based on thinner-THGEM was developed as a teaching experiment for the Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (GUCAS).

  6. Acute bromadiolone intoxication.

    PubMed

    Grobosch, Thomas; Angelow, Boris; Schönberg, Lena; Lampe, Dagmar

    2006-05-01

    A 55-year-old man came to the hospital with a bleeding wound on his tongue. The coating of his tongue was green, and his sputum was red. Because an increased international normalized ratio-value was measured, a blood sample was sent to our laboratory with the suspicion of coumarin intoxication. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis confirmed the poisoning was by bromadiolone, with its maximum serum concentration at 440 microg/L. The analysis of further samples resulted in a calculated elimination half-life of 140 h. The analytical method described was developed for the determination and quantitation of bromadialone using LC-MS. This method is suitable for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 10 indirect anticoagulants in human serum, which include five superwarfarins (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, and flocoumafen) as rodenticides licenced in Germany and five other vitamin K antagonists (acenocoumarol, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, phenprocoumon, and warfarin). The method is based on an acidic (pH 4.2) liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Analytical separation was carried out using an Atlantis C18 column (2.1 x 20 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% formic acid; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min, and the time needed for analysis was 5 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 5 microg/L (signal-to-noise > 10). PMID:16803669

  7. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance. PMID:25413263

  8. Vitamin D intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat; Hatun, Sükrü; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication (VDI) may result from supplementation rarely, but it has been reported more frequently in recent years. This may be attributable to an increase in vitamin D supplement intake due to an understanding of the role of vitamin D (25OHD) in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The symptoms and findings associated with VDI are closely related to serum calcium concentration and duration of hypercalcemia. In patients with VDI, hypercalcemia, normal or high serum phosphorus levels, normal or low levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), high levels of serum 25OHD, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high urine calcium/creatinine are usually present. Serum 25OHD levels above 150 ng/ml are considered as VDI. The main goal of treatment for VDI is correction of the hypercalcemia. When the calcium concentration exceeds 14 mg/dl, emergency intervention is necessary because of the adverse effects of hypercalcemia on cardiac, central nervous system, renal, and gastrointestinal functions. However, since vitamin D is stored in fat tissues, effects of toxicity may last for months despite the removal of the exogenous source of vitamin D. Treatment for VDI includes: discontinuation of intake, a diet with low calcium and phosphorus content, intravenous hydration with saline, loop diuretics, glucocorticoids, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) without checking serum 25OHD level may cause redundant treatment that leads to VDI. All patients who are clinically suspected of VDDR should be checked for serum vitamin D status and questioned for previous vitamin D administration before starting vitamin D therapy. On the other hand, parents of all infants should be asked whether they are using dietary or oral supplements, and serial questioning may be required during supplementation to avoid excessive intake. PMID:22734293

  9. Chronic lead intoxication in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The transmammary movement of lead is exemplified by increased levels of lead in mothers milk. Control animals had mean levels of 0.18 p.p.m. of lead in their milk, while the lead experimental mothers averaged approximately 0.60 p.p.m. (range from 0.30 to 1.30 p.p.m.). In most cases, the first milk expressed from the mother contained more lead than subsequently obtained samples. A comparison of blood lead values between lead experimental mothers and their offspring were shown to be generally within 10-15% of one another at birth, and significantly different (p < 0.001) from controls. Zinc protoporphyrin concentrations were significantly different (p < 0.001) at birth between lead experimental infants and control infant. This illustrates that lead, is indeed, transplacental and disrupts the normal mechanisms responsible for heme biosynthesis in utero.

  10. Clinical cases in acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B; Maguire, Jennifer; Mauck, Karen F

    2009-12-01

    Over 2.5 million accidental and intentional drug-related poisonings are reported annually in the United States. Early diagnosis and management of patients who present with acute intoxication can significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation of patients with suspected or proven intoxications should focus on hemodynamic stability, mental status, and respiratory function. However, early recognition of toxic ingestion is paramount to implementing life-saving treatments. Important historical clues are often found in a social history that considers intravenous drug use, alcohol use, and any access or exposure to illicit substances. A patient's medication list should also be scrutinized for psychoactive or sedative medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants or opioids. In this article we present case-based discussions of the specific diagnosis and management of 5 commonly occurring acute intoxication syndromes. PMID:20877175

  11. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  12. Postmortem diffusion of ingested and aspirated paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Fuke, C; Berry, C L; Pounder, D J

    1996-04-23

    Post mortem diffusion of paint thinner (toluene/ethyl acetate/isobutanol 8:1:1 v/v) from gastric residue (25 ml or 100 ml) and airways contamination (25 ml) was assessed in a human cadaver model, with sampling after 24 h at room temperature. Four torso blood samples showed less toluene diffusion after gastric instillation (0.5-3.8 micrograms/ml) than after tracheal instillation (10.5-421 micrograms/ml). Isobutanol diffused more readily than toluene with four torso blood samples 1.8-256 micrograms/ml after gastric instillation and 26-576 micrograms/ml after tracheal instillation. Following 25 ml gastric instillation, toluene concentrations (microgram/ml or microgram/mg) were: pericardial fluid 0.7-4.0; bile 0.5-0.6; urine 0-0.6; brainstem 1.1; lung 0.4-4.4; liver 0-162; spleen 0.6-0.7; kidneys 0.4-0.6; peri-renal fat 0.3-30.3; psoas muscle 0.3-0.8; concentrations of toluene and isobutanol were markedly higher in the left lobe of the liver than the right. Ethyl acetate was mostly undetectable in tissue samples but variably present in five blood samples: 0-21.2 micrograms/ml following 25 ml or 100 ml gastric instillation and 0-198 micrograms/ml following 25 ml tracheal instillation. Ethyl acetate was always detectable in pericardial fluid but not always detectable in gastric contents. We conclude that post mortem diffusion of toluene from gastric residue or airways contamination is unlikely to compromise the analytical validity of femoral venous blood samples, brain, or liver from deep within the right lobe. Analysis of pericardial fluid and gastric contents allows identification of ethyl acetate and isobutanol thus implicating thinner solution. PMID:8635764

  13. Xanthine oxidase status in ethanol-intoxicated rat liver.

    PubMed

    Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Soffritti, M; Cessi, C

    1989-12-01

    The status of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced liver injury has been investigated in the rat, by acute and chronic ethanol treatments. A 38% increase of the enzyme O-form was observed after repeated ethanol administration. Chronic intoxication caused a significant decrease of total xanthine oxidase activity after both prolonged ethanol feeding and life span ethanol ingestion. The intermediate D/O-form of xanthine oxidase (that can act either as an oxidase or as a dehydrogenase, being able to react with O2 as well as with NAD+ as electron acceptor) increased 5.5-fold after prolonged ethanol feeding. PMID:2690670

  14. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  15. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  16. Alterations in superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in thinner inhaled rat lungs: relationship between histopathological properties.

    PubMed

    Ulakoğlu, E Z; Saygi, A; Gümüştaş, M K; Zor, E; Oztek, I; Kökoğlu, E

    1998-09-01

    Paint thinner has widespread use in industry. The use of thinner among children as a narcotic agent has become a social and health problem. There is some evidence that organic solvents may express their toxicity by the way of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cell damage. ROS has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. This study examined peroxidative and histopathological changes in the rat lung, during 5 weeks of thinner inhalation. Significant increases were found in lipid peroxidation (MDA+4-DHA) levels related to the duration of inhalation. As opposed to increases in the lipid peroxidation levels, significant decreases in superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels were observed from the third inhalation week to the end of the fifth week. At the beginning of the inhalation slight inflammatory changes, intraalveolar and interstitial extravasation and oedema in lung parenchyma were noted. As the inhalation period extended, chronic inflammatory changes, alveolar epithelial proliferation, collapse, emphysematous changes and interstitial fibrosis in lung were detected. PMID:9782071

  17. Proteinuria of industrial lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, C.V.; Hines, J.D.; Hall, P.W. III

    1986-12-01

    Studies of protein excretion were undertaken in seven males, aged 35-42 years, who had more than 5 years exposure to industrial lead and had clinically established Pb intoxication. Heavy metal intoxication with Cd and Hg causes proximal tubular abnormalities, i.e., aminoaciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia. Similar abnormalities occur in Pb intoxication except that the nature of the proteinuria remains controversial. Studies of urinary proteins included 24-hr urine protein excretion, dextran gel separations, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and ..beta../sub 2/ microglobulin (B/sub 2/M) measurements. Creatinine clearances, and serum B/sub 2/M concentrations were normal. Urine total protein distribution by SDS-PAGE and the B/sub 2/M excretion rate were also normal. These data imply that the nephrotoxicity of Cd and Hg are different than that of Pb. The authors speculate on what might account for this difference. This study suggests that when examining a population exposed to Pb, the finding of tubular proteinuria should alert investigators to search for the presence of other toxic agents.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazard primarily in the oil and gas industry, agriculture, sewage and animal waste handling, construction (asphalt operations and disturbing marshy terrain), and other settings where organic material decomposes under reducing conditions, and in geothermal operations. It is an insoluble gas, heavier than air, with a very low odor threshold and high toxicity, driven by concentration more than duration of exposure. Toxicity presents in a unique, reliable, and characteristic toxidrome consisting, in ascending order of exposure, of mucosal irritation, especially of the eye ("gas eye"), olfactory paralysis (not to be confused with olfactory fatigue), sudden but reversible loss of consciousness ("knockdown"), pulmonary edema (with an unusually favorable prognosis), and death (probably with apnea contributing). The risk of chronic neurcognitive changes is controversial, with the best evidence at high exposure levels and after knockdowns, which are frequently accompanied by head injury or oxygen deprivation. Treatment cannot be initiated promptly in the prehospital phase, and currently rests primarily on supportive care, hyperbaric oxygen, and nitrite administration. The mechanism of action for sublethal neurotoxicity and knockdown is clearly not inhibition of cytochrome oxidase c, as generally assumed, although this may play a role in overwhelming exposures. High levels of endogenous sulfide are found in the brain, presumably relating to the function of hydrogen sulfide as a gaseous neurotransmitter and immunomodulator. Prevention requires control of exposure and rigorous training to stop doomed rescue attempts attempted without self-contained breathing apparatus, especially in confined spaces, and in sudden release in the oil and gas sector, which result in multiple avoidable deaths. PMID:26563786

  19. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    recover within 1 year. Neuropsychologic abnormalities with chronic CO exposure are found even when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are normal. White-matter damage in the centrum semiovale and periventricular area and abnormalities in the globus pallidus are most commonly seen on MRI following CO exposure. Though not as common, toxic or ischemic peripheral neuropathies are associated with CO exposure in humans and animals. The cornerstone for treatment for CO poisoning is 100% oxygen using a tight-fitting mask for greater than 6 hours. The indications for treatment with hyperbaric oxygen to decrease the half-life of COHb remain controversial. PMID:26563790

  20. [Metabolic therapy of postperitoneal intoxication].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, A P; Anaskin, S G; Vlasova, T I; Chivisov, S M; Shibitov, V A; Potyanova, I V; Selentsov, P V

    2012-01-01

    This clinico-laboratory study showed that antihypoxant remaxol promoted normalization of lipid metabolism in acute peritonitis and significantly reduced membrane-destabilizing events. This resulted in rapid elimination of the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and lowering of the intensity of endogenous intoxication. This beneficial effect decreased the severity of myocardial lesions and resulted in the normalization of erythrocyte function. It is concluded that the regulatory action of remaxol on lipid metabolism is due to its ability to control free radicals in lipid peroxidation and reduce phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:23285765

  1. Brodifacoum intoxication with marijuana smoking.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, F G; Clarke, S H; Lefkowitz, J B

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old boy with a significant history of drug and alcohol abuse, which included smoking marijuana mixed with brodifacoum. As a consequence, the patient developed a prolonged coagulopathy that persisted for more than 1 year. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature in which super-warfarin intoxication has been associated with marijuana smoking. This report should increase the awareness of pathologists and clinicians when examining a patient with a history of drug abuse who exhibits persistent vitamin K1-dependent coagulopathy. PMID:9111096

  2. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR part 81, dated July 1, 1979, except as follows: (1) In the following portions of the... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... coating thinner and reducer. (a) All terms defined in § 52.254 are used herein with the meanings...

  3. Perceived Intoxication: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Mary E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among perceived levels of intoxication, blood alcohol levels, and impairment of selected psychomotor skills used in driving. Results reinforced previous findings which correlated perceptions of intoxication and other measures. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption tables, which calculate one's…

  4. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful conduct or purpose whatsoever. No trader shall use...

  5. Observing Radiative Properties of a Thinner, Seasonal Arctic Ice Pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, S. R.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M.; Gerland, S.; Wang, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is coming to be dominated by young ice, much of it seasonal. Many of our observations of the radiative properties of sea ice come from drifting stations on thick, multi-year ice. To better understand the Arctic climate system in a warmer world, we need more data about the radiative properties and their seasonal and spatial variability on thinner, younger ice. Since this younger ice is not always thick enough to support lengthy drifting stations, there is a need for new technologies to help us get optical measurements on seasonal ice. One challenge is obtaining seasonal data on ice that is too weak to support even a ship-based camp, and especially to have these observations extend well into the melt season. For these situations, we have developed a spectral radiation monitoring buoy that can be deployed during a one-day ice station, and that can then autonomously observe the spectral albedo and transmittance of the sea ice, transmitting all data in near real time by satellite, until the buoy melts out. Similar installations at manned or regularly visited sites have provided good data, with surprisingly few data-quality problems due to frost, precipitation, or tilting. The buoys consist of 3 spectral radiometers, covering wavelengths 350 to 800 nm, and a datalogger with an Irridium modem. The datalogger and necessary batteries are inside a sealed housing which is frozen into a hole drilled in the ice. Arms extend from both the top and bottom of the housing, holding sensors that measure incident, reflected, and transmitted spectra. The under-ice radiometer is equipped with a bioshutter to avoid algal growth on the sensor. They will be deployed alongside ice mass balance buoys, providing data about the physical development of the ice and snow, as well as position. While the buoys provide an excellent record of diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variability, they are fixed to one location in the ice, so other methods are still needed for measuring the spatial

  6. [METABOLIC INTOXICATION IN THERMIC TRAUMA].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, O M

    2015-05-01

    In 76 injured persons with deep and superficial burns, having area from 3 to 65% of the total body surface and ageing 5-16 yrs old, there was investigated the impact of early surgical treatment on the metabolic intoxication severity in accordance to content of the oxidatively modified proteins carbonyl groups in the blood serum, and of a ceruloplasmin, what was considered as integral express-index of the organism antioxidant system state. Changes of these indices in ambustial disease of middle severity have witnessed a sufficiently compensated reaction of organism: of severe and extremely severe one--there were noted a deficiency of the organism antioxidant defense; and in stages of toxemia and septicotoxemia--attrition of the organism oxidant reserves and danger of the septic complications occurrence. Conduction of early surgical intervention have guaranteed maintenance of a ceruloplasmin content in stages of toxemia and septicotoxemia on the level of healthy persons, relief of the ambustial disease course, absence of critical metabolic intoxication and carbonyl stress, reduction of the septic complications rate in 1.5 times. PMID:26419044

  7. Transient proteinuria and aminoaciduria in rodents following uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.W.; Stockwell, D.R.; Britt, K.A.; Kerr, C.B.

    1985-03-01

    Alternative human bioassay procedures for uranium are being investigated. Aminoaciduria in uranium hexafluoride and uranium mill employees has been examined. Although not conclusive, the results suggest that chronic human urinary uranium concentrations of 30-50 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ produce marked changes in the amino acid excretion profile although no consistent patterns emerged. As part of a program to examine alternative bioassay techniques for occupationally exposed uranium workers and to assist in interpretation of amino acid obtained from human incident exposures, the authors have examined the occurrence of transient aminoaciduria following uranium intoxication in female rats.

  8. [Acute lethal alcohol intoxication (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kringsholm, B

    1976-01-01

    In 14,744 autopsy cases from an 18-year period 92 cases (of which 7 were ruled out because of decomposition were observed in which death was supposed to be due to direct acute alcoholic intoxication. In the police reports 81 persons were designated as chronic alcoholics or abusers of spirits. The blood alcohol level ranged between 2.04 and 4.92 o/oo. The cases studied were divided into two groups, one with low and the other with high lethal alcohol level. Fatty liver and cirrhosis were found with identical frequency in the two groups, whereas cardiac hypertrophy of obscure origin occurred markedly more often in the group with low lethal blood alcohol level. On the basis the possible mechanism of death in the cases with cardiac hypertrophy is discussed. Finally, the relation between the blood and urine alcohol concentrations observed in 72 cases is discussed. On the assumption that the water phase of the blood was 75 per cent of the total blood, death occurred in the persons without cardiac hypertrophy with fairly identical frequency either in the phase of absorption or the phase of elimination, whereas in the persons with cardiac hypertrophy death most often occurred in the phase of absorption. These statements should, however, be taken with some reservation, partly because the water phase of the blood may vary considerably post mortem (60-90 per cent) and partly because the urine alcohol concentration depends on serval variable factors. PMID:137612

  9. Assessment of genomic damage and repair on human lymphocytes by paint thinner in vitro.

    PubMed

    Londoño-Velasco, Elizabeth; Hidalgo-Cerón, Victor; Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa F; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella

    2014-05-01

    Paint thinners are organic-solvent complex mixtures frequently used by car painters around the world in industries and shops. Some studies have revealed the oxidative effect induced by thinner inhalation; however, its genotoxic effect is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity, genomic damage and DNA repair in vitro induced by commercial paint thinner 0.14 in human lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity was determined by cell-viability analysis with trypan blue after 4 h treatment with different thinner concentrations (0.025 to 1.2 µL/mL). Genomic damage was evaluated by means of the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; pH > 13) in treated cultures after 1 h with three low-cytotoxic thinner concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 µL/mL). In order to evaluate the genomic DNA repair, one set of SCGE slides was prepared immediately after treatment, and another one was prepared after 4 h of liquid-holding recovery. A significant level of cytotoxicity was observed over the entire concentration range of paint thinner in lymphocytes (F = 175.98; p ≤ 0.001). In the SCGE % tail DNA assessment, a significant increase of lymphocyte genomic damage was evidenced (F = 72.32; p < 0.001). In addition, we found a significant decrease in the % tail DNA in thinner-treated cells after liquid-holding recovery period (all p < 0.05), demonstrating that DNA primary lesions induced by low-cytotoxic thinner concentrations are efficiently repaired. In conclusion, thinner components induce cytotoxicity and genomic damage in human lymphocytes under the study conditions, possibly by oxidative and alkylative DNA damage. PMID:24236478

  10. Monosodium glutamate neonatal intoxication associated with obesity in adult stage is characterized by chronic inflammation and increased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Roman-Ramos, Ruben; Almanza-Perez, Julio C; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Fortis-Barrera, Angeles; Jasso, Edgar I; Garcia-Lorenzana, Mario; Campos-Sepulveda, Alfonso E; Cruz, Miguel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J

    2011-06-01

    The monosodium glutamate (MSG) neonatal administration in mice provides a model of obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance. However, the inflammatory profile of cytokines produced from fat tissue and its relationship to the metabolic dysfunction induced by MSG have not yet been revealed. The aim of this study was to establish the inflammatory profile attributed to MSG by measuring the expression of adipokines in visceral fat and serum of 19-week-old mice as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma (PPARα and γ). Some metabolic and biochemical parameters were also quantified. The MSG increased mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), resistin and leptin, but adiponectin did not exhibit any changes. In addition, impaired glucose tolerance, increased levels of insulin, resistin and leptin were observed in serum. Both PPARα and PPARγ were activated in MSG-induced obese mice, which might explain its inflammatory profile. However, liver transaminases were severely depressed, indicating that MSG may also induce liver injury, contributing to inflammation. The MSG neonatal neuro-intoxication in mice may thus provide a model of obesity and inflammation characterized by the dual activation of PPARα and PPARγ, which might offer new insights into the mechanism of inflammatory diabetes in obesity leading to steatohepatitis, as well as a suitable model to study the role of new therapeutic agents to prevent or reduce insulin resistance, the inflammatory state and liver steatosis. PMID:21205225

  11. Ultrastructural changes of tissues produced by inhalation of thinner in rats.

    PubMed

    Carabez, A; Sandoval, F; Palma, L

    1998-01-01

    Thinner is a substance that is used for industrial purposes and for drug abuse; addiction is of young people (average age, 7.5 years). Although the health problem of voluntary or nonvoluntary solvent sniffing is important, great attention has been paid to the epidemiology and pharmacology of paint thinner or industrial solvents inhalation, but studies at the morphological and biochemical level are scarce. This work describes the morphological changes in the lung, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, and central nervous system induced by short- (up to 4 weeks) and long-term (up to 14 weeks) periods of thinner inhalation in rats. PMID:9443158

  12. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  13. Inhibition of renal Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng . E-mail: yspark@ns.kosinmed.or.kr

    2005-04-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl{sub 2} (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V{sub max} of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport with no changes in K{sub Na} in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na{sup +}-HCO{sub 3}{sup -} cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal.

  14. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  15. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life. PMID:26242570

  16. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  17. Two Fatal Intoxications with Cyanohydrins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuiqing; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Zhang, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T. The second is the determination of acetone or formaldehyde. In this part, headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detectors (GC-MSD) had been used. In this report, we reported two fatal intoxication cases of ACH and FCH; one person was killed by his wife by poisoning his food and the other was suicide by poison. Two real cases of ACH and FCH in human blood and gastric contents have been analyzed by using the above-mentioned method. The Prussian blue reaction was positive in the two cases. The peaks of acetone with retention times of 0.998 min appear in specimens of the deceased are consistent with the retention times of pure acetone. The peaks of formaldehyde with a retention time of 1.658 min appear in heart blood of the deceased, and the retention time of formaldehyde of the liquid is 1.674 min, which are consistent with the retention times of pure formaldehyde (1.673 min). PMID:27026650

  18. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  19. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  20. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  1. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  2. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  3. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  4. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  5. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  7. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  8. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  9. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  10. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  11. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  12. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  13. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  14. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  15. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  16. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  17. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  19. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  20. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  1. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  4. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  5. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  6. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  7. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  8. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  9. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  10. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  11. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  12. Possible fatal acetaminophen intoxication with atypical clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Chiarotti, Marcello; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Carbone, Arnaldo; Valerio, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Acetaminophen or paracetamol, a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, is known to elicit severe adverse reactions when taken in overdose, chronically at therapeutic dosage or, sporadically, following single assumptions of a therapeutic dose. Damage patterns including liver damage and, rarely, acute tubular necrosis or a fixed drug exanthema. We present a case of fatal acetaminophen toxicity with postmortem blood concentration 78 μg/mL and unusual clinical features, including a visually striking and massive epidermolysis and rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial ischemia. This case is compared with the most similar previous reports in terms of organ damage, clinical presentation, and cause of death. We conclude that a number of severe patterns of adverse effects to acetaminophen are emerging that were previously greatly underestimated, thus questioning the adequacy of the clinical spectrum traditionally associated with acetaminophen intoxication and leading to the need to review this spectrum and the associated diagnostic criteria. PMID:23822653

  13. Components of paint thinner in body fluids clearly detected using the salting-out technique.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Nagata, T; Kimura, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T; Noda, M

    1990-01-01

    For a more sensitive detection of paint thinner components in body fluids, we made use of a salting-out technique, with sodium chloride added to blood samples followed by gas chromatography, using the headspace method. The detection of ethyl acetate and isobutanol was considerably enhanced using these approaches. PMID:2303209

  14. Paint thinner exposure inhibits testosterone synthesis and secretion in a reversible manner in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Bayram; Canpolat, Sinan; Sandal, Suleyman; Akpolat, Nusret; Kutlu, Selim; Ilhan, Necip; Kelestimur, Haluk

    2006-11-01

    Occupational exposure and sniffing of toluene-based organic solvents is an important public health problem. In this study, we have investigated the effects of paint thinner inhalation on testosterone synthesis and secretion in the male rat. A control group inhaled normal air ventilation. The remaining animals were divided into three groups and exposed to paint thinner in a glassy cage for 15 and 30 days (2 h/day). A group of rats was allowed to recover for 15 days after 30 days of exposure. Toluene concentration (the largest constituent in thinner, 66%) was set at 1500 ppm in the inhaled air. At the end, all animals were decapitated and blood samples obtained. Testes and seminal vesicles were removed and weighed out. Serum total testosterone levels were determined by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Testicular tissue specimens were processed for semi-quantitative evaluation of immunohistochemical testosterone staining and light microscopy. Intensity of immunostaining was evaluated on a scale between 0 (no staining), 1 (minimal), 2 (mild), 3 (moderate) and 4 (strong staining). Serum testosterone levels (ng/ml) were decreased by 15-day (3.31+/-0.61) and 30-day (1.17+/-0.54, p<0.02) thinner exposure compared to the controls (3.91+/-1.03). Another group of rats exposed to thinner for 30 days and then allowed to recover for a period of 15 days had significantly elevated levels of testosterone values (3.77+/-1.1; p<0.05). Immunohistochemical testosterone staining of the cytoplasm of Leydig cells was moderate (3+) and mild (2+) in 15 and 30 days thinner inhalation groups, respectively. Strong staining (4+) was restored following the recovery period. Testicular weight was significantly reduced in all test groups compared to the control values (p<0.01). Diameters of seminiferous tubules were significantly decreased in the solvent exposed groups with enlarged connective tissue. The present findings suggest that paint thinner inhalation inhibits testosterone synthesis

  15. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Methods Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007) of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC) > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80) with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0). Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS), outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days) and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments). Statistical analysis: p < 0.05 vs. ETOH > 80; stratified chi square. Results Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987) of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 ± 17.9, ISS of 18.0 ± 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67) or complications (p = 0.38). There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06). The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (≥ 5 days), ventilator days (≥ 8 days), and hospital LOS (> 14 days) when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p < 0.05). The ETOH > 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.5) and less likely to generate payment for hospital charges (p < 0.5). Hospital charges and costs were higher in the ETOH = 0 group (p < 0.5). Conclusions The data suggests that intoxicated drivers may have better outcomes and a trend towards reduced mortality. They appeared to be less likely to have prolonged

  16. [Delayed neurological syndrome after CO intoxication of elderly female].

    PubMed

    Vander Weyden, Liesbeth; Voigt, Roxana-Maria; Boonen, Steven; Fagard, Katleen; Dejaeger, Eddy

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses the case history of an 87-year old woman with loss of consciousness following accidental CO intoxication. A few weeks later, the patient's cognitive abilities progressively deteriorated. This is hence a case of Delayed Neurological Symptoms after CO intoxication. This condition occurs in 40% of patients with CO intoxication and manifests itself 3-240 days after apparent recovery. Symptoms can linger for a long time and are in some cases even permanent. Treatment of CO intoxication usually consists of administering normobaric oxygen and in certain cases hyperbaric oxygen. The role of treatment with hyberbaric oxygen in delayed neurological symptoms after CO intoxication remains controversial, however. PMID:26082431

  17. Effect of acute ammonia intoxication on cerebral metabolism in rats with portacaval shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Hindfelt, B; Plum, F; Duffy, T E

    1977-01-01

    Rats were made chronically hyperammonemic by portal-systemic shunting and, 8 wk later, were subjected to acute ammonia intoxication by the intraperitoneal injection of 5.2 mmol/kg of ammonium acetate. In free-ranging animals, ammonia treatment induced a brief period of precoma (10-15 min) that progressed into deep, anesthetic coma lasting for several hours and was associated with a high mortality. In paralyzed, artificially ventilated animals that were lightly anesthetized with nitrous oxide, acute ammonia intoxication caused major disturbances of cerebral carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism that correlated in time with the change in functional state. At 10 min after injection (precoma), the concentrations of most glycolytic intermediates were increased, as was the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Citrate declined, despite a twofold rise in pyruvate, suggesting that the conversion of pyruvate to citrate had been impaired. Concentrations of phosphocreatine, and of the putative neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, declined during precoma, but the concentrations of the adenine nucleotides in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brain stem remained within normal limits. At 60 min after injection (coma), ATP declined in all regions of brain; the reduction in total high-energy phosphates was most notable in the brain stem. The findings indicate that cerebral dysfunction in chronic, relapsing ammonia intoxication is not due to primary energy failure. Rather, it is suggested that ammonia-induced depletion of glutamic and aspartic acids, and inhibition of the malate-asparate hydrogen shuttle are the dominant neurochemical lesions. PMID:838855

  18. Alcohol sales to pseudo-intoxicated bar patrons.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, T L; Wagenaar, A C; Kilian, G; Fitch, O; Rothstein, C; Fletcher, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many establishments serve alcoholic beverages to obviously intoxicated patrons despite laws against such sales. To guide the development of interventions to reduce these illegal alcohol sales, this study used actors feigning intoxication to determine whether servers recognized obvious signs of intoxication and to assess the tactics servers used when dealing with intoxicated patrons. METHODS: Male actors ages 30 to 50 acted out signs of obvious intoxication as they attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages. If served during the first attempt, these pseudo-intoxicated buyers made second purchase attempts during the same visit. Observers accompanied the actors; after each visit, actors and observers recorded the servers' behavior and comments. RESULTS: Alcoholic beverages were served to actors portraying intoxicated patrons at 68% of first purchase attempts and 53% of second purchase attempts (62% of a total of 106 purchase attempts). The most common refusal technique was a direct refusal (68% of refusals), made with either no excuse or with reference to the actors' apparent intoxication level. Servers' second most commonly used refusal technique was offering alcohol-free beverages, such as coffee or water (18% of refusals). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to determine why servers who recognize intoxication serve alcoholic beverages and what training, outlet policies, and external pressures are needed to reduce illegal alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. PMID:10501134

  19. Vestibular response in denatured rape oil intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, C; Gavilán, J; Abril, A

    1985-10-01

    During the spring of 1981 a massive intoxication broke out in Spain, which is presently attributed to the ingestion of denatured rape oil, and which has been called 'Toxic Syndrome' (TS). We studied 51 patients affected by the TS one year after the onset of their disease, analyzing their vestibular responses in the caloric test with the help of an analog-digital computer. A significant decrease in the number of nystagmic beats of the affected patients can be observed, while the rest of the parameters studied show similar values to those found simultaneously in 30 normal subjects. It is suggested that these differences are yet another manifestation of the polyneuropathy found in intoxication by denatured rape oil. PMID:3877134

  20. The emergency care of cocaine intoxications.

    PubMed

    Vroegop, M P; Franssen, E J; van der Voort, P H J; van den Berg, T N A; Langeweg, R J; Kramers, C

    2009-04-01

    Cocaine is frequently used, especially among adolescents and by men between the age of 25 and 44. Many of them are able to use cocaine in normal day-to-day life, without any problems. Reduced prices of cocaine and other recreational drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has led to an increased incidence of intoxications with these drugs. Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur. The treatment of patients with an acute cocaine intoxication can be complicated. Combination of cocaine with other drugs results in clinical pictures which are difficult to discriminate and that may have important consequences for treatment. PMID:19581655

  1. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  2. Dihydromyricetin As A Novel Anti-Alcohol Intoxication Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Lindemeyer, A. Kerstin; Gonzalez, Claudia; Shao, Xuesi M.; Spigelman, Igor; Olsen, Richard W.; Liang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) constitute the most common form of substance abuse. The development of AUD involves repeated alcohol use leading to tolerance, alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), physical and psychological dependence, with loss of ability to control excessive drinking. Currently there is no effective therapeutic agent for AUD without major side-effects. Dihydromyricetin (DHM, 1 mg/kg, i.p. injection), a flavonoid component of herbal medicines, counteracted acute alcohol (EtOH) intoxication, and also withdrawal signs in rats including tolerance, increased anxiety and seizure susceptibility; DHM greatly reduced EtOH consumption in an intermittent voluntary EtOH intake paradigm in rats. GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are major targets of acute and chronic EtOH actions on the brain. At the cellular levels, DHM (1 μM) antagonized both acute EtOH-induced potentiation of GABAARs and EtOH exposure/withdrawal-induced GABAAR plasticity, including alterations in responsiveness of extra- and post-synaptic GABAARs to acute EtOH, and most importantly, increases in GABAAR α4 subunit expression in hippocampus and cultured neurons. DHM anti-alcohol effects on both behavior and CNS neurons were antagonized by flumazenil (10 mg/kg in vivo, 10 μM in vitro), the benzodiazepine (BZ) antagonist. DHM competitively inhibited BZ-site [3H]flunitrazepam binding (IC50, 4.36 μM), suggesting DHM interaction with EtOH involves the BZ-sites on GABAARs. In summary, we determined DHM anti-alcoholic effects on animal models, and determined a major molecular target and cellular mechanism of DHM for counteracting alcohol intoxication and dependence. We demonstrated pharmacological properties of DHM consistent with those expected to underlie successful medical treatment of AUD; therefore DHM is a therapeutic candidate. PMID:22219299

  3. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  4. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    PubMed

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms. PMID:19375827

  5. Tests for addiction (chronic intoxication) of morphine type

    PubMed Central

    Halbach, H.; Eddy, Nathan B.

    1963-01-01

    A survey is presented of laboratory and clinical methods for the determination of addiction liability of substances with morphine-like effects. Since physical dependence is the outstanding pharmacological criterion of addiction of morphine type, the procedures for its qualitative and quantitative assessment are described in detail. PMID:13952049

  6. Intoxication with alcohol: An underestimated trigger of Brugada syndrome?

    PubMed

    Achaiah, Andrew; Andrews, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol intoxication is a potentially under-recognised precipitant of Brugada syndrome. Higher pre-cordial electrocardiogram lead placement increases sensitivity of detecting the Brugada pattern. PMID:27186380

  7. Intoxication with alcohol: An underestimated trigger of Brugada syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication is a potentially under-recognised precipitant of Brugada syndrome. Higher pre-cordial electrocardiogram lead placement increases sensitivity of detecting the Brugada pattern. PMID:27186380

  8. Solvent constituents in paint, glue and thinner for plastic miniature hobby.

    PubMed

    Saito, J; Ikeda, M

    1988-07-01

    Solvent-containing products (8 paint, 29 glue and 4 thinner preparations) for plastic miniature hobby were analyzed for solvent constituents by capillary gas-chromatography. Acetone and methyl isobutyl ketone were two most extensively used solvents both in terms of frequency and concentration. Other popular solvents included ethyl alcohol and two esters of ethyl acetate and butyl acetate. In contrast, aromatics, chlorinated hydrocarbons and ethylene glycol derivatives were seldomly detected. The present findings were discussed in comparison with the observation on the materials abused for sniffing in the past, as well as constituents in the products for industrial application. PMID:3176022

  9. Effects of neonatal exposure to paint thinner on the development of swimming in rats.

    PubMed

    Lorenzana-Jiménez, M; Salas, M

    1980-01-01

    Rats were exposed to paint thinner twice a day for a period of 10 minutes on Days 1 through 30 of postnatal life. The subsequent effects upon physical development, swimming ability and escape latency from water were evaluated. Maturation of swimming behavior and general physical development were delayed about 2-4 days in the experimental animals compared with non-exposed littermate controls. The results of these experiments suggest that exposure to this organic solvent during the early postnatal period interferes with the development of the cortico-subcortical neural structures underlying swimming and locomotion. PMID:7442917

  10. Alcohol Intoxication in Pediatric Age: Ten-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29 506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P = 0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948

  11. [Intoxication with gammahydroxybutyrate is still frequently seen].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maria Maj; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2012-06-18

    Gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) is also known as fantasy or liquid ecstasy. Its use as a recreational drug has been illegal in Denmark since 1999. However, the GHB pro-drug gammabutyrolactone (GBL) is available to everybody since it is the main ingredient in rim cleaners, which are often sold via the Internet. We describe two cases with patients, who were admitted to the intensive care unit at Glostrup Hospital within a six-month period. The symptoms of GHB intoxication are described, and the treatment is discussed. PMID:22713228

  12. Mixed drug intoxication involving zaleplon ("Sonata").

    PubMed

    Moore, Karla A; Zemrus, Tasha L; Ramcharitar, Vera; Levine, Barry; Fowler, David R

    2003-07-01

    Zaleplon ("Sonata") is a pyrazolopyrimidine derivative approved for use in the United States for the treatment of insomnia. To date, there has been little data in the toxicological literature where zaleplon has been implicated as causing a fatal intoxication, either alone or in combination with other drugs. This report documents a case where zaleplon was identified in a suicide by multiple drug ingestion. The following zaleplon concentrations were found: heart blood 2.2mg/l; bile 8.6mg/l and urine 1.4mg/l. Zaleplon was also detected but not quantitated in the kidney and liver. PMID:12850405

  13. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case. PMID:27274523

  14. Possible unaware intoxication by anticoagulant rodenticide

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Ghaffari, Saba; Nassiri-Toossi, Mohsen; Amini, Mohsen; Edalatifard, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Superwarfarin toxicity may be a serious problem. It needs high clinical suspicious in patients with bleeding diathesis without hematologic or liver diseases even in patients with apparent negative history of warfarin or other anticoagulant accessibility. Here we reported a patient with a negative history of any medical diseases or drug administration who was referred with generalized ecchymosis. Increased international normalized ratio and decreased vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors were detected in this patient. His hematologic and liver evaluations were normal. Clinical pharmacist emphasis in taking history revealed using anticoagulant rodenticide all over the farm the patient lived in that might result in unaware intoxication in this patient who suffered dementia. PMID:25535623

  15. [Action of analeptics in acute alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Bender, K I; Bobrova, L A

    1978-01-01

    Tests conducted on rabbits in a state of acute ethanol poisoning (2.5 g/kg per os) of a medium degree demonstrated that caffein (10 mg/kg) and bemegride (5 mg/kg) introduced one time intravenously at the height of alcoholic intoxication raise the activity of aerobic oxidative processes, but fail to eliminate metabolic acidosis and do not accelerate the excretion of ethanol. Unlike caffein, bemegride shows a tendency toward respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis and lowers the activity of the alcohol-dehydrogenase. PMID:26595

  16. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  17. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  18. Influence of essential elements on manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Khandelwal, S.; Ashquin, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    With a view to explore the influence of essential metals in manganese intoxication, the effect of calcium, iron or zinc supplementation on the uptake of manganese and on the activity of manganese sensitive enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in brain and liver of rat was investigated. The choice of the two mitochondrial enzymes was based on the fact that the mitochondria are the chief site of manganese accumulation and their activity in brain, liver and blood of rats is significantly influenced by manganese.

  19. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case. PMID:27274523

  20. Chronic sequelae of foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade the complexity of foodborne pathogens, as well as their adaptability and ability to cause acute illness, and in some cases chronic (secondary) complications, have been newly appreciated. This overview examines long-term consequences of foodborne infections and intoxications to emphasize the need for more research and education. PMID:9366595

  1. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  2. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  3. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  4. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  5. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  6. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  7. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  8. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  9. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  10. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  11. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  12. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  13. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  14. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  15. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  16. Lead intoxication in cattle: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baars, A J; van Beek, H; Visser, I J; Vos, G; van Delft, W; Fennema, G; Lieben, G W; Lautenbag, K; Nieuwenhuijs, J H; de Lezenne Coulander, P A

    1992-01-01

    During the autumn of 1989 a feed contamination induced a widespread lead intoxication of cattle in the northern provinces of The Netherlands (Groningen and Friesland). Over 300 farms were involved, affecting about 15,500 animals (mostly dairy cattle). For a period of one to four weeks these animals took up a thousand kg of lead. This resulted in lead levels in milk, livers, and kidneys above the regulatory safety limits. Due to the chelating therapy, which was rapidly applied by the local veterinarians, only about 30 animals died of an acute lead intoxication. A joint action of the governmental and private authorities prevented exposure of consumers to lead-contaminated animal products. Based on observations, measurements and literature data, predictions were made of the lead levels to be expected in animal products and the time needed for depletion of these levels. The appropriate animals were ear-tagged to ensure their identification, and the decline in time of the lead levels in milk and offals was conscientiously monitored. In the second week of 1990 the lead concentrations were decreased to levels well below the regulatory limits, and hence the tags were removed. The present paper reports our observations and conclusions, especially regarding treatment, predictions and outcome of this incident. PMID:1493885

  17. Approach to the Treatment of Methanol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-01

    Methanol intoxication is an uncommon but serious poisoning. Its adverse effects are due primarily to the impact of its major metabolite formic acid and lactic acid resulting from cellular hypoxia. Symptoms including abdominal pain and loss of vision can appear a few hours to a few days after exposure, reflecting the time necessary for accumulation of the toxic byproducts. In addition to a history of exposure, increases in serum osmolal and anion gaps can be clues to its presence. However, increments in both parameters can be absent depending on the nature of the toxic alcohol, time of exposure, and coingestion of ethanol. Definitive diagnosis requires measurement with gas or liquid chromatography, which are laborious and expensive procedures. Tests under study to detect methanol or its metabolite formate might facilitate the diagnosis of this poisoning. Treatment can include administration of ethanol or fomepizole, both inhibitors of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent formation of its metabolites, and hemodialysis to remove methanol and formate. In this Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, a patient with methanol intoxication due to ingestion of model airplane fuel is described, and the value and limitations of current and new diagnostic and treatment measures are discussed. PMID:27180631

  18. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p < 0.01) in comparison to a control group. Data of the present study indicate that there might be an effect of acute alcohol intoxication on transaminase levels. The AST/ALT ratio seems to reflect the damage in hepatocytes

  19. Fatal intoxication caused by the application of the multiple transdermals patchs of fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Qamouss, Youssef; Zoubir, Mohamed; Lalaoui, Jaafar Salim; Boughalem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-phenyl-N-(1-2-phenylethyl-4-piperidyl)propanamide) is a potent synthetic narcotic analgesic. He has an analgesic effect 100 times greater than that of morphine. The use of transdermal fentanyl delivrery systems has increased over recent years especially in patients with chronic pain who are already treated with high doses of morphine or it is derivate. However, many cases of fentanyl intoxication through a variety of transderrmal systems have been reported. This paper reports a fatality due to excessive administered Fentanyl Sandoz® Matrix 50µg/h transdermal therapeutic systems. PMID:26015841

  20. Production of intoxication states by actors: perception by lay listeners.

    PubMed

    Hollien, H; DeJong, G; Martin, C A

    1998-11-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans; there appear to be but few universals. Yet, questions about intoxication often are asked by law enforcement personnel (especially relative to DUI), clinicians and various individuals in social settings. A key question: Is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely associated one: Can speech be used for that purpose? Two of the many issues related to the second of these questions involve the possibility that (1) speakers, especially actors, can effectively mimic the speech of intoxicated individuals, and (2) they may be able to volitionally reduce any speech degradation which results from intoxication. The approach used to test these two questions tasked auditors to determine if these simulations were possible. To this end, young, healthy actors chosen on the basis of a large number of selection criteria were asked to produce several types of controlled utterances (1) during a learning phase, (2) when sober, (3) at three simulated levels of intoxication (mildly, legally and severely drunk), (4) during actual, and parallel, levels of intoxication, and (5) at the highest intoxication level attained but when attempting to sound completely sober. Two aural-perceptual studies were conducted; both involved counterbalanced ABX procedures where each subject was paired with him/herself. Listeners were normally hearing university students drawn from undergraduate phonetics and linguistics courses. In the first study, they rated the actors as being more intoxicated--when they actually were sober but simulating drunkenness--88% more often than when they actually were intoxicated. In the second study, they were judged as sounding less inebriated when attempting to sound sober (than they actually were) 61% of the time. These relationships would appear to impact a number of situations; one of special importance would be the detection of

  1. Effects of paint thinner exposure on serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels and hypothalamic catecholamine contents in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, B; Kutlu, S; Canpolat, S; Sandal, S; Ayar, A; Mogulkoc, R; Kelestimur, H

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the effects of thinner inhalation on serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels together with changes in hypothalamic catecholaminergic system in the male rat. A control group inhaled normal air ventilation. The remaining animals were divided into two groups and exposed to paint thinner in a glassy cage for 15 or 30 d. Toluene concentration (the largest constituent in thinner, 66%) was set at 3000 ppm in the inhalation air. At the end, all animals were decapitated and blood samples obtained. Serum LH and FSH levels were measured by RIA and testosterone by enzyme immunoassay. Following removal of brains on dry ice, medial preoptic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence and arcuate nucleus were isolated by micropunch technique. Noradrenaline, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) and dopamine concentrations of these hypothalamic areas were determined by HPLC-ECD. Fifteen-day thinner inhalation significantly suppressed serum LH and testosterone levels in parallel (p<0.001) compared to control group values (LH: 0.77+/-0.07; testosterone: 2.67+/-0.39). Thirty-day exposure markedly decreased LH levels (p<0.001), but surprisingly had no significant effect on testosterone. Serum FSH levels were not significantly altered in either group. Thinner inhalation for 15 or 30 d did not cause any significant change in noradrenaline, DHPG or dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamic regions examined (except in the arcuate nucleus). These results suggest that paint thinner has an anti-gonadotropic effect and may cause long-term endocrine disturbances in the male. It is thought that the hypothalamic catecholaminergic system is not involved in thinner inhibition of LH and testosterone secretion. PMID:11217085

  2. Protective effects of desferrioxamine and deferiprone on the spleen tissue of aluminum intoxicated mice: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J.

    The present study was designed to examine the protective effects of the chelating agents desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) in aluminum intoxicated spleen tissue of mice by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The finding revealed the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, phosphodiester and nucleic acids of the spleen tissue of mice at molecular level. The significant decreased in the peak areas of asymmetric and symmetric mode of the phosphodiester groups from control to aluminum intoxicated, but improved it by DFP and DFO + DFP treatments respectively for nearer control value. The bands ratio at I1081/I1232 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by DFP and DFO + DFP respectively. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of diseases in the spleen. Amide I and amide II peak area values decreased from control to aluminum intoxicated spleen tissue, but treated with DFP and DFO + DFP significantly improved. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of Olefinicdbnd CH stretching in aluminum intoxicated spleen suggests an altered lipid levels. Concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Histopathological findings confirmed the biochemical observations of this study. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and demonstrated that FTIR can be used successfully applied to toxicological studies at molecular level.

  3. Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

  4. Methylbromide intoxication: a clinical case study.

    PubMed

    Breeman, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, is the world's largest container port. In 2006, one of these containers caused a chemical incident. Methylbromide is used in some countries as a pesticide for the fumigation of maritime containers. Because of an insufficiently performed detoxification, this insecticide intoxicated several employees and some of the ambulance crew and Mobile Medical Team (MMT). The victims displayed symptoms of sore throat, irritated eyes, and hypersalivation. One of the victims suffered from multiple epileptic seizures. Two victims were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support. Three other employees showed milder symptoms and received supportive care but were not admitted to the hospital. This complicated case shows that the safety of the ambulance crew and MMT must be guaranteed. It also demonstrates that healthcare providers cannot always oversee the accident scene and that there are some pitfalls that are almost impossible to prevent. PMID:20118865

  5. Court procedures for handling intoxicated drivers.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Fisher, D A

    2001-01-01

    The courts have implemented numerous approaches to reduce the probability of recidivism among people apprehended for or convicted of driving while intoxicated. Although traditional punitive sanctions, such as fines and incarceration, are commonly used, they have not eliminated drinking and driving in the United States. Consequently, the court system has developed additional sanctioning procedures that show promise. For example, rehabilitative programs (e.g., alcohol education and alcoholism treatment) can reduce recidivism, at least marginally. These programs appear to be more effective when combined with license suspension. In addition to license suspension, several alternative methods for limiting driving opportunities of offenders have proven effective, including impounding offenders' vehicles or license plates, installing ignition interlocks, and requiring electronic home monitoring or house arrest. Effective court monitoring is a critical component in supporting recovery and compelling offenders to participate in rehabilitation programs. This role of the courts in monitoring offenders will likely increase as the use of intrusive, alternative sanctions grows. PMID:11496964

  6. Acute ethanol intoxication and the trauma patient: hemodynamic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bilello, John; McCray, Victor; Davis, James; Jackson, Lascienya; Danos, Leigh Ann

    2011-09-01

    Many trauma patients are acutely intoxicated with alcohol. Animal studies have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication inhibits the normal release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin in response to acute hemorrhage. Ethanol also increases nitric oxide release and inhibits antidiuretic hormone secretion. This article studies the effects of alcohol intoxication (measured by blood alcohol level, BAL) on the presentation and resuscitation of trauma patients with blunt hepatic injuries. A retrospective registry and chart review was conducted of all patients who presented with blunt liver injuries at an ACS-verified, level I trauma center. Data collected included admission BAL, systolic blood pressure, hematocrit, International Normalized Ratio (INR), liver injury grade, Injury Severity Score (ISS), intravenous fluid and blood product requirements, base deficit, and mortality. From September 2002 to May 2008, 723 patients were admitted with blunt hepatic injuries. Admission BAL was obtained in 569 patients, with 149 having levels >0.08%. Intoxicated patients were more likely to be hypotensive on admission (p = 0.01) despite a lower liver injury grade and no significant difference in ISS. There was no significant difference in the percent of intoxicated patients requiring blood transfusion. However, when blood was given, intoxicated patients required significantly more units of packed red blood cells (PRBC) than their nonintoxicated counterparts (p = 0.01). Intoxicated patients also required more intravenous fluid during their resuscitation (p = 0.002). Alcohol intoxication may impair the ability of blunt trauma patients to compensate for acute blood loss, making them more likely to be hypotensive on admission and increasing their PRBC and intravenous fluid requirements. All trauma patients should have BAL drawn upon admission and their resuscitation should be performed with an understanding of the physiologic alterations associated with acute alcohol

  7. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  8. Building a Thinner Gap in a Gas-Gap Heat Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, J.; Galinhas, B.; Sousa, P. Borges de; Martins, D.; Catarino, I.; Bonfait, G.

    A gas-gap heat switch (GGHS) reaches its highest conductance state when the gap between two exchange surfaces is filled with a conducting gas in a viscous regime. The broader the surface and the thinner the gap, the higher the ON conductance achieved. In this paper we describe a very thin cold gas-gap heat switchreached upon the use of the differential thermal expansion of the construction materials. Such technique overcomes the intricacies of the manufacturing process of the switch. We designed built and tested a prototype of a very thin gap heat switch using our new methodology. The high conductance was measured with both helium and nitrogen, at temperatures ranging from 20 K (He) or 75 K (N2) up to room temperature. The inferred gap opening at low temperature (≈ 17 μm) has shown to be slightly above the expected, which allowed us to reinterpret the design calculations. The switch was also characterized along its extreme conductance states while using a sorption pump, and its performance was compared with a previously developed model. Lessons learned from the first prototype led us to build a second one with better performance. Our experiments suggest that the proposed design allows for the development of a customized cryogenic switch with improved ON conductance while keeping the assembly very simple and sturdy, hence widening the scope of applicability of these devices.

  9. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Regionally Thinner Cortex During the Preadolescent Period.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Frances C; Narr, Katherine L; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-07-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology, neurobehavioral deficits, and reduced brain volume. Studies of cortical thickness in FASD have yielded contradictory findings, with 3 reporting thicker cerebral cortex in frontal and temporal brain regions and 2 showing thinner cortex across multiple regions. All 5 studies included subjects spanning a broad age range, and none have examined continuous measures of prenatal alcohol exposure. We investigated the relation of extent of in utero alcohol exposure to cortical thickness in 78 preadolescent children with FASD and controls within a narrow age range. A whole-brain analysis using FreeSurfer revealed no significant clusters where cortical thickness differed by FASD diagnostic group. However, alcohol dose/occasion during pregnancy was inversely related to cortical thickness in 3 regions-right cuneus/pericalcarine/superior parietal lobe, fusiform/lingual gyrus, and supramarginal/postcentral gyrus. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on IQ was mediated by cortical thickness in the right occipitotemporal region. It is noteworthy that a continuous measure of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis and that the effect on cortical thickness was most evident in relation to a measure of maternal binge drinking. PMID:26088967

  10. Fatal intoxication from 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Poklis, A; Mackell, M A; Drake, W K

    1979-01-01

    The symptoms of MDA intoxication exhibited by the decedent prior to death closely mimic those of acute amphetamine poisoning: profuse sweating, violent and irrational behavior, and stereotypically compulsive behavior. Therefore, if amphetamines are not detected in specimens from a person displaying classic symptoms of amphetamine poisoning, hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives may be considered. In the case described, a divided dose of 850 mg of MDA ingested within 2 h and 15 min was sufficient to cause the death of a 24-year-old male, 4 h after the final dose. While the methaqualone may have contributed to the demise of the decedent, the authors think that the MDA itself was sufficient to cause death. Results of limited recovery studies of MDA extraction from blood and elution from TLC plates supported the observations of Cimbura [13]. Approximately 85% of MDA is extracted by the method described and its elution from TLC plates is quantitative. This case points out once again the dangers of false advertising in the illicit market. The decedent, himself a dealer in the illicit drug market, and all present at the party believed the ingested white powder to be a mixture of morphine, LSD, and amphetamine, hence MDA. They were totally unfamiliar with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA. PMID:512617

  11. Three fatal intoxications due to methylone.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Julia M; Hargraves, Tiffanie L; Hair, Laura S; Massucci, Charles J; Frazee, C Clinton; Garg, Uttam; Pietak, B Robert

    2012-07-01

    We present three fatal intoxications of methylone, a cathinone derivative. Blood was analyzed with a routine alkaline liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Methylone was identified by a full scan mass spectral comparison to an analytical standard of methylone. For a definitive and conclusive confirmation and quantitation, methylone was also derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analyzed by GC-MS. In all three fatalities, the deceased exhibited seizure-like activity and elevated body temperatures (103.9, 105.9 and 107°F) before death. Two of the three cases also exhibited metabolic acidosis. One of the three cases had prolonged treatment and hospitalization before death with symptoms similar to sympathomimetic toxicity, including metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The laboratory results for this patient over the 24 h period of hospitalization were significant for increased lactate, liver transaminases, creatinine, myoglobin, creatine kinase and clotting times, and decreased pH, glucose and calcium. Peripheral blood methylone concentrations in the three fatal cases were 0.84, 3.3 and 0.56 mg/L. In conlusion, peripheral blood methylone concentrations in excess of 0.5 mg/L may result in death due to its toxic properties, which can include elevated body temperature and other sympathomimetic-like symptoms. PMID:22589523

  12. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  13. Accidental monensin sodium intoxication of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E

    1984-05-15

    Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846

  14. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  15. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  16. S-adenosyl-L-methionine and lead intoxication: its therapeutic effect varying the route of administration

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, S.R.; Fukuda, H.; Kozicki, P.A.; Rossetti, M.V.; Conti, H.; Batlle, A.M.

    1986-12-01

    A comparative study on the effect of oral and subcutaneous (sc) or intravenous (iv) administration of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in lead poisoning was carried out. SAM was given daily sc (20 mg/kg) and orally (80 mg/kg) to acute lead-intoxicated mice for 20 days. Chronic lead-poisoned patients received SAM, administered intravenously at a daily dose of 12 mg/kg or orally at a dose of 25-30 mg/kg. Independent of the method of administration in either animals or patients, GSH concentration in reduced lead intoxication was increased after SAM dosing. Corresponding blood lead content rapidly decreased and a significant recovery of hepatic and erythrocytic delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), initially reduced, was clearly produced in the groups receiving SAM, although the response was slightly slower when SAM was given orally. It was found that the bulk of body lead burden was excreted in the feces, showing a peak within the first 24-48 hr and being much greater in animals treated with SAM. In these cases, urinary lead excretion was very low. Lead ALA-D inhibition was also evidenced by elevated urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen (PBG), and porphyrins. During treatment, precursors and porphyrins elimination declined, reaching normal levels soon after therapy ended. A good correlation between the recovery of both GSH levels and ALA-D activity and decreased lead content was observed.

  17. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  3. We use Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Overdoses and Intoxications.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Valerie Jorge; Shirali, Anushree C

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal modalities for the removal of drugs and toxins are indicated for the treatment of overdoses and intoxications. Well-established modalities include hemodialysis (HD), high-flux HD (HfD), and charcoal hemoperfusion (HP). Recently, there have been increasing reports on the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), such as continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD), continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) or CVVH combined with dialysis (CVVHDF). In the present article, we will discuss the various factors that determine the clearance of drugs and toxins and accordingly, we will propose that with few exceptions, CRRT does not have a role in the routine management of intoxications. PMID:27126739

  4. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence

  5. Prolonged neuropsychiatric effects following management of chloroquine intoxication with psychotropic polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Nicole M; Nevin, Remington L; Stahl, Stephen; Block, Jerald; Shugarts, Sarah; Wu, Alan H B; Dominy, Stephen; Solano-Blanco, Miguel Alonso; Kappelman-Culver, Sharon; Lee-Messer, Christopher; Maldonado, Jose; Maxwell, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Susceptibility to quinoline antimalarial intoxication may reflect individual genetic and drug-induced variation in neuropharmacokinetics. In this report, we describe a case of chloroquine intoxication that appeared to be prolonged by subsequent use of multiple psychotropic medications. This case highlights important new considerations for the management of quinoline antimalarial intoxication. PMID:26185633

  6. Cognitive Severity-Specific Neuronal Degenerative Network in Charcoal Burning Suicide-Related Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication often triggers multiple intraneuronal immune- or inflammatory-related cascades, it is not known whether the pathological processes within the affected regions evolve equally in the long term. To understand the neurodegenerative networks, we examined 49 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CO intoxication related to charcoal burning suicide at the chronic stage and compared them with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Reconstructions of degenerative networks were performed using T1 magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) quantification of 11 association fibers was performed while the clinical significance of the reconstructed structural or functional networks was determined by correlating them with the cognitive parameters. Compared with the controls, the patients had frontotemporal gray matter (GM) atrophy, diffuse white matter (WM) FA decrement, and axial diffusivity (AD) increment. The patients were further stratified into 3 groups based on the cognitive severities. The spatial extents within the frontal-insular-caudate GM as well as the prefrontal WM AD increment regions determined the cognitive severities among 3 groups. Meanwhile, the prefrontal WM FA values and PET signals also correlated significantly with the patient's Mini-Mental State Examination score. Frontal hypometabolic patterns in PET analysis, even after adjusted for GM volume, were highly coherent to the GM atrophic regions, suggesting structural basis of functional alterations. Among the calculated major association bundles, only the anterior thalamic radiation FA values correlated significantly with all chosen cognitive scores. Our findings suggest that fronto-insular-caudate areas represent target degenerative network in CO intoxication. The topography that occurred at a cognitive severity-specific level at the chronic phase

  7. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented. PMID:23307861

  8. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  9. Korean Patients with Superwarfarin Intoxication and Their Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Junshik; Yhim, Ho-Young; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yuh, Young Jin; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Seung Taik; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2010-01-01

    This observational study aimed at evaluating recent superwarfarin intoxication of Korean patients. Ten patients were diagnosed as or highly suspicious for superwarfarin intoxication. Case report forms described by attending hematologists of the patients were collected and analyzed. Bleeding symptoms were varied among the patients. Patients uniformly showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) with decreased activity of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. Psychiatric interview revealed an attempted ingestion in one patient. High dose vitamin K1 therapy promptly corrected prolonged PT and aPTT, but hasty discontinuation caused repeated bleeding diathesis in 6 patients. Route of intoxication was unknown or not definite among 8 of 10 patients. Three patients had a possibility of environmental exposure considering their occupations: there might be intoxication by transdermal absorption or inhalation. Therefore, high dose and prolonged use of vitamin K1 therapy is necessary for effective detoxification. Further detailed investigation on environmental exposure and efforts to improve availability of the blood level test in clinic are requested. PMID:21165290

  10. [Histomorphometric characteristic of human brain in acute alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, S V; Shormanova, N S

    2005-01-01

    Different brain sections were studied in 20 subjects, who died of ethanol intoxication and in 14 subjects who died of injuries of the heart and main vessels, in order to detect histological changes in the brain and for the purpose of defining spatial and quantitative ratios between cerebral tissue structures in alcoholic intoxication. Different histological, stereometric and morphometric tools were made use of. It was demonstrated that, in alcoholic intoxication, there occur severe disorders of the circulation with affection of vessels in the brain; there are also dystrophic and necrotic changes in neurocytes, glial cells and white substance. The square of neurons shrinks due to death of some of them in the cortex of hemispheres, thalamus and cerebellum. As for the medulla, they are more resistant, there, to ethanol. The diameter of capillaries in the studied brain sections diminishes due to a reduced tonus of cerebral arteries; the quantity of such vessels increases within a standard area, which is conditioned by the compensatory opening of reserve capillaries. All this can be important in dealing with issues of thanatogenesis and of forensic medical diagnosis in death of alcoholic intoxication. PMID:15881135

  11. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  12. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  13. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  14. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  15. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  16. Circumvention of Learning Increases Intoxication Efficacy of Nematicidal Engineered Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bracho, Olena R; Manchery, Cyril; Haskell, Evan C; Blanar, Christopher A; Smith, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Synthetic biology holds promise to engineer systems to treat diseases. One critical, yet underexplored, facet of designing such systems is the interplay between the system and the pathogen. Understanding this interplay may be critical to increasing efficacy and overcoming resistance against the system. Using the principles of synthetic biology, we engineer a strain of Escherichia coli to attract and intoxicate the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our bacteria are engineered with a toxin module, which intoxicates the nematode upon ingestion, and an attraction module, which serves to attract and increase the feeding rate of the nematodes. When independently implemented, these modules successfully intoxicate and attract the worms, respectively. However, in combination, the efficacy of our bacteria is significantly reduced due to aversive associative learning in C. elegans. Guided by mathematical modeling, we dynamically regulate module induction to increase intoxication by circumventing learning. Our results detail the creation of a novel nematicidal bacterium that may have application against nematodes, unravel unique constraints on circuit dynamics that are governed by C. elegans physiology, and add to the growing list of design and implementation considerations associated with synthetic biology. PMID:26692340

  17. [About the biochemical criteria of heroin (narcotic) intoxication].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, G V; BYchkov, E N; Borodulin, V B; Arsent'eva, L A; Serkova, S A; Bel'skaia, N A

    2013-06-01

    The article deals with the data of study of biochemical indicators and activity of particular proteolytic enzymes in blood serum of patients with heroin drug addiction. The results can be applied to detect the typical laboratory changes intrinsic to this kind of intoxication. PMID:24340942

  18. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  19. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  20. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  1. A case of lethal intoxication after ingestion of toquilone compositum.

    PubMed

    Fucci, N

    1996-09-01

    A case of acute intoxication of both methaqualone and diphenhydramine is reported. The analysis of these compounds was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (Toxi-Lab DPC procedure) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination; both substances are contained in the pharmaceutical formulation called Toquilone Compositum (Medichemie, Switzerland). PMID:8870874

  2. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  3. [Clozapine intoxication: theoretical aspects and forensic-medical examination ].

    PubMed

    Shigeev, S V; Ivanova, N A; Ivanov, S V

    2013-01-01

    This literature review is focused on diagnostics of acute clozapine intoxication with the fatal outcome. According to the Russian authors, clozapine intoxication ranks first in the structure of criminal poisoning and accounted for 99.7% of all the cases that occurred in Moscow during the period from 2003 to 2006. Toximetric investigations of clinical manifestations of clozapine intoxication revealed that the threshold clozapine concentration in blood is 0.12 ± 0.06 mg/I, the critical and lethal concentrations are 1.01 ± 0.2 mg/I and 3.5 ± 1.5 mg/I respectively. Autopsy on corpses of the victims of clozapine intoxication showed that most clozapine-induced pathological changes have a non-specific character (including largely circulatory disorders and dystrophic changes in parenchymatous organs). Clozapine poisoning is associated with the lengthening of QT-interval on ECG; at the values in excess of 500 ms, the risk of severe arrhythmia and sudden death significantly increases. Clozapine intake may lead to the development of potentially fatal myocarditis (the so-called clozapine-associated eosinophilic myocardium) in somatically healthy subjects. Foreign researchers report the possibility of a post-mortem increase of blood clozapine content compared with its antemortem level. They also showed that simultaneous use of substances stimulating activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes (ethyl alcohol, finlepsin, fenitrin, nicotine) and clozapine accelerates metabolism and thereby reduces clozapine concentration in blood. It is concluded that comprehensive investigations of clozapine intoxication are needed taking into consideration pathomorphological changes induced by this agent, its potential interaction with other factors influencing human body, and the results of forensic chemical expertise of the fatal cases. PMID:25474921

  4. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity recovery following acute methyl parathion intoxication in two feral rodent species: comparison to laboratory rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.K.; Silvey, N.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) has produced both acute and chronic intoxication among nontarget organisms. Most such studies have included fish and birds as opposed to mammals. However, numerous OP toxicity studies have been conducted on laboratory rodents creating a temptation to apply this data to feral rodents. Chronic OP exposure has been reported to produce cholinergic adaptation which in turn lowers mortality rates following a subsequent acute anticholinesterase exposure. The relevance that these laboratory rodent studies have on feral rodents is subject to debate. Field studies involving OP exposure among nontarget feral mammals have produced contradictory results. Increased mortality as a result of repeated OP application has been reported. This observation may be of considerable importance to nontarget feral rodent populations due to the repetitive nature of OP application protocols. The ability of feral rodents to recover brain AChE activity (BAA) between OP application intervals undoubtedly promotes their survival. This study investigated and compared BAA recovery following acute oral methyl parathion intoxication among 2 feral rodent species and among 2 common laboratory rodent species.

  5. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  6. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI. We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of APAP intoxication diagnosis from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. We analyzed the risks of AKI for patients with APAP intoxication by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 2914 patients with APAP intoxication and 11,656 controls were included. The overall risks of developing AKI were 2.41-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication compared with the comparison cohort. After we excluded APAP intoxication patients with coexisting AKI and hepatic failure/hepatitis, the overall risks of developing AKI were still 2.22-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication. There were 2 patients who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following APAP intoxication-related AKI. Limitations include retrospective review, selection bias, and absence of data on detail medications used, laboratory investigations and dosage of APAP intoxication. Our long-term cohort study results showed that AKI is a possible adverse effect among patients with APAP intoxication, regardless of whether patients have presented with hepatic toxicity. However, additional studies are necessary to clarify whether such patients can progress to ESRD. PMID:26579812

  7. Intoxication with buckthorn (Karwinskia humboldtiana): report of three siblings.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Roosens, L Valeria; Ontiveros-Nevares, Patricia G; Fernández-Lucio, Obed

    2007-01-01

    A variety of plants and seeds, some of which are used for therapeutic and nutritional purposes, can cause neurotoxic symptoms. The ingestion of the green or ripe fruit of the Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn), a bush known in Mexico as coyotillo or tullidora, causes a flaccid, symmetric, progressive, and ascending palsy of the lower limbs, which, in severe cases, can cause bulbar palsy and death. The neurologic symptoms are similar to those of poliomyelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and other polyradiculoneuritis syndromes, for which it is often mistaken. The clinical diagnosis of intoxicated patients can be difficult without a history of the fruit ingestion. We present a report of three siblings with buckthorn intoxication. PMID:17378625

  8. Mind the gap: a case of severe methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Melnick, Stephen; Ansari, Shabana; Kanneh, Haitham T

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with non-insulin-dependent diabetes on sitagliptin, an alcohol abuser who was brought unresponsive to the emergency department of our hospital. On arrival, the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to a low Glasgow Coma score of 3/15. Initial laboratory testing identified profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Owing to the dubious circumstances and the depth of acidosis, methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication was suspected. Further evaluation revealed a significantly increased serum osmolal gap. Pending volatile compound screen, fomepizole was started and urgent haemodialysis undertaken. Subsequent brain MRI identified changes in putamen of bilateral basal ganglia, suggestive of methanol intoxication. The patient was later found to have an initial methanol level of 237 mg/dL. She was successfully extubated on day 2 of hospitalisation, with residual cognitive and visual deficits. PMID:26917798

  9. Consequences of manganese intoxication on the circadian rest-activity rhythms in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bouabid, Safa; Fifel, Karim; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) intoxication is associated with neurological dysfunctions collectively known as Parkinsonism or Manganism. Like in Parkinson's disease, Manganism is associated with motor disturbances, together with non-motor symptoms including cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits. Although sleep dysfunctions are commonly reported among workers exposed to Mn, their underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the rest-activity rhythms in rats treated daily with MnCl2 (10mg/kg, i.p) for 5weeks. Locomotor activity was assessed under a light-dark (LD) cycle, constant darkness (DD) and during adjustment to 6h shifts of the LD cycle. In LD conditions, Mn-treated rats exhibited a more fragmented and less stable rest-activity rhythm in addition to a reduction in the total 24-h amount of locomotor activity as well as in the activity confined to the active dark phase of the LD. Consequently, a significant decrease in the amplitude of the rest-activity rhythm was observed. These disturbances were displayed during and after Mn treatment. Furthermore, after the 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle, Mn-treated rats failed to re-adjust accurately their behavioral activity to the new shifted LD cycle. Upon release from LD into DD, Mn-treated rats expressed a normal and stable free-running period of their rest-activity rhythm (23.92±0.07h in Mn group vs. 24.01±0.04h in control rats). However, their rest-activity rhythm remained highly fragmented and less stable. Our results provide the first evidence that chronic Mn intoxication leads to impairment of rest-activity rhythms in addition to the motor and non-motor disturbances reported in Manganism. PMID:27316552

  10. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients. PMID:26875557

  11. Cerebral blood flow changes with acute cocaine intoxication: clinical correlations with SPECT, CT, and MRI.

    PubMed

    Mena, I; Giombetti, R J; Miller, B L; Garrett, K; Villanueva-Meyer, J; Mody, C; Goldberg, M A

    1994-01-01

    In summary, these data suggest that widespread primary or secondary cerebral vasoconstriction is common in patients with neurological complications from cocaine. In most patients, SPECT showed wide-spread hypoperfusion in regions that had no clear clinical significance (e.g., the periventricular area). In many, the SPECT was performed more than 24 hours after the onset of neurological symptomatology. These findings raise several questions. It has been assumed that these SPECT changes in patients with acute neurological symptoms are temporary, although it will be important to determine whether these areas of hypoperfusion persist after symptoms have abated. Recently, Holman and colleagues (1991) found multifocal and deep areas of hypoperfusion with SPECT in 16 of 18 patients with a history of chronic cocaine abuse. Although most of the subjects tested positive for cocaine, several had abstained from cocaine use for weeks prior to the study. All 18 subjects had neuropsychological deficits, 13 mild and 5 moderate. Similarly, Pascual-Leone and colleagues (1991) have shown that CT scan atrophy strongly correlates with the duration of cocaine abuse, suggesting that brain injury may occur with continued use of cocaine. It is the authors' concern that cocaine abuse might produce permanent changes in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, brain SPECT was found to be a useful procedure in the evaluation of acute cocaine intoxication. Brain SPECT revealed focal cortical lesions not seen on head CT or MRI, which corresponded to clinical deficits. In addition, [99mTc]HMPAO brain SPECT had a characteristic scalloped appearance, and this may be a marker for acute intoxication with cocaine. This study further supports the contention that cocaine causes neurological disease by its vasoconstrictive action. PMID:7603541

  12. Progesterone intoxication inducing marked sedation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Hung, Germaine C; Taylor, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A 3-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for sudden onset of severe lethargy and loss of balance a few hours after potentially ingesting capsules containing progesterone. Elevated serum progesterone was confirmed. Supportive care and time resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no long-term complications or recurrence of clinical signs noticed after 1-month follow-up. This is the first description of progesterone intoxication inducing neurological signs in a cat. PMID:20817586

  13. HPLC quantification of zolpidem and prothipendyl in a voluntary intoxication.

    PubMed

    Debailleul, G; Khalil, F A; Lheureux, P

    1991-01-01

    Zolpidem, a recently developed sleep inducer, and prothipendyl, a neuroleptic azaphenothiazine, were involved in a voluntary intoxication along with ethanol. After administration of flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepines antagonist, respiratory depression was corrected. HPLC with UV detection methods after selective extraction were developed to measure simultaneously prothipendyl and zolpidem without flumazenil interaction. These methods could be applied in drug monitoring and in emergency toxicology. PMID:1675298

  14. Intoxication and bad behaviour: understanding cultural differences in the link.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    2001-07-01

    Research developments since the appearance of MacAndrew and Edgerton's landmark volume, Drunken Comportment (1969), are summarized. The challenge of moving beyond the book is to understand what lies behind cultural variations in drunken comportment. Four specific factors in variations in drunken comportment are discussed. (1) A common contrast is between "wet" societies, where drinking is banalized everyday, and "dry" societies, where alcohol is set apart as a special commodity. Problems with this contrast are discussed, and the need for cross-cultural studies comparing expectancies from intoxication. (2) There is a need to study variations in the definition of intoxication as a "time out" state. In some societies, intoxication is likened to possession by spirits; a rationalistic version of this can be found in Canadian court decisions viewing extreme intoxication as potentially "akin to automatism". (3) If bad behaviour is a foreseeable consequence of drinking, why do some societies nevertheless not hold the drinker responsible'? In Anglo-American and similar societies, drunkenness has some excuse value, but it is not a very good excuse. Compromises like this seem to be found also in other cultures. (4) Pseudointoxication is fairly widespread, and seems to mark social situations where alcohol has enhanced excuse value. It appears to be a stratagem of the weaker side across cultural boundaries, and of the young where age-grading favours older groups. Concerning the possibility of cultural changes in drunken comportment, it is argued that there are historical examples, but such a shift requires a substantial social change. PMID:11414386

  15. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  16. [Treatment of cocaine dependence. Intoxication, withdrawal and prevention of relapse].

    PubMed

    Preuss, U W; Bahlmann, M; Koller, G; Soyka, M

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this review article is to evaluate the treatment of cocaine-withdrawal, cocaine-intoxication and long-term relapse prevention of cocaine-addicts. Some 25% of police recognized first time drug users in Germany consume cocaine. However, there is an increasing number of cocaine-abusers and -addicts in the USA. The withdrawal of cocaine can be divided into three phases dominated mainly by psychiatric symptoms. Life-threatening condition can occur in cocaine-intoxication mainly in combination with other drug-use. A high risk of relapse is seen in follow-up trials of cocaine-addicts. Intensive craving, high cocaine- and substance-abuse is reported regularly in cocaine-addicts after detoxification therapy. Recommendations in the treatment of cocaine-intoxication, withdrawal and long-term relapse prevention are made. The use of antidepressives, anticonvulsants, dopaminergic and serotonergic medications as well as behavioural, psychoanalytical and combined therapies and their efficacy in clinical and trails is evaluated. A short review of new experimental therapies in the treatment of cocaine-dependence is shown. PMID:10858947

  17. Vitamin K antagonism of coumarin intoxication in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wallin, R; Patrick, S D; Ballard, J O

    1986-04-30

    An in vitro system which expresses all enzyme activities related to vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of blood clotting factors was prepared from livers of rats overdosed with warfarin, difenacoum and dicumarol respectively. In this system, the activities of the two pathways that are known to produce active reduced vitamin K1 cofactor for the carboxylation reaction were measured. Also the ability of high concentrations of vitamin K1 to overcome inhibition of clotting factor synthesis was studied. In the systems prepared from livers of warfarin and difenacoum intoxicated rats, pathway I was inactive. Vitamin K epoxide reductase was also inactive which strongly suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the activity of pathway I in vivo. Reduction of vitamin K1 by pathway II bypassed the inactive pathway I and resulted in carboxylation activity. This pathway therefore mediates the antidotic effect of vitamin K1 in the coumarin intoxicated liver. In the in vitro system prepared from dicumarol intoxicated livers the activity of pathway I was not significantly affected. Dicumarol however was a strong inhibitor when added to liver microsomes in vitro. PMID:2424118

  18. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  19. [Mitochondrial dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms in liver cells during acute carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, I B

    2015-01-01

    Electron-transport chain and redox-balance of mitochondria are important targets that are damaged during intoxication. The aim of the present work was to estimate the role of impairments in cellular bioenergetic function in the development of liver damage during acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats and to elucidate possible compensatory mechanisms. Acute CCl4-induced rat intoxication (0.8 g/kg or 4 g/kg) resulted in considerable impairments of respiratory and synthetic mitochondrial functions; their manifestations depended on the dose of the toxic agent and the duration of the intoxication increased and accompanied by complete uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation processes in liver mitochondria. The intoxication induced considerable liver damage and accumulation of NO in blood plasma and liver tissue. The changes of some parameters of liver mitochondrial functional activity demonstrate an oscillative pattern, reflecting compensatory mechanisms during intoxication that involved increased reduced glutathione level and enhanced succinate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:26716745

  20. [Polonium-210 acute and chronic pathomorphology and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kvacheva, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, the data on the pathology of acute and chronic polonium injuries available from the an open-access domestic and foreign literature are primarily systemized and analyzed. The historical background of the research is presented in brief. On the basis of clinical and experimental generalizations, the current concept regarding the pathogenesis of polonium intoxication has been developed. PMID:26856053

  1. Encephalopathy and Neuropathy due to Glue, Paint Thinner, and Gasoline Sniffing in Trinidad and Tobago-MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Ramesar, Amrit; Ramdath, Moshanti; Teelucksingh, Joel; Gosein, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old male petrol station pump attendant was admitted with ataxia and clinical evidence of a sensorimotor polyneuropathy which developed over the preceding 3 months. He had cognitive dysfunction, hearing loss, and cerebellar clinical abnormalities that came on slowly over the three years. He had a fifteen-year history of sniffing mostly glue, occasionally paint thinners, and, in the recent two years, gasoline. Magnetic resonance brain imaging showed abnormalities of the cerebral cortex, cerebral white matter, corpus callosum, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, hypointensities of basal ganglia, red nuclei, and substantia nigra as previously described in toluene sniffing. Abstinence for six months led to partial clinical improvement. Clinicians need to be aware of this preventable entity which has peculiar radiological findings which are being increasingly accepted as typical. PMID:25045557

  2. Alcohol intoxication and sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Chen, Xinguang; Abbey, Antonia; Liu, Hongjie

    2007-01-01

    Background The migrant population in China is at high risk for sexual risk behavior and alcohol intoxication. Information about the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and its association with sexual risk behavior among migrants is needed for designing effective intervention prevention programs for reduction in alcohol abuse and HIV infection. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 2153 sexually experienced young rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing and Nanjing, China, in 2002. Results Approximately one-third of the participants had been intoxicated with alcohol at least once during the previous month, with more males than females reporting intoxication (40.2% versus 23.7%, p < 0.001). Compared to non-intoxicated participants, respondents with alcohol intoxication in previous 30 days reported more psychological problems, including higher depression scores, lower levels of satisfaction with life and work, and higher perception of peer involvement in risk behavior. Intoxicated respondents were more likely to engage in premarital sex than non-intoxicated respondents (76% versus 60.2%, p < 0.001), have multiple sexual partners (13.4% versus 5.2%, p < 0.001), purchase sex (12.6% versus 4.9%, p < 0.001), and sell sex (10.1% versus 3.7%, p < 0.001). However, there was no association between alcohol intoxication and inconsistent/non-use of condoms. Multivariate analysis controlling for depression, peer risk involvement, age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables indicated that alcohol intoxication was independently correlated with premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, and buying and selling sex. Conclusions Compared to the general Chinese population, levels of intoxication were elevated among Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. Alcohol intoxication was associated with sexual risk behaviors. HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention efforts should include components of alcohol use/abuse prevention for an effective reduction of sexual risk among young rural

  3. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p < 0.01). Contrary to our hypothesis, no differences in fractional anisotropy were observed between our groups (p > 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes. PMID:26061068

  4. "A cool little buzz": alcohol intoxication in the dance club scene.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about youthful "binge" drinking and intoxication. Yet the meaning of intoxication remains under-theorized. This paper examines intoxication in a young adult nightlife scene, using data from a 2005-2008 National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project on Asian American youth and nightlife. Analyzing in-depth qualitative interview data with 250 Asian American young adults in the San Francisco area, we examine their narratives about alcohol intoxication with respect to sociability, stress, and fun, and their navigation of the fine line between being "buzzed" and being "wasted." Finally, limitations of the study and directions for future research are noted. PMID:24779496

  5. Party Characteristics, Drinking Settings, and College Students' Risk of Intoxication: A Multi-Campus Study.

    PubMed

    Marzell, Miesha; Bavarian, Niloofar; Paschall, Mallie J; Mair, Christina; Saltz, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    We examined party characteristics across different college drinking settings, associations between party characteristics and likelihood of drinking to intoxication, and the mediating role of perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Students (N = 6903) attending 14 public universities in California during the 2010 and 2011 fall semesters completed surveys on individual and party characteristics in six unique settings (e.g., residence hall). We used descriptive statistics to examine party characteristics by setting. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models to identify party characteristics associated with drinking to intoxication, and we used RMediation to determine significance of mediating effects. Individual and party characteristics varied by drinking context. Greater time at a party was associated with drinking to intoxication at five of six settings, while larger party size was significant only for outdoor settings. Enforcing the legal drinking age and refusing to serve intoxicated patrons were associated with lower likelihood of intoxication at Greek and off-campus parties. The presence of a keg was associated with drinking to intoxication at Greek, off-campus and outdoor parties; at bars, cover charges and drink promotions were positively associated with drinking to intoxication. In four of six settings, we found evidence of significant mediating effects through perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Findings highlight risk and protective characteristics of parties by drinking setting, and have prevention implications. PMID:25976418

  6. Xylazine intoxication in humans and its importance as an emerging adulterant in abused drugs: A comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Colón, Kazandra; Chavez-Arias, Carlos; Díaz-Alcalá, José Eric; Martínez, María A

    2014-07-01

    Xylazine is not a controlled substance; it is marketed as a veterinary drug and used as a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant. In humans, it could cause central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, bradycardia, hypotension, and even death. There have been publications of 43 cases of xylazine intoxication in humans, in which 21 (49%) were non-fatal scenarios and 22 (51%) resulted in fatalities. Most of the non-fatal cases required medical intervention. Over recent years xylazine has emerged as an adulterant in recreational drugs, such as heroin or speedball (a cocaine and heroin mixture). From the 43 reported cases, 17 (40%) were associated with the use of xylazine as an adulterant of drugs of abuse. Its chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration and skin ulceration. Literature shows some similar pharmacologic effects between xylazine and heroin in humans. These similar pharmacologic effects may create synergistic toxic effects in humans. Therefore, fatalities among drug users may increase due to the use of xylazine as an adulterant. Xylazine alone has proven harmful to humans and even more when it is combined with drugs of abuse. A comprehensive review of the literature of non-fatal and fatal xylazine intoxication cases including those in which the substance was used as adulterant is presented, in order to increase the awareness in the forensic community, law enforcement, and public health agencies. PMID:24769343

  7. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  8. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  9. [Role of hemodialysis in the management of acute lithium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, Jaouad El; Kabbali, Nadia; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 47-years old patient, traited with lithium for manic-depressive psychosis over a period of twenty and admitted to hospital with a disorder of consciousness after suicide attempt with lithium overdose (ingestion of 30 tablets of Téralithe(®) LP 400, delayed action galenic forms corresponding to 12 g of lithium carbonate), clinically improved after three hemodialysis sessions. This study illustrates the therapeutic role of hemodialysis in voluntary intoxications with extended release lithium even a week after the ingestion and the therapeutic insufficiency of a single hemodialysis session. PMID:27583091

  10. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication. PMID:12046971

  11. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  13. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  14. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  15. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  16. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  17. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  18. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take appropriate action against intoxicated drivers. These actions may include the following: (a) A written...

  19. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  20. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  1. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take appropriate action against intoxicated drivers. These actions may include the following: (a) A written...

  2. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  3. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  4. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take appropriate action against intoxicated drivers. These actions may include the following: (a) A written...

  5. [Sweets from the pharmaceutical industry reason to suspect intoxication with quetiapine].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, M F; Bouts, A H M; Sukhai, R N

    2004-12-25

    A 13-year-old boy was presented to the emergency department with a presumed intoxication with quetiapine, an antipsychotic. The tablets turned out to be peppermints, used as advertisement gift from the pharmaceutical industry. This misunderstanding could have led to unnecessary treatment and observation of the patient in hospital, for a moderately serious intoxication. PMID:15646860

  6. Detection of sarin in plasma of rats after inhalation intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bartosova, Lucie; Bielavska, Marcela; Bajgar, Jiri

    2006-10-01

    Presently used methods for detection and diagnosis of the severity of intoxication with organophosphorus (OP) compounds are mostly those that quantify inhibition of blood cholinesterases. It was found that when plasma inhibited with OP compounds is incubated in the presence of a high concentration of fluoride ions, the organophosphate is released from the enzyme thus yielding a phosphofluoridate, which can be analyzed by gas chromatography and NP detection. In our study, the concentration of sarin released after fluoride ions were added to the plasma of sarin-poisoned rats was determined. Sarin amounts in plasma measured after refluoridation and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity in ten rats, that were exposed to sarin vapors at concentration of 1.25 microg/L (E1 group) and 2.5 microg/L (E2 group) respectively, for 60 min. In the E2 group the concentration of sarin in plasma was nearly 2-fold higher than in the E1 group. These results correspond well with the concentrations of sarin vapors to which the animals were exposed. Both experimental groups of animals showed significant decreases in butyrylcholinesterase activity by more than 30%-36.4% (E1 group) and 47.0% (E2 group). The method of fluoride-induced reactivation provides a very good marker for monitoring sarin intoxication in laboratory animals determined previously mostly by ChE determination which does not allow any information on sarin amounts in plasma. PMID:17194019

  7. The delphic oracle and the ethylene-intoxication hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Foster, J; Lehoux, D

    2007-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists--including an archeologist, a geologist, a chemist, and a toxicologist--has argued that ethylene intoxication was the probable cause of the High Priestess of Delphi's divinatory (mantic) trances. The claim that the High Priestess of Delphi entered a mantic state because of ethylene intoxication enjoyed widespread reception in specialist academic journals, science magazines, and newspapers. This article uses a similar interdisciplinary approach to show that this hypothesis is implausible since it is based on problematic scientific and textual evidence, as well as a fallacious argument. The main issue raised by this counterargument is not that a particular scientific hypothesis or conjecture turned out to be false. (This is expected in scientific investigation.) Rather, the main issue is that it was a positivist disposition that originally led readers to associate the evidence presented in such a way that it seemed to point to the conclusion, even when the evidence did not support the conclusion. We conclude by observing that positivist dispositions can lead to the acceptance of claims because they have a scientific form, not because they are grounded in robust evidence and sound argument. PMID:17357391

  8. Fatal intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    MDMB-CHMICA is a synthetic cannabinoid that appeared on the European drug market in September 2014. This substance was found in Poland in the herbal mixture "Mocarz" ("Strongman"), which caused a large outbreak of intoxications at the beginning of July 2015. This paper describes the circumstances of death and toxicological findings in a fatal intoxication with MDMB-CHMICA (in combination with alcohol). Loss of consciousness and asystole occurred a few minutes after smoking the 'legal high'. The man died after 4 days of hospitalisation. The cause of death accepted by the medical examiner was multiple organ failure. MDMB-CHMICA was detected and quantified in blood (ante- and postmortem) and internal organs tissues. The samples were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentration of MDMB-CHMICA in antemortem blood was 5.6ng/mL. Although the death occurred after 4 days from administration a relatively high concentration (2.6ng/g) was estimated in the brain. Traces of this compound were also found in other postmortem materials (blood, stomach, liver, bile, and kidney). The presented case shows the health risks associated with MDMB-CHMICA use. The administration of this substance can lead to the number of organ failures, cardiac arrest and consequently death. PMID:26934903

  9. Lead intoxication from an unexpected source. [Fruit drink dispensers

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfeld, M.J.

    1982-02-01

    A case of lead intoxication from an unexpected source is reported. An 18-year-old man came to the Divisin of Safety and Health, New York City, complaining of periodic cramping abdominal pain and weakness of several weeks' duration. In view of clinical laboratory findings, lead intoxication was considered in the differential diagnosis and determination of blood lead and urinary amino levulinic acid (ALA) were done. The blood lead value was 70 ..mu..g/100 g of whole blood. The urinary ALA value was 3.61 mg/100 of creatinine (normal, < 2.0 mg/100 mg of creatinine). A repeated urinary ALA test on the following day gave a value of 3.50 mg/100 mg of creatinine. An industrial hygiene survey was made to ascertain the patient's exposure to lead. The work place was a luncheonette that served flavored fruit drinks. The fruit drinks were dispensed from 12 tanks, and a sampling of these tanks showed that six of them were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. In one tank a chunk of lead was found. An analysis of this chunk of lead revealed that the lead content was 50.1%. Only two of the 12 tanks showed levels of lead that were excessively high; these were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. It was recommended to the owner that acid-containing drinks should be stored in tanks constructed of stainless steel,plastic, or other lead-free materials.

  10. Methocarbamol CRI for symptomatic treatment of pyrethroid intoxication: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Draper, William E; Bolfer, Luiz; Cottam, Emily; McMichael, Maureen; Schubert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroids are popular for use in companion animals due to their relatively low mammalian toxicity and efficacy against arthropods. Nonetheless, pyrethroid intoxication has been reported in cats and dogs, and cats appear to be more susceptible due to difficulty in biotransformation and excretion of pyrethroids. Pyrethroid intoxications are generally due to either the improper use or accidental ingestion of approved products. Methocarbamol, given as intermittent injections, is a common first-line treatment choice for the tremors associated with pyrethroid intoxication. Two cats and one dog were treated with a methocarbamol continuous rate infusion (CRI) for pyrethroid intoxication. Clinical signs of toxicity resolved within a few hr in all three cases, with no adverse drug effects. A methocarbamol CRI can be considered in animals presenting with pyrethroid intoxication. PMID:23535756

  11. Role of the calcium plateau in neuronal injury and behavioral morbidities following organophosphate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Blair, Robert E; Phillips, Kristin F; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate (OP) chemicals include nerve agents and pesticides, and there is a growing concern of OP-based chemical attacks against civilians. Current antidotes are essential in limiting immediate mortality associated with OP exposure. However, further research is needed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term neurological deficits following survival of OP toxicity in order to develop effective therapeutics. We have developed rat survival models of OP-induced status epilepticus (SE) that mimic chronic mortality and morbidity following OP intoxication. We have observed significant elevations in hippocampal calcium levels after OP SE that persisted for weeks following initial survival. Drugs inhibiting intracellular calcium-induced calcium release, such as dantrolene, levetiracetam, and carisbamate, lowered OP SE-mediated protracted calcium elevations. Given the critical role of calcium signaling in modulating behavior and cell death mechanisms, drugs targeted at preventing the development of the calcium plateau could enhance neuroprotection, help reduce morbidity, and improve outcomes following survival of OP SE. PMID:27327161

  12. Evaluation of mercury exposure level, clinical diagnosis and treatment for mercury intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byeong-Jin; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Jeon, Man-Joong; Kim, Se-Yeong; Kim, Hawn-Cheol; Jang, Tae-Won; Chae, Hong-Jae; Choi, Won-Jun; Ha, Mi-Na; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2016-01-01

    Mercury occurs in various chemical forms, and it is different to health effects according to chemical forms. In consideration of the point, the evaluation of the mercury exposure to human distinguished from occupational and environmental exposure. With strict to manage occupational exposure in factory, it is declined mercury intoxication cases by metallic and inorganic mercury inhalation to occupational exposure. It is increasing to importance in environmental exposure and public health. The focus on the health impact of exposure to mercury is more on chronic, low or moderate grade exposure-albeit a topic of great controversy-, not high concentration exposure by methylmercury, which caused Minamata disease. Recently, the issue of mercury toxicity according to the mercury exposure level, health effects as well as the determination of what mercury levels affect health are in the spotlight and under active discussion. Evaluating the health effects and Biomarker of mercury exposure and establishing diagnosis and treatment standards are very difficult. It can implement that evaluating mercury exposure level for diagnosis by a provocation test uses chelating agent and conducting to appropriate therapy according to the result. but, indications for the therapy of chelating agents with mercury exposure have not yet been fully established. The therapy to symptomatic patients with mercury poisoning is chelating agents, combination therapy with chelating agents, plasma exchange, hemodialysis, plasmapheresis. But the further evaluations are necessary for the effects and side effects with each therapy. PMID:26807265

  13. Animal Models That Best Reproduce the Clinical Manifestations of Human Intoxication with Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Edna F. R.; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J.; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Basinger, G. William; Wakayama, Edgar J.

    2014-01-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases—the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds—they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067

  14. Effects of lead intoxication on blood pressure and vascular adrenergic neuroeffector mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Adjei, G.B.; Nath, R.G.; McCalden, T.A.

    1986-03-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to determine the effects of chronic lead intoxication on vascular sympathetic neuroeffector function. The portal vein from normal and lead drinking Sprague-Dawley descendant male rats was set up in vitro for determination of the spontaneous muscle activity and responses to nerve stimulation (2-20 Hz) and exogenous norepinephrine (10-8 to 10-4M). The lead treated rats showed a BP of 194 +/- 13 mmHg which was higher than that of Controls (150 +/- 10 mmHg). When the in vitro portal vein was stretched the myogenic spontaneous activity was elicited at each level of load in Treated relative to Controls. At the highest load of 0.7 g the amplitude of spontaneous contractions was 0.20 + 0.06 g in Controls compared to 0.56 + 0.10 g in lead treated rats. The optimum load was also increased in the lead treated animals (0.5 vs 0.8 g). Furthermore, sensitivity of the lead treated portal vein to nerve stimulation and exogenous norepinephrine was significantly increased, with a shift of the dose response curve to the left and an increased maximal response. This shows that vascular neuroeffector function was increased in lead treated rats and this may have contributed to the hypertension.

  15. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Carter, Dawn S; Phillips, Kristin F; Blair, Robert E; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6-8min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7-10Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca(2+)]i (Ca(2+) plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca(2+) plateau had its origin in Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores since inhibition of ryanodine/IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca(2+) levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca(2+) dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity. PMID:24785379

  16. "I Would Rather Be Size 10 Than Have Straight A's": A Focus Study Group of Adolescent Girls' Wish To Be Thinner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Gardiner, Maria; Slater, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the body concerns of adolescent girls (N=67), together with the underlying motivations for wishes to be thinner. Results of focus group studies reveal that sociocultural influences exerted the strongest pressures to be thin. The girls displayed an unexpected sophistication in their conceptualization of the role of both media effects…

  17. [Suicidal intoxication with sodium azide--a case report].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Krzyzanowski, Maciej; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN3) is an inorganic matrix compound with a very high toxicity. Mechanism of action is not clarified, and it is assumed to interfere with the processes of oxidative phosphorylation. The acute intoxications with sodium azide are extremely rare. We described a case of 19-year-old man who was found dead. In the course of prosecution the empty container, with label "NaN3, 20 g", was found near the body. There were traces of white powder detected in the container. Azide ions were determined by derivatization, i.e. they were transformed to pentafluorobenzaldehyde azide compound. Analysis of the final extract after derivatization was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry GC/MS. The largest concentration of azide ions were determined in the stomach content and vitreous humour, and much less one in whole blood, urine and kidney fluid. PMID:23243931

  18. A novel recombinant vaccine protecting mice against abrin intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhong; Gao, Shan; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Lin; Xu, Na; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Wensen; Wang, Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    Abrin toxin (AT) consisting of an A chain and a B chain is a potential agent for bioterrorism and an effective vaccine against AT poisoning is urgently required. In this study, AT B chain (ATB) was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) and assessed the protection capacity against AT intoxication. The recombinant ATB (rATB) subunit induces a good immune response after 4 immunizations. All BALB/c mice immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the purified rATB protein survived after challenged with 5 × LD50 of AT. Transfusion of sera from immunized mice provided passive protection in naive mice. Furthermore, histological findings showed that immunization with rATB decreased the severity of toxin-related tissue damage. This work indicates that the rATB protein may be a promising vaccine candidate against human exposure to AT. PMID:26086588

  19. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore.

    PubMed

    Clemence, Mark A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic Vibrio species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to Vibrio species, and infections resulting from marine trauma. PMID:27337286

  20. [Safety problems of occupational activity during alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Popov, V I

    1999-01-01

    It has been established that work efficiency of persons occupied by machine operating duties degrades markedly under the action of an acute alcoholic intoxication--less on real machines and more on simulators and when operating simple technical devices. Work efficiency degradation is manifested by the task execution time increase (to a lesser degree) and by erroneous action quantity increase after taking alcohol, i.e. by work reliability decease. Most heavily it is manifested during the first 0.7-1.5 hr. After taking alcohol. And direct work efficiency index is usually improved 12-16 hr. after taking alcohol. Increase of erroneous action quantity is caused probably by a series of physiological, psychophysiological and psychological changes in the condition of a man under the action of alcohol. Time of the day when the activity takes place after taking that dose of alcohol is practically non valid for changing work efficiency index. PMID:11965736

  1. Successful Treatment of Propafenone Intoxication With Intravenous Lipid Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Başak; Köse, Işıl; Avcı, Sinem; Arslan, Abdulla; Acara, Çağdaş

    2015-10-01

    Severe cardiac effects, including cardiac arrest, are a rare complication of high-dose propafenone intake. Among patients who experience cardiac arrest, the survival rate is low. This report presents the case of a young female patient who developed cardiac arrest linked to propafenone intake. While spontaneous circulation was restored with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vital signs did not recover despite supportive treatment. However, after the administration of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), vital signs and cardiac functions resolved and the patient survived. This case is the second to describe the successful use of ILE for propafenone intoxication. However, as all of the findings of this patient were clearly linked to propafenone, we believe the benefits of ILE were more clearly defined in this case than in the other. PMID:26497484

  2. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    PubMed

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity. PMID:9742271

  3. Double, suicidal intoxication with hydroxycarbamide--a case report.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Wojciech; Kabata, Piotr; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxycarbamide (HCB), also known as hydroxyurea, is an urea derivative used mainly as antineoplastic and antisickling agent. We described a 31 yrs. female, with essential thrombocythemia, who was admitted to our clinic because of double suicidal ingestion of hydroxycarbamide. First time it was 7.5 g of HCB with coingestion of 50 mg of diazepam, and several glasses of wine, second time it was 10 g of HCB, with coingestion of 100 mg paroxetine and few glasses of vodka. Both suicidal attempts were triggered by multiple reactive factors. At the time of admissions the patient was conscious, restless, with decreased mood. Transient decrease of total leukocyte count was noted on fourth day of first overdose. The second overdose led to no significant changes in blood count. There were no other abnormalities in biochemical results. According to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of acute suicidal intoxication with hydroxy-carbamide in an adult. PMID:23243936

  4. Papaverine intoxication in a newborn: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Kahramaner, Zelal; Erdemir, Aydın; Türkoğlu, Ebru; Coşar, Hese; Sütçüoğlu, Sümer; Özer, Esra Arun

    2014-01-01

    Herbal agents are increasingly used for medicinal purposes, but there is a lack of knowledge about the content of these agents. Indiscriminate use of herbal agents may cause severe side effects and also death. We report a newborn who developed convulsions and respiratory arrest after oral intake of an opium poppy preparation containing papaverine for its antitussive effect. The infant experienced a good outcome with supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a newborn with papaverine intoxication has been described. Parents should avoid self-medication of their children, and the possibility of exposure to foreign products should be kept in mind in any seizure of a newborn with unexplained origin. PMID:26022590

  5. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication. PMID:26350735

  6. [Suicidal salicylate intoxications and unintentional percutaneous poisoning with salicylic ointment].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Anand, Jacek Sein; Waldman, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Suicidal salicylate poisonings are presented in 49 patients, 33 women and 16 men, aged from 18 to 71 (mean 37) years. Mixed poisonings with multiple agents were four times more frequent, had more severe clinical course and demanded longer hospitalisation than acute intoxications with salicylates alone. Four patient were over 65 years old (8.2%). Difficult economic situation of geriatric population in Poland had no effect on frequency of suicidal attempts in the studied cohort. There were no fatalities in the studied group. There were two unintentional systemic poisonings due to topical administration of the 10% salicylic acid ointment for wide spread skin lesions (more than 80% of body surface) in two patients with exudative psoriasis. PMID:14569910

  7. Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Poppenga, Robert H; Bryan, John A; Bain, Matt; Pitman, Jim; Keel, M Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The perception of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. Chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern Kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations. Although zinc phosphide poisoning of gallinaceous birds is not uncommon, there are few published accounts of nontarget chlorophacinone poisoning of wildlife. We report three mortality events involving nontarget rodenticide poisoning in several species, including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), a raccoon (Procyon lotor), and an American badger (Taxidea taxus). This includes the first documentation of chlorophacinone intoxication in wild turkeys and an American badger in the literature. The extent of nontarget poisoning in this area is currently unknown and warrants further investigation. PMID:21270011

  8. Event-level associations between objective and subjective alcohol intoxication and driving after drinking across the college years.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PMID:21688876

  9. NUTRITIONAL THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORROSIVE INTOXICATION IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Chibishev, Andon; Markoski, Velo; Smokovski, Ivica; Shikole, Emilija; Stevcevska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acute intoxications with corrosive substances can cause severe chemical injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract, most often located in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and duodenum. If a patient survives the acute phase of intoxication, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis, and increased risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Such intoxication may be fatal due to perforation or tracheal necrosis. Enteral nutrition is a nutritional method when nutritional substances are administered through specially designed tubing placed through the nose or percutaneously, directly into the GIT. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the methods of artificial nutrition in patients with acute corrosive intoxications and the importance of nutritional support in the treatment of these intoxications. Discussion: Nutrition in the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is one of the most important therapeutic processes that largely contribute to faster recovery of the post-corrosive injuries of upper GIT, stabilization of biologic, immunologic and metabolic parameters, and reduction of length of stay in hospital Aim of the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is to prevent perforation and progressive fibrosis, and esophageal and gastric stenosis. There are different and often conflicting positions, on the conservative treatment of acute corrosive intoxications in adults. Such treatment mainly consists of anti-secretory treatment, antibiotics and intensive hyper-alimentation, aiming to prevent late post-corrosive intoxications. Conclusion: It is considered that nutritional support plays a major role in maintenance of metabolic processes and prevention of severe metabolic complications that could additionally aggravate the condition and impair the treatment. PMID:27047272

  10. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  11. Confronting Death From Drug Self-Intoxication (DDSI): Prevention Through a Better Definition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon S.; Caine, Eric D.; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Hanzlick, Randy L.; Larkin, G. Luke; Naylor, Charles P. E.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Miller, Ted R.; Putnam, Sandra L.; De Leo, Diego; Kleinig, John; Stack, Steven; Todd, Knox H.; Fraser, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide and other self-directed violence deaths are likely grossly underestimated, reflecting inappropriate classification of many drug intoxication deaths as accidents or unintentional and heterogeneous ascertainment and coding practices across states. As the tide of prescription and illicit drug-poisoning deaths is rising, public health and research needs would be better satisfied by considering most of these deaths a result of self-intoxication. Epidemiologists and prevention scientists could design better intervention strategies by focusing on premorbid behavior. We propose incorporating deaths from drug self-intoxication and investigations of all poisoning deaths into the National Violent Death Reporting System, which contains misclassified homicides and undetermined intent deaths, to facilitate efforts to comprehend and reverse the surging rate of drug intoxication fatalities. PMID:25320874

  12. Confronting death from drug self-intoxication (DDSI): prevention through a better definition.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Ian R H; Smith, Gordon S; Caine, Eric D; Kapusta, Nestor D; Hanzlick, Randy L; Larkin, G Luke; Naylor, Charles P E; Nolte, Kurt B; Miller, Ted R; Putnam, Sandra L; De Leo, Diego; Kleinig, John; Stack, Steven; Todd, Knox H; Fraser, David W

    2014-12-01

    Suicide and other self-directed violence deaths are likely grossly underestimated, reflecting inappropriate classification of many drug intoxication deaths as accidents or unintentional and heterogeneous ascertainment and coding practices across states. As the tide of prescription and illicit drug-poisoning deaths is rising, public health and research needs would be better satisfied by considering most of these deaths a result of self-intoxication. Epidemiologists and prevention scientists could design better intervention strategies by focusing on premorbid behavior. We propose incorporating deaths from drug self-intoxication and investigations of all poisoning deaths into the National Violent Death Reporting System, which contains misclassified homicides and undetermined intent deaths, to facilitate efforts to comprehend and reverse the surging rate of drug intoxication fatalities. PMID:25320874

  13. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For this... content of 0.10 percent or higher as set forth in Official Code of Georgia Annotated 40-6-392(b)(3)....

  14. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For this... content of 0.10 percent or higher as set forth in Official Code of Georgia Annotated 40-6-392(b)(3)....

  15. Is Central Europe Safe from Environmental Lead Intoxications? A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Pelclová, Daniela; Šťastná, Jana; Vlčková, Štěpánka; Vlček, Kamil; Urban, Michal; Laštovková, Andrea; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    Preventive measures in Central Europe were successful in suppressing both occupational and environmental lead exposure so that they did not constitute a severe public health problem. However, rare lead intoxications still appear. We report on lead intoxication in four family members where the source was removed lead ceiling paint. The symptoms of the lead intoxication started several weeks after removal and the inhalational exposure to the minimum dust residues lasted for more than three months before the poisoning was diagnosed. Father developed anaemia and saturnine colics. He and his two daughters received antidotal treatment which had to be repeated in the children. Finally, all recovered completely.Lead intoxication may be easily overlooked due to the unspecific symptoms. It is necessary to think of this rare poisoning which may be caused by old paints, historical ceramics and lead shots, in addition to commercial products imported from abroad. PMID:27434242

  16. Susceptibility-weighted imaging findings of subacute delayed carbon monoxide intoxication: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Won; Cha, Seong-Yi; Kang, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Hak-Jin; Jung, Dae Soo; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2012-01-15

    Brain injury from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning occurs due to tissue hypoxia and direct CO-mediated histotoxicity. Recently developed susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is sensitive for the detection of accumulated hemosiderin and iron secondary to cerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we hypothesized that SWI may be helpful for identifying petechial hemorrhagic transformation secondary to acute hypoxic damage during subacute CO intoxication. Our case series with subacute CO intoxication revealed that the SWIs of all patients showed low signal intensities in the globus pallidus, representing the accumulation of iron or calcium secondary to hypoxic damage from acute CO intoxication. These results suggest that SWI may be a useful MR technique for illustrating brain damage in subacute delayed CO intoxication. PMID:21914555

  17. Acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA without increasing proteolysis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vary, Thomas C.; Frost, Robert A.; Lang, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis, but there is a paucity of data on the ability of alcohol to regulate muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, various types of atrophic stimuli appear to regulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by increasing the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (i.e., “atrogenes”). Therefore, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogene expression leading to an elevated rate of muscle protein breakdown. In male rats, the intraperitoneal injection of alcohol dose- and time-dependently increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius, the latter of which was most pronounced. A comparable change was absent in the soleus and heart. The ability of in vivo-administered ethanol to increase atrogene expression was independent of the route of alcohol administration (intraperitoneal vs. oral), as well as of nutritional status (fed vs. fasted) and gender (male vs. female). The increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was independent of alcohol metabolism, and the overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids and could not be prevented by maintaining the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Despite marked changes in atrogene expression, acute alcohol in vivo did not alter the release of either 3-methylhistidine (MH) or tyrosine from the isolated perfused hindlimb, suggesting that the rate of muscle proteolysis remains unchanged. Moreover, alcohol did not increase the directly determined rate of protein degradation in isolated epitrochlearis muscles or cultured myocytes. Finally, no increase in atrogene expression or 3-MH release was detected in muscle from rats fed an alcohol-containing diet. Our results indicate that although acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA preferentially in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, this change was not associated with increased rates of muscle proteolysis. Therefore, the loss

  18. Radiology of Fractures in Intoxicated Emergency Department Patients: Locations, Mechanisms, Presentation, and Initial Interpretation Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuka; Nozaki, Taiki; Starkey, Jay; Okajima, Yuka; Ohde, Sachiko; Matsusako, Masaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of alcohol intoxication to time-to-presentation following injury, fracture type, mechanism of injury leading to fracture, and initial diagnostic radiology interpretation performance of emergency physicians versus diagnostic radiologists in patients who present to the emergency department (ED) and are subsequently diagnosed with fracture. Medical records of 1286 patients who presented to the ED and were diagnosed with fracture who also underwent plain film or computed tomography (CT) imaging were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects were divided into intoxicated and sober groups. Patient characteristics, injury-to-presentation time, fracture location, and discrepancies between initial clinical and radiological evaluations were compared. Of 1286 subjects, 181 patients were included in the intoxicated group. Only intoxicated patients presented with head/neck fractures more than 24 hours after injury. The intoxicated group showed a higher rate of head/neck fractures (skull 23.2% vs 5.8%, face and orbit 30.4% vs 9.5%; P < 0.001) and a lower rate of extremity injuries. The rate of nondiagnosis of fractures by emergency physicians later identified by radiologists was the same in both groups (7.7% vs 7.7%, P = 0.984). While the same proportion of intoxicated patients presented more than 24 hours following injury, only intoxicated patients presented with craniofacial and cervical spinal fractures during this period. Alcohol-related injuries are more often associated with head/neck fractures but less extremity injuries. The rate of fractures missed by emergency physicians but later diagnosed by radiologists was the same in intoxicated and sober patients.

  19. Assaying benzene, a parquet varnish, and a synthetic thinner with respect to induction of in vivo chromosome loss in wing primordial cells of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Soós, István; Szabad, János

    2014-03-15

    An assay detecting the in vivo loss of mwh(+)Y, a genetically engineered Y chromosome, in cells of the Drosophila wing primordia was published recently. Loss of the mwh(+)Y chromosome in any of the wing-disk cells - in a multiple wing hairs homozygous background - leads to the formation of an mwh mosaic spot (clone) in the emerging wing. The frequency and the size of the mwh clones allow detection and quantitative evaluation of environmental and/or genetic agents inducing chromosome loss. Using this novel technique, we analyzed the potential of vapors of benzene, a parquet varnish, and a synthetic thinner to induce chromosome loss. Exposure to 0.047μg/ml benzene vapor for one day or to 0.175μg/ml for four hours resulted in a significantly elevated mwh clone-frequency confirming the ability of benzene to induce chromosome loss. A one-day exposure to vapors of a parquet varnish or a 6-h exposure to vapors of a synthetic thinner slightly, yet significantly elevated the frequency of chromosome loss. Results of the present paper show the potential of vapors of the analyzed parquet varnish and synthetic thinner to induce chromosome loss, and illustrate the usefulness of the new technique. PMID:24530351

  20. Cutoff in potency implicates alcohol inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1995-01-01

    As the number of carbon atoms in an aliphatic n-alcohol is increased from one to five, intoxicating potency, lipid solubility, and membrane lipid disordering potency all increase in a similar exponential manner. However, the potency of aliphatic n-alcohols for producing intoxication reaches a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then decreases. The molecular basis of this "cutoff" effect is not understood, as it is not correlated with either the lipid solubility or the membrane disordering potency of the alcohols, which continue to increase exponentially. Since it has been suggested that inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by alcohols may play a role in alcohol intoxication, we investigated whether a series of aliphatic n-alcohols would exhibit a cutoff in potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors. We found that although potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors increased exponentially for alcohols with one to five carbon atoms, potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors reached a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then abruptly disappeared. This cutoff for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors is consistent with an interaction of the alcohols with a hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. In addition, the similarity of the cutoffs for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors and alcohol intoxication suggests that the cutoff for NMDA receptor inhibition may contribute to the cutoff for alcohol intoxication, which is consistent with an important role of NMDA receptors in alcohol intoxication. PMID:7708732

  1. HIV risk behaviors and alcohol intoxication among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Matos, Tomás D; Robles, Rafaela R; Sahai, Hardeo; Colón, Hector M; Reyes, Juan C; Marrero, C Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth W

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high prevalence of co-occurring conditions, particularly symptoms of severe depression (52%) and severe anxiety (37%), measured by Beck's Depression Index and Beck's Anxiety Index, respectively. Alcohol intoxication during the last 30 days was reported by 18% of participants. Associations were found between alcohol intoxication and both injection and sexual risk behaviors. In the bivariate analysis, subjects reporting alcohol intoxication were more likely to inject three or more times per day, pool money to buy drugs, share needles, and share cotton. They were also significantly more likely to have a casual or paying sex partner and to have unprotected sex with these partners. After adjustment, sharing needles and cotton, having sex with a paying partner or casual partner, and exchanging sex for money or drugs were significantly related to alcohol intoxication. HIV prevention programs, to be effective, must address alcohol intoxication and its relation to injection and sexual risk behaviors as a central issue in HIV prevention among drug injectors. PMID:15561474

  2. A Rare Cause of Metabolic Acidosis: Fatal Transdermal Methanol Intoxication in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Sahbudak Bal, Zumrut; Can, Fulya Kamit; Anil, Ayse Berna; Bal, Alkan; Anil, Murat; Gokalp, Gamze; Yavascan, Onder; Aksu, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    Oral methanol intoxication is common, but dermal intoxication is rare. We report a previously healthy 19-month-old female infant admitted to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and tonic-clonic seizure. On physical examination, she was comatose and presented signs of decompensated shock with Kussmaul breathing. Her left thigh was edematous, with purple coloration. Methanol intoxication was suspected due to high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH, 6.89; HCO3, <3 meq/L) and exposure to spirit-soaked bandages (%96 methanol) for 24 hours and 3 days. The patient's serum methanol level was 20.4 mg/dL. She was treated with fomepizole and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) in the pediatric intensive care unit, and methanol levels decreased to 0 mg/dL after 12 hours. During follow-up, massive edema and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the occipital lobe were detected by computed tomography of the brain. The patient died after 7 days.Although methanol intoxication occurs predominantly in adults, it must be considered in children with high-anion gap metabolic acidosis. This case report demonstrates that fatal transdermal methanol intoxication can occur in children, and it is the second report in the English literature of transdermal methanol intoxication in an infant. PMID:26196361

  3. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy): Five Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Günaydın, Yahya Kemal; Dündar, Zerrin Defne; Çekmen, Bora; Akıllı, Nazire Belgin; Köylü, Ramazan; Cander, Başar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and then discharged from

  4. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Response Conflict in a Flanker Task.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Rickenbacher, Elizabeth; Azma, Sheeva

    2012-02-11

    Events evoke seamlessly integrated stimulus evaluation and response preparation processing streams, guided by regulative functions that change behavior flexibly in accord with the internal goals and contextual demands. The neural basis of the effects of alcohol intoxication on these processing streams is poorly understood, despite the evidence of alcohol's deleterious effects on both attention and motor control. In an attempt to separate and examine relative susceptibility of these two dimensions, we employed a color version of the Eriksen flanker task that manipulated compatibility at the stimulus- and response-processing levels. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in healthy social drinkers as they participated in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Alcohol increased reaction times to response-level incongruity and decreased accuracy overall. Relative to the no-conflict condition, the observed brain activity was predominantly evoked by response-related conflict in medial prefrontal and lateral prefrontal cortices under placebo, in agreement with extensive evidence of their role in conflict processing. Activity evoked by response incongruity in the medial frontal cortex and insula was insignificant under alcohol, indicating its interference with response inhibition and preparation. Conversely, activity in ventrolateral prefrontal and premotor areas was relatively greater under alcohol than placebo, suggesting their compensatory engagement. This finding is consistent with the compensatory prefrontal activity increase found in studies with chronic alcoholic individuals, indicating functional reorganization with a goal of optimizing response strategy. These results delineate functional differences and selective susceptibility of a prefrontal network subserving response-level conflict processing. Our findings are incompatible with notions that moderate alcohol primarily

  5. The role of connexin-36 gap junctions in alcohol intoxication and consumption.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Scott C; Bradley, Katie D; Hansen, David M; Wilcox, Jeffrey D; Wilcox, Rebecca S; Allison, David W; Merrill, Collin B; Edwards, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons appear to be critical substrates underlying the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system implicated in alcohol reward. The aim of this study was to examine the role of midbrain connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions (GJs) in ethanol intoxication and consumption. Using behavioral, molecular, and electrophysiological methods, we compared the effects of ethanol in mature Cx36 knockout (KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. Compared to WT mice, Cx36 KO mice exhibited significantly more ethanol-induced motor impairment in the open field test, but less disruption in motor coordination in the rotarod paradigm. Cx36 KO mice, and WT mice treated with the Cx36 antagonist mefloquine (MFQ), consumed significantly less ethanol than their WT controls in the drink-in-the-dark procedure. The firing rate of VTA GABA neurons in WT mice was inhibited by ethanol with an IC₅₀ of 0.25 g/kg, while VTA GABA neurons in KO mice were significantly less sensitive to ethanol. Dopamine neuron GABA-mediated sIPSC frequency was reduced by ethanol (30 mM) in WT mice, but not affected in KO mice. Cx36 KO mice evinced a significant up-regulation in DAT and D2 receptors in the VTA, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. These findings demonstrate the behavioral relevance of Cx36 GJ-mediated electrical coupling between GABA neurons in mature animals, and suggest that loss of coupling between VTA GABA neurons results in disinhibition of DA neurons, a hyper-DAergic state and lowered hedonic valence for ethanol consumption. PMID:21638336

  6. Chelation therapy for treatment of systemic intoxication with uranium: A review.

    PubMed

    Šömen Joksić, Agnes; Katz, Sidney A

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of naturally occurring uranium have been found in small geographic areas throughout the world. Exposure of the general public to uranium is most often by the ingestion of food and water containing natural uranium from the hydrogeological environment, but this likelihood is remote. However, the risk is increased in regions where uranium is mined, milled, processed and/or fabricated as well as in the vicinity of former battlefields where depleted uranium munitions were deployed. Exposure in such cases is by the inhalation route. Internalized uranium is a long-term hazard the toxicity of which depends upon the dose and the dose rate as well as other parameters such as the chemical form and site of deposition of the uranium and the physiology of the host. The radiological toxicity and the chemical toxicity of uranium and its compounds are responsible for kidney damage and lung cancer. The vulnerable groups are the very young and the very old, individuals predisposed to hypertension or osteoporosis and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Those subject to long-term exposure from internalized uranium are a greater risk for the long-term implications. The accumulation of uranium may be mitigated by decreasing its absorption, distribution and deposition and increasing its elimination with chelating agents. The formation of soluble chelates may enhance the mobilization of uranium deposited in tissue and expedite its transport to and elimination from the renal system. The focus of this review is on the use of chelating agents to enhance decorporation of uranium thereby reducing the risk of intoxication. PMID:26305139

  7. The genotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, haematotoxic and histopathological effects in rats after aluminium chronic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Geyikoglu, Fatime; Türkez, Hasan; Bakir, Tülay Ozhan; Cicek, Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is used in water purification and is also present in several manufactured foods and medicines. Al is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioural dysfunctions in laboratory animals and humans. This investigation was carried out to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to Al (as AlCl₃) in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups. Group 1 rats treated with sodium chloride served as the control, group 2 rats were treated with Al (as AlCl₃, 5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitonally for 10 weeks. Animals were killed and blood samples were analyzed for blood serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activities and creatinine, urea (U) and uric acid (UA) levels for evaluating hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Blood parameters including red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (Ht), platelets (PLTs) and white blood cells (WBCs) were compared between control and experimental group to assess haematoxicity. In order to determine the genotoxicity, the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was counted in isolated hepatocytes. In addition, histological alterations in liver and kidney samples were investigated. After exposure with Al, the enzymatic activities of ALP, AST, ALT and LDH, and the levels of U and UA significantly increased. RBC, WBC, PLT, Hb and Ht revealed significant decreases in experimental group compared to the control. AlCl₃ caused a significant increase in MNHEPs. Furthermore, severe pathological damages were established in both liver and kidney samples. Subchronic exposure to low doses of Al can produce serious dysfunctions in rat blood, liver and kidney, and exposure to this metal can result in greater damages. PMID:22421584

  8. [Correction of cardiotoxic effect of chronic alcoholic intoxication by GABA-ergic compounds].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Lebedeva, S A

    2007-01-01

    Toxic effect of 50% ethanol solution (8 g/kg) on the heart appeared as diminishment of contractile properties of the myocardium. Structural GABA-analogues - citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg) and pyracetam (200 mg/kg) prevented injurious action of alcohol. This was evidenced by higher indices of contraction and relaxation velocity, and left ventricular pressure in intervention groups of animals compared with controls during functional tests with volume and maximal isometric load. PMID:18260875

  9. Une intoxication peut en cacher une autre plus grave. Exemple d'une intoxication fatale à l'éthylène glycol masquée par une intoxication à un insecticide pyréthrinoïde

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Younès; Kichna, Hicham; Boughalem, Mohammed; Kamili, Noureddine Drissi

    2013-01-01

    Les pyréthrinoïdes sont des insecticides largement utilisés du fait de leur efficacité et de leur relative sécurité chez l'homme. Les intoxications mortelles liées à ces agents restent exceptionnelles. Leur métabolisme hépatique rapide limite considérablement leur toxicité chez l'homme. Cette observation relate une intoxication grave à un pyréthrinoïde (la cyperméthrine) dont le solvant était l'éthylène glycol. Ce dernier est un toxique nettement plus dangereux pour l'homme. Le tableau clinique consistait en une atteinte multiviscérale avec prédominance de la défaillance cardiovasculaire et neurologique. Le faible potentiel toxique des pyréthrinoïdes suggère l'implication évidente de l'éthylène glycol dans la gravité de cette intoxication. La prise en charge thérapeutique, essentiellement symptomatique, n'a pas pris en compte la présence d'éthylène glycol dans la formulation de l'insecticide. L'évolution clinique était défavorable. Devant toute intoxication grave à un insecticide pyréthrinoïde une intoxication associée au solvant tel que l'éthylène glycol doit être recherchée et traitée. PMID:23734273

  10. Food-borne infections and intoxications in Europe*

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, H. P. R.

    1960-01-01

    Any attempt to evaluate the prevalence of food-borne diseases in Europe is fraught with difficulty, partly because in some countries such diseases, if reported, are not clearly designated as food-borne, and partly because of the variety in terminology and methods of classification. Nevertheless, it is apparent that, although certain food-borne infections have decreased in prevalence, others have increased during the past decade. This increase has been shown to be related in some countries to the import of certain foodstuffs and fodder from tropical and subtropical regions and has resulted in a general spread of Salmonella infections by a wide variety of serotypes. Food-borne intoxications are predominantly caused by the ingestion of the toxins elaborated by the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in food and by spore-forming bacilli. Botulism is now rare in Europe. While the recent increase in the prevalence of these diseases calls for strict supervision of food products and improved measures of ensuring food hygiene, the efficacy of such steps as may be taken will depend on close co-operation between public health and veterinary public health authorities. PMID:14444504

  11. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed. PMID:26109896

  12. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed

    Pauly, P J

    1994-02-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. PMID:8296962

  13. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  14. Chelation therapy for metal intoxication: comments from a thermodynamic viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Alonso, Miriam Crespo; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Crisponi, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Chelation therapy plays a prominent role in the clinical treatment of metal intoxication. In this paper the principal causes of metal toxicity are exposed, and the chemical and biomedical requisites of a chelating agent are sketched. The chelating agents currently in use for scavenging toxic metal ions from humans belong to few categories: those characterized by coordinating mercapto groups, by oxygen groups, poliaminocarboxylic acids, and dithiocarbamates. Considering that the complex formation equilibria have been studied for less than 50% of chelators in use, some reflections on the utility of stability constants are presented, together with an evaluation of ligands under the stability profile. The competition between endogenous and toxic target metal ions for the same chelating agent is furthermore examined. A thorough examination of stability constant databases has allowed to select, for each toxic metal, the ligands distinguished by the best pMe values. Even though this selection does not consider the biomedical requisites of a chelating agent, it gives a clear picture both of the pMe values that can be attained, and of the most appropriate chelators for each metal ion. PMID:23895193

  15. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, P J

    1994-01-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. Images p307-a p309-a PMID:8296962

  16. Hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Baruah, Gautam Kumar; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kabita; Bora, Rumi Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to elaborate hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos (CPF) toxicity in indigenous chicken. Since there is no available literature on the detailed hematobiochemical changes of CPF in indigenous chicken, hence, the present study was designed to establish toxicological effect of CPF on blood biochemical parameters of indigenous chicken which are at a great risk of exposure to pesticides. These will help physiologist, pathologist, and poultry scientists for effective production strategy as well as disease control regime. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two major Groups I and II. Group I served as control and Group II was treated with CPF (36 mg/kg). Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein, and uric acid. Results: Hb, TEC, and TLC levels increased significantly (p<0.01) in toxin fed birds, whereas, lymphocyte percent decreased significantly, and heterophil percent increased significantly. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly in CPF treated birds. Decreased serum CHE values were observed in CPF fed group. The protein level remained almost same. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group compared to control. Conclusion: The results indicated that acute CPF intoxication produce changes in hematology and biochemical constituents of the treated birds. PMID:27065642

  17. Role of glutamatergic system in nerve agent intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, G.; Lallement, G.; Carpentier, P.; De Groot, D.; Bodjarian, N.

    1993-05-13

    Our recent studies concerning soman-induced seizures mechanisms and subsequent brain damage are reviewed. (1) Seizure activity was associated with transient increases of extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and with long-lasting releases of glutamate (Glu) in all limbic areas studied. (2) Preventive intraseptal application of atropine abolished the hippocampal increases of extracellular AChi and Glu indicating a key role of septum in triggering seizure activity. (3) Early increases of hippocampal AMPA receptor binding occurred before activation of NMDA receptors. (4) Pretreatment with NBQX, an antagonist of AMPA receptor, prevented convulsions and brain damage even without atropine. In the same conditions, no protection was afforded by TCP, a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor. (5) On the contrary, in the presence of pyridostigmine and atropine, TCP blocked the seizures induced by 2 x LD50 of soman. The anticonvulsant potency of TCP was particularly obvious when administered curatively. (6) Mossy fibers sprouting takes place in the supragranular-molecular layers of rat hippocampus long after brain injury associated with abnormal neuronal excitability. (7) Altogether, it appears that an AMPA component is involved in combination with cholinergic mechanisms in initiating seizures. A subsequent and long-lasting recruitment of NMDA receptors is then essential in sustaining the seizures. New anticonvulsant and neuroprotective approaches using Glu antagonists against nerve agents intoxication are discussed.

  18. Nitrite as an antidote for acute hydrogen sulfide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.F.; Bradbury, C.M.; Connors, A.J.; Donini, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    The detoxification of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) by a heme catalyzed oxidation was examined as part of an on-going study of H/sub 2/S toxicity. Interlocking O/sub 2/ absorption and sulfide depletion data indicate that both oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin are effective catalytic agents. Although the latter is more efficacious, the life time of excess sulfide in the presence of oxygen and either of the above is of the order of minutes. It has also been established that the formation of methemoglobin following nitrite administration occurs preferentially under oxygen poor conditions. Under an atmospheric or oxygen enriched environment, which favors sulfide depletion, the nitrite retards sulfide oxidation. Thus nitrite as an antidote for acute H/sub 2/S intoxication can only be effective within the first few minutes after the exposure, at which time resuscitation and/or ventilation of the victim is likely to produce conditions in which the nitrite actually slows sulfide removal.

  19. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis. PMID:26101526

  20. Haemorrhage in seven cats with suspected anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kohn, B; Weingart, C; Giger, U

    2003-10-01

    Clinical features were evaluated in seven adult cats (six males, one female) with haemorrhage and presumptive anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. Haemorrhage appeared as thoracic haemorrhage, otic bleeding, haematoma, melena, haematochezia, and petechiation. The most common other presenting signs were lethargy, anorexia, and tachypnoea or dyspnoea. Six cats were anaemic, four cats were mildly thrombocytopenic (58000-161000/ microL), and three had slightly decreased plasma protein or albumin values. The prothrombin time (30.3->100 s, reference range: 16.5-27.5 s) and activated partial thromboplastin time values (32.6->100 s; reference range: 14-25 s) were markedly prolonged in all cats. All cats received vitamin K(1)subcutaneously or orally (3.7-5 mg/kg body weight initially) and depending on severity of signs five cats were transfused with fresh whole blood. Plasma coagulation times improved in all cats and returned to normal in 1-5 days. Rodenticide poisons represent an important but relatively rare cause of haemorrhage in cats and can be effectively treated. PMID:12948505

  1. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy.

  2. Variable Classification of Drug-Intoxication Suicides across US States: A Partial Artifact of Forensics?

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Ian R. H.; Hobbs, Gerald R.; Wu, Dan; Jia, Haomiao; Nolte, Kurt B.; Smith, Gordon S.; Putnam, Sandra L.; Caine, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The 21st-century epidemic of pharmaceutical and other drug-intoxication deaths in the United States (US) has likely precipitated an increase in misclassified, undercounted suicides. Drug-intoxication suicides are highly prone to be misclassified as accident or undetermined. Misclassification adversely impacts suicide and other injury mortality surveillance, etiologic understanding, prevention, and hence clinical and public health policy formation and practice. Objective To evaluate whether observed variation in the relative magnitude of drug-intoxication suicides across US states is a partial artifact of the scope and quality of toxicological testing and type of medicolegal death investigation system. Methods This was a national, state-based, ecological study of 111,583 drug-intoxication fatalities, whose manner of death was suicide, accident, or undetermined. The proportion of (nonhomicide) drug-intoxication deaths classified by medical examiners and coroners as suicide was analyzed relative to the proportion of death certificates citing one or more specific drugs and two types of state death investigation systems. Our model incorporated five sociodemographic covariates. Data covered the period 2008–2010, and derived from NCHS’s Multiple Cause-of-Death public use files. Results Across states, the proportion of drug-intoxication suicides ranged from 0.058 in Louisiana to 0.286 in South Dakota and the rate from 1 per 100,000 population in North Dakota to 4 in New Mexico. There was a low correlation between combined accident and undetermined drug-intoxication death rates and corresponding suicide rates (Spearman’s rho = 0.38; p<0.01). Citation of 1 or more specific drugs on the death certificate was positively associated with the relative odds of a state classifying a nonhomicide drug-intoxication death as suicide rather than accident or undetermined, adjusting for region and type of state death investigation system (odds ratio, 1.062; 95% CI,1.016

  3. Symptoms and signs in interpreting Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) intoxication - an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been a serious medical and social problem in different parts of the world including Sweden. GHB is a drug of abuse which acts primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. GHB has serious toxicity, although many young users do not recognise GHB as a dangerous drug. The aim of this pilot study was to explore how symptoms with risk of failure in vital functions would be valued among professionals that encounter GHB intoxication in the emergency phase. Methods A web-based survey focusing on the assessment of vital clinical signs for possible GHB intoxication using a numeric scale was carried out during April and May 2011. The participants, n 105, are all professionals who encounter GHB intoxicated in the emergency phase, but have different levels of training in GHB intoxication, mainly Registered Nurses (RNs) in southwest Sweden, employed in pre-hospital or emergency departments at somatic and most psychiatric health care facilities, as well as police officers who in their work come into contact with drug users. Responses in the survey were scored according to risk of GHB intoxication with serious failure of vital functions. The score value was then referred to a so-called evidence based priority (EBP) scale and analysed using descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test. Results Cardiac arrest, coma, hypoxia, general convulsions, slow respiratory and heart rate and pale skin are symptoms with the highest risk of serious failure in vital physical functions and were predominantly recognised as such. Conclusion Despite the professionals' different levels of training in GHB intoxication, all of them were relatively well aware of and in accordance regarding the most risky symptoms. The interpretation score for the less risky symptoms and signs of GHB intoxication varied depending on their degree of training. The results should be viewed cautiously, as the size of the professional groups and their

  4. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the U.S. to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55% of local agencies and 90% of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60% of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies. PMID:24068596

  5. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications. PMID:26446494

  6. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications. PMID:26446494

  7. Self-intoxication with morphine obtained from an infusion pump.

    PubMed

    Gock, S B; Wong, S H; Stormo, K A; Jentzen, J M

    1999-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian male was found unresponsive by his wife. He had white foam around his mouth and was pronounced dead shortly thereafter. He had a history of back pain and was treated with intrathecal morphine because of his previous addiction to oral opiate medications. Because of crimping of the pump catheter, it was replaced 4 days before his death. Toxicological findings included urine screen positive for amitriptyline, nortriptyline, opiates, hydrocodone metabolites, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, caffeine, nicotine, and metabolite. Drug concentrations were as follows: blood, 0.260 mg/L amitriptyline, 0.160 mg/L nortriptyline, 0.460 mg/L unconjugated morphine, and 0.624 mg/L total morphine; vitreous humor, 0.034 mg/L unconjugated morphine and 0.080 mg/L total morphine; and cerebrospinal fluid, 0.099 mg/L unconjugated morphine and 0.095 mg/L total morphine. Shortly after death, the volume of the residual pump reservoir was only 8 mL instead of the expected 17 mL. Testing by the FDA showed that the pump was functional. The residual content of the pump accounted for only 230 mg instead of the expected 488 mg. The high blood-morphine concentrations did not correlate with the intrathecal infusion dose. The symptoms were consistent with opiate overdose, possibly by injection of morphine withdrawn from the pump reservoir. The cause of death was determined to be fatal morphine self-intoxication, and the manner of death was accidental. This case is intended to alert regulatory agencies, pain management health professionals, pathologists, and toxicologists to the abuse potential of one of the newer analgesic-delivery systems. PMID:10192419

  8. Multi-drug intoxication fatality involving atorvastatin: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cibickova, Lubica; Caran, Tomas; Dobias, Martin; Ondra, Peter; Vorisek, Viktor; Cibicek, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Mixed antihypertensive drug intoxication poses a significant risk for patient mortality. In tandem to antihypertensives, hypolipidemic medicines (especially statins) are often prescribed. Among their well-known adverse effects belongs rhabdomyolysis. We report a case of fatal multi-drug overdose in a 65-year-old female alcoholic. The patient was unconscious at admission. Empty blister packs indicated the abuse of 250 tablets of urapidil, 42 tablets of verapamil/trandolapril, 50 tablets of moxonidin, 80 tablets of atorvastatin and 80 tablets of diacerein. Standard measures (gastric lavage, activated charcoal, mechanical ventilation, massive doses of vasopressors, volume expansion, diuretics and alkalinization) failed to provide sufficient drug elimination and hemodynamic support and the sufferer deceased on the fourth day. Dramatic elevations of serum myoglobin (34,020 μg/L) and creatine kinase (219 μkat/L) were accompanied by rise in cardiac troponin I and creatinine. Gas chromatography revealed ethanol 1.17 g/kg (blood) and 2.81 g/kg (urine). Thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography of gastric content and urine verified verapamil, moxonidin and urapidil fragment (diacerein method was unavailable). Atorvastatin and trandolapril concentrations (LC-MS(n)) equaled 277.7 μg/L and 57.5 μg/L, resp. (serum) and 8.15 μg/L and 602.3 μg/L, resp. (urine). Histology confirmed precipitates of myoglobin with acute necrosis of proximal renal tubules in association with striated muscle rhabdomyolysis and myocardial dystrophy. Cardiogenic-distributive shock in conjunction with acute renal failure due to the combined self-poisoning with vasoactive agents and atorvastatin were determined to be this decedent's immediate cause of death. The manner of death was assigned to be suicidal. PMID:26508377

  9. Progesterone-Based Intrauterine Device Use Is Associated with a Thinner Apical Layer of the Human Ectocervical Epithelium and a Lower ZO-1 mRNA Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Tjernlund, Annelie; Carias, Ann M.; Andersson, Sonia; Gustafsson-Sanchez, Susanna; Röhl, Maria; Petersson, Pernilla; Introini, Andrea; Hope, Thomas J.; Broliden, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, whether hormonal contraceptives affect male to female human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is being debated. In this study, we investigated whether the use of progesterone-based intrauterine devices (pIUDs) is associated with a thinning effect on the ectocervical squamous epithelium, down-regulation of epithelial junction proteins, and/or alteration of HIV target cell distribution in the human ectocervix. Ectocervical tissue biopsies from healthy premenopausal volunteers using pIUDs were collected and compared to biopsies obtained from two control groups, namely women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or who do not use hormonal contraceptives. In situ staining and image analysis were used to measure epithelial thickness and the presence of HIV receptors in tissue biopsies. Messenger RNA levels of epithelial junction markers were measured by quantitative PCR. The epithelial thickness displayed by women in the pIUD group was similar to those in the COC group, but significantly thinner as compared to women in the no hormonal contraceptive group. The thinner epithelial layer of the pIUD group was specific to the apical layer of the ectocervix. Furthermore, the pIUD group expressed significantly lower levels of the tight junction marker ZO-1 within the epithelium as compared to the COC group. Similar expression levels of HIV receptors and coreceptors CD4, CCR5, DC-SIGN, and Langerin were observed in the three study groups. Thus, women using pIUD displayed a thinner apical layer of the ectocervical epithelium and reduced ZO-1 expression as compared to control groups. These data suggest that pIUD use may weaken the ectocervical epithelial barrier against invading pathogens, including HIV. PMID:25588510

  10. Progesterone-based intrauterine device use is associated with a thinner apical layer of the human ectocervical epithelium and a lower ZO-1 mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Tjernlund, Annelie; Carias, Ann M; Andersson, Sonia; Gustafsson-Sanchez, Susanna; Röhl, Maria; Petersson, Pernilla; Introini, Andrea; Hope, Thomas J; Broliden, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    Currently, whether hormonal contraceptives affect male to female human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is being debated. In this study, we investigated whether the use of progesterone-based intrauterine devices (pIUDs) is associated with a thinning effect on the ectocervical squamous epithelium, down-regulation of epithelial junction proteins, and/or alteration of HIV target cell distribution in the human ectocervix. Ectocervical tissue biopsies from healthy premenopausal volunteers using pIUDs were collected and compared to biopsies obtained from two control groups, namely women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or who do not use hormonal contraceptives. In situ staining and image analysis were used to measure epithelial thickness and the presence of HIV receptors in tissue biopsies. Messenger RNA levels of epithelial junction markers were measured by quantitative PCR. The epithelial thickness displayed by women in the pIUD group was similar to those in the COC group, but significantly thinner as compared to women in the no hormonal contraceptive group. The thinner epithelial layer of the pIUD group was specific to the apical layer of the ectocervix. Furthermore, the pIUD group expressed significantly lower levels of the tight junction marker ZO-1 within the epithelium as compared to the COC group. Similar expression levels of HIV receptors and coreceptors CD4, CCR5, DC-SIGN, and Langerin were observed in the three study groups. Thus, women using pIUD displayed a thinner apical layer of the ectocervical epithelium and reduced ZO-1 expression as compared to control groups. These data suggest that pIUD use may weaken the ectocervical epithelial barrier against invading pathogens, including HIV. PMID:25588510

  11. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed. PMID:26043841

  12. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Bælum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution. PMID:16630337

  13. Intoxication by intraperitoneal injection or oral gavage equally potentiates postburn organ damage and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael M; Palmer, Jessica L; Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of binge drinking and its association with trauma necessitate accurate animal models to examine the impact of intoxication on the response and outcome to injuries such as burn. While much research has focused on the effect of alcohol dose and duration on the subsequent inflammatory parameters following burn, little evidence exists on the effect of the route of alcohol administration. We examined the degree to which intoxication before burn injury causes systemic inflammation when ethanol is given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or oral gavage. We found that intoxication potentiates postburn damage in the ileum, liver, and lungs of mice to an equivalent extent when either ethanol administration route is used. We also found a similar hematologic response and levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) when either ethanol paradigm achieved intoxication before burn. Furthermore, both i.p. and gavage resulted in similar blood alcohol concentrations at all time points tested. Overall, our data show an equal inflammatory response to burn injury when intoxication is achieved by either i.p. injection or oral gavage, suggesting that findings from studies using either ethanol paradigm are directly comparable. PMID:24379525

  14. The influence of alcoholic intoxication on the short-time energy function of speech.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Christian; Schiel, Florian

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates rhythmic features based on the short-time energy function of speech signals with the aim of finding robust, speaker-independent features that indicate speaker intoxication. Data from the German Alcohol Language Corpus, which comprises read, spontaneous, and command&control speech uttered by 162 speakers of both genders and various age groups when sober and intoxicated, were analyzed. Energy contours are compared directly (Root Mean Squared Error, statistical correlation, or the Euclidean distance in the spectral space of the contour) and by parameterization of the contour using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the first and second moments of the lower DCT spectrum. Contours are also analyzed by Principal Components Analysis aiming at fundamental "eigen contour" changes that might encode intoxication. Energy contours differ significantly with intoxication in terms of distance measures, the second and fourth DCT coefficients, and the first and second moments of the lower DCT spectrum. Principal Components Analysis did not yield interpretable "eigen contours" that could be used in distinguishing intoxicated from sober contours. PMID:24815274

  15. Sleep deprivation does not mimic alcohol intoxication on field sobriety testing.

    PubMed

    Citek, Karl; Elmont, Ashlee D; Jons, Christopher L; Krezelok, Chad J; Neron, Joseph D; Plummer, Timothy A; Tannenbaum, Timothy

    2011-09-01

    Previous research shows that sleep deprivation (SD) produces cognitive impairment similar to that caused by alcohol intoxication. Individual studies suggest that SD also causes deficits in motor skills that could be mistaken for intoxication. Consequently, SD often is used as a defense when an impaired driver is charged with driving while intoxicated. Twenty-nine adult subjects participated in two test sessions each, one after a full night's rest and the other after wakefulness of at least 24 h. Subjects consumed prescribed amounts of alcohol during each session. Law enforcement officers conducted field sobriety tests identical to those with which a driver would be assessed at roadside. Researchers also measured clinical responses of visual function and vital signs. The presence and number of validated impairment clues increase with increasing blood alcohol concentration but not with SD. Thus, SD does not affect motor skills in a manner that would lead an officer to conclude that the suspect is intoxicated, unless intoxication also is present. PMID:21595697

  16. Who bought the drinks? Juror perceptions of intoxication in a rape trial.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kellie Rose; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Golding, Jonathan M; Simcic, Theresa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the perceptions of victim intoxication and the drinking context (i.e., who purchased the drinks) were investigated. Men and women mock jurors (N = 158) read a rape trial summary in which the victim was intoxicated or sober, and either the victim or the perpetrator purchased the drinks. Overall, participants who perceived a victim as intoxicated were less likely to render guilty verdicts and made lower ratings of victim credibility. In addition, when the perpetrator purchased the drinks, participants were more likely to render guilty verdicts and made more negative judgments about the defendant than when the victim bought the drinks. Mediation analyses explained the relationship between the independent variables and verdict. The results are discussed in terms of the factors that influence juror perceptions of rape cases in court. PMID:23929601

  17. Economic Contraction, Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide: Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, M.S.; Huguet, N.; Caetano, R.; Giesbrecht, N.; Kerr, W.C.; McFarland, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although there is a large and growing body of evidence concerning the impact of contracting economies on suicide mortality risk, far less is known about the role alcohol consumption plays in the complex relationship between economic conditions and suicide. The aims were to compare the postmortem alcohol intoxication rates among male and female suicide decedents before (2005–07), during (2008–09), and after (2010–11) the economic contraction in the United States. Methods Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System 2005–11 for male and female suicide decedents aged 20 years and older were analyzed by Poisson regression analysis to test whether there was significant change in the fractions of suicide decedents who were acutely intoxicated at the time of death (defined as blood alcohol concentration ≥ 0.08 g/dl) prior, during, and after the downturn. Results The fraction of all suicide decedents with alcohol intoxication increased by 7% after the onset of the recession from 22.2% in 2005–07 to 23.9% in 2008–11. Compared to the years prior to the recession, male suicide decedents showed a 1.09-fold increased risk of alcohol intoxication within the first two years of the recession. Surprisingly, there was evidence of a lag effect among female suicide decedents, who had a 1.14-fold (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27) increased risk of intoxication in 2010–11 compared to 2005–07. Conclusions These findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication in suicide interacts with economic conditions, becoming more prevalent during contractions. PMID:25024394

  18. Acute alcohol intoxication decreases glucose metabolism but increases acetate uptake in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also the metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in the thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in the cerebellum and the smallest in the thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge tended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p<0.06) and the increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (i.e. ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  19. Validation of a Measure of College Students' Intoxicated Behaviors: Associations with Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Drinking Motives, and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmaas, Johann; Moeller, Scott; Woicik, Patricia Butler

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to develop a measure of college students' intoxicated behaviors and to validate the measure using scales assessing alcohol outcome expectancies, motives for drinking, and personality traits. Participants and Method Summary: The authors administered these measures and an inventory describing 50 intoxicated behaviors to…

  20. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats. PMID:27047060

  1. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Schlyer, D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Alpert, R.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.; Bendriem, B.; Christman, D. )

    1990-06-01

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval.

  2. Successful Pancreas Transplantation From a Deceased Donor Intoxicated With Oral Antidiabetic Agent: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villar, C; Conget, I; Ferrer-Fàbrega, J; Paredes, D; Ruíz, A; Roque, R; Rull, R; López-Boado, M; Ricart, M J; Garcia, R; Adalia, R

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneous kidney pancreas transplantation (SKP) is a common procedure for the patient with long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with terminal renal failure. It is unusual to consider the pancreas from a deceased donor who died after an acute intoxication with oral antidiabetic agent (OAA), which would suggest an abnormal functionality of the organ and preclude the potential use of the graft. We present a case of a successful pancreatic transplantation from a donor who died of acute cerebral edema secondary to severe hypoglycemia induced by OAA acute intoxication. PMID:26518941

  3. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, an unusual complication of heroin intoxication: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Luo, Qiancheng; Guo, Enwei; Yao, Yulan; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Bingyu; Li, Longxuan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) has rarely been described in patients with heroin intoxication. Here, we report a rare case of MODS involving six organs, due to heroin intoxication. The patient was a 32-year-old Chinese man with severe heroin intoxication complicated by acute pulmonary edema and respiratory insufficiency, shock, myocardial damage and cardiac insufficiency, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal insufficiency, acute liver injury and hepatic insufficiency, toxic leukoencephalopathy, and hypoglycemia. He managed to survive and was discharged after 10 weeks of intensive care. The possible pathogenesis and therapeutic measures of MODS induced by heroin intoxication and some suggestions for preventing and treating severe complications of heroin intoxication, based on clinical evidence and the pertinent literature, are discussed in this report. PMID:26617935

  4. The Mt. Diwata study on the Philippines 1999--assessing mercury intoxication of the population by small scale gold mining.

    PubMed

    Drasch, G; Böse-O'Reilly, S; Beinhoff, C; Roider, G; Maydl, S

    2001-02-21

    .4, max 107.6; Hg-hair median 3.62, max 37.8. The Hg urine concentrations of the occupational exposed and non-exposed population on Mt. Diwata was significantly higher than in the control group: control median 1.7 microg/l, max 7.6; non-occupational burdened median 4.1, max 76.4; and workers median 11.0, max 294.2. The participants, living downstream on the plain of Monkayo show no statistically significant difference in Hg-blood, Hg-urine or Hg-hair in comparison with the control group. The German Human-Biological-Monitoring value II (HBM II) was exceeded in 19.5% (control), 26.0% (downstream), 19.4% (Mt. Diwata, non-occupational) and 55.4% (workers) of the cases, the German occupational threshold limit in 19.6% of the workers. Only some of the clinical data, characteristic for Hg intoxication (e.g. tremor, loss of memory, bluish discoloration of the gingiva, etc.), correlate with Hg in blood or urine, but not with Hg in hair. The medical score sum correlates only with Hg in urine. The poor correlation between the Hg concentration in the biomonitors to classic clinical signs of chronic Hg intoxication may be explained by several factors: Hg in blood, urine and hair do not adequately monitor the Hg burden of the target tissues, especially the brain. Inter-individual differences in the sensitiveness to Hg are extremely large. In this area a mixed burden of Hg species must be assumed (Hg vapor, inorganic Hg, methyl-Hg). Chronic Hg burden may have established damage months or even years before the actual determination of the Hg concentrations in the bio-monitors under quite different burden was performed (Drasch G. Mercury. In: Seiler HG, Sigel A, Sigel H, editors. Handbook on metals in clinical and analytical chemistry. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994:479-494). Therefore, a 'Hg intoxication', that should be treated, was not diagnosed by the Hg concentration in the bio-monitors alone, but by a balanced combination of these Hg values and the medical score sum. In principle

  5. Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Natacha M. M.; Correa, Russell S.; Júnior, Ismael S. M.; Figueiredo, Adilson J. R.; Vilhena, Kelly F. B.; Farias-Junior, Paulo M. A.; Teixeira, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Nayana M. M.; Pereira-Júnior, João B.; Dantas, Kelly das Graças F.; da Silva, Marcia C. F.; Silva-Junior, Ademir F.; Alves-Junior, Sergio de M.; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V.; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter. PMID:25464135

  6. Transition between Acute and Chronic Hepatotoxicity in Mice Is Associated with Impaired Energy Metabolism and Induction of Mitochondrial Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Nikam, Aniket; Patankar, Jay V.; Lackner, Carolin; Schöck, Elisabeth; Kratky, Dagmar; Zatloukal, Kurt; Abuja, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of protein inclusions is frequently associated with chronic metabolic diseases. In mice, short-term intoxication with 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) leads to hepatocellular damage indicated by elevated serum liver enzyme activities, whereas only minor morphological changes are observed. Conversely, chronic administration of DDC for several weeks results in severe morphological damage, characterized by hepatocellular ballooning, disruption of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton, and formation of Mallory-Denk bodies consisting predominantly of misfolded keratins, Sqstm1/p62, and heat shock proteins. To evaluate the mechanistic underpinnings for this dichotomy we dissected the time-course of DDC intoxication for up to 10 weeks. We determined body weight change, serum liver enzyme activities, morphologic alterations, induction of antioxidant response (heme oxygenase-1, HO-1), oxidative damage and ATP content in livers as well as respiration, oxidative damage and the presence and activity of HO-1 in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria (mtHO-1). Elevated serum liver enzyme activity and oxidative liver damage were already present at early intoxication stages without further subsequent increase. After 2 weeks of intoxication, mice had transiently lost 9% of their body weight, liver ATP-content was reduced to 58% of controls, succinate-driven respiration was uncoupled from ATP-production and antioxidant response was associated with the appearance of catalytically active mtHO-1. Oxidative damage was associated with both acute and chronic DDC toxicity whereas the onset of chronic intoxication was specifically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction which was maximal after 2 weeks of intoxication. At this transition stage, adaptive responses involving mtHO-1 were induced, indirectly leading to improved respiration and preventing further drop of ATP levels. Our observations clearly demonstrate principally different mechanisms for acute and

  7. Segmental hair testing to disclose chronic exposure to psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Marchei, Emilia; Palmi, Ilaria; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Anton Airaldi, Ileana-Rita; Costa Orvay, Juan Antonio; García Serra, Joan; Bonet Serra, Bartolomé; García-Algar, Óscar

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome.Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child's blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified. The suspicion that the mother administered drugs chronically prompted the analysis of six, consecutive 2-cm segments of the child's hair, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, thereby accounting for ingestion over the previous 12 months. Quetiapine was found in the first four segments with a mean concentration of 1.00 ng/mg ± 0.94 ng/mg hair while sertraline and its metabolite, desmethyl-sertraline, were found in all segments with a mean concentration of 2.65 ± 0.94 ng/mg and 1.50 ± 0.94 ng/mg hair, respectively. Hair analyses were negative for methylphenidate and its metabolite (ritalinic acid). Biological matrices testing for psychoactive drugs disclosed both acute and chronic intoxication with quetiapine and sertraline administered by the mother. PMID:27399225

  8. Spontaneous and experimental intoxication of cattle by Simarouba versicolor A. St.-Hill (Simaroubaceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nilton M; Bacha, Flavia B; Santos, Ariany C; Carvalho, Amanda Q; Faccin, Tatiane C; Pott, Arnildo; Lemos, Ricardo A A

    2013-03-15

    This study describes an outbreak of Simarouba versicolor intoxication in cattle from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and reproduces it experimentally. Clinical signs of the affected animals were weakness, tremors, hind limbs incoordination, reluctance to move, sternal and lateral recumbency and death. The main necropsy findings, observed in the abomasum and in segments of the small and large intestines, were diffuse redness and mucosal and serosal swelling. Histological examination revealed necrosis of lymphoid tissues and necrotizing enterocolitis. One experiment was carried out using 3 male calves to test the toxicity of a single dose of S. versicolor leaves at 15 g/kg, 5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histological examination of calves receiving 15 g/kg and 5 g/kg leaves were similar to those of cattle from the intoxication outbreak. The calf fed 2.5 g/kg leaves developed clinical symptoms of poisoning and recovered naturally. In a second experiment, two male calves received daily administration of S. versicolor leaves at 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg for 10 days. They developed clinical signs of intoxication within 24 h and recovered eight to nine days after the leaves were administered. These findings suggest that S. versicolor was responsible for the outbreak studied, although this plant does not have cumulative intoxication effects on cattle. PMID:23319076

  9. Think They're Drunk? Alcohol Servers and the Identification of Intoxication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward D.; Nusbaumer, Michael R.; Reiling, Denise M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines practices used by servers to assess intoxication. The analysis was based upon questionnaires mailed to a random probability sample of licensed servers from one state (N = 822). Indicators found to be most important were examined in relation to a variety of occupational characteristics. Implications for training curricula, policy…

  10. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy for Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication: Clinical Experience in Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Gökhan; Güneysel, Özlem; Taşyürek, Tanju; Kozan, Ergül; Çevik, Şebnem Eren

    2015-01-01

    There is no specific antidote for intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids. In this case series, we considered the efficiency of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in four cases, who presented to emergency department with synthetic cannabinoid (bonzai) intoxication. The first patient had a GCS of 3 and a left bundle branch block on electrocardiography. The electrocardiography revealed sinus rhythm with normal QRS width after the treatment. The second patient had bradycardia, hypotension, and a GCS of 14. After intravenous lipid emulsion therapy, the bradycardia resolved, and the patient's GCS improved to 15. The third patient presented with a GCS of 8, and had hypotension and bradycardia. After the treatment, not only did the bradycardia resolve, but also the GCS improved to 15. The fourth patient, whose electrocardiography revealed accelerated junctional rhythm, had a GCS of 13. The patient's rhythm was sinus after the treatment. Cardiovascular recovery was seen in all four cases, and neurological recovery was also seen in three of them. Based on the fact that intravenous lipid emulsion is beneficial in patients intoxicated with lipophilic drugs, unstable patients presenting to the emergency department with acute synthetic cannabinoid intoxication may be candidates for intravenous lipid emulsion treatment. PMID:26078891

  11. Drink Specials and the Intoxication Levels of Patrons Exiting College Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Dodd, Virginia; Porkorny, Steven B.; Omli, Morrow R.; O'Mara, Ryan; Webb, Monica C.; Lacaci, Diana M.; Werch, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether drink specials independently increase patrons' risk of achieving a high level of intoxication upon exiting drinking establishments. Methods: In a campus community, data were collected from exiting patrons (N=291) via sidewalk interviews and breath tests on 6 nights of 2 consecutive semesters. Results: A…

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') TO ACUTE FENVALERATE INTOXICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physiological responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to fenvalerate intoxication during aqueous exposure were examined to provide information about the pyrethroid mode of action in fish. Trout (n = 4) were exposed to 412 + or - 50 micro/liter fenvalerate and died in 10....

  13. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  14. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  15. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  16. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  17. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  18. Drunk and Disorganised: Relationships between Bar Characteristics and Customer Intoxication in European Drinking Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Karen; Quigg, Zara; Bellis, Mark A.; Calafat, Amador; van Hasselt, Ninette; Kosir, Matej; Voorham, Lotte; Goossens, Ferry X.; Duch, Mariangels; Juan, Montse

    2012-01-01

    Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK (n = 237 observational visits). Using a structured observational schedule, researchers recorded characteristics of the bar environment and rated customer intoxication levels. All physical bar characteristics showed associations with intoxication before interactions between them were controlled for. Hierarchical modelling found significant independent associations between intoxication and use of plastic glassware, promotion of non-alcoholic drinks (often energy drinks), permissive environments, poor washroom facilities, the presence of a dance floor, customer sexual activity/competitiveness and later observational time. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should focus on raising and enforcing managerial standards in bars. While harm reduction measures such as plastic glassware are often promoted for high risk bars, such measures are inadequate to address public health concerns and insufficient to demonstrate social responsibility. PMID:23202832

  19. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Horna, Ales; Kizek, René

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animals associated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides with anticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed to bromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD 207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days long exposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of common voles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However, electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues from earthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determined comparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary (2.34±0.10 μg/g) and secondary (2.20±0.53 μg/g) intoxication. Therefore, the risk of secondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance.

  20. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Folarin, Rachael O.; Omirinde, Jamiu O.; Bejide, Ronald; Isola, Tajudeen O.; Usende, Levi I.; Basiru, Afisu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Group 2 on the 8th day. Groups 5 and 6 received similar oral doses of Cuscuta australis stem extracts for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Groups 3 and 4. Group 2 rats showed severe periportal hepatic necrosis, significantly elevated serum hepatic injury markers, markedly increased lipid peroxidation, and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities. Remarkably, Cuscuta australis (seed and stem) extract pretreatments in Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, most especially, the stem extract pretreatment in Groups 5 and 6, improved better the hepatic histoarchitecture, the hepatocellular, and the oxidative stress injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusively, ethanol extractions of Cuscuta australis stem appear to protect the liver from acetaminophen intoxication better than the seed counterpart. PMID:27433518

  1. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine-A Summary of Real Cases

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B.; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis. PMID:22069699

  2. Inhibiting oral intoxication of botulinum neurotoxin A by carbohydrate receptor mimics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism manifested by flaccid paralysis that could be fatal to humans and animals. Oral ingestion of the toxin with contaminated food is one of the most common routes of BoNT intoxication, where BoNT assembles with several auxiliary proteins to surviv...

  3. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  4. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law...) horizontal gaze nystagmus tests as sanctioned by the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration,...

  5. 15 CFR 265.38 - Intoxication or other impairment of function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxication or other impairment of function. 265.38 Section 265.38 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  6. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law...) horizontal gaze nystagmus tests as sanctioned by the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration,...

  7. Personality Factors Associated with Driving while Intoxicated: A Comparison Study of Adolescent Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed personality factors of 152 adolescent drivers. Found that subjects convicted of driving while intoxicated (DWI) and juvenile offenders without DWI citations more often endorsed feelings of powerlessness and stressful life events than did drivers without DWI citations. DWI offenders were more likely to indicate that alcohol made them loud,…

  8. Intervening to Decrease Alcohol Abuse at University Parties: Differential Reinforcement of Intoxication Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Angela K.; Ehrhart, Ian J.; Glindemann, Kent E.; Geller, E. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This quasi-experimental field study assessed whether an incentive/reward intervention can change the drinking behavior and the subsequent levels of intoxication among college students attending fraternity parties. A total of 356 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) assessments, using hand-held breathalyzers, were obtained at two baseline and at two…

  9. Event-Level Covariation of Alcohol Intoxication and Behavioral Risks during the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Dan J.; Fromme, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the global- and event-level associations between alcohol intoxication and 10 behavioral risks during the 1st year of college. Participants (n = 1113; 62% female; 54% Caucasian) completed 30 days of Web-based self-monitoring that assessed alcohol consumption and involvement in 10 behavioral risks. Generalized estimating…

  10. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  11. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. 636.16 Section 636.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... drivers. In addition to the requirements in § 634.36 of this subchapter, the standard field sobriety...

  12. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. 636.16 Section 636.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... drivers. In addition to the requirements in § 634.36 of this subchapter, the standard field sobriety...

  13. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. 636.16 Section 636.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... drivers. In addition to the requirements in § 634.36 of this subchapter, the standard field sobriety...

  14. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. 636.16 Section 636.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... drivers. In addition to the requirements in § 634.36 of this subchapter, the standard field sobriety...

  15. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. 636.16 Section 636.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... drivers. In addition to the requirements in § 634.36 of this subchapter, the standard field sobriety...

  16. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  17. Personality Differences of First-Time and Repeat Offenders Arrested for Driving while Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined personality characteristics of first-time (n=174) and repeat (n=64) driving while intoxicated offenders. Found that repeat offenders differed significantly from first-time offenders on 12 of 24 personality characteristics, were less expressive emotionally, and were less flexible in ways of finding stimulation; however, self-reported…

  18. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gagini, Thalita B.; Silva, Robson E.; Castro, Isabela S.; Soares, Breno A.; Lima, Marco E.F.; Brito, Marilene F.; Mazur, Carlos; Direito, Glória M.; Danelli, Maria das Graças M.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg) during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals. PMID:24031502

  19. Antihypertensive therapy in patients on chronic lithium treatment for bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Reghin, Francesco; Padrini, Roberto; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are chronic conditions treated with lithium, which exerts deleterious effects on the kidney, among which nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, tubular acidosis and ultimately chronic kidney disease. Conversely, drugs that alter renal function can modify its serum levels and lead to the potentially fatal lithium intoxication. A search in the main library databases from 1975 to 2015 to identify interactions between antihypertensive drugs and lithium using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome strategy provided only 30 reports of lithium intoxication. A regression analysis showed that the severity of lithium intoxication was significantly predicted by female, age, and use of certain classes of antihypertensive agents. A model including certain albeit not all diuretics and/or inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, but not age, serum lithium or creatinine levels at baseline and/or on admission to the hospital, predicted lithium toxicity. The true incidence of lithium intoxication is unknown but probably low, albeit underestimated. Nonetheless, in patients treated with lithium, monitoring of the serum lithium levels and clinical conditions is mandatory after the introduction of antihypertensive drugs, as diuretics and renin-aldosterone system inhibitors. PMID:26630207

  20. Model based iterative reconstruction IMR gives possibility to evaluate thinner slice thicknesses than conventional iterative reconstruction iDose4: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurumskjöld, Marie-Louise; Ydström, Kristina; Tingberg, Anders; Söderberg, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most important modalities in a radiological department, which produces images with high diagnostic confidence, but in some cases contributes to a high radiation dose to the patient. The radiation dose can be reduced by the use of advanced image reconstruction algorithms. This study was done on a Philips Brilliance iCT with iterative reconstruction iDose4 and model-based iterative reconstruction IMR. The purpose was to investigate the effect on the image quality with thin slice images reconstructed with IMR, compared to standard slice thickness reconstructed with iDose4. Objective measurements of noise and contrast-to-noise ratio were performed using an image quality phantom, an anthropomorphic phantom and clinical cases. Subjective evaluations of low-contrast resolution were performed by observers using an image quality phantom. IMR gives strong noise reduction and enhanced low-contrast and thereby enable selection of thinner slice thickness. Objective evaluation of image noise shows that thin slices reconstructed with IMR provides lower noise than thicker slice images reconstructed with iDose4. With IMR the slice thickness is of less importance for the noise. With thinner slices the partial volume artefacts becomes less pronounced. In conclusion, we have shown that IMR enables reduction of the slice thickness and at the same time maintain or even reduce the noise level compared to iDose4 reconstruction with standard slice thickness. This will subsequently result in an improvement of image quality for images reconstructed with IMR.

  1. Last call: ethanol metabolism and the implications for emergency department clinicians managing patients with extreme ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy M

    2009-01-01

    The legal consumption of alcohol at a drinking age of 21 years and the accepting, ubiquitous nature of our society has caused alcohol consumption to become highly prevalent in our society. To this avail, emergency departments will continue to see a greater number of intoxicated patients, and it is imperative that clinicians remain up to date about treatment strategies and general management of the acutely intoxicated individual. This article expounds on many of the subtle presentations that may be featured by the intoxicated patient and discusses the current treatment modalities and pitfalls utilized by today's emergency clinician. PMID:20118874

  2. [Erythrocyte membrane permeability and the sorption capacity of erythrocytes--optimal criteria of the severity of endogenous intoxication].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlovich, V A; Marusanov, V E; Bichun, A B; Domanskaia, I A

    1993-01-01

    Sorption capacity of erythrocytes (SCE) and erythrocyte membrane permeability (EMP) have been determined along with a number of other biochemical parameters to assess the degree of intoxication in 265 critically ill patients. EMP was determined by a modified technique of V. N. Kolmakov. A high correlation between EMP, SCE and the level of biologically active substances has been established. Therefore, EMP and SCE are regarded as basic criteria reflecting the severity of endogenous intoxication and changes in these values form the basis for intoxication classification. PMID:8116908

  3. Chronic cholecystitis

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystitis - chronic ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks are caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. These ...

  4. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  5. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... carry air to your lungs. It causes a cough that often brings up mucus. It can also cause shortness of breath, wheezing, a low fever, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type of COPD (chronic ...

  6. Drilling fluids and thinners therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, G.M. III

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid comprising water, finely divided solids and a first agent and a second agent. The first agent comprises a sulfoalkylated tannin containing no complexing heavy metal. The second agent comprises at least one at least partly water-soluble metal compound comprising tin. The weight ratio of the first agent to the second agent is in the range from about 100;1 to about 1:1.

  7. Blood Thinners and Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Executive Committee Board of Trustees Governance Past Presidents Staff/Contact History Awards Our Partners Membership Membership Categories Renew Your Membership Login Fellowship Academic Fellowship Affiliate Fellowship (AFAOM) Application Process Fellowship Study ...

  8. Highwall miners pursue thinner seams

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-04-15

    OEMs have implemented design changes to reduce the machine's footprint and to mine more accurately. Three manufacturers offer highwall mining systems, American Highwall Systems (AMS), ICG Addcar and Superior Highwall Miners. Latest developments in their machines are reported. 3 photos.

  9. Lycopodium clavatum exine microcapsules enable safe oral delivery of 3,4-diaminopyridine for treatment of botulinum neurotoxin A intoxication.

    PubMed

    Harris, T L; Wenthur, C J; Diego-Taboada, A; Mackenzie, G; Corbitt, T S; Janda, K D

    2016-03-18

    3,4-Diaminopyridine has shown promise in reversing botulinum intoxication, but poor pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window limit its clinical utility. Thus, we developed a pH-dependent oral delivery platform using club moss spore exines. These exine microcapsules slowed 3,4-diaminopyridine absorption, limited its seizure activity, and enabled delivery of doses which prolonged mouse survival after botulism neurotoxin A intoxication. PMID:26906286

  10. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (P<0.001) above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05) and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01) and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05) in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05) relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  11. Gluteal compartment syndrome due to prolonged immobilization after alcohol intoxication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Shinichi; Miura, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Tomokazu; Seki, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Katuhiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-07-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition that mostly result from atraumatic causes such as prolonged immobilization due to drug abuse or alcoholic intoxication and incorrect positioning during surgical procedures rather than traumatic causes. Early diagnosis is difficult and sometimes delayed or overlooked because of poor physical signs resulting from altered mental status and inappropriate diagnosis by clinicians. It has been reported that more than half of the cases of gluteal compartment syndrome are associated with crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and immediate fasciotomy are necessary to improve the functional prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome caused by prolonged immobilization after acute alcoholic intoxication. After disease onset, the patient developed complications of crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy, but immediate fasciotomy improved his condition. PMID:21769768

  12. Detection of Ricin Intoxication in Mice Using Serum Peptide Profiling by MALDI-TOF/MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siyan; Liu, Wen-Sen; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiping; Sun, Yucheng; Li, Nan; Hou, Feng; Wan, Jia-Yu; Li, Zhongyi; Qian, Jun; Liu, Linna

    2012-01-01

    Ricin toxin has been regarded as one of the most potent poisons in the plant kingdom, and there is no effective therapeutic countermeasure or licensed vaccine against it. Consequently, early detection of ricin intoxication is necessary. In this study, we took mice as test subjects, and used the technique of Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and ClinProt™ microparticle beads to set up an effective detection model with an accuracy of almost 100%. Eighty-two peaks in the mass range 1000–10,000 m/z were detected by ClinProTools software, and five different peaks with m/z of 4982.49, 1333.25, 1537.86, 4285.05 and 2738.88 had the greatest contribution to the accuracy and sensitivity of this model. They may therefore provide biomarkers for ricin intoxication. PMID:23202975

  13. Autopsy report for a caffeine intoxication case and review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takuma; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kubo, Shin-ichi; Emoto, Yuko; Hara, Kenji; Waters, Brian; Umehara, Takahiro; Murase, Takehiko; Ikematsu, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a popular mild central nervous system stimulant found in the leaves, seeds and fruits of various plants and in foodstuffs such as coffee, tea, and chocolate, among others. Caffeine is widely used and is not associated with severe side effects when consumed at relatively low doses. Although rarely observed, overdoses can occur. However, only a few fatal caffeine intoxication cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report the pathological examination results and information on caffeine concentrations in the blood, urine and main organs in a fatal caffeine intoxication case. Even though high caffeine concentrations were found in the systemic organs, no caffeine-related pathological changes were detected. PMID:26023259

  14. Concomitant neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lithium intoxication in a patient with bipolar I disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, P Y; Wu, C K; Sun, T F

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to remind clinicians of the risk of the simultaneous occurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and lithium intoxication. A 39-year-old female with bipolar I disorder was admitted to our psychiatric ward due to relapse of a manic episode and a suicide attempt in which she had ingested 20 to 30 tablets of lithium (300 mg/tablet) 12 hours before admission. Except for intramuscular injection of 5 mg of haloperidol 30 minutes after admission, the patient received no antipsychotic drugs during her hospitalization. Six hours after admission, she began to show symptoms of NMS. Lithium intoxication was also found. Within a week, her condition had stabilized with no neurological complications or cognitive deficits noted during the following 4 months. Discussed in this case report are the risk factors of NMS found in this patient, drug interactions of lithium and antipsychotic agents as related to NMS, and problems in clinical management. PMID:11126155

  15. Phenytoin intoxication with no symptoms correlated with serum drug level: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Avcil, Mucahit; Duman, Ali; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Kapci, Mucahit; Akoz, Ayhan; Canakci, Selcuk Eren; Ozluer, Yunus Emre

    2015-01-01

    In high-dose intake of phenytoin, which is used frequently to treatepilepsy, nystagmus, diplopia, nausea-vomiting, lethargy, confusion, seizure, and coma can be observed. In recent studies on phenytoin intoxication, in which seizure and coma were observed in drug levels greater than 50 ug/mL. The serum phenytoin level of apatient, who consumed approximately 100 pcs of 100 mg phenytoin tablets in an effort to commit suicide, and who had no pathological finding in her neurologic examination, was 124 ug/mL. High drug level and the absence of toxic effect (or the absence of toxic effect correlated with the drug level) indicates that cytochrome P450 is functioning, but there can be a mutation in the MDR1 gene. In our case study, we report on phenytoin intoxication in a patient having a high level of phenytoin but no symptoms correlated with serum drug level, as supported by the findings in the literature. PMID:26966493

  16. Intravenous lipid emulsion and dexmedetomidine for treatment of feline permethrin intoxication: a report from 4 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ceccherini, G.; Perondi, F.; Lippi, I.; Grazia, G.; Marchetti, V.

    2015-01-01

    Four cases of feline permethrin intoxication are described. The cause of intoxication is the application of canine permethrin spot-on product (Advantix®, Bayer) by the owners. Principal clinical guidelines recommends the use of anticonvulsant drugs to treat seizures or neurological symptoms after initial stabilization and dermal decontamination. The use of lipid emulsion had an increasing interest in the last decade for treatment of toxicosis caused by lipophylic drugs as reported in human and in veterinary medical practices. All cats presented in this study, were treated with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) at variable dosages, and dexmedetomidine was also administered by intravenous way. No adverse reaction such as thrombophlebitis, overload circulation or others was noticed during and after administration of ILE. Dexmedetomidine was proved to be helpful in tranquillizing the cats. All cats were discharged in good condition faster than other cases treated without their use. PMID:26623376

  17. Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Barreca, Massimo; Galiano, Rossella; Galati, Maria Concetta; Raiola, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite for 6 days. He had been given a multivitamin preparation once daily, containing 50.000 IU of vitamin D and 10.000 IU of vitamin A for a wide anterior fontanelle for about three months. He presented with hypercalcemia, low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and very high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels. Renal ultrasound showed nephrocalcinosis. He did not have sign or symptom of vitamin A intoxication. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and prednisolone. With treatment, serum calcium returned rapidly to the normal range and serum 25-OHD levels were reduced progressively. In conclusion the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets without checking 25-OHD levels may cause redundant treatment that leads to vitamin D intoxication (VDI). PMID:27478669

  18. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes1,2. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication. PMID:23416793

  19. A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

  20. [Pharmacological correction of toxic liver damage in patients with heavy forms of acute ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shikalova, I A; Shilov, V V; Vasil'ev, S A; Batotsyrenov, B V; Loladze, A T

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of using remaxol and ademethionine in the therapy of patients with heavy acute alcohol intoxication on the background of toxic liver damage has been studied. The administration of remaxol led to improvement of the clinical treatment of alcohol intoxication, which is manifested by a decrease in the rate and duration of delirium tremens (from 33.9 to 10.8%), frequency of secondary lung disorders (from 18.5 to 3.1%), duration of stay in hospital (from 7.3 +/- 0.6 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days), and total therapy duration (from 11.8 +/- 1.05 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days). The results of biochemical investigations confirmed that remaxol and ademethionine provide effective treatment of the toxic liver damage. Remaxol decreases the degree of metabolic disorders to a greater extent than does ademethionine. PMID:22702109

  1. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  2. [The separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium intoxication on rat reproductive function].

    PubMed

    Tyshko, N V; Seliaskin, K E; Mel'nik, E A; Pashorina, V A; Zhminchenko, V M

    2012-01-01

    The publication presents investigation evaluated of separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium (Cd2+) intoxication on rat reproductive function. The experi-ments were performed on 280 adult and 890 offspring of Wistar rats. Reproductive function was estimated by fertility study, prenatal and postnatal development of offspring. The separate and combined effects of and cadmium intoxication during the mating period and pregnancy had no effect on fertility and fecundity of rats, pre-and postimplantation loss, the survival of offspring, and not caused the abnormal development of skeleton and internal organs. However, in prenatal ontogeny of this effect was manifested by lower body weight and fetal growth, postnatal - underdevelopment of rat pups in all morphological and functional studied parameters and increasing number of stillbirths in the offspring. PMID:22642163

  3. Characterization of pentoxyverine metabolites in urine using GC/MS after intoxication with Silomat cough drops.

    PubMed

    Westphal, F; Junge, Th; Radünz, L; Stegk, J; Rochholz, G

    2012-02-10

    A nearly two and a half year old boy was hospitalized after showing symptoms of disorientation and hallucination. The parents remembered the child playing with a bottle of Silomat cough drops, so that an intoxication was taken into consideration. After liquid/liquid extraction of a urine sample collected in hospital, the underivatized and the acetylated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using electron ionization (EI) as well as chemical ionization (CI). In the urine sample high amounts of pentoxyverine (carbetapentane) and several of its metabolites, e.g., different hydrolyzed, desalkylated and ring-hydroxylated products have been identified. The correlation of the results, the observed symptoms, and the access to the Silomat cough drops reveal an intoxication after ingestion of an unknown amount of the antitussive pentoxyverine. Corresponding EI- and CI-GC/MS spectra are presented characterizing the structure of its metabolites. PMID:21450423

  4. Vitamins and monothiols efficacy in the restoration of adenosine nucleotide degradation enzymes altered during methylmercury intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P.P.; Bapu, C.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    1995-12-31

    Male albino mice were intoxicated with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg of methylmercury chloride (MMC) for 7 days, and were treated thereafter with glutathione, N-acetyl-DL-homocysteine thiolactone, vitamin B complex, and vitamin E, either alone or in combinations for the next 7 days. The animals were sacrificed on the eighth day, with the exception of one group that was kept without toxic exposure for an additional 7 days and sacrificed on the fifteenth day. Brain, spinal cord, kidney, and liver of the animals were examined for changes in adenosine deaminase and 5{prime} nucleotidase. We found a severe inhibition of these enzymes during MMC intoxication and significant recovery during monothiols and vitamins administration, indicating the effectiveness of these agents in methylmercury detoxication. 26 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Microglia is activated by astrocytes in trimethyltin intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, Claudia . E-mail: claudia.roehl@gmx.net; Sievers, Jobst

    2005-04-01

    Microglia participates in most acute and chronic neuropathologies and its activation appears to involve interactions with neurons and other glial cells. Trimethyltin (TMT)-induced brain damage is a well-characterized model of neurodegeneration, in which microglial activation occurs before neuronal degeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the role of astroglia in TMT-induced microgliosis by using nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and morphological changes as parameters for microglial activation. Our investigation discusses (a) whether microglial cells can be activated directly by TMT; (b) if astroglial cells are capable of triggering or modulating microglial activation; (c) how the morphology and survival of microglia and astrocytes are affected by TMT treatment; and (d) whether microglial-astroglial interactions depend on direct cell contact or on soluble factors. Our results show that microglia are more vulnerable to TMT than astrocytes are and cannot be activated directly by TMT with regard to the examined parameters. In bilayer coculture with viable astroglial cells, microglia produce NO in significant amounts at subcytotoxic concentrations of TMT (20 {mu}mol/l). At these TMT concentrations, microglial cells in coculture convert into small round cells without cell processes, whereas flat, fibroblast-like astrocytes convert into thin process bearing stellate cells with a dense and compact cell body. We conclude that astrocytes trigger microglial activation after treatment with TMT, although the mechanisms of this interaction remain unknown.

  6. A new tool for the early diagnosis of carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, A; Ulrich, D; Grieb, G; Pallua, N

    2009-11-01

    Invasive measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) by blood gas analysis (BGA) is accepted as the standard diagnostic procedure in diagnosis of inhalation injury and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxications. The main disadvantage of BGA with COHb testing is the unavailability in pre-hospital rescue conditions. The non-invasive SpCO analysis using pulse CO oximetry (Rad57, Masimo Corp., USA) represents an easy-to-handle device to facilitate the diagnosis of CO intoxication. Between January 2006 and August 2008, 20 patients who were admitted with CO intoxication to our burn centre were included in this study. Blood gas analysis including COHb testing was performed on the first day, hourly. At the same time, SpCO was determined using the Rad57 pulse CO oximeter. Patients received inhalative oxygen according to the parameters of blood gas analysis or hyperbaric oxygenation if COHb > 10%. Five young healthy volunteers served as control group. The SpCO of the volunteers was cross-checked against their COHb levels, which were measured by blood gas analysis. Results of pulse CO oximetry revealed a mean error of approximately 3.15% from the results achieved by blood gas analysis. If COHb resulted in values higher than 10%, the bias remained approximately the same (3.43%/precision 2.362%). When different blood gas analyzers in our department were tested with the same patient sample, a mean error of 2.4% was found. This is only 1% lower compared to the mean error of pulse CO oximetry. Therefore, pulse CO oximetry represents a reliable measurement technique that is easy to handle and could facilitate the early diagnosis of CO intoxication in pre-hospital rescue conditions. PMID:19852557

  7. From divination to madness: features of acute intoxication with Salvia use

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Munidasa; Mahendran, Rathi

    2014-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive botanical plant that is increasingly used for the ‘legal’ highs that it can produce. It is readily available for purchase on the Internet, and most abusers are unaware of the toxicity and abuse potential associated with its use. As the use of novel compounds among abusers is not uncommon, physicians need to increase their awareness and recognition of these new substances. Herein, we report a case of an acute presentation of Salvia intoxication. PMID:24763842

  8. Toad Intoxication in the Dog by Rhinella marina : The Clinical Syndrome and Current Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnnides, Stephanie; Green, Tiffany; Eubig, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Oral exposure to the secretions of Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus ) can carry a high fatality rate without early and appropriate treatment. In dogs, the clinical syndrome, which is evident almost immediately, manifests in profuse ptyalism along with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs. Severe cardiac arrhythmias develop less frequently. This review will cover the history, toxicology, and clinical syndrome of Rhinella marina intoxication, and will discuss the recommended therapies for stabilization. PMID:27259028

  9. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  10. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone

  11. Distinct Roles for CdtA and CdtC during Intoxication by Cytolethal Distending Toxins.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Shandee D; Huynh, Melanie M; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Spiegelman, Lindsey M; Son, Sophia B; Eshraghi, Aria; Blanke, Steven R; Bradley, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are heterotrimeric protein exotoxins produced by a diverse array of Gram-negative pathogens. The enzymatic subunit, CdtB, possesses DNase and phosphatidylinositol 3-4-5 trisphosphate phosphatase activities that induce host cell cycle arrest, cellular distension and apoptosis. To exert cyclomodulatory and cytotoxic effects CDTs must be taken up from the host cell surface and transported intracellularly in a manner that ultimately results in localization of CdtB to the nucleus. However, the molecular details and mechanism by which CDTs bind to host cells and exploit existing uptake and transport pathways to gain access to the nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we report that CdtA and CdtC subunits of CDTs derived from Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT) and enteropathogenic E. coli (Ec-CDT) are independently sufficient to support intoxication by their respective CdtB subunits. CdtA supported CdtB-mediated killing of T-cells and epithelial cells that was nearly as efficient as that observed with holotoxin. In contrast, the efficiency by which CdtC supported intoxication was dependent on the source of the toxin as well as the target cell type. Further, CdtC was found to alter the subcellular trafficking of Ec-CDT as determined by sensitivity to EGA, an inhibitor of endosomal trafficking, colocalization with markers of early and late endosomes, and the kinetics of DNA damage response. Finally, host cellular cholesterol was found to influence sensitivity to intoxication mediated by Ec-CdtA, revealing a role for cholesterol or cholesterol-rich membrane domains in intoxication mediated by this subunit. In summary, data presented here support a model in which CdtA and CdtC each bind distinct receptors on host cell surfaces that direct alternate intracellular uptake and/or trafficking pathways. PMID:26618479

  12. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- HCO3-, Ca++), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  13. Association of Polymorphisms of Phase I Metabolizing Genes with Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Occupational Workers Exposed to Toluene Used in Paint Thinners

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Kanu; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Gulati, Sachin; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Gupta, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated genetic damage in paint workers mainly exposed to toluene as it is a major solvent used in paint thinners. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay was used as biomarker of genotoxicity. Blood samples were collected from 30 paint workers and 30 control subjects matched with respect to age and other confounding factors except for exposure to toluene. SCE frequency was found to be significantly higher in paint workers (4.81 ± 0.92) as compared to control individuals (1.73 ± 0.54) (p < 0.05). We also investigated influence of polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1m2 genes on SCE frequency. Our results showed that there was significant increase in frequencies of SCE among the mutant genotypes of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1m2 as compared to wild genotypes. Our study indicated that long term exposure of toluene can increase genotoxic risk in paint workers. PMID:26688756

  14. Inhibiting oral intoxication of botulinum neurotoxin A complex by carbohydrate receptor mimics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangkook; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Kruel, Anna-Magdalena; Mahrhold, Stefan; Perry, Kay; Cheng, Luisa W; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism manifested by flaccid paralysis that could be fatal to humans and animals. Oral ingestion of the toxin with contaminated food is one of the most common routes for botulism. BoNT assembles with several auxiliary proteins to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and is subsequently transported through the intestinal epithelium into the general circulation. Several hemagglutinin proteins form a multi-protein complex (HA complex) that recognizes host glycans on the intestinal epithelial cell surface to facilitate BoNT absorption. Blocking carbohydrate binding to the HA complex could significantly inhibit the oral toxicity of BoNT. Here, we identify lactulose, a galactose-containing non-digestible sugar commonly used to treat constipation, as a prototype inhibitor against oral BoNT/A intoxication. As revealed by a crystal structure, lactulose binds to the HA complex at the same site where the host galactose-containing carbohydrate receptors bind. In vitro assays using intestinal Caco-2 cells demonstrated that lactulose inhibits HA from compromising the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayers and blocks the internalization of HA. Furthermore, co-administration of lactulose significantly protected mice against BoNT/A oral intoxication in vivo. Taken together, these data encourage the development of carbohydrate receptor mimics as a therapeutic intervention to prevent BoNT oral intoxication. PMID:26272706

  15. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Ming-Hua; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients. PMID:25745326

  16. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Ming-Hua; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients. PMID:25745326

  17. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-15

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: > This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. > Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. > Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. > Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  18. Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Salama, Afrah F; El Nimr, Tarek M; El Gamal, Doaa M

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) was fed with the basal diet, group II was intoxicated with Cd in drinking water, groups III, IV, and V were intoxicated with Cd in drinking water and fed with the diet containing 3.5, 7, and 10 g of PA/kg, respectively. The results indicated that the serum calcium, iron (Fe), and total Fe binding capacity levels and serum T3 and T4 in Cd-treated rats of group II were decreased when compared with the control group, while PA-administered groups with Cd showed a significant improvement when compared with the Cd-treated rats only. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased in Cd-treated rats compared with the control group, while the addition of PA in diet decreased the high levels of TSH. These results indicated a prophylactic effect of PA against Cd-induced toxicity in rats. PMID:23796758

  19. Depressive Symptoms Anticipate Changes in the Frequency of Alcohol Intoxication Among Low-Accepted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Ashley D.; Laursen, Brett; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is strong evidence that depression anticipates later drinking problems among adults. These associations have not been consistently documented during adolescence, perhaps because little attention has been given to individual differences in peer relationships, which are the primary setting for adolescent alcohol consumption. This study investigated associations between depressive affect and alcohol misuse as moderated by peer group acceptance. Method: A community sample of 1,048 Swedish youth provided self-reports of depressive symptoms and intoxication frequency at annual intervals across the middle school years (seventh grade: M = 13.21 years old; eighth grade: M = 14.27 years old; ninth grade: M = 15.26 years old). Peer nominations provided a measure of individual acceptance. Results: Growth curve analyses revealed differences in the extent to which initial levels of depressive symptoms predicted the slope of increase in intoxication frequency. Higher levels of depressive symptoms at the outset anticipated sharp increases in intoxication frequency from seventh to ninth grades for low-accepted youth but not for average- or high-accepted youth. Conclusions: poor peer relations and depressive affect are vulnerabilities that set the stage for escalating adolescent alcohol misuse. Across the middle school years, when most youth have their first experiences with alcohol, peer difficulties exacerbated the tendency of depressed youth to drink to excess. PMID:26098034

  20. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    So, K L; de Buijzer, E; Gommers, D; Kaisers, U; van Genderen, P J; Lachmann, B

    1998-08-01

    Paraquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possible therapeutic effect of intratracheal surfactant administration on gas exchange in rats with progressive lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning was studied. In one group of rats, the time course of the development of lung injury due to paraquat intoxication was characterized. In a second group of rats, 72 h after paraquat intoxication, the animals underwent mechanical ventilation and only those animals in which the arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction (Pa,O2/FI,O2) decreased to below 20 kPa (150 mmHg) received exogenous surfactant (200 mg x kg(-1) body weight). Within 3 days the rats in group 1 developed progressive respiratory failure, demonstrated not only by impaired gas exchange and lung mechanics but also by increased minimal surface tension and increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In group 2, intratracheal surfactant administration increased Pa,O2/FI,O2 significantly within 5 min (14.4+/-2.4 kPa (108+/-18 mmHg)) to (55.2+/-53 kPa (414+/-40 mmHg)) and sustained this level for at least 2 h. It is concluded that intratracheal surfactant administration is a promising approach in the treatment of severe respiratory failure caused by paraquat poisoning. PMID:9727775

  1. A fatal intoxication related to MDPV and pentedrone combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Liveri, Katerina; Constantinou, Maria A; Afxentiou, Maria; Kanari, Popi

    2016-08-01

    This is a case report of a fatal intoxication in Cyprus related to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) intake combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances. A 42- year old man with a history of serious psychiatric illness was found unresponsive in his bed. Seized materials were also found close to his body. The forensic autopsy reported myocardial infarction due to multidrug intoxication. Toxicology screening in blood and urine was applied. Biological specimens were analysed by enzyme immunoassay procedure and GC/MS. MDPV, pentedrone and etizolam detected and quantitated in blood and urine. Other drugs quantitated in blood were also olanzapine, mirtazapine, and ephedrine. This was the first fatal case reported in Cyprus associated with new psychoactive substances. Additionally, this was the first case reported to Early Warning System of the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Abuse (EMCDDA), related to multidrug intoxication, attributed to the consumption of cathinones, designer benzodiazepines, and other drugs. PMID:26930452

  2. Both water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption increase brain water content in rats.

    PubMed

    Kozler, P; Riljak, V; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    Our previous experiments revealed that water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption in the rat allow penetration of high-molecular substances into the brain and that resulting changes in the internal environment of the CNS lead to pathological development, such as the loss of integrity of myelin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the previously described phenomena are associated with increased water content in the brain. To answer the question following methods were used: a) water intoxication: intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, b) osmotic BBB disruption: application of mannitol (20 %) selectively into the internal carotid artery, c) brain wet weight was measured after decapitation, and subsequently (after six days in thermostat set at 86 °C) the dry weight were estimated d) in animals with 20 % and 30 % hyperhydration the degree of myelin deterioration was estimated e) animal locomotor activity was tested by continuous behavior tracking and analysis. Brain water content after water intoxication and following the administration of mannitol was higher than in the control group. Different degrees of hyperhydration led to different levels of brain water content and to different degrees of myelin impairment. Hyperhydration corresponding to 20 % of the body weight brought about lower locomotor activity. Increased water content in the brain after the BBB osmotic disruption is surprising because this method is frequently used in the clinical practice. PMID:24329706

  3. Struggling to survive: the experiences of women sexually assaulted while intoxicated.

    PubMed

    Kalmakis, Karen A

    2011-06-01

    Approximately half of all sexual assault cases involve substance abuse or misuse, yet no studies have focused specifically on women who were under the influence of a substance when assaulted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who were sexually assault while under the influence of a substance. A phenomenological approach was used to gather data using individual, in-depth interviews with women following a sexual assault while intoxicated. Interviews were conducted using open-ended and probing questions to explore participants' life experiences from childhood to the present. The study uncovered a continuous struggle to survive among the participants. Five themes including previous victimization, substance misuse, struggling with feelings, finding support, and struggling to break the cycle were found. This research revealed lives complicated by substance misuse and histories of victimization. Intoxication raises vulnerability and risk for sexual assault. Effective nursing interventions designed to address the women's history of victimization and substance misuse may benefit women sexually assaulted while intoxicated. PMID:21635677

  4. Antioxidant effects of selenium on lung injury in paraquat intoxicated rats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, K.S.; Suh, G.J.; Kwon, W.Y.; Kwak, Y.H.; Lee, Kenneth; Lee, H.J.; Jeong, K.Y.; Lee, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Paraquat (PQ) causes lethal intoxication by inducing oxidant injury to the lung. Selenium is a cofactor for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is one of the major endogenous antioxidant enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether selenium post-treatment activates GPx, decreases lung injury, and improves survival in PQ intoxicated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Spraque-Dawley rats were categorized into three groups: sham (n = 6), PQ (n = 12), and PQ + Se (n = 12). In the PQ and PQ + Se groups, 50 mg/kg of PQ was administered intraperitoneally. After 10 minutes, 60 μg/kg of Se (PQ + Se) or saline (PQ) was administered via the tail vein. Six rats per group were euthanized 6 hours or 24 hours later. Lung tissues were harvested for the measurement of GPx activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and for histological analysis. Using separated set of rats, survival of PQ (n = 10) and PQ + Se (n = 10) were observed for 72 hours. RESULTS: GPx activity in the PQ group at the 6-hour and 24-hour time points was lower than in the sham group (p CONCLUSION: Single dose of selenium post-treatment activates GPx and attenuates lipid peroxidation and lung injury early after paraquat intoxication, but does not improve 72 hours of survival.

  5. Women’s Unprotected Sex Intentions: Roles of Sexual Victimization, Intoxication, and Partner Perception

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Sexually victimized women may make sexual decisions differently than non-victimized women. This study used an eroticized scenario and laboratory alcohol administration to investigate the roles of victimization history, intoxication, and relationship context in women’s perceptions of a male partner and their subsequent intentions for unprotected sex. A community sample of 436 women completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. After random assignment to an alcohol or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into a sexual scenario which depicted the male partner as having high or low potential for a lasting relationship. Participants rated their perceptions of his intoxication, STI risk level, and anticipated reactions to insistence on condom use. They then indicated their likelihood of allowing the partner to decide how far to go sexually (abdication) and engaging in unprotected sex. SEM analyses revealed that intoxication predicted greater unprotected sex likelihood indirectly via abdication. CSA and ASA predicted partner perceptions, which in turn predicted unprotected sex likelihood. These findings indicate that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women may respond differently in sexual encounters partly as a function of their perceptions of partners’ STI risk and anticipated reactions to condom insistence. PMID:23718552

  6. Effect of cadmium intoxication on collagen and elastin content in tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharz, E.J.

    1988-02-01

    Cadmium produces a variety of pathological effects in various organs in experimental animals or in accidentally intoxicated humans. The mechanism of these phenomena has been the subject of numerous investigations. Many of the observed toxic effects are thought to be the results of secondary deficiencies in such essential trace elements as zinc, copper and iron. Metabolism of the fibrous components of connective tissue, i.e. collagen and elastin, requires the presence of so me trace elements. It is also believed that elastin biosynthesis depends on the presence of some trace metals. Copper deficiency produces significant decrease in elastic tissue resistance, caused by diminished cross-link formation. Experimental studies showed that cadmium treatment of rats produced an increase in the urinary excretion of collagen catabolites. It was also shown that cadmium intoxication influenced bone structure and fetal growth. These two effects on connective tissue were probably accompanied by disturbances in collagen metabolism. Moreover, it is known that fungal collagenase activity was affected by cadmium. In the present paper a decrease in collagen and elastin content, and impaired extracellular maturation of the collagen fibers in some tissues of rats intoxicated with cadmium were described.

  7. Zinc and cadmium interference with four commonly performed diagnostic tests for lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alleinne, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Increases in erythrocytic delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(delta-ALAD) activity, erythrocytic zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA-U) concentration, and blood lead (Pb-B) concentration are indicative of lead intoxication and are the basis for determining exposure to lead. The influence of oral or parenteral zinc and cadmium on the toxicity of oral lead was investigated in Hartley guinea pigs. Compared to the administration of lead alone, the concomitant oral administration of lead and zinc resulted in reduced Pb-B and delta-ALA-U concentrations. Similarly, the concomitant administration of lead and cadmium resulted in decreased packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, and increased ZPP concentration in blood. Delta-ALAD activity was maximally inhibited in all groups which received lead. Consequently, no significant data concerning the effects of cadmium or zinc on delta-ALAD activity was obtained. This data indicates that delta-ALA-U analysis is an inappropriate test to determine intoxication which may have been caused by simultaneous oral exposure to lead and zinc, and that simultaneous exposure apparently decreases the absorption of lead. These observations seriously question the validity of using only delta-ALA-U or Pb-B as a screening test for lead intoxication.

  8. Genetically determined differences in ethanol sensitivity influenced by body temperature during intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Finn, D.A.; Bejanian, M.; Crabbe, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The present study investigated the importance of body temperature during intoxication in mediating differences between five inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J; BALB/cJ; DBA/2J; A/HeJ; 129/J) in their acute sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol. Mice exposed to 22/degrees/C after ethanol injection became hypothermic and exhibited statistically significant differences between strains in rectal temperatures at the return of the righting reflex (RORR), duration of loss of the righting reflex (LORR), and blood and brain ethanol concentrations at RORR. Exposure to 34/degrees/C after injection offset ethanol-hypothermia and markedly reduced strain-related differences in rectal temperatures and blood and brain ethanol concentrations at RORR. Brain ethanol concentrations at RORR were significantly lower in C57, BALB, DBA and A/He mice exposed to 34/degrees/C compared to mice exposed to 22/degrees/C during intoxication suggesting that offsetting hypothermia increased ethanol sensitivity in these strains. Taken with previous in vitro studies, these results suggest that genetically determined differences in acute sensitivity to the behavioral effects of ethanol reflect differences in body temperature during intoxication as well as differences in sensitivity to the initial actions of ethanol at the cellular level.

  9. Chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  10. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  11. [EFFICACY OF CYCLOFERON LINIMENT IN THE COMBINED TREATMENT OF CHRONIC GINGIVITIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Soboleva, L A; Shul'dyakov, A A; Bulkina, N V

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the clinical-pathogenetic efficacy of using cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy of patients with gingivitis on the background of chronic infectious diseases (HIV infection, hepatitis C, brucellosis), medical examination and treatment of 42 patients with this diagnosis has been carried out. It is established, that the use of cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy decreases the infection load in periodontal recess and manifestation of local inflammation, normalizes the immunity indices, and reduces the level of endogenous intoxication. All these factors provide acceleration of the recuperation processes and decrease the frequency of recidivating. PMID:26591207

  12. Determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography with trapping at low oven temperature for headspace samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, X P; Kumazawa, T; Sato, K; Watanabe, K; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

    1998-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method is presented for determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with a low oven temperature for trapping headspace vapor components. After heating a blood or urine sample containing ethyl acetate, benzene, butan-1-ol, toluene, butyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethylbenzene (internal standard) in a 7.5 ml vial at 90 degrees C for 30 min, 5 ml of headspace vapor were drawn into a glass syringe. All vapor was introduced through an injection port in the splitless mode into a DB-624 medium-bore capillary column at a 5 degrees C oven temperature for trapping the volatile compounds, and the oven temperature was programmed up to 110 degrees C for their detection by GC. These conditions gave sharp peaks, a good separation of each peak and low background noise for both whole blood and urine samples. As much as 3.58-55.1 and 3.52-57.9% of the six compounds, which had been added to vials, could be introduced to the GC instrument for whole blood and urine, respectively. The intra-day RSD values in terms of the introduction rate (net recovery) of the six compounds in whole blood and urine samples were < or = 8.1%. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range 0.78-400 ng per 0.5 ml whole blood or urine. The detection limits were 0.5-5 ng per 0.5 ml. The data on toluene in post mortem blood in an actual case are also presented. PMID:9581030

  13. Unraveling the chronic toxicity of lead: an essential priority for environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, A C; Wetmur, J G; Moline, J M; Godbold, J H; Levin, S M; Landrigan, P J

    1996-01-01

    Although population exposure to lead has declined, chronic lead toxicity remains a major public health problem in the United States affecting millions of children and adults. Important gaps exist in knowledge of the pathophysiology of chronic lead intoxication. These gaps have impeded development of control strategies. To close current gaps in knowledge of chronic lead toxicity, we propose an integrated, multidisciplinary, marker-based research program. This program combines a) direct measurement of individual lead burden by 109Cd X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone, b) determination of ALA-D phenotype, an index of individual susceptibility to lead, and c) assessments of subclinical injury produced by lead in the kidneys, nervous system and, reproductive organs. Data from this research will provide answers to questions of great public health importance: a) Are current environmental and occupational standards adequate to prevent chronic lead intoxication? b) is lead mobilized from the skeleton during pregnancy or lactation to cause fetal toxicity? c) Is lead mobilized from bone during menopause to cause neurotoxicity? d) What is the significance of genetic variation in determining susceptibility to lead? e) What is the contribution of lead to hypertension, renal disease, chronic neurodegenerative disease or declining sperm counts? f) Is chelation therapy effective in reducing body lead burden in persons with chronic overexposure to lead? PMID:8722118

  14. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis describes a wide spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders of the exocrine pancreas that includes calcifying, obstructive, and steroid-responsive forms. Use of the term chronic pancreatitis without qualification generally refers to calcifying chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiology is poorly defined, but incidence worldwide seems to be on the rise. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors for chronic calcifying pancreatitis. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of chronic calcifying pancreatitis, focusing on pain management, the role of endoscopic and surgical intervention, and the use of pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy. Management of patients is often challenging and necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26948434

  15. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  16. An alteration of the gut-liver axis drives pulmonary inflammation after intoxication and burn injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael M; Zahs, Anita; Brown, Mary M; Ramirez, Luis; Turner, Jerrold R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Approximately half of all adult burn patients are intoxicated at the time of their injury and have worse clinical outcomes than those without prior alcohol exposure. This study tested the hypothesis that intoxication alters the gut-liver axis, leading to increased pulmonary inflammation mediated by burn-induced IL-6 in the liver. C57BL/6 mice were given 1.2 g/kg ethanol 30 min prior to a 15% total body surface area burn. To restore gut barrier function, the specific myosin light chain kinase inhibitor membrane-permeant inhibitor of kinase (PIK), which we have demonstrated to reduce bacterial translocation from the gut, was administered 30 min after injury. Limiting bacterial translocation with PIK attenuated hepatic damage as measured by a 47% reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05), as well as a 33% reduction in hepatic IL-6 mRNA expression (P < 0.05), compared with intoxicated and burn-injured mice without PIK. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 49% decline in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.05) and decreased alveolar wall thickening compared with matched controls. These results were reproduced by prophylactic reduction of the bacterial load in the intestines with oral antibiotics before intoxication and burn injury. Overall, these data suggest that the gut-liver axis is deranged when intoxication precedes burn injury and that limiting bacterial translocation in this setting attenuates hepatic damage and pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25104501

  17. Alcohol intoxication impairs mesopic rod and cone temporal processing in social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; King, Andrea; Cao, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related driving accidents and fatalities occur most frequently at nighttime and at dawn, i.e. a mesopic lighting condition in which visual processing depends on both rod and cone photoreceptors. The temporal functions of the rod and cone pathways are critical for driving in this lighting condition. However, how alcohol influences the temporal functions in the rod and cone pathways at mesopic light levels is inconclusive. To address this, the present study investigated whether an acute intoxicating dose of alcohol impairs rod- and/or cone-mediated critical fusion frequency (CFF, the lowest frequency of which an intermittent or flickering light stimulus is perceived as steady). Methods In Experiment I, we measured the CFFs for three types of visual stimuli (rod stimulus alone, cone stimulus alone, and the mixture of both stimuli types), under three illuminant light levels (dim illuminance: 2Td; low illuminance: 20Td; and medium illuminance 80Td) in moderate-heavy social drinkers before and after they consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol (0.8g/kg) compared with a placebo beverage. In Experiment II, we examined if the illuminance level (dark versus light) of the visual area surrounding the test stimuli alters alcohol’s effect on the temporal processing of rods and cones. Results The results showed that compared with placebo, alcohol significantly reduced CFFs of all stimulus types at all illuminance levels. Furthermore, alcohol intoxication produced a larger impairment on rod-pathway-mediated CFFs under light versus dark surround. Conclusions These results indicate that alcohol intake slows down rod and cone-pathway-mediated temporal processing. Further research may elucidate if this effect may play a role in alcohol-related injury and accidents, which often occur under low light conditions. PMID:26247196

  18. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Oyler, George A; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB) agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H) (VHH) domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5) was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10) led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable. PMID:21629663

  19. Effect of MDR1 gene polymorphisms on mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Lee, Sun-Hyo; El Park, Sam; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is a fatal herbicide following acute exposure. Previous studies have suggested that multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) might help remove paraquat from the lungs and the kidney. MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MDR1 SNPs were associated with the mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients. We recruited 109 patients admitted with acute paraquat poisoning. They were genotyped for C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MDR1 gene. Their effects on mortality of paraquat intoxicated patients were evaluated. Overall mortality rate was 66.1%. Regarding the C1236T of the MDR1 gene polymorphism, 21 (19.3%) had the wild type MDR1 while 88 (80.7%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the C3435T MDR1 gene polymorphism, 37(33.9%) patients had the wild type, 23 (21.1%) had heterozygous mutation, and 49 (45.0%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the G2677T/A MDR1 gene polymorphism, 38 (34.9%) patients had the wild type, 57 (52.3%) had heterozygous mutation, and 14 (12.8%) had homozygous mutation. None of the individual mutations or combination of mutations (two or three) of MDR1 SNP genotypes altered the morality rate. The mortality rate was not significantly different among SNP groups of patients with <4.0 μg/mL paraquat. In conclusion, MDR1 SNPs have no effect on the mortality rate of paraquat intoxicated patients. PMID:27545861

  20. A Family Clustered Nitrite Intoxication Investigation in Gaoxin District, Suzhou, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Ruiping; TENG, Chengang; ZHANG, Ning; ZHANG, Jun; CONWAY, George

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In April, 2013, a Suzhou Hospital reported a nitrite intoxication patient in coma as well as 2 family members with the similar symptom 5 days ahead. We investigated the event to identify the cause, source and possible pollution ways of the contamination. Methods We defined case as any person living in YSHY community who has cyanosis and with at least one of the following symptoms: dizziness, headache, fatigue, tachycardia, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or diar-rhea during April 15 to April 25, 2013. We searched for case by interviewing community residents and reviewing clinics’ medical records; information was then retrospectively collected on the patient’s food history, cooking procedures and food sources. Results We identified 3 nitrite intoxication cases, 1 male and 2 female from a family. The interval time between dinner and onset was < 1 hour. Retrospective survey showed ‘sugar stir and mix asparagus’ on April 17 and ‘scrambled asparagus’ on April 21 were suspected foods. Both suspected dishes had ‘sugar’ added, sourced from a clean-up of a neighboring rental house. Nitrite was detected in a vomitus sample, the ‘sugar’ and two leftover food samples. Conclusion This family clustered nitrite intoxication was induced by using unidentified nitrite as sugar to cook dishes. We recommend sodium nitrite should be dyed with bright colors to avoid mistaking it for plain salt or sugar, health departments strengthen food hygiene propaganda to improve people’s recognition of food safety, and to alert them the dangerous of eating unidentified or unknown source food. PMID:26060649

  1. Effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink and alcohol alone on subjective intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Andrea; Hemberger, Sophie Helene; Loidl, Alexandra; Dufek, Stephanie; Pablik, Eleonore; Fodor, Sugarka; Herle, Marion; Aufricht, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the combination of caffeine-containing drinks together with alcohol might reduce the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication-the so-called "masking effect". In this study, we aimed to review the effects of alcohol in combination with caffeine or energy drink with special focus on the "masking effect". Fifty-two healthy male volunteers were analysed concerning breath alcohol concentration and subjective sensations of intoxication using a 18 item Visual Analogue Scale in a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, four treatments cross-over trial after consumption of (A) placebo, (B) alcohol (vodka 37.5% at a dose of 46.5 g ethanol), (C) alcohol in combination with caffeine at a dose of 80 mg (equivalent to one 250 ml can of energy drink) and (D) alcohol in combination with energy drink at a dose of 250 ml (one can). Primary variables were headache, weakness, salivation and motor coordination. Out of four primary variables, weakness and motor coordination showed a statistically significant difference between alcohol and non-alcohol group, out of 14 secondary variables, five more variables (dizziness, alterations in sight, alterations in walking, agitation and alterations in speech) also showed significant differences due mainly to contrasts with the non-alcohol group. In none of these end points, could a statistically significant effect be found for the additional ingestion of energy drink or caffeine on the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication. This within-subjects study does not confirm the presence of a "masking effect" when combining caffeine or energy drink with alcohol. PMID:24178765

  2. Effect of MDR1 gene polymorphisms on mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Lee, Sun-hyo; el Park, Sam; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is a fatal herbicide following acute exposure. Previous studies have suggested that multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) might help remove paraquat from the lungs and the kidney. MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MDR1 SNPs were associated with the mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients. We recruited 109 patients admitted with acute paraquat poisoning. They were genotyped for C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MDR1 gene. Their effects on mortality of paraquat intoxicated patients were evaluated. Overall mortality rate was 66.1%. Regarding the C1236T of the MDR1 gene polymorphism, 21 (19.3%) had the wild type MDR1 while 88 (80.7%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the C3435T MDR1 gene polymorphism, 37(33.9%) patients had the wild type, 23 (21.1%) had heterozygous mutation, and 49 (45.0%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the G2677T/A MDR1 gene polymorphism, 38 (34.9%) patients had the wild type, 57 (52.3%) had heterozygous mutation, and 14 (12.8%) had homozygous mutation. None of the individual mutations or combination of mutations (two or three) of MDR1 SNP genotypes altered the morality rate. The mortality rate was not significantly different among SNP groups of patients with <4.0 μg/mL paraquat. In conclusion, MDR1 SNPs have no effect on the mortality rate of paraquat intoxicated patients. PMID:27545861

  3. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'. PMID:26644026

  4. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a

  5. Regional interrelationships of zinc, copper, and lead in the brain following lead intoxication. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Rehman, S.; Chandra, O.

    1984-02-01

    Among heavy metals of industrial and toxicological importance, lead, zinc and copper have probably the widest distribution in the human environment. These metal ions have a non-homogeneous pattern of distribution in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that the normal concentration of these metal ions in the CNS is disturbed following zinc-intoxication. In the present study, the authors have demonstrated the effect of lead alone and in combination with zinc or copper on the regional concentration of zinc, copper and lead ions in the CNS and blood.

  6. The Assessment of Electroencephalographic Changes and Memory Disturbances in Acute Intoxications with Industrial Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Chalupa, B.; Synková, J.; Ševčík, M.

    1960-01-01

    A report is given of the results of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and of an experimental memory examination in a group of 22 cases of acute carbon monoxide and solvents poisoning of varying severity. An abnormal EEG recording, most often in the form of theta activity 5-6 sec., was found in 12 patients; memory disturbances were found in 13 cases. There was correlation between the results of the two examinations as well as with the clinical classification of the degree of intoxication. The methods are suitable for the solving of various theoretical and practical questions in industrial toxicology. PMID:13692202

  7. A non-fatal intoxication with a high-dose sodium nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Joosen, Dorien; Stolk, Leo; Henry, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old man accidentally ingested 75 g of sodium nitrate. He had instant gastrointestinal symptoms. On physical examination, he was respiratorily and haemodynamically stable and there were no signs of central or peripheral cyanosis. Repeated methaemoglobin levels were normal and he made an uneventful recovery. Sodium nitrate intoxication is rare. Serious effects can occur, mainly through formation of nitrite and nitric oxide, which can cause methaemoglobinaemia and vasodilation. Even if the presenting symptoms are mild, it is important to remain cautious since more serious symptoms can occur later. Monitoring of respiratory and haemodynamic status and repeated blood gas analysis in order to detect methaemoglobinaemia are recommended. PMID:24879739

  8. Selective VIP Receptor Agonists Facilitate Immune Transformation for Dopaminergic Neuroprotection in MPTP-Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Katherine E.; Kosloski-Bilek, Lisa M.; Anderson, Kristi M.; Diggs, Breha J.; Clark, Barbara E.; Gledhill, John M.; Shandler, Scott J.; Mosley, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mediates a broad range of biological responses by activating two related receptors, VIP receptor 1 and 2 (VIPR1 and VIPR2). Although the use of native VIP facilitates neuroprotection, clinical application of the hormone is limited due to VIP's rapid metabolism and inability to distinguish between VIPR1 and VIPR2 receptors. In addition, activation of both receptors by therapeutics may increase adverse secondary toxicities. Therefore, we developed metabolically stable and receptor-selective agonists for VIPR1 and VIPR2 to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic therapeutic end points. Selective agonists were investigated for their abilities to protect mice against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration used to model Parkinson's disease (PD). Survival of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the substantia nigra was determined by stereological tests after MPTP intoxication in mice pretreated with either VIPR1 or VIPR2 agonist or after adoptive transfer of splenic cell populations from agonist-treated mice administered to MPTP-intoxicated animals. Treatment with VIPR2 agonist or splenocytes from agonist-treated mice resulted in increased neuronal sparing. Immunohistochemical tests showed that agonist-treated mice displayed reductions in microglial responses, with the most pronounced effects in VIPR2 agonist-treated, MPTP-intoxicated mice. In parallel studies, we observed reductions in proinflammatory cytokine release that included IL-17A, IL-6, and IFN-γ and increases in GM-CSF transcripts in CD4+ T cells recovered from VIPR2 agonist-treated animals. Moreover, a phenotypic shift of effector to regulatory T cells was observed. These results support the use of VIPR2-selective agonists as neuroprotective agents for PD treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 can elicit immune transformation in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Such immunomodulatory capabilities can lead to neuroprotection by attenuating

  9. Glufosinate Herbicide Intoxication Causing Unconsciousness, Convulsion, and 6th Cranial Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on sixth cranial nerve palsy. Our observation suggests that neurologic manifestations after ingestion of a "low-grade toxicity herbicide" are variable and more complex than that was previously considered. PMID:24265537

  10. Chelation in metal intoxication XVI. Influence of chelating agents on chromate poisoned rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Srivastava, L.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of selective polyaminocarboxylic acids and common drugs to reduce the body burden of chromium and restore Cr induced biochemical alterations in chromate intoxicated rats was investigated. 1,2 Cychlohexylene dinitrilotetraacetic acid (CDTA) and triethylenetetramine hexacetic acid (TTHA) were more effective than p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and isoniazid (INH) in enhancing urinary excretion of Cr, lowering hepatic and blood levels of Cr and restoring inhibited activity of hepatic aldolase. The chromate antidotal property of chelators seem to be related to the combination of nitrogen and oxygen as the electron donating centres.

  11. Tetracycline in uranyl nitrate intoxication: Its action on renal damage and U retention in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmotti, M.B.; Ubios, A.M.; Larumbe, J.; Cabrini, R.L. )

    1989-09-01

    In acute intoxication, uranium (U) not only inhibits bone formation but its excretion in urine also causes renal damage. The former effect is ameliorated by tetracycline (TC), probably due to its chelation property, which might also prevent U deposition in bone. Chemical determination of U incorporated in bone and a histological study of the kidneys were performed on animals injected with U and then treated with TC. The results showed that TC was unable to prevent the binding of U to bone while it exacerbated U-induced renal damage.

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of dimercaptosuccinic acid and thiamine/ascorbic acid on lead intoxication in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Flora, S.J.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Thiamine, folic acid, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid either individually or in combination have been proven to be effective in reducing the toxic manifestations of lead and in enhancing the antidotal efficacy of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA. In a recent report from the authors' laboratory, it was observed that given combination of thiamine and ascorbic acid with thiol chelators improved the ability of the animals to excrete lead thereby reducing body lead burden. In view of the beneficial effect of these two vitamins, it was considered of interest to evaluate their potential to modify the prophylactic action of DMS in lead intoxication in rat after repeated administration.

  13. Chelation in metal intoxication. XVIII. Combined effects of thiamine and calcium disodium versenate on lead toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Flora, S.J.S.; Singh, S.; Tandon, S.K.

    1986-01-06

    Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (Ca-Na/sub 2/EDTA; Versenate) was more effective than thiamine (vitamin B/sub 1/) in enhancing the urinary excretion of lead, reducing tissue lead and restoring lead induced biochemical alterations in rats. However, the combination of CaNa/sub 2/EDTA and vitamin B/sub 1/ enhanced the beneficial effect of CaNa/sub 2/EDTA in lead intoxication and was particularly effective in reducing the brain concentration of lead. 18 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  14. Results of using low-intensity laser radiation for plumbum intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the noninvasive effect of low-intensive laser impulse radiation in the infrared spectrum region on the liver projection site in experimental lead intoxication achieved by means of intragastric administration of Pb acetate to albino rats over a period of 30 days in a dose of 30 mg/kg. We determined a number of indices in laboratory animals which characterized the state of the nervous system, immune system, muscular performance efficiency. We have also investigated the hematologic indices and the blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid content as well as the plumbum levels in the blood, urine and the animals' inner organs.

  15. Beneficial effects of TCP on soman intoxication in guinea pigs: seizures, brain damage and learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Groot, D M; Bierman, E P; Bruijnzeel, P L; Carpentier, P; Kulig, B M; Lallement, G; Melchers, B P; Philippens, I H; van Huygevoort, A H

    2001-12-01

    Poisoning with the potent nerve agent soman produces a cascade of central nervous system (CNS) effects characterized by severe convulsions and eventually death. In animals that survive a soman intoxication, lesions in the amygdala, piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus can be observed. In order to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of soman and to evaluate possible curative interventions, a series of behavioural, electrophysiological and neuropathological experiments were carried out in the guinea pig using the NMDA antagonist N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl] piperidine (TCP) in conjunction with atropine and pyridostigmine. The NMDA antagonist TCP appeared to be very effective in the treatment of casualties who suffered from soman-induced seizures for 30 min: (i)Seizures were arrested within minutes after the TCP injection, confirmed by quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG), after fast Fourier analysis. Three hours after TCP the quantitative EEGs were completely normal in all frequency bands and remained normal during the entire 3-week intoxication period. The power shift to the lower (delta) frequency bands, indicative for neuropathology and found in control animals intoxicated only by soman, was not observed in the soman-TCP group. (ii)The gross neuropathology found in soman control animals within 48 h after soman was prevented in soman-TCP animals and was still absent in 3-week survivors. Instead, ultrastructural changes were observed, indicative of defense mechanisms of the cell against toxic circumstances. (iii)Twenty-four hours after soman, soman-TCP animals were able to perform in the shuttle box and Morris water maze. The beneficial effects of TCP on the performance in these tests during the 3-week intoxication period were very impressive, notwithstanding (minor) deficits in memory and learning. (iv)The increase in excitability after TCP was confirmed by an increase in the acoustic startle response. Taken together, these results confirmed the

  16. Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andy K O; Beattie, Karen A; Bhargava, Aakash; Cheung, Marco; Webber, Colin E; Chettle, David R; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2015-10-01

    Conflicting evidence suggests that bone lead or blood lead may reduce areal bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about how lead at either compartment affects bone structure. This study examined postmenopausal women (N=38, mean age 76 ± 8, body mass index (BMI): 26.74 ± 4.26 kg/m(2)) within the Hamilton cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), measuring bone lead at 66% of the non-dominant leg and at the calcaneus using (109)Cadmium X-ray fluorescence. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters were obtained from peripheral quantitative computed tomography images (200 μm in-plane resolution, 2.3 ± 0.5mm slice thickness) of the same 66% site and of the distal 4% site of the tibia length. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and blood-to-bone lead partition coefficients (PBB, log ratio) were computed. Multivariable linear regression examined each of bone lead at the 66% tibia, calcaneus, blood lead and PBB as related to each of volumetric BMD and structural parameters, adjusting for age and BMI, diabetes or antiresorptive therapy. Regression coefficients were reported along with 95% confidence intervals. Higher amounts of bone lead at the tibia were associated with thinner distal tibia cortices (-0.972 (-1.882, -0.061) per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral) and integral volumetric BMD (-3.05 (-6.05, -0.05) per μg Pb/g of bone mineral). A higher PBB was associated with larger trabecular separation (0.115 (0.053, 0.178)), lower trabecular volumetric BMD (-26.83 (-50.37, -3.29)) and trabecular number (-0.08 (-0.14, -0.02)), per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral after adjusting for age and BMI, and remained significant while accounting for diabetes or use of antiresorptives. Total lead exposure activities related to bone lead at the calcaneus (8.29 (0.11, 16.48)) and remained significant after age and antiresorptives-adjustment. Lead accumulated in bone can have a mild insult on bone structure; but greater partitioning of lead

  17. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults. Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain (pain resulting ... Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Low Back Pain Fact Sheet Back Pain information sheet compiled by ...

  18. Chronic cholecystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  19. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... your pain. Medicines used for chronic pain include pain relievers, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Different types of medicines help ... If your doctor recommends an over-the-counter pain reliever, read and follow the instructions on the box. ...

  20. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  1. Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-09-01

    EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

  2. Acute Vitamin D Intoxication Possibly Due to Faulty Production of a Multivitamin Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication usually occurs as a result of inappropriate use of vitamin D preparations and can lead to life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is also known that there are a number of physicians who prescribe vitamin D supplements for various clinical conditions, such as poor appetite and failure to thrive. While inappropriate use of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, there are no reports of cases of vitamin D toxicity due to manufacturing errors of vitamin D preparations. Here, we present cases of hypervitaminosis D which developed following the use of a standard dose of a multivitamin preparation. All three cases presented with hypercalcemia symptoms and had characteristic laboratory findings such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, low levels of parathyroid hormone. The very high serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in these patients indicated vitamin D excess. The vitamin D level of the prescribed multivitamin preparation in the market was studied and was found to contain a very low level of vitamin D (10 IU/5 mL). Although the stated vitamin D content of the preparations ingested by these patients was not high, unproven but possible manufacturing errors were considered to be a possible cause of the hypervitaminosis D diagnosed in these three patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748070

  3. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden. PMID:27595810

  4. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  5. Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in Patients with Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Su-Jin; Kim, Su-Ji; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma levels, and their possible implications on clinical outcome, we measured tPA and PAI-1 levels in 101 patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. The control group consisted of patients who ingested non-PQ pesticides during the same period. tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher in the PQ group than in the controls. PQ levels were significantly correlated with ingested amount, timelag to hospital, tPA level, and hospitalization duration. tPA levels were correlated with PAI-1, fibrin degradation product (FDP), and D-dimer. D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls. Univariate analysis indicated the following significant determinants of death: age, ingested amount, PQ level, timelag to hospital, serum creatinine, lipase, pH, pCO2, HCO3-, WBC, FDP, PAI-1, and tPA. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only PQ level was significant independent factor predicting death. In conclusion, tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher, while D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls, implying that ROS stimulate tPA and PAI-1, but PAI-1 activity overrides tPA activity in this setting. Decreased fibrinolytic activity appears to be one of the clinical characteristics of acute PQ intoxication. PMID:21468253

  6. Catatonia in disulfiram intoxication - a case report and a brief overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Rozalia; Milan, Flora; Ungvari, Gabor S; Faludi, Gabor; Gazdag, Gabor

    2016-06-01

    Catatonic syndromes could accompany a variety of psychiatric and medical conditions. The most common conditions underlying catatonia are affective disorders followed by schizophrenia, but several medical conditions including intoxications affecting the central nervous system can also present with catatonic signs and symptoms. Therapeutic doses of disulfiram could induce catatonia with or without accompanying psychosis or mood disorder. A case of disulfiram intoxication manifesting with catatonia is reported here together with a brief overview of the literature. A patient was admitted to the toxicology ward after a suicide attempt with approximately 20 g of disulfiram. On transfer to the psychiatric ward, she was sitting still, in a semi-stuporous state and displayed motiveless resistance to instructions or attempts to move (active negativism). She was unresponsive to most of the questions (mutism), occasionally verbigerated 1-2 words and stared for more than 20 seconds between shifting attention. After developing a comatosus state her treatment continued at the toxicology ward, where a contrast-enhanced computer tomography scan revealed bilateral emollition of 1.5 cm diameter in both nucleus lentiformis at the level of the third ventricle. Following treatment her condition improved and she benefited of rehabilitation facility and a second psychiatric treatment. She was discharged free of neurological and psychiatric symptoms. In conclusion, we underscore the importance of accurate diagnosis of the underlying psychiatric or medical condition when encountering a fast emerging catatonic syndrome and focus first on treating the causative condition while simultaneously attempting symptomatic treatment of catatonia. PMID:27390207

  7. Hangover Predicts Residual Alcohol Effects on Psychomotor Vigilance the Morning After Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Bliss, Caleb A.; Almeida, Alissa B.; Calise, Tamara Vehige; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Both hangover and performance deficits have been documented the day after drinking to intoxication after breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) has returned to near zero. But few studies have examined the relationship between hangover and post-intoxication performance. Method We performed secondary analyses of data from a previously reported controlled cross-over laboratory study to assess the relationship of hangover incidence and severity to sustained attention/reaction time the morning after drinking to about 0.11 g% BrAC. Relationships were investigated while controlling for gender, type of alcoholic beverage (bourbon or vodka), and neurocognitive performance after placebo. Results Hangover severity and neurocognitive performance were significantly correlated. Participants reporting stronger hangover were more impaired than those reporting little or no hangover. Comparing any to no hangover showed a trend in the same direction of effect. Conclusions More intense hangover may indicate less fitness for duty in workers in certain safety-sensitive occupations, with implications for occupational alcohol policies. PMID:21643431

  8. Human intoxication with paralytic shellfish toxins: clinical parameters and toxin analysis in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Lagos, Marcelo; Truan, Dominique; Lattes, Karinna; Véjar, Omar; Chamorro, Beatriz; Iglesias, Verónica; Andrinolo, Darío; Lagos, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the data recorded from four patients intoxicated with shellfish during the summer 2002, after consuming ribbed mussels (Aulacomya ater) with paralytic shellfish toxin contents of 8,066 +/- 61.37 microg/100 gr of tissue. Data associated with clinical variables and paralytic shellfish toxins analysis in plasma and urine of the intoxicated patients are shown. For this purpose, the evolution of respiratory frequency, arterial blood pressure and heart rate of the poisoned patients were followed and recorded. The clinical treatment to reach a clinically stable condition and return to normal physiological parameters was a combination of hydration with saline solution supplemented with Dobutamine (vasoactive drug), Furosemide (diuretic) and Ranitidine (inhibitor of acid secretion). The physiological condition of patients began to improve after four hours of clinical treatment, and a stable condition was reached between 12 to 24 hours. The HPLC-FLD analysis showed only the GTX3/GTX2 epimers in the blood and urine samples. Also, these epimers were the only paralytic shellfish toxins found in the shellfish extract sample. PMID:16238098

  9. CD44 Promotes Intoxication by the Clostridial Iota-Family Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Wigelsworth, Darran J.; Ruthel, Gordon; Schnell, Leonie; Herrlich, Peter; Blonder, Josip; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Carman, Robert J.; Wilkins, Tracy D.; Van Nhieu, Guy Tran; Pauillac, Serge; Gibert, Maryse; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Stiles, Bradley G.; Popoff, Michel R.; Barth, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Various pathogenic clostridia produce binary protein toxins associated with enteric diseases of humans and animals. Separate binding/translocation (B) components bind to a protein receptor on the cell surface, assemble with enzymatic (A) component(s), and mediate endocytosis of the toxin complex. Ultimately there is translocation of A component(s) from acidified endosomes into the cytosol, leading to destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Our results revealed that CD44, a multifunctional surface protein of mammalian cells, facilitates intoxication by the iota family of clostridial binary toxins. Specific antibody against CD44 inhibited cytotoxicity of the prototypical Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Versus CD44+ melanoma cells, those lacking CD44 bound less toxin and were dose-dependently resistant to C. perfringens iota, as well as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium spiroforme iota-like, toxins. Purified CD44 specifically interacted in vitro with iota and iota-like, but not related Clostridium botulinum C2, toxins. Furthermore, CD44 knockout mice were resistant to iota toxin lethality. Collective data reveal an important role for CD44 during intoxication by a family of clostridial binary toxins. PMID:23236484

  10. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    PubMed

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases. PMID:25632792

  11. Determination of DNA damage in experimental liver intoxication and role of N-acetyl cysteine.

    PubMed

    Aksit, Hasan; Bildik, Aysegül

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed at detecting DNA damage and fragmentation as well as histone acetylation depending on oxidative stress caused by CCl4 intoxication. Also, the protective role of N-acetyl cysteine, a precursor for GSH, in DNA damage is investigated. Sixty rats were used in this study. In order to induce liver toxicity, CCl4 in was dissolved in olive oil (1/1) and injected intraperitoneally as a single dose (2 ml/kg). N-acetyl cysteine application (intraperitoneal, 50 mg/kg/day) was started 3 days prior to CCl4 injection and continued during the experimental period. Control groups were given olive oil and N-acetyl cysteine. After 6 and 72 h of CCl4 injection, blood and liver tissue were taken under ether anesthesia. Nuclear extracts were prepared from liver. Changes in serum AST and ALT activities as well as MDA, TAS, and TOS levels showed that CCl4 caused lipid peroxidation and liver damage. However, lipid peroxidation and liver damage were reduced in the N-acetyl cysteine group. Increased levels in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine and histone acetyltransferase activities, decreased histone deacetylase activities, and DNA breakage detected in nuclear extracts showed that CCl4 intoxication induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that N-acetyl cysteine has a protective effect on CCl4-induced DNA damage. PMID:24819310

  12. Severe water intoxication and secondary depressive syndrome in relation to delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a case of severe water intoxication in a female patient with delusional infestation. Self-induced excessive water ingestion is a rare medical condition, which has not been reported in patients with delusional infestation yet. The patient in this case study was a 60-year-old Chinese woman, who was admitted to our hospital because of a feeling of skin infestation. She suffered from loss of consciousness and generalized tonic-clonic seizure after drinking 12 L of water during bowel cleansing before colonoscopy. Sufficient laboratory and imaging examinations were performed to exclude other possible causes of severe hyponatremia, such as hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Besides, the cystic lesion in the posterior pituitary revealed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging was not accountable for her delusional symptoms as well as excessive drinking behavior. Her delusional symptoms were in complete remission with a combination of risperidone and aripiprazole. However, nearly 3 months after discharge, this patient suffered from depressed mood and was diagnosed with depressive syndrome, and even attempted suicide. This case highlights the possibility of self-induced water intoxication in patients with delusional infestation, inevitably adding to the complexity of the disease, and indicates the necessity of precautions for secondary psychotic or mood problems after symptomatological remission. PMID:27013878

  13. Metabolic acidosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by methanol and amitriptyline intoxication.

    PubMed

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Tamer; Avci, Akkan; Annagur, Ali; Yilmaz, Hayri Levent; Kucukosmanoglu, Osman; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Daglioglu, Nebile

    2009-02-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a widely known acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can be potentially fatal. It is not difficult to diagnose when a patient with DM comes with symptoms such as coma, fruity breath, hyperglycemia, acidosis, and tachypnea. If the patient has not been diagnosed with DM before, then other sicknesses characterized by an increased anion gap should be considered. A 12-year-old boy with type 1 DM and repeated earlier admissions for DKA was admitted to the emergency department in another apparent case of DKA with coma, hyperglycemia, and profound metabolic acidosis. When his condition did not improve with initial treatment, intoxication was suspected as an alternate cause of his condition. Further laboratory tests detected methanol and amitriptyline. The patient underwent hemodialysis and recovered completely. This case illustrates that a seemingly obvious medical condition can mask serious intoxication. This report is the only publication on two different entities characterized by an increased anion gap and at the end the patient has been cured completely without any complications. PMID:19106720

  14. Tetrodotoxin – Distribution and Accumulation in Aquatic Organisms, and Cases of Human Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue. PMID:18728726

  15. Nerve agent intoxication: recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects.

    PubMed

    Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-15

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. PMID:21791221

  16. Early treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion in a potentially lethal hydroxychloroquine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ten Broeke, R; Mestrom, E; Woo, L; Kreeftenberg, H

    2016-06-01

    This case report describes the possible benefit of intravenous lipid emulsion in two patients surviving a severe intoxication with hydroxychloroquine in a dose that was previously considered to be lethal. The first case involves a 25-year-old female who ingested 17.5 grams of hydroxychloroquine, approximately one hour before presentation. An ECG showed QRS widening and the lab results showed hypokalaemia. She became unconscious, and developed hypotension and eventually apnoea. After intubation, supportive care consisted of norepinephrine and supplementation of potassium. Moreover, sodium bicarbonate and intravenous lipid emulsion were started to prevent cardiac toxicity. After these interventions, haemodynamic stability was established within a few hours. Although cardiomyopathy was confirmed, the patient recovered after two weeks. The second case concerns a 25-year-old male who took 5 grams of hydroxychloroquine. At presentation, two hours after intake, he showed QTc prolongation and hypokalaemia. The patient was treated with the usual supportive care and, although presentation to hospital was later, with intravenous lipid emulsion. Also this patient recovered. In conclusion, these cases show the benefit of supplemental intravenous lipid emulsion to prevent cardiac toxicity after a severe intoxication with hydroxychloroquine. PMID:27323674

  17. Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Due to Pufferfish and Gastropods, and Their Intoxication Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion. PMID:23724281

  18. Hepatoprotective Effect of Ficus carica Leaf Extract on Mice Intoxicated with Carbon Tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Aghel, Nasrin; Kalantari, Heibatollah; Rezazadeh, Shohreh

    2011-01-01

    Protective action of Ficus carica leaf ethanolic extract (obtained by maceration) was evaluated in an animal model of hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male albino mice were divided into six groups. group I was normal control group; group II received olive oil (CCl4 solvent), groups III-VI received CCl4. After inducing hepatic damage, group III served as control for CCl4; and groups IV- VI received different doses of Ficus carica ethanol extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) prior to intoxication with CCl4. Liver marker enzymes were assayed in serum. Sections of livers were observed under microscope for the histopathological changes. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were increased significantly in CCl4 treated mice (group III). In groups IV, V and VI, pre-treated with the plant extract and intoxicated with CCl4, decreased activities of these two enzymes were observed. Also, pre-treatment with the extract in these groups resulted in less pronounced destruction of the liver architecture with no fibrosis and moderate inflammation was observed compared with group III. The present observations suggested that the treatment with Ficus carica leaf extract in dose of 200 mg/kg enhanced protection against CCl4 induced hepatic damage. PMID:24363682

  19. Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication: Brain Hyperthermia, Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Edema

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A.; Sharma, Hari S.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally assumed that multiple chemical substances released in the brain following METH-induced metabolic activation (or oxidative stress) are primary factors underlying damage of neural cells, in this work we will present data suggesting a role of brain hyperthermia and associated leakage of the brain-blood barrier (BBB) in acute METH-induced toxicity. First, we show that METH induces a dose-dependent brain and body hyperthermia, which is strongly potentiated by associated physiological activation and in warm environments that prevent proper heat dissipation to the external environment. Second, we demonstrate that acute METH intoxication induces robust, widespread but structure-specific leakage of the BBB, acute glial activation, and increased water content (edema), which are related to drug-induced brain hyperthermia. Third, we document widespread morphological abnormalities of brain cells, including neurons, glia, epithelial and endothelial cells developing rapidly during acute METH intoxication. These structural abnormalities are tightly related to the extent of brain hyperthermia, leakage of the BBB, and brain edema. While it is unclear whether these rapidly developed morphological abnormalities are reversible, this study demonstrates that METH induces multiple functional and structural perturbations in the brain, determining its acute toxicity and possibly contributing to neurotoxicity. PMID:19897075

  20. Fatal acute alcohol intoxication in an ALDH2 heterozygote: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A; Hosoe, H; Fukunaga, T

    2000-08-14

    On an evening in November, a 25-year-old man was found dead in his bedroom. There were many empty snap-out sheets for flunitrazepam tablets in the trash at his bedside. He had been beaten by a gang of young people earlier in the morning of the same day. At the medico-legal autopsy, although there were many bruises and/or abrasions on the whole body, only slight subdural hemorrhage was observed, and none of them was thought to be the cause of death. Flunitrazepam and its metabolites were not detected in his body fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Marked lung edema and a severe congestion of organs were observed. His blood alcohol concentration from the femoral vein was 2.00 mg/ml. Fatal cases of acute alcohol intoxication usually have shown higher alcohol concentration (2.25-6.23 mg/ml). Although the genotype of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has not previously been mentioned as a contributing factor in determining the cause of death, in this case the genotype of ALDH2 was ALDH2*1/2 and thus is important. Those who possess the ALDH2*2 gene show high concentrations of acetaldehyde (AcH) at even comparatively lower alcohol levels. Consequently, the cause of death was considered to be acute alcohol intoxication including AcH poisoning. PMID:10940605